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OCTOBER, I910. Vol. LIV. No. 392 



Royal United Service 

Registered for Transmission to Canada by Canadian Magazine Post, 

Editor - Captain H. Garbett, R.N. (Retired). 

All communications (except those for perusal by the Editor only) to be addressed to the 
Secretary, Royal United Service Institution. 


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2. SKCRETARY’S NOTES ie es sis le ais “a _ aw, 2208 



AUTHOR, BY L.A.B. (continued) ee és me see ae Se 

THE “ORIENT” LINE... oe tie ie eo bay ‘a ie ore 
6. NAVAL NOTES 63 er eee > : : ws a ... 1350 
7. MILITARY NOTES .., ‘es ee cd me i “ Re .. 1361 


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Admira' of the Flees Right Hon 

Lord JOHN HAY, @ 

Field-Marshal H.R.H. The DUKE OF CONNAUGHT, K.G. 
Admiral Rt. Hon. Sir J. C. DALRYMPLE-HAY, Bart., G.C.B.. D.C.L., F.R.S, 

General Sir F. C. A. STEPHENSON, G.C.B 

: Field-Marshal the Viscount WOLSELEY. K.P 
Field-Marshal Right Hon. the Earl ROBERTS, Vé., K.G., K. G.C.B., O.M,, G.C.S. 
Vice-Admiral H.S8.H. Prince Louis of BATTENBERG, G.C.B., G.C.V.0., K.C.M 

Colonel Right Hon. Sir J. 

H. A Macdonald, K.C.B., v.p. (1908). 

., Constable of the Tower. 
G.C.B., O.M., .C.M.@ (1905). 

., G.C.LE, v.p. (1905). 
-G., A.D.C. (1906). 

Admiral of the Fleet Sir G. H. U. NOEL, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. 


Brigadier-Generai H. H. WILSON, 

D.8.0., Director of [Military Operations. 


sa i Sir RK. 8. 38. Bapen-Poweit, K.C.B., 

Lieutenant C. W. Bextairs, R.N. (retired’, 

Rear-Admiral Honble. A. E. Beruei, C.M.G., Director 
of Naval Intelligence. 

Colonel the Lord Bixcuam, 5th Bn. The London Regi 


Colonel J. H. Bor, C.M.G., R.M.A., A.D.C., Extra 
Equerry to The King. 

Commander W. F. Canoxne, C.B., Royal Naval Reserve. 

Admiral Sir CV. Campse.t, K.C.M.G., C.B., D.8.0. 

Colonel T. S. Cave, C.B., v.p., Commanding South 
Midland Brigade, Territorial Force. 

Colonel R. B. Corvin, C.B., Essex Yeomanry. 

Major-General C. G. Dona pn, C.B. 

Vice-Admiral A. M. Fievp, F.R.S. 

Major-General Sir T. Fraser, K.C.B., C.M.G. 

Lieut.-Colonel Honble. T. F. Fremantiz, v.p., The 
Buckinghamshire Battalion, The Oxfordshire and 
Buckinghamshire Light Infantry. 

Colonel Lonspate A. Hate, late R.E. 

Colonel the Viscount Harvince, 6th Bn. the Rifle 

Colonel W. A. Hit, C.B., late 3rd Bn. The Gloucester 
_ Shire Regiment. 

Lieut. General H. D. Hutcuinson, C.S.1. 

Admiral of the Fleet the Lord Wa.rer Kerr. G.C.B. 

Colonel Honble. 0. V. G. A. Lumuey, i/c Cavalry Record 

Brigadier General F. I. Maxse, C.V.0., C.B. DSO. 
Commating Ist (Guards Infantry Brigade 
Colonel A. W. Money, C.B., General Stat, War Office. 
Colonel F. D. V. Wine, C.B., Staff Officer for R.H.A.,and 
R.F.A., Aldershot Command. 
Secretary, Curator and Chief Executive Officer. 
Lieut.-Colonel A. LeetHam, F'S.A., late Royal Mon- 
mouthbshire, Royal Engineers and 13th Hussars. 

4 2 Editor. 
Captain H. J. G. Garsert, R.N. (retired) 

Major C. H. Wytty, late 1st Bn. South Stafferdshire 

Assistant Secretary and Curator. 

Brigade. 2nd Lt. A. N. A. Prxuey, 12th Bn. The London Regt. 

Messrs. Witpe & Fercuson Davie, Chartered Accountants, 614, Fore Street, E.C. 

The undermentioned can become members by intimating their wish to the 
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authority on their bankers or agents for its payment :—Commissioned officers of the 
Royal Navy, Regular Army, Royal Marines, Special Reserve, Reserve of Officers, 
Militia, Indian and Colonial Naval and Military Forces, Yeomanry, Territorial 
Force, Royal Naval Reserve, Volunteer Corps, and Cadet Battalions and Corps, 
as published in the Official Navy and Army Lists, together with retired officers of the 
same whose names are retained in the Navy or Army Lists, and Naval Cadets, 
and Cadets of the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, Royal Military College, 
Sandhurst, and Royal Military College, Kingston, Canada, on the recommendation 
of their commanding officers. 

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not appear in the Navy or Army Lists, are eligible for election by ballot on the 
recommendation, on personal knowledge, of two members of the Institution. 

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on joining the Institution, the others on the lst January of each of 
the succeeding two years. 

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subscription the following year. 

An extra payment of Ten Shillings entitles a member in the United Kingdom to 
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or order, my subscription to that Institution (according to the terms above). 
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The Institution contains the best professional Library in the United Kingdom ; 
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with the leading papers, pericdicals, and writing materials ; an interesting Museum; 
and a Theatre in which lectures upon professiona: subjects, followed by discussion, 
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The Journal, published monthly, is sent post free to all members. It contains 
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notes, book notices, &c. 


Che Royal Anited Serbice Institution, 



¥ Begqueath to THe Royar Unitep SERVICE INSTITUTION 

the sum of £ (free of duty), 
or (in case of a specific legacy) my (free of duty), 

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sufficient discharge for the same. 


‘The Command of the Sea; 
What Is It?’ 

By Major A. B. N. GHURCHILL, late R.A. 

‘* A book every true Briton should read.” 


‘Naval Wars in the Baltic’ 

During the Sailing Ship Epoch, 1522-1850, 

bub-Lieut. R.N.V.R., M.A. (Cantab.), F.R.G.S. 

With Seventeen full-page Diagrams illustrating the text, and specially drawn by 
the Author. Full Bibliography. Separate Indices to all Naval Actions and 
Operations, the Names of Officers, and of Ships. 

G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G. (Persona! Aide-d:-Camp to the King, Commander-in- Chief of the 
Atlantic Fleet), says :— 

**I have no hesitation in testifying to its very great use as a careful, 2ccurate 
and systematic record of Naval events in the Baltic. . . . It is, moreover, full of 
interesting matter in questions of detail, much of it being, I am sure, quite new even 
to regular students. .. . I feel truly grateful to you for its production (which 
must have been a grea‘ labour), as it has baen of the greatest use to m:; in, _ 
with a number of pieces in my collection of Naval Commemorative Medals 

‘We would wish that the British Academy, like ‘ Deals very fully with the History of the Navies 

‘A work of considerable importance to all 
interested in Naval History.’ 

the French, bestowed some recognition on of allthe Baltic Powers,’ Scandard. 
deserving books, for such a study as this | * Tue author is a young officer of promise.’ 
certainly merits some public honour, | Westminster Gazette. 
Daly Mal. — | 

‘It is not less evide “nt that his work has been a 

labour of love. Navy. | Belfast News Letter. 
‘A useful and handy work of reference.’ ‘Its great value rests on the minute care which 
' : . ‘ Nuti mel Defence the author showslin every detail.’ 
a . | Stockholm Dagblad. 
‘ The author lias accomplished a task for which all ‘All this patient research will be of considerable 
I if 
future historians will be in ‘ebted to him.” practical use to the future historian.’ 
Army and Navy Gazette. Outlook, 

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[Authors alone are responsible for the contents of their respective Papers.) 



The following Officers joined the Institution during the month of 
September :— 

Lieutenant Brian Egerton, R.N. 

Captain J. P. V. Hawksley, R.F.A. 

Captain L. E. O. Charlton, D.S.O., Lancashire Fusiliers. 
Lieutenant Robert C. Halahan, R.N. 

Lieutenant J. S. Wilson, R.N. 

Commander Claud H. Sinclair, R.N. 

Lieutenant B. L. Hewitt, R.N. 

Captain N. D. Noble, R.E. 

Major M. H. L. Bell, 4th Bn. Yorkshire Regiment. 
Major G. S. Tulloh, Gloucester Regiment. 

Captain P. E. L. Elgee, Royal Berkshire Regiment. 
Lieutenant Lord Worsley, Royal Horse Guards. 
Second-Lieutenant H. W. Verelst, Coldstream Guards. 
Second-Lieutenant F. F. J. Thorne, Grenadier Guards. 
Second-Lieutenant Sir J. S. Dyer, Bart., Scots Guards. 


In order that the official designation of the Secretary may conform 
to the duties assigned to that Officer by the Standing Orders of the 
Institution, the Council have decided that the future designation is to be 
Secretary, Curator, and Chief Executive Officer. 


The post of Editor will shortly be vacant. Officers who are members 
of the Institution, and those eligible for membership, are available; salary, 
#250 per annum. A competent knowledge of French and German is 
absolutely essential. Applications for the post should be addressed to 
the Secretary, stating service qualifications, age, etc., and enclosing 
copies of testimonials, which must be received not later than 1st December, 

VOL. LIV. 4 F 


The Council have renewed the contract for the printing of the JournaL 
with Messrs. J. J. Keliher & Co., Ltd., for a further period of three years. 


A course of eight lectures in Military History on ‘‘ The Russo-Turkish 
War, 1877-1878,’’ set for the December Army Promotion Examination, 
will be given on the following dates, at 4 p.m., the lecturer being 
Dr. T. Miller-Maguire, Barrister-at-Law :— 

Tuesday, 8th November; Friday, 11th November; Tuesday, 15th 
November; Friday, 18th November; Tuesday, 22nd November; Friday, 
25th November; Tuesday, 29th November; and Friday, 2nd December. 

The fee for the course of lectures is one guinea for members of the 
Institution and two guineas for non-members. 

Application to attend, enclosing the fee, to be addressed to the 
Secretary, Royal United Service Institution, Whitehall, S.W. 


(6145.) Five Lithograph Engravings, executed in France, entitled 
‘The Panorama of the Bosphorus.’’—Given by Major A. 
T. Moore, R.E, 

(6146.) Coloured Print of ‘‘ Frederick the Great,”’ 1712-1786. From 
the picture by Werner Schuch.—Given by Lieut.-Colonel 
A. Leetham, Curator. 

(6147.) Coloured Print of ‘‘ The Battle of Leipsic,’’ October 
16th-18th, 1813. From the picture in the Zeughaus, Berlin, 
by Werner Schuch.—Given by Lieut.-Colonel A. Leetham, 

(6148.) Coloured Print of ‘‘ Field-Marshal Blucher at the Battle 
of Waterloo.’’ From the picture in the Zeughaus, Berlin. 
—Given by Lieut.-Colonel A. Leetham, Curator. 

The Crypt under the Banqueting Hall will be closed from _ st 
November inclusive for about six weeks for the purposes of repainting. 

Essays bearing the following mottoes have been received :— 

** Res Non Verba.”’ 
“*Nunquam dormio.”’ 
Competitors are reminded that the Essays must be received by the 
Secretary on or before 30th November, 1910. 



Honourably Mentioned and Recommended for Publication. 

By Captain R. F. JELLEY, Adjutant, Hampshire (Fortress) 
Royal Engineers. 

Motto :— 
‘‘The Framework of an Army.” 

1. The present organisation and strength of the Terri- 
torial Force. 
2. The present approved system of raising the Terri- 
torial Force. 
3. The present system for obtaining and training 
The present amount of obligatory training. 
The financial basis to be approximately the present 
Territorial Force Estimates. 



1. Working from the foregoing data, to offer in full 
detail suggestions as to the mode of training and 
preparing, during the periods of instruction, the 
officers and non-commissioned officers to become 
efficient in the arms to which they respectively 

2. Next, the methods in which, by supplementary work 
in private time, the officers and non-commissioned 
officers can themselves increase their personal 

3. Other sources, besides those at present officially 
recognised, from which a further supply of officers 
and non-commissioned officers can be obtained. 


THE problem of military education, never a simple one, 
tends to become more and more difficult. 


The Council have renewed the contract for the printing of the JourNnaL 
with Messrs. J. J. Keliher & Co., Ltd., for a further period of three years. 


A course of eight lectures in Military History on ‘‘ The Russo-Turkish 
War, 1877-1878,’’ set for the December Army Promotion Examination, 
will be given on the following dates, at 4 p.m., the lecturer being 
Dr. T. Miller-Maguire, Barrister-at-Law :— 

Tuesday, 8th November; Friday, 11th November; Tuesday, 15th 
November; Friday, 18th November; Tuesday, 22nd November; Friday, 
25th November; Tuesday, 29th November; and Friday, 2nd December. 

The fee for the course of lectures is one guinea for members of the 
Institution and two guineas for non-members. 

Application to attend, enclosing the fee, to be addressed to the 
Secretary, Royal United Service Institution, Whitehall, S.W. 


(6145.) Five Lithograph Engravings, executed in France, entitled 
‘*The Panorama of the Bosphorus.’’—Given by Major A. 
T. Moore, R.E. 

(6146.) Coloured Print of ‘‘ Frederick the Great,’’ 1712-1786. From 
the picture by Werner Schuch.—Given by Lieut.-Colonel 
A. Leetham, Curator. 

(6147.) Coloured Print of ‘‘The Battle of Leipsic,’’ October 
16th-18th, 1813. From the picture in the Zeughaus, Berlin, 
by Werner Schuch.—Given by Lieut.-Colonel A. Leetham, 

(6148.) Coloured Print of ‘‘ Field-Marshal Blucher at the Battle 
of Waterloo.’’ From the picture in the Zeughaus, Berlin. 
—Given by Lieut.-Colonel A. Leetham, Curator. 

The Crypt under the Banqueting Hall will be closed from st 
November inclusive for about six weeks for the purposes of repainting. 


Essays bearing the following mottoes have been received :— 

** Res Non Verba.”’ 
‘* Nunquam dormio.”’ 
Competitors are reminded that the Essays must be received by the 
Secretary on or before 30th November, 1910. 


Honourably Mentioned and Recommended for Publication. 

By Captain R. F. JELLEY, Adjutant, Hampshire (Fortress) 
Royal Engineers. 

Motto :— 
‘The Framework of an Army.” 


1. The present organisation and strength of the Terri- 
torial Force. ; 

2. The present approved system of raising the Terri- 
torial Force. 

3. The present system for obtaining and training 

4. The present amount of obligatory training. 

5. The financial basis to be approximately the present 
Territorial Force Estimates. 


1. Working from the foregoing data, to offer in full 

' detail suggestions as to the mode of training and 
preparing, during the periods of instruction, the 
officers and non-commissioned officers to become 
efficient in the arms to which they respectively 

2. Next, the methods in which, by supplementary work 
in private time, the officers and non-commissioned 
officers can themselves increase their personal 

3- Other sources, besides those at present officially 
recognised, from which a further supply of officers 
and non-commissioned officers can be obtained. 


THE problem of military education, never a simple one, 
tends to become more and more difficult. 

1266 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

Even in the Regular Army, in which training for war is, 
or should be, continuously proceeding, there are many 
difficulties in attaining the training ideal which is set before 
every officer and non-commissioned officer. 

These difficulties are obviously intensified in the Territorial 
Force. Territorial officers have not, as a rule, the advantage of 
the initial grounding at Woolwich and Sandhurst, the time that 
they can devote to military matters is usually very limited, and 
both officers and non-commissioned officers have comparatively 
few opportunties of getting their men together for drill and 

It is true that the Territorial Force is not presumed to be 
wholly efficient to take the field against.a highly-trained enemy 
until the expiration of an embodiment of six months. Such a 
presumption, however, must evidently not be understood to 
apply to officers and non-commissioned officers, nor to such 
troops as are responsible for suddenly manning the coast 
defences and for working the lights in connection with them. 

The contemplation of the situation on embodiment indicates 
the measure of efficiency which Territorial officers and non-com- 
missioned officers must possess in order to become the instructors 
and leaders of the men under them, and it is evident that even 
prior to the issue of an order calling out the Territorial Force 
for actual military service, all members of the Special Service 
Section! must be trained and ready to serve in the case of 
national emergency. 

On embodiment, Territorial officers and non-commissioned 
officers will be face to face with two great problems. 

The first will be the problem of administration, that is to 
say, the accommodation of men and animals, the supervision of 
clothing and necessaries, the maintaining and accounting for 
arms and equipment, the supply of food, the measures of 
Sanitation, the preparation of returns—in fact, the manifold 
details of interior economy which beset the daily path of those 
who are charged with the control of soldiers. 

The second will be the problem of training, that is to say, 
everything that appertains to marching and fighting. 

In order to efficiently solve these two great problems, it is 
evident that Territorial officers and non-commissioned officers 
must almost entirely depend upon the preparation they have 
received prior to embodiment, and it is also apparent that the 
success of their administration and teaching, as well as of their 
leading in the field, will be largely conditioned by the discipline 
which they are able to maintain. Although it cannot be denied 
that the zeal and intelligence of the personnel of the Territorial 
Force will tend to lighten the burden of the officers and non- 
commissioned officers, it is important not to underrate the 
a of training and practice required to fit them for their 


"1 Territorial Force Regulations, para. 9 et seq. 

MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1267 

It is not intended to be suggested that all Territorial officers 
and non-commissioned officers are equally in need of instruction, 
far less is it to be supposed that the same facilities for training 
are open to all. Indeed, as will be developed in the course of 
this essay, the local conditions vary so considerably that no 
hard and fast rules for modes of preparation can usefully be 
laid down. 

One word as to finance. 

One of the data of this essay is that the cost of carrying 
out the suggestions shall not materially increase the Estimates 
for the Territorial Force. This is a difficult condition, since 
it is clear that if every member of the Territorial Force comes 
out for the whole fifteen days of the annual camp, there will be 
nothing of the Training Grant left for instructional purposes 
elsewhere. In fact, the more the number of men-days of camp 
attendance is increased, the more the Training Grant is 

In these circumstances, suggestions for establishing fully- 
equipped schools specially set apart for the Territorial Force, 
schools for the RE, ASC, R.A.M.C., and A.V.C,, as well 
as for the Yeomanry, Artillery and Infantry, seem to be beyond 
the scope of the present essay. 

All that will be attempted will be to suggest methods of 
utilising existing instructional facilities to the best advantage 
with due regard to the condition that expenditure shall not be 
largely increased. 


The general system of training Territorial officers and non- 
commissioned officers is set forth in Section 6, pars, 271-277, 
Regulations for the Territorial Force. Paragraph 328 details 
the courses of instruction, with the note that only those referred 
to in Appendix VI. are obligatory. 

It is observed that the present system of training is based 
on regimental instruction and is supplemented by periodical 
courses of instruction at Regular training centres. 

As far as the officers are concerned, there is the safeguard 
that before taking over the responsible duties of squadron, 
battery, or company commander, an officer shall undergo an 
obligatory course of instruction, and that, in the Yeomanry, 
Artillery and Royal Army Medical Corps, promotion to field 
rank shall be similarly preceded by an obligatory course at a 
Regular establishment. Otherwise, the limited time at disposal 
is recognised by making all periods of instruction, except, of 
course, the annual drills and camp, purely voluntary. It should 
be noted, however, that an initial course to be undergone during 
the first two years of service is practically obligatory in that 
the issue of the outfit allowance is conditional on attendance at 
an initial course. It would, therefore, be exceptional that a 
Territorial officer should not have undergone an initial course. 

1268 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

_ _4\s far as non-commissioned officers are concerned, the 
limited time at disposal is similarly recognised, and provision 
is made that, before promotion to sergeant in the Artillery and 
Army Service Corps, obligatory courses must be undergone at 
training centres. 

It is also to be noted that the voluntary courses arranged 
for non-commissioned officers are purely for signalling, 
musketry or technical duties, with the important exception that 
non-commissioned officers of all arms may attend courses with 
Regular units or at training centres, and, by the provisions 
of paragraph 337, Territorial Force Regulations, these atten- 
dances may be made annually for a period not exceeding one 

The latter provision is one of the most important pro- 
visions of the system of training Territorial non-commissioned 
officers, and equally applies to the training of officers, which is 
covered by the same paragraph. 

The Regular Staff for the supervision of this training is 
Spal sen for (excepting, of course, the educational staff of a 

egular establishment) by the appointment of permanent staffs 
to units, by placing General Staff officers to assist Regular 
commanders of Territorial Divisions, by giving each brigade 
commander (himself, as a rule, a retired Regular officer) a 
brigade major, by placing the Coast Defence troops under 
Coast Defence commanders, and arranging that the responsi- 
ee for the entire training shall be under the G.O.Cs-in- 


It is to be observed that the Mounted Brigades have no 
particular Staff officer detailed to supervise their instruction, so 
that this additional duty is thrown on the General Staffs of 
the G.O.Cs-in-Chief. In the same way, the Coast Defence 
troops have no Staff officer with the sole duty of assisting the 
Coast Defence commander in supervising their instruction, 
so that the General Staff officers for Coast Defences are in 
the same position in regard to the Territorial Coast Defence 
troops as the command staff is to the Mounted Brigades. 

It seems open to question whether Coast Defence troops, 
who must be, for the most part, fully trained prior to embodi- 
ment, have their educational interests sufficiently safeguarded 
by any less arrangement than that provided for in Divisions. 

In the mode of carrying out this system of training, there 
are, of course, various difficulties. Some of these are inherent 
~s any voluntary system and some are peculiar to the Territorial 


It is not proposed to enumerate these difficulties, but to 
face them as they occur in the arrangement of the suggestions 
which will be made. 

There are, however, two broad lines of difficulty which 
enter into all matters affecting the training of the Territorial 
Force, and which, therefore, closely affect the mode of training 


and the preparation, during periods of instruction, of the 
officers and non-commissioned officers. In order to avoid undue 
repetition, these will be touched upon. 

The first difficulty is the limited time at the disposal of all 
ranks of the Territorial Force. 

This difficulty eliminates a counsel of perfection in an 
scheme for the education of the Force. It is a factor in all 
modes of tee ane and, by reason of the promiscuous 
bestowal of even the limited time which the present system 
allows, it renders continuous and progressive training very 
difficult to attain. 

The second difficulty lies in the allocation of the Territorial 
Force in the various districts. 

In many cases the details of the higher formations are not 
gathered together in one garrison but are scattered over a large 
area. Even a single battalion often has several outlying com- 
panies. Consequently the difficulty of arranging for the super- 
vision and education of a mass of troops varies with their 
geographical position. 

It is idle, therefore, to suppose that any mode of preparation 
will be generally applicable. A method which might be suitable 
in one part of the country will be quite unsuitable in another. 



Suggestions as to the mode of training and preparing, 
during the periods of instruction, the officers and non-commis- 
sioned officers to become efficient in the arms to which they 
respectively belong. 


It is proposed to arrange the suggestions as follows :— 
A. General suggestions on mode of training; 
B. Schools of Instruction; 
C. Attachment to Regular units; 
D. Regimental instruction ; 
E. Camp training. 

1. Methods of Instruction, 

It need hardly be laboured that the methods of instruction 
adopted in training the Regular Army can only be applied with 
discretion to the training of the Territorial Force. It is 
certainly apparent that the mode of training of Territorial 
officers and non-commissioned officers must be designed to 
develop exactly the same sense of individual responsibility as 
is demanded from the officers and non-commissioned officers of 
the Regular Army, but it is more than doubtful whether the 

1270 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

deliberate methods adopted in the Regular Army are 
applicable to the environment of all units of the Territorial 
Force. In fact, the limitations of time and opportunity seem 
to indicate that the methods of instruction suitable for Territorial 
officers and non-commissioned officers are conditioned by three 
main factors :— 
a. The means of instruction must be easily accessible ; 
b. The scope of instruction must be confined to the 
essentials for success in war; 
c. The mode of preparation must provide for teaching 
how to teach. 

With regard to (a), facilities for instruction depend upon 
local conditions. These will receive a close examination in the 
ensuing pages of this essay in dealing with the training centres, 
attachment to Regular units, regimental instruction and annual 
camp provided by the present system of training. 

With regard to (b), the essentials of the war training of the 
officers and non-commissioned officers of the Territorial Force 
only differ in degree from those of the same ranks of the 
Regular Army. It is also apparent that the essentials of fight- 
ing efficiency depend upon the particular purpose for which 
each unit in the Territorial Force is intended. If it were the 
recognised principle of the Territorial Force that it should be 
prepared to rush out as a body into the field to do or die in 
operations which were only expected to last a few hours, the 
essentials for war training would be considerably reduced in 
scope. So far, however, from this being the case, the purpose 
of the bulk of the Force is distinctly deliberate. In these 
circumstances, it is suggested that it will be necessary to provide 
instruction in those essentials for fighting efficiency which are 
learnt by Regular officers and non-commissioned officers in 
the ordinary course of their daily duty. 

For this purpose, a detailed syllabus will be submitted for 
the preparation of officers and non-commissioned officers to 
include instruction in the administration, organisation and 
equipment as well as in the training of a squadron, battery or 

It must also not be forgotten in considering the preparation 
for the essentials of fighting efficiency that almost all the Terri- 
torial officers and non-commissioned officers now serving have 
transferred from the Volunteer Force, and that they, in some 
instances, have had the actual experience of war service. There 
is, in fact, historical evidence to confirm the opinion that 
fighting efficiency is what the Volunteers aimed at, and the 
benefits conferred by its organisation indicate that the Territorial 
Force is in a better position to obtain what the Volunteer Force 
lacked. Whether Territorial officers and non-commissioned 
officers may now feel that individual responsibility can best be 
developed by still further sub-dividing the already recognised 
sub-divisions of a squadron, battery, or company must be left 

lites nn 

So i 



MILITARY ESSAY, 1909, 1271 

to individual initiative, and it may be presumed that the obses- 
sion: of too much drill is well understood by those who are 
striving for fighting efficiency and who have for many years 
coped with the limitations of time and opportunity. 

- With regard to (c), the methods of teaching how to 
teach seem to require no elaboration; they are well exemplified 
in the. methods of inculcating individual responsibility which 
are in vogue at such Schools as the Hythe School of Musketry. 
It is suggested that the instruction during periods of instruc- 
tion which Territorial officers and non-commissioned officers 
can attend should include some organised mode of instruction 
in the method of imparting knowledge. 

In’ order that complete advantage may be taken of this 
mode of ‘instruction, it is clear that, before proceeding to a 
training Centre, officers’ and non-commissioned officers should 
be carefully prepared under regimental arrangements. It is 
even open to question whether the usual general certificate of 
competency prior to admission should not be amended to exact 
a definite qualification of some standard of proficiency. 

2. Provision of Instructors. 

Instructors should be the best obtainable, since the limited 
time at the disposal of Territorial students demands that the 
essence of the subjects under consideration should be imparted, 
and this condition necessitates the provision of highly qualified 

It is not proposed that, in addition to the present establish- 
ment of headquarter staffs, —— staffs and staffs of schools 
of instruction, a large staff of Regular instructors ‘should be 
extra regimentally employed. So far from this being the case, 
it is a guiding principle of these suggestions that the’ training 
of the  eprsri Army cannot be interfered with. It is intended 
to be urged that: those Regular officers and non-commissioned 
officers who are temporarily detailed to act as instructors should 
be carefully selected. Such temporary instructors should be 
judged by the results they produce, and, since good instructors 
are'born and not: made; good work should be recognised by 
those who give evidence of producing it being assured. an 
advancement to more permanent employment in educational 

3. Provision of Text Books. 

Although there seems to be some ground for the necessity 
for the provision of some authoritative guidance, notably in 
the somewhat. uncertain..state' of Yeomanry as opposed to 
Cavalry training, on the method of application by the Terri- 
torial Sovte of the general principles laid down in the various 
training manuals, it seems open to question where any of these 
rere could be safely abridged. Certainly the provision of 
a text book, which authoritatively dealt with the best methods 
of conducting war in the enclosed home country, would seem 


1272 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

to be providing a prospective enemy with conclusions which 
he would find a difficulty in obtaining as the result of practical 
experience, and would thus place in his hands the’ best material 
for plotting to defeat such tactical peculiarities as were 

As far as the education of officers is concerned, an educa- 
tional asset would accrue if the various methods of teaching, 
as evolved in the different parts of the Territorial Force, were 
collated and freely circulated for possible adaptation to local 

4. Length of Courses, 

The desirability of the courses of instruction for officers 
being. in periods of two weeks! is already officially recognised. 
Or non-commissioned officers this limitation is not so 
important, since they can usually be more easily spared from 
their work for a period of one month, or else they are out of 
5. Dissemination of Information. 

There seems to be room for improvement in the circulation 
of the information with régard to thé avaifable facilities for 

It is true that the Territorial Force Regulations form a 
guide to the possibilities of undergoing courses of instruction, 
and that the details of the times and places of these courses 
are annually issued with December Army Orders. 

It is suggested, however, that the information might be 
augmented and would be considerably improved by the prepara- 
tion of a pamphlet showing the facilities for the instruction of 
the Territorial Force, classified and arranged, throughout the 
whole of the United Kingdom. 

The detail of each facility for instruction should include a 
syllabus of the course. This pamphlet should be issued 
annually and circulated to every unit of the Territorial Force. 

It is suggested that the dissemination of this information 
would serve the educational purpose of showing what training 
is considered essential for the particular subject of the arm 
concerned, it would tend to prevent undue overlapping in. the 
various courses and it would, by being at the disposal of Terri- 
torial officers and non-commissioned officers, probably become 
a convincing aid to recruiting amongst their friends. 


Schools of instruction may be grotiped into :— 
1. Army Schools; 
2. Command Schools; , 
3. Divisional and Mounted Brigade Schools; 
4. Coast Defence Schools. 

10Or a continuous period of twelve working days. 


MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. £273 

1.. Army Schools. 

These are the established schools of instruction for the 
Regular Army, and consist of schools such as the School of 
Musketry at Hythe, School of Military Engineering, School of 
Cookery, etc. 

Provision is made for the admission of Territorial officers 
and non-commissioned officers at these courses, which are essen- 
tially technical and cover a wide field. They include technical 
instruction in the duties of cavalry, artillery (horse, field and 
garrison), Royal Engineers (military engineering, balloon and 
electric light duties), Army Service Corps, Royal Army Medical 
Corps, as well as in musketry, cookery and veterinary duties. 

If it were possible, courses for officers might well be 
arranged in periods of fourteen days. For this purpose, it 
might be possible fo subdivide courses into two or. more parts, 
as has been done in the electric light courses at Portsmouth and 

In addition, however, to these many facilities for technical 
instruction, there appears to be the need for some central 
institution to form the standard by which all Territorial training 
should be measured and to provide for the higher instruction 
of the officers. 

Such a Territorial Force ‘‘ War School ’’ would be the place 
to which all matters of Territorial training would be referred for 
consideration by a carefully selected staff, its courses would be 
designed to give Territorial Adjutants and representatives of 
all arms the last word on training, and it would provide instruc- 
tion in those branches of staff duties in administration which 
are so essential a feature in Territorial ttaining. 

To establish such an institution would add more than a 
little to the Territorial Force estimates. The elaboration of the 
details seems, therefore, to be beyond the scope of this essay. 
It may even be considered that the Territorial Force is not 
sufficiently advanced to justify the necessary expenditure. 
However this may be, doubtless a time will come when Terri- 
torial training will need some central co-ordination of higher 
instruction to some extent decentralised from the War Office. 

2. Command Schools. 

The Command Schools of miusketry, signalling, etc., are 
formed on the same lines as the Army Schools, the main 
difference being in their being administered by G.O.Cs-in- 
Chief instead of by the War Office. The modes of preparation 
adopted seem to cal! for no remarks further than those made on 
the Army Schools. 

In addition to courses of instruction at these local technical 
schools, the present system of training contemplates periodical 
courses of instruction with training squadrons, artillery train- 

4G 2 


ing brigades, engineer units, infantry training centres, and 
Army Service Corps companies.! 

So far, these periodical courses have not reached their full 
development. The training squadrons have hardly had time 
to be in full working order, the training brigades and battalions 
are comparatively new, and the courses with engineer units and 
Army Service Crops companies are still in process of evolution. 

Yet some inherent difficulties have already been brought to 

It has been clearly shown that the training units in the 
artillery and infantry have been primarily designed for the 
Special Reserve, and that the artillery training brigades are not 
armed with the gun in use in the Territorial Force. Conse- 
quently, Territorial officers and non-commissioned officers 
attached to these units have not been able to gain much practical 
benefit. It has also been demonstrated that the training at these 
units has been only suitable, even at its best, for very junior 
officers. Officers of the rank of captain and upwards have thus 
nothing fresh to learn by attachment. 

The engineer units and Army Service Corps companies 
have certainly played their part in technical instruction, but, 
once outside the regular routine of the technical course, attached 
officers have been largely left to their own initiative. 

In addition to all these courses which provide technical 
instruction, there seems to be a call for some definite syllabus 
of general instruction. 

The obvious solution of these difficulties would be the 
institution of Territorial Schools of Instruction, Yeomanry, 
Artillery and Infantry, specially designed and set apart for 
Territorial officers and non-commissioned officers. Such a 
school actually exists in the School of Instruction, Chelsea, and 
it has been the custom hitherto to form similar schools on 
occasions at Portsmouth, Plymouth, etc. 

These schools have never catered for other arms than 
infantry, and the scientific organisation of the Territorial 
Force demands some amplification of this mode of preparation 
to provide for the training of all arms. 

In considering, however, the extension of the principle of 
the Chelsea School of Instruction to training centres provided 
in the present system, various points for consideration arise. 

The first point to consider is, the number. of such schools. 
Obviously it would be wasteful to scatter Territorial Schools of 
Instruction up and down the country without a due regard to 
the likelihood of their being sufficiently attended to justify the 
upkeep, and it is also clear that the proportion of the different 
arms must be considered, so that only a few schools are required. 

The second point to consider is the position of the schools. 

1T.F. Regulations, para. 276. 

MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1275 

The position of each school is determined by the same con- 
siderations as the number, due regard being accorded to the 
training facilities of the training centre selected. 

The third point to consider is the instructional staffs of the 

Although it would not be impossible to provide for instruc- 
tional staffs from the Regular troops at selected stations, 
frequent moves of the troops concerned would materially inter- 
fere with the continuity of the establishment of permanent 
schools, and difficulties are intensified when the Regular training 
of the mounted arms is considered. 

It is suggested that development must be experimental, and 
that the training centres selected for experiment might be as 
follows :— 

For Yeomanry.—It would probably be sufficient if two of 
the training squadrons were developed. It is difficult to say, 
without the necessary local knowledge, which of the stations, 
Scarborough, Woolwich, Edinburgh, Bristol, or Seaforth 
should be selected. Probably one in the North and one in the 
South would best meet the requirements. 

For Artillery.—The vexed question of the training of the 
Artillery seems to indicate that the whole of the six training 
brigades should be developed. (See Appendix III.) 

Possibly, the number could eventually be reduced. 

For Infantry.—Only the infantry training centres, which 
are situated in the vicinity of concentrated Territorial divisions 
are likely to need development. 

The following development of selected training centres is 
suggested :— 


1. Supervision.—In order to assist G.O.Cs-in-Chief in 
the supervision of training centres selected for closer association 
with the Territorial Force, it is suggested that General Staff 
officers associated with the Territorial Force should « pay 
periodical visits for the purpose of assisting in the instruction 
and bringing to notice any suggestions for improvement in the 
mode of preparation. 

2. Instructional Staff—In order to provide for the 
larger classes of Territorial officers and non-commissioned 
officers which will probably accrue by concentrating 
Territorial officers and non-commissioned officers at selected 
training centres, it may be necessary to increase the instructional 
staff. A training centre which has reached its full development 
might normally require an increase of one officer and three 
sergeant instructors for the purposes of Territorial instruction. 

3. Equipment.—Artillery training brigades should be 
furnished with a section of the guns and equipment in use in 
the Territorial Force. 

1276 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

4- Arrangement of Courses.—The training centre should 
Be ORR to Territorial officers and non-commissioned officers as 
ollows :— 
Day Classes.—October, April, May and June. 
Night Classes—November, February and March. 

Two courses to be arranged in each month. 

The first course in a month will follow Part A and the 
second Part B of the syllabus. (Appendix I.) 

5. Numbers to be Received.— 

a. Officers.—Each class will consist of not more than 
30 officers. Officers up to and including the rank 
of captain may be received for the day class; 
officers of any rank may attend the night classes. 
Officers may optionally attend for Part A and 
Part B at different periods. 

b. Non-commissioned Officers.—Each class will consist 
of not more than 30 non-commissioned officers, 
and will only be formed for a month’s course of 
day classes. 

6. Finance.— 

a. Officers.—Pay and allowances will be admissible for 
all officers and non-commissioned officers who 
attend the day classes under the conditions of 
a. 382 and 384, Regulations for Territorial 


Officers attending the night classes might 

receive a mess allowance of 4s. for each attendance. 

7. Syllabus of Instruction.—The syllabus of instruction is 
detailed in Appendix I. 


a. In arranging the courses, the precedent of the Chelsea 
School of Instruction has been generally followed, with the 
important exception that the courses are arranged fortnightly 
and in two distinct parts. 

b. In order to offer some inducement to officers attending 
night classes, it is suggested that initial courses might be per- 
mitted to be undergone by taking Part A of the syllabus at a 
day school and Part B optionally at a day or night school. 

c. With regard to finance, allowing 6s. a day for Comman- 
dant, 4s, a day for Adjutant and one officer instructor, and 
varying rates averaging 8d. a day for each sergeant instructor, 
the cost of a training centre which had reached its full develop- 
ment would amount to about £300 per annum, allowing £8 a 
year for contingent expenses. 

In addition to these establishment charges, there would be 
the pay and allowances of the officers and non-commissioned 
officers attending. 


MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1277 

These, however, would accrue in any case for obligatory 
coum and have nothing to do with the suggested develop- 

As a set off against this increase of expenditure, it is 
suggested that a small contribution should be exacted from 
officers undergoing voluntary courses, say 41 from an officer 
attending a complete day school course, 2nd tos. for a complete 
night school course. 

Presuming that the classes were continuousiy filled, and 
that 50 per cent. of those officers attending do so yoluntarily, 
the total annual contribution per training centre would amount 
to about £150 per annum. 

In addition, the concession of being permitted to take up 
Part B at a night school would probably constitute a material 
a in the issue of the officers’ pay and allowances. 

n the whole, the percentage of those voluntarily attending 
might easily be considerably higher than the estimated 50 per 
cent., so that the contributions added to the saving on pay and 
allowances would be more likely to effect a saving than form 
an increase on the Territorial Force Estimates. 

d. The syllabus has been designed to include no technical 
instruction which can be obtained at an Army School (Hythe, 
Shoeburyness, Aldershot, etc.), but to provide for preparation 
in those branches of the military art which would form a 
sound basis for squadron, battery or company training. 

Although it may appear that some portions of the syllabus 
rather appertain to regimental instruction than to instruction at 
a school, it is suggested that the innovation of instructing in 
the methods to be adopted in regimental instruction seems 
amply justified by the peculiar environment of the Territorial 


It is suggested that if Territorial Schools of Instruction 
were to set the fashion in standardizing the teaching and in 
practically illustrating the administrative as well as the fighting 
side of the profession of arms, it would not be long before 
the efficiency of regimental instruction woulcl be doubled in 

For this purpose, the syllabus is designed for elementary 
ae applicable to the arm for which the training centre is 
primarily intended, both on the square and in the field. It 
includes provision for personally conducted visits to Regular 
barracks or camps, as may be feasible, in order to practically 
illustrate the best methods of efficient administration and 

It is suggested that such a mode of preparation will tend 
to furnish an ideal which can be aimed at in peace and will be 
closely analogous to the educational necessities which will 
prevail on embodiment, when Territorial officers and non-com- 
missioned officers will be charged with the duties of continuously 
instructing and leading the men under their command.. 

1278 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

3.—Divisional and Mounted Brigade Schools. 

The present system makes provision for the establishment 
of classes of instruction in Divisions and Mounted Brigades. 

In the concentrated areas near large towns, the 
difficulty of instruction has been met by the formation’ of 
classes under the direction of Divisional and Mounted Brigade 
Commanders, but for the scattered areas it seems necessary to 
bring instruction to the doors of the units rather than to expect 
students to come in from a distance for even so short a period 
as a fortnight at a time. 

In these circumstances, it is suggested that travelling 
schools should be on the following lines : 


1. Organisation.—It is proposed that travelling schools 
should supplement the instruction given at the training centres. 

2. Instructional Staff—Under normal conditions, it is 
proposed that the instructional staff should consist of two officers 
(one of whom would usually be an Adjutant of a Territorial 
unit) and three Sergeant Instructors. 

3- Duration of Visit—It is proposed that the course of 
instruction at each centre visited by the school should be of 
six weeks’ duration. 

The instructional staff would attend, as a rule, for four 
nights a week, from 6 p.m. to 9 p.m., and on Saturday after- 
noons from 2 p.m. The detail of attendances would, however, 
be arranged locally. 

4. Syllabus of Instruction.—The syllabus of instruction 
will be arranged under the direction of the General Staff officer 
of the Command, Division, or Coast Defences concerned. 

It is suggested that the syllabus should generally follow 
the lines of the syllabus laid down for the training centre which 
the school replaces (e.g., see Appendix I.). 

5. Qualification Certificates.—It is suggested that officers 
and non-commissioned officers attending courses of instruction 
given by travelling schools may be granted certificates of pro- 
ficiency on Army Form E. 535 and 536. These. certificates 
will be duly completed by the officer in charge-of the instruc- 
tion, and will be accepted in lieu of an initial course, if approval 
by the Divisional, Mounted Brigade or Coast Defence Com- 
mander concerned, 

6. Finance.—No pay or allowances will be admissible for 
officers and non-commissioned officers attending these courses. 

a. It will be observed that travelling schools provide a 
mode of preparation not only for Divisions and Mounted 
Brigades, but also for Coast Defence troops. 

MILITARY ESSAY, ‘1909. 1279 

b. ‘Only the normal arrangement of a travelling school 
has been indicated. The local conditions are'so varying that 
no hard and fast scheme can be laid down. 

c. The proposal includes the normal provision of a Terri- 
torial Adjutant as one of the instructional staff. This pre- 
supposes ‘that Adjutants have been carefully selected and 
suggests that all Adjutants should’ be placed on a general roster 
in each command for detailing for duty with a travelling school. 
It is intended that a tour of duty should last six weeks (i.e., 
the duration of a course), and it is thought that an Adjutant’s 
duties during his absence could, where necessary, be arranged 
for without difficulty. 

The remaining officer of the instructional staff would be 
selected by the G.O.C,-in-Chief of the Command, or, if 
necessary, borrowed from another command. 

d. It is suggested that travelling schools should operate 
for six months in a year, i.e., from October to March, each 
school being formed, as regards the instructional staff, six 
weeks at a time. © 

Taking the most expensive case, the cost of a travelling 
school would, including detention and travelling allowances, 
amount to about £80 for a period of six weeks. Thus the total 
cost of a travelling school operating for six months would 
amount to about £350. The state of the training grant after 
annual camp (i.e., in sufficient time to form schools), would 
show how many schools could be afforded. 

Against the cost of a travelling school must be set the 
saving which would be effected by permitting the qualification 
certificates to be accepted in lieu of an obligatory course of 
instruction at a training centre or attachment to a Regular unit. 
It is clear that even if a very small number of officers and 
non-commissioned officers (the number obviously varies with 
the different arms) take advantage of this mode of preparation, 
the cost of a travelling school would be covered by the saving 

Should funds allow, it would be possible, if considered 
desirable, to form travelling schools for each arm. The develop- 
ment of such a possibility might mean that there would be a 
travelling school for each arm in a scattered command. 

4. (Coast Defence Schools, 

The existing Regular Schools established in Coast Defence 
areas are technical Artillery Schools (e.g., Golden Hill) and 
the Electric Light Schools at Portsmouth and Plymouth. 

Beyond the occasional formation of a temporary school of 
instruction in some of these areas for elementary instruction in 
drill, and the invitation, necessarily limited by funds available, 
to Territorial officers to participate in R.A. and R.E. regi- 
mental exercises, there are few organised facilities for instruc- 

1280 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

tion, outside regimental instruction, in other than purely 
technical duties. 

It is true that the duties of troops allotted to defended ports 
are mostly technical, but the subjects included in the certificates 
required for promotion certainly demand a measure of know- 
ledge in other than technical duties. which is closely allied to 
that demanded from the field troops. 

In these circumstances, it is suggested that Coast Defence 
classes of instruction in such places as Portsmouth, where the 
troops are sufficiently concentrated to probably guarantee an 
adequate attendance, should be extended in scope. It is even 
open to question whether those troops of a Division or Mounted 
Brigade which are quartered in the vicinity, often in the same 
town, should not equally be permitted to voluntarily attend the 
Coast Defence classes in their spare time. 

For scattered Coast Defence commands, the system of 
travelling schools would fulfil the same purpose. 

It is suggested that the mode of preparation at the Coast 
Defence classes should be on the following lines :-—— 


1. Instructional Staff—The instructors would be selected 
from Regular officers serving in the garrison. It would usually 
be possible for a Territorial Adjutant to be selected to act as an 

2. Arrangement of Classes.—It would probably be 
sufficient if classes were arranged during the months preceding 
the May and December promotion examinations. There would 
thus be two classes a year, each lasting for a period of six weeks, 
the class assembling three nights a week. 

3- Syllabus of Instruction.—The syllabus might be based 
on the requirements of the promotion examinations A. and B., 
as applied to R. A. Coast Defence batteries and companies, and 
R.E. Works and Electric Light companies, excluding the purely 
technical portions for which provision is made at Army Schools. 

4. Equipment.—The existing equipment would need little, 
if any. augmentation. 

he old garrison class rooms are still in being and are 
only occasionally used for War Game purposes, the old educa- 
tional material is still mostly lying idle, and R.E. non-commis- 
sioned officers (the assistants of the late D.A.A.G.’s for instruc- 
tion) are still employed under the General Staff officers in 
Coast Defences. 


a. It is not proposed that attendances at these classes 
should take the place of initial courses as proposed in the case 
of courses at training centres, The classes are not intended to 
replace regimental instruction received in units, but to supple- 

MILITARY ESSAY, 1909, 1281 

ment such instruction. To depend entirely upon instruction in 
units would mean that Adjutants would be periodically engaged 
in independently training one or two officers at a time, 

By the suggested centralisation of instruction, much waste 
of labour would be avoided, the mode of preparation would be 
more uniform, and probably many more officers would refresh 
their knowledge irrespective of the immediate call for passing 

b. It is not proposed that more than travelling allowances 
should be allowed. As the classes would be mainly local, these 
charges would be very small. 

c. No provision is made for the attendance of non-com- 
missioned officers at these classes, since the mode of preparation 
is not applicable to non-commissioned officers. There should 
be no difficulty in the regimental mode of preparation of non- 
commissioned officers of Coast Defence troops. 


The privilege enjoyed by officers and non-commissioned 
officers of being attached for one month annually to Regular 
units conferred by pars. 337-8, Regulations for Territorial 
Force, would, if fully developed, become a most valuable factor 
in training. If it were possible for every Territorial officer and 
non-commissioned officer to be thus annually attached, it can 
hardly be doubted that a very high standard of efficiency would 
soon be obtained. Yet even if it were not an idle dream to 
imagine that the majority could spare the time, it is clear that 
neither the present amount of training grant nor the capacity 
of Regular units could cope with such an influx. Moreover, 
it would be buying the gold too dearly if Regular training were 
interfered with by flooding Regular units with attached officers 
and non-commissioned officers. 

Much, however, can be done by arranging that full advan- 
tage shall be taken of such attachments as are feasible. 

The first step is to bridge the gap between the application 
of the Territorial system to the Regular Army and the Terri- 
torial Force, by affiliating every unit of the latter to a corres- 
ponding unit of the former. In the infantry, where affiliation 
has hitherto existed nominally, the existing allocation of Regular 
troops in commands does not lend itself to a scheme of Terri- 
torial affiliation, and in many of the Regular Territorial 
regiments there is no particular Territorial feeling. 

In the artillery no Territorial connection has ever existed, 
although the present year! has seen the affiliation of artillery 
units of the Territorial Force with corresponding artillery units 
of the Regular Army. (See Appendix III.) 

It is, therefore, suggested that the affiliation scheme should 
be extended to all arms, so that every Regular unit should be 

1 1909. 

1282 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

affiliated to one or more Territorial units, and thus’ Yeomanry, 
Artillery, R.E., Infantry, A.S.C., and, as far as possible, 
R.A.M.C. and A.V.C., would look to their Regular prototypes 
for individual assistance and model training. 

The practical method of carrying out such a scheme 's 
not far to seek, if, instead of labouring Territorial affinity, the 
allocation of Regular troops is considaved in affiliating units 
by stations and not by units. By the station method of affilia- 
tion, Regular troops, who might happen to be at certain 
stations, would automatically contribute to the education of the 
affiliated Territorial units, and thus the Territorial Force, which 
has a fixed position, would be naturally and _ consistently 
affiliated to stations which are fixed, instead of looking to units 
which may be serving in any part of the globe. 

The first step in working out the detail of affiliation seems 
to be to group the Territorial Divisions and Mounted Brigades 
for affiliation to Regular Divisions and Cavalry Brigades. 

For this purpose, the method of affiliation adopted in 
attaching officers for the 1909 manoeuvres, might form a suitable 
working basis. This detail is given in Appendix II. 

From this basis it would be possible to work out a detail 
in which no Territorial unit would be left unprovided with a 
Regular station to which it might be affiliated. To efficiently 
work out this detail, however, would require a close examination 
of the training facilities available. It is, therefore, reluctantly 
proposed not to attempt to do so, since any private attempt 
could hardly hope, in the necessary absence of much local 
knowledge, to be more than partially effective. 

These foundations of affiliation having been truly laid, 
there remains to be considered the practical method of utilising 
these educational facilities, since the mere detailing of Regular 
units to act as vehicles of instruction will effect little. 

It is suggested that possibilities of attachment during the 
ensuing training season should form one of the first cares of 
Divisional, Mounted Brigade and Coast Defence Commanders 
on conclusion of the annual training in camp. Obviously the 
number of attached officers and non-commissioned officers 
is conditioned by the amount available from the Training Grant; 
yet, even if many possibilities could not be taken advantage of 
owing to the lack of funds, the detailed working out of an 
attachment scheme would at least serve the useful purpose of 
placing Territorial and Regular commanders in touch with one 
another under the zgis of superior authority, and much can be 
done by mutual arrangement without any expenditure of the 
Training Grant. 

Probably the most important matter in attachment is the 
preparation of the programme of the duties to be performed. 

It need hardly be laboured that the mere attachment to a 
Regular unit without any organised system of procedure during 
the period of attachment will be of little value. An officer or 


MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1283 

non-commissioned officer who feels that he is out of place and 
not wanted, is neither likely to gain much useful information 
nor to come again. Every programe must vary with the 
local circumstances. Provided that the duties performed are 
confined to essentials of embodiment training rather than to 
the minutie of peace routine, there seems to be no reason to 
limit the scope of programmes prepared by the Regular com- 
manders. concerned, the supervision of such programmes being 
the particular business of the General Staff. 

It is suggested that the proposed syllabus for Schools of 
Instruction, given in Appendix I., should be taken as a guide. 

Perhaps the best results would be obtained by arranging 
that each officer and non-commissioned officer should wor 
with a particular Regular officer and non-commissioned officer 
respectively. during. attachment. 

On the conclusion of all attachments, a short report should 
be rendered to the Divisional, Mounted Brigade or Coast 
Defence commander and communicated to the Officer Command- 
ing the unit concerned, 


Any mode of preparation of officers and non-commissioned 
officers has its beginning and its end in the unit. The trainin 
of a recruit officer begins at the hands of the Permanent Staff, 
and, on the principle of docendo discimus, it is open to question 
whether the instruction which an officer or non-commissioned 
officer gives in his unit is not a greater factor in his education 
than that which he receives at an outside school. The founda- 
tion of all instruction is in the development of the squadron, 
battery and company training, and there are many educational 
paid in regimental training that are not to be learnt else- 

The Inspector-General of the Forces has given it as his 
opinion that the careful selection of the Divisional and Brigade 
Commanders is the corner stone of the Territorial Force. Since 
the success of regimental instruction will mainly depend upon 
the.Commanding Officer and his staff, it follows that their 
careful selection is also a matter of great importance. Unless 
the Commanding Officer has had opportunities and ‘possesses 
the ability to fall into line with the best educational methods, 
and unless his permanent staff is well chosen to bring these 
methods to practical use, it is idle to expect that regimental 
instruction can ever be more than a perfunctory performance. 

Neither can it be hoped that the regimental instruction of 
officers and non-commissioned officers can make much progress 
if it be the general rule that the minimum of attendances, in 
order to qualify for certain financial grants, is performed. 
Although there is every reason to suppose that such a state of 
things is far more the exception than the general rule, it cannot 
be denied that irregularity of attendance is one of the greatest 

1284 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

difficulties in regimental instruction. It is a difficulty which, 
to a large extent, exists in all Territorial instruction,’ but. is 
accentuated in promiscuous attendance at periodic classes at 
headquarters as compared with continuous attendance when 
officers and non-commissioned officers have joined for duty at 
courses of instruction at schools. 

Presuming, however, that the Commanding Officer is ably 
supported in his military ability by an efficient staff, and that 
attendance at classes of regimental instruction is loyally 
guaranteed, much can be done by an organised system of 
regimental instruction. 

It is not proposed to attempt to suggest a system of universal 
applicability. The keynote of the Territorial Force in all 
matters is that there can be no hard and fast rule, so that the 
otherwise objectionable military term ‘“‘ as far as possible ’’ must 
be read into the suggestions which follow. 


The regimental training of officers and non-commissioned 
officers is intimately associated with the regular attendance of 
the men, and, i a voluntary system, it is impossible to 
arrange that attendance shall be regular. ' 

Certainly there is an incentive to put in drills prior to 
camp, inasmuch as pay and allowances are otherwise inad- 
missible. There seems, therefore, to be something to be said 
for concentrating the regimental training in the few weeks prior 
to camp, when it may be anticipated that parades will be well 

Such a mode of preparation, however, would-ignore the 
possibilities of winter training and would certainly be detri- 
mental to the continuous training of officers and non-commis- 

soned officers. 

Possibly it may be found feasible to insist upon a per- 

centage of the drills being performed quring. the ‘‘ individual ”’ 
and the “‘ collective ’’ period respectively. 
ditions, however, the present system of training allows the 

necessary attendances for efficiency to be put in at any time. 

throughout the year, so that the best that can be done seems 
to be to arrange that each company, etc., commander shall 
have the drill hall at his disposal for at least one night per 
week, and to trust to him to get the best continuous attendance 
he can. ' 

Even_so, it may be anticipated that he will probably have 
men attending in all stages of training. 

Regimental Training of Senior Officers. 

In administering theif units and in supervising the training, 
Commanding Officers are likely to find ample employ- 
ment of their available time, particularly if, as is often the case, 

nder existing con-. 


Sse a Sees 

oa Aided 

‘eis Tal i sa eal Bava 


MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1285 

they serve as members of County Associations and rectuiting 
committees. Those commanding and other senior officers who 
do not serve on theSe committees might still find opportunities 
for the interchange of ideas, which are furnished by such com- 
mittee meetings, in attending meetings of commanding and 
senior officers; the latter meetings being arranged under 

Divisional, Brigade or Coast Defence directions. 

As far as the pereane efficiency of senior officers is provided 
for by regimental training at headquarters, it is the outcome 
of the modern system of squadron, battery or company training 
that opportunities for holding regimental, artillery brigadés and 
battalion parades are largely restricted by financial considera- 

Certainly much can be done in the direction of regimental 
exercises and War Games. These, however, seem rather to 
appertain to supplementary work in private time, and will be 
dealt with in Part II. 

It is also true that a close personal supervision of the 
prepaanions for mobilisation will make for personal efficiency. 

his opportunity is so obvious as to need no special suggestion. 

As regards senior officers not charged with the command 
of units, it is clear that they have even fewer opportunities than 
have Commanding Officers to become efficient during periods of 
instruction at headquarters.: The delegation of duties by the 
Officer Commanding probably furnishes as much opportunity 
for the attainment of personal efficiency as the present system 

It is suggested that, in addition to the routine of adminis- 
trative and supervising duties, commanding and senior officers 
would tend to become efficient by :— 

1. Closely supervising the instruction of junior officers. 
Personally instructing the officers in higher training. 
Keeping touch with other arms in the vicinity with a 

view to personal instruction and opportunities for 

4. Supervising the organised methods referred to in 
Part II., and, in particular, undertaking the colla- 
tion of the results of the personal efforts as therein 

Regimental Training of Junior Officers. 

Under the supervision of the Officer Commanding, assisted 
by the Adjutant, the regimental training of junior officers 
largely depends upon their, individual initiative. 

Recruit officers’ are undef the special care of the Adjutant, 
and the desirability of their undergoing an initial course at the 
first opportunity is’ sufficiently obvious, ! 

The success of the regimental training of junior officers is 
vitally affected by the careful preparation of training pro- 
grammes, which will be dealt with later. 


1286 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

Regimental Training of Non-Commissioned Officers. 

Non-commissioned officers largely depend for their regi- 
mental training on the efforts of their officers on their behalf, 
such efforts being mainly apparent in the development of 
company training programmes~and the formation of classes 
under the direction of the regimental staff. 

The Preparation of Training Programmes. 

The preparation of a regimental training programme is 
based upon the training programme ‘issued by higher authority. 
Signs are not wanting to show that Divisional and Brigade 
programmes are fast tending to become as closely and carefully 
elaborated as the training programmes of the Regular Army. 

In these circumstances, it is unnecessary to labour the 
educational value of this preparation. It is evidently appre- 
ciated that the training programme prepared by higher authority 
should indicate a practical solution of training difficulties as well 
as elaborate methods of training which would possibly be 
otherwise omitted by subordinate commanders. 

It is suggested that the preparation of a regimental training 
programme should follow on the same lines. 

As far as the ‘training of officers and non-commissioned 
officers is concerned, it is suggested that a regimental training 
programme should provide for :— 

a. Utilising the services of trained officers and non- 
commissioned officers in instructional duties. 

b- Forming regimental classes. 

c. Organising the employment of private time. 

a. Utilising the Services of Trained Officers and Non- 
Commissioned Officers in Instructional Duties. 

It is suggested that officers and non-commissioned officers 
who have attended schools of instruction should become training 
centres under regimental arrangements, 

It is to be confidently anticipated that those who have 
received instruction will readily respond to an invitation to 
impart instruction to their comrades, provided that some 
practical plan for doing so is prepared, and it is difficult to 
imagine a better mode of preparation. 

The making of a practical plan rests, of course, with the 
regimental staff. 

In a concentrated unit, the best plan seems to be to invite 
officers and non-commissioned officers to take charge of specific 
classes of instruction or to contribute to certain portions of the 
syllabus of one of the regimental classes. It is suggested that 
quartermasters and attached medical officers, for example, 
would often be pleased to contribute some useful instruction on 
the administration and sanitation duties which are sometimes 


Med chiebble ONES pisibiaD 



MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1287 

so conspicuously defective in Territorial Camps. It is sug- 
gested ‘that a full development of this mode of regimental 
preparation by and of officers and non-commissioned officers 
would have very far reaching effects. 

In a scattered unit, there would be greater difficulties in 
this mode of preparation, but, by: keeping the principle in view 
in preparing the training programme, much could often be 
done by mutual arrangements between outlying companies, 

b. Forming Regimental Classes. 

The. possibilities of forming regimental classes are only 
limited by the probabilities of attendance and the judicious 
selections of the subjects that would be acceptable. Con- 
sidering the ever varying local efficiency, it would be invidious 
to suggest more than a general scheme of regimental instruc- 
tion which might be adapted to local circumstances, 

It is suggested that regimental. classes for officers and 
N.C.O.’s might be divided into three groups, viz. :— ; 

1. Technical. 

2. Administrative. 

_ 3+ Promotion. 

All these classes should be modelled on the lines of the outside 
schools of instruction, with particular reference to the: unit 
concerned, and should be arranged to be formed as a oe phy 
tion for or a refresher of the instruction given at a schoof. It 
is for this purpose that the proposed syllabus given in Appen- 
dix I. has been designed to form the, basis of regimental 
instruction, the syllabus being extended by the promotion 
classes held in Coast Defence Commands, by the ‘visits of 
travelling schools and by the methods adopted in army techni- 
cal schools. } 

It is suggested that by the development of this mode of 
preparation, regimental instruction will link up all outside 
instruction into a standardized system of co-operative teaching 
which will go as far as voluntary effort can go in making not 
only officers and non-commissioned officers, but all. ranks 

With regard to (c) the suggested methods of organising 
the employment of private time will be dealt with in Part II. 


Camp training is divided into week-end camps and annual 
camps.’ Week-end camps will be dealt with in Part II. 

1 In case any of the suggestions with regard to Regimental Instruction 
should appear impracticable as making too great a demand upon the zeal 
and intelligence of officers and non-commissioned officers, the writer 
would observe that they are dictated by personal experience of what 
has actually been done. 

VOL. LIV. 48 

1288 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

Annual camp training affords the best opportunity for 
Territorial officers and non-commissioned officers to put into 
practice what military knowledge they possess. The arrange- 
ments for this training depend upon so many factors that, 
with a limited space, it is hardly possible to do more than 
touch upon the salient points. 

it is laid down in the Training and Manceuvre Regulations 
(page 10) that training in camp should usually be progressive, 
that squadron, battery, company and battalion training is all 
important, that Infantry Brigade exercises should be very 
occasional and divisional exercises exceptional, and that it must 
be remembered that the primary reasons for assembling the 
higher formation of the Territorial Force in camp are for the 
benefit of commanders of these formations, for the opportunity 
of units becoming acquainted with each other, and for the 
practice of the technical and administrative services. 

In carrying out these principles, it is evident that the 
preparation of the officers and non-commissioned officers during 
annual camp training is, to a certain extent, bound up with the 
continuous attendance of all ranks. If it be decided that any 
particular training shall be progressive, as will usually be the 
case, some means must be taken to ensure that members attend- 
ing camp do not join at intermediate dates during the training. 
It is, therefore, irable that members who cannot attend for 
the whole period of fifteen days, should do so for either the 
first or, preferably, the last eight days. 


It has already been pointed out! that troops allotted to 
Coast Defences should, for the most part, be efficient to take 
over their war duties the moment the warning telegram is 
received. For this purpose, it is desirable that Coast ence 
camps should be —- to take place during the period of the 
practice mobilisation of the fortress concerned. 

It is a at that the camping periods should also be 
extended, so far as the officers and non-commissioned officers 
are concerned, on the following lines :— 

a. Extension of Period.—The camping period might be 
extended over a period of twenty-two days, that is to say, the 
period of fifteen days when the camp would be attended by the 
entire strength of the unit and a period of seven days prior 
to this, when a percentage of officers and non-commissioned 
officers would be permitted to attend for instructional purposes. 

b. Selection of Officers and Non-Commissioned Officers.— 

In the smaller fortresses, it might be possible to permit the 
whole of the officers and 50 per cent. of thé non-commissioned 

1 Introduction, page 1266. 

MEIER ABME: she: de 

MILITARY, ESSAY, 1909. 1289 

officers to attend; in the larger fortresses, it would probably be 
sufficient to permit 50 per cent, of the officers and 25 per cent, 
of the non-commissioned, officers, to. come out for this extra 
period, The number of, those. permitted to attend depends 
partially upon the funds. at disposal and partially upon the 
state of efficiency of the unit. 

It would be desirable to select those attending from the 
specialists of the units. 

c. Course of Special Training.—The selected officers and 
non-commissioned officers would attend at the various forts and 
batteries where the camps will be held as nuclei of the detach- 
ments which will follow in the ensuing week. In small 
garrisons they would be together in one fort or battery. 

The training programme would be arranged under. the 
supervision of the General Staff officer, and would include 
instruction given by the Regular personnel allotted to the forts 
or batteries concerned, in the special R.A. and R.E. duties. 

Provision should also be made for instruction in administra- 
tive and sanitation duties which apply to local conditions, and 
which will obtain during mobilisation. 

d. Finance.—The cost of carrying out the proposal 
oe upon whether those officers and non-commissioned 
officers coming out for the week are permitted to remain for 
the first and second weeks only (1.e., a period of fifteen days), 
or to remain out for the whole period of twenty-two days. 

In the first case, the additional cost will be nil, if it can 
be arranged that tents are put up by a Regular fatigue party 
for the accommodation of those attending. 

In the second case, the additional cost will be the pay and 
allowances for the extra week. 

It is difficult to estimate the amount. On the basis of the 
largest units (i.e., at Portsmouth), furnishing the proposed 
percentage, this would mean the pay and allowances for some 
23 Officers and about 53 non-commissioned officers.) 

Taking an average amount for the unknown factor of the 
prospective ranks of the officers and non-commissicaed officers 
concerned, this would mean an increase of about £185 for the 
Southern Command Training Grant. Probably, however, it 
would be found that all would not be able to avail themselves 
of the permission to stay for twenty-two days, so that, allow- 
ing for 75 per cent., the total largest amount would not be 
more than about £140. 

In other commands the amount would be proportionately 

REMARKS, », . 

It is submitted that the carrying out of this proposal would 

have far-reaching effects on the etiicieeity of the personnel for 

1 Establishments for the Territorial Force, 1909-10. 

1290 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

defended ports. There can be no doubt that in the rush of 
even a practice mobilisation, Territorial officers and non-com- 
missioned officers have little time to devote to instruction. On 
the other hand, the opportunity for instruction afforded by 
joining in the practice mobilisation seems too good to be lost, 
and it would seem that if the officers and non-commissioned 
officers could quietly receive previous local instruction, much 
of the difficulty would disappear. In any case, the experiment 
could be arranged to add nothing to the cost of the annual 

The camps of 1909 seem to have certainly indicated the 
value of large camps.!. There seems much to be said for 
Yeomanry camps being arranged to synchronise with artillery 
and infantry camps, and for the camps of the cyclist 
battalions to give practice along the coast line to which 
they are allotted. The camps of the units turned into Officers’ 
Training Corps seem to require special consideration as regards 
the attachment of Regular instructors during the annual camp. 

With regard to the preliminary training for camp of officers 
and non-commissioned officers of Divisions and Mounted 
Brigades, much must depend upon the facilities for attendance 
at unit headquarters. In cases in which it is é€asy to arrange for 
meetings, it is suggested that a short refresher should be given 
of the administration duties in camp. Where this cannot be 
arranged, it is suggested that provision should be made for 
this instruction in the training programme, by including it in 
the syllabus of the regimental classes under the heading 
“* Administration,’’ referred to in ‘‘ Regimental Instruction.” 

In any case, officers and non-commissioned officers might 
well be instructed under regimental arrangements in :— 

1. Preparatory measures (selection of camp site, arrange- 
ment of camp, equipment, etc.). 
2. Camp routine (orderly duties, rations, cooking, sani- 
tation, etc.). 
Useful training would also accrue in marching to camp. This 
march might be carried out in one, or, preferably, two days— 
and would give scope for preparing the officers and non-com- 
missioned officers in inculcating march discipline and in be- 
coming familar with bivouacs or billets, as might be arranged. 

With regard to training in camp, suggestions are sub- 

mitted with reference to: 
a. Camp Lectures. 
b. Association with Regular Troops. 
c. Training in Mobilisation. 
1 The difficulties of employers of labour in arranging for the attendance 

of employés at one period of the year are recognised. An influential 
meeting on the subject was addressed by the Secretary of State for War on 

23rd February, 1909. 


MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1291 

a. Camp Lectures. 

It is suggested that camp lectures should be organised, as 
far as possible, prior to camp. 

In large camps, the lectures may be grouped into three 
classes :-— 
1. Lectures. to senior. officers. 
2. Lectures to all officers and selected non-commissioned 
3. Lectures to units by junior officers. 

1.—Lectures to Senior Officers. 

The er ore et of training to be kept in view in training 
the Territorial Force (Cd. 3515) provide as follows :— 

‘* Officers will ‘be detailed to lecture and ‘conduct short 
courses of instruction where senior officers of the Territorial 
Force can be conveniently assembled. 

** These lectures will deal with the more practical portions 
of staff duties, such as mobilisation, combined tactics, marching, 
camping, inter-communication in the field, writing of orders 
and reports, the immediate system of supply of ammunition, 
food, and forage, the establishment of advanced depdéts, and 
the connection generally between the fighting troops and the 
departmental units on which they depend for the services of 
supply, etc. These lectures or courses of instruction should be 
followed by staff rides.” 

Although it is not, of course, to be supposed that this 
range of subjects can be covered in the course of an annual 
training in camp, it is suggested that the period of camp forms 
a valuable asset in the annual opportunities for instructing 
the senior officers. 

It may be presumed that the lectures will be arranged with 
the assistance of the General Staff, and, in order not to unduly 
interfere with the handling of men which also forms an im- 
portant factor in the camp training of senior officers,’ wouid 
seem to be best arranged by the lectures preceding exercises 
on the ground. 



2.—Lectures to all Officers and selected 
Non-Commissioned Officers. 
These might be arranged to be lectures on simple training 
and administrative subjects to take place in the afternoons. at, 
Say, 5 p-m, 
Probably their value would be considerably enhanced if a 
discussion could be promoted. 

1 Lectures form part of the present system of training of the Territorial 
Force under review in this Essay. They are, of course, only preparatory 
to and not a substitute for practical training in the field, and should be 
reduced to a minimum. at 

1292 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

3.—Lectures to the Units by Junior Officers. 

_ These would be the lectures arranged in squadron, bat- 
teries and companies. They seem to call for no special 

In small camps, lectures must often be arranged regi- 
mentally, although it might occasionally be possible to arrange 
for the assistance of selected lecturers, on the same principle 
as the lectures delivered in large camps, if a request were sub- 
mitted in due time for arrangements to be made by higher 
authority. It would appear that such opportunities may some- 
times be lost sight of: Such omissions would be guarded 
against if requests are definitely called for prior to camp. 

b. Association with Regular Troops. 

This can be brought about in several ways. It is suggested 
that the logical outcome of the affiliation to Regular units 
already suggested would be that the Regular unit would, 
wherever possible, be in camp with the Territorial unit to which 
it is affliated. This might mean a Regular battalion camping 
with each Territorial brigade, or, possibly, a Regular brigade 
with a Territorial division. 

The development of such a system of association would 
lead to the admission of Territorial officers amd non-commis- 
sioned officers to partake in the instruction of the Regular unit, 
to a ready-made provision of a large staff of Regular instructors, 
and to a close binding of the relations between the first and 
second line. 

If such association during the annual camp were not found 
to be feasible, it would often be possible to attach Regular 
instructors to a Territorial unit, on the principle which nas 
obtained in attaching Regular officers to contingents of the 
Officers Training Corps. 

The association of officers and non-commissioned officers 
with Regular troops during tactical exercises and manoeuvres 
has been sufficiently recognised as to need no elaboration. 

c. Training in Mobilisation. 

It is suggested that the annual camp furnishes the best 
opportunity of investigating and, to some extent, testing the 
readiness for mobilisation. Although the efficiency of officers 
and non-commissioned officers will be largely attained in this 
respect by the methods developed in Part II., the period of 
annual camp is too good an opportunity to be lost for the 
actual practice in mobilisation requirements. 

A.—General Suggestions on Mode of Training. 

Suggestions have been submitted with regard to the 
methods of instruction, the provision of the best instructors, 

MILITARY /RSSAY, 1909. 1293 

the provision of text books, the length of courses, and the 
dissemination of information. 

B.— Suggestions on the Modes of Preparation at Schools of 


1. Army Schools.—The desirability of the establishment 
of a Territorial Force War School is suggested. 

Command Schools.—It is suggested that the develop- 

ment of the training centres provided under the present system 
might take the following form :— 



Certain centres, training squadrons, brigades and 
battalions should be selected for development ; 
General Staff officers associated with the Territorial 
Force should pay periodical visits to selected 
training centres ; 

The educational staff should be increased, where 
necessary for full development ; 

Additional equipment should be provided, where 
necessary ; 

Courses should be arranged in fortnightly periods 
for officers, the syllabus being arranged accord- 
ingly, and day and night classes should be held; 

Numbers to be received to be limited to 30 non- 
commissioned officers and to 30 officers per class, 
but officers of any rank to be received up to this 
limit ; 

Non-commissioned officers to attend for a month’s 
course of day classes; 

Initial courses to be permitted to be undergone by 
taking Part A. of the syllabus at a day school and 
Part B. optionally at a day or night school ; 

Officers attending night classes to receive 4s. per 
attendance (day classes are provided for by existing 
regulations) ; 

A syllabus of the proposed course is submitted (see 
Appendix I.), and consists of Parts A. and B. to 
correspond with the fortnightly periods referred to 
in (e) above; 

Officers who attend courses voluntarily (i.e., other 
than obligatory courses), to pay a subscription of 
41 for a day school course and ros. for a night 
school course; 

The cost of the proposed developments would be more 

likely to effect a saving than form an increase on 

the present Territorial Force Estimates. 

1204 MILITARY ‘ESSAY, ‘1909. 

‘a. 8+ Divisional and Mounted Brigade Schools.—It is sug- 
gested that for scattered areas travelling:‘schools might be 
established on the following lines :— 

a, Proposals to be submitted by, Divisional, Mounted 
Brigade and Coast Defence Commanders con- 
cerned ; Sets 

| 6. Instructional Staff to consist normally of two officers 
(one of whom would usually be an Adjutant of.a 
Territorial unit) and three sergeant instructors ; 

c. Travelling schools to operate for six. months in the 
year, each visit extending over a period of six 
weeks ; 

d. Instruction to be given to officers and non-commis- 
sioned officers on lines similar to the instruction 
at a training centre; 

e. Qualification certificates to be issued to those who 
attend; cl 

f. No pay or allowances to be admissible for those 
attending the classes. 

4. Coast Defence Schools.—It is suggested that special 
provision should be made for the instruction of troops quartered 
in the, defended ports, either by the operation of travelling 
schools as above, or by classes of instruction under the General 
Staff officer concerned. The latter classes to be normally held 
twice a year prior to the promotion examinations and to be for 

officers only. 

C.—Attachment to Regular Units. 

It is suggested that every unit in the Territorial Force 
should be affliated to a corresponding unit in the Regular 
Army and that such a scheme of affiliation is best worked out 
on the basis of stations instead of units. A basis for the scheme 
is suggested to be'as in Appendix IT. 

It is suggested that a syllabus of the duties to be performed 
during attachment is essential and might follow the lines of 
the syllabus given in Appendix I. On completion of attach- 
ment, a report should be rendered for communication to the 
Officer Commanding concerned. 

D.—Regimental Instruction. 

Suggestions are submitted for :— . ' 

a. The regimental instruction of commanding and 
senior officers; 

b. The regimental instruction. of:company officers and 
non-commissioned officers by the arrangements of 
drills for,efficiency, the utilisation of the services 
of trained officers and non-commissioned officers in 

Sih, see 

A ORL ay BOnleiloed 

‘ aeieesers 

MILITARY ESSAY; 1909. 1295 

instructional duties, the ‘formation of regimental 
classes of instruction, the organisation of the em- 
ployment of ‘private time’ (dealt with in Part Il.) ; 

c. The preparation of regimental training, programmes. 

E,.--Camp Training. 

Suggestions are submitted for the preparation of officers 
and non-commissioned officers of Coast Defence troops by per- 
mitting ‘a selected percentage to attend for a week prior to the 
annual camp, which will coincide with the period of the practice 
mobilisation of the fortress concerned. It can’ be arranged 
that this special training will form no increase to the estimates. 

Suggestions are also submitted for the preparatory train- 
ing of the officers and non-commissioned officers of Divisional 
and Mounted Brigade troops prior to camp and for an extended 
training during camp by association with Regular troops and 
training in mobilisation. 

It is suggested that the period of annual camp is particularly 
valuable for the training of senior officers. 


The methods in which, by supplementary voluntary work 
in private time, the officers and. non-commissioned officers can 
themselves increase their personal efficiency. 


Private time may be reckoned as all time beyond that 
required to perform the necessary number of drills, to attend 
the annual camp and to undergo the obligatory courses. of 

It is not, of course, to be supposed that more than a small 
fraction of private time is likely to be occupied by each Terri- 
torial officer or non-commissioned officer in incteasing his 
personal military efficiency, although it is generally recognised 
that the sum total of supplementary work done in the Terri- 
torial Force amounts to no ineonsiderable figure. 

Since increase in personal efficiency’ depends upon ' the 
particular shortcomings of the individual, it neéd hardly be 
laboured that the methods employed must vary in ‘each indi- 
vidual case, and must take into account the ever varying local 
conditions. : 

In these circumstances, the obvious desirability of supple- 
mentary work in such ‘matters as extra‘ riding, ‘more range 
experience, further administrative training, physical training 
and ‘so forth seems to require no elaboration of suggestions. 
Any officer or non-commissioned officer who is desirous’ of 
increasing his personal efficiency in these obvious directions in 

1296 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

his own time (i.e., without attending a course or a refresher 
course of voluntary instruction), would be well advised in 
thinking out a plan to suit his individual case and, if necessary, 
utilising the chain of command provided by the present system 
in getting advice or assistance in carrying out this plan. 

Should his imagination or guidance fail to suggest any 
desirable direction in which supplementary work might be 
undertaken, it is suggested that an officer or non-commissioned 
officer cannot do better than employ his private time in attending 
more drills, and so getting to see where his personal efficiency 
is open to improvement, 

In any case, private time can always be profitably employed 
in further attendances at squadron, battery or company 
training. Personal efficiency is much more rapidly increased 
by the handling of men than by the reading of books. More- 
over, frequent attendance at training has a far wider influence 
than the mere increase of personal efficiency. Good as it is 
for the rank and file, the effect of the frequent attendance of 
officers and non-commissioned officers, who attend in order to 
get to know and learn to handle their men, is not only to 
strengthen the ties of comradeship and discipline, but also to 
bring to light unsuspected deficiencies of knowledge. In other 
words, frequent attendance not only gives practice in what a 
man knows, but also practically illustrates what he does not 
know. An officer with his higher educational acquirements 
could hardly fail to appreciate what military training means, 
and to endeavour, his interest being developed by personal 
contact with his men, to possess their confidence in his leading 
and instruction. Similarly a non-commissioned officer would 
readily feel that he must know more than the duties of the 
rank and file. 

It is also clear that supplementary voluntary work may well 
consist in undergoing refresher courses in all permissible 
periods of instruction dealt with in Part I. 

It is not proposed that such refresher courses should, for 
the present, provide for any instruction beyond that given in 
the usual obligatory courses. 

Possibly, when the standard of military knowledge has 
been generally raised throughout the Territorial Force, it will 
be desirable to introduce more advanced syllabi for training 
during refresher courses, but it is open to question whether, 
in such eventuality, it would not be preferable to raise the 
standard of app tl courses to suit the more advanced needs. 
In any case, much development must have taken place before 
such. necessity arises. 

Presuming then that an officer or non-commissioned 
officer has taken as much advantage as he can of all periods 
of instruction available, it remains to be suggested what supple- 
mentary work can be arranged to be undertaken in order to 
increase his personal efficiency. 

REM UROMRM AIRS Tithinai deg 

e857 SATE 


Sey ease econ to 

MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1207 


It is proposed to arrange the suggestions as follows :— 
1. Suggestion Records. 
2. Attendance at Lectures. 
3- Private Study, 
a. Indoor. 
b. Outdoor. 
4. Preparation for Mobilisation. 


In order to ensure that every officer and non-commissioned 
officer who is desirous of doing supplementary work shall have 
some organised means of setting his efforts in the right direc- 
tion it is suggested that a ‘‘ Suggestion Book ’’ should be insti- 
tuted at unit headquarters. Adjutants should ex-officio keep 
such, a book and company commanders should be invited to 
do the same. 

The headquarter ‘‘ Suggestion Book’? under the care of 
the Adjutant should contain a record of every suggestion for 
the improvement of the training (this would include suggestions 
for the employment of private time) and a note of the actions 
taken in each case. 

For example :— 

‘‘ Captain XN-—— suggests that the non-commissioned 
officers of A Company would much appreciate some practical 
instruction in demolitions. He is prepared to guarantee an 
attendance of 10 non-commissioned officers on any Saturday 
afternoon during the present month.”’ 

Action taken. 

‘* Permission was obtained for a party to visit the th 
Company, Royal Engineers, who were undergoing their field 
work course.”’ 


‘It was found that other companies were desirous of par- 
taking in this instruction, which was kindly arranged for a 
Saturday afternoon and was extended for several occasions to 
include instruction in the defence of localities and in fire 

The Suggestion Book should also contain a record of the 
schemes communicated to the unit by higher authority, which 
will be dealt with later. 

For the purpose of disseminating useful information, the 
institution of a Divisional Journal seems to be a move in the 
tight direction. The Wessex Division has already launched 
such a journal, and, as the preface to the first number, April, 
1909, stated :— 

1298 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

““. .. . as the organ of the Wessex Divisional Society 
(the journal) aims at binding all the units of the Division 
together in one school of training, and: in endeavouring at the 
same time to induce all ranks not only. to read its-pages hut 
to assist in instructing others by communicating their ideas 
on subjects of military interest.”’ 

As it is understood that some assistance is given. from the 
Training Grant, it is suggested that the issue of,a journal on 
similar lines from the headquarters of each Division could not 
but be greatly conducive not only to the dissemination of official 
information, often otherwise buried for Territorial officers and 
non-commissioned. officers, but also to the spreading of useful 
ideas for the employment of the private time of those who are 
sufficiently interested. 


There is scarcely a lecture at any training centre which is 
not accessible to members of the Territorial Force. It is, in 
fact, often the case that their attendance is specifically invited. 

In these circumstances, Territorial ofhcers and non-com- 
missioned officers have no cause for complaint in the abundance 
of the lectures which may provide opportunities for improving 
their personal efficiency. Yet, notwithstanding this abundance, 
it is open to question whether the times or subjects of the station 
lectures, to which members of the Territorial Force are 
invariably invited, are so suitably arranged as to generally 
appeal to Territorial officers and non-commissioned officers. 

With regard to time, the usual station lecture time, 

5 p-m., does not lend itself to the ready attendance of business 
men, who are much more likely to attend in the evening, at say 
9 p.m. 
With regard to subjects, members of the Territorial Force 
are usually more interested in matters which concern the imme- 
diate surroundings of their training difficulties than in subjects 
which are either too advanced or too general to be sufficiently 
attractive for the use of private time. Although it is not to be 
supposed that Regular officers are, as a rule, sufficiently in 
touch with Territorial conditions to be able to lecture on the 
means of overcoming training difficulties, there can be no doubt 
that the delivery of lectures on ‘simple:training subjects by 
selected Regular officers would often not only provide assistance 
in increasing the personal efficiency of the Territorial officers 
and non-commissioned officers, but also tend to indicate how 
difficulties can be met. 

It is.also very probable that such lectures would be so 
greatly appreciated that an audience could always be guaranteed. 

It is suggested that proposals for the subjects for such 
lectures should be periodically invited from Territorial unit 
commanders. Proposals thus obtained would be collated by 

hte Mek Ae Oe 

See Se ee 


PO er ent 

MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1299 

the General Staff officer concerned, and the necessary arrange- 
ments for approved lectures put in hand accordingly. In order 
to assist unit commanders in responding to the invitation to 
furnish suitable subjects for lectures, it might be desirable to 
prepare a comprehensive list of simple training subjects and 
circulate it to all concerned. It would seem that such a list 
should not only contain the subjects in immediate connection 
with the tactical training of a squadron, battery or company, 
but should include subjects for lectures on details, e.g., regi- 
mental transport, machine gun training, telephone detach- 
ments, etc. 

The development of some'system of keeping the require- 
ments of Territorial troops in local view and arranging for 
occasional lectures on simple training subjects by Regular 
officers would do much to keep the Territorial Force in close 
touch with the local methods of the Regular Army, and would 
often bring to notice a ready means of co-operation for training 

A full development of the suggested method of Territorial 
units being lectured to on the subjects in which they wish to 
receive further instruction, would. be that the lecture should 
form an introduction to some practical illustration of the subject 
of the lecture, either in the form of an indoor scheme on a map 
or a regimental exercise kindly directed by the lecturer, the 
dates being arranged at the close of the lecture. 

3. PRIVATE STupy. 

Personal efficiency gained by private study would be con- 
siderably increased by following some well-thought-out system. 
It is proposed to deal with private study as :— 

a. Indoor study. 
b. Outdoor study. 

a. InbdoorR StTupy. 

Indoor study generally consists in :— 
1. Essays. 
2. Working out schemes. 
3-. War Games. 

1. Essays. 

Although any attempt to elaborate a suitable course of 
reading for members of the Territorial Force is more an 
academic than a practical project, much can be done to guide 
and encourage reading, general and technical, by inviting the 
writing of essays. : 

It is part of the present system of training that Territorial 
officers should be invited to contribute essays on the subjects set 
for the winter essays in commands. ‘It seems doubtful, how- 



ever, if the principle of inviting be done in private 
time bas been brought, sufficiently home to the officers con- 

It is suggested that the delegation of authority to set essays 
by G.O.Cs-in-Chief to commanders of divisions, brigades and 
coast defences, should be carried lower down the chain of 
command by inviting Commanding Officers to set subjects for 
the officers and non-commissioned officers under their command. 
Such subjects would preferably have reference to the peculiar 
difficulties of Territorial training, thus somewhat differentiating 
them from the subjects set by higher authority. 

Non-commissioned officers have been included in the invi- 
tation, since it is by no means out of the power of many 
Territorial non-commissioned officers to write exceedingly 
capable essays. 

It is further suggested that rewards for proficiency would 
be legitimate charges on the prize funds. 

he subjects selected will mainly depend for their suita- 
bility on local conditions. A few of the subjects might be :— 

For Officers. 

Detail suggested for a squadron, battery or company 
training programme; the local employment of cyclists; best 
method of warning and assembling the unit on mobilisation; 
suggestions for using spare time on the range; etc., etc. 

For Non-Commissioned Officers. 

A description of work done during attachment (or course 
of instruction) during past year; suggestions for physical 
training ; etc. 

2. Working Out Schemes. 

The solution of a tactical or administrative problem set in 
connection with a map (as referred to in Section 32 Training 
and Manceuvre Regulations) is more likely to suit the environ- 
ment of Territorial officers and non-commissioned officers than 
a regimental exercise which it replaces. 

It is suggested that such schemes would have their best 
value when worked out in connection with and in illustration 
of the lectures already referred to. 

As regards maps either local maps or those issued for the 
military examinations (R.M.A., R.M.C., Promotion, as de- 
tailed on the inside cover of any military pubiication), are 
cheaply obtained and very suitable for small. instructional 
problems. . 

It is not, of course, necessary that schemes. should; be 
worked: out in company with others as indicated above. 

Possibly, beginners. and those working for examination 
purposes will best improve their personal efficiency by solving 

ike TS Rats ARO Sa 

MILITARY ESSAY," 1909. 1301 

the problems at home. This method has the added advantage 
of enabling the solution to be sent in by post and a written 
criticism to be furnished through the same medium. In scat- 
tered districts, this method assumes its maximum value, and 
could easily be organised by the Staff Officer concerned. 

3. War Games. 

War Games have hitherto been conducted by the private 
efforts of the various Volunteer Tactical Societies, which have 
now become educational assets handed over to Divisional 

Inasmuch, however, as the removal of these Societies to 
the headquarters of Divisions has tended in some instances 
to denude some units of the ready means of participation which 
they have hitherto enjoyed (for example, Coast Defence troops, 
who have no part or lot in the Divisional organisation, and 
field troops who are quartered in defended ports), it is sug- 
gested that the establishment of Tactical Societies seems to 
require some extension. Possibly the difficulty would be best 
met by establishing Coast Defence Societies in areas sufficiently 
concentrated to guarantee an adequate attendance. 

Regimental War Games form a useful extension to the 
above larger games. It is suggested that by using the 6-inch 
Promotion Maps and by utilising the schemes set, a useful 
basis for regimental war get is often ready to hand. These 
schemes do not admit of generalisation, but bind down the 
opposing forces to the solution of a very definite, simple and 
instructive tactical problem. 

b. OvtTpoor Stupy. 

The possibilities of an officer or non-commissioned officer 
increasing his personal efficiency by supplementary outdoor 
work are necessarily limited not only by reason of the short 
time at disposal, but also by the standard of professional know- 
ledge to which he has attained. At the same time, the field 
of endeavour which is opened up by bona fide attempts to work 
out local military — is large enough to merit some 
organised system of dealing with it. 

Outdoor study may be undertaken either collectively or 

As far'as the collective outdoor use of private time is 
concerned, the present system of training makes provision 
for :— 

1. Regimental Exercises. 
2. Week-End Camps. 

1. Regimental Exercises. 

These are fully dealt with in the new Training and 
Manceuvre Regulations. It is clear that the possibilities of this 

1302 MILITARY ESSAY, _ 1909. 

method of increasing personal efficiency depend upon local cir- 
cumstances, and there seems to be no reason to suppose that 
all concerned are not fully alive to the desirability of arranging 
for members of the different arms to come out occasionally to 
discuss simple problems of attack and defence. 

It is suggested that the regimental exercises directed by 
officers commanding units should be of the simplest character, 
and designed as much for the administrative services as for 
tactical movements. For this purpose, quartermasters, medical 
officers and senior non-commissioned officers might with ad- 
vantage be invited to attend. 

Provision is also made in Command Training programmes 
for inviting Territorial officers to join in regimental exercises 
=— by Regular officers and solely instituted for Territorial 

Nor is the higher training of officers in the outdoor use of 
private time neglected, since similar provision is made for 
including senior Territorial officers in Staff Tours under the 
direction of Regular officers. 

Although it would be possible to suggest some elaboration 
in the present system of instituting Staff Tours and Regimental 
Exercises on behalf of members of the Territorial Force, it 
would seem that the present methods are sufficiently ample for 
the present state of the Territorial Force and that elaboration 
would best come in the natural process of evolution. 

2. Week-End Camps. 

The value of week-end camps obviously depends upon. the 
time available and the local opportunities, and their establish- 
ment depends upon the funds available. If Sunday is not a 
six-hour working day, the cost of a camp seems hardly com- 
mensurate with the advantage gained, and in the undertaking 
of Sunday work local feeling with regard to the Sabbath is 
very properly considered. 

On the whole, it would seem that week-end camps are very 
useful for individual training as a preparation for collective 
training. ‘They might help in overcoming the difficulties of 

- carrying out the new course of musketry, and it might be 
possible for artillery to use a week-end camp as a rest camp; 
that is to say, to march some ten or twenty miles to and fro, 
with some land practice on the Sunday. 

Whatever local form may be the best for a week-end camp 
to take (whether large or small, near or far), there seems no 
doubt that its value would be much increased by the provision 
of some semi-permanent organisation to instruct’ the officers, 
non-commissioned officers and men who require training in 
special duties. 

For this purpose, it is suggested that where week-end 
camps are found to be suitable, they should be provided with a 

Regular officer to act as Camp Commandant and Regular non- 



MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1303 

commissioned officers to act. as instructors. Also officers and 
non-commissioned officers of all arms should be invited to use 
this excellent opportunity for mutual instruction. 

Such a camp would be open for, say, June and July. The 
duties to be performed at each week-end would be carefully 
worked out by the instructional staff’ during each week, due 
notification having been received of the incoming visitors. 

As far as the individual use of private time is concerned, it 
is suggested that the present system of training largely leaves 
such employment to private initiative. It is true that it is 
difficult to organise a method of utilising the odd opportunities 
which Territorial officers and non-commissioned officers are 
likely to be able to snatch from their private occupations. On 
the other hand, it would certainly seem that the opportunities 
which individual officers and non-commissioned officers are 
likely to have of going out by themselves in their own time are 
far more numerous than the comparatively few opportunities 
when they can meet as a body. 

It is, therefore, suggested that some system might advan- 
tageously be instituted whereby suggestions for the individual 
method of increasing personal efficiency, by voluntary supple- 
mentary work in private time in the field, should be readily 
accessible to any who are desirous of faking advantage of them. 

Proposed System of Individual Outdoor Study. 

1. General Scheme.—It is proposed that each unit in the 
Territorial Force should be furnished with the data for working 
out some definite local military schemes applicable to the service 
which the unit would be called upon to carry out in war. 

The collation of the work done in a unit might be under- 
taken by the Officer Commanding, who would invite the 
co-operation of his officers and selected non-commissioned 

2. Organisation.—The arrangement of the problems 
furnished to each unit would be carried out under the directions 
of the Divisional, Mounted Brigade and Coast Defence com- 
manders concerned. 

All information collated by a unit commander would be 
forwarded through the usual channel, and, if it is considered 
desirable, should be either incorporated in command. records 
of intelligence work or utilised to check information already 
recorded. A note should be made of the officer or non-com- 
missioned officer furnishing, such information. 

3. Details of Schemes.—It is suggested that the details of 
schemes should be prepared on the following lines :— 

a. Schemes should be classified and humbered, so as to 
facilitate reference. The following type method 
might be considered suitable :— 

VOL. LIV. 41 

1304 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

Scheme A.—LonG HI POosiITION. 
Tactical Problems.—Nos. 1—5. 
Engineering Problems.—Nos. 6—9. 
Supply Problems.—Nos. 10—12. 
Medical Problems.—Nos. 13—14. 
Etc., etc. 

No. 1 Section. 
No. 2 Section. 
Etc., etc. 

No. 1.—New Village. 
No. 2.—Overton. 
No. 3.—Etc., etc. 

Scheme D.—SvuPPLIEs. 
Of all kinds. 

Panoramas.—Nos. 1—5. 
Roads.—Nos. 6—12. 
Rivers.—Nos,. 13—16. 
Etc., etc. 

Scheme F.—Etc., etc. 
* * * * * #* = 

b. Imaginary schemes should not, as a rule, be set, the 
intention being that all schemes should bear prima 
facie evidence of practical local utility. 

c. Ifthe necessary data for schemes would divulge infor- 
mation on local defence schemes which should be 
** secret,’’ steps would be taken to issue instruc- 
tions accordingly, the officer entrusted with work- 
ing out the scheme being duly selected. Probably, 
however, it would only exceptionally be necessary 
that schemes should contain secret information. 

4. Finance.—As the proposed system is designed to guide 
officers and non-commissioned officers in some organised method 
of increasing their personal efficiency, it is not proposed that 
payment should be made for voluntary supplementary work. 

In cases, however, where special missions are, as the result 
of preliminary efforts, definitely given, it would seem that the 
officer concerned would be called up for duty and should be 
considered for payment accordingly. 


Private time might be usefully employed in preparation for 
readily passing from a peace to a war footing. 


sis HS RSA Ns Rie ee 


MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1305 

The embodiment of the Territorial Force may take place 
either partially or wholly. In the event of partial embodiment 
being ordered, the members of the Special Service Section must 
be ready to join for duty within a few hours from the time of 
warning, and the remainder of the Force will naturally be on 
the qui vive for further developments. In the event of complete 
embodiment being ordered, it will, of course, be desirable that 
every member should report for duty with the celerity expected 
of the Special Service Section, but, bearing in mind the fact 
that embodiment will be for the purpose of commencing six 
months’ training of the bulk of the Force and not for concen- 
trating against an enemy in the field, it would seem that the 
main feature of such embodiment is rather the orderly assem- 
bling of men, horses and material than the undue rushing of 
hastily assembled units to their war stations. 

As far as officers and non-commissioned officers are con- 
cerned, it is evident that, whatever form embodiment may take, 
they at least must be at once ready to take post when the embodi- 
ment button is pressed. Such readiness is conditioned by their 
personal fitness to take up their duties of instructing and leading 
and this fitness comprises not only sufficiency of military know- 
ledge of their duties towards their men when assembled, but 
also a thorough preparation in their duties for the actual’ pro- 
cess of assembling. 

It has been the purpose of the foregoing pages to suggest 
methods of increasing personal efficiency in the former class 
of duties, and it now remains to suggest methods in which 
private time may well be expended in preparing for the actual 
phase of passing from a peace to a war footing. 

It is proposed to deal with these methods under three 
headings, viz. :-— 
1. Senior Officers. 
2. Subordinate Officers, 
3. Non-Commissioned Officcrs. 

1. Senior Officers. 

The foundation of a senior officer’s personal efficiency in 
the direction under consideration is an intimate knowle of 
every detail of the local mobilisation scheme. If senior officers 
have been able to spare the time to have their local mobilisa- 
tion orders prepared under their personal] direction by them- 
selves working out essential details, little supplementary work 
seems to be called for. 

Failing this perfection of detailed instruction, it is obvious 
that a close study of the local arrangements will be the best 

In order to materialize the paper arrangements, it would be 
necessary to actually carry out a practice mobilisation. This 
is, of course, a counsel of perfection for supplementary volun- 
tary work in private time. The next best test would be to 


1306 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

carry out the mobilisation in the manner usually adopted in a 
** Mobilisation Staff Tour.’’ These exercises are very instruc- 
tive, and should find a place in the Training Programmes. 
It is suggested that not only Senior and Commanding Officers, 
but also Quartermasters should be invited to attend. 

2. Subordinate Officers. 

Supplementary work could be usefully done in carrying 
out indoor schemes conducted on the same principles as the 
Staff Tours indicated above. These could be arranged to take : 
place at unit headquarters under the direction of the Officer ; 
It seems hardly necessary to elaborate this procedure. 
Regimental officers would be provided with a copy of the orders 
they would receive on being called up for actual military ser- 
vice, and would render the necessary reports on the assump- 
tion, say, that two-thirds of the unit had joined for duty. 
Discussion of difficulties brought to light would take place, 
and all concerned would be invited to bring to notice any 
suggestions for the improvement or alteration of the local 
In addition to these indoor exercises, it might often be 
possible to test the arrangements for rapid assembly by post- 
carding officers and non-commissioned officers to assemble at 
a specified time and place without previous warning. Such 
schemes could most easily take place in individual squadrons, 
batteries, or companies. 

3. Non-Commissioned Officers. 

The supplementary work already suggested under the 
previous heading would, it is thought, go far to increase the 
personal efficiency of non-commissioned officers. 

Further supplementary work might take the form of 
ensuring that the articles shown on the list of necessaries were 
at hand, and that arrangements have been made for men to 
leave their work and, if married, their families.’ In addition 
to this, non-commissioned officers could be encouraged to get 
to know where the men of their sections lived, their trades and 
their general arangements for at once reporting for duty. 


1. That further attendances at drills and refresher courses i 

need no elaboration. 
2. That there should be some organised means of guiding 
officers and non-commissioned officers to useful 
methods of increasing their personal efficiency by : 
voluntary supplementary work in private time. 4 


MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1307 

Such means being :— 

a. Initiating ‘‘ Suggestion Books’’ and Divisional 

b. Provision of schemes. communicated to units by 
higher authority. 

c. Voluntary courses of instruction (dealt with in 
Part I.). 

d. Regimental exercises. 

e. War games. 

f. Week-end camps. 

3. That lectures should be arranged :— 

a. At suitable times and on simple subjects. 

b. By inviting proposals from units. 

c. By arranging for Regular officers, when possible 
and when asked for, to lecture at headquarters of 

4. That Command Essays should be supplemented by 
Regimental Essays. 
5. That indoor schemes should be arranged :— 

a. In continuation of 3 (c). 

b. By post. 

6. That outdoor schemes should be provided for as in 
2 (b). 

7. That preparation in Mobilisation should be systemati- 
cally arranged. 


Other sources, besides those at present officially recognised, 

from which a further supply of officers and non-commissioned 
officers can be obtained. 

The problem of the supply of officers is divided into two 

parts, viz. :— 

a. That of making up the existing deficiency ; 
b. That of making good wastage. 

With regard to (a), the state of the officers was given by the 

Secretary of State for War to be as follows :— 

1st April, 1909. 

Officers on the Active List ... G ... 8,938 
Officers of Officers Training Corps 26 
Army Medical Officers H. 644 

Total ... As i 3! ... 9,608 


1st July, 1909. 

Officers on the Active List ... s% es Q,5§26 
Officers on Unattached List ... i: a Sep 
Army Medical Officers sek wf YQUS ge 

Total ... wed oe <a ... 10,987 

1st October, 1909. 
Officers on the Active List ... ita ... 9,650 
Note.—The establishment of officers is 11,267. 

In analysing these returns, it is understood that the Army 
Medical officers are those who would be taken to furnish the 
staffs of general hospitals and sanitary companies to be formed 
on mobilisation, and it may be presumed that the unattached 
officers are not immediately available for assisting in the peace 
training of the Territorial Force. 

As far, then, as the Active List is concerned, the increase 
during the three months ending on the 3oth June, 1909, 
amounted to 588. At this rate of increase the active establish- 
ments would be easily filled by April, 1910—even supposing 
that no officers had been transferred from the unattached to 
the active list. The maintenance of this. rate of increase, 
however, hardly seems to be likely, since the increase during 
the three months ending 30th September, 1909, dropped from 
588 to 124. 

At all events, the actual active list deficiency on the Ist 
October, 1909, amounted to a total of 1,617 officers, and on the 
1st July, 1909, there were 732 Army Medical officers, and 72y 
officers on the unattached list ready to fill vacancies on embodi- 

With regard to (b), the wastage will rather be that of peace 
than that of war, since the Territorial Force is designed to be 
trained for six months on embodiment, and it is hardly likely 
that its actual war service will be in the nature of a campaign 
spread over many months, but rather of a violent effort of short 
duration. In fact, although it would be easy to conjure up 
situations in which the services of the Regular Army and its 
Reserves might be required abroad during a protracted cam- 
paign, in an emergency so serious as to warrant the embodiment 
of the Territorial Pores it is difficult to imagine a situation in 
which the Territorial Force would take the field with a war 
wastage of many months. 

It is hardly possible to be definite in calculating wastage. 
Probably if a reserve of officers and non-commissioned officers 
amounting to one-third of the regimental establishment is 
allowed for, as large a margin of safety as will practically be 
necessary has been considered. 

This would mean that the total number of officers required 
to make good wastage would amount to about 3,800 officers. 

pa hess: 




MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1309 


__ The two main sources of supply for the active and reserve 
lists of officers are :— 

a, The Officers Training Corps; 
b. The Territorial Force Reserve. 

a. The Officers Training Corps. 

This Corps has been primarily designed to supply officers 
for the Special Reserve, Incidentally it includes the function 
of providing officers for the Territorial Force. 

The system of registration is far-reaching, and bids fair to 
completely utilise the current source of supply from the public 
schools and universities. 

Not only does the Corps furnish officers for the active list, 
but those of its officers for whom no vacancies in the units of 
the Territorial Force are immediately available are retained on 
an unattached list. The latter officers will be available, for 
the five years they are on the unattached list, to be sent on 
mobilisation for duty to the branches of the services to which 
they belong on receipt of orders from the War Office.} 

It is thus clear that the Officers Training Corps serves the 
double purpose of tending to fill up gaps in the active list and 
to provide for vacancies on mobilisation. 

As regards numbers, the Officers Training Corps has not 
yet had the time to reach its full development. 

The committee to whom its inception was due calculated * 
that in eight years’ time the Officers Training Corps would 
produce 5,000 officers for service with the Territorial Force, 
thus :— 

Officers trained through school and university 2,666 

Officers who may join from among those who 

have taken Certificate A. ... ae son x feSe 

_—- + 

Total... ... vie .. | $000 

It is outside the scope of this essay to comment upon the 
likelihood or otherwise of the fulfilment of these anticipations. 
Certainly a year’s experience has fully justified the value of 
the scheme. 

It is sufficient to note that, if all goes well, the development 
of the scheme will not only tend to readily fill establishments, 
but will also easily provide for the estimated wastage. 

Certainly eight years (now less than seven) is a long period 
to look forward to, but the extension of the principle of the 
Officers Training Corps to such units as the Inns of Court 
Officers Training Corps, has increased the scope of the original 

1 Territorial Force Regulations, para. 21A. 
2Interim Report (Cd. 3294), p. 24. 


b. The Territorial Force Reserve. 

The new scheme for the Territorial Force Reserve is not 
yet in actual operation, so that it is not possible to definitely 
state what it is likely to produce. It covers a large field and 
officially recognises many sources of supply which, prolific or 
otherwise, are certainly eliminated from the terms of reference 
of the present suggestions. 

In addition to these main official sources of supply there is 
of course, the supply from individual go eee which flows 
through Commanding Officers and Presidents of County 
Associations. This official source covers the individual appli- 
cation of any gentleman who is eligible to bear His Majesty’s 
Commission in the Territorial Force. 


The present position of the supply of Territorial officers 
seems to be decidedly hopeful. 

As far as the active list is concerned, it is impossible to 
say whether each arm has its due proportion, although there 
is no reason to suppose the contrary. As far as the returns 
disclose the deficiency, there seems to be good ground for 
believing that the official sources of supply are quite capable 
of furnishing the required total in course of time. 

Moreover, by putting into force the provisions of the 
unattached list, probably fifty per cent. of the present deficiency 
of officers could be made up to-morrow. 


Beyond the public schools and universities, there is the 
large field of the business and learned professions to supply 
material for officers of the Territorial Force. This source of 
supply may be divided into two classes, viz. :— 

a. Young men, age 19 to 25, who have left school or 
university and are on the threshold of their career. 

b. Men still young, aged 25 to 30, who -have entered 
the business of a life-long career. 

Class (a) is already partially provided for by the registration 
system of the Officers Training Corps. The remainder is the 
percentage of those who would have been included in the 
scheme of the Officers Training Corps had it existed some three 
to nine years ago. This large class is scattered up and down 
the country, and includes the students belonging to such insti- 
tutes as those of the British Architects, Civil and Mechanical 


Engineers, Surveyors and Auctioneers, etc., and the various 
Medical Societies.' 

It would include a percentage of those who, owing to the 
uncertainty attending the opening of their: profession, have not 
felt that, in their own or their parent’s opinion, they have 
hitherto been justified in taking:a commission in the Territorial 
Force, but would probably do so in the near future. Mean- 
while, they would be glad to train to become officers, if facilities 
for doing so were afforded. 

Class (b) consists of young men who have passed the ele- 
mentary stages of their business or profession and who, being 
in process of being locally established, would be willing to 
embrace opportunities of training or continuing to train as 
— in preference to taking up a commission in the lowest 

The development of any scheme for utilising this mass of 
material would not be athe consideration except in the event 
of the possible need for an extension of the Officers Training 
Corps, and except for the important fact that the development 
of any scheme that would bring the Officers Training Corps 
into closer relations with units. of the Territorial Force would 
be a step further in the realisation of a Territorial Force closely 
allied to the natural defenders of English homes. In fact, the 
official recognition of Inns of Court and the Artists as ‘‘class”’ 
battalions for the purposes of the Officers Training Corps seems 
to be a recognition of the desirability of establishing an inlet 
into the Territorial Force for those members of the community 
who are qualified and willing to train as officers, but have 
passed beyond the pale of the Officers Training Corps. 

Probably, the only method of efficiently utilising this 
material would involve the establishment of training machinery 
in those large towns where senior divisions of the Officers 
Training Corps do not exist. This considerable outlay could 
not, of course, be contemplated until some certainty of its 
necessity had arisen, yet it would seem that on a smaller scale 
and as an experimental measure, something might be done in 
the way of providing facilities for the classes mentioned. 

The first step would be to arrange and classify the lists of 
possible candidates. It is evident that the Officers Training 
Corps’ system of registration of boys leaving school would at 
once provide the names of suitable young men who had left 
school since the inauguration of the Officers Training Corps, 
but would not touch the majority of the large number of suitable 

1Since the above was written, the establishment of a Corps of 
Municipal Engineers has received the consideration of the War Office. 
It is proposed that a committee shall be formed to be called the Municipal 
Engineers Imperial Defence Committee, and it is estimated that the ranks 
of municipal engineers, surveyors, etc., could supply 2,000 technical 
officers and 2,500 mechanics and skilled labourers. There is no mention, 
however, of any proposal for the military training of this mass of material. 

1312 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

men who had left school within, say, the last nine years. The 
names of many such men could, however, be obtained from the 
lists of members affiliated to the institutes and societies already 
mentioned, and, when once some training facilities had been 
established, there is no doubt that the balance would, as far 
as their inclination went, come forward. 

It is not intended to be suggested that the councils or com- 
mittees of amalgamated societies and institutes, with their long 
lists of enrolled members, should be invited to furnish the War 
Office with the names of suitable members, still less that the 
members should be individually approached with an official 
letter of invitation to embrace the proposed facilities for 
training. It would seem that the voluntary principle of the 
Territorial Force is stultified by any process in the nature of 
a house to house visitation, except, perhaps, for the mere 
purpose of advertisement. All that is meant to be conveyed 
by the mention of the many societies is that the fact of their 
existence indicates some measure of a source of supply which is 
not at present officially recognised, and that a perusal of the 
directories would furnish all concerned with some basis for 
classification and arrangement. 

Since, however, the mere counting of heads will be no 
more than the preliminary step to utilising the indicated source 
of supply, it is proposed to outline a plan for making use of 
the suggested material. 


It is proposed that each large town which does not furnish 
a senior division of the Officers Training Corps should supply 

an ‘‘ Officers Company.”’ 

It is suggested that the total strength of the ‘‘ Officers 
Companies ’’ should be approximately ten per cent. of the total 
establishment of officers of the Territorial Force, i.e., a total 
strength of 1,200 members, 

A list of the large towns with a population of over 100,000 
is given in Appendix IV. 

Eliminating those towns which furnish a senior division or 
complete unit of the Officers Training Corps, an establishment 
of 1,200 would give each remaining large town an establishment 
of about 40 for its ‘‘Officers Company.”’ 

It is proposed that each ‘‘Officers Company’’ should be 
titled by the name of the town which supplies it, thus the 
‘‘Portsmouth Officers Company.”’ 


a. It is proposed that an officers company should be 
affiliated te whatever Territorial unit in or near the town con- 
cerned is most conveniently placed with regard to training 



PAIR chet ait 

Sis ane ihe Bas 

MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1313 

b. The Officer Commanding the unit selected would be 
requested to state his willingness or otherwise to the attachment 
of an officers company for the purpose of supervision and 
training. The executive command of an officers company 
might be in the hands of a field officer of the unit to which it 
is affiliated. 

c. It is suggested that members of an officers company 
should have the status of cadets of the Officers Training Corps, 
as regards having no legal liability to service and being only 
bound to serve under the local contract drawn up by the 
commanding officer who is willing to undertake the supervision 
of the officers company concerned. It is intended, however, 
that members shall be admitted to honorary membership of the 
messes and tactical societies which are open to officers of the. 

Territorial Force. 


a. It is proposed that training shall be voluntary, with 
the proviso that any member who fails to comply with tie 
conditions of efficiency referred to in (b) in three successive years 
shall be liable to forfeit the outfit grant, and that no allowances 
will be issued to any member attending camp who has not 
complied with 1 and 2 of the conditions prior to camp in the 
year concerned. 

b. The conditions of efficiency to be as follows :— 

1. Attendance at not less than 15 instructional parades 
as arranged by the Territorial officer commanding 
the Company; 

2. The performance of the musketry training prescribed 
for the trained officers of the Territorial unit to 
which the company is attached; 

3. Attendance at annual camp for a period of not less 
than eight days, provided that leave may be 
granted on the recommendation of the Officer Com- 

c. It is proposed that attendances at war games, lectures, 
etc., instituted for the officers of the Territorial Force, shall be 
allowed to count towards the 15 instructional] parades referred 
to in (b) 1 up to a maximum of 8 parades. 

d. At the discretion of the Commanding Officer, members 
who are sufficiently advanced may be attached to. companies, 
etc., of the Territorial unit for the purposes of training. 

e. At their own request, members of an officers company 
may be transferred to a local Territorial unit of any arm, by 
mutual arrangements between the Commanding Officers con- 

Uniform.—It is proposed that members shall wear the 
uniform of an officer of the unit to which the Officers Company 
is affiliated, but without any badges of rank. 

1314 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

Equipment.—Arms ‘and-ammunition will be issued from 
store for instructional purposes. 

Registration.—A register will be kept similar to the one 
kept in contingents of the Officers Training Corps. 

The registration records of those members of an effective 
company who have served in the Officers Training Corps will 
be forwarded to the Officer Commanding concerned, and will 
be kept up by him. 

Finance.—a. It is proposed that each member on joining 
shall receive a grant of £5 in aid of the provision of uniform. 
On receiving a commission in the Territorial Force, the balance 
of the outfit grant shall be issued under conditions similar to 
those for Territorial officers. This grant will be forfeited if the 
conditions of efficiency are not complied with, as detailed in 
‘Training (a).” 

b. During camp, members shall, if the conditions of 
efficiency have been complied with (see ‘‘Training (a)’’), receive 
a mess allowance of 4s. per day. 

No other charges, other than travelling expenses to and 
from camp, will be admissible. 


a. It is to be observed that the proposed scheme is entirely 
supplementary to the Officers Training Corps, and is primarily 
intended as a means of utilising the services of rather older 
members of a class from which Territorial officers are largely 

It is believed to be often the case that these rather older 
members hesitate to come into the Territorial Force in the 
lowest rank. Although, of course, no scheme will entirely 
remove this difficulty, it is submitted that by bringing local 
opportunities to the doors of such members of the community, 
the way is paved to overcome this difficulty to a certain extent, 
by filling vacancies other than in the lowest rank from those 
members who have received some measure of military training 
in an officers company. In any case, it is submitted that the 
operation of the scheme would tend to materially increase the 
Territorial Reserve of Officers and might form an extremely 
popular mode of entry. 

b. It is difficult to estimate the period which would be 
likely to elapse before the proposed establishment would be filled. 
Considering, however, the smallness. of the proposed numbers 
and the large source which would be tapped, it seems prohable 
that the number of those who would join the proposed officers 
companies would be at least equal to the estimated outflow to 
the Territorial Force from the Officers Training Corps. This 
would mean that the establishment would be filled in about two 
years from the initiation of the scheme. 


ih AR 


at NE i ae res NR 

MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1315 

c. With regard to the cost of the scheme, the annual cost 
would amount to about £1,500, on the basis that two-thirds of 
the proposed establishment attended camp, and allowing for 
travelling expenses to and from camp. 

In addition to this, there would be the initial cost of the 
outfit grants, that is: 

1,200 members at £5 = £6,000. 

Presuming that 50 per cent. of the members eventually take 
commissions, the initial cost would be reduced by £3,000, in 
diminution of the usual charges for the issue of the outfit 

On the assumption that the establishment would be filled in 
two years, the initial cost of the scheme would be spread over 
that period. 


The supply of Regular officers, on the active and on the 
retired list, with the Territorial. Force is officially recognised by 
the making of so many appointments that a further supply 
cannot readily be contemplated. 

Possibly the half-pay list might be exploited with advan- 
tage. This seems to be particularly worthy of consideration, 
when the Inspection Report, June, 1909, of the Inspector-General 
of the Forces is borne in mind. Sir John French reported :— 

‘‘T regard the careful and judicious selection of divisional 
commanders and brigadiers of the Territorial Army as. the 
absolute corner stone on which the whole structure of efficiency 
must rest. . . . In fact, these appointments should be regarded 
as stepping stones to the command of Regular brigades and 
divisions and officers, on being appointed to a Territorial com- 
mand, should be made to understand that their selection for a 
Regular command depends entirely upon their success or 

‘* The establishment of this principle is quite as necessary 
in the case of C. R. A.’s as in that of brigadiers.’’ 

Owing to the difficult. question of the training of the Terri- 
torial Artillery, many suggestions have appeared with the 
idea of increasing efficiency, notably for the appointment of 
Regular. officers to command. Territorial Artillery brigades. 
Until, however, the artillery training has been proved to have 
broken down, such appointments would seem to be somewhat 
invidious. Moreover, they. would have the decided disadvan- 
tage of limiting the prospects of junior Territorial officers. 

A suggestion has also been /made that Regular battery 
commanders should be temporarily appointed to the Territorial 

This suggestion does not, however, seem to make for com- 
plete efficiency, since the essence of the training of Territorial 

1316 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

battery commanders lies in the personal handling of. their 

It would be possible to work out a scheme for the temporary 
loan of Regular junior officers, for, say, a period of five years, 
to make up the present deficiency in the Territorial Force, but, 
whatever its merits might be, the cost of such a scheme would 
place it outside the scope of the present essay. 


The strength of the Territorial Force on the 1st October, 
1909, was given by the Secretary of State for War as, 
irrespective of officers, 260,404 out of an establishment of 
302,047, giving a deficiency of 41,643. It was also stated that 
since July, 1909, the number of men had decreased by 311. 
The return does not distinguish between non-commissioned 
officers and the remainder, so that the deficiency of non-com- 
missioned officers cannot be here stated. 

So far as the active list is concerned, the difficulty in the 
supply of non-commissioned officers rather lies in the careful 
discrimination in appointing from rank and file than in the 
necessity for bringing in non-commissioned officers from an 
unofficial source. 

Certainly there are some technical situations which could 
only be filled by men so highly trained and paid in civil life 
that they would only be likely to join the Territorial Force as 
non-commissioned officers, but, since there is no source of 
supply which is not officially recognised, it seems idle to 
suggest where such men can be found. 

As a general rule, the source of supply of non-commis- 
sioned officers is the rank and file, and the best method of 
filling vacancies seems to be by strict adherence to the official 
method of limiting the appointments of unpaid lance-corporals, 
as detailed in paragraph 5, Regulations for Territorial Force. 
The rapid promotion of untrained non-commissioned officers 
is to be strongly deprecated, and such undesirable rapidity is 
fostered by a waiting list of unpaid and unauthorised non- 
commissioned officers in the lowest ranks. 

As far as the Reserve list is concerned, the establishment 
of the Territorial Force Reserve has opened up a wide field. 
Until deficiencies have been brought to light by the actual 
operation of the scheme, it seems difficult to point to any 
sources of supply which are not officially recognised. 



1. It is suggested that, although the officially recognised 
sources of supply for those who are willing to volunteer their 
services as officers of the Territorial Force cover a large field, 
and incidentally provide for the individual case of any gentle 



ti ee cs 





MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1317 

man who is eligible to bear His Majesty’s commission, there 
is a large and unorganised source of supply in those young 
men who are out of touch with the comparatively new institu- 
tion of the Officers Training Corps, either by their having 
left school or university some years ago or by their not having 
local facilities to become affiliated members of a branch of the 
Officers Training Corps. 

2. A scheme has been submitted for utilising this source 
of supply. This scheme may be summarised thus :— 

a. It is proposed to establish an ‘‘ Officers Company ”’ 
in a large town which does not furnish a Senior 
Division of the Officers: Training Corps. 

b. The total establishment to be limited, for the pre- 
sent, to 1,200 members. Eventually the scheme 
could be easily extended to any desired extent. 

c. The initial cost would depend upon the number of 
members who would enter during the first year. 
The total cost would be £6,000 spread over a 
probable period of two years. Eventually this 
initial cost would probably be reduced by at least 

d. The annual upkeep would cost about £1,500. 

3. It is suggested that the half-pay list of the Regular 
Army might, for the higher commands, prove a desirable 
source of supply. 

Non-Commissioned Officers. 

It is suggested that the best source of supply for the active 
list is the rank and file, except, perhaps, in some technical 
situations. For these, however, as well as for the Reserve, the 
Officially recognised sources of supply seem to make provision. 


Note.—The following syllabus is intended as a guide. 
detailed programme suitable to the local circumstances of the 
school will be prepared by the Commandant of each school in 
conjunction with the General Staff Officers of the local Terri- 
torial Divisions. This programme wil] be annually submitted 
to Command Headquarters not later than the 1st September. 

Orricers Day Course. 

Part A. 
Organisation, Administration and Equipment. 
1. Instruction without troops. 

a, The general system of the organisation and administra- 
tion of the Army in the United Kingdom in peace and in war, 

1318 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 

with particular reference to the command in which the school 
is situated; 

b. Administration (lectures to be arranged in conjunction 
with D.A.A. and Q.M.G.’s of Territorial Divisions) ; 

c. Equipment of the arm for which the school is primarily 
intended ; 

d. Mobilisation ; 

e. Military Law (as for Certificate B, as amended by Army 
Order issued 1st August, 1909) ; 

f. The interior economy of a squadron, battery or com- 
pany in barracks and in the field. © 

2. Instruction with troops. 

Class-room instruction will be practically illustrated by 
visits to Regular units in the vicinity, particular attention being 
paid to the methods of routine, sanitation, mobilisation prepara- 
tion, and equipment. 

Orricers Day COURSE. 

Part B. 


1. Instruction without troops. 
a. The training manual applicable to the arm for which 

the school is primarily intended. 

(The paragraphs of Cavalry, Artillery and Infantry Train- 
ing, and Appendix to Training Manuals, for Certificates A and 
B, as amended in Army Order issued 1st August, 1909, will be 

This instruction will include simple exercises in the appre- 

ciation of small tactical problems, the preparation and issue of 
orders in the field, the services of security, and duties in billets, 
camps and bivouacs. 

b. The tactical training of a squadron, battery or com- 
pany; ; 
c. The training of specialists; 

d. The preparation of squadron, battery or company pro- 
grammes. his instruction will be given in conjunction with 
General Staff Officers of Territorial Divisions.) 

2. Instruction with troops. 
Detailed instruction in the drill and manceuvre training of 
the arm for which the school is primarily intended. 

Part A. 
As for day course, with the exception that instruction with 
troops will not be given. 


See ee. eae 

nbee Ts Sie aa sau 

MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 1319 

Part B. 

As for day course, with the exception that instruction with 
troops will be confined to drill training. 

(One Months Course.) 

The syllabus of instruction will be aS for officers day 
course, with the exception that detailed instruction in the duties 
of non-commissioned officers will take the place of the instruc- 
tion without troops in Part A. 

For this purpose, it will usually be advisable to form classes 
under the Acting-Sergeant-Major of the school, who will, under 
the direction of the Commandant,. give detailed instruction in 
such administrative duties as the arrangement of duty rosters, 
orderly duties, method of making reports, etc., in, substitution 
of those lectures to officers which are not, suited to the educa- 
tional capacities of non-commissioned officers, 


For the purposes of. attachment of officers during army 
manoeuvres, the Mounted Brigades and Infantry Divisions of 
the Territorial. Force were affiliated as follows :— 

London and rst ahd 2nd South Western Mounted 
Brigades to Household Cavalry Brigade (London) ; 

Yorkshire, Notts. and Derby, South Wales, and North 
Midland Mounted Brigades to the ist Cavalry 
Brigade (Aldershot) ; 

Highland, Lowland; and ist and 2nd South Midland 
Mounted Brigades to 2nd Cavalry Brigade (Canter- 
bury) ; 

Eastern, South Eastern and Welsh Border Mounted 
Brigades to the 4th Cavalry Brigade (Colchester) ; 

ist and 2nd London Divisions to the 4th (Foot Guards) 
Infantry Brigade (London) ; 

Northumbrian, North Midland, and West Riding 
Divisions (Northern Command) and West Lanca- 
shire, East. Lancashire and Welsh Divisions 
(Western Command), to the 1st and 2nd Divisions 
(Aldershot) ; 

Lowland, Wessex and South Midland Divisions to the 
3rd Division (Southern Command) ; 

Highland, East Anglian, and Home Counties Divisions 
to the 4th Division (Eastern Command), 

VOL. LIV. 4 «K 

1320 MILITARY ESSAY, 1909. 


Some development of the Artillery Training Centres was 
authorised as early as May, 1909. By the direction of the War 
Office, the Royal Artillery Brigades of the Aldershot Command 
were formed into centres for the training of Territorial Artillery, 
the affiliations of the latter to the former being as follows :— 

To the 8th Horse Artillery Brigade—ist and 2nd London 
Horse Artillery (Honourable Artillery Company). 

To the 28th Field Artillery Brigade—ist, and, and 3rd 
London Field Artillery Brigades. 

To the 24th Field Artillery Brigade—sth, 6th, and 7th 
London Field Artillery Brigades. 

To the 27th Field Artillery Brigade—ist, and, and 3rd 
Northumbrian Field Artillery Brigades. 

To the 32nd Field Artillery Brigade—ist and 2nd West 
Riding Field Artil Brigades. 

To the 22nd Field Artillery Brigade—3rd West Riding and 
ist North Midland Field Artillery Brigades. 

To the 29th Field Artillery Brigade—2nd and 3rd North 
Midland Field Artillery Brigades. 

To the 12th (Howitzer) Field Artillery Brigade—4th and 
8th London, 4th Northumbrian, 4th West Riding, and 4th 
North Midland (Howitzer) Field Artillery Brigades. 

To the 1st Heavy Brigade—The South Midland, Wessex, 
West Lancashire, East Faneaubire, Welsh, Northumbrian, 
West Riding, and North Midland Royal Garrison Artillery. 

List of towns with a population of over 100,000 :— 

London. Norwich. 

Birkenhead. Nottingham. 
Birmingham. Plymouth and Devonport. 
Blackburn. Portsmouth. 

Bradford. Preston. 

Brighton. Sheffield. 

Bristol. Southampton, 

Burnley. Stockport. 

Cardiff. Sunderland and South Shields. 
Derby. Wolverhampton. 

Halifax. Belfast. 

Hull. Dublin. 

Leeds. Aberdeen. 

Leicester. Dundee. 

Liverpool. Edinburgh. 

Manchester. Glasgow. 


Newcastle-on-Tyne and 


By Commander VLADIMIR SEMENOFF, Imperial 
Russian Navy. 

Translated, by permission of the Author, by L. A. B. 

(Continued from September JOURNAL, p. 1180.) 


Scouts—12TH Aprit—‘‘No HazarpD! ’”’—ARRIVAL AT 

I NOW come to the description of the passage. 1 must 
begin by stating that I have only noted in my diary the serious 
breakdowns in boilers and machinery which delayed the 
squadron several hours; minor defects which only necessitated 
the ships affected. hauling out of the line and which could be 
made good whilst keeping company, are not noted down by 
me; they happened too often. In my book ‘‘The Battle of 
Tsu-shima’”! I have already said: ‘‘. . . our long voyage was 
an uninterrupted series of breakdowns in boilers and machinery, 
as well as an incessant martyrdom for our engineers, who had 
an exceedingly hard time, since they were expected to do won- 
ders with bad material.’”’ On one day I have a note that, 
steaming with ten boilers, we changed nineteen in twenty-four 
hours, that is, almost the whole of them. 

March 17.-—The night was quiet (as regards the Japanese). 
The Admiral never closed an eye. He tried, by means of 
signals, to get some sort of order into the crowd of ships, 
which could not possibly be described as being in. any forma- 
tion. Above all, some of the ships keep on dropping astern, 
stretching out the columns, and the distance between the 
columns, enormous extent. Less frequently they run on 
top of their next ahead, only to sheer out of the line and disturb 

1[Translation published by J. Murray, 1906.] 


their neighbours. At 8 a.m., when we reached the open sea 
to the northward of Madagascar, we shaped course to pass to 
the southward of the Seychelles. At 2 p.m. we lost sight of 
the coast. Light NE. wind. Frequent breakdowns of 
machinery (especially in the fleet auxiliaries) cause great delays. 
It is true they are only trifles. It is to be hoped that it only 
means that the engines, after having been at rest so long, 
require a little time again for smooth running, and that things 
will go better in a day or two. Before sunset we observed on 
the horizon on the port quarter several columns of smoke. We 
sent some destroyers to reconnoitre the first of these, which was 
evidently gaining on us. It turned out to be—a German mer- 

March 18 (2.30 a.m.).—I was sleeping soundly in the re- 
latively cool temperature. I was awakened by a shower bath, 
which poured in through the open scuttle. I had therefore to 
clear out of the cabin and wait until its traces had been re- 
moved, Pity! I had now to stew in my own juice, for it was 
no good going on deck. In the first place, the deck was covered 
with ‘‘stokers’’ and hot ashes which the draught of the furnaces 
drove up the funnel; secondly, it was raining. 

At 6 a.m. orders were given for the destroyers to be taken 
in tow by the auxiliaries, in accordance with a-plan which had 
already been issued. The first time this operation took one 
and a half hours, during which time we remained stopped. 
Soon after 8 o’clock the formation had been’ opened out so far— 
the ships were practically going off in every direction—that the 
Admiral made the leading ships of columns stop engines, and 
then tried by means of much signalling to collect those that 
had gone astray. 

Towards 9 o’clock order had been re-established to a cer- 
tain extent, and’ we once more went ahead. Suddenly the tow- 
ing hawser of the Irtysh parted. We again stopped. Another 
hour. Between to and 11 we had just increased to 8 knots, 
when the steering engine on board the Sissoi broke down. She 
sheered out of the line. She went on as best she could, steering 
with her engines. On her account we were only able to go 5 
knots. But it proved too fast for the Sissoi. From 1 to 2 p.m. 
we all stopped engines to wait for her. Then once more —5 
knots. By 4 p.m. the Sissoi was repaired. We increased to 
8 knots. I notice with jov that (at least on board the Suvoroff) 
the men, though they are somewhat anxious, show no signs 
whatever of fear. The general mood is good. It is just as 
well that we are cut off from the rest of the world, that we get 
no news. Latterly the news we got was very bad. If so. it 
is better to get none. We'll do our duty, and then—as God 
wills ! 

March 20.—A good day. We only stopped once, when 
the Blestyashtchi’s towing® Hawser parted, but then only for a 


short while. The distance made in the last 24 hours is 187 
miles, that is, 7°8 knots per hour. 

March 21,—At 5.45 a.m. the signal : ‘‘Commence coaling.’’ 
At 7.15 the first-launch load came alongside the Suvoroff. . At 
4 p.m. the signal: ‘* Stop coaling.’’ . We hoisted in boats and 
took a long time taking up our formation. It was 7 p.m. before 
we moved ahead, We were stopped altogether for thirteen and 
a quarter hours, of which eight and three-quarters were devoted 
to coaling, whilst four and a half were taken up with prepara- 
tions and the opposite. Suvoroff took in 206 tons, which makes 
an average of 24 tons per working hour. 

This is not brilliant, especially when one considers that the 
conditions were very favourable: light, westerly wind and an 
insignificant swell. But was it to be done? Everything has to 
be learnt. It was the first time. Let us hope that it will be 
better in future. Towards 10 p.m. we sighted to port and astern 
some lights, which, however, quickly disappeared. The torpedo 
officers pretended that they were getting wireless messages, but 
were unable to make them out. Could they have been dis- 
charges of atmospheric electricity? But who can teli? 

March 22.—No special news. Only the towing hawsers 
seem to part very frequently. 

March 24.---All in order. In the evening before moonrise 
the Oleg reported that she could distinctly see several vessels 
without lights, which were overhauling the squadron; could 
even make out the flames which were coming out of the funnels 
of a destroyer. Until moonrise all hands remained at their 
fighting stations. However, nothing suspicious was sighted. 
One must assume that it was only a case of imagination. 

March 25.—During the night the Kamtchatka had a break- 
down in her machinery, but only for a short while. On board 
the Sissoi and Nakimoff the condenser tubes are leaking badly. 
Our mean speed for 24 hours was only 74 knots. On the other 
hand, Nikolai Ugodnic gave us 22 miles of current in our favour 
(apparently a special gift’ for us, since the sailing directions 
made no mention’of it). Calm, ‘overcast. 

March. 26.—Towards noon we,,were 200 miles south of 
Peros Banos (Chagos Archipelago).. To-morrow mofning we 
shall be passin ‘ddu Atoll, at a. distance. of only, 60 miles. 
It is a very likely spot, for anything in the way of torpedo work 
on the part of Ae prt dag _Evening.—It is. blowing quite 
fresh. Is not this a gift of heaven? In weather like this. no 
torpedo attacks against, ships under weigh could be. carried out. 

March 27.~-The wind has dropped, but there is still a heavy 
swell: We performed’ evolutions the ‘whole forenoon. 
Assuming battle formation and several other (quite elementary) 
movements were not badly performed. There was no confusion. 
Apparently they have learnt something. Only 165 miles made 


good, as we had no current with us. In the evening we sighted 
some lights ahead. 

March 28.—Absolute calm. Only a very slight swell. At 
6 a.m. we commenced coaling. Some progress was noticeable. 
Both the rigging up and the unrigging went quicker. The 
raté of coaling has been nearly doubled, thanks to numerous 
improvements, but chiefly thanks to the practice. Suvoroff 
took in 43 tons per hour. Run 144 miles. Contrary to the 
sailing directions, 14 miles of northerly current. Disagreeable. 
This ts by no means helpful. 

March 29.—All quiet. Calm. Swell, not high, but very 
steep (short). Wecoaled. A steamboat of the Sissoi foundered, 
happily without loss of life. The thing happened as follows: 
after several trips with boats in tow, the steamboat went along- 
side her own ship to fill up with coal and water; here, by clumsy 
handling, she got her gunwale caught under the heel of one 
of the torpedo-net booms. The ship, which was rolling in the 
swell, was just heeling towards that side; the boat was forced 
over to one side, the water ran in until she filled and sank. 
The crew managed to save themselves. Towards evening the 
breeze from the south began to freshen.—It is seven years ago 
to-day since the Grand Duke Cyril Wladimirovitch [son of 
Wladimir] personally hoisted the pred flag on Golden Hill 
at Port Arthur. ... A melancholy anniversary! Has Nicholas 
I.’s proud saying: ‘‘Where the Russian flag has once been 
hoisted it will never be struck,’’ been quite forgotten ?—How 
painful and sad! 

March 30.—At g a.m. we crossed ‘‘the line.” It was as 
well that we made good use of the fine weather and took in coal 
‘“fover our ears,’’ for it came on to blow from the north-west, 
force 5, in the afternoon, and the sea got up. 

April 5.—At 6 a.m. we sighted Great Nikobar and shaped 
course to pass between the Nikobars and Pulo Brass. We were 
nearing the Straits of Malacca. I am very curious to know: 
Have the Japanese got touch with us or not? There was plenty 
of opportunity for it. About noon we entered the straits and 
took the course along the coast of Sumatra. One notices the 
proximity of the land. The temperature rose about 4° F. and 
the moisture increased greatly. A close, unpleasant heat. 
Even if the Japanese should have touch with us, one can hardly 
expect to meet their main fighting force and to have the decisive 
battle here. For them it would not be advantageous to get so far 
away from their base, whilst we are going there in any case. 
What is more likely here are surprise ettacks-—gtoerila warfare. 
Consequently we decided upon the following formation for the 
passage of the straits:—in the centre the avxiliaries in two 
columns; ahead the look-outs Zemtchug and Isumrud, the two 
battleship divisions on either side, the cruisers bringing up the 
rear. The destroyers have cast off tow, are steaming with their 


own engines, and have taken station according to the plan. A 
bold, somewhat risky formation, intended, like a bold move 
on the chessboard, to bluff the adversary. From 8.30 to 10.30 
p.m. we stopped engines, as a steampipe had burst on board 
the Orel. 

April 6.—The night passed quietly. It was hazy in the 
morning. About 8 a.m., rain and thunderstorm. Until noon 
thick and rainy weather. It then cleared up. During the night 
we met a steamer. She quickly altered course when the 
Zemtchug lit her up with the searchlight. At daybreak we 
saw several others. Where may they be bound for? How soon 
will they reach the next port? In other words: How soon will 
the telegraph be proclaiming to the world that we are passing 
through the Straits of Malacca? If up to now the Japanese 
were in ignorance, will they still have time to undertake some- 
thing ? 

April 7.—The night wascalm. Foggy weather. We meet 
more and more ships. The more nervous of our ships behave 
as if they had sighted the enemy. 

From the Almas we got a signal that the Admiral, captain, 
and officers, who had been on the bridge, as well as the signal- 
men, had all seen quite plainly 12 destroyers or pocpecorages® 
which had hidden behind a steamer of the British India Com- 
pany, and then steamed. away to the north-east. A strange 
report. Presumably the Japanese came to inform us that they 
were here, so that we should be more careful during the night. 
In no other way can such a manoeuvre be explained. The Oleg 
observes suspicious indications more frequently than the rest. 
She has already reported submarines in sight 

At 2 a.m. we passed One Fathom Bank. In my opinion 
the most favourable spot for a night attack of the whole voyage. 
Until dawn we shall be in waters which occasionally narrow 
down to 5 miles. A risky night! 

April 8.—Everything all right. We met many vessels, 
but no suspicious ones. All the same, let us avoid deductions. 
What has the next night in store for us? The narrows are 
passed. be ty to Singapore. All round—deep sea. passages, 
heaps of islands. There is room here for any battle manceuvres. 
Therefore the sudden appearance. of the hostile battleships is 
possible. At 11 a.m. we resume the former cruising formation, 
which is more suitable for assuming battle formation, that is, 
the auxiliaries are astern and independent. At 2 p.m. we pass 
the lighthouse on Raffles Island. Singapore lies before us like 
a panorama;.In thé roads are two English cruisers. Up to 
our full numbers we solemnly steam past, without a single ship 
falling out, and enter the Pacific. An impressive moment! 
On board: theré is absolute silence. ... 

‘In a few minutes the telegraph will report this to the 
whole world ...’’ the Admiral said, speaking, as it seemed to 


me, with a slight tremor of the voice, as he stood on the port 
side of the bridge and looked searchingly into the far distance 
in the direction of the town. 

The flag-captain, J——, unexpectedly caused general 
hilarity by laughing cheerfully, and exclaiming: ‘‘As to’ that 
fellow Fremantle, won’t he just be in a rage! He believes us 
to be to the southward of Australia now, the sly old fox! ”’ 

And suddenly everyone also became wonderfully cheerful. 
Even the signalmen laughed, but out of respect for their chief 
they hid their faces behind their binoculars. 

A small steamer, flying the Russian consular flag, came 
out of Singapore, steering to cut us off. It was certainly 
tempting to receive the Consul personally and to hear all the 
news, but to do that we should have been obliged to stop. 
We therefore confined ourselves to sending a destroyer to fetch 
the dispatches and hand them over to us, whilst moving ahead— 
a case which had been provided for. After having handed the 
packets to the destroyer the steamer caught us up and steamed 
for some time alongside the Suvoroff. The Consul called 
across that he had scraped together all the newspapers he could 
lay his hands on in a hurry—there might be some missing 
numbers; consequently he gave us the principal items of news 
by megaphone. 

Amongst these it turned out that Japanese cruisers called 
at Singapore three days ago, and that their squadron had now 
gone to North Borneo. This looked as if they had missed us. 

At 7 p.m. we passed the lighthouse on Pedro Branco Island. 
The South China Sea was before us. ; 

April 9.—The night was quiet. We stopped at 6 a.m. 
The destroyers, which were no longer being towed, took in 
coal. At 11 a.m. we proceeded once more. 

April 10 (2 a.m.).—Yesterday I slept so much in the day- 
time that I can’t sleep now. I believe that even if the Japanese 
are trying to find us, they won’t sight us before to-morrow; we 
are 600 miles from Labuan. It is possible that a battle is before 
us. I carefully note my own thoughts, listen to the conversa- 
tion amongst the officers, endeavour to picture to myself the 
general state of feeling. It is courageous and calm. There is 
really too much calmness, almost indifference-as ‘to our own 
fate; and with this the fate of our cause is’after all closely 
bound up. Apparently it is the ‘result of over-exertion. -We 
are all weary. Our nerves are unstrung. There is no breathing 
time possible.” Well, the end’will come all the quicker... Our 
sudden departure from Madagascar had brightened up all hands. 
The successful passage of the Straits of Malacca had raised 
our spirits and courage. This excessive calmness, almost: indif- 
ference, resignation, which is noticeable, appears’to be due 
to purely physical causes. In action they will all pull them- 
selves together and the proper spirit will once more assert itself. 
It will last us sout for the battle. Still, one must:not over- 


estimate one’s strength; it is about spent. So as to kill time I 
was reading a translation of a novel called ‘‘ Abraham’s 
Sacrifice,”’ dealing with the time of the Boer War, by a certain 
Johnson, who must have taken part in it. Strange, but I came 
across many a thought which had also occurred to me at Port 
Arthur, especially after the first collision with the enemy. For 
example, the pitying “‘Ohs’’ and ‘‘ Ahs’”’ over the fate of the’ 
wounded. I am not speaking of the officers who have volun- 
tarily and of their own initiative chosen as their profession the 
business of war, and therefore also war itself. with all its con- 
sequences.—no, I am only speaking of the rank and file, who are 
called up for service, who are bound to serve, although it may 
not agree with their inclinations [conscripts]. The sound and 
healthy lad is taken away from his family, carried 10,000 miles, 
forced to fight some unknown enemy without his knowing why, 
and when he lies wounded in hospital, nurses give him tea 
and load him with sweets and ‘‘feel so very sorry for the poor 
boy.’ I have nothing to say against the tea and the sweets, 
against any such pleasant things, in fact, but this pitying seems 
to me rank hypocrisy. This pity is almost an insult to the 
wounded. Their sufferings entitle them to be judged more 
seriously. One sends the man to his death, one allows him 
to be mutilated, and when this is done, then—one pities him. 
Is he not justified in saying: ‘‘ Spare me your belated piaints. 
You should have thought of this beforehand. If instead of 
me, those who are now shedding tears had themselves been 
obliged to go out to the war, if they did not always possess a 
fresh supply of ‘ food-for-guns,’ they would be more careful.’ 
That. is true, ‘‘they would be more careful’; but no care is 
able to exterminate the possibility of war, that is the death and 
mutilation of hundreds of thousands. 

And thus we stand once more face to face with the eternal, 
unfathomable secret, that curtain. which hides from man’s in- 
quisitive spirit the true significance of war as decreed by. fate. 
I have no faith in those who hope that in time wars will cease. 
War is quite as much an elemental factor in organic. life as;an 
earthquake .in inorganic, life.,,The author of this novel tries 
honestly to solve the.riddle, he leaves it an open, question,., But 
it is strange that he. considers another similar question,as being 
also incapable of solution : ‘‘May a sincere Christian go into war 
for the purpose of killing his neighbour?’’ This idea permeates 
the entire book, it is elucidated by numerous quotations from the 
Scriptures, but no answer is given, although;;in my opinion, 
‘such exists. . At first sight, what a, violent contradiction ! 
On the one side.we have Christian churches (of all confessions), 
which recognise the validity of the oath of fealty taken by the 
soldier; they read prayers. laid down according, to canonical 
rules, they even hold special church services for ‘‘vanquishing 
and destroying” the enemy. On the other hand, every person 
bearing arms for the State must divest himself of his arms, not 



only previous to taking the Holy Communion, not only when 
he takes an immediate part in the Easter procession, but even 
when he wishes to enter the space outside the altar, for the 
purpose of making his obeisance to the holy shroud (laymen 
have no right of access to the sanctuary enclosing the altar).’ 
Does this mean that arms are not permitted in a holy place? If 
so, how can one then call down on them the blessings of heaven ? 
I think that the contradiction is removed and the answer becomes 
quite self-evident, if only it is put differently: ‘‘May a sincere 
Christian go into war for the purpose of protecting his neigh- 
bour at the sacrifice of his own life, against the enemy from 
without?’’ The answer is clear: ‘‘Not only may he do so, 
but it is his sacred duty to do so, since ‘Greater love hath no 
man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friend.’”’ 
An aggressive war, which has for aim the extermination of 
peoples and the robbery of their property, violates Christian 
doctrine, but the defence of one’s native country, sacrificing 
one’s own life for its good, is a sanctified act of love and devo- 
tion. But enough of philosophy. 

April 10 (2 p.m.).—This morning I was quite unexpectedly 
(and indeed for the first time) summoned to a conference by the 
Admiral. Besides me there were only present the Chief of the 
Staff and Flag-Lieutenant S——. I believe 1 owe my summons 
to the latter. The Admiral began with the statement that those 
present were in possession of all the facts and were requested 
to give their opinion quite openly. As regarded myself this 
was not quite the case, as I was not numbered amongst those 
who were initiated into the secrets of the staff, and if | knew 
more than the other officers of the Suvoroff, it was only thanks 
to the short and often reluctantly given replies of Lieutenant 
S——.., as well as to the conversations at the Admiral’s table. 

The Chief of the Staff spoke rather discursively and vaguely. 
So far as I understood his meaning, he was pointing out the 
necessity of the squadron first taking up its stratégical position, 
and then acting according to the news at hand as to the dis- 
tribution of the hostile forces. On my asking what was to be 
understood by the phrase of “the squadron first taking up its 
strategical position,’ I was told that on 7th April Admiral 
Nebogatoff had sailed from Jibuti with his detachment. It 
turned out that this information had been transmitted by the 
Consul on our passing Singapore. 

I could not help exclaiming: ‘So they have sent him on 
ailthe same! Without giving him a rendezvous? Just simply 
at haphazard!” The Admiral said nothing, only frowned and 
bent forward still more; S—— whispered in my ear: ‘“‘It’s all 
over. We've not managed to escape them. They are the 
stronger. One has to bow to the stronger. We ‘report’ to 
them and they ‘order’ us about.” 

1[This, of course, refers to the “ Orthodox Church.”] 

~ Ai isaac ORR BAR 


This news affected me proioundly, and 1 confess quite 
jiankly 1 was beside myself at first. So Nebogatofi had been 
ordered to go on ail the same. ... We had succeeded in eluding 
the watchiul enemy. One move in the game we had won, but 
we dared not hope to win the next one. Moreover, we were 
still a respectable force: five good battleships, one armoured 
and three light cruisers, if the old vessels were not counted. 
But he, Nebogatoff, he had only rubbish. What were we to 
do? Wait? Impossible! To go on, leaving him to his fate, 
to the attempt at getting through as best he could That was 
not acting as good comrades. And yet, if we were to go on, 
would the Japanese then divide their forces and leave behind. 
here in the south a detachment of sufficient strength to annihilate 
Nebogatoff? Hardly. They like playing for safety, and any 
success, however incomplete, which we might then possibly gain 
in the Sea of Japan, would still be a heavy blow for them. Now 
if they were to ieave something behind here, and, let us assume, 
were to beat Nebogatoff under favourable circumstances, he 
would then hide somewhere in neutral waters and would disarm 
his ships if it came to the worst. Well, then may God be with 
him! Naturally—forward ! 

All this flashed through my brain in the short pause during 
which the Admiral was drawing something with a pencil on a 
piece of paper, looking up at me every now and then, as if 
waiting for my reply. 

I openly expressed what was in my thoughts, and proved 
the impossibility of waiting by the considerations which I 
entered in my diary that evening: ‘‘ We should make full use 
of the fact that the spirits of all had been raised by the suc- 
cessful passage of the Straits of Malacca; this mental condition 
overcame all fatigue, made everyone bold, strong, and healthy. 
We must not deceive ourselves, this state would not last long ; 
bodily exhaustion would demand its rights; the higher the 
spirits had been raised, the more violent would be the reaction 
when it set in; we dared not wait. Forward, and let come what 
may ! 9 

Lieutenant S—— spoke after me. He expressed himself 
very decidedly. 

On our way to Vladivostok we undoubtedly had before us 
the decisive battle with the victorious Japanese Fleet, which 
had already destroyed the First Squadron, superior to ours in 
strength. We on our side, exhausted by the long sea passage 
and the continuous strain, were going into battle with ships 
which had never been in action before, which had never ex- 

rienced the destructive effect of the enemy’s accurate fire. 
In this battle (we must not hide it from ourselves) we should 
suffer heavy losses, if we were not completely annihilated... . 
We might hope to push throuch, we might hope for favourable 
weather, for some failure on the part of the enemy, but could 
we hope for any success? . . . Was this possible when through- 


out the war fortune had been persistently on the side of Japan ? 
It might perhaps be conceded that the remnant of the squadron 
could fight its way through to Vladivostok. What would the 
ships do there? Wait, each in her turn, to go into the only 
existing dock? And where were they to replenish their ammu- 
nition and other stores, seeing that the Siberian railway ‘‘ was 
only with difficulty satisfying the wants of the army?”’ And 
all this time what would our auxiliaries be doing, and Nebogatoff 
with his archeological collection of naval architecture?. Who 
would in these circumstances be ‘‘in command of the sea?”’ 
—the task laid down in telegram No. 244. ‘* What should we 
do?’’ I reply unhesitatingly, ‘‘Make full use of the effect 
which our appearance in complete strength in the South China 
Seas has undoubtedly produced, and hasten to conclude an 
honourable peace.—To count on the success of further sea 
operations. ... To believe in miracles. . . . Unhappily 
though such a decision does not depend on us! Pity!...” 

The Admiral did not give us his personal views, he did 
not even reply to our suggestions. Still, it seemed to me 
(though I may quite possibly have been mistaken) that he was 
in sympathy with my proposal; also that he was closelv 
watching S—— with a strange expression in his eyes, whilst 
the latter was pronouncing the concluding sentences of his 
speech. Evidently the secret of the ‘‘ most secret correspon- 
dence,’’ only known to these two, was here at stake. 

The remainder of the day passed uneventfully. 

April 11.—At 6 a.m. the Cressy, an English armoured 
cruiser, passed us on an opposite course on our starboard side 
and saluted the Admiral’s flag. We returned this with the 
same number of guns. 

About 8 a.m. another English cruiser was sighted to port, 
she never approached nearer than 5 miles from us. 

We saw no more Englishmen, but we took iu some of their 
wireless communications between several of their ships. (Our 
torpedo officers had become well acquainted with their wireless 
system during our passage from Vigo to Tangier and Dakar.) 
It was quite clear. The English cruisers had undertaken to do 
the scouting for the Japanese. 

We came across many vessels steaming both in the same 
and in the opposite directions. This was be wondered 
at, for we were on the great ocean highway between Singapore 
and Hong-Kong. 

We were steaming in semi-battle formation, ready to com 
plete it at the first intimation of an enemy being sighted. . The 
look-outs, under Captain Schein (Svetlana, Kuban, Terek, 

Jral, Dniepr. and Rion) were spread ahead. ' 

At 11 a.m. we detached the hospital ship Orel to Saigon 
to replenish her stores. Her captain had been given Kamranh 
Bay as a secret rendezvous. If he did not find us there, he was 


seadetbeith ae te ee 

TO ENE AA sth ane 


to do his best to rejoin the flag, making use of any news he 
might collect, or otherwise to ask for orders from St. Petersburg. 

At 5 p.m. the Svetlana made by wireless: ‘‘Enemy in 
sight.’’ Cleared for action. Zemtchug and Isumrud sent out 
to her. It was nothing. Evidently a mistake. 

At nightfall the look-outs were drawn in and ordered to 
take up as usual the two indented lines abreast, ahead of the 
main body, with Zemtchug and Isumrud on the flanks. 

Terek reported that towards evening a friendly merchant- 
man had informed her that she had seen a flotilla of torpedo 
craft to the eastward of our course. Possibly this was what 
Svetlana had sighted. 

Soon after ten o’clock the Navarin’s starboard engine broke 
down. We crawled along at 4 to 5 knots, and yet the’ Navarin 
dro astern. At the end of an hour she was ready again. 
We increased to 8 knots. The Navarin was still astern, about 
2 miles from the rear ship. 

April 12.—The Navarin made an effort to prove her 
recovery, for by 2 a.m. she was once more in station. We 
increased to the normal speed of 94 knots, 

The night passed quietly. At daybreak we stopped and 
commenced coaling. I was astonished at this.. We were only 
60 miles from Kamranh. Why ?—Strange. And the Admiral 
is so. odd to-day, so restless, so taciturn and irritable. . . . He 
is running about nervously, dragging his left leg, appearing 
first on one bridge, then.on the other: then disappearing for a 
short time in his cabin; after that he moves about again on 
deck, looks through his note-book,. notes down something in 
it; now he is frowning, now again smiling (but the former 
more frequently), and finally he starts talking to himself. 

‘What's up with ‘our man,’ ?, Has he been stung by 
a fly, or has a louse run over his liver? ’’! W-—, the assistant 
torpedo lieutenant, asked me. 

The same day (before lunch) the Admiral had a long talk 
with the ‘‘master of the fleet.’? What about is not known. 
Meanwhile, the navigator ran into the chart house and fetched 
the general sheet, ‘Hong-Kong to Vladivostok.’’ Then there 
was a very animated discussion with the chief engineer. The 
collier transports were ordered to report how much coal each 
one had.on board for the use of the squadron. Further signal 
(general): ‘‘Are boilers and machinery in good order for a long 
passage ?’’ In reply nearly every ship asked. permission to 
overhaul something or other, but only for a few hours; the 
Navarin required the most time, but she would be ready by 3 
p.m. It seems to me that the fate of the squadron will also 
decide our fate... .. ; 

Lieutenant S——— thought the same. 

1[Russian colloquialisms.] 


‘‘What do you think?’’ | asked him. ‘‘It looks as if ‘our 
man’ lad decided to go straight to Viadivostok. There is some- 
thing in this idea.» The Japanese have missed. us—an indis- 
putable fact. Let us admit that they have picked up our trail. 
But what then? Suppose the English tell them to-morrow that 
they have sighted us on the coast of Annam; the hospital ship 
Orel arrives at Saigon—a further sign that we are in the neigh- 
bourhood. Before they can take further steps we shall be past 

‘‘You know my view of the situation,’’ S——— replied. ‘‘If 
it should prove wrong, then J naturally join hands with you. 
Forward! Let us fight! To wait still longer—no! One gets 
embittered, gets slack. And above all—straight from here, from 
the open sea, without first calling in anywhere, without first 
communicating with anyone by telegraph’’—and he shook his 
fist in the direction of Saigon. ‘‘Probably there are already 
awaiting us there further directions in highflown language, in 
which the appeal to the Heavenly Hosts forms the principa! 
item. So far they have not reached us yet—our hands are not 
yet tied. If we anchor—then all will go to the devil. Then we 
shall be tied to the telegraph cable.’’? 

At table the Admiral, quite contrary to his habit, spoke 
with no one. Directly after lunch he went into his study. About 
one o’clock he suddenly appeared on the upper bridge, and 
ordered a general signal to be made that all ships, after a 
careful computation of the contents of the coal bunkers, were to 
report the exact amount of coal on board. This was a very 
unusual order, and apparently even superfluous.? 

“‘Well,’’ I thought, ‘‘he is evidently determined. Good 
luck to him !” 

As was to have been expected, all ships reported from 100 
to 150 tons more than in the morning report. Only the 
Alexander hesitated in making the reply, She got a reminder. 
At last she hoists her numbers. We see it, but can’t under- 
stand it. The semaphore asks:—‘‘Is not there a mistake in 
your signal? You are showing 300 tons less than this morn- 
ing.’’—Alas!_ It turns out that the signal is quite correct, that 

1As was afterwards proved, Lieutenant S—— was absolutely right. 
On 16th April the Havas Agency sent out into the world the following tele- 
gram from St. Petersburg :—‘‘Rojéstvensky will await Nebogatoff.’’ 
Obviously this could not be the Admiral’s decision, but was the decision 
come to at St. Petersburg immediately after the reception of the news that 
the squadron had arrived at Kamranh Bay. Not to speak of the decision 
itself, what criminal indiscretion ! 

2 All ships made their “‘ morning report "’ by signal every morning at 
eight o’clock. This contained information as to the amount of coal and 
fresh water, the number sick and in cells, 'the temperature of magazines, 
&c. A repeated enquiry as to the above could only mean a check on the 

first report. 


there was no error. On 'the contrary, by means of this signal a 
whole string of errors were corrected, which the morning report 
had contained. The ‘‘coal remaining’’ for the purposes of this 
report was generally arrived at, not 3 any estimate of the con- 
tents of the bunkers, but by subtracting the amount of the daily 
expenditure from the amount on charge, which had been re- 
plenished (both at Nossi-Bé and at sea) five times, not counting 
to-day’s coaling; the result: a clerical error, that is, 400 tons 
less than at first stated !° 

“Four hundred tons short! Here we are catching them 
out, these fellows in the Alexander, who were always first at 
coaling! Eighty tons for every coaling. . . . 400 tons... . 
If she were to take these in now at sea, we should lose two or 
three days. And would this be possible? Where are the 
Japanese? Perhaps quite near. ho can tell? Shall we now 
be obliged to go to Kamranh and tie ourselves to the telegraph 

It was pitiful to see the Admiral. He who even in trifling 
matters could get quite beside himself, who used to shake his 
fist at a ship performing an evolution badly, launching out into 
the most uncomplimentary remarks about her (it was as well 

1Of course errors were possible, both in noting down the amount 
expended and in estimating the amount received; but not to this extent. 
The coal burnt is noted hour by hour. In the Second Squadron, where 
coal was a question of life or death, it had been particularly prescribed 
that the coal was not merely to be transferred from the bunkers to the 
stokeholds, but that it was to be weighed out carefully, for which service 
a sub-lieutenant (active service or naval reserve) was attached to the engine 
room department. The object of this measure was to account for every 
pound of coal. In these circumstances the chief engineer had the means 
of exercising a rigid supervision over his subordinates. If the amount of 
coal burnt in one watch was in marked contrast to that of another, he had 
to satisfy himself personally whether this was due to ignorance or careless- 
ness of the firemen, whether, may be, they tried to make up for incomplete 
combustion (which depends upon the manner of tending the fires) by putting 
on more coal. In a. word, though the methods of recording consumption 
were perhaps not masterpieces, yet they could hardly produce such results. 
Tt was rather different with the records of coal received, as they had to 
be made during a “hands-evolution,”” when work was at high pressure, 
every one trying to distinguish himself, to beat all others... . 

To avoid misunderstandings I must observe here that in this case there 
could be no question of any pecuniary advantages to either the one who 
supplied or to the one who received the coal. The coal was ours, the pro- 
perty of the State, paid for long ago at St. Petersburg. Whether it was 
on board a transport or on board a man-of-war was quite immaterial; any 
percentages of its money value could not possibly be pocketed by any one 
in the squadron; If. those who kept the Alexander's coal accounts were 
inclined, when estimating the weight of the sacks, to add the doubtful 
pounds instead of subtracting them, this was due to the (certainly short- 
sighted) endeavours to present favourable figures, but in no way from selfish 


that at the distance he could neither be heard nor seen), now 
could hardly get out a word. 

Stooping slightly, his hands grasping the bridge rails 
nervously, he stood on the bridge and stared with a frown at 
the signal flying from the Alexander’s foreyard-arm—he could 
hardly believe his own eyes. 

he explanation which followed by semaphore admitted of 
no doubt. We replied: ‘‘Understood,’’ and the Alexander 
hauled down the signal. te 

The Admiral recovered his composure, waved his hand, and 
went below. 

‘Et tu, Brute!’ said Lieutenant S—— with a bitter smile, 
looking at the Alexander, which he as well as many others 
(myself included) had always looked upon as the pattern ship 
of the squadron. ‘‘Well, and what do you say?”’ he added, 
turning round to me. 

‘“What can I say ?—He won’t be able to go on now.”’ 

It was clear that the scheme of steaming straight to Vladi- 
vostok had now come to nought. 

As I know the Admiral’s character to a certain extent, and 
know that, with all his energy, he is not quite free from fatalism, 
I fancied I had guessed his view—‘‘not a mere chance.’’ 

Soon after two o’clock we began to receive wireless mes- 
sages. Judging by the system they were unlike the English. 
The sender was approaching. We at once ceased coaling, 
embarked the working parties, hoisted in the boats, and assumed 
the day cruising formation which was specially adapted for 
changing over into battle formation. Soon after 3 p.m. the 
sender of the wireless messages began to move away from us. 
At 4.30 we shaped course for Pandaran Light, at the entrance 
to Kamranh Bay. 

April 13.—The night passed quietly. By 7 a.m. we were 
off the entrance to the bay. We stopped engines. We sent 
the destroyers ahead to search the intended anchorage for mines 
(one can never be too careful), and the picket boats to lay down 
buoys for anchoring on, to avoid mistakes and consequent shift- 
ing of berths afterwards, which were not only possible, but 
even probable with the feeble organisation of the armada. 
Whilst these tasks were being executed we coaled, the Alexander 
being enjoined to bestir herself specially. 

From 1 p.m.:on, the auxiliaries began to enter the bay in 
order of their numbers. Notwithstanding the buoys and the 
most elaborate instructions, the business dragged on so much 
that it was no longer possible for the men-of-war to goin before 
dark. The latter had therefore to spend another night at sea. 

At 4 p.m., when we had finished coaling, certain precau- 
tionary measures in Kamranh Bay and its approaches were taken 

1 It is easy to tell at the apparatus whether the sender is approaching 
or receding. 



to guard against a sudden attack on the part of the enemy. The 
groups into which we now broke up steeted S: 10° E.; the 
cruisers formed the group furthest south and to starboard; in 
rear of these, and more to port, were the battleships; finally, 
to the eastward of all these came the group. of scouts. The 
distance between the nearest ships of two adjoining groups was: 
2 to 3 miles. Until 6 p.m. we went slow, then we stopped 
engines and turned head to sea. The current was weak and 
sétting to’the northward, so that towards morning our centre 
would be again off the entrance to the bay. The entrance itself 
was guarded by the déstroyers. 

The night was calm ‘and clear. The range of vision was 
good, and any attempt at torpedo attack could have been de- 
tected at once; all ships had ample room for independent move- 
ment. ' 

April 14.—The night passed quietly, Only between one 
and two o'clock a stialf senener was seen, running from north 
to south and keeping between us and the shore. The destroyers 
and the Zemtchug at once steamed towards her, lit her up with 
searchlights, and made her out. It was a passenger and cargo 
steamer on coasting service under the Chinese flag. They ac- 
companied her until she was out of sight from us and kept their 
searchlights on her---the best way of preventing her people 
from seeing anything. 

At 11.30 a.m. we enterea Kamranh Bay and anchored 
according to plan. 

In all we had done 4,560 miles from Nossi-Bé here, without 
touching anywhere—an unprecedented performance. Wouldn’t 
the English burst with envy! We arrived all well, in full 
numbers and without any losses on the way. And if it had not 
been for the Alexander, we might similarly in another fortnight 
have reached . . . Vladivostok. . . . Most annoying !—Our 
spirits had become markedly elated. I went into the ward room, 
B—— (the torpedo lieutenant) was delivering an oration. 

‘*Whether it was a good thing to do or not, from Cronstadt 
here is 16,628 miles. Nota bad performance! And up to our 
full numbers. All honour to Zenobius [the Admiral’s Christian 
name]. Who else would have done it? Dubasoff and 
Tchooknin, but that exhausts the list.’’ 

It was indeed no mean performance. But when the thing 
is treated arithmetically we get, after deducting the time spent 
in coaling, an average of 180 miles per day (including current), 
that is, 74 knots per hour; deducting the current—7 knots. That 
is our sea speed. Hopeless... . 

1 The reader may ask here: ‘‘Why? The worst of the fleet auxiliaries 
(and those were the ones working by contract) always could do their 10 
knots.” I reply: “It was the breakdowns, damages, and insufficient pre- 
paration for such a voyage which caused the endless delays.”’ 

VOL. Liv. 4L 


As soon as we had anchored, the torpedo-nets were got out 
(at sea they were kept stowed away). 

Four colliers of the ‘‘Hamburg-Amerika’’ line arrived in the 
bay about the same time as we did. That meant close on 30,000 
tons of coal. Oh, if we could only have taken these on board 
and then sailed, without getting into communication with St. 
Petersburg ! 

A fresh breeze was blowing by day. It dropped towards 
evening. During the night there was a flatcalm. Two cruisers 
were on guard at the entrance and formed a bar of light across 
it with their searchlights; four destroyers were patrolling in the 
offing and six picket-boats formed a line of vedettes. 

Herewith I end the textual reproduction of the notes in my 
diary on the ocean passage, and we will continue now again my 
narrative. In doing sol shall omit the less interesting technical 
details, whilst completing and elucidating more fully the short 
notes, which tell me so much, but which would be hardly in- 
telligible to the wider circle of my readers. 

(To be continued.) 

SITET tele pers 



By Commander ]. F. RUTHVEN, Commodore of the ‘‘Orient’’ 

BEFORE Sir Isaac Newton revolutionised Physical Science 
there was no tidal theory worthy of the name. Then, in a com- 
paratively few years, we had two, the equilibrium and the dyna- 
mical theories. The former was originally, as its name implies, 
wholly statical, but it was leavened with dynamics before being 
displaced by the theory of Laplace, which, of course, was 
mainly, if not wholly, dynamical. 

Dealing first for the sake of simplicity with the lunar tides 
only, the apices of the cones are, by the equilibrium theory, at 
the extremities of that diameter of the earth which is directed to 
the moon; whilst the dynamical theory places them on an 
equatorial diameter at right angles to this, or in quadrature. 
A moment’s reflection will show that in the first case they will 
move north and south as the moon changes her declination, and 
that in the second they must travel round the equator 
whether the moon is over it or the 28th parallel of latitude. 

The equilibrium theory was finally abandoned because in 
Great Britain and Northern Europe the moon is often in or near 
the horizon, instead of on the meridian, when it is high water, 
and it was assumed that surface current was the only means 
of producing equilibrium, which the actual rates of revolution 
and rotation made impossible of attainment. In the transition 
Stage it was altered to agree better with tides round our coasts; 
rotation got mixed up with revolution and current with. wave 
motion. ‘Now, rotation, as I will presently show; has a very 
different effect from that of revolution, and current bears only a 
superficial resemblance to wave motion. In current the move- 
ment of the particles is approximately horizontal, whilst in wave 
motion it is principally, if not wholly, vertical. 

Laplace continued to treat rotation and revolution as if their 
effects were identical. ‘He retained the currents as necessary to 
the formation of the dynamical wave, and supposed that a small 
vertical rise entailed an enormous horizontal movement. If the 
equilibrium rk did ‘not agree with the tides of the Channel, 
the’ dynamical theory has utterly failed’ to account: for the 



numberless tides observed in all parts of the globe since Lap- 
lace’s day, even in the open ocean, where conditions are most 
like those of the ideal world that he assumed, and the predictions 
of a sound theory should be verified by approximation to ac- 

The admitted discrepancies between theory and observa- 
tion, and the numerous ‘anomalies, seem to-suggest a recon- 
sideration of the whole subject, which is equally interesting to 
the mathematician and the navigator. Following on the lines 
of my late colleague, Moxly, I will now endeavour to show 
that on the ideal world of Laplace (one completely and uniformly 
covered with a deep coating of water) the tide-raising forces 
would produce no currents, which on our world are due to 
obstruction to the free passage of the tidal wave; that rotation 
raises no tide; that all true tide is due to differences of pressure ; 
and that the dynamical theory is untenable. 

1. A homogeneous fluid sphere hanging alone in space 
would attract all particles on its surface equally towards its 
centre; t.e., all particles would be of equal weight. 

2. On such a sphere set rotating equably about an axis there 
would be formed a protuberant band or bulge in the equatorial 
regions and an area of depression or flattening about the poles: 
the sphere would be altered in shape and become an oblate 
spheroid. The fluid in the equatorial regions, having greater 
centrifugal force, would rise to form the protuberance, and that 
nearer the poles would be depressed till the effect of the counter- 
action of the gravity of the sphere by the greater centrifugal 
force of the equatorial regions was compensated for by the 
weight of the elevated water, and the pressure from surface to 
centre again equal on all sides. The amount of depression and 
elevation would depend upon the angular velocity of rotation. 

3- In the deformation of the sphere no fluid would have 
flowed in a current from a region of depression to form the 
protuberance. It would be a mistake to say that no fluid can 
rise in a protuberance ‘‘unless it has come from the region of 
depression,” or ‘‘through great distances.” 

4. If the sphere were composed,of a perfect fluid, the 
depression and elevation would take place simultaneously. No 
time would be required beyond that in which difference. of 
pressure existed; that is to say, no time would be required 
beyond that occupied by the fluid in rising through the height 
of the protuberance. hi 

Current motion requires time in which to convey fluid hori- 
zontally from place to place, but pressure is transmitted in a 
perfect fluid’ instantaneously, and depression of any: part of a 
sphere could only take place’ simultaneously with the elevation 
in other regions. This may be illustrated by filling a hollow 
elastic sphere with water, when compression, as between finger 


and thumb, will be found to depress one part as another rises 
without creating any current. Time is not an element in the 
calculation of the eflect of pressure in a perfect fluid. Water 
is almost a perfect fluid, and what is true of a sphere composed 
of a perfect fluid is practically true of one composed of water. 
Pressure is transmitted in water practically instantaneously. 

5 The deformation of the sphere by rotation into a spheroid 
would be permanent as long as the rotation continued equable. 
As there would be no alternate rise and fall there would be 
nothing tidal in the deformation, and so rotation has no tide- 
generating effect. 

6.. A rigid sphere covered with a coating of perfect fluid 
would have the fluid elevated in the equatorial regions by rota- 
tion and depressed towards the poles (provided that the coating 
were of sufficient depth to allow the depression to take place 
without denuding the poles of fluid) until the pressure towards — 
the centre became equal on all sides, the amount of depression 
and elevation depending upon the velocity of rotation. 

No motion in the shape of current would be produced whilst 
such deformation was taking place, the depression and elevation 
occurring simultaneously.. Again, the results if the coating 
were of water would/be practically the in the case of a 
perfect fluid, which I will henceforth assume water to be, 

7. If, whilst the spheroid is pee De eA about a fixed 
axis, we introduce another body at right angles to the axis, 
mutual gravity will come into play and every particle in each 
body will attract every particle in the other body. The attrac- 
tion of the new body may be considered concentrated in its 
centre, and being greater on the nearer parts of the rotating 
spheroid than on the more remote parts will again disturb ‘its 
equilibrium. The disturbance would, as before, be compensated 
by a rise of water on the side of the spheroid nearer the attract- 
ing body and a depression‘on the side which was remote. The 
protuberance and depression would remain always in the same 
positions, the rotation of the deformed ‘spheroid bringing the 
particles along each meridian line, in turn, through the pro- 
tuberance and depression once in.each rotation.. There would 
in ;that, case be one tide experienced on the rotating body in 
each rotation, high water on any meridian occurring when it 
passed between the centres of the two bodies and low water when 
Opposite that position. on the other side of the rotating body. 
It is manifest that rotation would have had no influence in 
generating the tidal protuberance and depression. Its only 
effect is that of bringing each meridian in, turn through the 
shape which the attraction of the new body has caused the 
spheroid to assume. 

8. In the passage of each meridian in turn through the 
region of elevation and depression, no current’ motion would 


be created in the water. The particles along each meridian 
are throughout the rotation being continually and momentarily 
placed in the same positions (with respect to the attraction of 
the new body) that were occupied the previous moment by the 
particles of the line immediately in advance of them (in the 
rotation), and that will next moment be occupied by those of 
the line immediately behind. The particles of water are thus 
being each moment exposed to attraction differing infinite- 
simally from that which affected them the moment before and 
from that which will affect them the moment following. They 
are each moment occupying positions in which the pressure on 
them towards the centre of the spheroid (slightly deformed 
though it be) is infinitesimally different from that of the prece- 
dent and succeeding moments, but difference of pressure does 
not create current in a perfect fluid, or water, and the only 
motion will be that of ascent and descent as the particles 
momentarily replace others which were ‘higher or lower than 
they were. 

g. To make the matter clearer, since rotation has of itself 
no tide-generating force, let us suppose the fixed sphere to be 
deprived of rotation and the other body introduced as before. 
Then the attraction upon the sphere will tend to counteract its 
gravity on the side next the attracting body, and will counteract 
it most at the point of its surface between the centre of the two 
bodies ; and it will have its gravity, or the pull upon its particles, 
towards its own centre increased on the side remote from the 
attracting body and most increased at the point opposite to that 
at which gravity .is most counteracted. The difference of 
pressure will cause the fluid (or water) to rise where the pressure 
is least and to fall where it is greatest. Pressure is least. on the 
side nearer the attracting body and the fluid will rise there. 
Pressure is greatest on the remote side and the water will. fall 

_there. ‘ 
Tide is thus as far as we have seen the result of differential 
pressure caused by the varying effect of the disturbing body’s 
attraction, and neither creates nor is created by current. | 

10. We will now take another step which will bring us nearer 
to the phenomena of Nature. We have hitherto sought, and I 
think found, the explanation of tide, but only of one tide in 
each rotation of a body or planet. But we know that on our 
own planet there are two tides, not indeed exactly in each 
rotation of the earth, but in a little more than a rotation. The 
existence of the second tide is as far as we have gone Still a 
mystery. It is, however, capable of a very simple explanation. 
Neither the earth nor the moon are fixed in space, but are both 
revolving about their common centre of gravity. This common 
centre of gravity (which we will henceforth designate as the 
point G) is on the line joining the centres of the earth and 
moon, and owing to the great weight of the earth as compared 


with that of the moon about 1,000 milés beneath the surface, 
and consequently only about 3,000 miles from the centre of our 
globe. ‘The moon therefore revolves about G in an orbit of 
some 236,000 miles radius, while the earth’s centre revolves 
about G in the same period (a lunar month) in an orbit of some 
3,000 miles radius. 

Now, the earth and the moon are being always drawn 
together by their mutual attraction, but they do not approach 
one another. Why? Because the velocity of each in its orbit 
is sufficient and but just sufficient to develop precisely the 
amount of centrifugal force which counteracts the attraction 
and keeps them at the same distance from one'another. Centri- 
fugal force and attraction or centripetal force then exactly 
balance one another, t.e., they are exactly equal. 

Whilst the practical immutability of the moon’s distance 
throughout countless. centuries conclusively proves. their 
equality, the different nature of these forces makes it perfectly 
clear that the equality only holds good for some particle near 
the earth’s centre and all other particles having this same 
distance from the moon. The centrifugal force of revolution 
is the same for every particle in the earth, and if the attraction 
of the moon was also the same at each point, the two forces 
would be accurately balanced everywhere and there would be 
no tides. But attraction or centripetal force varies inversely as 
the square of the moon’s distance, and is consequently greater 
on the side next the moon and less on the side remote from the 
moon than at the earth’s centre, and greatest and least at the 
nearest and furthest points on the surface. Thus, whilst the 
two forces are equally balanced on the whole and on the average, 
there is an excess or overbalance of attraction on the side next 
the moon and an overbalance of centrifugal force on the remote 
side. These ‘‘ overbalances’’ are the tide-generating forces. 
The first raises a cone of water under the moon to form. the 
lunar tide; the latter another cone diametrically on the opposite 
side of the earth. to form the anti-lunar tide. Thus the effect 
of orbital revolution is to reduce the volume of what would be 
a very large single tide (already considered in 7 and 8) by 
forming a similar tide on the opposite side of the earth. | The 
tidal protuberances are conical because the overbalances increase 
from zero at the earth’s centre to a maximum at the points under 
and opposite to the moon. 

Rotation, as in the case of the single tide, has nothing to 
do with forming the overbalances, as the force generated by 
it is centrifugal only from the earth’s axis, and is directed 
equally towards and from the moon, and consequently can 
neither increase nor diminish either of the forces of orbital 

Whilst rotation has thus no power to modify in the slightest 
degree the amount of rise and fall of the surface of the ocean, 


it plays a most important part in regulating the intervals 
between high and low waters, or the frequency with which tides 
recur, as this depends upon the ratio between the periods of 
revolution and rotation, and the more nearly they coincide the 
fewer tides will be produced. 

If the moon revolved in the same period as the earth 
requires for a complete turn on its axis, the tidal cones would 
exist, but (neglecting the effect of declination and supposing 
the moon to be always over the equator) their positions would 
be fixtures and as little noticeable as our equatorial bulge. The 
moon would remain over the same spot on the earth, and there 
would be permanent high water under and opposite to her and 
continuous low water half way between these places. There 
would be no rise and fall. If we double this period of revolu- 
tion by assuming it to be 48 hours, rotation will cause every 
meridian to pass through the cones once in this interval and 
two tides would result (one lunar and one anti-lunar). If we 
increase the period to 20 days the earth will rotate under the 
moon 19 times and we would have 38 tides. The moon actually 
revolves in about ! 29} days, and the earth then rotating under 
her 284 times, we have 57 tides in a lunation. 

This statement of the case, based on the laws of motion, 
gravity and hydrostatics, and upon self-evident truths, is, I 
believe, incontrovertible, and proves the first three of my con- 
tentions for the ideal world; but if we want any further con- 
firmation of tide being due to pressure and not to current, we 
have only to apply to the barometer. ‘It is admitted that a rise 
of 1 inch of mercury produces a depression of 20 inches in the 
surface of the sea, so that a rise of a little over 2 inches would 
neutralise the elevation of the tidal cone and keep the surface 
at mean level. 

The theory which I have been leading up to and have now 
briefly described, in which current motion is as unnecessary 
as I believe it to be impossible and inconceivable, is the equili- 
brium theory, as we interpret it for the ideal world. 

The world upon which we live differs from the ideal world, 
in that the ocean is not uniformly deep (in places it is com- 
paratively quite shallow), and that a large fraction of its surface 
is dry land, especially in the northern hemisphere, whilst even 
in the southern half the Continent of America stretches right 
across their path beyond the limits of the tidal cones when the 
moon is over the equator. Australasia is within 500 miles of 
the circle of mean level, and the south point of Africa between 

1The moon makes the circuit of the heavens in 27-32 days. As the 
earth in this interval has advanced some 26-9° in its orbit, the moon 
requires another 2-21 days to overtake it and complete the lunar month or 
synodical period of 293 days. 


the two is only 1,100 miles from it. Besides these visible 
obstructions to the passage of the tidal wave it is a well-estab- 
lished fact that shallow water retards more or less according 
to depth and the steepness of the shelving bottom, the progress 
of all waves however produced. : 

Notwithstanding these obstacles and checks, I think we are 
justified in assuming that the tides on our globe will obey the 
laws established for those of the ideal world as nearly as the 
impediments to the passage of the wave form will permit. The 
only portion of the surface of the earth fairly free from inter- 
ruption and retardation, and so approximating to the conditions 
of the ideal world, is the great southern ocean, where, at the 
few stations that tides have been observed, they confirm the 
theory we have advanced. Thus, at the southern extremity 
of New Zealand the tide is under the moon, although such is 
not the case at any other point on the coast, owing to retarda- 
tion caused by the shallowing sea-floor and obstructing land. 
At Kerguelen Island it again arrives with the moon. On the 
co-tidal chart compiled by Sir George Airy and published in the 
Encyclopedia Metropolitana, the tide is under the moon in this 
same ocean as far north as the 45th parallel of south latitude, 
and it, or a very similar chart, is reproduced in the Encyclopedia 
Britannica. A further very practical proof of our theory is that, 
assuming the principles I have enunciated as correct, we have 
been able to explain large numbers of tides hitherto called 
anomalous and admittedly incapable of interpretation by the 
orthodox theory. No tidal currents have ever been observed 
in the open ocean, and all those nearer the shore are caused 
by opposition to the free action of the tidal waves. When 
obstructing. land raises the surface of the sea above that of 
adjacent water, a current is naturally set up to restore the level. 

The tide-generating force can be resolved into rectangular 
components, one normal or perpendicular to the earth’s surface, 
and the other acting tangentially. Under the moon there is no 
tangential component, the whole force acting with its greatest 
intensity normally and outwards. From this position the 
normal component decreases till it becomes zero at a point where 
the whole force acts tangentially with three-quarters the in- 
tensity it/had under the moon, Beyond this point the normal 
component reappears, but acting inwards till in quadrature, where 
the tangential component again vanishes, it assists the earth’s 
gravity with exactly half the intensity that it had under the 
moon. Thus the normal component in. conjunction is elevating 
the surface and in quadrature creating a depression. From the 
point of its greatest intensity, the middle of the quadrant, the 
tangential component decreases gradually both towards conjunc- 
tion and quadrature, at which. points, as. already stated, it is 
zero, .Whilst the effect of the tangential component jis not at 
first sight so obvious, it-is the most effective tide-raiser of the 
two, as I) will now show. 


__ If in the diagram the circle represents a section of the earth 
with T as its centre and S‘the moon (which is in reality 60 times 
P T distant), the semi-circle A P B may be taken to represent 
one line out of the infinite number of lines of surface’ particles 
from every point of the compass that would be under the hori- 
zontal pull of the tangential component towards the central 
point P of the superficial coating of water.. Then the tangential 
component of tidal force is drawing every particle (as X) along 
the part of the circle between A and P towards the latter point ; 
it is also drawing every particle (as Y) between B and P towards 
the same point and the whole coating of water is composed of 
an infinite number of such fines of particles lying one upon 
another from the surface to the bottom of the ocean. Every 
particle in A P and every particle in the infinite number of lines 
under A P is being drawn with exactly the same force towards 


P as the similarly placed particle in B P, or one of the lines 
under it is being drawn towards P. What is true for these two 
lines of particles holds good for lines in each layer from every 
point of the horizon. 

As then at P every line of particles is met by a similar line 
of particles, a perfect block is established at P, and no line of 
particles can make any progress in the direction in which it is 
being drawn. The pull on every particle in each layer being 
exactly balanced by a similar pull on the corresponding particle 
on the opposite side of P, no current can result, but only an 
accumulation of pressure, which is accentuated by the conver- 
gence of the lines. There is at P the integration of all the 
pressures on particles in every line and every layer towards P. 
Under this integrated pressure the water will rise till the weight 
of elevated water balances the pressure. This integration of 
pressure through what is called a ‘“‘fictitious horizontal depth’”’ 
is very much greater than the accumulated normal attraction 

—— ee 

AA cman Oe 


through ‘the mere depth of water, but both components of the 
tide-generating ‘force work together to produce hydrostatic 
equilibrium, ‘principally, if not wholly, by vertical movement 
of the particles of water and without creating any current. 

11. I believe that the theory we have evolved is very 
similar to Newton’s original conception. At whatever stage, 
however, he ooncluded that current was the only means of 
producing equilibrium, he must have got the idea from watch- 
ing the tides round our coasts, and when, in his endeavour to 
fit his theory to them, he penned the 18th and 19th corollaries 
of Prop. 66, Book I., of the Principia, he inadvertently ex- 
changed revolution for rotation, and their effects, as I have 
shown, are totally different. _ Laplace introduced both these 
oversights into his dynamical theory, which has covered the 
face of the globe with anomalies that no expert has ever been 
able to explain or reconcile with the principles he laid down. 
By the dynamical theory the tidal wave, being unable to keep 
pace with the moon as a free wave, dropped back to quadrature, 
in which, position the tangential component drags it round with 
the velocity it was incapable of under the moon. But, as I have 
already stated, there is no tangential component in quadrature, 
and the normal component is depressing the surface. The 
motion of the tidal wave is compared to that of a pendulum 
which oscillates to and fro, whereas the wave travels continually 
in the same direction. The principle of forced vibrations is used 
to explain the so-called inversion of the wave which would only 
be semi-inverted in quadrature. We contend that there is no 
analogy between the motion of the tide wave and that of a 
pendulum, and that the only oscillations of the tide are the 
vertical rise and fall of the water and the swing of the cones 
across the equator. 

Sir George Airy, in describing the dynamical theory, says 
that a small vertical rise entails an enormous horizontal move- 
ment (something like 1,000 times the rise), but this is easily 
disproved by experiment. Take a long horizontal tube of 
uniform bore with vertical-ends. Nearly fill it with water, 
so that the fluid stands several feet high in the upright portions. 
If now we depress the surface in one end of the tube by means 
of a tight-fitting piston, there will be a gb iy omen rise in the 
opposite end. It is obvious that every particle of water ‘will 
have moved through, the same distance, whether it be in the 
upright or horizontal portion of the tube. We may increase 
the length of the tube as we please to one-quarter, or even _half- 
way round the world, and the result will be the same. So far 
from the horizontal movement being a large multiple of the 
vertical rise, it will not exceed it by the minutest fraction. 

The dynamical theory necessitates currents from, every 
point of the horizon. Those from east and west must change 
about every six hours, and the meridional ones would be deflected 


by rotation, creating vortices. Now it is quite true that there 
are currents in the ocean, but with one or two trifling exceptions 
they are variable in strength, direction and duration, and are 
the most uncertain element the navigator has to deal with. The 
tidal currents and vortices of the dynamical theory have never 
yet been experienced by any of the hundreds of thousands of 
deep sea navigators traversing the seas since the days of 
Columbus and Magellan. If they existed, they would render 
the ocean unnavigable, or at least make navigation a much more 
uncertain art than it is. 

Laplace concluded that in an ocean of equable depth, there 
would be no diurnal inequality, which would in any case, 

according to his theory, decrease to evanescence as we attain 
high latitudes. Now diurnal inequality is simply the difference 
between two semi-diurnal tides, or the heights of two successive 
high waters, and whilst the anomalous tides of Northern Europe 
seemed to support the great French astronomer’s view and 
perhaps suggested it to him, the numerous tides observed since 
in all parts of the world emphatically contradict it. In the 
Pacific Ocean the depth is, more uniform than elsewhere on 
the earth, and yet diurnal inequality is almost universal. On 
the coast of Siberia and British Columbia, where by dynamical 
principles it ought to be disappearing, it is so great that there 
1s but one high and one low watef in the Tunar day. But if the 

ake ME NR lt isla Th i i dei te ar Eat ed So 

in Mi AROER ice ES a ABs RCS NT Het 


cones were where the dynamical theory places them there could 
be no diurnal difference, and the tidal experts have always to 
use an equilibrium diagram to explain it, as I’ will now 

In the diagram P and’ P’ represent the poles of the earth 
and the line joining them the axis of rotation.. EQ is the 
equator. When the moon is over the equator she will be in the 
direction QE produced. Then by the equilibrium theory the 
cones will be at E and Q, whilst the dynamical theory places 
them over and under O. In neither case would there be any 
diurnal inequality. But suppose the moon to be in the direction 
H M with extreme northern declination. Dealing first with the 
equilibrium theory, the cones following the moon would be’ at 
H and H'. Then LW will represent the centre of a band 
(76° wide) of depressed water running round the ‘earth midway 
between the cones. As the earth rotates on PP’ a place 
situated on the parallel of latitude H V will when at H be in 
the apex of the tide and have the highest water possible. As 
it is carried by rotation eastwards it will, at B after a long ebb, 
be in absolutely lowest water. Then a short flood will produce 
another high water at V, but not nearly so high as at H. The 
cone extends for 55° each side of H and H’ and V is 58° from 
H’ and so actually beyond the circle of mean level indicated 
by the dotted line. From below mean level at V it will be 
carried by rotation again to lowest water as it crosses the con- 
tinuation of L W (behind the diagram), and at the expiration 
of a lunar day back to highest water at H. If our place was on 
the ideal world and marked by a graduated tide pole, it is clear 
that a large diurnal inequality would be indicated. As far as 
obstructions permit, the same result would be produced on our 
globe. Now let us take a place on the parallel) R W. | When it 
is at R it will have highest water possible on that parallel. 
R is 32° from H, or more than half-way towards the circle of 
mean level. In half a lunar day the place will be carried to W, 
where it will be in absolutely lowest water, and in another 12 
hours 25 minutes it will be back at R in high water. There will 
have been only one high and one low water in the lunar day. 
Thus whilst at the equator there would be no diurnal inequality 
(because Q is the same distance from H’ as E’ from 'H), in 
latitude 29° under the moon it will be very considerable and on 
the parallel, which is the same distance from the pole as the 
moon from the equator, it will beso potent as to reduce the two 
tides to one. It must be evident, too, that there will be a con- 
siderable range of latitude adjacent to the single-day parallel 
over which there will practically be only one high and one low 
water in the lunar day. | ali 
‘The samé' reasoning holds good for the corresponding 
parallels on'the other side of the equator, except that,'as 1 have 
shown elsewhere, diurnal inequality is never ‘so great on the 
side of the anti-lunar tide. ' 


Now, these theoretical tides correspond in every particular 
with the single-day tides of the Pacific, except that these latter 
are not under the moon, but that is entirely due to the retarda- 
tion we might expect from their surroundings. The tidal 
spheroid is there distorted by land, and each tide is that which 
if its progress had been unobstructed would have arrived earlier 
and with the moon. I predict with confidence that similar tides 
will be found under the moon at all the islands in high southern 
latitudes which have an unobstructed approach for the tidal 
wave, such as the South Orkneys in 61° S., the South Shetlands 
in 62° S., Bouvet Island and Macquarie Island in 55° S. 

Now let us turn again to the dynamical theory and apply 
the inequality test to it. A reference to the figure will make it 
clear that with the cones in quadrature they will be over and 
under O, no matter what the moon’s declination may be, and 
so even when she is in the direction H M the large outer circle 
PQP’E will represent that of lowest water. A place on the 
parallel H V will when carried round by rotation cross the 
circle over PO P’ and its continuation on the far side of the 
diagram at the same distance from the cones (now permanently 
located on the equator), and the two high waters will have equal 
elevation. It is also evident that there will be no difference 
between the low waters at H and V. On the parallel R W we 
get a similar result, except that the tides are smaller because 
they are farther from the apices of the cones. A place situated 
on that parallel will have two similar low waters when it crosses 
the circle of greatest depression at R and W, and two relatively 
high waters which, while not attaining to mean level, will be 
exactly equal in height. 

Briefly, the cones and depressions would travel slowly 
round the equator. As a place in any latitude overtakes them 
by rotation it must pass each cone and depression at the same 
distance, and so there could be no inequality in either rise or 
fall, except the infinitesimal amount due to change of declination. 
Thus there could be no diurnal inequality and no single day 
tides, but we know that Nature produces both, and that the 
latter were described by Airy as ‘‘ most remarkable,’’ doubtless 
because by the theory he was advocating he could not account 
for them. Any of the objections that I have urged would be a 
severe blow to the dynamical theory. Collectively they lead 
irresistibly to the conclusion that it is radically unsound, and 
so I claim to have proved the fourth of my contentions that 
the dynamical theory is untenable. 

The same principles apply to the production of solar tides, 
which, however, aresmailer owing to the much greater distance 
of the sun. Whilst his total attraction largely exceeds that of 
the moon, it is evident that the difference between his attraction 
on a particle on the near side and one on the remote side of the 
earth will be less than in the case of the moon, where this differ- 
ence is that due to one-thirtieth of the whole distance, and so 

RN ace TEAR Bitty 



the tide-generating force is less. Two solar tidal cones are, 
however, formed by the attraction or centripetal force of the sun 
and the centrifugal force of the earth in its revolution round the 
sun, or rather round their common centre of gravity. These 
solar tides would be well marked if they stood alone, but as it 
is, they are principally observable as increasing and reducing 
the larger tides raised by the moon, 

The earth goes round the sun in a year, and the differential 
attraction of the sun and centrifugal aie of the earth in her 
annual orbit cause two solar tides in a year at any place on the 
earth. The moon goes round the earth in a lunar month and 
the attraction of the moon and centrifugal force of thezearth in 
her lunar monthly orbit give two tides at each place in a lunar 
month. These are the only tides that are raised, or to raise 
which there is any tidal force. Of these twenty-six or twenty- 
seven in a year, the only tides that we are conscious of are the 
twenty-four or twenty-five raised by the moon. The solar tides 
move round the earth with a velocity of a little over 24 miles 
per hour, which is not a great speed for a wave-like movement ; 
the moon’s tides have a velocity of some 334 miles per hour, 
in both cases along the equator. The rotation of the earth on 
its axis carrying the surface water through these protuberances 
gives us our 728 solar tides, which are not noticed as separate 
tides, and our 705 lunar tides, which are noticed and recorded 
in our tide tables. If the lunar and solar tidal cones were fixtures 
rotation would give 730 of each in a year, but just as the navigator 
loses a. day when sailing round the world westward so the sun 
annually loses a pair of tides, and the moon going round the 
earth 124 times in a year loses 25 tides, and there are 730—25 
or 705 lunar tides in twelve months. The lunar cones travelling 
so much faster than those formed by the sun, and all moving 
in the same direction as the earth is turning on its axis, any 
given place requires more time to be carried by rotation from 
one lunar cone to the other than from one solar cone to the 
other. Those produced by the sun travelling rather more than 
30 miles along the equator to the lunar 20, eit pe con- 
tinuously overtake and pass the larger cones. hen they 
are together and superimposed we have spring tides. When 
they are half way between we have neap tides. 

Axial rotation has not the slightest influence on the tide- 
generating forces. It makes no difference to the attractions of 
the sun and moon that the earth rotates; it makes no difference 
to the centrifugal force of the earth in her orbit that the earth 
rotates. It is upon these two forces alone that tide depends. 
These forces alone raise the tides, and would continue to do so 
even if rotation were to cease. Rotation only carries the earth 
‘‘ with its coating of water” through the tidal protuberances. 
It has not had the very least part in producing them, and yet 
rotation is treated by every orthodox tidal theorist from Laplace 
onward as if it, like revolution, was a tide generator. 


H The following are the: principal appointments which have 
um teeth oe Fil 
m made: 

Rear-Admirals—Sir G. J. 8. Warrender, Bart., C.V.0., C.B., to 
command: Second Cruiser Squadron; A. H. Limpus to be a Rear-Admiral 
in the Home Fleet. Captains—A. L. Duff to command R:N. Barracks, 
Portsmouth, as Commodore, Second Class; Hon. H. L. A. Hood, M.V.O., 
D.8.0., to Racer and command of R.N.. College, Osborne; .A. H. 
Obristian, M.V.Q., to Temeraire; E. V. Underhill to Juno;: €:, B. 
Miller to Molus; R. J. B. Keyes, M.V.O., to Mercury as Inspect- 
ang Captain of Submarines; R. Y. Tyrwhitt to Bacchante as Flag- 
Captain; J. Lucas to Hibernia as Flag-Captain; E. Hyde Parker to 
Minerva; A. W. Heneage, M.V.O., to Naiad and for charge of Mine- 
layers; G. P. E. Hunt, D.S.0., to Newcastle. Commander—N. L. Stanley 
to Intrepid. 

Their Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of Connaught, and the 
Princess Patricia of Connaught, embarked on board, the Balmoral Castle, 
flying the broad pennant of Commodore Wemyss, at Portsmouth on the 
llth inst.; the ship left in the afternoon for Cape Town and will be 
escorted as far as Sierra Leone by the first-class armoured cruiser Duke of 
Edinburgh, when the first-class armoured cruiser Defence will take over 
the duty of escort for the remainder of the voyage. 

Rear-Admiral Sir G. J. S. Warrender, Bart,, C.V.0., C.B., has been 
selected to. succeed Rear-Admiral R. 8S. Lowry in command of the Second 
Cruiser Squadron, attached to Home Fleet. Rear-Admiral A. H. Limpus 
sueeeeds Rear-Admiral F. E. Brock as Rear-Admiral Commanding the 
Portsmouth Sub-Division of the Third Division of the Home Fleet. 

The new second-class cruiser Newcastle has been selected to proceed 
to China to take the place of the wrecked armoured cruiser Bedford. 
She is one of the first five new turbine second-class cruisers of the so-called 
‘‘Town’’ class, and is the first to be commissioned for foreign service, 
although the other four (the Bristol, Gloucester, Glasgow, and Liverpool) 
have also all completed their trials and are almost ready for commission- 
ing. These vessels are 430 feet in length, with a beam of. 47 feet and 
a displacement of 4,800 tons, on a draught of 15 feet 3 inches. The 
turbine engines are designed to develop 22,000 shaft horse-power, giving 
a. speed of 25 knots. At the Newcastle’s eight hours’ full-speed trial the 
power developed by her Parsons turbine machinery was 24,669 shaft horse- 
power, or 2,669 in excess of the contract power, while her mean. speed 
for the eight hours was 264 knots, as compared with the 25 knots 

The coal consumption; trials, which gave equally. favourable. results, 
were specially interesting, as the Newcastle was the first cruiser tried 



without separate cruising turbines, the weight and space thus saved 
being utilized to add to the ordinary high-pressure turbines, at the high- 
pressure end a series of stages to be used only at low powers. This 
change has justified the prescience of the Engineer-in-Chief, Sir Henry 
Oram, as on a 22-hours’ run at 14,038 shaft horse-power and on the 
eight hours’ run at 18,742 shaft horse-power, the coal consumption was 
about 1% Ibs. per horse-power per hour. Six runs on the measured mile 
on the former trial showed the speed to be 23:24 knots for a mean power 
of 14,051 shaft horse-power, and on the latter trial 24:84 knots for 19,116 
shaft horse-power. These speeds are in excess of those anticipated. 

The armament of the Newcastle and her sisters consists of two 
6-inch Q.F. guns behind shields, one forward and one aft, and ten 4-inch 
Q.F., five on each broadside, with two machine guns and two submerged 
tubes for 18-inch torpedoes. Protection is afforded by a nickel steel deck, 
which slopes down below the water line and also by the coal bunkers. 

Departure of the First Ships of the Australian Navy.—The two 
destroyers Paramatta and Yarra, built for the Australian Government 
on the Clyde by the Fairfield Co. and Messrs. Denny Brothers, respectively, 
leit Portsmouth on the 19th ult. for their destination; they are being 
convoyed as far as Colombo by the first-class cruiser Gibraltar, which is 
conveying relief crews out to China. 

The vessels represent the latest design in torpedo-boat destroyers, 
and have a length between perpendiculars of 245 feet, a breadth moulded 
of 24 feet 3 inches, and a depth of 14 feet 9 inches, their displacement 
being about 700 tons. The machinery is of the Parsons type, driving 
triple screws, with a high-pressure and two low-pressure turbines for 
steaming ahead, and corresponding arrangements for astern. There are 
also high-pressure and intermediate cruising turbines. The three boilers 
supplying steam are of the Yarrow type, and are fired by means of oil 
fuel. On the full-power trials the Paramatta, which was the first vessel 
tried, attained a mean speed for eight hours of 26869 knots, when the 
turbines were developing 11,212 shaft horse-power, while the Yarra, on 
the same length of trial, maintained a mean speed of 27:08 knots, with 
about the same shaft horse-power. The mean of the two fastest runs, 
with and against the tide, was 28°5 knots. In both cases the designed 
speed was 26 knots, so that the steaming performance was thoroughly 
satisfactory. Equally favourable were the results attained on the 
endurance trials. The contract required that the radius of action at 
14 knots with a given quantity of oil fuel should be 2,500 nautical miles, 
but the consumption was so low as to enable the vessel to steam at this 
rate for nearly 3,000 nautical miles. 

The armament, which has been made by the Coventry Ordnance 
Company, includes one 4-inch Q.F. gun on the forecastle, and 
three 3-inch 12-pounder Q.F. guns. These guns are on the upper decks, 
one on each side and one aft; they can all fire on either broadside. In 
addition the vessel carries on the upper deck three 18-inch torpedo-tubes. 
Both vessels are fitted with Marconi wireless telegraph apparatus. 

They are in command of Australian officers, the senior of whom is 
Captain Tickell, and they are mostly manned by Australian seamen, 



though the Admiralty has lent a complement of stokers specially 

acquainted with the working and management of oil-fuel driven machinery 
for the passage out. The 60 Australian warrant and petty officers and 
men, who have been in England since the beginning of May, have had 
the opportunity of acquiring much valuable knowledge during their stay 
at the Royal Naval Barracks. Their course of training has included 
practical gunnery and torpedo work for the gunnery staff, and valuable 
instruction in the running and repair of turbine machinery for the 
engine-room ratings, and probably after the experience of the long 
voyage out they will be competent tc take charge of the vessels entirely. 

A third vessel, the Warrego, is being built by the Fairfield Co. and 
is to be sent out in sections to Sydney, where she will be put together. 
it is hoped in the near future that vessels of this class will be able to 
be constructed in the Australian dockyards, and with this end in view 
the Commonwealth Government sent over a number of Australian work- 
men to assist in their construction. The vessels will call at Gibraltar 
(not at Malta), Port Said, Aden, Colombo, and Borneo to renew their 
fuel supplies as may be necessary. Their crews are a smart, enthusiastic 
body of men, full of confidence as to the development of the Australian 
Navy, whose personnel in the near future is to be brought up to about 
2,500, with a strong reserve. 

The ‘‘ Séo0 Paulo.’’—The new first-class battleship Sado Paulo, 
a sister-ship to the Minas Geraes, which has been built and 
engined by Messrs. Vickers, Sons and Maxim, at Barrow-in- 
Furness, having successfully completed all her trials, was formally handed 
over to the Brazilian Commission at the end of June, and has since 
left for Rio de Janeiro. The official report states that the trials were 
supervised by the Brazilian Naval Commission, under the presidency of 
Admiral Bacellar, and in some respects were of a more severe character 
than those prescribed for ships built for the British Navy 

A series of speed trials were run on the measured mile at Skelmorlie. 
During the 48-hours’ trial which was made to determine the coal consump- 
tion, the vessel ran at cruising speed at an average of 10°6 knots, the 
engines showing 2,383-I.H.P. The coal consumption on this trial was so 
satisfactory that the ship will have a radius of action of 12,913 miles, 
which is 2,918 miles in excess of that stipulated in the contract. The 


39 hours’ trial was run at three-fourths power, and the results showed . 

that a speed of 19-85 knots had been attained with the engines developing 

The full-speed tests were divided into three trials; the first was an 
eight hours’ run, during which limits were placed on boilers and engines 
in order that a speed of 20 knots might be attained under easy steam 
conditions. As a matter of fact, the rate attained, notwithstanding the 
limitations, was 20-99 knots, or practically 21 knots, the speed guaranteed 
without the restrictions. The coal consumption was only 1-42 lbs. per H.P. 

The second part of the full-speed trial was six runs, over the measured 
mile, but again with reduced steam pressure, although the number of 
engine revolutions was not restricted. The engines developed 25,517- 





Aci as ARNE aia 



1.H.P., and the mean speed was 21:23 knots. The third portion of the 

trial was two runs over the measured mile at the fullest power which 
could be developed safely. In this case the power was 28,645-I1.H.P., and 
the speed 21°623 knots. As some of the later speed trials were run 
under adverse weather conditions, for it was blowing half a gale of wind, 
the trials were eminently satisfactory. 

Like the Minas Geraes, the Sado Paulo has a length over all of 543 feet, 
and between perpendiculars of 500 feet, while the beam is 83 feet. The 
designed draught is 25 feet, and the displacement 19,280 tons. A principle, 
which has since been adopted in our own later ships of the Dreadnought 
type, was introduced in connection with the disposition of the 12-inch 
guns. Instead of having all the guns on the same vertical plane, it was 
decided to place four guns forward and four guns aft, arranged in twin 
barbettes, the rear guns in both cases being so arranged at a higher level 
that they can fire over the guns immediately in front of them. Some 
doubts were entertained as to the expediency of this arrangement, 
because it was feared that the effect of firing would be that the blast from 
the guns to the rear would so disturb the gun crew in the gun-house in 
front that they would be unable effectively to use their weapons. On the 
Sao Paulo’s gun trials two guns were fired immediately over two in 
front, and none of the officers or members of the Commission within the 
turret thus fired over were affected. The consequence is that all these 
four guns forward can be fired ahead, and the corresponding four guns 
aft astern. At the same time, the two guns on each broadside are 
utilizable for ahead or astern firing, so that, chasing the enemy, the 
Brazilian ships can use eight 12-inch guns, while in running away from 
an enemy an equal number of guns are available. On either broadside 
ten guns may be fired, and one of the most effective tests on the trials 
of the Séo Paulo was the firing of ten 12-inch and eleven 4:7-inch guns 
on each broadside—the flight of the twenty-one projectiles on their travel 
of from six to ten miles being a picturesque and at the same time an 
unprecedented spectacle. Admiral Bacellar touched the key to send 
simultaneously these projectiles on their flight 

For repelling torpedo attacks the ship has twenty-two 4°7-inch guns, 
fourteen of which are on the main deck, well protected by armour, while 
the remaining eight are on the upper deck and superstructure, protected 
by large shields. The ship also carries a large number of three-pounder 

The armour protection of the ship had very careful consideration. 
The main belt consists of 9-inch armour carried to an exceptional depth 
below the water-line, reduced at the forward and after ends to six inches, 
and finally to four inches, so that her broadside, from stem to stern, is 
effectively protected, ensuring a very large measure of armoured buoyancy. 
At the forward and after end the citadel is bounded by 9-inch thwartship 
bulkheads as a protection against raking fire, while the barbettes them- 
selves are of armour twelve inches in thickness where exposed to the 
possible fire of an enemy. In addition, there are two protective decks, 
the water line deck being two inches thick, and the aERer deck one and 
a half inches thick. 

4 M2 


In the arrangement of the ship the special climatic conditions of 
Brazil have had careful attention, and the ventilation is much more 
extensive than is necessary in the case of British ships. Hot and cold air 
supply has been provided, and for the magazines special refrigerating 
appliances have been adopted. A tax on the displacement tonnage was 
imposed owing to the large number of officers carried, and in these ships 
a larger number of them have been provided with separate cabins than 
is the case in the British service. Notwithstanding this, the Brazilian 
authorities have secured a speed equal to the average of the latest British 
Dreadnoughts, although the exigencies of the service have called for the 
adoption of somewhat heavier machinery. Thus the eighteen boilers of 
the Babcock and Wilcox type fitted have been designed to admit of an 
inferior quality of coal being used, and to ensure the maintenance of 
full steam pressure under easier conditions. The engines adopted are of 
the reciprocating type, which was preferred by the Brazilian Navy 
because it was better known to them. 

The following are the principal appointments which have been 
France. made:—Capitaine de Vaisseau—J. M. Barnouin to Voltaire. 

Capitaines de Frégate—J. A. Allemand, V. M. Rageot de la 
Touche to Capitaines de Vaisseau; A. J. Bouyer to Guichen; L. V. Bagay 
to Arbalete and the Ajaccio Torpedo-Boat Division; C. M. Lagrésille to 
Javeline and the Rochefort Torpedo-Boat and the. Rochefort-La Pallice 
Submarine Divisions; E. A. Le Coroller to Sagaie and command of 
Lorient Torpedo-Boat Division.—Journal Offictel de la République 

The New Battleships.—The Matin publishes a statement of the credits 
apportioned under the new naval programme and estimates-for each year 
from 1911 to 1919:— 

Francs £ 
ON a ee 416,742,000 16,669,680 
TOs its.was8 428,740,000 17,149,600 
BE). ii stivrdco uss. sk 438,845,000 17,583,800 
NG: ies kk 453,035,000 18,121,400 
SONG slic c ci 2s... 449,009,000 17,960,360 
Ere at 459,977,000 18,399,080 
en eeiccginadieasiaTiatall 458,239,000 18,129,540 
| ae Teen 449,475,000 17,979,000 
BORD... snndive dette dove 418,692,000 16,747,680 

The battleships are to be large vessels, 23,457 tons displacement, with 
a free board of 7 metres (22-9 feet) forward and 5 metres (16-4 feet) aft. 
The armament will be twelve 305 mm. (12-inch) and twenty-two 138°6 mm. 
(5°45-inch) guns, the big guns being mounted in six turrets, disposed, four 
in the middle line and two en échelon amidships ; the fore turrets are raised 
2:50 m. (8-2 feet) higher than the after ones; ten of these guns can be 
fixed on either broadside and eight either ahead or astern; the height of 
the fore turrets is 11-50 m. (37-7 feet), above the water line, the after 

ere bi iA 

6°50 m. (21-3 feet). The guns are of the 1906 50-calibre model, firing 
440 kilos. (972 lbs.) melinite shell. 

The 22 guns of the secondary armament are disposed in eight separate 
batteries, six of which will hold 3 guns, 5°70 m. (18-7 feet) above the 
waterline, and the two remaining batteries 2 guns, placed aft and 3°60 m. 
(11 feet) above the water line. Six of these guns can fire right ahead and 
ten right astern ; the shells of the 138°6 mm. (5°45-inch) guns weigh 36 kilos. 
(79 lbs.), and they can be discharged at the rate of eight shots per minute. 

The ship will be protected with a complete armoured belt 270 mm. 
(10°6 inches) thick amidships and 180 mm. (7 inches) thick at the 
extremities, and rising to a height of 2°40 m. (7-9 feet) above the water- 
line; the side of the ship is not to have light armour above the belt as 
in the Danton class, the experimental firing at the Jéna having shown 
that side armour less than 180 mm. (7 inches) thick is of little use. 
There will also be two armoured decks respectively 70 mm. (2°7 inches) 
and 48 mm. (1°8 inches) thick. 

The horse-power will be 28,000, and the estimated speed 20 knots, and 
the cost of each ship will be 70 miilion francs (£2,800,000). 

The total cost of the battleships will be 1,120 million francs 
(£44,800,000), the scouts 150 millions (£6,000,000), the torpedo destroyers 
55 millions (£2,200,000), and the submarines 158 millions (£6,320,000), or 
e grand total of 1,483 million francs (£59,820,000), which is to be spread 
over the ten years. 

To accommodate these large vessels new docks will have to be con- 
structed at an annual charge of 17 million francs (£680,000) up to 1916. 
—Le Temps. 

Internal Combustion Motors.—The Creusot Firm is about to construct 
for the purposes of experiment a Schneider-Carels Internal Combustion 
Motor on the Diesel system, with one cylinder, capable of developing 
1,200-H.P. If the trials of this motor are successful, the construction of 
an 8-cylinder motor, capable of developing from 9 to 10,000-H.P., will be 
proceeded with. With three engines of this power, the power developed 
to-day by the engines of large battleships could be obtained. Although 
without doubt the time is perhaps still distant for the practical realisation 
of this method of propulsion, yet the fact that important firms are 
seriously undertaking trials, would lead us to hope that the conception of 
such a motor is not quite utopian. While waiting the complete solution 
of the problem, it would be interesting and useful to introduce 
motors of this description for all the auxiliary machinery on 
board ships, which is not constantly working, and even in 
vessels where at anchor continuous working is necessary and 
requires the costly and wearing lighting of a group of boilers. It is too 
late to make such a change in the battleships of the Danton type, but 
without altering the plans of the ship the feasibility of the employment 
of Diesel Motors for the capstan, ventilating, pumping and dynamo engines 
might well be considered. Even if no economy resulted we should at 
least be training the personnel which may soon become necessary for this 
type of engine.—Le Moniteur de la Flotte 


The Naval Maneuvres.—The Grand Naval Manoeuvres took place 

between the 15th May and the 15th June in the Mediterranean. The ships 
taking part were the Ist and 2nd Battle Squadrons, with the Ist and 
2nd Cruiser Divisions, the Ist and 2nd Destroyer Divisions and the Torpedo- 
boats and Submarines of the different naval centres in the Mediterranean, 
viz., Toulon, Corsica, Tunis (Biserta), Algeria (Algiers, Oran), for the 
torpedo-boats; Toulon and Biserta for the submarines. 

The lst Battle Squadron (whose headquarters are at Toulon), com 
manded by Vice-Admiral de Fauque de Jonquiéres, was composed of the 
following ships :— 

Ist Division : 
First-Class Battleships.—Patrie (Flagship of Commander-in-Chief), 
République, Démocratie. 

2np Division : 
First-Class Battleships.—Justice (Flagship of Rear-Admiral 
Gaschard), Liberté, Vérite. 

lst Cruiser Division : 

First-Class Armoured Cruisers.—Jules-Ferry (Flagship of Rear- 
Admiral Pivet), Ernest Renan, Victor Hugo, Jules Michelet. 

lst DestrRoveR FLOTILLa : 
lst Sub-Division.—Claymore, Coutelas, Carquois, Chasseur, Cara- 
binier, Massue. 
2nd Sub-Division.—Cognée, Fanfare, Sabretache, Gabion, Oriflamme, 

The Second Battle Squadron (whose headquarters are at Brest), com- 
manded by Vice-Admiral Aubert, was composed of the following ships :— 

lst Division : 
First-Class Battleships.—Saint Louis (Flagship of Commander-in- 
Chief), Gaulois, Charlemagne. 

2np Drvision: 
First-Class Battleships.—Bouvet (Flagship of Rear-Admiral Berryer), 
Jauréguiberry, Carnot. 

2np Cruiser Division: 
First-Class Armoured Cruisers.—Marseillaise (Flagship of Rear- 
Admiral Auvert), Gloire, Dupetit-Thouars, Condé. 

Szconp Destroyer FLomi1tya : 
Ist Sub-Division.—Obusier, Fleuret, Sape, Tromblon, Branlebas, 
2nd Sub-Division.—Trident, Etendard, Fanion, Baliste, Flamberge, 

The coast defence battleship Amiral-Tréhouart and the float- 
ing workshop and mine-laying ship Foudre were also attached 



to the Second Battle Squadron, with the mine-layers Baliste and Flam- 
verge, which formed a special group under the orders of the commander 
of the Foudre. Vice-Admiral Caillard, Vice-President of the Superior 
Council of the Navy and Inspector-General of the Home Fleets, was the 
Supreme Director of the Manwuvres, and hoisted his flag on board the 
armoured cruiser Victor Hugo for part of the operations, and on board 
the Verité for the remainder, with Capitaine de Vaisseau Bé as his Chief 
of Staff. The following flag officers were also appointed to act as 
umpires, and embarked as follows: Vice-Admiral Kiesel on board the 
Liberté, Rear-Admiral Perrin, the Jules Michelet, Rear-Admiral Gauchet, 
the Carnot, and Rear-Admiral Foy, the Condé. 

The schemes for the strategical mancuvres were drawn up by Vice- 
Admiral Boué de Lapeyrére, the Minister of Marine, and wefe conceived 
with a view to the defence of the coasts of France and Algeria. The 
manceuvres were divided into two parts. The first (strategical) in which 
one fleet acted against the other (manewvres a double action), consisted 
of three themes, which were carried out between the 20th May and the 
4th June; the second part (tactical) being devoted to the study of the 
new system of naval tactics. 

For the purpose of the maneuvres the opposing fleets were known as 
the Red and Blue, the 1st Battle Squadron being the Blue, the 2nd Battle 
Squadron the Red. At the outbreak of hostilities, which took place at 
midnight on the night of the 20th May, the Blue fleet was at Toulon; the 
Red fleet was divided into two squadrons A and B, of which A, consisting 
of the 2nd Battle Squadron, was at Mers-el-Kebir; while B, consisting 
of the coast defence ship Amiral-Tréhouart, with the Foudre, 
Baliste, Flamberge, the Toulon and Ajaccio torpedo flotillas (each 
consisting of two divisions), and three submarines detached from 
Biserta, the Calypso, Circé and Papin, was at Ajaccio. The 
Amiral-Tréhouart was supposed to represent a battle squadron, and the 
Foudre an armoured cruiser division. During the first phase the coasts of 
France and Algeria served as the bases of the Blue fleet, which could also 
use the Algiers and Oran torpedo flotillas, consisting of one and two 
divisions respectively, while the coast of Corsica was Red. 

During the execution of the various themes, war conditions were to be 
considered as prevailing as far as possible, the ships being kept ready 
for instant action. No particular regulation was laid down limiting the 
initiative of the Commanding Admirals or of their subordinate officers 
commanding divisions or sub-divisions, who in the handling of their units 
were to exercise the same care as in actual war. In the interests of 
economy the large ships were not allowed to use more than three-fourths 
of their boilers, with the exception of the Amiral-Tréhouart, whose speed 
was only 12 knots. In each category (battleships, cruisers and destroyers), 
the ships of the two opposing forces were considered of equal value, 
numbers alone deciding the superiority. Nevertheless, the battle and 
eruiser divisions of the Blue fleet were counted respectively somewhat 
superior to the battle and cruiser divisions of the Red Squadron A, and 
sensibly so to the Red Squadron B, but inferior to the two Red Squadrons 
combined. The cruisers, whatever their number, were counted as inferior 
in force to a battle division. As a measure of precaution, the big ships 



were not allowed to approach within 2,000 yards of each other, and the 
torpedo-boats within less than 200 of their adversaries. 

For the first theme Red Squadron A, supposed to be coming from 
the Atlantic, had for its objective to effect a junction with Red B, and the 
junction effected, then to turn against the Blue fleet; the objective of 
Blue was to prevent this junction, and to attempt to destroy separately 
the Red’s two squadrons. To effect this object, Blue had first to blockade 
Red B in the port where it had fortified itself on mobilising, 
to destroy it there or fight it at the moment of its sortie, 
then to turn on Red A, whose movements will have been 
under observation by Blue’s cruisers, and attack it before it 
could be joined by what was left of Red B. Blue, moreover, had the 
advantage of being able from the moment of the declaration of war to take 
all the necessary measures for the blockade of Ajaccio and for searching 
for Red Squadron A. Red A, on the other hand, when war was declared, 
was supposed to be at sea off Cape St. Vincent, steering for the Straits 
of Gibraltar, so was not allowed to quit Mers-el-Kébir until 24 hours 
had elapsed ; similarly, Red B at Ajaccio, was considered to be mobilising 
and was not allowed to leave until 24 hours after the declaration of war. 

Red B not being sufficiently fast to easily effect a junction with A 
had to defend itself at its base, endeavouring to prolong its resistance 
sufficiently to allow the relieving squadron to approach, then to slip out 
without exposing itself to fight and join A at sea. 

The operations which began at midnight of the 20th-2lst, lasted 
three days and came to an end on the evening of the 23rd on a signal 
from Vice-Admiral Caillard, Director of the Manceuvres, after the Blue 
fleet and Red A had fought an indecisive action lasting about an hour 
to the southward of Cape Sferro Cavallo (half way down the East Coast 
of Sardinia), as night was closing in. 

It is not known which fleet will be held by the Umpires to have won, 
but, at least up to the time the signal was made that the first theme 
was concluded, no junction of the two Red squadrons had been effected, 
although Red B had succeeded in breaking out of Ajaccio during the night 
of the 22nd-23rd, driving off the Blue destroyers, which had been left to 
maintain the blockade. The Blue cruisers seem to have done their work 
well; leaving Toulon as soon as war was declared, they got in touch 
with Red A the following day, and never lost it. Vice-Admiral de 
Jonquiéres, during the 2ist and 22nd, kept his fleet (Blue) off Ajaccio, 
maintaining the blockade, being several times, while in this position, 
attacked by the Red torpedo fiotillas, as the result of which attacks 
it was claimed that several of his ships were injured. This was the 
unreal part of the scheme and met with much criticism, for in actual 
war, a powerful fleet like the Blue would have gone straight in search of 
the enemy and not wasted its time on blockade work; but in this matter 
it is believed that Vice-Admiral de Jonquiéres had not a free hand, but 
was acting under the orders of the Minister of Marine, who 
wished the submarines and torpedo flotillas to have an _ oppor- 
tunity of taking an effective part in the manmuvres. During the 
night of the 22nd-23rd, de Jonquiéres, having learnt from 
his cruisers that Red A was steering for the southern end of Sardinia, 

sii idahaieiiietcsiaibilai 

asap re 

took up a station with his fleet off the Straits of Bonifacio, so that he 
could be in a position to move down either the East or West Coast of 
Sardinia, as the course steered by the enemy might make necessary. 
At daylight he received news from the commandant of the destroyers 
that Red B had slipped out of Ajaccio during the night, steering a 
course direct for the Straits of Bonifacio, through which it passed about 
10.30, and shortly afterwards, learning that Red A was evidently steering 
for Cape Spartivento, he decided that the junction was intended to be 
effected somewhere off the East Coast of Sardinia. Availing himself of 
the superior speed of his fleet over both of the Red squadrons, he pro- 
ceeded at 17 knots through the Straits and down the East Coast, falling 
in with Red A off Cape Sferro Cavallo and opening fire at about 8,000 
yards a little before 7 p.m., having seen nothing of Red B. His fleet, 
however, could hardly be counted as still at its full strength, as on 
passing through the Straits, it found itself at the narrowest part 
suddenly attacked by Red B’s submarines, whose presence there was 
entirely unsuspected, two of the submarines rising within two hundred 
yards of the Liberté and Verité, both of which must infallibly have been 

Red A had left Mers-el-Kébir as prearranged at midnight on the 
2ist-22nd, and steamed straight fur Cape Spartivento, being unmolested by 
the Algiers and Oran torpedo flotil'as, which, owing to the weather being 
very rough, were unable to put to sea. In view of the successful attack 
by the submarines on the Blue fleet as it steamed through the Straits, 
it is considered highly probable that the Umpires may decide that in 
the battle which ensued, Red A may be considered to have beén the 
victor.—Précis from La Vie Maritime. 

(To be continued.) 

Launches.—Without the slightest hitch of any kind, the new 

jr first-class battleship Florida (21,825 tons), a sister ship to the 

5 recently launched Utah, and thus one of the two heaviest and 

most powerful warships yet built in the United States, was launched at 

the Navy Yard, New York, at 11.28 a.m. on 12th May, in the presence of 
some 30,000 spectators. 

The keel of the Florida was laid down on 9th March, 1909, and she 
was the heaviest warship that has ever been launched in this country. 
She weighed 1,000 tons more than the Utah weighed when she was launched 
at Camden last December. One reason for this increased weight is that 
the Florida had her four propellers with shafting and twelve water-tube 
boilers and some auxiliary machinery in place. Her main engines are 
yet to be installed, and her turrets and armour, etc., have to be placed. 
She is about 68 per cent. completed, and expects to be ready for sea by 
the summer of 1911. 

The following are some of the principal features of the Florida: 
length between perpendiculars, 510 feet; length over all, 521 feet 
6 inches; breadth on load water line, 88 feet 24 inches; mean draught, 
28 feet 6 inches; displacement (normal), 21,825 tons. This is with two- 
thirds full supply of stores and fuel and full supply of ammunition. 


United States. 

Her full load displacement is 23,033; her estimated speed is 2075 knots, 
and her indicated horse-power of propelling machinery and its auxiliaries 
is 28,000. Her estimated bunker capacity to six inches below beams 
(43 cubic feet per ton) is 2,500 tons. This is inclusive of 400 tons of oil 
fuel. Her main battery will consist of ten 12-inch breech-loading rifles 
in turrets, and her main broadside battery will consist of sixteen 5-inch 
rapid-fire guns. Her secondary battery will consist of four 3-pounders 
S.A., two 1-pounders S.A., two 3-inch F and two 30 calibre M. ‘The vessel 
will also have two 21-inch submerged torpedo tubes. She will have two 
fire control masts and two funnels, and will be equipped with Babcock 
and Wilcox boilers and have Parsons turbines. Her complement is sixty 
officers and 954 men. 

The armour consists of a belt eleven inches thick amidships, which is 
more than eight feet wide. Above this is a second belt eight feet wide of 
an average thickness of nine inches. The lower water line belt is con- 
tinuous from stem to stern; the upper belt reaches from the forward to 
the aiter turret. 

The five turrets in which the big guns of the main battery are carried 
have steel armour from eight to twelve inches thick. The armour to 
protect the secondary battery is six and one-half inches in thickness, . 
and walls of armour are placed around all vulnerable parts of the vessel. 

The Florida can throw ten 12-inch shells on either side of the ship 
at a broadside. The guns will command all points of the compass, and 
they are mounted in pairs. The turrets are all placed over the keel in 
a straight line, two forward of the stacks and three abaft. It is possible 
to deliver four shots simultaneously over the bow and over the stern. 

Work on the Florida has been done on an eight-hour day schedule, 
with a half holiday on Saturday, and that she should have progressed so far 
speaks volumes for the capabilities of the officers of the various depart- 
ments in charge and of the Navy Yard workmen. The 12-inch guns, 
turrets and armour plate are all at the yard ready to be installed. 

Launch of the ‘‘Sterrett’”’ and ‘‘Cyclops.’’—Another fine craft for the 
U.S. Navy, the torpedo boat destroyer Sterrett, was successfully launched 
from the yards of the Fore River Shipbuilding Company, Quincy, 
Mass., on 12th May. The Sterrett and her fourteen sister 
boats are of a new and larger type cf ocean-going destroyers, 
capable of keeping at sea with a battle fleet. They are 293 feet over all, 
and have a displacement of 742 tons Their battery consists of five 3-inch 
guns, three torpedo tubes on deck, and two ‘30-calibre automatic guns. 
The vessels are flush decked fore and aft, with a topgallant forecastle, 
giving a high platform fer the forward gun, with a good height for 
conning tower and steering station, while contributing to the seagoing 
qualities of the ship. The new destroyers are fitted with two Curtis 
reversible turbines, six feet in diameter, and capable of developing 600 
horse-power each, at about 600 revolutions a minute. This will give the 
vessels a speed of 29} knots an hour, though it is expected that this 
speed will be very considerably exceeded. 

The U.S.S. collier Cyclops was launched at the Cramps 
Ship Yard, Philadelphia, Pa., on 7th May. The Cyclops, which 

_ ccxvenspumeanansnanieanaTase 

tone, ete nena 

AE 6 


United States. 
is 542 feet long, is intended for fleet coaling, and is capable 
of giving a delivery of 1,440 tons of coal an hour. The new 
collier has a cargo capacity of 12,500 tons. ‘The Cyclops did not 
start down the ways when expected, and there was an anxious wait of 
about ten minutes, and jacks had to be used at the bow to start her. 
Then she took the water without difficulty. The Cyclops is a twin-screw 
steamship of the single deck type, with a long poop, bridge and forecastle, 
and is constructed with cargo holds of the self-trimming style. This is 
brought about by sloping the hatchways from the coamings to the sides 
of the ship, the space between the slopes and the deck proper being 
utilised as topside water ballast tanks. The vessel is fitted with a double 
bottom extending from forward to after peak bulkhead, so that when 
the ship is light, ballast may be carried either in these tanks or in the 
topside ballast tank, as may be found preferable for easy behaviour at 
sea. The vessel will be rigged with fourteen derrick masts, located in 
pairs opposite each other at the corners of the hatches. Masts are 
connected by athwartship and fore and aft truss ties. Shrouds are thus 
eliminated, and a clear deck space outside of the masts provided.—Army 
and Navy Journal. 



Territorial Force.—The King has been graciously pleased to confer 
upon the Suffolk (The Duke of York’s Own Loyal Suffolk Hussars) 
Yeomanry the honour of becoming its Colonel-in-Chief. 

Honorary Distinctions.—His Majesty the King has been graciously 
pleased to approve of the following regiments being permitted to bear the 
honorary distinction ‘‘ Namur, 1695”’ upon their colours, in recognition of 
services rendered during the siege and capture of that town :— 

Grenadier Guards. 

Coldstream Guards. 

Scots Guards. 

The Royal Scots (Lothian Regiment). 

The Queen’s (Royal West Surrey Regiment). 
The King’s Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment). 
The Royal Warwickshire Regiment. 

The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment). 
The Prince of Wales’s Own (West Yorkshire Regiment). 
The Bedfordshire Regiment. 

The Leicestershire Regiment. 

The Royal Irish Regiment. 

The Royal Welsh Fusiliers. 

The King’s Own Scottish Borderers. 


His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to approve the 
award of the honorary distinction ‘‘ Louisburg’’ to The Duke of Edin- 
burgh’s (Wiltshire Regiment), in recognition of services rendered as 
marines on board vessels of the British fleet during the siege of that 
place in 1758. 

His Majesty the King has been graciously pleased to approve of the 
following regiments being permitted to bear upon their colours or appoint- 
ments the undermentioned honorary distincticns in recognition of services 
rendered during the engagements ‘Specified : —_ 


Regiment. | Honorary Distinction. 

The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment) ... 
The South Wales Borderers ... “ys “| 
The Gloucestershire Re; a as .| 
The Black Watch (Roy hlanders) ze 
The Queen’s Own cig ighlanders_... mo a 
Ist (Royal) Dragoons ... ... sss i ‘| 
Coldstream Guards 
Scots Guards 5 a aa 2 re a is 
14th (King’s) Hussars ... ee 
The Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry | 
The Connaught Rang Se an 
The Rifle Brigade (The 1 Prince Consort's Ow wn) 

Grenadier Guards Be | 
Coldstream Guards 

Scots Guards : { 
The Loyal North Lancashire Regiment 

The following are the principal appointments which have been 
made : — 

Colonels—L. H. Paget, M.V.O., to command Royal Artillery, 5th 
Division (Irish Command), with temporary rank as Brigadier-General ; 
L. C. Jackson, C.M.G., to be Chief Engineer, London District; A. W. 
Money, C.B., to be a General Staff Officer, lst Grade, at the War Office; 
A. M. Stewart to be an Assistant-Director at the War Office; F. H. 
Horniblow to be Chief Engineer, Western Command; H. P. Turner to 
be Vice-President of Ordnance Board; F. D. V. Wing, C.B., to be an 
Assistant Adjutant-General at the War Office. 

Territorial Force.—Colonel P. H. Enthoven to command Royal 
Artillery, East Lancashire Division (Western Command). 

Indian Army.—Colonel H. F. Mercer, C.B., to be Inspector of 
Artillery, Southern Army. 


Précis of the Report of the Advisory Committee for Aeronautics for 
1909-10.—_The Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, which was appointed 
on 30th April of last year, have issued their Report for the year, which 
is signed by Lord Rayleigh, the President. The following extracts deal 
with the work which has been carried out :— 

Equipment for the Experimental Work.—The arrangements which it 
was proposed to make at the National Physical Laboratory for dealing 


eb aD Ke OR is 



PPBOR seis 


with this work were outlined in the Interim Report (see 
Military Notes, October No. of Journat, 1909). Good progress has been 
made during the year with the construction and erection of 
the apparatus required. The following particulars of the equipment at 
present provided may be of interest: a full description, with scale 
drawings, of the wind channel, whirling table, motor testing plant and 
wind towers is given in the Appendix to this Report (p. 14). 

Wind Channel.—For the experiments included under ‘‘ General 
Questions in Aerodynamics,’’ and for investigations of the resistance of 
models, the efficiency of rudders, and similar problems, a wind channel 
has been constructed 4 feet square in section and 20 feet long. The wind 
channel proper is entirely enclosed in an outer chamber, 8 feet square in 
section, and the air drawn through the channel by a centrifugal fan, 
6 feet in diameter, is returned again outside the channel to the point of 
entry. As was anticipated from the experience of others, difficulty was 
at first found in maintaining a steady flow, but this has now been 
overcome, and for a velocity of 80 feet per second the current can be kept 
satisfactorily uniform. Provision is being made for attaining higher 

The measuring apparatus for determining the forces due to the air 
resistance has been so constructed that the components perpendicular to 
and in the direction of the air current (‘‘lift’’ and ‘‘ drift’’) can both 
be measured in succession for one setting of the model, while the adjust- 
ment of the model to any desired angle with the current can be made 
without the necessity of stopping the flow. Apparatus has also been 
set up for the determination of the centre of pressure in certain cases. 

In addition to the wind channel, a water channel has been available, 
which had been previously used by Dr. Stanton for determination of the 
resistance of small ship models. It was found that with this apparatus 
useful work could be done, giving results closely comparable with those 
obtained in an air channel. 

With this equipment several series of experiments have been carried 
out at the request of the Government Departments, to whom constructive 
work has been assigned, and the results obtained have been of considerable 
value in dealing with important features of design. Systematic investi- 
gation of the questions connected with air resistance is in progress, and 
now that the initial difficulties connected with the obtaining of satisfactory 
conditions in the air channel have been surmounted, it is hoped that the 
collection of the information and data necessary to designers can proceed 
rapidly. Particulars as to some of the work already done are given in 
the Appendix to this Report. 

Whirling Table.—For this a special building, 80 feet square, has been 
erected. The construction of the whirling table or arm itself, which has 
been done in the Laboratory, is now completed. The apparatus for 
testing model propellers has also been erected, and preliminary trials have 
been made. The whirling arm is of 30 feet radius, giving a clearance 
of 10 feet from the walls of the building, which is held to be sufficient 
to prevent any disturbance from the walls, and from the observations 
made the performance of the apparatus appears to be satisfactory. 


A number of applications have been received from private firms and 
individuals for tests on propellers of special design. It is hoped that it 
may be possible for the National Physical Laboratory to carry out such 
tests on propellers, under conditions similar to those which apply in 
general to the test work there undertaken. The details as to the conditions 
for these tests will be arranged as soon as possible. 

In conjunction with the Admiralty and War Office Departments, a 
comparison will be made between the results obtained on this whirling 
table for model propellers and those given by tests on full-sized propellers 
These will, it is hoped, afford the necessary information as to the relation 
subsisting between full scale and model experiments. 

The special tests above indicated will no doubt occupy a considerable 
part of the time of the staff in charge of the whirling table. It is hoped, 
however, to undertake a systematic study of the air propeller problem, 
in order to develop, if possible, a method of design similar to that used 
for water propellers. 

Wind Towers.—Two steel towers, 60 feet high and 110 yards apart, 
have been erected, by permission of H.M. the King, in Bushy Park, cn the 
western boundary of the Laboratory grounds. From this point there is 
open ground, free from trees and other obstructions, for about 600 yards 
in the direction from which the most prevalent winds blow. These towers 
will be employed for experiments in the natural wind on large scale 
models, thus supplementing the work on small models in the artificial 
wind obtained in the wind channel. On the top of each tower is a 
rotating platform 20 feet long by 3 feet wide, so that it will be possible 
to gain access to plates and models of large area. 

These towers, in conjunction with others of lighter construction 
which will be erected, will also be employed in a study of wind structure, 
and the variations in wind velocity and resistance, over an area extenc-- 
ing probably to 400 feet by 50 feet. Some of the apparatus for this 
work has already been set up, and observations have been for some time 
in progress. 

Motor Testing Plant.—An electric dynamometer has been installed 
for tests on the efficiency and endurance of petrol motors. This apparatus, 
which is for small mvtors up to 10-H.P., has been tested and found 
satisfactory, and a similar apparatus for tests up to 50-H.P. is now being 
set up. This will include special arrangements for an air blast, to 
reproduce working conditions for air-cooled motors; and provision is being 
made also for tests on machines when tilted and under certain other 
conditions which obtain in practice. 

This apparatus will be employed in carrying out the trials for the 
Alexander Motor Prize Competition, to which reference is made below. 

Tests on Balloon and Aeroplane Fabrics.—The testing of fabrics, 
especially for balloons and airships, constitutes an important branch of 
the work which is being undertaken at the Laboratory for the Committee. 
The most essential qualities are lightness, strength, impermeability to 
hydrogen, and durability, while moisture absorption, water proofness and, 
of course, cheapness are also important. 

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For the strength determinations, in addition to the ordinary tensile 
test, a bursting test on cylinders of the fabric has been employed and 
has furnished valuable information. A careful comparison of the results 
afforded by this test and of those obtained by tensile tests on specimens 
of different dimensions is in progress, and it is hoped, as the outcome 
of this investigation, that thoroughly useful strength tests may be devised. 
In addition, the resistance of the fabrics to tearing is being examined. 
Some account of the results already obtained in these strength tests is 
given in the Appendix (p. 81). 

For the permeability tests a special apparatus has been designed and 
constructed at the Laboratory, and has been in use for several months. 
A description of this is given in the Appendix (p. 86). Various 
questions have presented themselves as requiring careful investiga- 
tion, especially the effect of variation of temperature, of increased gas 
pressure, and of tensile stress on the fabric, and information with regard 
to these questions will be accumulated as rapidly as possible. 

A number of tests on the strength and permeability of fabrics have 
been carried out for the constructing departments as well as for private 
firms. Assistance has also been rendered to the Committee by manu- 
facturers who have furnished particulars as to their own methods of test 
and results obtained, and who have supplied and made up material for 
the bursting and other tests. 

Durability tests have been arranged. These will necessarily extend 
over a considerable period of time. They will include exposure in the 
open to the sun and weather, while experiments are also being made with 
a view to producing in the Laboratory conditions which shall imitate 
the injurious effect of exposure in the open and enable a more rapid 
durability test to be devised. As is well known, this question is one of 
great importance, in view of the comparatively rapid deterioration of 
fabrics in ordinary use. 

Other tests of fabrics are being arranged and as soon as possible a 
complete account of the procedure followed will be prepared. The methods 
of manufacture are also being examined into by the Committee, while 
experiments as to the employment of various oils and varnishes will be 

Detection of Hydrogen Leakage.—Means for the ready detection of 
the presence of hydrogen in dangerous quantity and for the determination 
of the places where leakage is occurring are necessary for the safety of 
men at work in balloon sheds, and for other purposes. This question is 
also being investigated at the Laboratory. Various forms of indicator 
have been under consideration, and the matter will have further attention. 

Light Alloys, and other Materials of Construction.—Researches on 
alloys of aluminium have been carried out at the Laboratory and results 
of value in regard to alloys which may be of use in aeronautical con- 
struction have been obtained. Further light alloys are being investigated, 
and a considerable amount of information has been before the Committee 
in regard to other materials of construction. Strength tests on materials 
and joints have been made at the Laboratory for the Constructive 


Stability.—The problems to be dealt with under this head are of 
the greatest importance for the dirigible balloon as well as for the 
aeroplane. In the former case the question of stability is intimately 
related to those of the speed attainable and of economy of power: for 
the aeroplane stability is plainly one of the first considerations. The 
Committee have taken steps to obtain particulars as to existing knowledge 
on the subject, and some of the information which has been before them 
is given in the Reports and Abstracts to be found in the Appendix to 
this Report. This question will continue to engage their attention, and 
it is hoped that the experiments to be made in the air channel will lead 
to useful results. 

Meteorological Work.—The importance of collecting data with regard 
to air currents is clearly recognized by the Committee. A valuable report 
as to present knowledge on the subject of wind structure, and on vertical 
motion and rotary motion in the air has been presented by the Director 
of the Meteorological Office, and is included among the Reports in the 
Appendix. Arrangements have also been made for experimental research 
into questions of special importance to the aeronaut, and it will no doubt 
‘be necessary to extend this work as experience in conducting the experi- 
ments is gained. 

The programme of experiments which it is proposed to undertake 
at once includes the investigation of vertical air currents, and also of 
rotary movements in the air, together with the designing of suitable 
apparatus for recording the observations. This work will be carried out 
at Pyrton Hill under the superintendence of the Director of the Meteoro- 
logical Office, and with the advice and guidance of Mr. W. H. Dines, 

With regard to wind structure, as has been already stated, it is 
hoped that valuable information may be obtained from the experiments 
which are proceeding at the National Physical Laboratory, with the aid of 
the wind towers already erected. 

By the courtesy of the Director of the Meteorological Office it has 
been arranged that a selection of anemographic records and other curves 
of interest to aeronauts shall be available for inspection at the 
Meteorological Office, daily, between the hours of 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. 
(Saturdays to 1 p.m.). 

Electrostatic Charges on Balloons.—The accumulation of electrostatic 
charges on balloons, whether due to the rapid variation of electric 
potential with altitude, or to air friction, or other causes, has long been 
suspected as involving serious danger under certain conditions, and in 
the absence of special precautions and protective measures. The matter 
is of considerable and immediate importance in view of its bearing on 
the type of construction to be employed, and the use of conducting or 
non-conducting materials for the envelope. A large amount of informa- 
tion on this question has been before the Committee, including the 
reports which have been made to the Permanent International Aeronautical 
Commission, and some experiments have also heen made. Diverse opinions 
are, however, held as to the best means of construction to avoid the 
dangers involved, and the question is one which must be kept carefully 

ft RSA A tittle 

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Mriid streets 

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in view, in order that the most efficient safeguards against accident may 
be provided. 

Reports and Memoranda.—A number of reports either as to existing 
knowledge on general questions of importance or relating to special points 
under consideration by the Committee have been presented by members 
of the Committee and others, and some of these, which it is thought 
may be of general interest, are printed in the Appendix to this Report. 

Alexander Motor Prize Competition.—In November last Mr. Patrick 
Y. Alexander made an offer, through the Aerial League, of a prize of 
£1,000 for the best motor for aeronautical purposes which should satisfy 
certain conditions, the most important of these being that it should pass 
a satisfactory endurance test. The Aerial League applied to the Com- 
mittee for their assistance, and the Committee undertook to help in 
drawing up the regulations for the competition and carrying out the 
tests on the machines submitted. A sub-committee was formed and 
regulations were drawn up for the competition, and the trials will be 
made at the National Physical Laboratory under the sole control of the 
Advisory Committee, who will report the results to the Aerial League. 
It is hoped that the tests may afford information of considerable value in 
this important branch of the work of the Committee. 

Organisation of Automobilism in the Common Army.—The 

Anetr ins provisional Regulations concerning military automobilism, 

gary: brought out in January, 1909, have been replaced by an 

Imperial Decree of 18th March, 1910, by definite ones, of which the 
following are the principal :— 

The service will be carried on through three agencies: 
1. The Experimental Division ; 
2. The Cadre of Automobilists ; 
3. The Officers specially attached for the purpose to the Territorial 

The President of the Experimental Division is at the same time the 
Director of the Automobile Service of the Army, and acts in this capacity 
as an adviser to the Minister of War. 

Organisation.—1. The Experimental Division is charged with the 
following duties : — 

a. The study of the development of Automobile Technique; 

b. The preparation of all technical questions and of organisation, 
with the recommendation and elaboration of Regulations and 
Instructions ; 

c. The arrangements relative to the control, trials and acceptance 
of all automobile vehicles; 

d. Providing statistics of all automobile vehicles belonging to the 
Army and private owners ; 

e. Study of the Organisation of Automobilism abroad. 

VOL. LIV. 4.N 


The Director is also responsible for the courses of instruction in the 

management of automobiles, and he is to present the certificates to the 
chauffeurs of the automobile vehicles of the Army. 

2. The Cadre of Automobilists comprises the Command, the Instruc- 
tional Division, the Park and Factory :— 

a. The Commandant of the Cadre assigns and employs the officers, 
directs and superintends the whole service; 

b. The Instructional Division is charged with the training of 
the personnel, in especial with the organisation and recruiting 
of the drivers for all military vehicles, as well as the super- 
vision of the personnel. 

ce. The Park includes all the vehicles that the military administra- 
tion possesses (trains, trucks, passenger automobiles, motor 
cycles, road locomotives, etc.). The vehicles, when not em- 
ployed on service away from it, are kept at the Park. The 
‘‘Cadre”’ regulates the employment of all the vehicles. 

d. At the factory, repairs and other work are carried out, and 
repairs made by private firms are passed. 

Composition.—1. The Experimental Division consists of 1 field officer 
(President), 2 subalterns, 1 retired subaltern in charge of the office, 
2 non-commissioned officers as archivists, and 5 soldiers. 

2. The ‘‘ Automobile Cadre ”’ is composed :— 
a. Of the permanent personnel ; 
b. Of the temporary personnel, to which the drivers belong and 
which varies according to the number of vehicles on service. 

Subordination.—Whilst. the Director of the Service is immediately 
subordinate to the Minister, the ‘‘ Cadre ’’ itself is attached directly to the 
troops of communication. But the Director is to report on the 
training of the personnel, of the use made, from the military point of 
view, of the vehicles, and in case of necessity he can refer anything to 
the Minister. In the same way he can communicate directly with the 
officers attached to the Territorial Commanders and can give them special 
duties to perform. 

Equipment, Armament.—All the officers and officials, as well as the 
men, wear on the collar the automobile badge (winged guidon). ‘ 

In a general way the men of the Cadre are armed with a repeating 
rifle and bayonet, with, in war, 30 rounds. Those of the temporary Cadre 
keep the weapon of the branch of the service from which they . are 

Remarks.—The whole of the service (Experimental Division, Automo- 
bilist Cadre, and the officers detached on the staffs of the Territorial 
Commanders) have nothing in common with the Volunteer ‘' Motor- 
Corps,” formed in 1908 by Volunteer automobilists and motor cyclists, 
whose work consists in co-operating in the intelligence and estafettes 
service.—Revue Militaire des Armées Etrangeres. 

Reorganisation of the Artillery Firing Schools—By an Imperial 
decree of last April, the three firing schools of the field, mountain and 
fortress artillery are placed under the command of a major-general 

ence Wane ree 

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residing at Vienna, who will be styled ‘‘Commandant of the Artillery 
Firing Schools.’’ These schools were formerly under the Inspector-General 
of Artillery, who had so much to do that he could scarcely devote any 
attention to them, and it was necessary to put them under more direct 
supervision. The creation of this new command is only, moreover, the 
beginning of a reorganisation of the fire training. Since the founda- 
tion of a school of firing for field artillery in 1897, it has come about that 
the school has been busied far more with the trials of new matériel 
which has been adopted (such as the field howitzer, model 99; the mountain 
gun, model 99; and the field gun, model 5), and the laying down of 
firing regulations for these different pieces, than with the instruction 
of the officers detached for that purpose to the school. 

A state of affairs like this had to be changed, and in future the 
artillery firing schools will devote themselves to the practical training 
of officers, so that they will be able to obtain from the matériel with 
which they are entrusted the maximum of efficacy in the minimum of 
time and with the minimum expenditure of ammunition.—Revue Militaire 
des Armées Etrangeres. 

New. Military Dirigible.—A new dirigible, the invention of Captain F. 
Boemches, of the 5th Pioneer Battalion, is being exhibited at the Hunting 
and Sports Exhibition at Vienna. The balloon is of the non-rigid type 
and can, when not inflated, be easily taken to pieces and transported 
on two wagons. It measures 98,000 cubic feet, and is 186 feet 
long. The interior is divided into four compartments, each contain- 
ing a ballonet with inflating valve, so that a catastropfie similar to that 
which overtook the République is rendered impossible. The dirigible 
carries two cars ; the rear one can take four passengers, the foremost one, in 
which also will be the pilot and two engineers, carries two 4-cylinder motors 
of 36-H.P. each, and there are two wooden screws of 10 feet in diameter. 
The anticipated speed is 34 miles an hour. The balloon is about to 
undergo its official trials—Revue Militaire des Armées Etrangeres. 

New Organisation of the Army.—In accordance with the 
Norway. new Army Law passed by the Storting in the last session, the 

length of military service, which up to the present has been 
18 years, will now be 20 years, of which 12 will be in the Elite (the 
Field Army) and 8 in the Landwehr (the Territorial Army). Apart from 
this change, there has been no modification either in the recruiting or 
the instruction of the troops. 

The Field Army is formed of two distinct parts: the one, the Field 
Army properly 80 called, is composed of the five Southern brigades; and 
the other of the troops of the Tromsé Stift. This distinction is explained 
by the nature of the country, which requires a special organisation for 
the troops of the North. More, it must be noted that the Province of 
Tromsé is almost isolated from Southern Norway; for a distance of 
311 miles the only means of communication is along the coast by sea, 
and this could easily be cut by an enemy’s squadron. It is for this 
reason that it has been necessary to give the troops of the Province of 


Troms6 an independent organisation, which permits them to defend 

themselves in their isolated position during a whole war. 

Each of the five brigades of the Southern Army will be combined and 
will include, on a war footing, 2 to 3 regiments of infantry, a company 
of skier-cyclists, a company of infantry machine guns, a regiment of 
cavalry composed of 3 to 4 squadrons, a company of mounted machine 
guns, a battalion of artillery of 4 to 5 batteries (one of the brigades 
will have a regiment of artillery of 9 batteries), a company of pioneers, 
a company of telegraphists, a stretcher company, 4 or 5 ambulances, a 
company of train, some ammunition columns, and some commissariat 
companies, etc. Taking the whole, the Southern Field Army will consist 
of :— 

42 Battalions of Infantry; 

10 Machine Gun Companies (5 mounted); 
5 Skier-Cyclist Companies ; 

16 Squadrons; 

27 Field Batteries ; 

4 Mountain Batteries; 

7 Heavy Batteries (guns of position) ; 
5 Pioneer Companies ; 

5 Telegraph Companies ; 

2 Pontoon Companies; 

5 Train Companies; 

5 Stretcher Companies; 

23 Ambulances. 

With regard to the Tromsé Stift, it has, up to the present, only 
possessed some weak territorial troops, not well trained, which the Militia 
has only made a school for recruits. Military service, it is right to 
remark, was only introduced into this part of the country in 1897; at one 
time it was only possible to form 8 companies of infantry.~ Little by little 
this number has been raised to 14, which were formed into 3 territorial 

According to the new Law, the troops of the Finmark, the northern 
portion of the Tromsé Stift, will alone preserve this territorial character ; 
the soldiers of the twenty classes of age will form a local battalion of 
4 companies and 2 machine gun sections; the instruction of these Militia- 
men will be limited, as formerly, to a school of recruits of 72 days. 

Apart from this, the organisation of the troops of the Province of 
Tromsé will be from this time based on the same principles as that of 
the southern troops; but, whilst the reorganisation of these latter will 
be finished in 1911, that of the Tromsé troops will only be finished at 
a date still uncertain. The plan of special organisation for this part 
of the kingdom provides for the formation of a combined brigade of 
Elite and Landwehr troops; the brigade will have 3 regiments of infantry 
of 3 battalions, and 1 machine gun company each, 2 mountain batteries, 
1 pioneer company, 1 telegraph company, 1 stretcher company, and 
1 train. In 1911, 6 battalions, 3 machine gun companies, and the staffs 
of the infantry regiments will be constituted; the organisation of the 
special units will commence this year. At a time when the southern 


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troops will make four trainings, the Tromsé Militia will only be subject 
to two. 

The Landwehr will comprise 84 companies of infantry, forming 
16 battalions in Southern Norway, and 18 companies, grouped in 3 
battalions, in the Tromsé Stift. In the special arms, some squadrons, 
batteries; ete., will be constituted in accordance with the matériel and 
horses availablé. The units of the Landwehr will be formed in 1911, 
except in the Province of Tromsé, where they will be constituted by 
degrees as the Militiamen of the present territorial companies pass into 
the Landwehr. 

In peace time the greater part of the mounted troops will remain 
attached to the three brigades which recruit in the less mountainous 
districts, because it is only in these last that the necessary horses are 
to be found. At the moment of mobilisation, the cavalry and artillery 
units, etc., will rejoin their respective corps. This is one of the weak 
points of the new organisation, because the brigade commanders cannot 
thus themselves direct the instruction of all the troops that they will have 
to command in time of war. The problem has been solved in this way 
owing to the impossibility of properly instructing the mounted troops in 
the mountainous provinces of the west coast. 

Let us now briefly consider the regimental organisation. The infantry 
regiment as has been already stated, is formed of 3 battalions; a battalion 
of Landwehr is in addition, attached to it. The head of the regiment is 
colonel; the battalions are commanded either by lieut.-colonels or majors. 

A company of the Elite consists of :— 
1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 6 non-commissioned officers, 1  bugler 
(Permanent Cadres). 
1 sub-lieutenant, 2 non-commissioned officers, 14 corporals, 2 buglers, 
229 privates (Militia). 

With regard to the Landwehr, its cadres have been completely 
reorganised after the experiments made in 1905, at the time of the 
mobilisation caused by the political crisis of the double Monarchy. Up 
to the present, the personnel and the matériel of the actual Landsturm— 
the Landwehr of the future—have been, in time of peace, under the 
direction and superintendence of retired officers and non-commissioned 
officers ; the Militia officers, told off as heads of units, only took over their 
duties in case of mobilisation. For the future, the officers charged with 
this duty will have, even in time of peace, to administer their units, and 
will be responsible for their preparation for war; these commandants 
are chosen from among the permanent officers of the Militia, or sometimes 
among the non-commissioned officers worthy of this promotion. Apart 
from their heads of units, the Landwehr will only have some Militia 
cadres; the annual expenses resulting to it from the measures of the 
new Law will amount to not less than £10,000 in place of the £3,000 in 
the Budget of 1909. 

The cadres of the companies of skier-cyclists are organised as those 
of the infantry companies, but the number of soldiers does not exceed 
100 per company. The training courses of these units take place 
alternatively in summer and in the winter. In the field they will be 




attached to the regiment of cavalry of their brigade. The infantry 
machine gun company will consist of 2 officers, 4 non-commissioned officers, 
23 men, and 4 machine guns, transported with their matériel on two- 
wheeled carts drawn by horses; the equipment of the men is the same 
as that for the infantry. 

Up to the present, the mobilisation of the Norwegian cavalry has 
been seriously compromised by the want of trained horses; of the 16 
squadrons, 10 or 12 only could serve, in time of war, as mounted troops. 
The new Law modifies this abnormal state of things, as for the future over 
16 squadrons of 130 sabres will be ready to take the field; attached to 
them will be 5 machine gun companies of 4 guns each. The cadres of the 
mounted units are almost identical with those of the infantry units; the 
matériel of the machine guns is carried-by bat horses, while the men are 

On a peace footing, the cavalry will form 3 regiments, one of which 
will have 4 squadrons and a machine gun company, and two 4 
squadrons with 2 machine gun companies. These two last regiments 
will be divided, in time of war, into 2 sub-divisions of 3 squadrons and 
1 machine gun company each. The five brigades will thus have, in the 
field, each a sub-division of cavalry. Some cavalry schools, 2 squadrons 
strong, will serve for the instruction of the cadres. 

The artillery will consist, in time of peace, of 3 regiments of. field, 
3 mountain batteries, and 1 battery of position (heavy artillery). In 
time of war the 3 mountain batteries will be doubled; they will have 
4 guns, and 2 of them will be attached to the Tromsé Stift. Their present 
matériel, which is obsolete, will be shortly replaced; it is to be hoped 
that this special artillery, so well adapted to the Norwegian country, 
will be developed in proportion to its importance, notably in the Province 
of Tromsé, where the want of means of communication, rendering the 
employment of other artillery impossible, will compel the multiplying 
of mountain batteries, side by side, with the increase of the infantry 

The position artillery will consist, in time of peace, of 4 companies, 
which will form, in time of war, 8 heavy 4-gun batteries, the guns 
being 4°13-inch or 4°72-inch howitzers. 

The field artillery regiment will consist of 9 batteries of 4 guns, 
formed in two groups. The horses of the first line are alone ready on 
the peace footing; in case of mobilisation, the other necessary horses, 
notably for the position artillery and for the remainder of the field 
artillery, will be requisitioned. 

The reorganisation does not seriously influence the fortress artillery; 
it consists aft the present time of 19 companies of gunners, 5 mining 
companies, and a certain number of sections of signallers. 

The strength of the technical units has been raised from 10 to 14, 
that is: — 

6 pioneer companies, 6 telegraph companies, and 2 pontoon companies. 

Neither wireless telegraphy nor a balloon service has been introduced ; 
the expenses which the reorganisation has entailed are so considerable 
that only the most necessary work has been undertaken. Under the rule 

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of the new system, the annual Army Estimates have risen to £832,000; 

for 1909 they were only £720,000. 

On mobilisation there could be put on foot :—- 

Elite Vv. ~¢5 ie int uss ... 80,000 men. 
Landwehr vb Ri be ie ... 85,000 ,, 
Total... wt is ..« 116,000 __,, 

Up to the present the total strength has only been 95,000 men.—Revue 
Militaire Suisse. 

New Organisation of the Army.—The new Law for the 
Italy. reorganisation of the Army has been passed by the Chamber 
of Deputies and the Senate. 

The General Staff is composed as follows :— 

a. The Chief of the Staff of the Army; 

b 4 General Officers selected for the eventual command of an Army ; 

c. 12 Commandants of Army Corps, 25 Commandants of Military 
Territorial Divisions, and 3 Commandants of Cavalry 
Divisions ; 

d. All the other General Officers. 

In addition, the Law gives a legal existence to the two following 
commissions : — 

a. The Supreme Mixed Commission for the Defence of the State; 
b. The Council of the Army. 

The permanent army has been divided into 12 Territorial Army Corps, 
consisting of 25 divisions of infantry and 3 divisions of cavalry, made 
up as follows: — 

12 Legions of Carbineers (Legion is the Unit of Organisation for 
the Carbineers) ; 

94 Regiments of Infantry of the Line and 2 Regiments of 
Grenadiers ; 

12 Regiments of Bersaglieri (144 companies and 12 depdts); 

8 Alpine Regiments (78 companies and 8 depéts) ; 

88 Recruiting Districts (as at present, but it is intended to remove 
from them all duty in connection with the formation of the 
Territorial Militia) ; 

29 Regiments of Cavalry (145 squadrons and 29 depdts) ; 

36 Regiments of Field Artillery (at present there are 24), with 193 
six-gun batterios (at present 183), and 36 companies of train 
and 36 depéts; 

2 Regiments of Heavy Field Artillery (20 batteries, 2 depdts), 
these have been newly created ; 

1 Regiment of Horse Artillery (8 batteries, 4 companies of train, 
1 depét) ; 



10 Regiments of Fortress Artillery (98 companies and 10 depdts); 
of these 4 regiments and 15 companies are newly created ; 

2 Regiments of Mountain Artillery (24 batteries and 2 depots) ; 

6 Regiments of Engineers (69 companies and 6 depéts), 1 battalion 
of engineer specialists and 10 companies of engineer train. 

The present engineer railway battalion is to be transformed into 
a Regiment, with an increase of 7 companies, in order to allow of a 
great development in certain special branches. 

Parliament has also voted in addition a credit of £400,000 for 
aviation and dirigible balloow:. 

The hospital companies (12), the commissariat companies (12), and 
the Military Institutes have undergone no change. 

The Mobile Militia and the Territorial Militia (Landwehr and Land- 
sturm) have not as yet had the number of their units fixed by law; this 
will be done by Royal Decree in case of mobilisation. 

The Chamber has not approved of the abolition of the Staff Corps, 
although certain modifications of no great importance have been made 
in it. 

As regards the infantry the Inspectorate of the Alpine troops has been 
suppressed, an Inspectorate of mountain troops being substituted for it, 
which will include the supervision of the Mountain Artillery. The 48 
brigade commands are retained (47 of Infantry of the Line and 1 for 
the two Regiments of Grenadiers); 3 commands of Alpine Brigades will 
be formed and in each Regiment of Bersaglieri (4 battalions each), 3 
cyclist companies will be formed. 

There is to be an Inspector-General of Cavalry; 3 divisional cavalry 
commands will be constituted, the brigade commands being reduced from 
9 to 8. 

In the artillery, the Inspectorate of fortress companies and the In- 
spectorate of constructions will be absorbed in the duties of the Inspector- 
General of Artillery. The field artillery commands are raised from 6 to 9; 
those of the fortress artillery from 3 to 4. The existing 13 artillery 
Directions are suppressed, being transformed into simple offices. 

In the engineers, in place of the different Inspectorates, there will 
be one Inspectorate-General. The engineer commands will number 7: 
2 for the engineer troops and 5 territorial. The existing 15 engineer 
Directions will be reduced to 12, where there are Army Corps, and 
13 Sous-Directions will be formed in. the other more important garrisons, 
as well as a certain number of officers for charge of the fortifications being 

These modifications will entail a sensible increase of the Cadres of 
Officers : — 

General Officers—An addition of 2 lieut.-generals and 6 major- 
generals, a total of 151 in place of 143. 

Officers of the General Staff.—151 in place of 137. 

Officers of Infantry.—An increase of 25 lieut.-colonels, 46 majors, 
16] captains, 354 subalterns, making a total of 7,187 instead of 6,603. 

Officers of Cavalry.—982 in place of 933. 

Officers of Artillery—An increase of 22 field officers, 78 captains, 364 
subalterns ; including the fortress artillery, the total will be 2,242 in place 
of 1,715. 

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Officers of Engineers.—A total of 610 in place of 554. 

The changes among the officers of Carbineers, Medical and Veterinary 
officers are unimportant. 

It will be seen that the most important modifications concern the 
artillery ; but they for the most part simply constitute a new encadrement 
of the present regiments, in view of a more rational distribution of the 
batteries. By having 36 regiments of artiilery, there will be, even in 
time of peace, 24 divisional regiments and 12 Army Corps regiments. 
Two important problems remain yet to be solved, viz., the effective 
increase of the Field Artillery batteries (there are only 94 guns per 
Army Corps), as the consequence of the former reduction of the batteries 
from 6 to 4 guns and the effective increase of the guns per Army Corps.— 
Revue Militaire Suisse. 

Rifle Practice and Military Physical Education.—Last December the 
Italian Parliament passed a Law providing that young men must follow 
for four years—from 16 to 20 years of age—a methodical programme of 
military physical training to be settled by the Minister of War. 

With the object of solving this question, the Minister of War has 
brought forward a Bill for establishing systematic rife practice and 
providing for physical training as follows :— 

The training is to be under the Minister of War and is intended to 
develop the physical fitness of the youth of the country and to prepare 
them for military service. 

* Central Commission, organised at the Ministry of War, will super- 
vise the general direction of this training. 

Associations for rifle practice and physical education are to be created 
in each canton and in the communes having 50 Inscrits. These associa- 
tions will be administered by a committee of which the Syndic (Mayor), 
the Director of the rifle practice, and the principal gymnastic instructors 
will be members. 

The associations are sub-divided as follows :—(1) The cadet section, 
comprising boys of from 14 to 16 years of age; (2) the so-called young men’s 
section, for youths of from 16 to 20 years of age; (3) the Militia section, 
for Militia men en congé; (4) the free section, for citizens desirous of 
passing through a course. 

Young men who have followed the courses for four years and have 
passed with success a final examination will enjoy certain advantages, viz., 
choice of the branch of the service which they will join, postponement of 
their incorporation for three months, and nomination to the grade of 
corporal after three months’ service instead of six. 

Young men at the Intermediate Schools are obliged to attend the 
courses regularly, so that they can be authorised each year to pass into 
the higher class and be admitted to the Universities and Higher Class 

Young men who possess a diploma from a Lyceé or Technical Institute 
as well as a certificate of military physical fitness may be promoted to 
Corporals after three months’ service, to Sergeants after three months 
service (in place of six) as Corporals, and Sub-Lieutenants in the Reserve, 
if they pass the prescribed examination, after four months as Sergeants. 


The attendance at the exercises for two years is obligatory on aspir- 
ants for one year’s service and for inscrits in the 3rd category.! 

Non-pauper members of the societies pay an annual tax of 2s. 6d., 
but receive their ammunition free. 

The Government has provided an increase of expenditure of £48,000 
for rifle practice, and also for physical training for the Volunteer Corps. 
This corps includes Cyclist and Automobilist Volunteers, the Alpine Volun- 
teers, and foot and mounted Chasseurs. It is a Civil Institution, but placed 
under the superintendence of the Minister of War.—Bulletin de la Presse 
et de la Bibliographie Militaires, 



To the Editor of the Journnat or THE Rovat Untrep Service Instirvrtion. 

Sm,—An article appeared in the Daily Mail of 4th July last—after- 
wards reprinted in pamphlet form with the above sub-title—which, if 
read casually, would be liable to mislead, owing no doubt to the author’s 
courteous reluctance to reason too closely from his countrymen to ours, on 
a rather delicate subject. 

We gather from p. 6 of the pamphlet that he does not expect to see 
‘the nation in arms,’’ that ‘‘there remains the Fleet,’” and that we 
‘can pursue the quiet tenor of our way"’ behind this bulwark. 

Let us hope we might; but what does recent experience teach? 
Admiral Mahan had to record in ‘‘ Lessons of the War with Spain,’’ that 
in spite of ten armoured vessels in home waters, all of which took an 
active part in operations at sea, the eastern coast of the U.S.A. 
“‘was in a condition of unreasoning panic,’ both before and after the 
four Spanish cruisers had started to cross the Atlantic for Cuba in 1898. 
Some details must be given :— 

Spanish Squadron. |Tons. | Guns. | Speed. Remarks. 
Inf. Mar. Theresa | 7,000! 2 11” s90: 1] Lae, do Vertes feel Sb. 
Cr. Colon -| 7,000) 2 11’ 200 |) conled at Curacoa, May 15th, 
Orquendo .. “s +| 7,000 | 2 11” 200 |) Arrived Santiago, May oth. 
ais te ‘| 7000! a s.. 200 | \ gunk off San 

} unk o tiago, put 3rd. 

1Young men are placed in the 3rd category for family reasons; they 
are exempt from service in time of peace. 


pe a OO an eae Sree 


American Fleet. ~ t at Hampton Roads, at 
Brooklyn ... —_...| 9,250 8 8 21:0 e dictation of panic, to 
Massachusetts ...|10,288| 4 138’, 8 & | 162 peter New York and other 
Texas wee 6,800 2 12° 16:0 seaports, till S had 

passed Martinique. 
New York... _...{ 8,500 6 8 21:0 
Iowa be ...{11,410| 4 12%, 8 8 | 165 ae 8 blockading Cuba, 
Indiana ... .. 10,288} 4 13”, 8 8 | 160 at Key West, cruising, otc. 
Puritan (Monitor) | 6,060 4 12° 13°0 ° 
Amphitrite ,, ...| 3,990 4 10 12-0 War began, April 20th. 
Miantonomoh,, ...| 3,990 4 10° 120 
Terror » ++ 3,990 4 10° 120 

Tonnage-Ratio, American to Spanish, about 2#rds to one. 
Relative weight of guns, ‘i to one. 

Admiral Mahan explained the restriction placed upon three ships 
strong enough to have defeated the Spaniards by obserying that ‘“‘a 
popular outcry, whether well or ill-founded, cannot be wholly disregarded 
by @ representative Government ’’; and remembering an incident which, 
though it served only to prolong the war with Spain, would in other 
circumstances be fraught with danger, he warns us in the pamphlet to 
‘*pay amply’’ for the Navy. 

What does ‘‘amply’’ mean? If the occurrence of the panic be 
linked with the fact that the mass of Americans, as of Britons, is 
untrained to arms, and must therefore lack the resulting serenity and 
self-confidence, whilst in our case the fear of invasion would have to be 
added to that of bombardment of seaport towns; and if the requirements 
outside our home waters be also duly weighed; it would be easy to make 
a good case for building battleships at the rate of not less than ten to 
four of another Power; thus, four to be kept off the mouth of the Thames, 
four to move about in home waters, and two for the Mediterranean and 

But whatever rate be favoured, how does the expense of building any 
larger number than three a year at something over two millions apiece, 
compare with the War Office estimate of eight millions as the annual cost 
of the National Service League’s proposals? Proposals which, if adopted, 
themselves would strengthen the Navy by gradually restoring a freedom 
of movement much restricted since this oecurrence of 1898. Proposals, 
moreover, which Admiral Mahan, before offering a counsel of despair 
(there remains the Fleet), had broadly hinted at by saying: —‘‘ What 
reason is there in the nature of things, that the British democracy should 
not maintain an Army proportionally as great as that of Germany? 
None, except that the British democracy will not.’’ 

The following extract from p. 4 of the pamphlet seems to give the 
true gist of Admiral Mahan’s warning :—‘‘ Postponement of precaution 
is the sure road to panic in emergency.” 

I am, Sir, etc., 
Hensert M. Wrarr, Commander R.N. 
10, Vale Road, Bournemouth, Sept. 22nd, 1910. 



To the Editor of the Journnau or tHe Royat Unirep Service Institution. 

Str,—I see that in the translation of Semenoff’s ‘‘ Rasplata,”’ which 
the Royal United Service Institution is reprinting for our benefit, ..he 
attributes certain opinions to me (pp. 1177-78), for which I do not wish 
to be held responsible. 

The statement is to the effect that I said that ‘if I were in 
Rodjestvenski’s place I would go South, about Australia, a long but 
safe route, etc.’ Now, I certainly never suggested anything so absurd, 
as it would not require Macaulay’s schoolboy to see that though the 
longest way round may often be the nearest way home, in this case 
Rodjestvenski, by going round Australia, would not only have more than 
doubled his distance to Vladivostock from Nossi Bé, but would have had 
to run the gauntlet of bad weather on the West, and bad pilotage 
water on the East, of Australia, which would have been suicidal with 
his heterogeneous fleet of men-of-war and transports. 

At this distance of time I cannot recollect exactly what my specula- 
tions as to Rodjestvenski’s route may have been, and I admit that I 
did not expect him to go through the Straits of Malacca; but I always 
thought that the coal difficulty was the crux of his problem, and for 
this reason that it was improbable that he would attempt to reach 
Vladivostock by going East of Japan and through the Tsugaru Straits. 
1 was not, accordingly, surprised that he met his fate at Tsu-shima. 

Your obedient servant, 
E. R. Fremantie, Admiral. 
44, Lower Sloane Street, 
3rd October, 1910. 


6th (Tue.) 50th Anniversary of King Francis II. evacuation of Naples and retreat 
to Gaeta. 

7th({Wed.) H.R.H. the Duke of Connaught reviewed the Queen’s Own Canadian 
Rifles at Aldershot on behalf of the King. 
>» 50th Anniversary of Garibaldi’s entry into Naples. 
 &th(Thur.) 50th Anniversary of Garibaldi’s assumption of the Dictatorship at 
Naples and surrender of the Neapolitan Fleet to the Sardinian 
Admiral Persano. 
12th Mon.) His Majesty inspected at Balmoral a detachment of the Queen’s Own 
Canadian Rifles. 
16th (Fri.) Queen’s Own Canadian Rifles‘ marched through London, ‘and were 
entertained by the Lord Mayor and City of London at the Guildhall. 
19th(Mon.) 50th Anniversary of Garibaldi’s defeat of the Neapolitans at Cajazzo. 
20th (Tue.) Launch of 2nd Class Cruiser Falmouthfrom Messrs. W. Beardmore & 
Co.’s yard at Dalmuir on Clyde. 
21st (Wed.) 21st Lancers embarked at Southampton on board Dongola for Egypt. 
+ 3 7th Dragoon Guards embarked at Southampton on board Dongola 
for India. 
24th (Sat.) Queen’s Own Canadian Rifles left Liverpool on their return to Canada. 
27th (Tue) Centenary of the Victory at Busaco. 

ee a 

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Arcentine Repousiic.—Boletin del Centro Naval. Buenos Aires: July, 
1910.—‘‘ Francisco de Gurruchaga.’’ ‘‘ The Command of the Sea.’’ ‘‘ The 
Strategic Position of Naval Ports.” ‘‘ Propellant Explosives of the 
Future.’’ ‘‘The Conflict of the Naval Guns.” 

Avstria-Huncary.—Mittheilungen aus dem Gebiete des Seewesens. 
No. 10. Pola: October, 1910.—‘‘ Star Navigation.’’ ‘‘ How Airships are 
Likely to Affect War.’’ “15 Braunschweigs against 8 Satsumas.”’ 
‘The U.8. Naval Estimates for 1910-11.’”’ ‘‘The French Destroyers with 
Forced Engine-Lubrication.” ‘‘ Projectiles for Firing at Airships.” 
‘‘The New French Constructions.’”’? ‘‘ New Organisation of the French 
Naval Academy and Cadet School.’’ ‘‘ Instructions for Admittance to the 

Naval Academy.”’ 

Brazi..—Revista Maritima Brazileira. Rio de Janeiro: July, 1910.— 
““The Almirante Cochrane.’’ ‘Physical Training in the Navy.’’ 
‘¢ Attacks against Battleships and Tables of Fire Efficiency.’’ ‘‘ Reorgani- 
sation of the Chinese Navy.’’ ‘‘The Compass Needle Electric Trans- 
mittor.’’ ‘‘ Nomograms of the Deviation of the Needle.’ ‘‘ The Brazilian 
Navy ”’ (continued). ‘‘ Military Penal Code.’’ 

Cait1.—Revista de Marina. Valparaiso: July, 1910.—‘‘ Parsimony.’’ 
‘« Radiotelegraphic Communication on the Coast of Chili.” ‘‘ Study of a 

Type of Submersible Torpedo-Boat.’’ ‘‘ Smokeless Powders.’’ ‘* The 
Primer of the Painter.’’ ‘‘ The Chilinisation of the Magellan Territory.”’ 
‘Working of the Gyroscope.’’ ‘‘ Modernisation of Some Ships of the 


France.—Revue Maritime. Paris: August, 1910.—‘‘ The Battleship 
to be Constructed.’’ ‘‘ Battles of the Past: The Invincible Armada and 
the Campaign of 1588.’’ ‘‘ Study on the Causes of the Inferiority of the 
French Commercial Ports.’’ ‘‘ Speech in the Chamber by the Italian 
Minister of Marine on the Maritime Industries of Italy.’’ ‘‘ The Modern 
Battleship and its Importance as an Instrument of Battle.’’ ‘‘ Squadron 
Speed and Fleet Actions.’’ ‘‘ The Italian Naval. Estimates for 1910-11.”’ 

La Marine Francaise. Paris: September, 1910.—‘‘ Pages of Yesterday 
and of To-day.’’ ‘‘Manouvring and the Gun.’’ ‘‘Bizerta and the African 
Littoral.’”’, ‘‘ La Rochelle-Pallice, a Port of Speed.’’ ‘‘ Administration of 
the Supplies for the Fleet.’’ 

La Vie Maritime. Paris: 10th September, 1910.—“Gullibility, or the 
Aeroplane Continues.’’ ‘‘Apropos of Prize Firing.’’ ‘‘The Far East 


Division.”” ‘‘ The Recruiting of Gunnery Officers.”? ‘‘A Russian Naval 
Division at Algiers.’? ‘‘ The Commander’s Cross of Pierre Loti.’’ ‘‘ The 
Heavy Artillery of the Dreadnought.’’ 25th September.—‘‘ The Distribu- 
tion of the Naval Forces.’’ ‘‘ Apropos of the Aeroplane.’’ ‘‘ The Guns 
of the Edgar Quinet.’”’ ‘‘A Loan of Two Milliards.”” ‘‘The Turkish 
Navy and German Battleships.’’ ‘‘ Apropos of the Explosion of the 
Torpedo in the Bay of the Garonne.’’ ‘‘ The Centenary of the Naval 
School.”’ ‘‘ Fight of the Venus with the Ceylon, 16th-17th September, 
1810.”’ ‘The Slava at Toulon.” 

Le Yacht. Paris: 8rd September, 1910.—‘‘ Internal Combustion 
Motors and the Navy.’’ ‘‘ Yachting Notes.’’ 10th September.—‘‘ The 
Submarine Telegraph.’”’ ‘‘ Yachting Notes.’’ ‘‘ The Navy and Aviation.’’ 
‘The English Turbine Cruiser Newcastle.’”’ ‘‘ Motor Fishing Boats in 
England.” 17th September.—‘‘The Training Ship for Seamen.’’ “Yachting 
Notes.’? ‘‘ Destroyers and Flotillas: Their Fighting Réle.’’ 24th Sep- 
tember.—‘‘ The Training of Naval Officers.’’ ‘‘ Yachting Notes.’’ ‘‘ The 
Visit of President Fallitres to St. Nazaire and Bordeaux.’’ ‘‘ Destroyers 
and Fliotillas: Their Fighting Réle’’ (concluded). 

Le Moniteur de la Flotte. Paris: 3rd September, 1910,—‘‘ The 
Exercises of the Submarines.’’ ‘‘ Naval Aerodromes.’’ ‘‘ Rangefinders.’’ 
10th September.—‘‘The Petrol Motor in the Navy.’’ “The Naval 
Estimates for 1911.’’ 17th September.—‘‘ British Manifesto.’’ ‘‘ The 
Edgar-Quinet.’”’ ‘‘Dirigibles and the Navy.’’ 24th September.—“Naval 
Evolution.”  ‘‘The Presidential Voyage.” “The Administrative Per- 

Grermany.—Marine Rundschau. Berlin: October, 1910.—‘‘ The Smal 
English Cruiser Liverpool.’’ ‘‘ Why have the Japanese Given up Port 
Arthur as a War Harbour?’ ‘‘The Eye and its Importance for the 
Naval Service.”’ ‘‘ Korea and Japan.’’ ‘‘ The Italian Naval Manceuvres, 
1910.’ ‘‘ Thoughts on the Education of Our Petty Officers.’’ ‘‘ Develop- 
ment and Position of the Naval Abstinence Movement.’’ 

Iraty.—Rivista Marittima. Rome: September, 1910.—Not yet 


Portucat.—Revista Portugueza, Colontal e Maritima. Lisbon: 
August, 1910.—‘‘ The Training and Entry of Colonial Officials ’’: (con- 
tinued). ‘‘ Considerations on the Administrative Division of Angola’”’ 
(continued). ‘‘ The Province of Angola ’”’ (continided). 

Annaes do Club Militar Naval. Lisbon: August, 1910.—‘ Naval 
Aeronautics.’ ‘‘The Education of Officers in the Japanese Navy.”’ 
‘New Method for Determining the Final Diameter of a Ship.”’ 

Spatn.—Revista General de Marina. Madrid: August, 1910.— 
“Details.” “One Idea.” “The New Dockyard Law and the Construc- 
tions at Carthagena.”’ ‘Is it Necessary to Open the Naval School?’’ 
‘“‘ Construction, Management and Organisation of Modern Ships of War ”’ 




(continued). ‘Official History of the Russo-Japanese Naval War’’ 

Unitep States.—United States Naval Institute Proceedings. No. 3. 
Annapolis: September, 1910.—‘‘ The Influence of Trim upon Resistance 
of Ships.” “The U.S. Naval War College’’ (conduded). **Gun 
Erosion.’”’ ‘‘ Early Voyages of American Naval Vessels to the Orient.’’ 
‘“‘The Haversine in Nautical Astronomy.’’ ‘‘The Present-Day Problem 
of Ship Propulsion.”’ ‘‘ The Genius of Naval Warfare.’’ ‘‘ Some Modern 
Developments in Methods of Testing Explosives.’’ ‘‘The Organisation of 
the Fleet.’’ ‘‘ Notes Concerning the Origin of Some of the Institutions 
of the British Navy.”’ 


Austria-Huneary.—Danzer’s Armee-Zeitung. Vienna: 8th Septem- 
ber, 1910.—‘‘ The Faithfulness to Alliances of the House of Savoy (The 
Lessons of History and the Psychology of Race).’? ‘‘ A Diplomatic Cam- 
paign.”’ ‘‘The Pursuit of Nationality in Hungary.” ‘‘ New Warships 
--And Our War Harbours?’ ‘‘The Du-Wort.’’ 22nd September.—“The 
History of the ‘‘ Pester Lloyds.’’’’ ‘‘The Magyar Press on Military 
Questions.’’ ‘‘The Transporting and _ Bridge-Building Exercises at 
Krems.’’ ‘‘ The Austrian Sahara Expedition, 1910-11.’’ 29th September. 
—‘‘ Humbug.”’ ‘‘ Manceuvre Hospitality in Hungary.’’ ‘‘ The Military 
Policy of the National Labour Party.’’ ‘‘ The Italians and the Capture 
of Rome, 1870.’’ ‘Law Proceedings against Attacks on Honour.” ‘A 
Change in Warship Building.’”? ‘‘An exposure of the Irradenta in 

Streffleur’s Militdérische Zeitschrift. Vienna: September, 1910.— 
‘“‘The Commanding Generals in Prague from 1621 up to the Present 
Day’’ (continued). ‘‘A Venetian Picture Map of the Year 1535, with 

the Ancestral Seat of the House of Este.’’ ‘‘ From the Knowledge of 
War.’’ ‘‘Observations on England’s Military Conditions.’’ ‘‘ The 
Supreme Commands in the Most Important European Countries.’’ ‘‘ The 
Army Enquiry Commission and the Army Reform in Italy.’’ ‘‘ Com- 

munications from the Army School of Musketry: Tactical Maxims on the 
Employment of Machine Gun Detachments”’ (continued). 

Kavalleristische Monatshefte. Vienna and Munich: September, 1910. 
—‘‘ Remarks of the Prize Referee on the 14 Papers Sent in on the 
Theme: The Organisation of the Strategic Scouting Service of the 
Cavalry Division.’”? ‘‘Cavalry Machine Gun Detachments.”” ‘‘ What 
is the Most Useful Armament for Modern Cavalry and What is the 
Most Practical Method of Carrying the Same?’’ (continued). ‘‘ Lance 
and Sabre or—only Sabre.’’ ‘‘On the Bayonet Question.’’ ‘‘ Organisa- 
tion Questions of the German Cavalry.” ‘‘Swimming with the Rider.”’ 
‘‘ Fighting Moments of Cavalry according to Historical War Data with 
Solutions in the Sense of the Instructions in the Drill Regulations for 
the K. u. K. Cavalry.’’ ‘‘The Horse Prize Show at the International 
Exhibition for Hunting and Sport, at Frankfort-am-Main, 1910.” ‘‘On the 


Association with the Horse.’’ ‘“‘The Exhibition of the German Agri- 
cultural Society at Hamburg.’’ ‘The Horse Picket (Hevery System).’’ 
** Tactical Problems for the Cavalry Officer.’’ 

Betoium.—Bulletin de la Presse et de la Bibliographie Militaires. 
Brussels: 15th August, 1910.—‘‘The Swedish Army’ (concluded). 
‘‘French Army Estimates for 1910.’’ ‘‘The Imperial German Man- 
ceuvres in 1909: General Considerations’’ (continued). ‘‘The Battle of 
the Future’ (continued). 3ist August.—‘‘ French Army Estimates ”’ 
(continued). ‘‘The Imperial German Manceuvres in 1909: General Con- 
siderations ’’’ (continued). ‘‘ The Battle of the Future” (continued). 

France.—Journal des Sciences Militaires. Paris: 1st September, 
1910.—‘‘ Study of the Preparatory Battle.’’ ‘* Austrian Souvenirs.”’ 
‘*The Army School’’ (concluded). ‘‘ The Officer and the Right of Vote.’’ 
‘* What it is Necessary to Know of Aviation: Its Military Réle’’ (con- 
cluded). ‘‘ Field Uniform.’”’ ‘‘A New Organisation of the Schools of 
Soldiers’ Children.’’ 15th September.—‘‘ An Offensive Manwuvre with 
Real Fire, Carried out at the Camp at Biville (June, 1910).”’ ‘‘ Study 
of the Preparatory Battle’’ (continued). ‘‘ Souvenirs of Austria’’ (con- 
cluded). ‘‘ The Officer and the Right to Vote’ (concluded). ‘‘ Reflec- 
tions on Some Consequences of the Franco-German War (1870-71).’’ 

Revue d’Infanterie. Paris: July, 1910.—‘‘The New Firing Regula- 
tions of the German Infantry.’’ ‘‘ The New Mancuvre and Battle Regu- 
lations of the Roumanian Infantry.’’ ‘‘The Japanese in Manchuria ”’ 
(continued). ‘‘ The Chaouia and its Pacification’’ (continued). 

Revue de Cavalerie. Paris: August-September, 1910.—‘‘ Study of 
Strategy: The Gunshots of General von Rheinbaben.’”’ ‘‘ The Regulation 
of the 25th May, 1910, on the Interior Economy of Regiments’’ (con- 
tinued). ‘‘ Battle of Ideas.’’ ‘‘ Fischer and the Origin of the Chasseurs.’’ 
‘* Programmes and Reports of Practical Exercises of Cadres’’ (concluded). 
‘‘ Physiological Effects of Equitation Exercises on the Rider.” 

Revue d’Artillerie. Paris: July, 1910.—‘‘ Independent Rear Sight 
or Line of Independent Fore Sight.’’ ‘‘ Observations on Collective Fire.’’ 
‘Note on the New Field-Gun Mounting.” 

August, 1910.—‘‘ The Aviation Problem.” ‘‘ Independent Rear Sight 
or Line of Independent Fore Sight ’’ (continued). ‘‘ Pointed Ball Cart- 
ridges in Spain’”’ (continued). 

Revue Militaire Générale. Paris: August, 1910.—‘‘ Considerations on 
the Campaign in Manchuria, 1904-05” (continued). ‘‘ Solution of Tactical 
Problems” (concluded). ‘‘ Studies on the 18th August, 1870’’ (continued). 

Revue d'Histoire. Paris: September, 1910.—‘‘The Campaign of 
1908-1909 in Chaouia’’ (continued). ‘‘ Zurich.’’ ‘‘The Maneuvre of 
Pultusk’’ (continued). ‘‘The War of 1870-71: The National Defence in 
the Provinces’ (continued). 

Revue Militaire des Armées Etrangéres. Paris: September, 1910.— 
“The Budget of the German Empire for 1910” (concluded). ‘‘ The 
Swedish Army in 1910’’ (continued). 


GermMany.——Militdr-Wochenblatt. . Berlin: lst September, 1910.— 
“‘ Training and Leading of Skirmishing Lines.’’ ‘‘ Training of a Reserve 
Officers’ Corps in Turkey.”’ ‘‘ Communication between,.the different, Arms 
in Battle.’’? 3rd September.—‘‘ Ideas and Proposals on the Technical 
Pioneer Training of Infantry,’’ ‘‘ The Training and Leading of Skirmish- 
ing Lines” (continued)... ‘‘ Military Technical Review; Aviation.’’. 6th 
September.—‘‘ The Boer War and its Tactical Lessons according to German 
and English Ideas.’’ ‘The Training and Leading of Skirmishing Lines’’ 
(continued). ‘‘ Ideas and Proposals on the Technical Pioneer Training of 
Infantry ”’ (concluded). 8th September.—‘‘ The Training and Leading of 
Skirmishing Lines’’ (concluded). ‘‘The Boer War and its Tactical 
Lessons according to German and English Ideas’’ (continued). ‘‘ The 
Revolver as the Cavalry Arm.’’ 10th September.—‘‘ Points of View for 
the Regulations on Army Scouting Service.’’ ‘‘ The Colours of the 61st.’’ 
“The Boer War and its Tactical Lessons according to German and 
English Ideas”’ (concluded). 13th September.—“ Points of View for the 
Regulations on Army Scouting Service’’ (continued). ‘‘ Physical Tests 
of American Officers.’”’ 15th September.—‘‘ The Italian Army in its New 
Organisation.” ‘‘ Points of View for the Regulations on Army Scouting 
Service’’ (continued). 17th September.—‘‘ Training Course for Reserve 
Officers of Cavalry.’”’ ‘‘ Points of View for the Regulations on Army 
Scouting Service ’’ (continued). ‘‘ Military Technical Review: Aviation.’’ 
‘“‘The Reorganisation of the Belgian General Staff.’’ 20th September. 
—‘‘ Points of View for the Regulations on Army Scouting Service ’’ 
(concluded), ‘‘ Wireless Telegraphy and Motor Airship Voyages.’’ 
‘‘ Pappenheim’s Partisan War, 1632.’? 22nd September.—‘‘ The Capitula- 
tion of Hameln in 1806.” ‘‘ Field Artillery in Co-operation with Infantry, 
1870-71, and To-day.’’ ‘‘ New Programme for the Russian War Schools.’’ 
24th September.—‘‘ Free Driving.’’ ‘‘The Capitulation of Hameln in 
1806’ (concluded). ‘‘ New Programme for the Russian. War Schools ”’ 
(concluded). ‘‘ Progress in the German Military Societies Movement.”’ 
27th September.—‘‘ A Reconnaissance on the Yalu River during the 
Russo-Japanese War.’’ ‘‘ The Italian Army in its New Form’’ (con- 
cluded). ‘‘ English Mancouvre Observations.’’ 29th September.—‘‘ On the 
History of the Prussian Army.’’ ‘‘ News from the French Army.”’ 
*‘ Tdeas on some Improvements of the Field Outfit for Officers.’’ 

Artilleristische Monatshefte. Berlin: August, 1910.—‘‘ Shooting Ex- 
periments with Krupp’s Field Howitzers.’’ ‘‘ French Experiments for 
Ascertaining the Fittest Draught Horse for Batteries.’’ ‘‘ Something 
about the Russian Field Artillery.’’ ‘‘ Artillery Observations at the 
Battles Round Port Arthur.’’ ‘‘The Armament of the English Ships of 
the Dreadnought Class.’’ 

Jahrbiicher fiir die Deutsche Armee und Marine. Berlin: September, 
1910.—‘‘ The Swiss Military Tax.’’ ‘‘ Recruiting Training by Group 
Leaders or by Changing Training Personnel?’’ ‘‘ The Course of Develop- 
ment of the Submarine.’”’ ‘‘ The Fighting about 203 Metre Hill before 
Port Arthur.” ‘‘ A Critical Opinion on the Swiss Fortifications, by a 
Swiss Officer.’’ 

Iraty.—Rivista di Artiglieria e di Genio. Rome: July-August, 1910. 
—Not yet been received. 
VOL. LIV. 40 


Rivista Militare Italiana. Rome: August, 1910.—‘‘The Wide Exten- 
sion of Battle Fronts and Their Influence on the Leading of Large 
Masses.’’ ‘‘ Military Character according to the Opinions of Napoleon.” 
‘“* Surrenders in the Eye of Military Law.’’ ‘‘ A Strange Story from the 
History of the Levant.’ ‘‘The Army and Emigration.” ‘‘The Supply 
Services in Times of Peace and War.’’ ‘‘ The Army Intendance Services 
in the Field.’”” ‘ Bartolomeo Colleoni.’”’ ‘‘ Programmes of Study and 
Mental Cultivation for Officers.’’ 

Sparin.—Revista Técnica de Infanteria y Caballeria. Madrid: lst 
August, 1910.—‘‘ Evolution of Military Law Among Modern Nations.”’ 
““The Infantry in the French Army” (continued). ‘‘ Aviation in Our 
Army’’ (continued). ‘‘ Technical and Military Information.’’ 15th 
August.—‘‘ Evolution of Military Law Among Modern Nations.’”’ ‘‘ The 
Organisation of the Spanish Army as Viewed by a Prussian.’’ ‘‘ The 
Infantry of the French Army”’ (continued). ‘‘ Aviation in Our Army ’”’ 

Revista Cientifico Militar y Biblioteca Militar. Barcelona: 10th 
September, 1910.—‘‘ Lessons from the Riff War’ (continued). ‘‘ My 
Impressions in the Riff Campaign, 1909.’ ‘‘ Tactical Employment of 
Field Artillery.”’ 

Switzertanp.—Revue Militaire Suisse. Lausanne: September, 1910. 

—‘‘ Some Remarks on the Organisation Plan of the Army.’’ ‘‘ The X-Rays 
and the Medical Field Service.’’ ‘‘ Drill Regulations for the Swiss 

Unttep Sratzs.—Journal of the Military Service Institution. 
Governor’s Island, New York: September-October, 1910.—‘‘ Summary 

Punishment and the Summary Court.’ ‘‘ Evacuation of Sick and 
Wounded in War.’ ‘‘ Proper Arms for Cavalry and Best Method of 
Carrying Them.’’ ‘‘ Chancellorsville: Cavalry Operations.’’ ‘‘ Instruc- 

tion of the Japanese Recruits.’’ ‘‘ Military Instruction in Civil Schools.’’ 
‘‘ Regular Army in Civil War: The Artillery.”” ‘‘ Types and Traditions: 
General Hooker, His Place in History.”” ‘‘Comment and Criticism: 
Education and National Defence.’’ 

Infantry Journal. Washington: September, 1910.—‘‘ Character 
Excellent.’”’ ‘‘A Problem in Troop Leading.’’ ‘‘ The Revision of the 
Infantry Drill Book.’’ ‘‘ The Infantry Drill Regulations.’’ ‘‘ Musketry.’’ 
“The Use and Effect of Flying Machines on Military Operations.” 
‘* Tactical Walks.’’ ‘‘Should Officers be Members of Rifle Teams?’’ 
‘* Reversion: A Reminder.’’ ‘‘The Work of the Infantry Equipment 
Board.” ‘‘The Infantryman’s Load.’’ 

Journal of the U.S. Cavalry Association. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: 
September, 1910.—‘‘The Geronimo Campaign of 1885-86.’’ ‘‘ The 
Structure and Functions of the Horse’s Back and their Relation to the 
Form and Use of the Military Saddle.” ‘‘ Training the Polo Pony.”’ 
‘‘The Cavalry Saddle.”’ ‘‘ Mounted Sport at Fort Huachuca.’’ 


BS eae ican nea a a, 


The Naval Annual, 1910. Edited by T. A. Brassey, A.I.N.A. Londones 
Griffin and Co. 12s. 6d. net. 

The Naval Annual has, as a rule, been kept creditably free from politi- 
cal bias, so it is a matter for regret that the Editor has this year thought 
fit to accuse the Opposition of an attempt to drag the Navy into the arena 
of party politics. Such a charge is one which in a publication like the 
Annual should certainly not have been made, especially as there is no solid 
ground for making it, for the facts of the case are notorious, and thinking 
people can no longer blind themselves to the dangers which are 
threatening our supremacy at sea, on which our existence as an Empire 

As is generally the case, the Annual contains many interesting papers. 
The first three chapters, which are the work of the Editor and Mr. John 
Leyland, are devoted respectively to the progress made in our own and 
foreign navies, and to a statement of comparative strength, which is fur- 
nished with the usual tables. Having inveighed against the Opposition 
for attempting to make the Navy serve party purposes and for making 
exaggerated statements as to its relative weakness, it is interesting to 
note that in Chapter I., when discussing the building programme for this 
year, the Editor admits that the criticism that it is a paper programme is 
not unjustifiable, and further on, when dealing with the question of com- 
parative strength and giving the present position as regards battleships 
of all classes; he writes :~- 

‘The chief significance of the above figures is that Germany, owing to the 
fact that she has under construction more battleships than Britain or the United 
States, must improve her relative position in the immediate future unless 
increased exertions are put forth by ourselves and others, Of completed battle- 
ships of all classes we have fifty-five to fifty-five for Germany and the United 

“ Taking modern battleships (viz., those enumerated in Table I,) only, we 
have thirty-two ships completed to thirty-seven, or including ships under con- 
struction thirty-nine ships to fifty-two for Germany and the United States. It 
is evident that our naval position must deteriorate in the immediate future, for 
the five large armoured ships of the 1910-11 programme are not to be laid down 
till 1911, and will not be completed till 1913. . . . . The figures as regards 
‘* Dreadnoughts ” and ships launched in 1906 or subsequently, which may be 
considered fit to “ lie in a line” with them, are as follows :—Built and building, 
Britain, 9 and 7, total 16: United States, 4 and 4, total 8: Germany, 2 and 11 
total 13.” 

When Mr. Brassey himself admits that Germany has 13 Dreadnought 
battleships to our 16, and that in modern battleships we have only 39 
built and building to 52 for Germany and the United States, 
it is difficult to understand on what grounds he _ attacks 
the Opposition for bringing the question of the present 
state of the Navy prominently to the front, in view of the fact that five 
years ago, not only were we fully up to the two-Power standard, but we 
had a considerable margin of safety over and above, while now, according 
to Mr. Brassey’s own showing, not only has the two-Power standard dis- 
appeared, but we are no less than 13 ships below it. Mr. Brassey also 



deals briefly with the question of the impending specialisation of the 
midshipmen entered under the new scheme of entry for the Executive, 
Marine and Engineer branches of the service, as the time is now drawing 
near when the first batch of these young officers will become sub-lieu- 
- tenants and their future status will have to be settled, and he rightly 
points out that some anxiety arises as to how the scheme is going to work 
out in practice. He betrays some apprehension, in which he is probably 
justified, that the amalgamation scheme will be found to result in a 
dearth of volunteers for the Engineering branch. And should this be the 
ease, he remarks that ‘‘the scheme will have substituted unwilling 
engineers for the old class who entered at Keyham because they had a 
liking for the profession.’ Nor does he believe that any officer will 
voluntarily select the Marine branch, with its poor prospect of employ- 
ment for the senior ranks, unless he can revert to the Executive branch 
on the conclusion of a commission, and he is clearly of opinion that 
interchangeability between the Executive and Marine branches for officers 
opens up the whole question of the future of the Marines. 

Chapter IV. contains the most striking and valuable of the articles 
in this issue of the Annual, viz., that of Admiral Sir Cyprian Bridge on 
“Navy War Councils and General Staffs.’’ Anything emanating from the 
pen of Sir Cyprian on naval matters must necessarily carry great weight, 
and deserves the closest attention, for he writes with an authority and 
knowledge of his subject to which few others can lay claim. He is strongly 
opposed to the creation of a Navy War Staff, for which so many civilian 
writers and critics are making a clamorous demand, and he evidently 
holds that the change would be productive of irreparable mischief, the 
truth being, in his opinion, that a Navy is so constituted that it contains its 
General Staff in itself, and consequently does not need an ‘‘excrescent body”’ 
to co-ordinate its elements and their efforts. The Admiral dwells upon the 
excessive importance now attached to material appliances, to the alleged 
neglect of strategical principles. The present state of things dates from 
1850, when Sir James Graham induced the Board of Admiralty, of which 
he was the head, to absorb the duties of the old Navy Board. 

“The relatively humble functions of providing material and equipment for @ 
war navy,” he writes, ‘‘are not only made to seem superior to the strategic 
direction, handling, training, discipline and maintenance generally of the 
efficiency of the force, they also go a long way towards crowding these super- 
eminently important matters out of recognition. From Washington to Pola— 
such is the fashion of the day—the chief naval authorities, for every minute 
that they can devote to the war-making efficiency of the Navy, which has crews 
as well as ships, must devote at least two minutes to the consideration of its 
material components. What in a body meant to engage in war when inevitable 
should be the highest function, viz., command and strategical direction, is—so 
we are told every day—just now regarded as quite secondary. This is why the 
Press teems with demands for War Councils and General Naval Staffs. These 
are only pompous names for little companies of subordinates charged with the 
performance of work which is properly that of the supreme authority, but which 
that supreme authority cannot perform because its time is so much taken up 
with attempts to solve intricate problems of naval material, for the solution of 
which special professions have long existed.” 

The Admiral further justly points out that there is nothing in the 
history of armed forces, either on land or sea, that can be put in com- 
parison with the nearly unbroken success with which the British Admiralty, 


2S fee er ee eae 


during the course of the great naval wars of the eighteenth and early 
nineteenth centuries, direeted the action of the force at the head of 
which it stood. In all that time of serious stress no one seems to have 
thought of suggesting—certainly no responsible person thought of admit- 
ting—that the Admiralty required ‘‘strengthening’’ by the formation of. 
a War Council. The reason is plain, the Admiralty itself was a War 
Council. It was not supposed to be an establishment maintained 
primarily toe’ deal with material. That was entrusted to technical experts 
under the Navy Board, subject to the orders of the Lord High Admirak 
or the Commissioners for executing his office. The article must be read 
however, at first hand, but it would seem that there is no alternative 
between the creation of a War Staff and the re-creation in some form 
of the old Navy Board to deal with every detail of shipbuilding, arma- 
ment, &c. 

There is more than one other article which will repay reading. Among 
these are “Types of Warships,’’ by Vice-Admiral Sir S. Eardley-Wilmot, 
who, impressed by the losses brought about by mines during the Russo- 
Japanese War, expresses the opinion that dread of mines will lead 
eventually to a halt in dimensions; ‘‘The German Navy,’’ and ‘‘The 
Command of the Adriatic,’’ both by Mr. John Leyland, are both interest- 
ing and written with knowledge of his subject; while Commander Robin- 
son contributes a long and detailed account of ‘‘ Colonial Resources for 
Shipbuilding,’’ which is most useful, and has been compiled with great care. 

Part II. contains the usual lists and plans of ships of our own and 
foreign Navies, and Part III. deals with the progress in “‘Armour and 
Ordnance”; Part IV. beimg devoted to the First Lord’s statement and 
the Estimates of our own and the principal foreign Navies, &c. 

The Editor may be heartily congratulated on this year’s issue of the 
Annual, for it fully maintains the high standard of excellence to which 
we are accustomed to look in this now old-established work of reference. 

1. The Strategy of the Franco-German War; 2. The Strategy of tha 
Russo-Japanese War. By Lieut.-Colonel W. D. Brirp, D.S.O. 
London : Hugh Rees, Ltd., 1909. 

The origin of each of these two books is contained in a course of 
historical lectures delivered in the first instance at the Indian Staff 
College, where Lieut.-Colonel Bird was recently a Professor, and they 
have now been collected and published in their present form and are 
thereby happily made available for the needs of a larger circle of military 
students. In “The Strategy of the Franco-German War” the author 
deals with events up to the battle of Sedan, and he has so arranged 
the work that the operations are considered first from the French and 
then from the German point of view, the supposed and the real positions 
of the opponent’s forces being given in each case on accompanying plans. 
fhe reader is thus able, to an unusual degree, put himself in the 
actual conditions experienced by the opposing commanders, and, as far as 
possible, to divest himself of that ‘‘knowledge after the event’’ which too 
often proves so serious a bar to dispassionate and impartial criticism. 
In the second of these books the strategy of the whole war is reviewed 
from the standpoint of the view of the historian who has studied the 


plans and operations of both sides, and the book opens with a consideration 
of the geographical and political factors, and ends with a brief epitome 
of the lessons of the war. In both books the appendices are very complete : 
they contain details of the organisation of the troops and statements of 
their distribution and strength at various periods; the first-named work 
also contains a series of problems suggested by the operations. In both 
books the maps are very clear and the facts mentioned in the text have 
been taken from the official accounts of the two campaigns—in the case 
of the last war, so far as these are as yet published—and may therefore be 
relied upon. Altogether each of these books may confidently be recom- 
mended to the military student, as an assistance towards a wider 
knowledge of the lessons of an ever-green campaign, as of one whose 
history and whose teachings are even yet not. altogether clear or thoroughly 


Calendar of the Stuart Papers belonging to H.M. The King, Preserved 
at Windsor Castle. Historical Manuscripts Commission. 4 Vols. 
8vo. lls. 8d. (Hereford Times Co., Ltd.) Hereford, 1910. 

Her Majesty's Navy, including its Deeds and Battles. By C. R. Low. 
3 Vols. Demy 4to. 14s. (J. S. Virtue & Co., Ltd.) London, n.d. 

Strategy in a Nutshell. By Captain F. F. Boyp. Fceap. 8vo. 1s. 6d. 
(Presented.) (Gale & Polden, Ltd.) London, 1910. 

The Broom of the War-God. By Henny Nost Brainsrorp. Crown 8vo. 
3s. (William Heinemann.) London, 1898. 

Sketch Map to Illustrate the Indian Mutiny, 1857. Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. 
(Presented.) (Forster Groom & Co., Ltd.) London, 1910. 

Catechism on Field Training. By Lieut.-Colonel W. Ptomer. Crown 
8vo. 4s. (Gale & Polden.) Aldershot, 1909. 

Waterloo, 1815. By General. Arpert Porto. Translated into French 
from the Italian by General Gorran. 8vo. 9s. 6d. (Henri Charles- 
Lavauzelle.) Paris, n.d. 

A Practical Introduction to the Study of Japanese Writing. By Bastn 
Hatt CHamBertTAIn. 4to. 31s. 6d. (Crosby Lockwood & Son.) 
London, 1905. 

The First Two Battles of Plevna. By Joun Formpy. 8vo. 3s. 6d. 
(William Clowes & Sons, Ltd.) London, 1910. 

Mysterious Morocco. By H. J. B. Warp. Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. (Simkin, 
Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co., Ltd.) London, 1910. 

Historical Record of the 2nd ‘‘ Queen’s Own’’ Sappers and Miners from 
1780 to 1909. Compiled by Lieut.-Colonel C. H. Roz, R.E. 8vo. 
(Presented.) (2nd Q.0.8. & M. Press.) Bangalore, 1909. 



id itl api hiaioe as  x 

SAIN ita eT, 

Tete: si 
aaa se: S 



Juty, 1910. PusiisHep QUARTERLY. 

Communicated by the General Staff and reprinted by permission of the 
Controller 07 His Majesty's Statwnery Office. 

Part'II. Section I. Books... ii i. 46 Got a6 1389 
PartjII. Section II. Magazine Articles ... s bes of 1394 
Part II. Section III. Books, Pamphlets, etc. ... oe eae 1404 

Abbreviations ... ees er sth ‘ast is dou oth 1405 

This Pamphlet will be issued quarterly, in April, July, October and January. 
Its purpose is to draw the attention of Officers to British and Foreign publications of 
Military interest which are likely to assist them in their professional work. Copies of 
the pamphlet will be distributed to the Headquarters of Commands, Educational 
Establishments, Units and Reference Libraries. 


Methods of Communication in Battle (Procédés de Liaison). By 
Major Niessel. 74 py. 8vo. Paris, 1909. Lavauzelle. 1/-. 

The first part of this book deals with the various means of maintaining oom- 
munication described as ‘tactical communication,” during an action between the 
smaller units, ¢.g., batteries and battalions. 

It is suggested that men should be trained simply as ‘‘ observers”’ and provided 
with good field glasses; their duty would be to take notice of what was being done 
by other units, or of developments in distant parts of the field of battle, and to 
inform their commander accordingly. The author holds the opinion that the officer 
in command of e unit which is actually engaged is so intent on the particular 
object he has in view that he is apt to overlook occurrences other than those in his 
immediate vicinity. As regards the number of such “observers,” he thinks that in 
the infantry a non-commissioned officer and five or six trained men should be allotted 
to each officer ding a pany, whilst to the officer in command of a 
battalion he would give a non-commissioned officer and four men ad company, These 
observers would act as orderlies if required. He touches on the methods of com- 
municating with other units, namely, by men on foot, by cyclists, and by mounted 
men, and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each. 

The question of the provision of signallers is discussed. The author considers 
their re-introduction in the French Army to be imperative, and gives details regard- 
ing a class for their instruction which he formed in his own battalion. 

The use of the telephone forms the subject of one chapter, examples of its 
employment being taken from the Russo-Japanese War. 

In conclusion, it is shown how the question of maintaining communication has 
of late years received attention in all armies, and especially in the British, where, 
the writer says, the results have been more complete, and more rapidly attained, 
than in any other. He considers this to be largely due to the lessons learnt in the 
South African War. He gives a brief sketch of what has been done in this 
direction in the British Army, and is evidently a firm believer in the efficiency 
of our methods 

* The titles of all books are given in English; this does not indicate that the books 
have been translated. The original title in the language in which a work is written, if not 
in English, is given in brackets. 


The Operations near Lorlangs in 1908 (La Manceuvre de Lorlanges). 

By General Percin. 68 pp., 7 maps and diagrams. 8vo. Paris, 1909. 

Berger-Levrault. 1/3. ° 

This is s brief account, with maps and panoramas, of the mancuvres of tle 
13th French Army Oorps in 1908. 

The corps took into the field its full number of batteries, namely, 23; but these 
were represented only by one gun and one wagon per battery. The skeleton enemy 
consisted of an infantry brigade and sixteen batteries, representing a division. 
Each battery kept a record of targets fired on, time in action, &c., and from these 
records the account of the manceuvres has been compiled. The army corps was 
designated “the Northern Force,” and attacked the enemy, who had orders to hold 
a defensive position obstinately till the arrival of reinforcements. The position was 
a well-defined ridge crowned by woods, with an open field of fire. The Northern 
Force found a frontal attack impossible owing to the want of cover, and made 
enveloping attacks on both flanks with a holding attack on the centre. The enemy's 
counter-attack failed and the attack of the Northern Force was adjudged successful. 

The artillery of the attack was divided into “infantry batteries,” accompanying 
and supporting the infantry, and ‘“counter-batteries’’ to engage the enemy's 
artillery. The latter had also to keep the position under observation and surveillance. 
The concerted action of artillery and infantry was good; but three different batteries, 
finding themselves idle, fired on distant targets which proved to be their own 
infantry. Altogether the infantry were fired on five times by their own artillery. 
The author concludes that the idle batteries which did so much mischief should 
have been withdrawn and employment found for them elsewhere. 

In the artillery combat, the number of batteries allowed to open fire was 
determined by the front occupied by the defender’s batteries which were engaged, 
each battery engaging 100 metres of front. The defender unwisely disclosed the 
position of his batteries by opening fire prematurely. 

When the position was carried all. the batteries.reported “ having opened fire on 
the retreating enemy.” This fire would have been ineffective on service, and the 
batteries should have been pushed forward in pursuit. 

The Handling of the Army Corps in War (Die Fiihrung des Armee- 
korps in Feldkriege). By Colonel von Moser, German General Staff. 
205 pp., with 7 maps. 8vo. Berlin, 1910. Mittler. 8/6. 

In his preface the author states that the object of the work is to suppl a 
want that has long been felt in Germany, namely, a handy reference book, Saling 
with ‘the details of the handling of an army corps for those officers who would in 
war time form part of the staff of an army corps, and wish to prepare themselves 
for their duties by private study in peace time. The author is well qualified to 
write such a book, having spent many years on the staffs of army corps, and 
having been a@ professor at the Kriegsakademie (Staff College). 

The introduction describes the composition of an army corps in detail, and a 
useful table of strengths, road-spaces, number of trains required, &c., necessary for 
a general staff officer in preparing orders, is given in an appendix. 

The remainder of the book is divided into two parts, the first dealing with an 
army corps acting independently, and the second with an army corps forming part 
of an army. The two parts consist of a series of problems with solutions, in which 
an imaginary Third rman Army Corps is represented as acting against the 
French in Alsace-Lorraine. The problems are based on the co- Prussian 
War, but deal with uptodate matters, ¢.g., wireless telegraphy, motor 
ears, and cycles. Appreciations, the allotment of roads, times of starting of 
separate divisions, &c., and operation orders generally are included in the problems. 
There are also interesting examples of a diery, orders as regards prisoners of 
war, medical services, supply, routine, and replenishment of ammunition. 

The book is well supplied with sketch maps illustrating the situations, and 
contains a general map, scale rogsns.of the country between Metz and Strassburg. 

The Problems of War (Die Probleme des Krieges). By P, Creuzinger. 
Part Ill. The apc al of Napoleon. Vol. I. 242 pp. with an index 
and 3 sketches in the text. 8vo. Leipzig, 1910. Englemann. 7/3. 

This is the first volume of Part III. of the series. It deale with Napoleon’s 
campaigns of 1796-97 in Italy; of 1798-99 in Egypt; and of 1800 in Italy. In his 

luding ts the author remarks that the short Marengo campaign, brilliant 
as it was, constituted only an episode of the war of 1800, and he questions whether 
it exercised any very decisive influence on the general result of that war. In oon- 
clusion he expresses ® hope that his work may assist to a better understanding of 
Napoleonic strategy and tactics. 


Britain across the Seas: Africa. By Sir Harry Johnston, G.C.M.G., 
K.C.B., D.Sc. 429 pp., with index, 237 illustrations, and 7 maps. 4to. 
London, 1910. National Society’s Depository. 10/6. 

In his preface the author states that “in view of the great developments of the 
British Empire in Africa since the commencement of the twentieth eee it was 
thought desirable by the National Society that a concise history of this racial 
enterprise should be published, which would not be too abstruse for your students 
(whose previous knowledge of Africa might be assumed to be elementary), nor yet 
too lacking in technical information to be of service to those who had left student- 

Te ae ~ 

weds o: 

Seay avackeny Perey 




hood, behind, but desired to learn rapidly ‘how all these things came to pass’ in 
thie Continent of black, white and yellow peoples. The book was to be written as 
far as possible without national or party bias.” 

These words so admirably iy oserge the valuable contents of the book, and the 
particular qualifications of Sir Harry Johnston, whose long experience and intimate 
local knowledge of East, West and Central Africa are matters of such common 
knowledge, that it need only be said here that no student of African matters can 
afford to lect a careful study of this work. 

South rica, Rhodesia and ‘‘ British Central Africa,” the Mascarene Archipela- 
goes, West Africa, Egypt, the Anglo-E fan Sudan and East Africa are all dealt 
with in turn, and it would be well-nigh impossible to conceive how the general 
history, the ethnography and the existing situation of so many and such enormous 
areas could be more satisfactorily treated. 

On certain minor points the accuracy of the author may possibly be questioned 
by those who have m a study of details, but the most hypercritical will be bound 
to admit the fairness, broadmindedness and impartiality with which so many debat- 
able subjects are treated by Sir Harry Johnston. 

The book is lavishly illustrated with excellent photographs and contains some 
small scale maps. 

A Transformed Colony (Sierra Leone). By T. J. Alldridge, 1.8.0. 
8vo. 362 pp., with index and map. 66 illustrations. London, 1910. 
Seeley. 16/-. 

Mr. Alldridge has been connected with Sierra Leone since 1871. When he first 
went to West Africa, nearly 40 years ago, Sierra Leone, which together with the 
Protectorate now comprises 32,000 square miles, consisted of but Freetown and the 
peninsula, Sherbru Island, a portion of Turner Peninsula and a few diminutive 
islands. Beyond these narrow limits slave trading, with all its horrors, flourished. 

It can therefore be well understood that with such a background to his vision, 
Mr. Alldridge describes the progress that has been made, especially during the last 
12 years, as almost incredible. The book contains much interesting information about 
the tribes, their customs and laws, as weil as accounts of the early wars. The 
author, who is an enthusiast, treats the subject of the natural resources of the 
country and its future at considerable length. Before prosperity can be expected. 
however, he asserts that the lethargy and want of resource, engendered by a long 
period of neglect now happily terminated, must be eradicated. 

. thage is a most interesting collection of photographs besides a map to illustrate 
the volume. 

Travel and Sport in Turkestan. By Captain J. N. Price Wood, 12th 
Royal Lancers. 201 pp., with map and numerous illustrations. 4to. 
London, 1910. Chapman and Hall. 15/-. 

The book is a breezy and entertaining account of a shooting trip through 
Chinese Turkestan which will appeal to all who are interested in the geo; raphy and 
inhabitants of Central Asia, The route followed by the author lay throu, arkand, 
Ak-su, Kuldja and Chimkent, and his plain, straightforward account of the accidents 
of the road perhaps convey a better idea of the country than is to be gleaned from 
more ambitious works. As admitted by Captain Wood himself, not the least useful 

rt of the book is the appendix in which are given the details of the equipment 
e took with him on his journey. Appendix I., containing a general estimate of 
expenses. is also a most welcome addition to the literature of Central Asian travel. 

Trans-Himalaya: Discoveries and Adventures in Tibet. By Sven 
Hedin. 2 volumes. 859 pp., with 388 illustrations from photographs, 
water-colour sketches, and drawings by the author, and 10 maps. 8vo. 
London, 1909. Macmillan. 30/-. 

Dr. Sven Hedin explains that his main object was to see with his own eyes 
the unknown districts in the midst of Northern Tibet, and, above all, to visit the 
extensive areas of unexplored country stretching to the north of the Upper Brahma- 
putra, which had never been seen either by Europeans or natives of India. He was 
strongly of opinion that there must exist one or more mountain systems, runnin 
parallel with the Himalayas and the Karakorum range, peaks and ridges, lakes an 
rivers, which had not yet been revealed to any explorer. He also wished to visit 
one or more of the at lakes of Central Tibet, which had been discovered by Nain 
Singh in 1874, but had never been seen by a European. The great traveller alee 
desired to discover the gqurce of the Indus, which had never yet n inserted in its 
proper place on the map of Asia. 

On the 16th Gctober, 1905, Dr. Sven Hedin left Stockholm and, travelling via 
Constantinople and the Black Sea, through Turkish Armenia, across Persia to Seistan 
and through the deserts of Baluchistan to Nushki, a journey which he dismisses in a 
very few words, reached Quetta in May, 1906. From Quetta he went to Simla, and 
thence to Srinagar and Leh. After eye | a Chinese passport, permitting him to 
travel in Chinese Turkestan, he started on his adventurous journey from Leh on the 
10th August, 1906. 

Starting from Leh, the explorer reached Shigatse in February, 1907, having lost 
almost all his transport animals from cold, and after innumerable dangers and 
difficulties, and in spite of the numerous attempts on the part of the Chinese 
officials to turn him back. Leaving Shigatse in March, Dr. Sven Hedin, with one or 
two divergencies, followed the course of the Brahmaputra, and made for the holy 
lake of Manasrowar. Thence following the course of the Gartok River, he marched 
to Gartok. He touched the Nepal-Tibet frontier once, discovered the sources of the 
Brahmaputra, the Sutlej and the Indus, and crossed the Trans-Himalaya five times. 
He reached Gartok on the 26th September, 1907. 


_ Once there, he realised that there was no chance of his being allowed to continue 
his explorations, so he determined to disguise himself and to return to Ladak, 
penetrate into Tibet from the north and traverse the whole country once more. In 
this way he hoped to gain his object, which was to cross the space shown blank 
on all the maps of Tibet, and marked ‘‘ unexplored.” 

He therefore made for Drugub, two or three marches from Leh on his original 
route, and thence, early in December, 1907, started once more. After striking due 
north for about eighteen marches, he turned east for about the same distance, and 
crossed his first route again at a point on the southern boundary of the unannexed 
province of Akeai-Chin. Marching south-east, he traversed the unexplored country 
within the boundary of his first route and then, when about half way across, he 
struck almost due south to the prepnegeene. touching that river close to where he 
had struck it the year before. Thence marched as far as the Lake Teri-Nam-Tso, 
and then, striking due west, he crossed the line of his second route some 20 marches 
north of the B aputra, and again reached the holy lake of Manasrowar. From 
there he followed roughly the course of the Sutlej, and reached Poo on the 28th 
August, 1908. A few days later he was again in Simla. 

_ The Gates of India. By Colonel Sir Thomas Holdich, K.C.M.G., 
K.C.I.E., &c. 555 pp., with index and 5 maps. 8vo. London, 1910. 
Macmillan. 10/6. 

_The work, which is described by the author as “an historical narrative,” is one 
which will appeal mene to the student of Asian geography. To a wide and 
intimate personal knowledge of the subject sen which he writes, Sir Thomas Holdich 
has added the results of prolonged study and research. Commencing with an 
examination of the earliest relations between East and West, he traces the histo 
and geography of Central Asia in turn through the days of Greek, Arab, Englis 
and French exploration. Persia, Seistan, Afghanistan and Baluchistan, the ‘“‘ Gates”’ 
of India, are dealt with in exhaustive detail, and although the literature which 
has already been produced bearing on these same regions may be truly described as 
stupendous, this latest addition to it can claim that it throws light upon many 
spots which have hitherto been obscure. It also points the way for further advances 
in directions in which modern science will enable the explorer of the future to 
unravel problems which were beyond the powers of those of days gone by. 

Sikkim and Bhutan. By J. Claude White, C.I.E. 326 pp., with a 
ar index and numerous illustrations. 4to. London, 1909. Arnold. 

The book is the outcome of twenty-one years’ experience on the north-east frontier 
of India. The author enjoyed unique advantages in studying the geography and 
people of Sikkim, Bhutan and Southern Tibet, and has succeeded in comaiiing & 
most useful and instructive record of his observations. Sikkim is first dealt with and 
a short history of the State is given, followed by interesting accounts of expeditions 
and explorations in the interior. 

Bhutan is more fully treated and the historical account of the country given 
by the author is particularly valuable as it represents practically the only work 
that exists on the subject. Not the least interesting portion of the book is 
that which reviews and explains the foreign relations between Bhutan and the 
neighbouring states of China, Tibet, Nepal and India. A chapter is also devoted 
to the records of the various missions which have visited the country from as far 
back as 1774. “ 

Across the Sahara from Tripoli to Bornuw. By Hans Vischer, M.A. 
F.R.G.S., Political Service, Northern Nigeria. 304 pp., with map an 
illustrations. 8vo. London, 1910. Edwin Arnold. 12/6. 

The author, who is a Swiss, educated and naturalized in England, and now’ 
holds the position of Director of Education in the Protectorate, is introduced to the 
public in a preface by Sir H. H. Johnston; and a brief history of Tripoli is given 
in an Introduction 

Mr. Vischer graphically describes his journey, undertaken during the latter half 
of 1906. in a general southerly direction, from the Mediterranean to Northern 
Nigeria. The town of Tripoli, called Trablus by the natives, and ite surroundings, 
are first described. The earlier portion of the journey was, in the main, Barth's 
route—up the Yenduba plateau to Gharian, with its ruined castles and vi es, to 
Mizda with its Roman remains, situated in the Sofejin, once a fertile valley, but 
now a desert, and across the Hamdda el Homr (or Red Rocky plateau) to the Gate 
of the Hamada, where there is a plentiful supply of water, and still farther south 
to Wanzerig in Wadi Shiati, where the solemn function of tea drinking was gone 
through with the Senussi; at the last-mentioned place, the advance of the sand dunes’ 
since Barth’s time, everywhere prevalent, was particularly noticeable. : 

The next section of the route was almost identical with that followed by Erwin 
von Bary, namely, through Tekertiba to the depression of Murzuk, which is described 
in considerable detail, with an account of the stay there, short notes on the 
history of Fezzan, and particulars of the Tuareg, of the Frabs and Fezzani, of the 
Kanuri and Mandara. and of the Tubbu. ; 

There is a remarkable contrast between the country southwards from Tripoli to 
the southern borders of Fezzan, and that lying soufh of Gatrun oasis, where the 
author entered on the wildest part of his route, passing through # howling wilder- 
ness, a real desert, for 250 miles, as far as Bir Ahmer, all traces of life having 
long ago been wiped out, whereas north of Gatrun signs of human occupation are 
everywhere evident—Gharian, Mizda, and the oases of Fezzan are still inhabited, 
during some months of the year a regular rainfall is experienced in the mountains, 
and water ia still fairly plentiful. 

ea i te is I lg US 




From Gatrun the route led to the black mountains of Tummo, and to Bilma, the 
first populated oasis south of Gatrun, which the desert people place in .Bornu terri- 
tory, and thence southwards past Agadem to Kukawa and Lake Chad, and finally to 
Maifoni in the Bornu district of Northern Nigeria. 

The author had many exciting experiences, and, on several occasions, the tribes- 
men were only kept at bay by his laps veg | a bold front, while there was an actual 
fight with the Tuareg at Teper. n the south of the Gatrun oasis. It will be of 
great interest to many to earn that the slave caravans, such as existed in the 
olden days, of which ample evidence was found in the bleached bones and skulle of 
the captives, have now quite vanished on the roed from Bornu to Fezzan and Tripoli. 
The work contains much, apart from mere travel, which is of interest and importance 
alike to the geologist, the ethnologist, and the archwologist. 

The book is illustrated yy photographs and cuts, and is accompanied by the mye 
repared by the Ro cograp ical Society for the author's paper in ) 
md Eg Journal for March, 1909. There are appendices on the salt substitutes 

fon. the natives of Bornu, and on the stone implements collected during the 

The spelling of place-names is not, in some instances, in accordance with the 
rules of the Royal Geographical Society, oo. dj is sometimes, though not invariably, 
Sy adh j, and teh for ch, as in Djebel, Djerma, for Jebel, Jerma, and Afretch for 

The Military Geography of Russia with short accounts of that of Germany and 

Austro-Hungary (Boennaa Teorpasia). By Captain E. Zavadski, 184 pp., with 10 


tch maps, 8vo. St. Petersburg, 1909. 3/24. 

The author is an instructor at the Nicolas Oavalry School at St. Petersburg, 
and this treatise has been compiled as a text-book for use in military educational 
establishments on the lines required by the new programme of work laid down by 
Re ge opp of September, 1909. The book is elementary in character and contains little 

at is new. 

The first 88 pages are devoted to a Lr erie review of the strategic ition of 
the Russian Empire. A few points are of interest. It is acknowledged that in the 
event of war with Germany, Russia will be driven to act upon the defensive, at first 
at all events. 

In Central Asia the Kushk line of advance is recommended. It is interesting to 
note that though the mass of Russian troops have no opportunity of training in 
mountain warfare, most of the theatres of war in which there is a possibility of 
their being employed are mountainous, “f. Galicia, the Near, Middle and Far East. 

Russia is rich in natural resources. Her harvest is times as great as that of 
Germany, her number of horses in proportion to the population is 3} times as _— 
On the other hand. while the density of population of European Russia is only per 
square kilometre that of Germany is 112, and Russia is poorly provided with factories 
for the working of her rich mineral resources. 

A further element of Imperial weakness lies in the diversity of the population. 
Only 66 per cent. are of Russian race and a large proportion of the remainder, 
pou | as the Tartare (11 per cent.), Poles (7 per cent.), Finns (5 per cent.), Jews 
(4 per cent.), and Letts (3 per cent.) live on the confines of the Empire. 

While the capacity of railways in European Russia is estima at 20 pairs of 
trains for a single line and 50 pairs for a double line, that of the Trans-Caspian 
line is calculated at only 5 to 6 pairs, of the Kushk branch at 12 pairs and of 
the Orenburg line at only 10 pairs. 

Pages to 149 contain brief appreciations of the Finnish, Western, Caucasian, 
Central Asian and Far Eastern theatres of war. 

The remainder of the book is occupied ‘by general accounts of the military 
geography of Germany and Austria-Hungary with a description in greater detail of 
their eastern frontiers. 

A Military Geography of Russia and its Frintiers  (Boenuaaa Teorpacia). By 
V. R. Kannenberg. 18 

pp., with 9 maps. 6vo. St. Petersburg, 1909. V. Bere- 

govski. 5/-. 

This work is divided into two parts. The first comprises q general review of 
the geographical and economic features of the Russian Empire, the distribution of 
the population, the natura] and agricultural resources, communications, industries, 
trade, finances, and armed strength. 

A short historical sketch of the expansion of the Empire is given in an Appendix. 

The seoond part deals with the various sections of the frontiers of Russia as 

ssible theatres of operations. Chapters are devoted to Finland, the Baltic Provinces, 
oland, the Dalpee ore front, the Black Sea coast, the Caucasus, Turkestan, the 
Western-Chinese frontier of Siberia, Trans-Baikal, the Amur and Littoral Provinces. 
All the local factors which affect military operations, such as climate, natural and 
artificial obstacles, carrying capacities of railways and waterways, local resources 
in supplies and transport and facilities for billeting are examined in detail... The 
advantages and disadvantages each theatre may offer to an invader, and its suitability 
for defence, or as a base for offensive operations, are di d in a y at 
the end of each chapter. Thus the conclusions put forward as regards Turkestan 
are as follows :— 

“Turkestan is not in itself an advantageous or convenient base for military 
operations against our neighbours. In this district, with its strange and possibly 
hostile population, in any case a population requiring control, the local troops must 
be considered inadequate for active operations, and we must bring up fresh troops; 
we must also import supplies; we cannot consider the frontier safe from invasion. 
The climate and local resources are very unfavourable for European troops. The 
existing railways should be double tracked, and a connection with the Siberian 


Railway established. If we contemplate using Turkestan merely as a base for 
operations against our neighbours we must always bear in mind the possibility both 
of invasion and of a popular rising. We must secure our hold of the country when 
assembling our forces by holding the roads, and points such as Merv, Askhabad (the 
starting point for Khorasan), the Charjui railway bridge, and road centres such as 
Samarkand and Skobelev.”’ 

The is intended to serve as a text book for the course of military geography 
laid down for the Russian military schools. The maps are poor afd there is no 
index, but in other respects the matter is clearly written and well arranged. 

the Militury Geography of Russia (Boewnaa Yeorpasia Poccis). By Gisser and 
Markov. 118 pp. with 6 maps. 8vo. St. Petersburg, 1909. Military District 
Press. 2/8, 

The opening chapter deals with the theory of military geography. The remainder 
of the book is devoted to the European and Asiatic frontiers pi Desde. These are 
divided into 16 sections, each of which is examined separately as a possible tieatre 
of operations. ‘ . 

The book would be more useful if the subject were treated in greater detail. 

In the maps no distinction is made between single and double-track railways. 

Russian Turkestan (Becb Pyccuiii 1ypKeciant). -By E. E. Geyer. 308 pp., with 2 
maps, index and official almanac of 32 pp. Tashkent, 1908. C. R, Konopka — 6/4. 

This work describes the whole extent of country which comes under the general. 
name of Russian Turkestan, and includes the Previnces of Syr Daria, Ferghana, 
Samarkand, Trans-Caspia, Semirechia and the Khanates of Khiva and Bokhara. 
general idea of the country itself is given and the provinces are then each described 
m turn, the mountain ranges, rivers, natural water basins, steppes, &o., all being 
touched upon, as well as the flora, fauna, agricultural, mineral and other products. 
Great care is taken in the description of the system of irrigation by canals, the 
names of the most important of which are given. The characteristics of the various 
tribes are stated and explained, the Khirghiz being described in greater detail than 
the others. Mention is made of the schools and system of education, and also of the 
industries carried on by the native population. The administrative divisions of the 
various provinces are clearly shown and a short description is given of all towns of 
any importance. Railways are touched upon but not in any detail. The official 
almanac gives the names of the higher officials in every department of the public 
service. The pictures are reproductions of photographs and the map is just large 
enough to show the main features of the country. : 


(For abbreviations, see page 1405.) 


Navier and the Flight of Birds. By Captain Raibaud (with remarks by 
Major Estienne). R. d’A., February. 

Dirigible Balloons and Aeroplanes, their Utility from a Military Point 
of View. Belgian General Staff. B.P.B.M., 15th Me vba 

The Command of the Air and War. By Captain Ottolenghi. R.A.G., 
February, p. 278. 

The Parseval Non-rigid System for Airships. By Major von Parseval. 
K.T.Z., April, p. 172. 

The New German Military Airship, M. III. K.T.Z., April, P. 161. 

Essay on the Utilization of Dirigibles and Aeroplanes in War. By 
Major Besseyre des Horbs. R.M.G., April. 

Aerial Navigation in Germany (Conclusion). By Lieutenant-Colonel 
Svietchine. J.8.M., 15th May, Ist June. 

A Consideration of the Use from a Military Point of View of Dirigibles 
and Aeroplanes. By Pats-Pomarnatski. I.J. (No. 4) 1910, p. 43. 

on for Aerial Navigation. By Captain Reinfe d. LJ. (No. 2), 1910, 

. 21. 

A How Airships are Likely to Affect War. Major B. Baden-Powell, 
Lecture. J.U.8.1., May, p. 555. 

The Army Balloon Factory. B.A., 22nd April, p. 458. ‘ 

Notes on Aeronautics (Continued). By Captain W. St. G. Kirke, 
R.G.A. -P.U.8.1., April, p. 217. : 

Aeronautics in Relation to Imperial Progress and Defence. By Major 
H. Bannerman-Phillips. U.S8.M., May, P- 197. 

The Aerial Scout: Dirigible or Aeroplane? By Lieut. E. A. K. Cross- 
field. U.S.M., May, p. 207. 

— — = iio 
_ Re A 



Indirect ea? ee Field Artillery (Conclusion). By Captain. J. G. 
R.T.C., March, April. 

Rifled Guns in 1742. By Benjamin Robins. d’A., March. 

The Supply of Ammunition for Artillery in tke French Army (To be 
continued). By Captain P. Farsac, French Artillery. d’A., March. 
i bi ny Quisling Fuse Wrench for Dise or Ring Fuses. atorial ‘R. d’A. 


Report of the Pea Artillery Experimental Committee for 1909. 
M. Art., April 

Ped-rai Wheels el Heavy Guns. By Major-Gen. Bahn. I.R. (Suppl. 

133), 1910 p. 
e Rep bootable of Ammunition in the German Field Artillery. 
A.M. 3 (1.) " Febrenry, p. 125. 
The Indian — Columns. By Lieut.-Col. J. F. Cadell, R.F.A. 
P.R.A.I., March 1 
The Action of rtillery on the Defensive. By Major Bourguet. L.S.M., 
15th March. 
Methods of Employment of Field Artillery she pa and Germany 
(Conclusion). By E.L. J.8.M., 15th March, Ist 
An Essay on the Training "and Education of g i By Colonel 
J. Rouquerol, J.8.M., 1st March. 
The Employment of Coast Guns against Ships. By H. Moosbrugger. 
M.A.G., March, Ps 
The Work of Field Artillery in Fortress Warfare as exe om: by 
the Experiences at Port Arthur. By N. Kobylin. M.A.G., March, p 
Field Artillery in Fortress Warfare, according to the rn dott se! 
Port Arthur (Continuation and Conclusion). By ony 3 Vay wal Engel, 
8rd Field Artillery Regiment, Austro-Hungarian Arm ag 
The Attack of Warships ; the Value of Tables setae te the Effect of 
at me wd porta Rudolph Veit, 4th Fortress Artillery Regiment, 
The Employment a Field Artillery in Fortress Warfare. A.M.B. (I.), 
March, p. 165; April, p. 289. 
The Attack o Shielded Batteries, By Major-Gen. Richter. A.M.B. 
(I.), March, p. 186. 
The Training of French Artillery Officers. A.M.B. (I.), March, p. 193. 
The Austrian Regulations for Practice for Field Howitzers. By Lieut.- 
Gen. von, Rohne. A.M.B. (I.), March, p. 198. 
— ‘Attack of Cupolas. By Captain Berger. A.M.B. (I.), March, 
Fire Tactics and eo: ete of Modern Fire-arms (Conclusion). By 
Ores. Fisher. A.M.B, (I.), March, p. 220. 
Ordnance for Finng Bombs. K.T. Z., 1910, 193. 
a Contribution to the Knowledge by the Pendulum 
Motion of Projectiles. By Dr. F. Neesen. J.D.A.M. (I. on 1910, p. 523. 
The Shrapnel-Fire of Guns of Medium Calibre. y Captain de 
Vonderweid. .A.G., March, p. 399. 
Progressive Artillery Fire. J.8.M., 15th May. 
Russian Artillery Tactics. A.M.B. (L. ), 1910, p. 
Artillery Patrols, as laid down in the German ricld Artillery Drill- 
Book. By Capt tain Abel. A.M.B. (I.), 1910, p. 359. : 
Artillery ssons ge the Russo-Japanese War. By Major-Gen 
Richter. A.M.B. (I.), 1919, p. 382 
A Study of the ifferent Actions of Breech Mechanisms. By Com- 
mandant O. B. J.S.M., Ist May : 
ae a Horses (Coubtustion). Report of a French Commis- 
sion. ril, May. ‘ ; 
A Short Adeade on Artillery in Battle. By Major Masselin. R.M.G., 
Is the Artillery Question Settled? (Conclusion). Bad Lieut. Johann 
Hanika, Austro-Hungarian Army. O.M.Z., April, 
The Air Resistance of ne 8% According to the, Kinetic Theory of 
Gases. By Colonel Haupt. A.M.B. (I.), April, p. 
French Field Artillery Practice. By Lieut. “Gen. aa Rohne, A.M.B. 
(I.), April, p. 270. 


The Training of Drivers in the German Field Artillery. A.M.B. (1.), 
April, p. 307, 
ioc eee to the Krupp Independent Line of Sight. A.M.B. (I), 

p- ‘ 

The Air-Torpedo. By Lieut. J. Engel. A.M.B. (I.), April, p. 320 
The Choice of Fire Positions fer othe 24-cm. ein Mortar. By 
Captain v. Ranciglio, Austro-Hungarian Fortress Artillery. M.A.G., May, 

The Centre of Gravity in Modern Projectiles. By Lieut. Freissler, 
wey << pred cg ~~ 

e Control of the Fire of the Battery and t i i . 
By A, Maksheev. A.J., March. 2 avi 

Concerning —~ Artillery. By ‘‘Rut.’”’ A.J., March. 

A Method of Indirect Fire with Field Artillery (Continued from 
January, 1910). By Lieut.-Col. Dubois. R.T.C., May. 

; The Massing of Guns, By Major C. H. Wilson, R.F.A. U.S.M., 
pril, p. 91. 

Life and Power of Heavy Ordnance. E:, 15th April, p. 486. 

Artillery in en with-Infantry. By Major C. E. Budworth, 
.V.0., R.H.A. P.R.A.L, April, p. 1. 

Pack Artillery compared with Field Artillery for the Territorial Force. 
By Captain A. E. C. Myers, R.G.A. P.R.A.I., April, p. 15, 

Heavy Artillery—Gun versus Howitzer. By Major K. K. Knapp, 
R.G.A, P.U.8.1., April, p. 241. 

The Massing of Guns Past and Present. By Major C. Holmes Wilson, 
R.F.A. U.S8.M., April. : 

Field Artillery in Fortress Warfare (concluded). By I. Kobelin, 
Précis of translation. P.R.A.I., March. 

Some Ideas regarding the Employment of Cavalry (Conclusion). By 
R. D. J.S.M., Ist March. 
A Sketch of the Career of General Donop. Editurial. R.C., January. 
Evolutions and Tactics of German and French Cavalry (Conclusion). 

By P. 8. R.C., January, February. 
estions for French Cavalry Regulations for 1910 (Continuation). 

Editorial. R.C., January, February. 
Practical Schemes for Cavalry Officers (Continuation). Editorial, 
R.C., January, February, March. 
Criticisms by the Director of the French Cavalry Mancuvres in 1909. 

R.C., March. 
A Plea for the Simplification of the next French Cavalry Training 

Regulations. - Captain A. R.C., March. 
the Development of the Cavalry Horse (Conclusion). 

R.C., March. 

Equitation in the German Army. M.W.B., Beiheft III., 1910, p. 61. 

The New Law for the Organization of the French Cavalry. Editorial. 
R.C., February. 

famous Cavalry Encounters. The Great Cavalry Fight of Egglof- 
sheim, 22nd April, 1809. Editorial. R.C., February. 

Cavalry Telegraph Patrols. By Captain Kérner von Siegringen, 
Austrian General Staff. K.M., March, p. 191. : 

The Judging of Horses. By Dr. Paul Goldbeck, Veterinary Officer, 
2nd Dragoon Regiment. K.M., April. ' 

The Meyéhegyes Breed of Hungarian Horses. By Lieut. Dr. Stephan 
von Maddy. K.M., April. A: : 

The hiiglornsnk of Infantry Patrols against Cavalry. By Major 
Kumme, 15th Ulanen Regiment. K.M., April. . 

Cavalry Action in Previous Wars. By ajor A. S._ K.M., April. 

soem Studies for Cavalry Officers. By Major Immanuel. K.M., 
The Cavalry Divisions at the German Imperial Mancuvres of 1908 
(te be continued). By Lieut.-Col. Zuede. L.S8.M., lst and 15th May. 

Protective Cavalry. With a Map. R.M.G., March. 
Suggested Improvements for the Kquitation Regulations of the German 
Cavalry. By Colonel von Heidborn. M.W.B. (I.), 1910, pp. 1057, 1081 

and 1100. 

a ee 


Pegg By Captain v. Adolf Enge 


Some Remarks on the Organization of the German Cavalry. By 
General v. der Boeck. M.W.B. (I.), 1910, Pp. 1384 and 1410. 

What is the Best Method of Arming avail?» and how should the 
various Weapons be carried? By Lieut. E. H. von Stronstorff, Austro- 
1 aval Army. K.M., May 

= By "Major-Gen. Emil Buxbaum, Austro-Hungarian 

a Biv > § 
ivisional and Cor w M Cavalry. By Colonel von Hellingrath, Austro- 

eae Army. K. x: 

rangel as a Leader of avalry. By Anon. K.M., May 

A Short Account of the Work of the Egyptian Cavalry during the 
Atbara and Omdurman Campaigns, Part II. C.J., April 59. 

Cavalry in the Russo-Japanese War. By “3 ke 8. Hamilton- 
Grace. C.J., April, p. 213. 

Cavalry in France and i C.J., April: P 

A Cavalry Entrenching Tool y Major E ays yee! D.8.0. 
P.U.8.1., April, p. 313. 

Farther, Letters on Cavalry—Not by Prince Kraft. Anon. C.J., 

(fps ha between the Opinions on the Training and he Views of 
of Cavain recently put forward in the English Press and the iews of 
certain other Writers. By Colonel Gough. J.U.S.I., May, p 

The Local — in the Four Self-governing Colonies of South Africa, 

C.J. April P 
fa > Ware ay ‘Old. By Colonel 4 Court Repington. B.Mag., June. 

A Study on Pas Thrust of Earthworks (Conclusion). By Captain 
Tricaud. R. du G., February, March. 
Mortar and |S hatemess y M. Feret. R. du G., February. 
Work carried out by French Engineer Detachments in the is ae ay 
(Algero-Maroccan Frontier) in 1907-1908, By Lieut. Playoust. R. du G., 

War Experiences of the Russian Engi [meer r Battalions and the Conse- 
uent Teapos osals for Reorganization. M. » 10th March, p. 725; 12th 

arch, p 

Dexelitaon of a_ Factory Chimney. By Major Seurre, French En- 
gineers. R. du G., March. 

The Determination of the Exact Moment of Inertia. By Captain 
Barré, French Engineers. R. du G., Marc 

Improvised Bridges. R.M.S., April, 1910, p 303. 

The Modern ar ot ep and Greittection of Search-lights. By 
Captain Spacil. March, p. 157. 

hers of tiene n Portifectiows By Lieut.-Col. Frobenius. K.T.Z., 

ihe Fortification of Copenhagen. By Stavenhagen. K.T.Z., 1910, 

The Assault in Fortress Warfare. K.T.Z., 1910 Dae 2 
Canals and their Relation to A neaan Defence. Z. - April, p. 637. 
The Russian ag orary Field Tramways, with H “e Traction, in the 
vas of 1904-5. a ajor v. Toepfen. T. Z., 1910, 224. 
2 Sa in Defensive Works. By Majahentea” Rocchi. R.A.G., 
arch, p 
Fortress Warfare (Conclusion). By Captain Pappalardo, Italian 
Aree R.M.I., April, p. 641. 
nee anish Engineers in the Melilla Campaign. R. du G., April. 
The ork of the Russian os ge during the Defence of Port 


Austro-Hungarian Army. M.A.G., 

Rescieé Forts. By Captain Berger. A.M.B. (I.), 1910, p. 392. 
The Present State of the Question of Armoured De ences (ohtiwebtion). 
By F. Golenkin. Inj., No. 2, p. 155, 1910. 


Land Mines. Description and Deductions from the Experiences of 
Port Arthur, 1904 (continuation). B Pag “os Be 
No. 2, p. 215, 1910. inuation). By L. Debogoria-Mokrievich. © ‘Inj., 

Some Remarks on Military Engineers. By K. Inj., No. 2; p. 275, 

The Construction by Engineers of 10 Miles of Broad G e ilway i 
47 — ~ “ A sw mr Inj., April. " Bs wean 
ome of the i vanc ibiti 
ee een ott ag shown at the Nancy Exhibition of 1909, 14 
Construction, etc. R. du G., May. 


Unpublished Letters-of Napoleon I. (Continuation). French General 
Staff. .H., April, May. 

Travels on Manchurian Battlefields (Conclusion). By Lieut.-Col. 
Lavenir. R.T.C., April, May. 

The Spaniards in Marocco (Continuation). By General de Torey. 
sre Pept te April. 

udy of the 18th of August, 1870. (To be continued.) By Lieut. 

Roy. R.M.G., March. " : ge Dh xg 
_ Military Reminiscences of Major Mathieu, 1787-1815. (To be con- 
tinued.) Published by Camille Levi. L.S.M., Ist and 15th May. 

The Operations in the Vicinity of Pultusk. (To be continued.) 
French General Staff. R.H., April, May. 
o- The Armies of Louis XIV. in 1674 (conclusion). R.H., March, April, 


Soldiers of the Revolution and the Empire (Conclusion). French 
General Staff. R.H., March. 

The Campaign of 1813—The Preliminaries (Continuation). French 
General Staff. R.H., March, April, May. 

A False Manceuvre of D’Erlon on June 16th, 1815. French General 

Staff. R.H., March. 
The 1870-1871 War—National Defence in the Provinces (Continuation). 

R.H., March, April, May. 

The Husbanding of Reserves at the Battle of Ligny. By Major 
Bourguet. L.S.M., lst April. ; 

Letters of Captain Kretschman (Continuation). Translated into 
faye by Captain Latreille. L.S.M., 1st, 15th March; Ist, 15th April; 
15th May. 

The Covering of a Fortress in 1815 (Continuation). By Captain 
Blaison. L.S.M., lst March; 1st, 15th April; Ist May. ; 

The Close of the War in South Africa. By Captain Freiherr v. 
Maltzahn. V.T.H. (II.), 1910, p. 268. 

Some Additions to the History of the Russo-Turkish Campaigns, 
1877-78. O.M.Z., December, p. 1797; February, p. 199; April, p. 495. 

Explorations in Central Asia, 1906-1908. (To be continued.) By D. 
M. Aurel Stem. 8S.G.M., May, p. 225. 

The Evening after the Battle of Beaumont, 1870. By Major Lévi. 
R.M.G., February. 

The Operations of Moukhtar Pasha in Asia Minor (1877-78). By 
Captain Rodolfo Ragioni. R.M.I., April, p. 811. 

The French Mitrailleuse in 1870 (Conclusion). By F.R. R.H., April. 

The Conquest of the Hinterland of Oran; the Igli Column. (To be 
continued.) By Lieut. Guillaume. L.S.M., 15th May. 

Fischer and the Origin of the Chasseurs. (To be continued.) R.C., 
April. \ 
® The Combats on 203 Metre Hill at Port Arthur, November-December, 
1904 (Conclusion). R. du G., April, May. 

The Final Subjugation of the Fastern Caucasus (7th September, 1859, 
till 1909) (Continuation). By N, Baratov, V.S., March, April. 

The Eastern War. 1853-1856 (Continuation). By A. Zaionchkovski. 
V.S., March, April, May. ; 

The Diary of a Defender of Port Arthur (9th February, 1904, till the 
5th January, 1905) (Continuation). By N. Pobilevski. V.S., March, 

April, May. 





The General Staff in the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-9. By P. 
Geisman. V.S., March, April. 

Some Notes on the War of 1812. By A. G. V. S., rch. 

The Murgab Column and the Skirmish at Kushk » ar sketch map). 
By N. Karandakov. V.S., March. 

The Death of Count Keller. By P. von omy: I.J., No. a Eee. 

Reminiscences of General Kondratenko. ‘8.8. (L), 1 

The ee ‘gums of the Hi Chace at Rushk. By A. 
Shemanski. V.S., 

Recollections Py: the “War in Manchuria. By V. Shuf. I.J., May. 

The Question of French Bases on .the Route to India in the XVIIth 
Century. By Henri Froidevaux. Q.D., May 

The First Two Battles of Plevna (Continued), By John Formby. 
U.S.M., April, p. 54; May, p. 161. 

‘ ussia went to war with Japan. F. Rev., May, p. 816; June, 

Waterloo ond oe pe Lanne Memorandum. By Major-Gen. C. L. 
ate C.B. May, p, 582. 

Sir Robert Chider, .* Joseph W. Chambers. U.S.M,, March. 

The French Operations in Wadai (Conclusion). By Lieut,-Col. 

Largeau. R.T.C,, February, Marc 
e erations round Melilla in 1909 (Conclusion). French General 

Staff. R.M.E., March, April. 


What is the most effective Organization of the Amerioan National Red 
Oross. for War, and what should be its relation to the Medical Department 
r¢ os a, and Navy? By Asst.-Surg. Rucker, U.S., P.H. J.A.MS., 

. Mejor : Fire-arms and i. Sanitary Service in War. By Oberstabsarzt 
Schaefer, translated by P. Straub. J.A.M.S., April, p, 444. 
ome Comments on ‘ar ‘disappearance of “ Petoinne: Malaria” at 
Fort Myer, Virginia. By Major F. A. Winter, Medical Corps, U.S.A 
J.A.M. arch. 

An Account of an Instructive Typhoid Epidemic. By Major Ashburn, 
Medical Corps, U.S.A. J.A.M.S., March. . 

Military Hy iene in Cold Countries. By Captain R. H. Pierson, 
Medical Corps, U.S.A. J.A.M.S,, March. 

Insanity and Allied Conditions in the ee. and a 2 gts? Grenzzu- 
stinde in Armee und Marine.) Prof, A. Cramer. , 5th April. 

e Medical Service in the Russo-Japanese War, ai rs lessons for 
us. A.S.M., Beilage (I.), 1910, rp: 1 
‘ ene Accommodation, ygiene, e etc. By Captain E. Faure. R. 
The oii cdical Services in War (Conclusion). By Dr. Follenfant. 
J.S.M., Ist April. 

Disposal and Precilination of Excrement by means of Heat. System 
Brechot. R. du G., 

Sleeping Sickness. ‘By mu Antoine Lorty. Q.D., Ist March. 

Organization of the Medical Services in the Field in Cavalry Divisions. 
By Dr. Bodner (Medical Officer of the Kénigs-Ulanen Regiment), K.M., 


he Le Wittece of the Two Years’ Term of Service from the Medical Point 
of View (Conclusion). By Surg. -Captain Consiglio. R.M.I., April, p. 756. 
Treatment of ‘ i aM Ry me or Cummins and Captains 
Rowges and Kennedy. J.R.A April, iw 
phoid Carriers. Baitorial,” J.R.A April, p 
Moi edical History of the bang African ar. By Lieat, Col. R. J. S. 
Simpson, C.M.G., R.A.M.C. J.R.A.M., Mey Bisioe 
otes on Milita Map Reading. ajor A. P. Blenkinsop, 
R.A.M.C. J.R.A.M., May, p. 516. 
i Pe Se ‘dee <2 ae in Yemen in 1909. By Captain D. S. Skelton, 
y, p- 
The Role mf the’ Clearing Hospital. By Lieut.-Col. M. W. Russell, 
R.A.M.C. J.R.A.M., June, p 




_ Defective Vision and its Bearing on the Question of Fitness for Ser- 
— By Dr. J. Gonin, Capitaine-Medicine. R.M.S., March and April, 

Hearing and Military Service. By Oberstabsarzt Dr. Blau. D.M.Z., 
20th April, 1910, p. 289. 

Should Medical Officers be held directly responsible for the Sanitation 
and Health of the Troops with whom they serve, and if so, what should be 
their Powers and Responsibilities? By Major E. L. Munson, Med. Corps, 
U.S.A. J.M.S.1., May-June, 1910, p. 373. 


Electric Light and its uses in War (Conclusion), By Major Clarinval. 
L.S.M., Ist, 15th March; Ist, 15th April. P 

A Practical Study of the Functions of an_ Intelligence Branch in War 
nn: By Captain de Rudeval. L.S.M., Ist, 15th March; Ist, 


The Tonkinese Tirailleurs (Conclusion). By Major Bonifacy, R.T.C., 
March, April, May. 

The Shawia a (Marocco) and its Pacification (Continuation). 
By Lieut. Segonds. L.R.I., 15th March, 15th April, 15th May. 

The Use of Pointed Rifle Bullets in Spain (Continuation). Translated 
from Spanish by M. Ayrolles, R. d’A., February, May. 

‘o —— in Kurdistan. By Captain Bertram Dickson. G.J., Vol. 35, 
pril, p. é 

Problems in Exploration—Central Asia. By Ellsworth Huntington. 
G.J., Vol. 35, April, p. . 

The Spoils of War taken at the Battle of Kushk and their fate. (The 
25th Anniversary of the Battle of Kushk, 18th March, 1885—18th March, 
1910.) By Shemanski. I.J., March, p. 43. : 

The Land of the Cross-bow (Burma-Yunnan Frontier). By Forrest. 
N.G.M., February, p. 132. 

The Organization of Cyclist Units (Conclusion). By Lieut. Pauly. 
J.S.M., 15th March, ist April. 

The British Imperial Defence Committee. French General Staff. 
R.M.E., March. 

The Value of Alliances from a Naval Point of View. By G. Blanchon. 
Q.D., 1st March. 

Regimental Theatres. By Captain de Pighetti. J.S.M., lst April, 

The Question of Coloured Troops and the Recruitment of Natives 
- eg (Conclusion). By Captain Pierre Ancier. J.S.M., Ist, 15th 

. The Question of Coloured Troops and the Recruitment of Natives 
in Algeria. By Lieut. Le Passant. J.8.M., lst March. 
e Question of Coloured Troops and the Recruitment of Natives in 
Algeria. By Lieut. A. Raspail. J.S.M., lst May. 

The Empire of the Pacific Ocean (Conclusion). Belgian General Staff. 
B.P.B.M., 28th February, 15th March. 

An Analysis of the British Field Service Regulations. By Colonel 
Septans. R.M.C., February. 

r whe Pistol as a Weapon. By Captain von Kénig-Mosurau. K.M., 

“ Tavernier’s Travels in Mesopotamia. By R. Campbell Thompson, 

M.A., F.R.G.S. §.G.M., March. 

The British Army in India, Part I. (To be continued). By Captain 
Maroix. R.T.C. (I.), February, p. 139. 

Hand Grenades. 8.Z.A.G., 1910, p. 141. 

The Rivers of Eritrea. By Captain Malladra. R.M.I., March, p. 473. 

eget of the Spanish Remount Department in 1909. ._M. Art., April, 

On the Testing of Rifles for Accuracy. By Lieut.-Gen. H. Rohne. 
J.D.A.M. (I1.), 1910, p. 385. : 

On the Shores of. Manasarowar (Continued). Adventures of two ladies 
in Tibet. By E. C. M. Browne. T.E., ay, p. ; 

Description of the Mexican Automatic Rifle. R.M.S., May, p. 379. 

Military Preparedness. By Major-Gen. W. H. Carter, U.S.A. 
N.A.R., Vol. 191, p. 636, May. 



ee er eee 



The Training School for Bakers and Cooks at Fort Riley, Kansas. By 

Lieut. Sherrard Coleman. 8. arc 
State of the Chinese Army, Ist March, eo R. eo" a ., May. 
The Soldier’s Morale (To be continu R.C., April. 

Reinforced Concrete as Flooring. R. rin G., Ae 
The Soldier’s Boot. By G. Chertov. V.S., 
Esperanto, an Patecenbhoen! Language. By Ca soe A. Engel 
Fortress Artillery, Austro-Hungarian Army. .M 
Optical Instruments as an aid to directing Fine By. Lieut. Hudler, 
Austro-Hungarian Army. M.A.G., May 
A eee 3 Method of Se the Velocity of Bullets. By 
Captain Bensberg and Dr. Cranz. A.M.B. (I.), 1910, p. 333. 
e Organization and Réle of the Intendance in Contemporary War 
(To be continued). gs ys Yanushkevich of the Russian General 
Staff. V.S., March, April, M 
Should the Use of Alcohol be te oma’ in Moderation or altogether 
Suppeeeny By E. V. Sajin. March, April. 
A Comparison of the mer of the Service # Su Supe: in iA ee 
Army in the Wars of 1877-78 and 1904-05 
Four-wheeled Field Kitchens with Two hla ns and hai? si "Lo be 
continued). : May 
The Question of French’ Ports of Call on the P egy to India during 
the 17th Century. By Henri Rinidgraus: Qt D., May, p. 612. 
Lime and Cement. By M. Bied. R. du G., May. 
Mathematical Science, etc. R. du G., May. 
Military Reforms. J.8.M., lst June. 
The Swedish Army (To be continued). Belgian General Staff. 
B.P.B.M., 15th May. 
The sources of Persia. T.M., June, p. 182. 
The English Army: A French View. C. , April, p. 481. 
aa? Recognition of Warships. By H. R. Ingersoll. N.M., April, 

Pd Rides. By Major Wade-Brown, R.A.M.C. J.R.A.M., April, 

The Ruwenzori Country. C.0O.J., April, p. 294. 

Necessity of Press Censorship in War. By Lieut. Dewar, R.N. 
U.S.M., April, 

Stonewall Sacdeson Some! Current Criticisms. By ‘‘ Hotspur.’’ 
U.S.M., April, eI 
‘ Dutele and elgian Independence. By Captain C. Battine. N.C., 
pril, p. 

sett ini's — Invasion or Starvation. By Archibald Hurd. F. 

ay, Pp. 
“om and Pon. au Escott. F. Rev. May, P 933. 
On Methods of ring ‘Mite History. "By aptain The Earl 

Percy. U.S.M., May, p. 17 
oan Efficient National Army. By Lieut.-Col. A. Pollock. N.C., May, 

3 The Necessity for Officers of All Branches wei | the Problems 
involved i r the Defence of Coast Fortresses. By Colonel R. W. James, 
R. . P.R.A.I., May, p. 48. 

The Royal Military | Eatin, By R. Carlyle. Mag., June, p. 121. 

Rasplata 1s ens By Commander Somer (Translation). 
J.U.8.1., March, 

“Surprises ar Srkebaths. By Major W. 8S. Bannatyne, p.s.c. 
U.S.M., March, April. 


The Use of Automobiles for Military Purposes (To be continued). By 
Captain Vannier. J.8.M., Ist, 15th April; Ist May. 

The Motor Wagon in the’ Army ( nelusion). "By Lieut.-Col. Mag- 
giorotti. R.A.G., February, p. 192; March, p. 

Electric Traction in War Time. R.M.S. May, “p. 359. 

Columns of Vehicles on — ener R.M. 8., May, p. 365. 

Wheel Belts. R.M.S., May, Bere 

The Use of Motors for the Vaubpodt of Troops. By T. Clarkson, 
J.U.8.1., April, p. 450. 


Report on Mechanical Road Transport for India. By Captain E. N. 
Manley, R.E. P.P.R.E., Vol. 2 (Paper 2), 1909-10. 

The Caterpillar. B.A., May 27th, p. 598. 

The Adaptation of the Automobile and other forms of Mechanical 
Traction to Military Needs (To be continued). By V. Zlatglinski. V-.S., 
March, April, May. 


A Set of Regulations for Internal Administration (Conclusion). By 
General H. Cremer. L.S.M., Ist, 15th March; 1st, 15th April; Ist May. 

War and Compulsory Service (Conclusion). By Colonel Sainte- 
Chapelle. J.8.M., 1st March. 

Some Suggestions for Army Reorganization (Conclusion). By R. D. 
J.S.M., Ist May, Ist June. 

War Organization for the United States. By Major-Gen. W. H. 

Carter, U.S.A. J.M.8.I., Vol. 46, May-June. 

The Foundation of Army Reorganization. R.M.I., February, p. 86. 

The Bulgarian ome & y N. Surin. V.S., April. 

The Action of the Three Arms and the Organization of Cavalry. By 
General F. v. Bernhardi. M.W.B. (I.), 1910, pp. 1643, 1680, 1698. 

The Mechanism of Oversea Expeditions. By Captain C. F. Dobbs, 
I.A. P.U.8.1., April, p. 233. 
* om Principles of Organization and Equipment, Royal Engineers. 

.E.J., May, p. ; 

Supply of Horses on Mobilization. By Captain H. Kerremans, R.A. 

Dutch East Indies. U.S.M., April. 


The real Status of the Panama Canal as regards Neutralization. By 
Captain H. S. Keowee, U.S Navy. U.S.N.I., perch. p- 61. 

A General Study of the Eastern Questiori. y Captain Guidon. 
J.S.M., 15th April. 

The Constitutional Experiment in India. By the Right Hon. Syed 
Ameer Ali, C.I.E. N.C., March, p. 394. 

Our Weak Policy in Persia. By Maurice B. Blake. N.C., March, 


p. 544. 

Chinese Action in Thibet, and the Political Situation in Central Asia, 
By Charles Mourey. L.A.F., March, p. 114. 

Alsace-Lorraine and Self-government. B.U., May, p. 370. 

Greater Germany, By Jean d’Epée. J.S.M., 15th May. 
9 5 otente Cordiale among South American States. By Henri Lorin. 

.D., lst May. 

Japan in 1909. By Roger Dorient. Q.D., May. 

Turkey and the Arab Countries. | H. Marchand. Q.D., Ist May. 

The Franco-American Commercial Treaty. By P. Chemin-Dupontes. 


idward VII. By Paul Villars. Q.D., May. ; 

The Yellow Question in Russia’s Provinces in the Far East (Conclusion). 
By L. Bolkhovitinov. V-S. arch. _ : 

A Journey through Bokhara (Continuation). By D. N. Legofet. V.S., 
March, April, May. ctor 

The Late Events in Bokhara. By A. Djidjikhiya. , 

Persia and the Powers. By M. Robert de Caix. L.A.F., April, p. 179. 

Persia: The Internal Situation: The English Blue Book: Germany 
and the Navigation of Lake Urmia. L.A.F., April, p. 206. 

Persian Affairs and the Baghdad Railway. By M.R.C. L.A.F., 
May, p. 222. al 
Persia and the Powers.—A Turco-German Entente—British Commerce 
in the Persian Gulf—The Internal Situation. L.A,F., May, p. 256. 

The American Gibraltar. By Commodore W. H. Beehler. J.M.S.1., 
March-April p. 227. 

The War of the Future (Continuation). By Major Hoppenstedt. 
(French translation). B.P.B.M., 28th February; 15th, 3lst March; 15th 
April; 30th April; 15th May. 

A Noa echiascitn ct 


A Study ¥ the Tactical Employment of Infantry Machine Guns (Con- 
clusion). By Lieut. Vichier-Guerre. L.R.1., 15th March. 
The Use of Angles for Military Purposes. By General Perein. J.S.M., 

15th March. 
A Stud Ry the Réle of the Strategic Advanced Guard. By Captain 
Brosse. J. » 15th March, 

The Jap ma a in Manchuria: A Strategical Study (Continuation). By 
Lieut.-Col. leaner L.R.1., 15th March, 15th April, 15th May 
The Tactics of the Natives of the Eastern Sahara ieeainaiens By 
: Lieut. Ferrandi. R.T.C., April, May. 
M The Co-operation of the Three , Ao LR. (Beihaft cot 1910, p. 1. 
i Japanese Manoeuvres (November, 1909). L.S.M., 
War and Policy. From the Memoirs and Military: Works of Field 
Marshal Graf v. Mo tke. V.T.H. (II.), 1910, p. 173. 
Strategical Geography and Coast Defence Of kee saree Captain 
Bravetta, Italian Navy. R.M.I., March, 
Group Leading in the Infantry. iW. i) Pats 720 1147. 
Dense age | ines. By Lieut.-Col. v. Hul sen. 5 ep. (I.), 1910, pp. 
750, 777, 798, , 1035, 13851, 1423, 1428. 
The Ree in Close Formations. M.W.B. (I.), 1910, p. 1408. 
The French Manceuvres in the Bourbonnais in 1909. (To | be continued.) 
B.P.B.M., 30th Agel, 15th ng 
a . Third Stu y of Alpine Tactics. By Captain Calvet. R.M.G., 

Protection and Reconnaissance at the German Manceuvres of 1909. 
By Major D. R.M.G., April. 

On the Subject of the Second Degree Tactical “yy on Admission to 
the French Staff College. By Major Jette. R. Ag 

A Study on the Tactical Handling of Sections. y Lieut. Jaray. 
J.S.M., Ist June. 

Outposts in Fortress Warfare. M.W.B. (I.), 1910, BPR 1693, 1720. 

The Position of Section and Squad Commanders. ajor O. Schulz. 
J.D.A.M. (I.), 1910, p. 616. 
Ps 7 y in a New Light. A Rejoinder. By “ Fantassin.”?’ U.S.M., 


The’ Use of Pack Pa ares in a Warfare. By Lieut. P. C. 

Chapman, R.A. P.R.A Apri 5 Fate 
ilway Concentration. Xprit fajor Hd A. Cameron, R.E., and Captain 

J, Charteris, R.E LD ae 
Artillery in Cooperation wi with nfantry. By Major C. E. D. Bud- 
worth, M.V.O., April, p. 1. 

isnt Combats and Night 5 et 4 (Summary). J.U.8.1., April, 
_ Ee in a New Light. By Major C. O. Head. U.S.M., May, p 

“The Panama Canal, its Strategic and Economic Value. By Major 
E, M. Paul, R.E. ‘P.R.AL, March. 

Machine Guns in support of Artillery. By Captain Génie. J.8.M., 
1st March. 


a Training of the R.E, Companies of a Division. By Colonel 
R. U. Buckland, R.E., A.D.C. J.U.8.1., May, p 
e: Some coum regarding the Training of R.A, Prerritorial Officers. 
R ay, 
Orders in the Field. By Colonel C. E. Callwell, C.B. N.D., March. 

The New Musketry Regulations for the German Infantry. (Trans- 
lated from the German). J.U.8.1., March, 

Training for War. B. Infantry Machine Guns. C. Night rr, 
D. Night Fighting. By Lieut.-Gen. Graf von Haslingen. J.P. 
pp. 247, 347, 471. 

Exercises for promoting Co-operation between me and Si 
By Major-Gen. Richter. .W.B., 5th April, p. 101 

The Principles of a Rational System of listeandatte Training (Con- 
clusion), By Dr. Wibin, Belgian Medical Service. B.P.B.M., 2 
February ; 15th, 31st March; 15th April. 


The Improvements in Fire-arms and their effect on Tacties and 
Methods of Training (Conclusion). By Captain Matuchet. J.S.M., Ist, 
15th April; lst May. 

Considerations aaiodions the ege * Judging avaeeee and Range- 
finding Competition and Exercises. O.M March 

Observations on the Manceuvres of the ti and XIV Corps i in Carinthia, 
2nd—7th September, 1907 (To be continued). By General of Infantry 
N. Lang. O.M.Z., April, p 

Communications trom ye Austro-Hungarian School of Musketry. 
Indirect Fire of Infantry. O.M.Z., April, - 

Training with a view to fostering the ighting Spirit. M.W.B. (I.) 
(1910), pp. 1250, 1269, 

Education and Instruction of the Men and the Permanent Staffs in the 
ae (To be continued). By Major de Blondeau. J.S.M., 15th May, 

st June. 

Rules for Training in Peace and War (To be continued). R.C., April. 

Reflections on = Training of British and Indian Troops. By A. W. 
P.U. = I., April, p. 317 

he Réle of the Umpire in Manceuvres (To be continued). By V. 
Origertst: V.S., April and May 

Respect for Fire. By K. Buiniteki. V.S., 

Communications from the Aectro thekpisies’ patel of Musketry. 
Considerations regarding a Flat Trajectory. O.M.Z 

The New Japanese Infantr Rr ih M Manual. (To hs continued). 
Translated by Major Painvin. May. 

The French Army Manceuvres in the Bourbonnais in 1909. By Colonel 
Le Gros. R.M.G., February. 

The German imperial Manceuvres a oe (Conclusion). French 
General Staff. March, April, 

The nein Imperial Maneeuvres in “909 (To be continued). By 
Lieut.-Col. Streicher. L.R.I., 15th May. 


The Transport of Heavy Material across Rivers, Canals, &c. By 
Lieut. Hermit Kosmutza, 12th Pioneer Battalion, Austro-Hungarian Army. 
M.A.G., April. 

Marching and va. Arrangements for = Army Corps advancing 
je One Road. lst number, 1910, 160. 

6 ee Vehicles on Manceuvres. By Major Koenig. M.W.B., 

mes Paice of held and Transport. By Captain Striedinger, A.8.C. 
A.8.C., April 
The vow of the Transport Service in the Field with the German 
—_ Corps. Translated from the ‘‘ Revue Militaire.’’ A.S.C., April, 

Travelling Kitchens. By Colonel Edye, A.S.C. A.8.C., April, p. 577. 
The Evolution of Organized Military Transport. By Lieut. Scott, 
A.S.C. A.8.C., April, p. 599. 




ee on of Medical Services, Foreign Armies. Part III. Austria- 

port on t on the Examination for Certificates A and B, Officers Training 
Corps, November, 1 
‘ rt on the Examination for Promotion, Subjects (d) to (j), Decem- 
Report of the Army Qualifyin ‘Examination, March, 1910. , 
Handbook on Contagious and Infectious Diseases in Animals. [India.] 
Indian Staff College Provisional Memoranda, 1910. 






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...| Schweizerische Zeitschrift fiir Artillerie 


Sc Pw ppp 


9 wg 3 ot States Cavalry Association] 


...| United Service Magazine (Colburn 8). 

mpin in 

Journal of the United Service Insti- 
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.| Kavalleristische Monatshefte 

Pe Zeitschrift 

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...| Mittn. uber Gegenstande des ‘Art.- u. 
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| Memorial de Artilleria 

Monthly Bulletin of the Bureau of 
American Republics 

...| McClure’s Magazine 

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.| Marine-Run 

Nineteenth Century 

| Neue Militirische Blatter. 

zugleich an der regatta. 
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of India ... 
Questions diplomatiques ‘et coloniales.. 

. Rivista di Arti lieria oo Genio = 4 
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Revue des Deux Mondes... 

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Revue d'Histoire ... ; 

. ee du service de V'intendance mili- 

..| Revue militaire des Armées étrangtres 
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Revue des Troupes Coloniales |. 

und Genie 
United States Artillery Journal... 

| United States Infantry Association 
Journal . 

Vyestnik Russkoi Konnifsi __.. 

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und Heereskunde és 

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St. Petersburg. 
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OFFICIAL HISTORY (Naval and Military) 

Prepared by the Historical Section of the Imperial Defence 
Committee. To be completed in three volumes. 

Volume I. will be ready on or about the 27th October. 
PRICE, with a Case of Maps, I5/- 

To be obtained from THE GOVERNMENT SALE AGENTS, either 
directly or through any Bookseller. 


SORMLAM, LONDON.” By Special Appointment to 

B.R.B. Che Prince of Wales. 


Jones, Chalk & Dawson, 

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No. 5503 GERRARD. 


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"a > 

National Defence 





The Editor invites contributions from all who are interested in 
any aspect of the problem of National Defence, and particularly 
from Officers holding His Majesty’s Commission at home and in 
the Colonies. 

The issue of this Magazine published on Feb. 15, 1910, 
was the first number of a new Quarterly Series. 

| When it was originally determined to extend the work ot the 
|| National Defence Association by the publication of a magazine 
|, devoted exclusively to Defence questions, it was thought wise to issue 
it monthly for the first year or so in order to attract the attention of 
persons interested, both at home and in the British Dominions over- 
seas, more rapidly than would have been possible in the initial stages 
with a periodical appearing only once in every three months. 

This work of publicity has now been adequately performed. 

‘‘ National Defence ” has in a little over a year attained a recog- 
nised position as a first-class periodical dealing with Naval aud 
Military subjects ; it is regularly and most favourably noticed by all 
newspapers of standing both at home and abroad, and it has a wide 
and increasing circulation; therefore, they have now agreed to 
place the Magazine on a permanent basis, and with this end in view 
they have decided upon quarterly publication in 1910 and thereafter. 

Price to Annual Subscribers 10/- yearly, or 
with postage to any part of the World, 11/4. 

HUGH REES, Ltd., 119, Pall Mall, London, S.W. 

Copies can be obtained of ALL Booksellers, Newsagents and Railway Bookstalls. 


This invaluable Publication is subscribed for by all the leading Clubs, Home, Indian, 
Colonial, and Territorial Messes. 

‘* NATIONAL DEFENCE " is officially in the hands of ALL Secretaries and Authorities of 
the County Associations, who are the sole authorised buyers of Uniforms, Equip- 
ment and general supplies for the Territorial Army of Great Britain. 

All Applications for Advertisement Space in this Magazine should be made to— 


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RAINPROOFS. of the following Illustrations :— 

(Military, Civilian, or er 
Ladies’, Boys’ or Girls.’ ) St. George. From the Painting by RAPHAEL 

: in the Louvre. Size, Fifteen Inches by Twenty 
BEAR AN Oe cE Inches. Price One Shilling. Free by post, 
sre yon ateenn Winona fate i . carefully packed inside patent roller. 
hsan out ae pointed 4 Statue (with Redestal) of General 
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Ready for wear, in all sizes and j 7 HAMO THORNYC R.A. — Size, 
je styles, or made to a j — yg ve Fifteen Inches co — 
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and moreoee, of the tesere of patent role. 
Saget eg cold, clammy linen- isbstaleked Ao Wonve Publishers: GILBERT WOOD & CO., Ltd., 
relate : 6-11, Imperia! Bldgs., Ludgate Circus, London, E.C. 

SAMUEL BROTHERS, Ltd., Awarded Gold Meda’, International Health Exhibitio1. 

65 & 67, anaes Hill, ae E.C. 


OS gets a 

Cavalry Journal 

Published by Authority of the Army Council, and under the direction of General 
Sir J. D. P. FRENcH, G.C.V.O., K.C.B., K.C.M.G. , Colonel 19th Hussars, Inspector 
General of the Forces, assisted by Lieut- General Sir R. S. S. BADEN- POWELL, 
K.C.B., K.C.V.O. 

Published Quarterly, Price 2/6 net. Postage 4d. 
NOW READY. No. 20.—OCT., 1910. NOW READY. 

sas yt ss E GRANT. By Colonel H. W. PEARSE, A BRILLIANT CAVALRY EXPLOIT. By Captain 
8.0. (Illustrated H. GaARBETT, R.N, 
Sir GEORGE ARTHUR, Bart., M.V.0. (Lilustrated, ro ts sey WEAPox. § 
CHARGE OF BREDOW’S BRIGADE. By Major : soca dn . ‘ an 
P. A. CHARRIER, Royal Munster Fasiliers ss cag iS caste 12th Cavalry, I.A. 
CTION. By Captain E. FF, LASCELLES, 3rd PATIALA. (lIllustrated.) 
anon Guards. mi : oar . 
MACHINE GUNS. By Captain V. Mrerka. (With ORES. Cllustzayed. 
A teeta SPORTING NOTES. (Ilustrated.) 

SUBSCRIPTIONS should be sent direct to :—The Managing Editor at 


or Copies may be obtained by ALL Booksellers, Newsagents and Railway 
Booksellers, from 


Telephone Nos. 4680 & 46804 GERRARD. Telegraphic Address :—‘‘ GILBERWOOD, Lonpox.” 
Connoisseurs of COFFEE 

PED o"™" 

« BLUE. 

in making, use LESS QUANTITY, it being much stronger than ordinary COFFEE 

THAN A FAN An Ozone Generator 

for rendering the air of a 
room as pure and stimulating 
as that at the seaside. Single 
sets consume from 20 watts 
upwards (portable or fixed). 
Complete Ozonair Ventilat- 
ing Systems installed. Also 
Sterilizing Plants for treating 
doubtful drinking water. 
Full particulars from :— 

Ozonair, Ltd. 

96, Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Telephone No.: Victoria 12. 


Advertisements should be Pictorial if possible, and embody original 
ideas. ‘The Manager will gladly submit ideas FREE 
of cost to Advertisers. 

You See This ? 

Aim to infuse individuality in your advertisements. Whether an advertisement 
be large or small, it ought to possess some distinctive characteristic. Illustrate 
your advertisements whenever possible. Wahz/e the attention is attracted the 
story is told and the impression made. 

Don’t believe the man! 

Who says he doesn’t believe in advertising. We know aman who held that 
belief, and boasted that he never would advertise his business in any Publica- 
tion. He never did, somebody else had todoit forhim. ‘The advertisement 
was headed “ By order of the Sheriff.” 

For full particulars of Official Service Publications apply to the Secretary— 


Dacre House, Arundel Street, Strand, LONDON, W.C. 


Ir. €. Carlisle, R.A. (Cantab.), 


Major M. Hb. Gregson, late R.€. 

Prepare Candidates for all Army and Civil Service Examinations, at 

We have retained the services of all the Tutors who have been so remarkably 
successful in past years, and nes to receive both Resident and Non-Resident 

Recent Successes include: 

The following were successful from us :— 

. Whetherly, 7th Dragoon Guards. | Capt. W. A. I. Kay, King’s Royal Rifle Corps. 

. Herringham, 6th Dragoons. | » E.A. Bradford. King’s Royal Rifle Corps. 

. Pringle, Royal Field Artillery. + EH. L. Makin, Wiltshire Regiment. 

. Dooner, Roval Field Artillery. | 4, G@. E. Leman, North staffordshire Regiment, 
. H. Salmond, Royai Field Artillery. » C.M. Gibbon, Royal [rish Fusiliers. 
layton, Royal Field Artillery. Lieut. Hon. M. A. Wingfield, Rifle Brigade. 

. Hill, Royal Garrison Artillery. | Capt. S. F. Muspratt 12th Cavairy (Indian Army). 
t, L. Grant, Royal Garrison Artillery, | , V.£E.Gwyer, 10th Jats (Indian Army). 

G. Troup, Royal Marine Artillery. »  W.S. Leslie, 31st Punjabis (Indian Army). 
C. Jackson, C.M.G., Royal Engineers, | 

OH. Livesay, D.8.0., Royal West Surrey | Nominations : 

H. D. Costeker, D.S.O., Royal Warwickshire = A. Hinde, Roval Field Artillery. 

Regiment. F. M. C. Trench, Royal Field Artillery. 
E. Luard, D.8.0., Norfolk Regiment. » KR. H. Kearsley, 5th Dragoon Guards, 

H. Walford, Suffolk Regiment. » ©. F. Watson, D.8.9., Royal West Surrey 
F. Grant- Dalton, West Yorkshire Regiment. Regiment. 

A. V. Stewart, King’s Own Scottish W. Northey, D.S.0., Durham Light Infantry. 
Borderers. Capt. and Brevet Mai. Hon. R. A. Campbell, Cameron 
E. Lea. Worcestershire Kegiment. Highlanders 

R. Walsh, Worcestershire Regiment. K. Wigram, 2nd Gurkha Rifles ({ndian Army). 


. Ww. 
. E. 



Other Successes include: 



Orvices, Dacrg Hover, ARuNreL Srreet, Strand, Lonnov, W.C., WHERE ALL 
TeLePuone No. 4680 GeRRarD.