Skip to main content

Full text of "Scientific American Supplement 1891-10-17: Vol 32 Iss 824"

See other formats










Copyright by Munn & Co., 1881. 

















Scientific American Supplement, Vol. XXXII. No. 824 
Scientific American, established 1845. ; 


NEW YORK, OCTOBER 17, 1891. 


{ Scientific American Supplement, $5 a year. 
) Scientific American and Supplement, $7 a year. 











RAIN MAKERS IN INDIA. 


EVERY country subject to drought has its one 4 
peculiar method of supplicating for rain, and that in| — 
vogue in Kumaon in Northern India is not the least 
curious of them. Last winter the season was a very 
dry one in Kumaon, and consequently there was a/| 
failure of the crops, with great scarcity in the district. 
With the exception of a few showers, there were no 
winter rains, and that in a country where the popu- | 
lation is almost wholly dependent upon grain as a 
means of subsistence meant a famine and starvation. 
In consequence of the drought a Hindoo fakir imposed 
a penance upon himself, and was suspended by his 
feet from a wooden beam. In this position he was 
swung backward and forward for a _ considerable 
time by means of a rope attached to his body and 

ulled by a fellowsaint. Both men were plentifally 

daubed with cow-dung and ashes, and, save for a| 
small cloth round the waist, were minus all clothing. 
In such a case, should rain fall within reasonable time | 
after the penance, the fakir takes the entire credit for | 
the relief to himself, and rises immensely in the esti- | 
mation of the simple and credulous cultivator of the | 
soil. Our illustration is from the Graphic, London. | 
| 
a ncaa ee semi | 
RAIN MAKERS IN THE UNITED STATES. | 

AT the instance of the Hon. Charies B. Farwell, Sena- | 

tor from Illinois, an appropriation of $10,000 was made | 


by the last Congress for experimental purposes relat- | 
ing to the artificial production of rain by firing explo- | 





sives. 

Senator Farwell has given an amusing account of how 
the appropriation was secured and his reasons for urg- | 
ing it. He makes no pretensions as ascientific wan ; he | 
never, like Espy and others, made a complete study of | 
the meteorologic laws and phenomena, but he learned | 
that in the high regions above the earth there were air | = 
currents charged with moisture, and became impressed | ; N ; h 
with the thought that by means of a sufficient number wn AL ay 
of first-class bangings the said woisture might be con- | ’ w= 
densed and precipitated as rain. ‘* This idea,” he said, | 
“is old enough. I’ve been convinced of its practica- 
bility for twenty years, and probably other people | 


UNITED STATES. 


RAIN MAKERS IN THE 


‘“*Even the Senate Committee on Appropriations 
laughed at me about this. When the Appropriation 
bill came over from the House, I went around to my 
colleagues of the Senate committee and said to them, 
‘I want you to put $10,000 in there forrain.’ They 
laughed at me, but they put in the $10,000 just asa 
personal favor. When the bill went back to the House 
that $10,000 amendment was knocked out. I was one 
of the conference committee to whom the bill was re- 
ferred. I went to the other members and asked them 
to put in the rain appropriation just as an accommo- 
dation tome. The items in the Appropriation bill are 
| numbered, so when the conference committee reported 
| favorably on No. 17, nobody in the House cared to see 
| what No. 17, a little appropriation anyhow, was, and 
it passed.” 

he accordance with this appropriation the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has lately instituted the re- 
quired experiments, the same being under the imme- 
diate charge of Gen. R. G. Dyrenforth, assisted by 
Professor Car] Myers, the balloonist, Professor Powers, 
author of ‘‘ War and the Weather,” Mr. John T. Ellis, 
and George E. Casler, balloonist. 

The place selected for the experiments was the cattle 
ranch of Mr. Nelson Morris, a few wiles distant from 
Midland, Texas, a quiet and far out of the way place, 
where the experimenting party were offered unlimited 
space and facilities for the undisturbed execution of 
their peculiar enterprise. Moreover, it is alleged this 
was a particularly dry spot, where little or no rain had 
fallen for three years. To this thirsty region came the 
rain makers, bringing with them a strange parapher- 
nalia, consisting of several dozen balloons, kites, re- 
torts, acids, iron filings, chlorate of potasb, sulphuric 
acid, manganese, rackarock, dynamite, fuses, pipes, 
electrical wires, dynamo machines, electric exploders, 
ete. It was August 5 when the party reached the 
ranch, and from that time onward they were very busy. 
After much toil their explosive supplies, gas apparatus, 
balloons, kites, and electrical devices were got into 
working order, and used as follows: By means of re- 
torts charged with chlorate of potash and manganese, 
oxygen gas was produced; hydrogen was generated by 
means of iron filings and sulphurie acid. With these 
gases forming a highly explosive mixture, the balloons 





have. It’s just a question of applying what you know. ‘They know the required moisture is passing right over | were filled and time fuses applied. 


Everybody knows there’s a certain amount of moist- | their heads all the time—going off, may be, to rain | 
The people see their corn | itself down some place where they're already drowned | and when it was ready, a dispute arose as to who 


ure in the air all the time. 


burn up and their cattle die for lack of moisture. | out. 


It required four hours to charge the first balloon, 


\should light the fuse. The chemist said the balloonist 











“ 


wi i Wess 


adil NO AR 
St 











13160 


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No: 824. 





Ocroper 17, 1891. 











should do it, and the latter said it was the duty of the 
chemist. Finally the chemist touched off the fuse and 
the balloon sailed away and exploded at about two 
milea from the point of ascension. A few sticks of 
rackarock were exploded on the ground, and that night 
rain fell at Midland and Stanton, twenty-five miles 
away. 

This was regarded as a triumphant result. After 
that Gen. Dyrenforth gradually increased the number 
of explosives until during the last week of the experi- 
ments an almost continuous cannonading was main- 
tained. 

The last of these rain-making experi 
Aug. 26 and is thus graphically described by the cor- 
respondent of the New York World: 

* Aug. 26.—The night was beautifully clear, and not 
a cloud could be seen. The heavens were dotted with 
stars, and from all indications it was safe to predict 
that no rain would fail within forty-eight hours at the 
least. A strong gale was blowing toward the west. 
Five balloons were sent up and exploded, and 200 
pounds of rackarock powder and 150 pounds of dyna- 
mite set off on the ground. There was, of course, no 
immediate result. The barometer was rising and the 
peedle was pointed at fair. 

** By 3 o'clock in the morning a bank of clouds ap- 
peared on the western horizon at the int toward 
which the smoke and noise had blown. The sky rapidly 
became overcast, and by 4 o'clock there was rain, ac- 
companied by thunder and lightning. When the sun 
rose, it was seen that the storm had come directly out 
of the west, and on the horizon the clouds rose in a 
funnel shape, like the smoke from a volcano. There 
was a beautiful rainbow visible at sunrise. It ceased 
raining at about 8 o'clock.” 

After hearing thie news, ‘“‘I think the experiments 
have now demonstrated the soundness of my theory,” 
said Senator Farwell to the World correspondent. 
‘* For twenty years I have had no doubt rain could be 
produced in that way, and quite expected the experi- 
ments to be successful.” 

‘* What are your plans respecting the practical ap- 
plication of the invention ?” 

“Why, I think they could be stated in this way: 
The Secretary of Agriculture, you know, gets annual 
appropriations for the general purpose of advancing 
agriculture—that is, he gets money for eradicating 
diseases among cattle and for inspecting hogs, and for 
this and that similar thing. Well, when Prof. Dyren- 
forth makes his official report of these experiments, I 
— that Mr. Rusk, the Secretary of Agriculture, 
will ask for $1,000,000, may be, or $500,000 any way, for 
rain making. 

* The Department of Agriculture bas its inspectors 
and employes in the West, and when an inspector re- 
ports that rain will be needed at a certain time in a 
certain region, the secretary wil! send on his men and 
appliances and make the rain. That’s my idea of how 
it will be practically applied. Of course, I seek no 
control of any sort over the invention. If any State 
or other community wants to make rain on its own 
hook, there could be no objection to its doing so.” | 

To us the most practical result likely to follow from 
these experiments is the extraction of money from the 
public treasury. We have seen how easy it was to ob- 
tain the first ten thousand dollars to aid the chimera. 
‘*[ asked them to put in the rain appropriation just 
as an accommodation to me,” says the Senator, and 
they did it. ‘“* Nobody in the House cared to see 
what No. 17, a little appropriation anyhow, was, and 
it powee 4 

The idea that rain can be precipitated by cannon 
firing is almost as old as gunpowder ; but while there 
are many curious coincidences, there is no satisfactor 
evidence that rain was so produced. It ison apar with 
the Chinese mode of conquering the enemy by making 
a loud noise. 

It is true a downpour often follows a clap of thunder; 
but this does not prove the rain was uced by the 
concussiou. On the contrary, we Seow that rain 
probably results from the cooling of moisture-laden 
air, and simultaneously electricity may appear. Hence 
in thunder storms the aerial concussions are most 
probably the results, not the cause, of rain forma- 
tion. 

Nature works on a vast scale in producing rain ; and 
it is idle to suppose that the burning of a little explo- 
sive matter can materially affect the boundless atmo- 
sphere of the skies. 

In a certain sense it may be claimed that rain al- 
ways follows an explosion; since all atmospheric 
oe are successive. If to-day is fair, firea gun, and 
it will rain either to-morrow, or some following day. Uf 
to-day is rainy, fire — = and it will be fair either to- 
morrow or afterward. There appears to be just as 
much sense in appropriating public money for explo- 
sives to produce dryness in Alaska as to make rain, by 
similar means, in Texas. 

In conclusion, we would warn Senator Farwell and 
his coadjutor rain makers that they have infringed 
or a patented article, and are liable in damayes. 
The precipitation of rain by firing aerial explosives is 
the invention of Mr. Daniel Ruggles, of Fredericks- 
burg, Va., and was patented by him eleven years . 
to wit, on July 13, 1880, patent number 230,067. “His 
patent claim is as follows : 

“The mode herein described of producing rainfall, 
said mode consisting in conveying and exploding tor- 
pedoes or other explosive agents within the cloud realm 
substantially as described.” 

Mr. Ruggles’ invention was illustrated and described 
in the ScreNTIFIC AMERICAN of Nov. 27, 1880. We 
here reproduce the engraving and description then 

ublished. “Novel Method of Precipitating Rain 

alis. A has been recently issued to Daniel 
Ruygles, of Fredericksburg, Va., for a method of pre- 
cipitating rainstorms, which, judging from a well 
known precedent, is not entirely chimerical. It has 
been frequently noticed that heavy cannonading is 
followed by a fallof rain. Profiting by this suggestion 
Mr. Ruggles has invented a method of producing a 
concussion or a series of concussions in the upper re- 
gions of the atmosphere which he believes will induce 
the rain.” 

The invention consists, in brief, of a balloon carrying 
torpedoes and cartridges charged with such explosives 
as nitroglycerine, dynamite, gun cotton, gunpowder, 
or fulminates, and connecting the balioon with an elec- 
trical apparatus for exploding the cartzidges, 


ments took place 





Our engraving represents an individual in the act 
of bringing down the rain. 

r. Ruggles’ patent is still in force, and if the inven- 
tion has anything like the value which Senator Far- 
well places upon the obtained results, then the million 
dollars the senator ks of should go to the paten- 
tee. Let justice be done to inventive genius. 

For the convenience of our readers and the further 
elucidation of the subject, we reprint the article we 
published a few months ago. 


[From the Screntiric Amertcan of Dec. 20, 1890.) 
“THE ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION OF RAIN. 


“The question as to whether rain can be produced 
by artificial means is to be tested by the United States 
government. On motion of Senator C. B. Farwell, of 
Illinois, a clause was added to the appropriation bill 
which provides that, under direction of the Forestr 
Division of the Department of Agriculture, $2,000 shall 
be expended in experiments having for their object the 
artificial production of rainfall by the explosion of 
dynamite. 

In a communication from Senator Farwell the fol- 
lowing theories are advanced: ‘‘ My theory in regard 
to producing rain by explosives is based partly upon 
the fact that after all the great battles fought during 
the century heavy rainfalls have occurred. This is 
historical and undisputed. Senator Stanford, one of 
the builders of the Central Pacific Railway, informed 
me lately that he was compelled to do a great deal of 
blasting through a part of the country where rain had 
never been known to fall in any useful quantities and 
where it has never rained since, and that during the 
period of the blasting, which was nearly a year, it 
rained every day. I feel almost convinced that rain 
can be produced in this way. The dynamite could be 
exploded on the ground or up in the air, and I thiak I 
would prefer the latter. The experiment should be 
made in eastern Iowa, Colorado, or in western Kansas, 
somewhere along the railway, and my own idea would 
be to commence early in the morning and explode 
continuously for seven or eight hours.” 

The subject of rain production by means of concus- 
sion has been frequently discussed during the last 
twenty-five years. A great number of instances were 
stated by Francis Powers, C.E., in a volume entitled 
* War and the Weather, or the Artificial Production 
of Rain,” 1871. Many cases are cited in which great 
battles have been followed by speedy rain. Six oc- 
curred during our war with Mexico in 1846 and 1847; 
nine cases of battles or skirmishes are given which oc- 
curred in 1861 in the war of the rebellion, and which 
were followed by rain at no great interval; forty cases 
are cited in 1862, thirty for 1863, twenty-eight for 1864, 
and six for 1865. Eighteen similar cases are also cited 
from among the great battles which have occurred in 
Europe during the past century, waking a total of 137 
cases. In a criticism of Mr. Powers’ theory, Silliman’s 
Journal said: **To this argument it may be replied 
that throughout the region from which his examples 
are mainly drawn rain falls upon an average once in 
three days, and probably a little more frequently ; so 
that from the conclusion of one rain to the commence- 
ment of another, the interval is on an average but lit- 
tle over two days. Now battles are not usually com- 
menced during a period of rain, generally not till some 
hours after the conclusion of arain. Rain, therefore, 
ought to be expected in about one day after the con- 
clusion of a battle. Now, the argument of Mr. Powers 
is lame in this point. He takes no precise account of 
the length of the interval between the conclusion of a 
battle and the commencement of rain, nor does he 
show that the interval is less than it should be if the 
battle had no influence in the production of the rain; 
and in particular he takes no account of the cases un- 
favorable to his theory, in which rain follows a battle 
only after a very long interval.” 

Some of the cases, however, which may be cited 
where the fall of rain seems to have been caused by 
the discharge of cannon are very striking. During the 
siege of Valenciennes by the allied armies in June, 
17983, the weather, which had been remarkably hot and 
dry, became violently rainy after the cannonading 
commenced. Two hundred pieces of heavy artillery 
were employed in the attack and one hundred in the 
defense of the city, the whole of which were frequently 
in action at the same time. 

At the battle of Dresden, August 27, 1813, the wea- 
ther, which for some days had been serene and intense- 
ly hot, during the progress of the battle suddenly 
changed. Vast clouds filled the skies, and soon the 
surcharged moisture poured itself in a torrent of rain. 
At Waterloo, according to Siborne, the weather during 
the morning of June 17, 1815, had been oppressively 
hot. It was now a dead calm ; not a leaf was stirring, 
and the atmosphere was close to an intolerable degree, 
while a dark, heavy, dense cloud impended over the 
combatants. The 18th Hussars were fully prepared 
and awaited the command to charge, when brigade 
guns on the right commenced firing for the purpose of 
breaking the order of the enemy’s advance. The con- 
cussion seewed instantly to rebound through the still 
atmosphere and communicate like an electric spark 
with the heavily charged mass above. A violent thun- 
der clap burst forth, which was immediately followed 
by a rain which has never probably been exceeded 
even in the tropics. In a few moments the ground be- 
came perfectly saturated. 

Humboldt says that when a volcano bursts out in 
South America during a dry season, it sometimes 
changes it intoarainy one. It is well known that in 
very hot calm weather the burning of woods, long 
grass, and other combustible materials produces rain. 

ery extensive fires in Nova Scotia are so generally 
followed by heavy floods of rain that there is ground 
for believing that the enormous pillars of smoke have 
some share in producing them. 

Captain James Allen, acting signal officer of the 
War Department, in reply to interrogatories recently 
addressed to him regarding the probability of produc- 
ing rain by artificial means, said: ‘‘One fact would 
seem to be easily admitted, that an attempt to explode 
gunpowder in order to practically demonstrate the ad- 
visability of attempts in rain production should at first 
be made after ‘most careful consideration of the atmo- 
—- conditions. For example, if these explosions 
should be made in the center of a high area, as shown 
by our weather maps, or even after a low area has 





passed any point, we may be absolutely certain no rain 
will follow. The first experiments id be under. 
taken to the southeast or east of a low area, and 300 to 
600 miles from the center. 

“* Observing stations should be established every 5 or 
10 miles for wiles to the eastward of the point of 
explosion. If the explosions are made in a compara- 
tively clear sky, and after that unmistakable clouds 
are observed to the eastward and not to the westward, 
some connection may be surmised. It must be said, 
however, that even if the production of rain be prac- 
ticable, it can only be for a very limited area, and it is 
believed that any benefit which can possibly arise 
from such rain can vever amount to the expense of the 
enterprise.” 

The opinion of Captain Allen is similar to that of 
President H. C. Russell, of the Royal Society of New 
South Wales, contained in an anniversary address de- 
livered in 1884. Hesays: ‘*It would seem unreasona- 
ble to look for the economical production of rain under 
ordinary circumstances, and our only chance would be 
to take advantage of a time when the atmosphere is 
in the condition called unstable equilibrium, or when 
a cold current overlies a warm one. If under these 
conditions we could set the warm current moving up- 
ward, and once flowing into the cold one, a considera- 
ble — of rain might fall, but this favorable 
condition seldom exists in nature.” 

The experiment of producing rain by exploding dy- 
namite is about to tried, and the result will be 
awaited with much interest.” 

The foregoing was published in the ScIENTIFIC 
AMERICAN of September 5th. 

After the rain makers had telegraphed from Texas 
to all parts of the country announcing the wonderful 
success of their bombs, it was discovered that the me- 
teorological records for that locality had indicated 'pro- 
babilities for rain for a day or two in advance of the 
firing, and that the rain would have fallen all the same 
without any burning of powder or sending up of bal- 
loons. There seems to be little room for doubt that 
the swinging of a Hindoo head downward, as illustra- 
ted in our engraving, is just as effective for producing 
rain as the making of loud noises. 

The strongest theory and argument of the American 
rain makers, to wit, that rain is often occasioned by 
claps of thunder, will not bear the test of scientific re- 
search. Electrical action may take place when rain is 
formed and the thunder may be therefore a result of 
rain formation, not thecause. A correspondent in 
Nature takes the same view. Among other comments 
upon the Texas experiments, he says : 

‘It isneedless tosay that popular theorizing, on 
this ason most other physical phenomena, concerns 
itself chiefly with the things that are most obvious to 
the senses, but often have little or nothing to do with 
the process. Thus we find that attention has been 
fixed on the explosion ; and we are told that the idea 
of breaking clouds by producing a motion in the air, 
and so destroying the equilibrium of the suspended 
globules of moisture, which in coalescence form rain, 
isnot a new one; that it was the custom to keep a 
eannon in French villages, with which to fire at pass- 
ing clouds and thus hasten the downpour ; that at the 
battles of Dresden and Waterloo the concussion of the 
air by the cannonade led to the descent of torrential 
showers ; and we are reminded that ‘in the same 
way’ rain follows a peal of thunder caused by the pass- 
age of a lightning flash through a moisture-laden at- 
mosphere, etc. Now all this noise and disturbance have 
no more to do with the production of rainfall than has 
the thrashing which the village rain-maker of Central 
India receives from his fellow villagers to stimulate 
him to fresh exertions when he is thought to have ne- 
glected the performance of his official duties, or the 
London street-boy’s whistle, with which Sir Samuel 
Baker startled a rain-making king in the Southern 
Soudan, and which was followed by such a deluge that 
even the rain-making potentste implored him to arrest 
the working of the spell.* The effect of a concussion, as 
such, is to produce an instantaneous compression of 
the air, and a momentary heating in a wave which 
travels away at the rate of about 1,000 feet per second, 
and is incapable of generating any translational move- 
ment of the atmosphere, and certainly of promoting 
condensation. Nor do we know of any recorded ob- 
servations in support of the idea that it can cause the 
coalescence of cloud corpuscles into raindrops. 
Neither does the concussion of the air by a thunder 
clap stand to the downpour that follows it in the phys- 
ical relation of cause to effect. In this case Sir John 
Herschel adopts the opinion originally put forward by 
Eeles, that the order of succession is the reverse of 
that here assumed, that the formation of the rain-drop 
is the antecedent phenomenon, and the lightning 
flash (and ergo the thunder) the consequent ; the elec- 
trical discharge being determined by the sudden con- 
centration of the electricity of (say) one thousand cor- 
puscles on the surface of the single resulting rain-drop, 
in which case its intensity would be increased ten-fold. 
What causes the coalescence is still a matter of much 
obscurity, though sowe light has been thrown upon it 
by the ingenious experiment exhibited by Mr. Shelford 
Bidwell at the Royal y~e conversazione on May 
14, 1890, and described in vo). xlii. (p. 91) of this jour- 
nal. When the shadow of a small (condensing) steam 
jet was thrown upon a white screen, under ordinary 
conditions, it was of feeble intensity and of a neutral 
tint ; but when the jet was electrified, the density of 
the shadow was at once greatly increased, and it as- 
sumed a peculiar orange-brown tint. It appeared that 
electrification promoted the coalescence of the exceed- 
ingly minute rticles of water contained in the jet, 
thus forming drops large enough to obstruct the more 
refrangible rays of light. On this view, then, electri- 
fication would appear to be the cause of coalescence, 
and the electrical discharge the ulterior result ; but a8 
yet we know too little of the molecular processes con- 
cerned in the formation of #rain-drop to attempt any- 
thing like a complete theory. 

“In conclusion, while we cannot but recognize the 
high interest of General Dyrenforth’s results, with the 
imperfect information at present before us we cannot 
regard them as conclusive. It is the characteristic 
weakness of all experiments of the kind that many of 





* This story has probably been told by Sir Samuel in one of his well- 
known works on Africa, and is too good to be spoilt by condensation. It 
is, at all events, authentic, the present writer having heard it from his 
own lips at a Simla dinner-table, 








Ocroser 17, 1891. 


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. 824. 





18161 














the essential circumstances are scarcely ever recorded, 
or perhaps even capable of being brought within the 
limits of observation ; and thus the logical conditions 
of a proved conclusion cannot be fulfilled. For in- 
stance, it is very unlikely that — is known of 
the state of the atmosphere in respect of its humidity 
and its vertica) temperatare decrement at the eleva- 
tion at which the balloons were exploded, and yet, as 
we have seen, these data lie at the very root of the 
whole matter. However, arrangements are being wade 
for farther operations at El Paso and in western Kan- 
sas, so that it will not be long before the highly inter- 
esting and practically important problem of st mulat- 
ing the precipitation of.rain will receive a more satis- 
factory solution. H. F. B. 








ARTIFICIAL RAIN MAKING.* 
By Prof. Epwi1n J. Houston. 


WHENEVER a large mass of air is cooled below the 
temperature of its dew point, the moisture it can no 
longer hold as invisible vapor becomes visible. If the 
reduction of temperature be but slight, the ap- 
pears as fog, mist, or cloud ; if the reduction con- 
siderable, as rain or snow. 

There has been no little attention given lately to the 
question as to whether or not rain can be caused to 
fall at pleasure on any given section of the earth—rain 
machines, or artificial rain producers, consisting essen- 
tially of devices whereby explosions of nitro-glycerine, 
or other similar substances, are obtained at fairly con- 
siderable elevations in mid-air, have been tried in dif- 
ferent forms. As tothe success of these attempts at 
the artificial production of rain, the testimony appears 
to be uncertain or contradictory. 

The idea of rain making by mid-air explosions is 
probably based on the rains that are generally believed 
to attend or follow great battles, 4th of July cele- 
brations of the Chinese character, and volcanic erup- 
tions. Passing by the evidences produced by either 
the warlike or the peaceful burning of gunpowder, 
which at best are but vague, it may be remarked that 
voleanic eruptions nay produce very heavy rainfalls, 
not only because the force of the eruption and the in- 
tense heat cause upward currents in the air, but also 
because of the vast quantities of vapor of water that 
escape from most volcanoes during their eruptions. 

There isa fascination in witnessing man’s struggle 
with the forcesof nature ; a struggle, be it understood, 
not made to oppose such forces, but rather to direct 
them. The former effort would be foolish, the latter 
must meet with success if properly directed. 

Do the scientific facts, as far as known to meteor- 
ology, give any encouragement for the continuance of 
the efforts of the would-be rain makers? Let us in- 
quire: 

It is now generally agreed that the lowering of tem- 
perature necessary for the production of rain may be 
obtained in the following ways : 

(1.) By the intermingling of masses of warm and 
cold air. 

L. By the carrying of warm, moist air into a cold 
place. 

In any case the cause of the rain is, briefly, the cool- 
ing of the air until it is unable to retain all the moist- 
ure it formerly held as invisible vapor, and deposits 
the excess in a visible form as rain. 

The quantity of the rainfall will, therefore, depend 
both on the amount of moisture present in the air and 
on the extent of reduction of temperature produced. 

The first method, viz., the lowering of temperature 
by the intermingling of masses of warm and cold air, 
can never produce any very considerable rainfall, since, 
though the warm air is cooled by its mixture with cold 
air, and the tendency is, therefore, to cause the mixed 
air to become relatively moister, yet at the same time 
the cold air is made warmer, and, therefore, relatively 
drier. Drizzling rains might be produced in this man- 
ner, but scarcely ever heavy rainfalls, unless both the 
cold and the warm air contain large quantities of 
moisture. 

There remains, therefore,{but the second way of low- 
ering the temperature of the air, viz., by the carrying 
of the warm air into a colder place. This can be ac- 
complished in three different ways : 

(1.) By a change of latitude, or by a warm, moist air 
blowing into a colder latitude. In general, the equa- 
torial currents blowing toward the poles are the chief 
rain producers. 

(2.) By a change in altitude, effected by an ascending 
current, due toa heated area. Here the lowering of 
the temperature is due not only to the cold of eleva- 
tion, but also to that produced by the expansion of 
the air under lower pressure. 

(3.) By a change in altitude, due toa mountain range 
opposing the progress of a wind, and thereby necessi- 
wie its gradually creeping up the sides of the moun- 

In any of these ways heavy rains may be produced, 
and, in point of fact, they are probably the only ways 
in which heavy rains are generally produced. 

Applying the preceding principles to the case of the 
modern rain machine, let us inquire as to the proba- 
bilities of its successful operation. The simultaneous 
or the successive explosion of large quantities of any 
high explosive in the upper regions of the atmosphere 
must produce, in general, a rapid and more or less 
thorough mixing or stirring of the surrounding air. 

_ The sudden expansion of the air both by the heat 
liberated by the explosion and by the gases evolved 
qusien the explosion is attended ‘by a rush outward, 
ollowed by a rush of air inward, toward the explosion 
center. The direction of this latter rush is generally 
aenly inward. In addition to these inward motions, 

e heat generated may tend to produce a slight up- 
ward motion ; the general effect must be, however, to 
= & mixing or churning rather than an upward 
in The immediate effect of the explosion is to produce 
oi niature area of low barometer, caused by the ra- 
se — of air toward the explosion center, and by 
li atever ascending current that may result from the 

— of heat. 

, +t would be reasonable to suppose that if the explo- 
oo Produces any direct effect in atmospheric pon ~9 
“tons, the area of low barometer should follow imme- 








r aaa 
we before 


the electrical section of the Franklin Institute, Sept. 8, 








diately, or nearly so, after the explosion. Have such 
changes in the barometric pressure noticed to 
follow such mid-air explosion ? 

So far as the mixing motion is concerned, its action 
to produce a fall of rain must be slight. The ascend- 
ing motion might cause a rainfail, but as this motion 
is slight in extent, its action under ordinary conditions 
must at best be but insignificant. 

In either case; any decrease in temperature, and con- 

uent increase in relative humidity, must necessarily 
be slightly decreased by the dry and heated gases 
evolved during the explosion of such substances as 
nitro-glycerine, dynamite, or gunpowder. 

It might be supposed from the above considerations 
that. balloons containing an explosive mixture of 
hydrogen and oxygen would be preferable to those 
carrying nitro-glycerine dynamite or gunpowder, since 
in the former case the vapor of water results from the 
explosion, and in the latter dry gases. It must be 
remembered, however, that the explosion of mixed 
oxygen and hydrogen produces for the greater part a 
collapse or radial rush inward toward the explosion 
center, while the explosion of gunpowder or nitro- 

lycerine produces for the greater parta radial rush 

rom such center. 

A circumstance that appears to have been lost sight 
of in allthe recent attempts at rain making is that 
such attempts have been apparently wade irregardless 
of the hygrumetrie conditions of the air. As rain is 
but the excess of moisture, the warm moist air is unable, 
when sufficiently cooled, to retain the amount of the 
fall, which will depend, as stated, on the quantity of 
moisture in the air as well as on the extent of the 
chilling action following the explosion or other cause. 
To attempt to produce rain by explosions in mid-air, 
irrespective of the quantity of moisture in the air, is to 
attempt to cause water to fall from the air when prac- 
tically none is present. This is not only illogical, but 
absurd. 

It may be thought by some that the concussions 
eaused by mid-air explosions might result in such a 
general movement of the surrounding air as to cause 
rain to fall over an extended area. The flash of the 
explosion is followed by a sudden movement of the air, 
causing the noise of the explosion. The phenomena of 
lightning and thunder are somewhat similar to those 
of artificial mid-air explosions. First we have the 
lightning flash, and subsequently the thunder, which is 
a violent concussion of air. Does this concussion bring 
down a heavier rainfall? Popularly it is believed to 
do so, but the general opinion of the scientific world is 
that the lightning flash is the effect of a rapid con- 
densation of the aqueous vapor, 7. ¢., of a heavier rain- 
fall, and not the cause of such a fall. That is to say, 
the high potency of the lightning flash is due to the 
enormous decrease in the surfaces of the already 
charged rain drops over that of the surfaces of the 
thousands of the separate drops that coalesce to form 
the single drops. 

Nevertheless, the liberation of heat energy and the 
rapid admixture of air following the disruptive dis- 
charge may slightly increase the rainfall, or may act 
as a determining cause of rain over an extended area. 

There is this difference between the lightning flash 
and the flash of an explosion, viz.: The former occurs 
over a comparatively great length of path, 7.e., a space 
of small breadth and depth but great length. 

The latter occurs in a comparatively limited space, 
the three dimensions of which are nearly equal. 

Though lightning is not a cause of rain, there can be 
no doubt that if rain can be artificially produced dur- 
ing a period in which there is much free electricity in 
the air, the storm will be attended by lightning 
and thunder. If then there be any increase of rain 
due to the presence of lightning, artificial rain making 
will be more liable to succeed when the potential of 
the air, as regards the earth or neighboring clouds, is 
comparatively high. 

The enormous expenditure of energy required to 
produce a rain storm over an extended area is a circum- 
stance that would appear to give but little encourage- 
ment to man’s many efforts in this direction. The 
amount of energy liberated by the greatest explosion 
man has yet effected in mid-air is but insignificant 
when compared to the energy liberated by nature dur- 
ing even a comparatively limited fall of rain. 

There is, however, an important consideration bear- 
ing on the question of the probable success of rain 
making by mid-air explosions that gives to such 
attempts a far greater probability of success than 
would appear to be warranted from the facts already 
enumerated. Presupposing the existence of a sufficient 
mass of moist air, at preferably a comparatively high 
difference of potential as compared with the neighbor- 
ing air or the earth, a mid-air explosion might act as 
the determining cause of rainfall over a wide area. 
The balance of the energy requisite therefor being 
supplied by the moist air. In a mass of very moist air 
there exists a store of energy which, if liberated, would 
suffice to cause movements of the air of vast extent. 
When the vapor of the air is condensed, the potential 
energy becomes kinetic, and, being liberated by the 
heat, causes ascending currents, which produce a 
further condensation of moisture, and further libera- 
tion of energy previously locked up in the vapor. 

There sometimes exist conditions in the air in which 
it is, so to speak, ina state of very unstable equilib- 
rium, and a slight determining cause may result in 
the liberation of the stored-up energy with a resulting 
heavy rainfall. In such cases it would appear that 
there are no reasons why an explosion in mid-air 
should not be followed by rain. At the same time it 
is not unreasonable to suppose that the natural causes 
would, in many cases, coutinue to act and thus cause 
rain without artificial aid. 

There are, however, meteorological conditions that 
seen frequently exist in certain latitudes in which 

eavy rains might be artificially produced by mid-air 
disturbances when without such disturbances no rain- 
fall would occur. Should, for example, a layer of warm, 
moist air exist between the earth’s surface and a 
higher layer of cold, moist air, separated by a com- 
pase thin layer of air, and such conditions ex- 

t as to maintain the two layers separate, then the 
breaking or piercing of the intermediate separating 
layer might permit such an up-rush of the warmer air 
through the opening that the liberation of its stored- 
up energy through the condensation of its moisture 
would result ina general up-rush of the warm moist 


air and the consequent production of an extended area 
of jow barometer. In other words, the artificial rapture 
of the separating layer would result in the formation 
of a true storm center and a heavy rainfall of consider- 
able dimensions. In such cases it would appear : 

1. That mid-air explosions will be more effective 
than explosions on the earth’s surface. 

2. That direct mid-air explosions 7%. e., explosions 
in which the general effect of the liberated enercy is 
to produce an upward rush of air, would be more ef- 
fective than undirected, haphazard explosions. 

If in such cases considerable difference of potential 
exist between the layers of air, or between that of the 
air generally and the earth, the lightning flashes would 
unquestionably be effective in piercing the separating 
layer, especially if, as would probably be the case, the 

meral direction of the discharge be between the 
ayers of cold and warm air. 

Since, as we bave seen, it is the ascending current 
that causes the heaviest rainfall, it would appear that 
mid-air explosicns of such a character as to produce in 
general an upward rush of air would be probably more 
successful than undirected, haphazard explosions in 
rmoid-air. Such movements might advantageously be 
effected by the liberation of rockets with enlarged 
conical heads, or any form of fire work that would 
move generally upward. 

Since success in artificial rain making is probably de- 

ndent on the meteorological conditions, both of the 
Leer and upper layers of the atmosphere, efforts 
should be made to enlarge our present very limited 
knowledge of such conditions. 

Captive balloons, containing registering electrome- 
ters, tele-thermometers, tele-hygrometers, tele-anemo- 
meters, ete., might be connected by wires with record- 
ing apparatus placed on the earth’s surface. The cost of 
maintaining ‘such aerial stations of observation would 
be but insignificant when compared with the benefit 
that would accrue not — toward the solution of the 

roblem as to the probable success in rain making, 
Pat the general operations of the United States 
Weather Bureau in particular, or of meteorology in 
general. 

During the general prevalence of moist warm air, 
when but a slight cooling is necessary to cause a 
general downpour, effective rain making might be ob- 
tained by the sudden breaking or opening of cylinders 
of liquefied gases, whose expansion would cause an in- 
tense chilling of the surrounding air; such cylinders 
could be readily opened by means of earth-controlled 
electromagnets. 

The following general conclusions may, in view of 
the present state of metallurgical science, be properly 
drawn concerning the artificial production of rain : 

(1.) That rain can never be made to fall at will by 
mid-air explosions on any part of the earth’s surfaee, 
irrespective of the climatic conditions there existing. 

(2.) That during certain meteorological conditions, 

mid-air explosions may result in rainfall over extended 
areas. 
(3.) That the liberation of energy necessary for such 
rainfalls is not due, except initially, to the mid-air ex- 
plosions, but to the energy stored up in the moist air 
from which the rain is derived. 

(4.) That the meteorological conditions which must 
exist for the successful action of mid-air explosions 
would probably, in most though not in all cases, 
themselves result in a natural production of rain. 

(5.) That a comparatively high difference of electric 
potential between different parts of the air or between 
the air and the earth is possibly favorable when taken 
in connection with other meteorological conditions for 
artificial rain making. 

(6.) That an undirected mid-air explosion is not as 
likely to produce rain as an explosion in which the 
main tendency of the energy liberated is to cause a 
general up-rush of the air. 








THE CLOUD COMPELLERS AND THE PRESS. 


SincE the North American Review published Pro- 
fessor Newcowb’s simple but conclusive demonstration 
of the —— impossibility of creating or evoking 
rain by such means as General Dyrenforth has been 
ewploying, the newspapers, which originally treated 
the subject very cautiously, or evidently shared the 
popular tendency to believe that there “might be 
something in it,” especially because if there was some- 
thing in it, it would confound the experts (a thing 
most dear to the lay imagination), have taken heart, 
and are now pretty generally making the whole busi- 
ness a subject for polished ridicule, delivered with that 
knowing air which is one of the accomplishments of 
journalism. Some one of them (the Hvening Post, for 
instance, which has the knowingest air of all, and 
which published some wonths ago, without venturing 
any critical comment, a long interview with General 
Dyrenforth, in which the concussion theory was allur- 
ingly set forth) might have gained sowe credit by bold- 
ly denouncing the humbug at the outset. There is 
little to be ned now. 

So faras I have seen, not one of the daily newspapers 
has recalled that the appropriation made by Congress 


| for rain making was first ordered to be expended by 


Mr. B. E. Fernow, chief of the Forestry Division of 
the Department of Agriculture ; that Mr. Fernow de- 
clined to expend it, and, in his annual report, gave 
conclusive reasons for regarding the proposed experi- 
ments as a waste of public money; that the appropri- 
ation was thereupon increased, and put into the hands 
of the ex-Comwmissioner of Patents ; and, finally, that 
there is a United States patent covering the process, 
which General Dyrenforth has been advertising at the 
public expense. Even if our newspapers cannot de- 
tect a scientific fallacy, they ought to be able to recog- 
nize a “‘job."—R. W. R. in. Eng. and Min. Jour. 








THE WEATHER DEBATING SOCIETY. 


THERE are now so wany cloud-compelling rain pro- 
ducers turning up that any opulent person who is in- 
terested in the weather can hire one of them for his 
own convenience. But suppose a man who would like 
to enjoy a shower on a warm afternoon orders his 
cloud compeller to produce one at a time when bis 
next door neighbor desires to take a walk in his 





garde u under the sunshine, what will ensue ? Will the 


18162 


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. 824. 





Ootoper 17, 1891. 








rain producer be liable to be sued for damages by his 
neighbor, or will the case be settled by arbitration ? 

These questions are fit to be taken up by the 
Weather Debating Society, now that so many rain 
producers are offering their services at a low price.— 
N. Y. Sun. 


THE SYSTEM OF MILITARY DOVE COTES 
IN EUROPE.* 

Spain.—Spain is one of the countries in which the 
rearing of carrier pigeons and the organization of wili- 
tarv dove cotes has taken the most rapid development. 

The long domination of the Arabian Caliphs in the 
south of the peninsula, whoin their native country had 
organized in a remarkable manner all their postal 
services by means of pigeons, the domination of the 
Spaniards themselves in Flanders, where the aerial 
messengers had played a great role in sieges, and the 
spirit of initiative and the love of study carried toa 
high degree in the corps of military engineers in this 
country, all contributed to this happy result. 

The first reguiar experiments, however, date no fur- 
ther back than to 1879, the epoch at which an experi- 
mental station was established at the military school 
of Guadalajara by Genera! Reina with birds of Belgian 
origin. These experiments having been successful, the 
military dove cotes multiplied, and a royal decree of 
August, 14, 1889, fixed the number of them at eighteen, 
thus distributed; four on the French frontier, at 
Figueras, Jaca, Pamplona and the intrenched camp of 
Oyarsun ; one on the maritime frontier of the north- 
west of the peninsula in the important fortress of 
Ferrol; two upon the Portuguese frontier at Ciudad 
Rodrigo and Badajoz; one upon the English fron- 
tier at Tarifa ; two upon the frontier of the Moors in 
Africa, at Ceuta and Melilla ; and two in the Balearic 
Islands, Palma and Mahon. 

The central dove cote is at Madrid, and communicates 
with the preceding, either directly through ten of them, 
or by the aid of five intermediate stations, viz.: Val- 
ladolid for the place of Ferrol, Zaragoza for that of 
Figueras, Valencia for those of Palma and Mahon, 
Cordova for Ceuta and Tarifa, and Malaga for Melilla, 

The greatest distance between two stations designed 
to communicate directly is that from Madrid to Malaga 
amounting to 240 miles. Theshortest upon terra firma 
ie 90 miles, between Madrid and Valladolid. As re- 
gards trips by sea, the longest is from Valencia to| 
Mahon (238 miles), and the shortest from Tarifa to 
Ceuta (16 miles). 


miles). This station has 1,000 pigeons. (2) Warsaw, an 
establishment of the second class connected with Novo- 
Georgiewsk (16 miles), with Brest (108 miles) and with 
Ivangorod (54 wiles). It has a stock of 750 pigeons. (8) 
Ivangorod, an establishment of the third class, con- 
| nected with Warsaw (54 wiles) and Brest-Litowsk (83 
miles). It has 500 pigeons. (4) Novo-Georgiewsk, an 
lestablishment also of the third class, connected 
| with Brest (126 miles) and Warsaw (16 miles). (5) Lun- 
inetz, an establishment of the fourth class, correspond- 
ing solely with Brest, and possessing 250 pigeons. It 
is probable that other stations are in process of for- 
mation upon the eastern frontier, with Kiew for a cen- 


ter. 
Switzerland.—In 1878, Colonel de Loes, of Aigle, re- 








; 


¥ 


s 


~ a 
~ 





ceived from France fifty pairs of carrier pigeons, which 
were delivered to the Federal Council; but they were 
distributed at hazard among the various cantons, 
and no advantage was derived therefrom. 

The following year, however, some experiments 





Spain as figured in the map (Pig. 2), borrowed from 
the Memorial de Ingenieros del Hjercito, gives, more- | 
over, a very clear idea of the system of that country. 

Spain up to the present has derived all of its birds | 
from Belgium, but is tending to produce a special | 
breed, more resistent to inclement weather, and espe- 
cially to dryness, by crossing with an excellent indi- 
genous breed. 

Certain Spanish pigeon fanciers, having remarked | 
that many pigeons have a repugnance to lifting the 
wickets, and thus lose time before deciding to re-enter 
the cote, have adopted the ingenious arrangement 
shown in Fig. 1. 

This arrangement is based upon the observaiion | 
that the pigeon can pass through an opening four 
inches wide when it has the facility of reaching it 
without being obliged to fly, but that it cannot pass 
through an aperture of the same width when it is| 
necessary to reach it by flying, that is to say, with 
wings outspread. It will be seen, then, that it will 
suffice to separate the compartment, A, from compart- 
ment, B, in the interior of the cote, in order that the 
pigeons entering B may not be able to get out again, 
and those making their exit from A may not be able to 
re-enter. It is probable that good results will be 
reached because of the care that is taken in the cotes 
of this country to preserve a complete filiation for 
each pigeon. There is inscribed upon its wings not 
ouly its number of registration, but also the numbers 
of its parents, and its sex. In this way it is easy to 
ascertain which of the birds gives the best products, | 
and thus to permit of a selection of producers. 

Portugal.—Portugal preceded Spain in the estab- 
lishment of military dove cotes, although its very 
warm climate was not very favorable to the rearing of 
the first breeds of carrier pigeons introduced from Bel- 
gium. The first experiments date back to 1876. A few 
years afterward there were five stations in regular 
service: Lisbon, with 400 pigeons; Elvas, with 300; 
Vedra Novas, with 250; Taneos, with 150; and Setabal 
with 100. The three latter have since been suppressed 
and been replaced by twelve others, so that the present 
system, such as it was constituted by a statute of 
September 7th, 1888, consists of fourteen stations, 
which are very near each other, on account of the 
mountains that cover the country and the birds of | 

rey by which they are inhabited. These stations are 

isbon (the central station in direct communication | 
with almost all of the others), Porto, Valencia, Chaves, | 
Braganza, Almeida, Guarda, Coimbra, Castillo, Bran- 
co, Abrantes, Elvas, Peniche, Beja and Lagos. 

Russia.—Almost immediately after the war of 1870, 
the Russian staff office began to direct its attention to 
earrier pigeons, and an experimental station was es- 
tablished at Warsaw. A winisterial decree of the 21st 
of October, 1837, fixed the basis of the service, which is 
placed under the direction of the army engineer corps. 

The establishments are divided into four categories 
according to the number of directions with which they 
are in relation, The personnel of the establishments 
of the first class (corresponding in four directions) con- 
sists of a director (lieutenant colonel), four pigeon 
superintendents, and eight orderlies; for the estab- 
lishments of the second class (correspondingin three 
directions), there is a director, three superintendents, 
and six orderlies ; for the establishments of the third 
class (two directions for correspondence) there is a di- 
rector, two superintendents and four orderlies ; and 
for those of the fourth class (correspondence in but 
one direction), there is a director, one superintendent 
and two orderlies, 

There exist at present in Russia five stations or es- 
tablishments, viz.: (1) Brest-Litowsk, central station, 
and establishment of the first class, corresponding in 
four directions : Novo—Georgiewsk (129 miles), Warsaw 
(108 miles), Lvangorod (88 miles), and Luninetz (126 





were made in order to ascertain whether carrier 
pigeons could fly to great heights, and whether they 
were capable of finding their way again on starting 
from snow-clad summits as well as from stations of less 
altitude. The decree organizing the service of military 
pigeons was promulgated on the 24th of January, 
1889. It contained the following provisions : 

“Art. 1. A subsidy for breeding is offered to persons 
owning a certain number of carrier pigeons. 

“Art. II. The training of these pigeons must be 
done in Switzerland. This is an important point to be 
observed. 

“ Art. III. The societies that lay claim to the sub- 
sidy must, as regards rearing, submit to the instruc- 
tions of the staff office, which will furnish them with 





el Mf 


i TTT 
\ 








site of the dove cotes. 


all the data in this regard, and, particularly, fix ax 


‘Art. IV. Every year, aside from the ordinary races, | 


there will be a contest, in which the journey will vary 
from ninety to one hundred and twenty miles. 
* Art. V. From the beginning, the societies will have 





to make known to the staff office: (1) the number of 
their pigeons capable of wer age awe for correspond- 
ence, and-(2) the number of the members that make 
up the association. 

“Art. VI. For each race there will be drawn upa 
very exact official report, in which is given the start- 
ing and arrival of each pigeon, the temperature of the 
air, and the direction of the wind. This document will 
be sent to the staff office in order that there may be 
easily ascertained from it the damages resulting from 
each start and especially the losses of pigeons. 

“Art VII. The societies that execute at least six 
times per year the services prescribed by the staff 
office will receive the following allowances : (1) The so- 
cieties that rear at least 100 pigeons capable of doing 


. 





jj 


= . CVS ‘i 
i 
; i) 


.\ \\ e 
AY 
tS 





Fie. 1.—-SPANISH MILITARY PIGEON HOUSE. 


service will receive a sum that may reach as high as 
$14 ; (2) those that rear at least 200, will receive as 
high as $24; and (8) above 300, as high as $32.” 

The central dove cote is at Thun, and corresponds 
with three stations, Bale, Zurich, and Weesen, all 
three upon the frontiers of Germany or Austria. 

Austria.—The first society of pigeon fanciers was 
founded in Austria during the year 1873, and it was not 
until 1875 that the first military pigeon cote was esta- 
blished, and that at Comorn. In 1882, a second was 
organized at Cracow. Since then, four others have 
been projected in the central points of the mountain- 
ous regions of the frontier, at  aaeely: Sona for the Ty- 
rol, at Karlsburg, for Transylvania, at Serajewo, for 
Bosnia, and at Mostar for Herzegovina. But none of 
these stations appears as yet to have been created, 
very probably for want of money, for it will be neces- 
sary to have intermediate stations in connection with 
them. The government is endeavoring to supply the 
deficiency by encouraging private societies with all its 
power, and gratuitously granting the wood necessary 
for the erection of a cote to the officers and state em- 
ployes who are engaged in breeding and training 
yigeons with a view to the carrying of dispatches. 

oreover, the railways are allowing notable reduc- 
tions of fare to those who accompany the pigeons in 




















i; 





t 
> , i... 
Na ‘ 
" \ 


Ps 
‘ 4 ! 
7 t 


“il 
TUIRQUIE 
—<- 


= 


E Moriev Sc 














3. Vincennes. 4. Lille. 
13. Besancon. 14, Lyons, 


4. Chaves. 5. Braganza. 


France—1. Mont Valerien. 2. Paris. 
11. Langres. 12. Belfort. 
2. Ovorto. 3. Valencia. 
12. Peniche. 18. Beja. 14. Lagos. 
8. Badajoz. 9. Tarifa. 10. Ceuta 
18. Valencia, Italy—1. Rome. 
9. Exilies, 10. Vinadio. 11. La Maddalena, 
Germany—1. Berlin, 2. Cologne. 3. Metz. 
10. Kiel, 11, Stettin. 12, Dantzig. 13. Koenigeberg. 
3. Franzenfest. 4. Karisburg. 5. Serajewo, 6, Mostar, 


6. Almeida. 


12. Palma. 
Ancona. 3. Bologna. 

12. Cagliari. 
4. Mayence. 


° 





* Continued from Surriemznt, No, 819, p. 13089. 


Litowsk, 2, Warsaw, 3, Novo-Georgiewsk. 4, Ivangorod, 5 


5. Douai. 
15. Marseilles. 
7. Guarda. 
Spain—\. Madrid. 2. Figueras, 3. Iaca. 4. Pamplona, 5, Oyarsun. 
i 13. Mahon. 
4. Verona. 
13. Gaeta. 14. Genoa, 

5. Wartzburg. 6. Strasburg. 
14. Thorn, 15. Posen. 
7._ Trieste, 

Luninetz, 


Fie. 2—MAP OF THE SYSTEMS OF MILITARY DOVE COTES IN EUROPE. 


7. Maubenge. 8. Mezieres. 9. Verdun. 10. Toul. 
17. Grenoble, 18. Briancon. ai —1. Lisbon. 
9, Castello Branco. 10. Abrantes, 11. Elvas. 
6. Ferrol. 7. Ciudad-Rodrigo. 
14. Zaragoza, 15. Valladolid. 16. Cordova, - 17. Malaga. 

6. Alexandria. 7. Mont Cenis, 8. Fenertrel/a. 
—1l. Thun. 2 Bale. 3 Zurich. 4. Weesen. 
7. Schwetzingen. 8. Wilhelmshaven, 9. Tonning. 

17. Torgan. Avwstria—l. Comorn. 2. Cracow. 

agen, Jarisburg, Russia—l. Brest 


6. Valenciennes. 
1s. Perpignan, 
8 Coimbra, 


5. Placenza. 


16. Breslau. 
penh: 

















Ocroper 17, 1891. 





SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. 824. 





13168 















—— 


their voyages, and the military stations are delivering 
a very good breed of pigeons to amateurs at a mini- 
maw price of 25 cts. 

Sweden.—Sweden as yet appears to have but one 
station, and that was established in 1886 in the fortress 
of Carlsburg. 

Denmark.—Knowing the great services that the car- 
rier pigeons of Paris rendered in 1870-71, some citizens 
clubbed together in order to train pigeons in view of 
serving as aerial messengers during time of war. 

The society is entirely civil, but the members have 
promised that in time of war they will put all their 
pigeons at the disposal of the minister of war. The 
winister annually rewards those members whose pig- 
eous have proved the swiftest. Her Majesty the — 
is the protector of the society, and his Highness Priace 
Waldemar is the honorary president of it. The society 
consists of twelve seetions, one at Copenhagen and the 
others in the provincial cities. The president is Lieu- 
tenant-colonel Hulboll, who closely watches the pigeon 
faneving movement in the west of Europe, and yearly 
organizes competitions. 

Belgium.—The large number of private individuals 
owning carrier pigeons in Belgium, where every com- 
mune has at least one society of pigeon fanciers, ren- 
ders useless in this country the organization of mili- 
tarv dove cotes. Lieutenant Gigot has nevertheless 
studied the arrangement that it would be proper to 
adopt were it desired to have a perfectly trained per- 
sonnel in time of war. It would suffice at Anvers, 
Liege and Namur to establish stations that would all 
correspond with each other. In order to secure a six 
months’ service, it would require a total of five or six 
thousand pigeons. The number of those at present 
existing in Belgium is estimated to be more than 
600.000 

Holland.—Peaceable Holland has not, any more than 
has Belgium, thought it its duty to organize military 
dove cotes upon its territory, where civil societies 
abound; but regular postal services by the aid of 
pigeons have been established by its colonial army in 
the islands of Java and Sumatra. 

England.—Engiand has established cotes in some o 
its garrisoned cities, and employs pigeons for the sur- 
veillance of its coasts, but we have found no precise 
details upon this subject. 
bridge had a few interesting experiments made upon 
aerial correspondence during the grand maneuvers. 
—Lt. Col. De Rochas, in La Nature. 








ROPE BRIDGES AND THEIR MILITARY 
APPLICATIONS. 


MucH attention has been paid for some years past to 
the subject of the quick repairing of railway bridges 





Fig. 1.—PUTTING A GISCLARD BRIDGE 
PLACE. 


IN 


in time of war by means of a material all prepared in 
advance. The experience of the last campaigns, from 
the war of the rebellion to the Turko-Russian war, has 
proved, in fact, that local resources are in most cases 
inadequate to permit of effecting such repairs quickly 
enough, even though one has at his disposal, as in 
America, inexhaustible forests from which may be ob- 
tained at will the wherewithal to construct the huge 
scaffoldings or trestles that form the simplest while 
at the same time the most rudimentary means of cross- 
ing a gap. 

We have many times described the various systems 
of metallic bridges proposed by our engineers to satis- 
fy every military engineer. Some, such as Col. Mar- 
cille’s bridge, consist of wholly mounted and relatively 
heavy sections, that are carried by rail and assembled 
end toend. Others form reticulated systems capable 
of being taken apart up to the extreme limits at which 
the pieces can be carried by men, thus permitting of 
their being moved to any point whatever, even though 
no railway reaches it. his is a great advantage for 
the simultaneous reconstruction of several bridges 
situated upon the same line. The bridges of this 
nature are numerous. It will suffice to mention those 
of Mr. Eiffel and Lt. Col. Henry. Both have been the 
object of numerous experiments that have shown all 
the resources that they offer to the engineer, not only 
in case of war, but also in time of peace, when it is a 
question of promptly remedying an accident, as at 
Artemare, or of forming a provisional passage without 
travel being impeded, as at Argenteuil, and also re- 
cently on the Oureq canal. 

_ These various systéms respond to a well defined and 
limited need, but it is not useless to ask whether, 
aside from railway bridges, it will not be possible, by 
- Satine process, to assure of the re-establishment of 
oe situated upon ordinary roadways. Although 
there is no doubt, in faet, that the technical problem 
ee, be easily solved by means of metallic bridges and 
ight foot bridges easily put in place, it is not less evi- 
dent that, in time of peace, there might be constructed 
and preserved the large quantity of equipments that 
Would be necessary, so that, at the proper time, one 


wherever the need thereof might be felt. Without 
speaking of the impediment that they would prove to 
armies that had to carry them in their train, it is cer- 
tain that this accumulation of materiel would be out 
of proportion to the object in view. To cite an ex- 
ample of the multiplicity of needs which it is necessary 
to fulfill, it will suffice to remark that in certain broken 
regions it is not, rare to find, on a stretch of a few 
wiles, five or six large bridges, the breakage of which 
would constitute a great obstacle, and which it would 
be absolutely necessary to repair in order that the 
army wight pursue its way. No material interest 
would be able tosuffice for the reconstruction of so 
numerous bridges and satisfy like exigences so often 
repeated. As in the past, we shall therefore have to 
rely again, in great part at least, upon local resources, 
put to profit by the engineer corps. 

We have only to look at the diversity of the processes 
brought into requisition in past wars by the military 
engineers, in order to get an idea of the complexity of 





ooSface $ oon ftowee 


nt 


tooo te 


series of vertical supports. The extremities ofjthe cables 
pass over piers or posts whose height measures, so to 
speak, the ordinate of the parabola at the starting 
point. This sort of bridge was wuch in favor halfa 
century ago, and its technique is so well known that 
one may be sure of giving it asufficient rigidity. From 
a wilitary standpoint we know that troops and mate- 
rial can pass over it, provided the foot soldiers do not 
keep step and the wagons are not allowed to accumu- 
late thereon. 

When, however, it is a question of military appiica- 
tions, that is to say, of the rapid establishment of a 
crossing by means of a light material, the parabolic 
cable bridges lose nearly all their advantages. he in- 
stallation of the shore piers is difficult, and the anchor- 
ages to the abutments are so much the more precarious 
oo eneeee as the traction is exerted more vertically. 

he gravest inconvenience resides in the impossibili- 





ty of obtaining sufficient stability in such a system, for 
which the ratio of the accidental supercharge to the 


ELEVATION 


p cocMb cco qwow Co coube c colMscorhccccSOs00s $00 000 oo Meccocome, 
‘ 


ae 




















In 1886, the Duke of Cawm-| 


| 

| the problem. Thereis no general method applicable 
| to all cases, and every one endeavors to adopt the 
equally varied materials and resources that he has at 
— to the varied circumstances that present them- 
selves. 

However, it would not be impossible to classify this 
multitude of more or less brilliant solutions and to 
prepare at least for the utilization of these chance 
|inaterials by carrying along the light pieces whose 
| manufacture requires a length of time out of propor- 
tion to what one has at his disposal. It was thus that 
the Americans operated under many circumstances 
during the war of the rebellion. The system of lattice 
girders that they often adopted was very effective. 
The wood was easily found in sitw, and it therefore 
sufficed to carry along the pieces of iron that were to 
serve for the uniting of the various frameworks. 

In Europe it will not often be possible to depend 
upon wood of large section. Thus, the passage of the 
Danube in 1877 presented very serious difficulties, due 
to the want of raft wood, of which the markets had 
been drained in advance. In default of forests or well 
stocked yards, the demolition of the neighboring houses 
(which would not be a very economical means, nor a 
very humane one in time of peace) will always permit 
| of finding the materials that are the most indispensa- 
| ble for the construction of a foot bridge. It will be 
the duty of- military engineers to determine the best 
conditions for the use of them, in order that the cross- 
ing of a chasm may be effected as rapidly as possible, 
and it will be then that it will be important to make a 
judicious selection from among all the processes known 
and practiced. 

Awong such processes, it seems that, up to the pres- 
ent, sufficient attention has not been paid to funicular 
arrangements, which lend themselves so well toa rapid 
construction with light materials. 

Apart from the timber, which may be found every- 
where, it suffices to carry some ropes, assembling irons, 
and pulley blocks, all of which are objects that do not 
weigh much and do not cause an exaggerated encumber- 








et 


Mi 

















Fie. 3.—FRAME OF THE GISCLARD BRIDGE. 


ment. As for the work itself, that can be done with- 
out calling in the aid of a large number of special la- 
borers. 

The use of rope bridges by armies dates back to re- 
mote antiquity. It was a bridge of this kind that 
Xerxes threw across the Hellespont, if we are to believe 
tradition, his ships being used to form the intermedi- 
ate points of support. 

Rope bridges, moreover, are so easily improvised that 
past wars offer us numerous examples of them, from 
the legendary tentative of the king of the Persians up 
to the repairing of the bridge of Romans, upon the 
Isere, effected in 1814 by the French army. There are 
two great classes of suspension bridges i differ- 
ent properties which designate them more especially 
in different cases. 


SUSPENSION BRIDGES WITH PARABOLIC CABLES 


These lend themselves well to permanent construc- 
tions and permit of crossing with spans. The horizon- 





Ke. 2.—ELEVATION AND PLAN OF THE GISCLARD BRIDGE. 


dead weight of the bridge is much too great, in conse- 
quence of the necessity of having an easily transport- 
able material. Under the action of the loads that 
cross the bridge, the conditions of equilibrium vary at 
every instant, and, as the elements of the structure are 
indistortable, there results for each position of the load 
a particular form of equilibrium of the whole, that is 
to say, a new distortion. In consequence of the ten- 
dency of the different points of this flexible system to 
return to their primitive position of equilibrium by a 
series of oscillations, it will be seen that in addition 
to the successive distortions that it will have to under- 
go, the bridge will be submitted toa vertical tremulous 
motion, which the light structure of the flooring is ill 
adapted to resist. These rapid considerations permit 
of the conclusion that bridges of this kind are not 
adapted for military applications, because of their 
dangerous mobility and the difficulty of establishing 
them. 
BRIDGES UPON CHAINS. 


Nothing simpler than these could be imagined. It 
suffices to stretch properly from shore to shore two 
chains, and to lay the flooring directly thereupon. As 
the traction is exerted horizontally at the anchorage 
points, it is easier to obtain strong attachments ; but, 
on another hand, however strong be such traction, it 


Sellette des coms morts 


FTevatan paraliele 
& laze du Pant 

















Joxe du Pont 


#2 








Fie. 4—DETAILS OF THE BRIDGE. 


cannot reduce the pitch beyond all limits, and, when 
the span reaches forty meters, the pitch is such that 
the flooring will be strongly incurved, and this some- 
times renders the passage of it difficult to carts. 

However, the influence of the displacement of the 
accidental supercharge plays a much less important 
role in this system than in the parabolic cable type, 
in consequence of the initial tension of the cables. 
There results from this a much greater stability. It is 
certainly on account of this advantage, in conjunction 
with the ease of construction that it presents, that 
this type should have received numerous military ap- 
plications. 

It way be asked whether it would not be possible to 
devise a funicular system that should participate in 
the advantages of the two types that we have just 
examined, and devoid of their principal inconveniences. 

The efforts of the builder should tend toward the 
construction of a true trussed bridge, for which it is 
not necessary to exclusively ewploy ropes, which do 
not lend themselves to tractive stresses, while local re- 








might be almost sure of having some of them 





tal floor is suspended from the cables by means of a 





13164 


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. 824. 





Ocrosper 17, 1891, 








sources will, in most cases, permit of improving rigid 
elements capable of working by compression. 

The simplest solution would be to constract an in- 
verted truss with a certain number of pendent jogglie- 
pieces sustained upon cables, which, with them, form 
an indistortable reticulated system. 

This process, which theoretically seems perfect, does 
not take sufficient account of the special exigences 
which, in this particular case, arise from the mobility 
of the load. Under such conditions we cannot consi- 
der the materials employed as inextensible, and this 
renders impossible a definite regulation, The load in 
moving along the flooring causes the latter to take on 
a variable curvature, and the stresses that result there- 
from upon the different pieces may likewise undergo 
abrupt variations of intensity nm | even of direction. 
Nothing is more prejudiciai to the preservation of the 
assemblages. The bolts, and even the rivets, pulled 
successively in the two directions, finally begin to play 
in their recesses and quickly undergo a wear. Be- 
sides, in the combinations employed, it should be seen 
that the stresses are not too suddenly transmitted 
from one element to the other of the trussed girder, 
for, in this case, practice teaches that it is necessary to 
give the pieces a resistance double that which would 
be sufficient for them if the load acted progressively. 

As may be seen, the problem is more complex than 
it would seem at first sight. A very distinguished gov- 
ernment engineer, Commandant Gisclard, has been 
endeavoring for a few years past to get around these 
difficulties, and has devised sume types of rope foot- 
bridges that are capable of rendering genuine service, 
even outside of cases of war. 

The first type devised and experimented with in 
1888 by the commandant may be classed with as much 
reason in one as in the other of the two classes of sus- 
pension bridges that we have just examined in suc- 
cession. It is a parabolic cable bridge in which the 
cables are wholly situated beneath the plane of the 
ground. The flooring, instead of being suspended from 
the cables, is supported above them by compressed 
pieces. 

On another hand, the entire system is very taut ho- 
rizontally, as in the case of the chain bridge. The 
pieces serving as supports to the flooring are wooden 
ties spaced four inches apart. Their uprights are pro- 
vided beneath with a stirrup which rests upon the 
cables, 

In order to maintain the verticality of the uprights 
and the rigidity of the whole, there is arranged be- 
tween two consecutive uprights four stays in the shape 
of metallic cables united at the level of the flooring by 
rings of forged iron, so as to form a triangular reticu- 
lated system. The stays attached to the extreme up- 
rights are tautened by means of pulleys fastened on 
the back to the anchoring posts of the parabolic cables. 
Since the abutments, as may be seen, have to under- 
go merely horizontal tractive stresses, they are easily 
established. 

The upper guys are each formed of asingle cable 20 
mm. in diameter and weighing 1°7 kilogramme to the 
running meter. 

The aceompanying figures will permit us to dis- 
pense witha completer description of the arrangement 
adopted by Commandant Gisclard.—Le Genie Civil. 


CRANKS SET ON AN ANGLE. 


To have a connecting rod work to the best advan- 
tage, especially when a pair of crank arms are to be 
driven in this manner, it is important that the crank 
shafts stand perfectly parallel with each other and 
that the crank pins are both in line with them, for the 
least inclination in either of these four elements per- 
taining to a connecting rod will bring some of the 
bearing surfaces out of true before the crank arms can 
make a complete revolution. Another condition that 
evefy engineer takes an interest in lies in having the 
central line of the rod stand square with the crank 
pins as well as bringing all the load where it will center 
on the bearing surfaces, for then there can be left a 
little side play without danger of the rod chucking 
first to one end ofa crank pin, then to the other. But 





CH 


LN 








there are places where an engineer cannot have all 
these good running qualities to his liking; there is a 
dead center to be looked out for, and to make room for 
three connecting rods to be working on the same 
shafts at the same time each of the rods must be pre- 
pared to work under the conditions shown in Fig. 1, 








Fra. 3. 


where the pull and push on the rod brings about as 
much work on the shoulders of the pins as on the bear- 
ings themselves ; but as long as the central line of the 
shafts, A and C, are parallel, and the crank lines, B 
and D, are parallel with them, the connecting rod 
wust be as free and easy in its bearing in one position 
asin another. If we were to consider these four cen- 


infinity, the whole system would be but a case where 
the spherical surface of bevel gears is made use of, and 
there would be nothing to hinder setting the shafts 
around where they will meet at an angle from the 
point, G, as shown in Fig. 2, provided that the central! 
lines of the crank pins, B and D, be arranged to meet 
at the same point ; then it will be seen that no matter 
where either of the crank shafts be turned, the crank 
pins must be pointing at the line of centers in every 
position. Now hold one of the crank arms still and 
uncouple the rod from the other, and see what the rod 
will do when turned about on the crank pin. It will 
carry the loose end around ina circle every point of 
which will be an equal distance from the center, G, 
holding the eye always in line with the sawe center. 
Now, as both the crank pin and the bearing in the rod 
are always to be found at the same distance from the 
line of centers, and lining “—= the same direction, they 
must be as free from any binding action while work- 
ing on an angle as when laid out on the parallel sys- 
tem. By bringing the inside crank arm around where 
it can come on the other side of the rod, we can get 
this method in the form shown in Fig. 3, which admits 
of keeping ail the central lines on the same point of 
centers. There is nothing to hinder —s the shafts 
either with or against each other, only the velocity 
ratio will be quite different in different portions of a 
revolution. he two dead centers in this means of 
driving calls for another connecting rod to help over 
these weak places, or a few gear teeth to assist at the 
right moment, which we will next investigate.— Boston 
Jour. of Com. 


SIX-INCH FIVE-TON HYDRO- PNEUMATIC 
DISAPPEARING GUN. 


WE illustrate below one of the largest exhibits of 
Sir W. G. Armstrong & Co., limited, at the Royal Na- 
val Exhibition, viz., the 6 inch five-ton gun, mounted on 
an Elswick hydro-pueumatic disappearing mounting. 
The illustration is reproduced from a photograph 
of the actual gun and mounting as it appears in the 
exhibition. 

Before describing the hydro-pneumatic mounting 
exhibited, it may be pointed out that it is specially de- 
signed for land purposes, and that by its adoption not 
only is the cost of protecting coast defense guns very 
considerably reduced, but at the same time the actual 
protection is greatly enhanced. At Gibraltarand Mal- 
ta protected barbettes were adopted for the 100-ton 
muzzile-loading Elswick guns, and at Dover the 80-ton 
muzzle-loaders, popularly known as ‘“‘ Woolwich in- 
fants,” are placed in a turret ; but although a certain 
protection is thereby provided, they form conspicuous 
targets, and the men working the guns run considera- 
ble risk from the firing of machine guns. The ‘‘ar- 
mored cupola ” is a decided improvement upon either 
the *‘ barbette ’ or “turret.” It is practically a mush- 
room-shaped turret, constructed of large blocks of 
chilled cast iron, having a profile of a design best cal- 
culated to deflect striking projectiles. The most nota- 
ble instance of its adoption is at the Italian forts of 
Palmaria, in the Gulf of Spezia, but some idea of the 
costly nature of these structures may be obtained from 
the fact that, to mount a 120-ton gun, a proceeding 
contemplated by the Italian government, a cupola 
weighing 2,050 tons will be requisite. Then, again, an 
armored cupola does not afford absolute protection to 
a gun, for at the Palmaria fort a gun of 46 ft. length 
has 20 ft. of its length exposed to the enemy’s fire. 

The disappearing system adopted by the Elswick 
Ordnance Department thus appears to have important 
advantages. Instead of an erection above the surface 
being required, a circular pit, constructed without a 
disturbance of the ordinary outline of the neighbor- 
hood, is provided, and thus the position of a gun is 
only visible at the moment of firing, as, ty the adop- 
tion of reflecting sights, it can be approximately train- 
ed and laid for elevation before it is raised—the recoil 
causing it to descend again. It was found impractica- 
ble to sink the mounting exhibited in a pit, but this 
lack of realistic detailis not important. Evidently the 











tral lines as radial lines from some far-off center at 


A ee ee ae | 





protection afforded by the disappearing system, even 


Hit 




















OcrosER 17, 1891. 





SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. 824. 





13165 




















against accurately aimed shots, consisting as it does of 
ap unlimited thickness of the ground external to the 
pit, is greater than that afforded by any ordinary ar- 
mor plates. The light shield overhead has been added 
asa protection against fragments of shells or debris 
which might otherwise fall into the pit. The disap- 
ing system makes it easy to obtain perfect security 
or the magazines, and in tropical climates under- 
ground living rooms for the gunners have been found 
to be very suitable. 

Reference has already been made to the ‘“ cupola” 
apd “turret” systems of protection. About three 
years ago, at Bucharest, it was demonstrated by actu- 
al guonery trials that neither system sufficed for pro- 
tection against even very ordinary six inch guns, al- 
though the latter was struck three times for every 
twice that the cupola was hit. At Portland, in 1885, 
the disappearing system was tried, and, although H. 
M. S. Hercules fired 176 shots at a dummy gun wount- 
ed on a disappearing carriage, which appeared at cer- 
tainjintervals for two minutes, a puff of smoke indicat- 
ing its position, not the slightest damage was done to 
the gun and its mounting. 

The total weight of the shield, the carriage, and the 
gun exhibited is about 14 tons, the whole resting on a 
movable turntable, so that the gun can be trained to 
fire in any direction. The gun is carried on a pair of 
heavy arms or levers, in which the trunnions rest. It 
is elevated to the firing position by a hydraulic cylin- 
drical press, placed on an incline in the center of the 
carriage, compressed air being stored in a chamber on 
the exterior of the cylindrical press in which the ram 
works. At the bottom of the air chamber there isa 
quantity of liquid, which, when the gun is to be raised, 
is driven 7 the pressure of the air into the hydraulic 
press, and forces out the ram, the gun being simultane- 
ously raised. -After firing, the liquid is driven through 
recoil valves back into the air chamber, and re-com- 
pressea the air to a pressure of about 1,250 lb. to the 
square inch. The passage of the liquid from the air 
chamber is governed by a hand valve, so that the gun 
can be raised when desired. As the ordinary recoil ar- 
rangements depend upon the gun being fired, special 
arrangements have had to be made for the lowering of 
the gun and carriage at the exhibition. 

Over 220 hypro-pneumatic disappearing carriages 
have been manufactured at the Elswick Works for 
guns up to 67 tons weight, and supplied to the British 
Home and Colonial, Japanese, Chinese, Italian, and 
Siamese governments, and, despite the most stringent 
tests, these disappearing carriages have always worked 
without the slightest hitch.—Jndustries. 








THE DISTILLATION OF MOLASSES.* 
By CHARLES DEBREMOND. 


HAVING practiced in France, for several years, the 
distillation of alcohol from beets and of brandy, when 
I came to this country I was struck at the practica- 
bility of distilling the seums of sugar houses, which 
were thrown in the ditches. I vainly tried to start a 
small distillery to utilize these scums, which were a 
total loss for the planter, before the general use of 
filter presses. Failing in this, my attention was 
directed for some months past toward the cheapness 
of our common molasses for distilling purposes. 
found many sugar planters ready to adopt my views, 
but anxious to know the result of the discussion on 
this — by your association, before deciding. I 
cannot find a better opportunity to express my ideas, 
than before the ablest body of sugar men in this 
country ; and without discussing at length the various 
aspects of the question, I desire to expose a few points 
which, I hope, will perhaps help you in determining 
whether this new industry will pay. 

Gentlemen, the yearly increasing production of in- 
ferior molasses, together with the decrease of its value 
as a food article, makes imperative the finding of some 
new way of disposing of this product. Without dis- 
cussing the other processes recently suggested, I am 
satisfied its transformation into alcohol will offer to 
the planter the best inducement to reap some profit 
from this now valueless article. For the last two 
years the price of Louisiana molasses has been low 
enough to justify its distillation, while the question 
has only been brought to a serious consideration for 
the past two or three months. It is not surprising 
that any one should have attempted sooner the dis- 
tillation of this raw matarial, owing to its previous 
high value, too high to give satisfactory returns. But 
now the time has come, and whereas the price of our 
molasses has diminished, the price of corn has steadily 
advanced, giving the advantage to our produce. The 
scarcity of grain now prevailing throughout Europe 
seems to point out that these high prices will be main- 
tained for some time to come, and the general outlook 
is very promising for the starting of this industry in 
Louisiana. 

The distillation of molasses is nothing new ; all over 
the sugar-producing countries of the world it is prac- 
ticed ; and with a full knowledge of this old industry, 
we can ourselves embark in this venture, without the 
uncertainty attending the other new modes suggested 
for the use of our molasses. The only question which 
arises is to determine if, as a raw material for the pro- 
duction of alcohol, it can compete with corn, so ex- 
tensively used in the western distilleries. 

‘he grain distilleries get a larger profit by using the 
residues of their corn for feeding purposes; but, as 
with molasses the manipulations are much more eco- 
nowical and the spirit of a better quality, we are in 
Position to hold our own end with them. As I under- 
stand it, the Louisiana molasses distilleries are not in- 
tended to be exclusively industrial plants, buying at 
the market's quotations, their raw material overloaded 
with the cost of barrels, freight. commission, gauging, 
ete., but must be, like in the West Indies, considered 
a annex to the large sugar houses, whose aim shall 
th the distillation of their own molasses and those of 

eir neighborhood. They shall be operated on the 
Same principles as the central factories; and thus 
managed, will be in better condition than the northern 
oe molasses distilleries. 

he internal revenue records value for the last fiscal 
year the average yield in the United States of proof 
ee 





t by Mr. Charies Debremond, read before the meeting of the 
Auters’ Association, September 12, 1891.—La. Planter, 


*A 
Sugar P 


spirit* from one bushel 


molasses hope for so large a yield ? 


0600 proof gallon; in Spain, of 0°650. 


0°500 proof gallon. 
Dymond’s 


tilled 58 per cent. proof spirit, showed : 
Sucrose, 32°60 per cent.; 


proof gallon. 


But if we were to get, for distilling purposes, 
25 per cent. 


facture. 
molasses showing 36 per cent. sucrose and 
glucose=61 
another sample (from the Lafourche Refining Com- 
pany), when the yield in experiments was 67 per cent. 
proof spirit, the theoretical yield would be 0 
gallon ; or an average for Louisiana common mo 
of 0°669 gallon from one gallon molasses. This yield 
would fall 0:085 below the New England molasses dis- 
tilleries’ yield. 

It seems, therefore, that it would require 638 gallons 
of our molasses to yield in proof spirit the quantity 
given by one bushel grain. The table here below 
gives the value, as raw material, of a gallon molasses, 
based upon the yield of 0°669 proof gallon, com- 
= with a bushel grain valued from $0.26 to 


Value of the bushel grain, cents....... shenarecdenataud 
Value of the gallon molasses, cents...........+..s00+- 
What is the value of this same gallon molasses when 
distilled, the price of proof spirit in bond valued from 
19 cents to 25 cents: 


Value of the gallon proof spirit, cents 
Gross value of the gallon molasses, cents.............-- 


In valuing the proof spirit at from 19 to 25 cents, it 
must be remembered that the spirit from cane molas- 


quality, and this price can be reached. If the dis- 
tillery were able to get some cane juice, to be mixed 
with molasses, and to manufacture good rum, the price 
would be increased from 5 to 8 cents per gallon. The 
price of new Jamaica proof rum is about 40 cents. At 
the figures ruling now on the market, the distillers net 
45 cents per gallon alcohol, or 23 or 24 cents per proof 
gallon. 

I will now establish the cost of running a distillery 

working 500,000 gallons molasses, with a daily capacity 
of 2,000 gallons, yielding 1,335 gallons proof spirit ; and 
the margin left to the planter by the sale of 334,000 
gallons spirit, compared with the amount netted by 
500,000 gallons molasses sold on the New Orleans 
market, at the last vear’s average price of 7 cents. 
Deducting $2.50 per barrel ($1.50 for barrel and $1.00 
for freight, commission, etc.), the net value for the 
planter has been reduced to 2 cents per gallon ; for 
500,000 gallons to $10,000. 
The cost of erecting a distilling plant of the above 
capacity will reach about $12,000, with a large part for 
the buildings and incidental expenses, the value of the 
machinery not exceeding $7,500 or $8,000; and the 
amount for running the same will stand as follows: 


Interest of the capital invested, insurances, re- 


Freight, commission, gauging, etc. ($1.50 per 

barrel) on 6,700 barrels... ....-+-seee+ cevees 
Management and workmanship ($1.10 per bar- 
rel) ¢ 


Total in round numbers...........-+++: + «$42,000 


Amount of the sale of 334,000 gallons proof spirit, and 
net value to the planter of one gallon molasses : 


10,125 
7,425 


eee Ree eee eee. CHEER THEE HHH EEE 





Value of one gallon spirit........ 
Gross value of 334,000 gallons 
Net value of 334,000 gallons 
Net vaiue of one gallon molasses 


In the above calculations I charge to the debt of the 
spirit $2,400 for interest of the capital invested in the 
plant, and this same item does not figure to the debt 
of the molasses sold on the New Orleans market, 
which, however, should be charged for its share in the 
interest of the capital invested in the sugar house 
where it is produced. 
It can be so safely deducted that as far as the yield 
is concerned, we cannot cowpare with advantage with 
the northern molasses distilleries, but being situated 
in the very center of producing country, we are far 
better located for our supply of raw material. 

= information in regard to the finding of a home 
market for our spirits is very limited, but I have 
been told Mexico and Central America can be relied 
upon as large consumers of the product. On the other 
hand the consumption of aleohol by compounders and 
by the drug trade is very important in New Orleans, 
the _ using yearly thousands and thousands 
barrels. I know positively, from an _ interested 
authority, that we can readily furnish the wholesale 
druggists with their supply of alcohol. In my opinion, 


eee eee Cee eee eee eee eee 





*Section 3249, Revised Statntes of the United statea, provides that 

ag spirit on which a tax of 90 cents shall be levied and collected shall 
held that alcoholic liquor which contains one-half its volume of alco- 

hol of a specific gravity of 0°7939 at 60 deg. Fahrenheit, 

+In France and the West Indies the cost of workmanship is about 1 

cent per gallon spirit, but owing to the higher wages paid in this country, 

I charge 21-5 cents per gailon to this account, The exact coet can 

} ape ee only after actual working of the distillery, and may fall below 

e estimate, 








n at 4°27 gallons, and from 
one gallon molasses (chiefly Cuba molasses) at 0°754 


gallon. It requires, therefore, 5°65 gallons molasses to 
yield in proof spirit the quantity given by one bushel 
grain. an we from the analysis of our common 


In some experiments on various samples, I have dis- 
tilled from 58 to 67 per cent. proof spirit. In Jamaica 
the yield of rum-from one gallon molasses is about 
In France, 
which is a large producer of alcohol, the average yield 
of a gallon beet molasses with 44 per cent. sugar is 


The —- of a sample of molasses from Mr. Jobn 
elair plantation, from which I have dis- 


lucose, 24°27 per cent.= 
56°87 per cent. sucrose and glucose. This yield, based 
upon the above percentage of sugar, and compared 
with the average yield of beet molasses, would be 0°645 

The above molasses is very poor; in fact, with as 


little sugar left asin any molasses produced by the 
country refineries, with the usual processes of manu- 


per cent., such as was the analysis of 


roof 


26 2 28 2 8 
» ats 


eee ee eee eee eee 


ses is, compared with the grain spirit, of a superior 


pairs, etc.—20 per cent. on $12,000............ $2,400 
Fuel—30 barrels coal daily at 35 cents per barrei 

for 250 days ....... paddeesew. SebUiewesednnes 6s 2,600 | 
Yeast, acid, lights, oils, ete...........000-- seen. 3,500 
©. 700 Hrvals at OBB: ... ..ccccccccccccses coscece 15,705 


.. $63,000 


CRO eee ete HHO He Oe eee 


every distillery should be equipped for the production 
of raw spirits and of mentee aiohed ; we would then 
be able to manufacture what would pay best. 

An advantage of distilling our molasses is that 
whereas it cannot be kept for a long time without be- 
ing spoiled by the fermentation, the spirit improves 
by growing old, and can be kept in bond for three 
years before the tax becomes due. Another advan- 
tage of a distilling plant would be to facilitate the sav- 
ing of frost-bitten canes, which must be disposed of 
without delay. Every Louisiana planter knows, by 
perry and to his expense, how fast frozen cane 
will lose its sugar properties. The juice remains 
nearly as valuable for distilling purposes. Here is the 
yield of a ton of canes distilled, with a mill extraction 
of 70 and a richness of 18 50 per cent. sucrose and glu- 
cose or 190 pounds sugar. 

Absolute alcohol 14°15 gallons, or about 28 proof gal- 


lons. 
The yield in sugar would be : 


Sugar, 160 pounds at 5e............. saeeed $8 00 
Molasses, 4°5 gallons at 5ce.............. .. 23 
$8 23 


The price of the distillate ought to be 29 cents for 
proof gallon to net to the planter the same price as 
sugar. But the alcohol from sugar cane is nearly of as 
good a quality as the alcohol from the grape, and far 
superior in taste to that of n, and we may reach 
29 cents for a fine article. e can perhaps, too, find 
some advantage by mixing witb our molasses in the 
inash tubs the cakes of exhausted scums and get some 
alcohol from the sugar left by the filter presses. 

I do not wish to discuss at length the efficiency of 
the several apparatuses which can be used in a well 
managed distillery, every kind having its merits, but 
to impress briefly upon your minds a few points which, 
in the choice of a still, I know from personal ex- 
perience may be of some value. 

In Europe and the West Indies the continuous sys- 


31 32 38 34 35 
4 4 OO OOK 


tem is highly esteemed. These apparatuses, now 
nearly perfect, operate automatically and with quick- 
ness, and are the best thing to be had when the dis- 








oobccceccccceres 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 
inndiinndlald eeseeee 125g 183% 14 14% 1534 16y, 16% 
tillation of raw spirits is the main object. But if you 


wish to produce neutral alcohol, this process will not 
do the work as satisfactorily. With a single opera- 
| tion, by the addition of some mechanical provisions, 
| high test spirit can be produced, as high as 180 to 185 
| deg., but not neutral alcohol. The neutral alcohol re- 
| quires absolutely redistillation, which cannot be done 
|economically by the continuous process. Further- 
| more, the fermented beer seeding the apparatus and 
| flowing out automatically and continuously is not al- 
ways entirely exhausted. The height of the column 
in most of the continuous apparatuses, with its 18, 20, 
25, and even more plates, offers a large surface to the 
cooling atmosphere at the expense of fuel, besides the 
time required to clean the same. 

The intermittent apparatuses, as constructed to-day, 
possess all the desirable features of the continuous 
process, save, perhaps, a little less quickness in doing 
the work, and generally overcome the latter’s defects. 
The cleaning is easier, and the flow of spent beer be- 
ing regulated at will by the distiller, the alcohol from 
the fermented juice can be entirely exhausted before 
being allowed to flow out. The heating is also more 
easily regulated. 

As to the way of applying the heat to the apparatus, 
I would never advise the use of the naked fire, except- 
ing with very small stills. A still heated by steam will 
always realize a notable reduction in the cost of fuel ; 
and, as a distillery of 500 or 600 gallons molasses ca- 
pacity needs a boiler to run its pumps, the saving in 
fuel would soon repay the cost of a larger boiler. 
| Everybody knows how inconvenient it is to superheat 

in the fabrication of sugar; in the distillation of 

| spirits these inconveniences are still more perceptible, 
and the heating of a large stili by direct fire requires 
the constant attention of a skilled fireman to avoid 
the empyreumatical flavor which spoils the careless 
distilled spirit, from beer holding in suspense a large 
proportion of solid matters. 

I have seen and critically examined the drawings of 
some apparatuses manufactured by Gannon’s copper 
works, of Jersey City, and I find these apparatuses to 


$0 19 $020 $0 21 22 $023 $024 ww 2% 
. 66,000 69,000 .000 75.000 78,000 81,u00 
21.000 24,000 27,000 30,000 33,000 36,000 89,000 
4c. 430. Sc. 6c. 65gc. Tree. 7565. 


meet all the requirements needed for an effective 
work. I refer specially to two apparatuses, one for 
distillation and redistillation of deodorized alcohol, 
and the other, which is an improvement of the old 
patterns of Laugier and Darosne, for the distillation 
of high testing and well flavored spirits. 

I will add a few -words in regard to the government's 
inspections. The internal revenue regulations are con- 
sidered very annoying, not to say prohibitory ; but if 
these regulations do not interfere with the work of the 
western and northern distillers, [| cannot understand 
why we, here in the South, cannot manage our dis- 
tilleries in compliance with their provisions. E 
to protect the internal revenue, there is nothing in 
them which can be a nuisance to the management of 
a legitimate business. Far from this, their very strict- 
ness compelling the distiller to obtain the best results 
from his raw material, his fabrications must be care- 
fully done, giving so the advantage of larger returns 
to the treasury and to himself. It is my earnest belief 
that the United States officers do not invoke their large 
powers to annoy the distiller, but are as liberal as pos- 
sible in the discharge of their duty, as long as they are 
satisfied that it is not the purpose of the manufac- 
turer to defraud the government. 

When we will be able to transform our 500,000 bar- 
rels molasses, produced every year, into 17,000,000 gal- 
lons proof spirit, paying to the United States taxes 
amounting to $15,000,000, there will be perhaps a little 











less objections raised against the granting of a bounty 





18166 


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. 824. 





Ocroser 17, 1891. 











to the sugar producers, and we will find ourselves far 
better fitted for claiming authoritatively the protec- 
tion to which is entitled an industry so largely increas- 
ing the internal revenue s income. 


IMPROVED WIRE MAT AND INDOOR WIRE 
RUGS, STAIR CARPETS, ETC. 


THE illustrations show an outdoor mat, A, provided 
with a rubber serrated rubber | attached tothe wire by 


a 


re 


—* 


ea a 


means of brass screws and washers from underneath, | 
which screw up into the rubber, which is of a fibrous | 
mixture which holds firmly to a wood screw as if it| 
This rubber or boot | 


were of best quality of wood. 
and shoe cleaner is mildly vuleanized, so that it is very 
flexible and yields readily to every part 
soles, heels, and edges of boots and shoes. 





Se a ee 





of the} 
It is claim- | 


wire rug placed over it, which presents a very rich ap- 
pearance, and can be lifted and rolled up, taken out 
and either shaken or. washed with a hose, the oil cloth 
wiped off and the hall is cleaned in a few minutes, and 
no dust accumulation, as with any other carpet known, 
As a sanitarian it has no equal. 

One of the cuts shows a stair carpet made in the 
same way as the hall carpet with oil cloth under it and 
is held in place or detached aud removed as easily as 
any other carpet made. 


Se 


For further information address Emerson & Abidg- 
ley, patentees, Beaver Falls, Pa., U. 8. A. 





PROCESS OF MAKING CHROME YELLOW. 


A NEW and improved process for manufacturing 
from galena chemically pure chrome yellow having 


ed that all fibrous rugs and mats become soggy and | great covering power, according to the Paper Trade 
musty from accumulated offensive mad and dirt, and | Jowrna/, consists in first dissolving pulverized galeva 
even other more offensive material which collects on| with nitric acid to produce liquid nitrate of lead and 





the soles of boots and shoes. 


Se en Rn ge ne ee ee 


Ee ee a ee 


eee 


¢ c = ree ~ c 
een et ee oe tere ~<a ee ee 


ef A ee ee 


a 


lt ty OLR LOLA LEAL ALLE ALE LAL ALE ALE ALE LE ALE LA AL AE 


of an indoorrug, with the edges covered with a thin 


rubber and canvas, manufactured similar to rubber | 
| of potasra soda. 
T 


waterproofs, which emits no offensive smell, like a 
heavy rubber mat. 

The above illastration is a perspective view of a 
floor mat with the name of any hotel or business in 
woven wire letters ef a different color or material of 
wire than the main matis made. A hall or floor rug 
may be wade to any desired pattern and edged with 
rubber as above described and of any ornawental color 
desired. Fora front hallway they are made very open, 





the intermediate wires being corrugated and forming 
loops or small eyes of equal distances apart, so that 
the coils of wire intersect these loops, which hold the 
coils apart, so that the rug lies flat and loose on the 
floor with no fastening whatever. 


B is from a photograph! then precipitating the chromate of lead by subject- 


— 





| ture, but when it is desired to further the dissolving 





A floor may be cov- | 
ered with a very cheap, kigh-cvlored oil cloth and this | 


, | 
mee BAS ole! 4 eee eee 





ain i tata inant 


ing the nitrate of lead to the action of bichromate 
of potassa, neutral chromate of potassa or chromate 


he galena (sulpburet of lead) is first pulverized by 
suitable means, and in case it contains foreign min- 
erals or other impurities it is washed or otherwise 
treated in a suitable manner to remove the minerals 
or other impurities. The pulverized galena is then 
placed in vessels of wood or other suitable material, 
and is therein dissolved by adding nitric acid diluted 
in water, the entire mass being ‘stirred by suitable 
means actuated ~~ hand or other motive power. A 
slow dissolving takes place at the ordinary tempera- 


process, the mass is heated artificially either by heating 
the vessel containing the mass or by using hot water 
added to the nitric acid or by the use of steam. The 
product obtained is nitrate of lead in a liquid state. 

The quantity of nitric acid necessary for dissolving 
a certain quantity of galena depends on the percentage 
of lead contained in the ore and to a certain extent on 
the amount and nature of impurities contained in the 
galena, and also on the length of time in which the 
dissolving takes place. In treating one hundred pounds 
of galena having eighty per cent. of metallic lead about 
ninety to one hundred pounds of nitric acid of 36 deg. 
to 38 deg. Baume are used, and the nitric acid is diluted 
with one hundred to two hundred pounds of water. 
This mixture is left for from about twenty-four to 
thirty-six hours, and is stirred up occasionally, as 
above stated. 

After the galena is dissolved by the nitric acid and 
the sulphuret of lead is changed into liquid plumwbic 
nitrate (or nitrate of lead), then the sulphur which 
floats occasionally on the surface of the solution is re- 
woved and the substance which remains undissolved is 
washed out and is also removed. The liquid nitrate is 
then passed through filters of suitable material, such 
as felt, linen, hemp, flannel, ete., or is left standing for 
from twelve to eighteen hours, for settling and clear- 
ing. 

Now, in order to peeduan the chrome yellow from 
this nitrate of lead, bichromate of potassa is dissolved 
in water, and a sufficient quantity of this solution is 
poured into the plumbiec nitrate solution until all the 
plumbie nitrate is changed into chromate of lead, 
salled “ chrome yellow.” 

Instead of the bichromate of potassa, neutral chro- 
mate, or chromate of potassa soda may be used, and, 
for the purpose of obtaining lighter tints, they may be 





tempered with sulphuric acid or any other compound 


of sulphur. The liquid nitrate of lead is placed, pre- 
ferably, in large, open receptacles of wood, clay, earth- 
enware, or other suitable material, and the chromate 
of potassa solution is placed in similar vessels and 
then placed above the receptacles containing the 
plumbie nitrate. The- chromate of potassa can then 
easily be run into the lower receptacles containing the 
liquid nitrate jof lead, and this mixture is constantly 
agitated by suitable means until all the plumbic nitrate 
is changed into chromate of lead, which is precipitated 
on the bottom of the larger receptacles. 

The chemical action which takes place by this chang. 
ing of nitrate of lead into chromate of lead is that the 
chrowie acid of the potassa assumes the place of the 
nitric acid, which parts from the lead and assimilates 
with the potassium, so that the lead as chromate of 
lead is precipitated on the bottom of the receptacle, 
while the nitric acid of the plumbic nitrate remains 
with the potassium, which latter has parted with its 
chromic acid and a quantity of water as solution above 
the chromate of lead. 

To change the nitrate of lead recovered out of the 
one hundred pounds of galena above mentioned into 
chromate of lead about fifty-six pounds of bichromate 
of potassa are used. This change usually takes place 
in from about ten to thirty minutes, after which the 
chrome yellow (chromate of lead) is left for a few hours 
to settle, and then the solution standing on top of the 
chrome yellow is drawn off by suitable means or run 
out of the vessel by opening a cock or cocks placed 
above the level of the chromate of lead. 

The latter is then washed by adding pure water, 
which is poured upon the chrome yellow, and the wix- 
ture is stirred up by suitable means, so that all the re- 
maining liquid nitrate of potassa is removed from the 
chromate of lead. After this is accomplished the mass 
is left to settle, and the water is again drawn off from 
the chrome yellow, which then settles on the bottom 
of the receptacle. This washing is repeated as often as 
is deemed necessary. 

The chrome yellow is next placed in suitable re- 
ceptacles and dried in the open air or in speciaily con- 
structed drying rooms, after which it is packed in 
boxes, kegs, etc., and is then ready for use. The liquid 
nitrate of potassium or saltpeter lye removed from the 
receptacles in which the chrome —— is precipitated, 
and the first water used for washing the chrome yel- 
low, as above described, are placed in large, open, flat 
receptacles or excavations, so as to be exposed to the 
action of the air and sun, or the liquids may be ope- 
rated on by a small graduation work, so that a great 
portion of water evaporates. The residue is then 
heated in suitable vessels or troughs by a slow heat 
until a salt crust is formed, which, when cooled off and 
left to dry, is nitrate of potassium or saltpeter in a 
pure state. 

From one hundred pounds of galena having eighty 
per cent. metallic lead from twenty-eight to thirty 
pounds of pure and dry saltpeter are produced by the 
above described process. he sulphur produced by 
the dissolving of the galena by nitric acid is melted in 
a swall stove or furnace in the usual manner and then 
refined, so as to produce bars of sulphur called “* brim- 
stone.” About ten pounds of such sulphur are pro- 
duced from one hundred pounds of such galena treated 
in the manner described. 

The chrome yellow thus produced is said to be chemi- 
cally pure and of great covering power, equal to the 
best chrome yellow in the market. 

he process is very simple, and the crude lead ore is 
transformed into chrome yellow in from three to four 
days. 








THE USES OF CHROMIUM FLUORIDE. 
By M. TH. STRICKER. 


THE new salt, chromium fluoride, proposed by 
Mesers. R. Koepp & Co. as a substitute for chromium 
acetate in calico printing, etc., is a green crystalline 
powder, containing 60% anhydrous fluoride of chro- 
mium and 40% water of crystallization, having the 
formula Cr,F!], + 8 H.O. 

Comparative trials have been made with chromium 
acetate, prepared by dissolving chromium hydrate in 
acetic acid. This acetate, upon analysis, was found to 
contain 8°28 per cent. of chromium oxide (Cr.O;). That 
is to say, 20°5 per cent. of the acetate (Cr2C,H;0.),(OH)s, 
which is equal per kilogramme of acetate to 118° 
grammes of the anhydrous fluoride, or to 197 grammes 
of fluoride of 50 per cent. 

This 197 grammes of fluoride give 1 kilogramme of a 
solution of 170° B., or, in other words, a solution con- 
taining 245 grammes per liter. 

The results of the experiments made upon its print- 
ing capabilities show that the shades produced by the 
acetate are both purer and deeper. This difference is 
probably due to the presence of hydrofluoric acid, to 
which alizarine is very sensitive. The following color 
has been printed on both prepared and unprepared 
tissues : 

55 grammes alizarine violet. 

45 c.c. acetic acid. 

2-10 liters alizarine paste. 

30 grammes chromium acetate at 16° B. 


3 was printed, using 30 grammes of fluoride 
at 17° B. 

The shades produced by the acetate were of a beauti- 
ful rich purple color, while those of the fluoride were 
yaltowioh, and not so bright. 

The difference was still greater with ceruleine, but 
not so marked with alizarine blue, ‘‘ Graine de Perse,” 
and anthracene brown. 

Other trials have been made in the following man- 
ner : 

Acetate of chromium at 16° B. was printed with three 
parts of gum adracanthe, steamed, fixed in strong 
sodium carbonate (150 grammes to liter at 70° C.), and 
washed. 

The same was repeated with fluoride at 17° B. 

Another portion was fixed direct in sodium carbon- 
ate without steaming. 

Oxide of chromium, when fixed by means of the 
fluoride, is brighter. The steaming, previous to pass- 
ing through the sodium carbonate bath, is not an 
essential in the case of the fluoride; whereas, if the 
acetate is employed, the omission of the steaming 
operation results in the oxide being but partially 


. 








OcrosER 17, 1891. 


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. 824. 


13167 








=—_— = 

In this way strips of material were printed with 
ehromium oxids, fixed in a similar manner, and were 
dyed in galloc anin, anthracene brown, “ Graine de 
Perse,” nitro-a izarine, alizarine blue, alizariue black, 

lizarine. 
aneith all these colors it was equally stable; there 
being but little difference between the shades obtained 
by the acetate aud fluoride methods respectively. The 
difference between those of the acetate, with and with- 
out steaming, was considerable ; while, with the fluor- 
ide in, it was less noticeable. , 

The fluoride has, lastly, to be tried as a mordant in 
dyeing, by steeping in fluoride drying, steaming, fixing 
in a soda bath, and dyeing. , 

Comparative trials were made with a corresponding 
quantity of acetate, and with a mordant of an alkaline 
ehromate, containing a similar quantity of chromium 

ide. 

The shades, with the alkaline chromate, were 
brighter than those obtained either by the acetate or 
fluoride, besides allowing a more complete and pene- 
trative action. 

The results were likewise in turn better, in the case 
of the acetate, than with the fluoride; the two first 
consequently producing a better white in dyeing. 

As regards the original cost of the fluoride, it is the 
same, or nearly so, as that of acetate obtained from 
precipitated chromium oxide and acetic acid.—Le 
Moniteur de la Teinture ; Chemical Trade Journal. 


AN AUTOMATIC TEAPOT. 


ALL housewives know from experience the difficul- 
ties and vexations occasioned by the pouring out of 
hot beverages, especially when the guests are numer- 
ous, the tea or coffee pot is of large size, and it is not 
desired to entrust the duty toaservant. It was from 
England, naturally, the tea-consuming country par 
excellence, that a remedy was to reach us for the petty 
annoyance of domestic life above mentioned. This 
remedy presents itself under the form of an automatic 
teapot devised by a Mr. Royle, and the accompanying 
representations of which render a description almost 
superfluous, 

The apparatus scarcely differs in appearance ‘from 
an ordinary teapot, save in the form of the spout, 
which starts from the lower part of the pot and is 
curved above in order that the jet that issues from it 





within a comparatively recent period that its use has 
become common. It was well known at an early date, 
but its defects checked its use until the general intro- 
duction of the class of instruments-which have culmin-. 
ated inthe pianoforte ; the reason of its adoption then 
being that the want of sustaining power in the clavecin 
and the harpischord so diminished the discordant 
effect as to make the faulty tuning endurable. People 
then began to get accustomed to it, and it was soon 
found that the system gave such extraordinary facili- 
ties for chromatic music that the cultivation of this 
style became enormously developed. Hence the chro- 
matic style and the equal temperament have become 
closely allied, and it is almost a matter of doctrine that 
the pianoforte division of the octave is a necessary ele- 
ment for the proper performance, or proper under- 
standing, of the compositions of modern days. 

For organs, the application of the equal tempera- 
ment came much later. Down to about the middle of 
this century they were tuned on a system which gave 
the most usual keys fairly in tune, at the cost of an oc- 
casional harsh chord, which for church purposes was 
considered but asmall price to pay for the general 
smooth and harmonious effect. But when highly 
skilled players began to increase, they required the 
organ to be more used for exhibition, and for this pur- 
pose the introduction of the equal temperament was 
deemed desirable. And so, as it thus commanded the 
two most powerful sources of wusic, it crept into use 
also by stringed instruments, orchestras, and voices, 
and so it has become general. 

The consequence is that, now, practical musicians 
are in the habit of accepting the equal-tempered inton- 
ation as genuine and true twusic; and as the study 
of the principles of wusical structure is by no means 
highly encouraged in this country, efforts are seldom 
wade to undeceivethem. Students are authoritatively 
told that questions about just intonation may be in- 
teresting to physicists and mathematicians as recon- 
dite problems in acoustical science, but that they have 
no bearing on “ practical” music, and that therefore 
musicians need not trouble themselves about thein. 
Some years ago, ata meeting of one of our musical 
educational establishments, it was said, ‘‘Wedo not 
here make music an affair of vibrations "—a sentiment 
which was received with loud applause. 

No doubt some enthusiasts have carried the investi- 
gation on this subject to a degree of refinement which 





shall be nearly vertical. The cover of the teapot con- 
sists of a hollow cylinder forming a piston and pro- 
vided at the top with a wooden or ivory knob contain- 
ing an aperture 5 or 6 mm. in diameter. In order to 
get acup of tea, it suffices, after placing a cup under 
the nozzle, to lift the cover by grasping the knob with 
the thumb and second finger, and then to thrust it 
back into place with the forefinger over the aperture. 
As the air that has been introduced through the aper- 
ture during the ascending motion of the cover cannot 
escape, it exerts a pressure upon the liquid, and causes 
it to flow out through the spout. The flow is at once 
stopped on lifting the finger that closes the aperture 
in the knob, as this removes the pressure exerted by 
the air upon the liquid, It will be seen frow this 
short description that the arrangement is as simple as 
itis ingenious. The liquid is drawn from the bottom, 
and may, by successive maneuvers of the cover, be 
drained to the last drop, without any fatigue and with- 
out stirring the vessel from its place. 

e would merely recommend those experimenting 
with the apparatus for the first time to remember to 
put a cup under the nozzle, so that the tea may not be 
discharged upon the tavle cloth—an accident that 
happened in my presence to a housewife who had 
invited a few friends to the inauguration of the pneu- 
Matic teapot. 








(NatTurRe.] 
A NEW KEYED MUSICAL INSTRUMENT FOR 
JUST INTONATION. 
_ONE of those subjects which periodically turn up for 
discussion, and then vanish for an interval of neglect, 
'sthe possibility of obtaining just intonation in the 


performance of music. Those who have studied theory, | 
Properly so called, know very well that the series of | 
musical sounds commonly used, as expressed on the | 








AUTOMATIC TEAPOT—A, DETAILS OF THE PISTON. 








far outruns practical utility ; and one can have little 
sympathy with those who delightin reviling and de- 
spising the duodecimal seale ; seeing that it has been 
the means of materially advancing the art, and that 
the modorn enharmonic system, founded upon it, has 
been so thoroughly incorporated into modern music 
that it is difficult to see how it could be now ignored. 

Bat, on the other hand, one must, if one is to exer- 
cise reason and common sense in musical matters, be 
equally at variance with the party who, arrogating to 
themselves the title of ‘‘ practical ” musicians, force on 
us the equal temperawent to an extent which really 
means the extinction of true intonation altogether. 

We now, indeed, never hear it, and in fact only 
know by imagination what a true ‘‘ common chord ” 
means. 

The principal objection to this state of things is that 
the ears of musicians become permanently vitiated, 
and lose the sense of accurate intonation, or the 
desire to approach it, which is tantamount to aban- 
doning the most precious feature that modern music 
possesses—namely, beauty of harmony. A chord of 
well selected sounds, exactly in tune, is a very charm- 
ing thing: but isa thing unknown to ears of the pre- 
sent day. I can recollect the time when singers and 


| violin players strove to sing and play in good tune, 


and the effect of such unaccompanied part singing, 
and such violin playing, was very delightful. But now, 
music not being made *‘an affair of vibrations,” one is 
often ashamed of the quality of what one hears ; no- 
body seems to think purity of harmony, either with 
voices or violins or orchestras, to be a watter worth 
striving after. 

It is jsurely a reasonable wish that this should 
be checked, but one must be reasonable in one’s ex- 
pectations, The pianoforte must certainly be let alone, 
and so must the organ when used for exhibitional pur- 
poses, though its cacophony under the present tuning 


pianoforte, do not give the true harmonic combina-| detracts much from the pleasure of hearing such fine 


ae on which the art is based, and many zealous at- 
empts have been made to cure the evil. 


the attention of 
~ was mentioned briefly in Naturé of April 2 last 
p. S21), and it may be interesting to many readers to 
— some further account of its general features. We 
a however, preface this with a few words on the 
= of the question generally. 

taeronah the equal division of the octave has now 

2 such a firm hold on modern musicians, it is only 


| playing as is now common. 
pr |. One of these | players ought to be encouraged, as of old, to sing and 

Owing some novelty and much merit is now exciting | 
eminent musicians on the Continent ; | 


But vocalists and violin 


play in tune, and for this purpose what is wanted is an 
instrument which will keep up and circulate the tra- 
dition of what true music weans. To ‘attain this, 


therefore—i. e., to construct an instrument which shall 
enable a player, with moderate ease, to play poly- 
phonie music, of moderately chromatic character, in 
strict tune—has been the aim of many ingenious 
musicians and mechanics. 


South Kensington the wonderful enharmonic organ, 
built half a century ago by General Thowpson, and 
may read of the instruments described by Helmholtz, 
and his voluminous commentator, the late Dr. Ellis; 
and the efforts in the same direction of Mr. Colin 
Brown, and of Mr. Bosanquet, who has devoted much 
attention to the matter, are worthy of all praise. But 
my object now is to describe the latest attempt of the 
kind, by a native of Japan, Dr. Shohe Tanaka. Per- 
sons who have lately had to do with that country have 
been well aware, not only of the natural ingenuity of 
the Japanese, but of the high standing which wany of 
their youth have taken in scientific studies. Dr. 
Tanaka combines these two qualifications. After an 
industrious prelininary education in his own country, 
he went to Berlin, where he has been for five years 
studying physical and mechanical science under 
the best professors, and with these he bas combined 
also a study of music. He has published, in the 
Vierteljahrsschrift fur Musikwissenschaft for 1890, a 
long essay on the subject generally, which fully de- 
wonstrates his knowledge of it; and he appears to 
have made a very favorable impression in Germany. 
He exhibited his *‘ enharmonium,” as it was called, to 
the emperor and ewpress, and he produces testimon- 
ials from many musicians of the highest rank, among 
whom are Joachim, Von Bulow, Reinecke, Richter, 
Fuchs, Moszkowski, the whole staff of the Leipzig 
Conservatoire of Music, and many others. These not 
only speak highly of the instroment, but (in strong 
contrast to the English authorities) earnestly support 
and recommend the object it is proposed to serve. In- 
deed, some of the testimonials are essays on the advan- 
tage of the cultivation of pure intonation. Von Bulow 
especially says : 

_ “I have requested the maker to make me such an 
enharmonium for my personal use at home. I am 
earnestly desirous to protect wyself during the few re- 
maining years of the exercise of my art against con- 
stantly possible relapses into already conquered errors, 
In order to make pure music it is necessary to think in 
pure tones. It is de facto the practically insuppressi- 
ble conventional pianoforte-lie to which nearly all cor- 
ruptions of hearing may be traced.” 

With these credentials the inventor has brought a 
sample of his instrument for examination in England, 
= I may proceed to give some idea of what it is 
1 es 

The great object to beaimed at is facility of per- 
formance. It is in this respect that most of the former 
instruments have failed; the multitude of notes has 
generally required a new kind of clavier, or the man- 
ner of wanipulativg them has been so complicated and 
difficult as to require a special learning attended with 
much trouble. he present instrument is a harmo- 
nium of five octaves, having a keyboard modeled pre- 





| cisely on the usual pattern and size. Dr. Tanaka has 
| greatly simplified the problem by adopting the trans- 
| posing system, often adopted with pianofortes. What- 
| ever key the musie is in, it is played in the simplest of 
| all keys, the key of ©, and by means of a bodily shift- 
|ing of the keyboard to the right or left, it is set so as 
| to act in the key required. It is, in fact, the princi- 
| ple used in the horn tribe; the horn or —— player 
|reads and plays his music in the key of C, and the 
transposition of this to the key required is previously 
arranged as a part of the mechanism of the instru- 
ment; or, rather, as the author puts it, the music may 
be read and played on the tonic sol-fa system, and he 
might have adopted the symbols if he had not feared 
it would be too startling a change. 

The points in which the new keyboard differs from 
the ordinary one are that the black keys are divided, 
some into two aad some into three parts, and one ad- 
ditional shorter and narrower black key is introduced 
between the E and F white keys. This arrangement. 
gives twenty notes, which suffice for modulating into 
a reasonable number of keys with sharp signatures, 

To provide for modulations into keys with flat sig- 
natures, since these and the sharp modulations are not 
both wanted at the same time, six of the notes can be 
instautaneously changed for the purpose, at any time, 
in a manner hereafter explained. 

The whole of the keys are well under the hand, and, 
if the performer knows which note he ought to use, 
he can take it in any usual chord without difficulty, 

Fig. 1 represents one octave of the keyboard as ar- 
ranged for the key of C, with provision for modulating 
into keys with sharps. 



































Fie, 1—AS ARRANGED FOR MODULATION 
INTO KEYS WITH SHARPS. 


In order to explain the exact intonation or musical 
position of the notes, the author adopts a notation al- 
ready pretty well known, namely, when the letter 
indicating a note has no line above or below it, it is 
intended to correspond with what may be called the 
‘* Pythagorean” position of that note, which is given 
by a succession of fifths upward from C as a base. If 
the letter has a stroke below it—thus, E—it is a com. 





I need not gointo history. Everybody may see at 


ma below that position; and if the stroke is above— 





13168 


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No, 824. 


OcroserR 17, 1891, 


—— 








thus, Ez—it is a comma above that position. Two 
strokes below—thus, Of indicate two commas below. 


Now, in the first place it will be seen that the ordi- 
nary seven white keys indicate the seven ordinary 
notes of the major scale of C, according to the intona- 
tion usually understood, é. ¢., the major triads on the 
tonic, dominant, and subdominant, being perfectly in 
tune. 

But as, for certain harmonies, variations of some of 
these notes are required, there are four alternative 
swall white notes, D, EB, G, and A, placed at the near 


the note D is the one required to make the true 
extremity of four of the biack ones. For example, 


minor third Jx———— or the true fifth é= 
2- Z 


The position of the keys for the sharp notes, and 
also their intonations, will be seen in the figure. FY 
and of each require alternative values, a comma dis- 
tant from each other, and these are obtained by divid- 
ing the black keys in the manner formerly practiced 
with some organs in this country. ; 

It will be seen that there are in all twenty effective 
finger keys, each sounding a separate note, 

When it is requisite to modulate into keys with flats, 
the above arrangement will not answer; and the 
necessary change is made by a lever placed conveni- 
ently for being worked by the knee of the player, like 
the sweil of a harwonium. ; 

When this is pushed over, the six hindmost black 
keys are altered from sharps to flats, as shown in Fig. 
2. og and FR still remain, and an alternative BP and 
an alternative F are added. This change gives six new 
notes, so that the total number of sounds used in the 
octave, for the key of C with its modulations, is 
twenty-six. ° 
































Db Eb 
} 
| 4 Lae 
Ass A 
% 
2 ma 
iy 
D E 
c|DIE 

















Fie. 2.—AS ALTERED FOR MODULATION 
INTO KEYS WITH FLATS. 


As afurther indication of the exact musical positions 
of these twenty-six notes, their ratios of vibration with 
the keynote C may also be given. And the logarithms 
of these (here limited, for simplicity, to three places) 
will represent approximately the height of each note 
above C. In this seale an octave is represented by 301, 
a mean semitone by 25, and a comma by 5. 


Table of the Fositions of the various Notes used for the Key of C. 


Ratio. Logarithm. Ratio. Logarithm. 
= 1 . ° 
D =z 9 I D a ee 6 
; 5 b= = 4 
E= 5 97 E= 81 «. 102 
ae 64 
F=4 125 F = 77 130 
3 20 
G=? 176 G=-* 171 
2 2 
A= 5 on, 20 Az 27 227 
3 160 
B = !5 2 
3 73 
Fg = 45... 148 Fg = 25 1 
a 32 ™" 3 18 “ 
CZ = 135 . CZ = 2§ 18 
— 128 33 2 2 
Gg= 75 ... 194 
_ 10 
Dé = 75 ’ 
~ 64 69 
ag = 725 oe 2 
# 128 45 


Ej a 675 ~» 2 


siz 
B 9 16 
5= 2 Bb = .. 250 
5 55 9 5 
ED = 6 79 
5 
A»5 = ® 204 
5 
16 
Dp = 73 28 
64 
G? = 1 
45 - 





This information will enable any student of musical 
theory to judge of the capability of the instrument to 
play modern musie with just intonation. The great 
object is, of course, to play the consonant triads, wajor 
and minor, in strict tune, and it will be found that 
the instrument, as above arranged, will play the fol- 
lowing 


Major Triads on— 
C, D, E, F, G, A, B, 
F%, Bp, ED, Ab, Db, GD, 


Minor Triads on— 
C, D, E, F, G, A, B, 
Fé, Cf GB, Dd, Ad, Br, 


and some of each in duplicate with a comma variation. 
These would certainly seem sufficient for all ordinary 
music in C major or A minor. 

By means of the transposing movement, the key- 
board can be set upon either of the eleven other keys, 
for which a similar modulating power is obtained, ex- 
cept in some very remote cases. In order, however, to 
effect this, ten additional notes are used, making thir- 
ty-six in all. But the adaptation of them is entirely 
automatic, and the mechanism for this purpose con- 
stitutes one of the chief novelties of the invention. 

This is the provision for the purpose by the mannu- 
facturer. Now let us see what the performer has to 


ao, 

In the first place, whatever key the original compo- 
sition is in, it must be played in the key of C. In these 
days of strict examination by the College of Organists, 
it is not uncommon to find players who can transpose 
at first sight from any key into any other. For 
players who cannot do this the piece will have to be 
recopied, but this is nothing in comparison with the 
great gain in simplicity of the keyboard. 

Secondly, the performer has not only to play the 
music in the ordinary way, but he has another prob- 
lem before him—namely, where certain notes are in 
duplicate, he has to decide which of the two to use. 
Now this, although by no meansa difficult matter, re- 
quires some knowledge of the theory of music, in a 
sense beyond what is ordinarily taught. To explain it 
would lead us into more technical detail than would be 
proper here; but Dr. Tanaka, in compassion for those 
unfortunates with whom wwusic “has not been made 
an affair of vibrations,” has shown that the printed 
music can have certain very simple symbols prefixed 
to the notes, which will easily guide the purely ‘* prac- 
tical” player what to do. 

In this way any competent organist, though he may 
never have heard of the system before, may, after a 
few minutes’ explanation, and a quarter of an hour's 
practice, play any piece of music correctly in the true 
musical intonation, a result which I believe has never 
been attained by any former instrument, and which 
says much for the ingenuity of the whole contriv- 
ance. 

It is recorded that the Emperor of Germany ex- 
pressed a wish to see the experiment tried on a large 
organ, and the inventor is now engaged in construct- 
ing one with eight stops, and a simplified enharmonic 
pedal clavier, for the Prussian government. , 

WILLIAM POLE. 





Continued from SuprL.ement, No, 823, page 13150.) 


| THEORY AND PRACTICE IN METALLURGY.* 


By Professor W. C. ROBERTS-AUSTEN, C.B., F.R.S., 
President of the Section. 


ADVANCES IN METALLURGIC PRACTICE. 


(3) THe foregoing instances have been given to indi- 
cate the general nature of metallurgical chewistry. 
It will be well now to show how the great advances in 
metallurgical practice have been made in the past, 
with a view to ascertain what principles should guide 
us in the future. 

It is a grave mistake to suppose that in industry, any 
more than in art, national advance takes place always 
under the guidance of a master possessed of some new 
gift of invention ; yet we have been reminded that we 
are apt to be reverent to these alone, as if the nation 
had been unprogressive, and suddenly awakened by 
the genius of one man. he way for any great techni- 
cal advance is prepared by the patient acquisition of 
facts by investigators of pure science. Whether the 
investigators are few or many, and, consequently, 
whether progress is slow or rapid, will depend in no 
small measure on the spirit of the nation as a whole. 
A genius whose practical order of mind enables him to 
make some great invention suddenly arises, apparent- 
ly by chance, but his coming will, in most cases, be 
found to have “followed hard upon” the discovery by 
some scientific worker of an important fact, or even 
the accurate determination of a set of physical con- 
stants. No elaborate monograph need have reached 
the practical man—a newspaper paragraph or a lec- 
ture at a mechanic’s institute may have been sufficient 
to give him the necessary impulse ; but the possessors 
of minds which are essentially practical often forget 
how valuable to them have been the fragments of 
knowledge they have so insensibly acquired that they 
are almost unconscious of having received any exter- 
nal aid. 

The investigating and the industrial faculty are 
sometimes, though rarely, united in one individual. 
Rapid advance is often made by those whoare untram- 
meled by a burden of precedent, but it should be re- 
membered that though the few successes which have 
been attained in the course of ignorant practice may 
come into prominence, none of the countless failures 
are seen. 

I would briefly direct attention to certain processes 
which have been adopted since the year 1849, when Dr. 
Perey presided over this section at Birmingham, a 
great metallurgical center. In that year the president 
of the association made a reference to metallurgy, a 
very brief one, for Dr. Robinson only said, “‘ The 
manufacture of iron has been augmented sixfold by 
the use of the puddling farnace and the hot blast, 
both gifts of theory.” And so, it may be added, are 
most of the important processes which have since been 
devised. Take the greatest metallurgical advance of 


seinen to the Chemical Section of the British Association, Cardiff, 





all, the Bessemer process, which bas probably done 
more than any other to promote the material advance 
of all countries. It was first communicated to the 
world at the Cheltenham meeting of the British Asso. 
ciation, 1856. Its nature is well known, and I need 
only say that it depends on the fact that when air ig 
blown through a bath of impure molten iron, sufficient 
heat is evolved by the rapid combustion of silicon, 
manganese, and carbon, to maintain the bath fluid 
after these elements have been eliminated, there being 
no external source of heat, as there is in the puddling 
furnace or the refinery hearth. We have recently 
been told that at an early and perilous stage of the 
Bessemer process confidence in the experiments was re- 
stored by the observation that the temperature of the 
“blown” metal contained in a crucible was higher 
than that of the furnace in which it was placed. The 
historian of the future will not fail to record that the 
way for the Bessemer process had been prepared by 
the theoretical work of Andrews, 1848, and of Favre 
and Silbermann, 1852, whose work on the calorific 
power of various elements showed that silicon and 

hosphorus might be utilized as fuel, because great 
— is engendered by their combustion. 

The basic process for rewoving phosphorus, a process 
of great national importance, the development of 
which we owe to Thowas and Gilchrist, is entirely the 
outcome of purely theoretical teaching, in copnection 
with which the names of Griner and Percy deserve 
special mention. In the other great group of pro- 
cesses for the production of steel, those in which Sie- 
mens’ regenerative furnace is employed, we have the 
direct influence of a highly trained theorist, who con- 
cluded his address as president of this association in 
1882 by reminding us that ‘in the great workshop of 
nature there is no line of demarkation to be drawn be- 
tween the most exalted speculation and commonplace 
eee ay The recent introduction of the method of 
neating by radiation is, of course, the result of purely 
theoretical considerations. 

The progress in the methods of extracting the pre- 
cious metals has been very great, both on the chemical 
and engineering sides, but it is curious that in the 
metallurgy of gold and silver, many ancient processes 
survive which were arrived at empirically—a note- 
worthy exception being presented by the chlorine pro- 
cess for refining gold, by the aid of which many mil- 
lions sterling of gold have been purified. The late Mr. 
H. B. Miller based this process for separating silver 
from gold on the knowledge of the fact that chloride 
of gold cannot exist at a bright red heat. The tension 
of dissociation of chloride of gold is high, but the pre- 
cious wetal is not carried forward by the gaseous 
streain, at least not while chloride of silver is being 
formed. 

The influence of scientific investigation is, however, 
more evident in that portion of the metallurgic art 
which deals with the adaptation of metals for use, 
rather than with their actual extraction from the ores. 

Only sixteen years ago Sir Nathaniel Barnaby, then 
director of naval construction, wrote, ‘‘ Our distrust of 
steel is so great that the material may be said to be al- 
together unused by private ship builders, . . . 
marine engineers appear to be equally afraid of it 
adds, ‘‘ The question we have to put to the steel nakers 
is, what are our prospects of obtaining a material 
which we can use without such delicate manipulation 
and so much fear and trembling ?” All this is changed, 
for, as Mr. Elgar informs me, in the year ending on 
June 30 last, no less than 401 ships, of three-quarters 
of a million gross tonnage, were being built of steel in 
the United Kingdom. 

Why is it, then, that steel has become the material 
on which we rely for our ships and for our national de- 
fense, and of which such a splendid structure as the 
Forth Bridge is constructed? It is because side by 
side with great improvement in the quality of certain 
varieties of steel, which is the result of using the open- 
hearth process, elaborate researches have shown what 
is the most suitable mechanical and thermal treatment 
for the metal; but the adaptation of steel for indus- 
trial use is only typical, as the interest in this branch 
of metallurgy generally appears for the moment to be 
centered in the question whether metals can, like 
many metalloids, pass under the application of heat or 
mechanical stress from a normal state to an allotropic 

one, or whether metals may even exist in numerous 
isomeric states. 

It is ———— to deal historically with the subject 
now, further than by stating that the belief in more 
than one ‘‘ modification” is old and widespread, and 
was expressed by Paracelsus, who thought that copper 
“contains in itself its female, which could be isolated 
so as to give two metals, .. different in their 
fusion and wmailleability,” as steel and iron differ. 
Within the last few years Schutzenhberger has shown 
that two modifications of copper can exist, the normal 
one having a density of 8°95, while that of the allo- 
tropic modification is only 8, and is, moreover, rapidly 
attacked by dilute nitric acid, which is without action 
on ordinary copper. It may be added that Lord Ray- 
leigh’s plea for the investigation of the simpler chewi- 
cal reactions has been partly met, in the case of cop- 
per, by the experiments conducted by V. H. Veley on 
the conditions of chemical change between nitric acid 
and certain metals. 

Bergmann, 1781, actually calls iron polymorphous, 
and says that it plays the part of many metals. ** Adeo 
ut jure dici queat polymorphum ferrum plurium simul 
metallorum vices sustinere.” Osmond has recently 
demonstrated the fact that at least two modifications 
of iron must exist. 

Professor Spring, of Liege, has given evidence that 


and 
i 


‘in cooling lead-tin alloys polymerization may take 


place after the alloys have become solid, and it seems 
to be admitted that the same cause underlies botb 
polymerization and allotropy. The phenomenon 

allotropy is dependent upon the number of the atoms 
in each molecule, but we are at present far from being 
able to say what degree of importance is to be attached 
to the relative distance between the atoms of a me’ 

or to the “ position of one and the same atom” in® 
metallic molecule, whether the metal be alloyed oF 
free, and it must be admitted that in this respect or 
ganic chemistry is far in advance of metallurgic chem 
istry. I cannot, as yet, state what is the atomic 
grouping in the brilliantly colored gold-aluminuw al 
loy, AuAl,, which I have had the good fortune to dis 





cover, but in it the gold is probably present in 





nan Us lee el le. hh !lhULe le as.” Sl ele ee ee ee) eee ee ee ee ee _— i ten a i stn a. Be ae 


na - © Se ae Oe ae OF we 


— ma oS ~~. 


o7 


 e- ae fe ee eS ee SS SS es. oe hs sh LS. le oe. ee eee re a. 2 ee 








RRM eerste 


7 Oo 


eS ee i ee 


i — 


eceike™ @& 


ESE Sr a” ia ce i Se | UU | UCU een oF Oo = 








QocrosBER 17, 1891. 





SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. 824. 


18169 















=—— 
same state as that in which it occurs in the purple of 


coach valuable information on the important ques- 
tion of allotropy in metals has already been gathered 
by Pionchon, itte, Moissan, Le Chatelier, and Os- 
mond, but reference can only be made to the work of 
the two latter. Le Chatelier concludes that in metals 
which do not undergo molecular transformation the 
electrical resistance increases proportionally to the 
temperature. The same law holds good for other 
metals at temperatures above that at which their last 
change takes place ; for example, in the case of nickel 
above 340 deg., and in that of iron above 850 deg. 

It is probable that minute quantities of foreign mat- 
ter which profoundly modify the structure of masses 
of metal also induce allotropic changes. In the case 
of the remarkable action of impurities upon pure gold 
I have suggested that the modifications which are pro- 
duced may have direct connection with the periodic 
law of Mendeleeff, and that the causes of the specific 
variations in the properties of iron and steel may 
thus be explained. The question is of great industrial 
importance, especially in the case of iron ; and Os- 
mond, whose excellent work I have already brought 
before the members of this association in a lecture de- 
livered at Newcastle in 1889, has specially studied the 
influence upon iron exerted by certain elements. He 
shows that elements whose atomic volumes are smaller 
than that of iron delay, during the cooling of a mass 
of iron from ared heat, the change of the f or hard 
variety of iron to the a or soft variety. On the other 
hand, elements whose atomic volumes are greater than 
that of iron tend to hasten the change of £ to a iron. 
It is, however, unnecessary to dwell upon this subject, 
asit was dealt with last year in the address of the 
president of the association. 

It may be added that the recent use of nickel steel 
for armor plate, and the advocacy of the use of As 
steel for certain purposes, is the industrial justification 
of my own views as to the influence of the atomic vol- 
ume of an added element on the mechanical properties 
of iron, and it is remarkable that the two bodies, sili- 
con and aluminum, the properties of which, when in 
a free state, are so totally different, should, neverthe- 
less, when they are alloyed with iron, affect it in the 
same way. Silicon and aluminum have almost the 
sane atomnic volumes. 

The consequences of allotropic changes, which re- 
sult in alteration of structure, are very great. The 
ease of the tin regimental buttons which fell into a 
shapeless heap when exposed to the rigorous winter 
at St. Petersburg is well known. The recent remark- 
able discovery by Hopkinson of the changes in the 
density of nickel steel (containing 22 per cent. of 
nickel) which are produced by cooling to — 30 deg. 
affords another instance. This variety of steel, after 
being frozen, is readily magnetizable, although it was 
not so before; its density, moreover, is permanently 
reduced by no less than 2 per cent. by the exposure to 
cold, and it is startling to contemplate the effect which 
would be produced by a visit to the arctic regions of a 
ship of war built in a temperate climate of ordinary 
steel, and clad with some three thousand tons of such 
nickel steel armor; the shearing which would result 
from the expansion of the armor by exposure to cold 
would destroy the ship. Experimental compound 
armor plates have been made faced with 25 per cent. 
nickel steel, but it remains to be seen whether a simi- 
lar though lessened effect would be produced on the 
steel containing 5 to 7 per cent. of nickel, specially 
studied by J. Riley, the use of which is warmly ad- 
vocated for defensive purposes. Further information 
as to the molecular condition of nickel steel has with- 
in the last few weeks been given by Mercadier, who 
has shown that alloying iron with 25 per cent. of 
nickel renders the metal isotropic. 

The molecular behavior of alloys is indeed most in- 
teresting. W. Spring has shown, in a long series of in- 
vestigations, that alloys may be formed at the ordinary 
temperature, provided that minute particles of the con- 
stituent metals are submitted to great pressure. W. 
Hallock has recently given strong evidence in favor of 
the view that an alee can be produced from its con- 
stituent metals with but slight pressure if the tempe- 
rature to which the mass is submitted be above the 
inelting point of the alloy, even though it be far below 
the melting point of the most easily fusible constitu- 
ent. A further instance is thus afforded of the fact 
that a variation of either temperature or pressure will 
effect the union of solids. 

It may be added that B. C. Damien is attempting to 
determine what variation in the melting point of al- 
loys is produced by fusing them under a pressure of 
two hundred atmospheres. Italian physicists are also 
working on the compressibility of metals, and F. Bog- 
gio Lera has recently established the existence of an 
interesting relation between the coefficient cubic com- 
pressibility, the specific gravity, and the atomic weight 
of metals. 

Few questions are more important than the measure- 
ment of very high temperatures. Within the last few 
years H. Le Chatelier has given us a thermo-couple of 
Platinum with platinum containing 10 per cent. of 
rhodium, by the aid of which the problem of the mea- 
surement of high temperatures has been greatly sim- 
plified. A oe pyrometer is now at hand for 
daily use in works, and the liberality of the Institution 
of Mechanical Engineers has enabied me to conduct 
42 investigation which has resulted in the adoption of 
4 sitnple appliance for obtaining, in the form of curves, 
photographic records of the cooling of masses of metal. 
A report on the subject has already been submitted to 
scomsittes, of which the director-general of ordnance 
Tories is the chairman ; and Dr. Anderson, to whom 

am indebted for valuable assistance and advice, in- 
tends to add this new method for obtaining auto- 
graphic curves of pyrometric measurements to the 
numerous self-recording appliances used in the govern- 
ment factories which he controls. It has proved to be 
the, to ascertain by the aid of this pyrometer what 
: ee changes take place during the cooling of mol- 
a Masses of alloys, and it is possible to compare the 

of cooling of a white hot steel ingot at definite 
[alone situated respectively near its surface and at 
+ ee ma and thus to solve a problem which has 
ja been considered to be beyond the range of or- 
alr vow A experimental methods. Some of the curves 
mitted. obtained are of much interest, and will be sub- 
to the section. It is probable that the form of 


the curve which represents the solidification and cool- 
ing of a mass of molten wetal affords an exceedingly 
delicate indication as to its purity. 

Prof. H. E. Armstrong holds that the molecules of a 
metal can unite to form complexes with powers of co- 
herence which vary with the presence of impurity. 
Crookes by a recent beautiful investigation has taught 
us how electrical evaporation of solid metals may be 
set up in vacuo, and has shown that even an alloy may 
be decomposed by such means. We a hope that 
such work will enable us to understand the principles 
on which the strength of waterials depends, 

Before leaving the consideration of questions con- 
nected with the molecular constitution of metals, I 
would specially refer to the excellent work of Heycock 
and Neville, who have extended to certain metals with 
low melting-points Raoult's investigations on the effect 
of impurity on the lowering of the freezing-poiut of 
solids. With the aid of one of my own students, H. C. 
Jenkins, I have further extended the experiments by 
studying the effect of impurity on the freezing-point of 
gold. Ramsay, by adopting Raoult’s vapor-pressure 
method, has been led to the conclusion that when in 
solution in mercury the atom of a metal is, as a rule, 
identical with its molecule. The important research 
on the liquation of alloys has been extended by E. 
Matthey to the platinum-gold and palladiuw-gold 
series, in which the manipulation presented many 
difficulties ; and E. J. Ball has studied the cases pre- 
sented by the antimony-copper-lead series. Dr. Alder 
Wright has continued his own important investigation 
upon ternary alloys, and A. P. Laurie has worked on 
the electromotive foree of the copper-zine and copper- 
tin and gold-tin series, a field of research which pro- 
mises fruitful results. 

In no direction is advance more marked than in the 
mechanical testing of metals, in which branch of in- 
vestigation this country, guided by Kirkaldy, undoubt- 
edly took the leading part, and in connection with 
which Kennedy and Unwin have established world- 
wide reputations. I would also specially mention the 
work which has been carried on at the government 
testing works at Berlin under Dr. Wedding, and the 
elaborate investigations conducted at the Watertown 
Arsenal, Massachusetts, not to mention the numerous 
Continental testing laboratories directed by sach men 
as Bauschinger, Jenny, and Tetmajer. Perhaps the 
most important recent work is that described by Prof. 
Martens, of Berlin, on the influence of heat on the 
strength of iron. 

I might have dwelt at length on all these matters 
without doing half the service to metallurgy that I 
hope to render by earnestly pleading for the more ex- 
tended teaching of the subject throughout the country, 
and for better laboratories, arranged on the model of 
engineering laboratories, in which the teaching is con- 
ducted with the aid of complete though small ‘‘plant.” 
The Science and Art Departwent has done great and 
lasting service by directing that metallurgy shall be 
taught practically, but much remains to be done. With 
regard to laboratories in works, which are too often 
mere sheds, placed, say, behind the boiler house, when 
may we hope to rival the German chewical firm which 
has recently spent £19,000 upon its laboratories, in 
which research will be vigorously conducted? There 
is hardly any branch of inorganic chemistry which the 
metallurgist can afford to neglect, while many branch- 
es both of physics and mechanics are of utmost impor- 
tance to him. 

The wide range of study upon which a metallurgical 
student is rightly expected to enter is leadiag, it is to 
be feared, to diminution in the time devoted to analy- 
tical chemistry, and this most serious question should 
be pressed upon the attention of all who are responsi- 
ble for the training of our future chemists. There can 
be no question that sufficient importance is not at- 
tached to the estimation of “traces,” an analysis being 
considered to be satisfactory if the constituents found 
add up to 99°9, although a knowledge as to what ele- 
ments represent the missing 0°1 may be more useful in 
affording an explanation of the defects ina material 
than all the restof the analysis. This matter is of 
growing interest to practical men,Sand may explain 
their marked preference for chemists who have been 
trained in works, to those who have been educated in 
a college laboratory. 

The necessity for affording public instruction in 
wining and metallurgy, with a view to the full devel- 
opment of the mineral wealth of a nation, is well 
known. The issues at stake are so vast that in this 
country it was considered advisable to provide a cen- 
ter of instruction in which the teaching of mining and 
metallurgy should not be left to private enterprise, or 
even entrusted to a corporation, but should be under 
the direct control of the government. Withjthis end 
in view the Royal School of Mines was founded in 1851, 
and has supplied a body of well-trained nen who have 
done excellent service for the country and her colonies. 
The government has on a step in advance, 
and has further recognized the national importance of 
the teaching of mining and metallurgy by directing 
that the School of Miues shall be incorporated with 
the Royal College of Science, whichfis, I believe, des- 
tined to lead the scientific education of the nation. 

It is to be feared, if the present prices of metais 
should be maintained, that as regards metalliferous 
mining, other than that of iron ores, our country has 
seen its best days, but the extraordinary wineral 
wealth of our colonies has recently been admirably de- 
scribed by my colleague, Prof. Le Neve Foster, in the 
inaugural lecture he delivered early in the present 
year, on his appointment to the chair so long held by 
Sir Warington Smyth (Zngineering, vol. li., p. 200 et 
seq.). Weshall, however, be able to rightly estimate 
the value of our birthright when the Imperial Institute 
is opened next year, and the nation will have reason 
to be grateful to Sir Frederic Abel for the care he is 
devoting to the development of this great institution, 
which will become the visible exponent of the splen- 
dors of our Indian and colonial resources, as well asa 
center of information. 

The rapid growth of technical literature renders it 
unnecessary for a president of a section to devote his 
address to recording the progress of the subject he re- 
presents. As regards the most important part of our 
national metallurgy, this has, moreover, been admir- 
ably done by successive presidents of the Iron and Steel 
Institute, but it may have been expected that refer- 





which have been adopted since Perey occupied this 
chair in 1849. I have not done so, because an enume- 
ration of the processes would have been wholly inade- 

uate, and a description of them impossible in the 
time at my disposal. Nevertheless it way be well to 
remind the section of a few of the wore prominent ad- 
ditions the art has received in the last half century, 
and to offer a few statements to show the magnitade 
on which operations are conducted. As regards iron, 
in the last twenty-five years the price of steel has been 
reduced from £55 per ton to £5 per ton, but, after giv- 
ing the world the inestimable boon of cheap stent by 
the labors of Bessemer and of Siemens, we were some- 
what slow me the teaching of experiment as to 
the best wet of treating the new material ; on the 
other hand, Hadfield has brought manganese steel and 
aluminum steel within the reach of the manufacturer, 
9 . Riley has done much to develop the use of nickel 
steel. 

In the case of copper, we have mainly contributed to 
extraordinary development of wet processes for its ex- 
traction from poor sulphides, and have met the great 
demands for pure metal by the wide adoption of elec- 
trolytic processes, 

As regards the precious metals this country is well to 
the front, for Great Britain and her colonies produce 
about 38 per cent. of the gold supply of the world ; and 
it may be well to add, as an indication of the scale on 
which operations are conducted, that in London alone 
1 ton of gold and 5 tons of silver bullion can easily be 
refined ina day. No pains have been spared in per- 
fecting the method of assay by which the value of gold 
and silver is ascertained, and during my twenty years’ 
connection with the Royal Mint I have been responsi- 
ble for the accuracy of the standard fineness of no less 
than 555 tons of gold coin, of an aggregate value of 
£70,500,000 sterling. In the case of the platinum in- 
dustry, we owe its extraordinary development to the 
skill and enterprise of successive members of the firm 
of Johnson, Matthey & Co., who in later years have 
based their operations upon the results of the investi- 
gations of Deville and Debray. Some indication of the 
valne of the material dealt with may be gathered 
from the statement that 23¢ cwts. of D prmrgw may 
easily be melted in a single charge, and that the firm, 
in one operation, extracted a mass of palladium valued 
at £30,000 from gold-platinum ore actually worth more 
than a million sterling. 

I wish it were possible to record the services of those 
who have advanced metallurgy in connection with this 
Association, but the limitations of time render it diffi- 
cult to do more than refer to some honored names of 
past presidents of thissection. Michael Faraday, pre- 
sident of this section in 1887 and 1846, prepas the 
first specimen of nickel-steel, an alloy which seems to 
have so promising a future, but we may hardly claim 
him as a metallurgist ; nor should I be justified in re- 
ferring, in connection with metallurgical research, to 
my own master, Graham, president of this section in 
1839, and again in 1844, were it not that his experi- 
ments on the occlusion of gases by metals have proved 
to be of such extraordinary practical importance in 
connection with the metallurgy of iron. Sir Lyon 
Playfair presided over this section in 1855, and again 
in 1859. His work in connection with Bunsen, on 
the composition of blast-furnace gasee, was published 
in the port of this Association in 1847, and formed 
the earliest of a group of researches, among which 
those of Sir Lowthian Bell proved to be of so much 
importance. The latter was president of this section 
in 1889. Sir F. Abel, president of this section in 1877, 
rendered enduring service to the government by his 
elaborate metallurgical investigations, in connection 
with materials used for guns and projectiles, as well as 
for defensive purposes, I will conclude this section of 
the address by a tribute to the memory of Percy. He 
may be said to have created the English literature of 
metallurgy, to have enriched it with the records of his 
own observations, and to have revived the love of our 
countrymen for metallurgical investigation. His val- 
uable collection of specimens, made while professor at 
the Royal School of Mines, is now appropriately lodged 
at South Kensiugton, and will form a lasting memorial 
of his labors as a teacher. He exerted very noteworthy 
influence in guiding the public toa just appreciation 
of the labors of scientific men, and he lived to see an 
entire change in the tone of the public press in this 
respect. Inthe year of Percy’s presidency over this 
section the Times gave only one-tenth of a column to 
a sumwmary of the results of the last day but one of the 
meeting, although the usual discourse delivered on the 
previous evening had been devoted toa question of 
great importance, ‘The Application of Iron to Rail- 
way Purposes.” Space was, however, found for the 
interesting statement that the ‘‘number of Qaaker- 
esses who attended the meetings of the sections was 
not a little remarkable.” Compare the slender record 
of the 7imes of 1849 with its careful chronicle of the 
proccedings at any recent meeting of the Association. 

In drawing this address to a close, I would point to 
the great importance of extending the use of the less 
known metals. Attention is at present concentrated 
on the production of aluminum, and reference has al- 
ready been wade to the Cowles process, in which, as 
in that of Heroult, the reduction of aluwina is effected 
by carbon, at the very high temperature of the elec- 
tric are ; while, on the other hand, in the Kleiner and 
similar processes, the electric current acts less as a 
source of heat than by decomposing a fluid bath, the 
aluminum being isolated by electrolytic action ; and 
doubtless, in the immediate future, there will bea 
rapid increase in the number of metallurgical proces- 
ses that depend on reactions which are set up by sub- 
mitting chemical systems to electric stress. Incidental 
reference should be made to the growing importance 
of sodium, not only im cheapening the production of 
aluminum, but asa powerful weapon of research. In 
1849, when Perey was president of this section, mag- 
nesium was a curiosity ; now its production consti- 
tutes a considerable industry. We may confidently 
expect to see barium and calciam produced on a large 
seale as soon as their utility has been dewonstrated by 
research. Minerals containing molybdenum are not 
rare; aud the metal could probably be produced as 
cheaply as tin if a use were to be found for it. The 
quantities of vavadium and thallium which are avail- 
able are also far from inconsiderable; but we, as yet, 
know little of the action of any of these metals when 





ences would have been made to the main processes 


alloyed with others which are in daily use. The field 





13170 SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. 824. 








Ocroper 17, 1891, 





ey 
SS 








for investigation is vast indeed, for it ust be remem- 
bered that valoable qualities may be conferred ona 
inass of wetal by a very small quantity of another ele- 
ment. The useful quantities imparted to platinum by 
iridium are well known. A swall quantity of tella- 
rium obliterates the crystalline structure of bismuth ; 
but we have lost an ancient art, which enabled brittle 
antimony to be cast into useful vessels. Two-tenths 
per cent. of zirconium increases the strength of gold 
enormously, while the same amount of bismuth re- 
duces the tenacity to a very low point. Chromiam, 
cobalt, tungsten, titaniam, cadwium, zirconium, and 
lithium are already well known in the arts, and the 
valuable properties which metallic chromium and 
tungsten confer upon steel are beginning to be gener- 
ally recognized, as the last exhibition at Paris abun- 
dantly showed ; but as isolated metals, we know but 
little of them. Is the development of the rarer metals 
to be left to other countries ? Means for the proseca- 
tion of research are forthcoming, and a rich reward 
awaits the labors of the chemists who could bring 
themselves to divert their attention, for even a brief 
period, from the investigation of organie compounds, 
in order to raise alloys from the obscurity in which 
they are at present left. 


It must not be forgotten that metallurgical enterprise 
rests on (1) scientific knowledge, (2) capital, and (3) la- 
bor, and that if the results of industrial operations 


are to prove remunerative, mach must depend on the | 


relation of these three elements, though it is difficult 
to determine accurately their relative importance. A 
modern ironworks may have an army of ten thousand 
workmen, and commercial success or failure will de- 
pend in no small measure on the method adopted in 
organizing the labor. The relations between capital 
and labor are of so much interest at the present time 
that I do uot hesitate to offer a few words on the sub- 
ject. 

Many examples might be borrowed from wetallurgi- 
eal enterprises in this and other countries to show that 
their nature is often precarious, and that failure is 
easily induced by what appear to be comparatively 
slight causes. Capitalists might consequently tend to 
select governinent securities for investinent in prefer- 
ence to metallurgical works, and the laboring popula- 
tion would then severely suffer. It is only reasonable, 
therefore, that if capitalists are exposed to great risks, 
they should, in the event of success, receive the greater 
part of the profits. There is a widespread feeling that 
the interests of capital and labor must be antagonistic, 
and as it is impossible to ignore the fact that the con- 


llict between them is giving rise to grave apprehen- | 


sion, it becomes the duty of all who possess influence 
to strive not merely for peace, but to range themselves 
on the side of justice and humanity. The great labor 


ON THE ORIGIN, PROPAGATION, AND 
PREVENTION OF PHTHISIS. 


By JoHN TYNDALL. 


It is now a little over nine years since I received 
here, at Hind Head, a memoir by Professor Koch 
on the “ Etiology of Tuberculosis.” Taking it in 
allits bearings, the memoir seemed to me of extraordi- 
nary interest and importance, not only to the medical 
men of England, but to the community at large. 1, 
therefore, drew up and sent an account of it to the 
Times. The discovery of the tubercle bacillus was 
therein announced for the first time, and by experi- 
ments of the most definite and varied character the 
propagation and action of this terrible organism were 
demonstrated. 

With regard to his recent labors, Professor Koch may 

or may not have been hasty in the publication of his 
remedies for consumption. On this point it would be 
out of place, on my part, to say a word. But the inves- 
tigations which first rendered his name famous, and 
which, I believe, were introduced tothe English public 
by myself, are irvefragable. His renowned inquiry on 
anthrax caused him to be transferred from a modest 
position, near Breslau, to the directorship of the Im- 
perial Sanitary Institute of Berlin, where he was soon 
surrounded by able colleagues and assistants. Con- 
spicuous among these was Dr. Georg Cornet, whose 
labors on the diffusion of tuberculosis constitute the 
subject of this article. 
After the investigation of Koch, various questions 
of moment pushed themselves imperiously to the 
|front: How is phthisis generated ? How is it propa- 
gated? What is the part played by the air as the ve- 
hicle of tubercle bacilli? How are healthy lungs to be 
protected from their ravages ? What value is to be as- 
signed to the hypothesis of predisposition and heredi- 
tary transinission ? Cornet describes the attempts 
made to answer these and other questions. The results 
were conflicting, and when subjected to critical exain- 
ination they were proved, for the most part, inade- 
quate and inconclusive. The art of experiment is 
different from that of observation; so much so, that 
| good observers frequently prove but indifferent exper- 
imenters. It was his education as an experimenter 
that gave Pasteur such immense advantage over Pou- 
chet ip their celebrated controversy on ** spontaneous 
generation”; and it is on thescore of experiment that 
the writers examined by Cornet were found most want- 
ling. One evil resultof this conflict of opinion, as to 
|the propagation and prevention of phthisis, was the 
unwarrantable indifference which is generated among 
medical men. 

The researches referred to and criticised by Cornet 
are too voluminous to be mentioned in detail. Valu- 
lable information was, to some extent, yielded by these 











question cannot be solved except by assuming as a| researches, but they nevertheless left the subject ina 
principle that private ownership must be held inviola-| state of vagueness and uncertainty. Cornet, in fact, 
ble, but it must be admitted that there was a timwe/ when he began his inquiry, found himself confronted 
when capital had become arbitrary and some kind of | by a practically untrodden domain. He entered it with 
united action on the part of workmen was needed in| a full knowledge of the gravity of his task. The result 
self-defense. If, however, we turn to the action of the|of his investigation is a memoir of 140 pages, the im- 
leaders of trade unions in the recent lamentable strikes, | portance of which, and the vast amount of labor in- 
we are presented with a picture which many of us can | volved in it, can be appreciated by those only who have 
only view as that of tyranny of the most close and op- | read it and studied it from beginning to end. 
pressive kind, in which individual freedom cannot| That the matter expectorated by phthisical patients 
even be recognized. There are hundreds of owners of | is infectious had been placed by previous investigations 
works who long to devote themselves to the welfare of | beyond doubt. The principal question set before him- 
those they employ, but who can do little against the | self by Cornet had reference to the part played by the 
influence of the professional agitator, and are merely | airin the propagation of lung disease: Is the breath of 
saddened by contact with prejudice and ignorance. [| persons suffering from phthisis charged, as assumed by 
believe the view to be correct that some system by | some, with bacilii? or is it, as assumed by others, free 
which the workman participates in the profits of en-| from the organisw? The drawing of the air through 
terprise will afford the most hope of putting an end | media able to intercept its floating particles, and the 
to labor disputes, and we are told that profit sharing | examination of the media afterward, might, at first 
tends to destroy the workmen's sense of social exclu-|sight, appear the more simple way of answering 
sion from the capitalistic board, and contents him by/| this question. But to examine a thousand liters of air 
elevating him from the precarious position of a hired | would require a considerable time, and this is only one- 
laborer. No pains should therefore be spared in per-| twelfth of the voluine which a man breathing quietly 
fecting a system of profit sharing. lexpires every day. If the air were only sparingly 
Pensions for long service are great aids to patience | charged with bacilli, the amount necessary for a thor- 
and fidelity, and very much may be hoped from the! ough examination might prove overwhelming. Instead 
fact that strenuous efforts are being made by men| of the air, therefore, Cornet chose for examination the 
really competent to lead. The report of the Labor | precipitate from the air; tnat is to say, the dust of the 
Cowmission which is now sitting will be looked for|sick room, which must contain the bacilli in greater 
with keen interest. Watchful care over the health, in-| numbers than the air itself. 
terests, and instruction of the employed is exercised by He chose for his field of operations seven distinct 
many owners of works ; and in this respect the Dow-| hospitals (Krankenhausern), three lunatic asylums 
lais works, which are being transplanted into your | (Irrenanstalten), fifty-three private houses, and various 
midst at Cardiff, have long presented a noteworthy ex- | localities, including private asylums, lecture rooms, sur- 
ample. Workmen must not forget that the choice of | gical wards, public buildings, and the open street. The 
their own leaders is in their own hands, and on this the | smallness of the bacilli has given currency to erroneous 
future mainly depends. ‘* We may lay it down as a| notions regarding their power of floating in the air. 
perpetual law that workmen’s associations should be} The bacilli are not only bodies, but heavy bodies, which 
so organized and governed as to furnish the best and | sink in water and pus, and much more rapidly in calm 
most suitable means for attaining what is aimed at, air. Cornet gathered his dust from places inaccessible 
that is to say, for helping each individual member to|to the sputum issuing directly from the coughing 
better his condition to the utmost in body, mind, and | patient. He rubbed it off high-hung pictures, clock 
property.” The words will be found in the Encyclical | cases, the boards and rails at the back of the patient’s 
letter which Pope Leo XIII. has recently issued on the | bed, and also off the walls behind it. The enormous 
** Condition of Labor.” To me it is specially interest- | care necessary in such experiments, and, indeed, in the 
ing that the Bishop of Rome in his foreible appeal | use of instraments generally, has not yet, I fear, been 
again and again cites the opinion of St. Thowas/ universally realized by medical men. With a care 
Aquinas, who was a learned chemist as well as a theo-| worthy of imitation, Cornet sterilized the instru- 


logian, 
Those of us who realize that ‘‘the higher mysteries 
of being, if penetrable at all by human intellect, re- 


| ments with which his dust was collected, and also the 
| vessels in which it was placed. 
| The cultivation of the tubercle bacilli directly from 


quire other weapons than those of calculation and ex-|the dust proved impracticable. Their extraordinary 
periment,” should be fally sensible of our individual | slowness of development enabled other organisms— 
responsibility. Seeing that the study of the relations | weeds of the pathogenic garden—which were always 
between capital aud labor involves the consideration | present, to overpower and practicaily stifle them. Cor 
of the complex problems of existence, the solution of | net, therefore, resorted to the infection of guinea pigs 
which is at present hidden from us, we shall feel with | with hisdust. If tuberculosis followed from such in- 
Andrew Lang that ** where, as a matter of science, we | vculation, a proof of virulence would be obtained 
know nothing, we can only utter the message of our | which the microscope could never furnish. The dust, 
temperament.” My own leads me to hope that the pa-/| after being intimately mixed with a suitable liquid, 
triotism of the workmen will prevent them from driv-| was injected into the abdomen of the guinea pig. For 
iug our national industries from these shores, and || every sample of dust, two, three, four, or more animals 
would ask those to whom the direction of the metallur-| were employed. In numerous cases the infected ani- 
gical works of this country is confided to remember | mals died a day or two after inoculation. Such rapid 
that we have to deal both with metals and with men, | deaths, however, were not due to the tubercle bacil- 
and have reason to be grateful to all who extend the | lus, which, as already stated, is extremely slow of de- 
boundaries, not only of our knowledge, but also of our| velopment, but to organisms which set up peritonitis 
sympathy. and other fatal disorders. Usually, however, some of 


— the group of guinea pigs escaped this quick mortality, 





A LITTLE pulverized sal-ammoniac sprinkled on tin/ and, to permit of the development of the bacilli, they 
will make it flow free and clear. There is nothing but; were allowed to live on thirty, forty, or fifty days. The 
an alloy of other metal that will make it melt at less|survivors were then killed and examined. In some 
than its normal temperature. eri 


cases the animals were found charged witb tubercle 


bacilli, the virulence of the inoculated watter bein 
thus established. In other cases the organs of the 
— pigs were found bealthy, thus proving the 
varmlessness of the dust. 

It must here be borne in mind that the bacilli mixeg 
with Cornet’s dust must have first floated in the air 
and been deposited by it. Considering the number of 
persons who suffer from phthisis, and the billions of 
bacilli expeetorated by each of them, it would seem q 
fair a priori deduction that wherever people with their 
normal proportion of consumptive subjects aggregate, 
the tubercle bacillus must be present everywhere. 
Hence the doctrine of “ubiquity,” enunciated and 
defended by many writers on this question. Common 
observation throws doubt upon the doctrine, while the 
experiments of Cornet are distinctly opposed to it, 
Tested by the dust deposited on their furniture or 
rubbed from their walls, the wards of some of the hos. 
pitals were found entirely free from bacilli, while oth- 
ers were found to be richly and fatally endowed with 
the organism. Cornet, it may be remarked, does not 
contend that his negative results possess demonsira- 
tive foree. He is quite ready to admit that, where he 
failed to find them, bacilli may have escaped him. But 
he justly remarks that until we have discovered a bae- 
terian magnet, capable of drawing every bacillus trom 
its hiding place, experiment must remain more or less 
open to this criticism. Cornet’s object is a practical 
one. He has to considerthe probability, rather than 
the remote possibility, of infection. The possibility, 
even in places where no bacilli show themselves, may 
be admitted, while the probability is denied. Such 
places, Cornet contends, are practically free from 
danger. 

In the differences as to the infectiousness here pointed 
out, we have an illustration of wisely applied know- 
ledge, care, and control, as contrasted with negli- 
gence or ignorance, on the part of hospital authori- 
ties. And this way be a fitting place to refer toa 
most impressive example of what can be accom- 
plished, by resolute supervision, on the part of hos- 
pital doctors and nurses. A glance at the state of 
things existing some years ago will enable us to real- 
ize more fully the ameliorations of to-day. I once bad 
occasion to ask Professor Klebs, of Prague, for his 
opinion of the antiseptic system of surgery. He re- 
plied: ** You in England are not in a position to appreci- 
ate the magnitude of the advance made by Lister. Eng- 
lish surgeons were long ago led to recognize the con- 
nection between wortality and dirt,and they spared 
no pains in rendering their wards as clean as it was 
possible to make them. Wards thus purified showed a 
mortality almost as low as other wards in which the 
antiseptic system was employed. The condition of 
things in our hospitals is totally different ; and it is 
only among us, on the Continent, that the vast 
amelioration introduced by Lister can be properly 
apprehended.” I may say that Lister himself once 
described hospitals in his own country which, in regard 
to uncleanliness and consequent mortality, might have 
vied with those on the Continent. Klebs’ letter was 
written many years ago. Later on the authorities of 
German hospitals bestirred themselves, with the 
splendid result disclosed by Cornet, that institutions 
which were formerly the chief breeding grounds of 
pathogenic organisws are now raised to a pitch of 
salubrity surpassing that of the open street. 

Cornet thus grapples with the grave question which 

here occupies us. How, he asks, does the tubercle 
bacillus reach the lungs, and how is it transported 
thence into the air? Is it the sputum alone that 
carries the organism, or do the bacilli mingle with the 
breath? This is the problem of problems, the answer 
to which will show whether we are able to protect our- 
selves against tuberculosis, whether we can impose 
limits on the scourge, or whether, with hands tied, we 
have to surrender ourselves to its malignant sway. If 
the tubercle bacilli are carried outward by the breath, 
then nothing remains for us but to wait till an infected 
puff of expired air conveys to us ourdoom. A kind of 
fatalism, sometimes dominant in relation to this ques- 
tion, would have its justification. There is no inhabi- 
ted place without its proportion of phthisical subjects, 
who, if the foregoing supposition were correct, would 
be condemned to infect their neighbors. Terrible in 
this case would be the doom of the sufferer, whom we 
should be enforeed to avoid, as in earlier ages the 
plague-stricken were avoided. Terrible, moreover, to 
the invalid would be the consciousness that with every 
discharge from his lungs he was spreading death 
among those around him. ‘Such a state of things,” 
says Cornet, ‘‘ would soon loosen the bonds of the 
fawily and of society.” Happily the facts of the case 
are very different from those here set forth. 
‘I would not,” says our author, ‘*go into this sub- 
ject so fully, I would not here repeat what is already 
known, were I not convinced that, in regard to this 
special point, the most erroneous notions are preva- 
lent, not only among the general public, but even 
among highly cultivated medical men. Misled by such 
notions, precautions are adopted which are simply cal- 
culated to defeat the end in view. Thus it is that 
while one physician anxiously guards against the ex- 
pired breath of the phthisical patient, another is care- 
ful to have his spittoon so covered up that no bacilli 
can escape into the air by evaporation. Neither of 
them makes any inquiry about the really crucial point 
—whether the patient has deposited ad/ his spuftuia in 
the spittoon, thus avoiding the possibility of the ex- 
pectorated matter becoming dry, and reduced after- 
ward to a powder capable of being inhaled. 

**While a positive phthisiophobia anpears to have 
taken possession of some minds, others ignore almost 
completely the possibility of infection. The fact that 
investigations have been published of late, with the 
object of discovering tubercle bacilli in the breath, 
sufficiently indicates that the conclusive researches of 
earlier investigators have not received the proper 
amount of attention. 

“We must regard it,” says Cornet, ‘‘ as firmly estab- 
lished that, under no circumstance, can the bacteria 
contained in a liquid, or strewn upon a wet surface, 
escape by evaporation or be carried away by currents 
of air. By anirrefragable series of experiments Nageli 
has placed this beyond doybt.” 

The evidence that the sputum is the real source of 
tubereulous infection is conclusive ; and here Cornet 
earnestly directs attention to the fact that in the houses 








of the poor the patient commonly spits upon the floor, 


aon se, oe ee ee ee ee 


a oe — 


=o 


Sowa ame eae one eo re Oo Oem 2a errr crm ast et Om 


as © 









-_ Be 


eo BS eo. 





: 
- 
é 






- 
t 






Octosrr 17, 1891. 


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. 894. 


13171 








where the sputum dries and is rubbed into infectious 
Just by the feet of persons passing over it. The dan- 
ger becomes greatest when the dry floor is swept by 
prush or broom. There is a still graver danger con- 
nected with the habits of well to-do people who oceupy 
elean and salubrious houses. This is the common 
practice of spitting into pocket handkerchiefs. Here 
the sputum is soon dried by the warmth of the pocket, 
the subsequent use of the handkerchief causing it to 
be rubbed into virulent dust. This constitutes a dan- 
ger of the highest consequence, both to the individual 
using the handkerchief and to persons in his immedi- 
ate neighborhood. 

It isa primary doctrine with both Koch and Cornet 
that tuberculosis arises from infection by the tubercle 
bacillus. Predisposition, or hereditary —— asa 
cause of phthisis, is rejected by both of them. Facts, 
however, are not wanting which suggest the notion 
of predisposition. Cornet once attended, in a hotel, 
an actress far advanced in phthisis. A guest, taking 
possession of her room after her death, or removal, 
might undoubtedly become infected. The antecedents 
of the room being unknown, the case of such a guest 
would, in all probability, be referred to predisposition. 
It might be declared, with perfect sincerity, that for 
years he had had no communication with phthisical 
persons. There is very little doubt that numbers of 
eases of tuberculosis, which have been referred to pre- 
disposition or inheritance, are to be really accounted 
for by infection in some such obscure way. 

Cornet draws attention to hotels and lodging houses 
at, and on the way to, health resorts. He regards 
them as sources of danger, and he insists on the neces- 
sity of disinfecting the rooms and effects after the death 
or removal of tuberculous patients. He recommends 
physicians, before sending patients abroad, or to health 
resorts at home, to inform themselves, by strict in- 
quiry, regarding the precautions taken to avoid in- 
fectious diseases, tuberculosis among the number. The 
attention of those responsible for the sanitary arrange- 
ments in the health resorts of England may be invited 
to the following observation of Cornet: ‘*‘ On a prome- 
nade, amid a hundred phthisical persons who are care- 
ful to expectorate into spittoons, the visitor is far safer 
than among a hundred men, taken at random, and 
embracing only the usual proportion of phthisical 
persons who spit upon the ground.” 

With regard to the permanence of the tubercle con- 
tagium, the following factsare illustrative. A woman, 
who had for two years suffered from a phthisical cough, 
and who had been in the habit of spitting first upon 
the ground, and afterward into a glass or a pocket 
handkerchief, was visited by Cornet. During her life- 
time he proved the dust of her room to be infectious. 
Six weeks after her death he again visited the dwell- 
ing. Rubbing the dust from asquare meter of the 
wall on which he had formerly found his infectious 
matter, and which had not been cleaused after the 
woman’s death, he inoculated with it three of his 
guinea pigs. Examined forty days after the inocula- 
tion, two of the three were found tuberculous. Cornet 
reasons thus: 

“ No doubt the dust which had thus proved its viru- 
lence would have retained it for a longer time. Schill 
and Fischer, indeed, have proved that, after six months’ 
preservation, dried sputum may retain its virulence. 
During this period, therefore, the possibility of infec- 
tion by this dust is obviously open. When, moreover, 
the quantity of infectious matter inhaled is very small, 
a considerable time elapses before the development of 
the bacilli renders the malady distinct. Even if a 
year should elapse after the death of a phthisieal pa- 
tient before another member of the same household 
shows symptoms of lung disease, we are not entitled 
to assume a hereditary tendency without further 
proof. Aware of the facts above mentioned, we ought 
rather to ascribe the disease to infection by the dwell- 
ing, not to mention its possible derivation from other 
sources,” 

On January 14, 1888, Cornet visited a patient who, 
for three-quarters of a year, had suffered from tuber- 
culosis of the lung and larynx. The dust of the room 
occupied by this man was proved to contain virulent 
infective matter. A brother of the patient, who, at the 
time of the examination of the dwelling, was alleged 
to be in perfect health, exhibited phthisis of the larynx 
four months afterward. ‘ We are, surely,” says Cor- 
net, ‘‘ warranted in ascribing this result, not to hered- 
ity, or any other hypothetical cause, but to the naked 
fact that the dust of this dwelling contained tubercle 
bacilli which were capable of infecting the lungs and 
— of a man, as they did the peritoneum of a guinea 
rig. . 

On December 381, 1887, Cornet visited a man who for 
two years had suffered from phthisis. He lived in the 
saine room with two brothers who were very robust, 
one of whom, however, had begun to cough, though 
without any further evidence of serious disorder. The 
patient had been at home for eight days, while pre- 
viously he had acted as foreman in a tailoring estab- 
lishment. It was proved, to a certainty, that this pa- 
tient had taken the place of a colleague who had died 
from phthisis of the throat, and who had been in the 
habit of expectorating copiously upon the floor. In the 
workroom, moreover, the present sufferer had occupied 
a place next to the man who died. Cornet called upon 
the proprietor of the establishment, who allowed him 
every opportunity of examining the room, in which 
eight or ten workmen were engaged. With dust rubbed 
from about two square meters of the wall, near the 
spot where the patient now works, Cornet infected 
guinea pigs and produced tuberculosis. He ridicules 
— notion of ascribing this man’s malady to any 
tony endowment or predisposition, derived, say, 

8 a phthisical mother, which, after sleeping for 
pee, years, woke up to action at the precise time 
“an he was surrounded by infective matter. Our 
adduee regards this, and other similar cases which he 
=n — patie pon interest. The tuberculous virus 
who hed th hd in rooms containing several workmen, 
Thei - Ou8 an opportunity of infecting each other. 
con a ection, moreover, occurred among tailors, who 

a nown to be special sufferers from phthisis. 
ies te general belief some time ago, which, to some 
thes hen” hold its ground to the present hour, was 
in the in preys malady arose from some peculiarity 
tion! dividual constitution, independent of infee- 
ee — without. Enormous mischief has been done 

ish eXaggerated and incorrect notions regarding 


| process its complete desiccation is opposed by its hy- 








the influence of predisposition and inheritance. Mem- 
bers of the same family were observed to fall victims 
to this scourge, but each was regarded as an indepen- 
dent source of the disease, to the exclusion of the 
thought that the one had infected the other. Two or 
three days an old man here at Hind Head told me 
that he had lost three children in succession through 
phthisis; and he mentioned another case where five 
or six robust brothers had fallen, successively, victims 
to the same disease. ‘‘I am sure,” said the man, with 
a flash of intelligence across his usually unintelligent 
countenance, ‘it must be catching.” 

Cornet describes some cases which irresistibly sug- 
est family infection. In 1887 he visited a patient, the 
ather of a family, who, six years previously, had lost 
by ea a little girl fourteen years old. A 
yearand a half afterward a daughter of the same man, 
twenty-one years old, fell a victim to the disease. One 
or two years later a robust son succumbed, while, a 
fortnight before Cornet’s visit, a child a year and a 
half old had been carried away. Without doing vio- 
lence to the evidence, as Cornet remarks, these cases 
may be justly regarded as due to family infection. 
For many years the father had suffered from a phthis- 
ical cough, and directly or indirectiy he, in all proba- 
bility, infected his children. 

In connection with this subject, I may be permitted 
to relate a sad experience of my own. It is an easy 
excursion from my cottage in the Alps to the re- 
markable promontory called ‘The Nessel,” on which 
stands a cluster of huts, occupied by peasants during 
the summer months. On visiting the Nessel three 
years ago, I was requested to look into a hut occupied 
by a wan suffering from a racking cough, accompanied 
by copious expectoration. I did so. It was easy to 
see that the poor fellow was the victim of advanced 
lung disease. In the same hut lived his daughter, 
who, when | first saw her, presented the appearance 
of blooming health and vigor. Acquainted as I was 
with Koch’s discoveries, I remarked to a friend who 
accompanied me that the girl lived in the midst of 
peril. We had here the precise conditions notified by 
Cornet. Spitting on the floor, a of the sputum, 
and the subsequent treading of the infectious matter 
into dust. Whenever the hut was swept, this dust 
— freely with the air, and was of course in- 

aled. 

I warned the girl against the danger to which she 
was exposed. But it is sometimes difficult to make 
even cultivated people comprehend the magnitude of 
this danger, or take the oe precautions. A year 
afterward I visited the same hut. The father was 
standing in the midst of the room—a well-built man, 
nearly six feet high, and as straight as anarrow. He 
was wheezing heavily, being at intervals bowed down 
by the violence of his cough. On astool in the same 
room sat his daughter, who. a year previously, had 
presented such a picture of Alpine strength and beauty. 
Her appearance shocked me. The light had gone out 
of her eyes, while the pallor of her face and her panting 
breath showed only too plainly that she also had been 
grasped by thedestroyer. There are thousands at this 
moment in England in the position which I then oc- 
cupied—standing helpless in the presence of a calamity 
that might have been avoided. All that could be done 
was to send the sufferers wine and such little delicacies 
asl couldcommand. Last summer I learned that both 
father and daughter were dead, the daughter having 
been the first to succumb. 

In yey to those who consider that they have 
found bacilli in the breath of phthisical patients, 
Cornet adduces a number of very definite results. 
Patients have been caused to breathe against plates of 
glass coated with glycerine, which would undoubtedly 
have held the bacilli fast. Water has been examined, 
through which the air expired by phthisical lungs had 
been caused to pass. In this case the bacilli, being 
moist, would have been infallibly intercepted by the 
water. The aqueous vapor exhaled by consumptive 
lungs has been carefully condensed by ice; but no 
bacilli has, in any of these cases, been detected. It 
behooves those who have arrived at an opposite result 
to repeat their experiments with the most scrupulous 
care, so that no doubt should be suffered to rest upon a 
point of such supreme importance. The lungs, air pas- 
sages, throat, and mouth all present wet surfaces, and 
it has been proved that even with sputum rich in 
bacilli, over which a current of air of considerable force 
had been driven, the air was found perfectly free from 
the organism. 

The immunity as regards infection which to so great 
an extent is observed, is ascribed by Cornet in part to 
the intensely viscous character of the sputum when 
wet. Even after it has been subjected to a drying 


groscopic character. Cornet calis other investigators 
to bear him witness that the task of reducing well 
dried sputum to a fine powder, even in a mortar, is by 
no means an easy one. It is difficult to produce, in 
this way, a dust fine enough to remain suspended in 
the air. It would be an error to suppose that dry 
tuberculous phlegm, when trodden upon in the streets, 
sends a cloud of infected dust upward. Its hygroscopic 
qualities in great part prevent this. When dried 
sputum is reduced to powder in a humid place, it at- 
tracts to itself moisture, and collects into little balls. 
The streets in which phthisical persons expectorate are 
rendered innocuous by rain or by the artificial watering 
common in towns, Cornet regards this watering as an 
enormous sanitary advantage. No doubt when dry 
east winds prevail for a sufficient time, infectious dust 
will mingle with the air. During the easterly winds 
infectious diseases are known to be particularly pre- 
valent. Our sufferings from influenza during the pres- 
ent year have been connected in my mind with the long 
continued easterly and northeasterly winds, which, 
sweeping over vast areas of dry land, brought with 
them the contagion that produced the malady. Be- 
sides the difficulty encountered before the sputum 
reaches the state of very fine powder, other difficulties 
are presented by the numberiless angles and obstacles 
of the respiratory tract, and by the integrity of the 
ciliary epithelium, to the more or less vigorous action 
of which is due the fact that amid thousands of oppor- 
tunities we have only here and there a case of infec- 
tion. 

The action of the tubercle bacillus is determined by 
the state of the surface with which it comes into con- 


such as measles, whooping cough, and scarlatina, may 
exist along the respiratory canal. By illness, moreover, 
the epithelium may be impaired, the inhaled baeiili 
being thus offered a convenient domicile. If it be 
thought desirable to call such a state of things *‘ pre- 
disposition,” Cornet will raise no objection. Wher- 
ever a wounded or decaying tissue exists, the bacillus 
will find, unopposed, sufficient nutriment to enable it 
to increase in number, and to augment in vigor, before 
it comes into contact, and conflict, with the living cells 
underneath. It is not any such predisposition, but 
predisposition by inheritance as a sowrce of phthisis 
that is contended against by Cornet. That Koch en- 
tertained a different opinion is declared to be abso- 
lutely erroneous, The admission that a disease may be 
favored, or promoted, by this or that circumstance is 
not tantamount to the assertion that in all, or nearly 
all, cases this circumstance is the cause, concomitant, 
or necessary precursor of the disease. This is the view 
generally entertained regarding ‘‘ predisposition.” 

Cornet’s further reasoning on this subject reveals 
his views so clearly that I will endeavor, in substance, 
to reproduce it here. Let a box be imagined filled with 
finely divided bacillus dust, and let a certain number 
of Caprese be caused, for a very short time, to in- 
hale this dust. A few of them will be infected, while 
the great majority will escape. If the inhalation be 
prolonged, the number of animals infected will in- 
crease, until at length only one ortwo remain. With 
an exposure still more prolonged the surviving ones 
would undoubtedly succumb. Why then, in the first 
instance, does one animal contract tuberculosis and 
another not? Have they not all inhaled the same air, 
under the same connitions? Are the animals that 
have escaped the first contagion less ‘ disposed ” than 
the survivors to the disease? Assuming the animals to 
be all perfectly healthy, such differences will be ob- 
served. But, supposing them to be weakened in differ- 
ent degrees by previous disorders, the differences re- 
vealed in the case of healthy animals would be more 
pronounced. This, with human beings, is the normal 
state of things. 

Take the case of a veteran who has been to the front 
in fifty different battles, who, right and left of him, 
has seen his comrades fall, until haply he remains the 
sole survivor of his regiment, without scratch or con- 
tusion. Shall we call him bullet proof? Will his 
safety be ascribed to an absence of ‘* predisposition” 
to attract the bullets—thus enjoying an immunity 
which the superstition of former ages would have 
ascribed to him? Is he more bullet proof or less vul- 
nerable than the comrade who by the first volley in the 
first battle was shot down ? ‘‘ How often,” says Cornet, 
“do such cases repeat themselves in life? and are we 
able to do more than describe them as accidents? Un- 
scientific as this word may appear, it is more in har- 
mony with the truth than any artificial hypothesis.” 

The opportunities for incorrect reasoning in regard 
to phthisis are manifold. It is observed, for example, 
that a hospital attendant, who has had for years, even 
for decades, consumptive patients in his charge, has, 
nevertheless, escaped infection. The popular conclu- 
sion finds vent in the words, ‘“ It cannot be so danger- 
ous after all!” Here, however, attention is fixed on a 
single fortunate individual, while the hundreds who, 
during the same time, have succumbed are forgotten. 
The danger of infection in different hospitals is a vari- 
able danger. In some we find bacilli, while in others 
we do not find them. It is no wonder, then, that 
among attendants who are thus exposed to different 
degrees of danger, some should be infected and others 
not. When in cases of diphtheria, typhus, cholera, 
smallpox, which are undeniably infectious diseases, an 
attendant escapes infection, we do not exclaim, ** They 
are not so dangerous after all!” But this is the favore 
ite expression when pulmonary consumption is in 
question. ‘‘ When,” adds Cornet, with a dash of in- 
dignation, ‘‘we observe the enormous increase of 
pbthisis among the natives of Mentone, and find this 
ascribed to the abandonment of land labor, instead of 
to intercommunication with the consumptive patients 
who spend their winter at that-health resort, it would 
seem as if some people shut their eyes willfully against 
the truth.” 

Again and again our author insists on the necessity 
of the most searching oversight on the part of physi- 
cians who have consumptive patients in charge. ‘I 
cannot,” he says, ‘‘ accept as valid the assertion that 
in well ordered hospitals provision is invariably made 
for expectoration into proper vessels, the conversion of 
the sputum intoinfectious dust being thereby rendered 
impossible. Take acase in point. One of the phy- 
sicians to whose kindness I owe the possibility of carry- 
ing on my investigation assured mein the most posi- 
tive manner that the patients in his hospital invariably 
used spittoons. A few minutes after this assurance 
had been given,and under the eyes of the director 
himself, I drew from the bed ofa patient a pocket 
handkerchief filled with half-dried phlegm. I rubbed 
from the wall of the room, at a distance of half a 
meter frow the bed of this patient, a quantity of dust 
with which, asI predicted, tuberculosis was produced. 
If, therefore, physicians, attendants, and patients do 
not work in unison, if the patient and his attendants 
be not accurately instructed and strictly controlled, 
the presence of the spittoon will not diminish the 
danger.” 

In the dwellings of private patients the perils here 
glanced at were most impressively brought home to 
the inquirer. In fifteen out of twenty-one sick rooms, 
that is to say, in more than two-thirds of them, Cornet 
found in the dust of the walls and bed furniture vira- 
lent tubercle bacilli. He refers to his published tables 
to prove that in no ward or room where the organism 
was found did the patients confine themselves to ex- 
pectoration into spittoons, but were in the habit of 
spitting either upon the floors or into pocket handkKer- 
chiefs. In no single case, on the other hand, where 
spitting on the floor or into pocket handkerchiefs was 
strictly and effectually prohibited, did he find himself 
able to produce tuberculosis from the collected dust. 

A point of considerable importance, more specially 
dealt with by Cornet in a further investigation, has re- 
ference to the allegation that physicians who attend 
tuberculous patients do not show among themselves 
the frightful mortality from phthisis that might be ex- 
. This is often adduced as proof of the compara- 
tive harmlessness of the tubercle bacillus. No inves- 





tact. Wounds or lesions, caused by previous diseases, 


tigation, however, has proved that the mortality among 





13172 











physicians by phthisis does not far exceed the average. 
And even should this mortality show no great pre- 
ponderance, it is to be sorne in mind that the number 
of physicians who, thanks to their education, are‘able 
to discern the first approaches of the malady, and to 
master it in time, is by no means inconsiderable. In 
the health resorts of Germany, Italy, France and 
Africa, we find numbers of physicians who have been 
compelled, by their own condition, to establish their 
practice in such places. 

The memorable paper of which I have here given a 
concentrated abstract concludes with a chapter on 
“ Preventive Measures,” which are assuredly worthy 
of grave attention on the part of governments, of 
hospital authorities, and of the public at large. The 
character of these measures may be, ih great part, 
gathered from the foregoing pages. It is wore than 
once enunciated in Cornet’s memoir that the first and 
greatest danger to which the phthisical patient is ex- 

ed is himself. If he 1s careless in the disposal of 
1is phlegm, if he suffers it to become dry and converted 
into dust, then, by the inhalation of a contagium de- 
rived from the diseased portions of his own lung, he 
may infect the healthy portions. ‘If, therefore,” says 
Cornet, ** the phthisioal patient, to avoid the guilt of 
self-mmurder, is compelled to exercise the utmost cau- 
tion, he is equally bound todo so for the sake of his fam- 
ily, his children, and his servants and attendants. He 
must bestow the most anxious care upon the disposal 
of his sputum. Within doors he must never, under 
any circumstances, epit upon the floor, or employ his 
pocket handkerchief to receive his phlegm, but al- 
ways and everywhere must use a proper spittoon. If 
he is absolutely faithful in the carrying out of these 
precautions, he may accept the tranquilizing assur- 
ance that he will neither injure himself nor prove a 
source of peril to those around him. 

Though windful of the danger of interfering with 
social arrangements, Cornet follows out his preventive 
measures in considerable detail. Hand spittoons, with 
a cover, he recommends, not with the view of prevent- 
ing evaporation, but because flies have been known to 
carry infection from open vessels. Without condemn- 
ing the practice, he does not favor the disinfection of 
sputum by carbolic acid and other chemicals. He 
deprecates the use of sand or sawdust in spittoons. On 
wsthetic grounds, he would have the spittoons of those 
who can afford it made ornamental, but earthenware 
saucers, such as those placed under flower pots, are 
recommended for the use of the poor, The consump- 
tive patient must take care that not only in his own 
house, but also in the offices and workshops where he 
may be engaged, he is supplied with a proper spittoon. 
In public buildings, as in private houses, the corridors 
end staircases ought to be well supplied with these 
necessaries. The ascent of the stairs often provokes 
coughing and expectoration, and the means of dispos- 
ing of the phlegm ought to be at hand. The directors 
of factories, and the masters of workshops, as well as 
the workmen themselves, ought to make sure that, 
under no circumstances, shall spitting on the floor or 
into a pocket handkerchief be tolerated. 

One final word is still to be spoken. If we are to 
fight this enemy with success, the public must make 
common cause withthe physician. The fear of spread- 
ing panic among the community, and more particularly 
among hospital nurses, must be dismissed. Unless 
nurses, patients, and public realize with clear intelli- 





SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. 824. 





Ocroser 17, 1891, 








——— 








|inquiry extended over a quarter of a century. The 


returns furnished by thirty-eight hospitals, served by 
Catholic sisters and brethren, and embracing a yearly 
average of 4,020 attendants, showed the number of 
deaths during the period mentioned to be 2.009. Of 
these, 1,320 were caused by,tuberculosis. In the State, 
as a whole, the proportion of deaths from this malady 
to the total number of deaths is known to be very 
high, reaching from one-fifth to one-seventh of the 
whole. In the hospitals this proportion was enor- 
mously increased. It rose on the average to almost 
two-thirds, or close upon 63 r cent. of the total 
number of deaths. In nearly half the hospitals even 
this high proportion was surpassed, the deaths in these 
amounting to three-fourths of the whole. Scarcely any 
other occupation, however injurious to health, shows 
a wortality equal to that found in these hospitals. 

The following statistics furnish.a picture of the state 
of things prevalent during the five-and-twenty years 
referred to. A healthy girl of 17, devoting herself to 
hospital nursing, dies on the average 214 years sooner 
than a girl of the same age moving among the general 
population. A hospital nurse of the age of 25 has the 
same expectation of life as a person of the age of 58 in 
the general community. The age of 33 years in the 
hospital is of the same value as the age of 62 in com- 
mon life. The difference between life value in the 
hospital and life value in the State increases from the 
age of 17 to 24; nurses of this latter age dying 22 years 
sooner than girls of the same age in the outside popu- 
lation. The difference afterward becomes less. In 
the fifties it amounts to only six or seven years, while 
later on it vanishes altogether. The reason of this is 
that the older nurses are gradually withdrawn from 
the heavier duties of their position and the attendant 
danger of infection. 

In these hospitals, deaths from typhus and other in- 
fectious disorders exhibit a frequency far beyond the 
normal, but the enormous total augmentation is main- 
ly to be ascribed to the frequency of deaths from 
tuberculosis. The excess of mortality is to be referred 
to the vocation of nursing, and the chances of infec- 
tion involved in it. Cornet examines other assump- 
tions that might be made to account for the mortality, 
and gives cogent reasons for dismissing them al). The 
tranquil lives led by the nurses, the freedom from all 
anxiety in regard to subsistence, the moderation ob- 
served in food and drink, all tend to the preservation 
of health. They live in peace, free from the irregular- 
ities of outside life, and their contentment and circum- 
stances generally are calculated rather to prolong their 
days than to shorten them. 

Cornet is very warm in his recognition of the devo- 
tion of these Catholic nurses, two-thirds of whom are 
sacrificed in the service which they render to suffering 
humanity. And they are sacrificed for the most part 
in the blossom of their years, for it is the younger 
nurses, engaged in the work of sweeping and dusting, 
whose occupation charges the air they breathe with 
virulent bacilli. The statistics of their mortality Cor- 
net regards as a monumental record of their lofty self- 
denial, their noble, beneficent, and modest fidelity to 
what they regard as the religious duty of their lives. 

But, he asks, is it necessary that this sacrifice 
should continve? His answer is an emphatic nega- 
tive, to establish which he again sums up the results 
which we have learnt from his tirst wemoir : It is uni- 
versally recognized that tuberculosis is caused by tu- 


gence the dangers to which they are exposed, they will | bercle bacilli, which reach the lungs through the inha- 
not resort to the measures necessary for their protec-| lation of air in which the bacilli are diffused. They 
tion. Should the sources of infection be only partially | come almost exclusively from the dried sputum of 
removed, the marked diminution of a malady which | consumptive persons. The woist sputum, as also the 


now destroys more human beings than all other infec- 
tive diseases taken together will, as pointed out by 
Cornet, be *‘ our exceeding great reward.” 

Dr. Cornet’s great investigation, of which some 
account is given above, is entitled, ‘“‘ The Diffusion of 
Tubercle Bacilli exterior to the Body.” It was pub- 
lished in 1888. A shorter though not less important 
inquiry, on ‘‘The Mortality of the Nursing Orders,” 
was published in 1889. These two memoirs will be 
found permanently embodied in the ,fifth and sixth 
volumes of the Zeitschrift fur Hygiene. From aformer 

ragraph it will be seen that Cornet's attention had 

“en directed to those who, more than others, come 
closely into contact with infectious diseases, and that 
he throws doubt upon the notion that neither physi- 
cians nor nurses suffer from this proximity. No 
definite and thorough inquiry had, however, been 
made into this grave question. In face of the vague 
and contradictory statements which issued from the 
authorities of different hospitals, the problem cried 
aloud for solution. For aid and data, under these 
circumstances, Cornet resorted to Herr von Gossler, 
the Prussian Minister of State, who, at that time, had 
medical matters under his control. From him he 
received the most hearty furtherance and encourage- 
ment. Dr. von Gossler has recently resigned his post 
in the Prussian Ministry, but his readiness to forward 
the momentous inquiry on which Cornet was engaged 
merits the grateful recognition of the public and the 
praise of scientific men. 

The number of female nurses in Prussia, as shown by 
the statistics of the Royal Bureau of Berlin for 1885, 
was 11,048. Of these the Catholic Sisters of Mercy 
num bered 5,470, or 49°51 per cent.; Evangelical nurses, 
2,496, or 22°59 per cent.; nurses belonging to other 
societies and associations, 352, or 3°19 per cent.; while 
of unclassified nurses there were 2, 730, or 24°71 per cent. 
of the whole. The male attendants, at the same time, 
numbered 3,162. Of these, 383 were Brothers of Mercy, 
205 were deacons, while of unclassified attendants there 
were 2,574. 








expired breath of the consumptive patient, is for this 
mode of infection without danger. If we can prevent 
the drying of the expectorated matter, we prevent in 
the same degree the possibility of infection. It is not, 
however, sufficient to place a spittoon at the disposal 
of the patient. The strictest surveillance must be ex- 
ercised by both physicians and attendants, to enforce 
the proper use of the spittoon and to prevent the reck- 
less disposal of the infective phlegm. Spitting on the 
floor or into pocket handkerchiefs is the main source 
of peril. To this must be added the soiling of the bed 
clothes and the wiping of the patient’s mouth. The 
handkerchiefs used for this purpose must be handled 
with care, and boiled without delay. Various other 
sources of danger, kissing among them, will occur to 
the physician. A phthisical mother, by kissing her 
healthy child, may seal its doom. Notices, impressing 
on the patients the danger of not attending to the pre- 
cautions laid down in the hospital, ought to be posted 
up in every sick room, while all willful infringements 
of the rules ought to be sternly punished. Thus may 
the terrible mortality of hospital nurses be diminished 
if not abolished; the wards where they are occupied 
being rendered as salubrious as those surgical wards 
in which no bacilli could be found. 

Reflecting on the two investigations which I have 
here endeavored to bring before the readers of The 
Fortnightly Review, the question, ** What, under the 
circumstances, is the duty of the English public and 
the English government ?” forces itself upon the atten- 
tion. Will the former suffer themselves to be deluded, 
and the latter frightened, by a number of loud-tongued 
sentimentalists, who, in view of the researches they 
oppose, and the fatal effects of their opposition, might 
be fairly described as a crew of well-meaning homicides. 
The only way of combating this terrible scourge of 
tuberculosis, and, indeed, all other infectious diseases, 
is experimental investigation; and the most effectual 
mode of furthering such investigation, in England, is 
the establishment of the ‘‘ Institute of Preventive Me- 
dicine,” which, I am rejoiced to learn, has, after due 
consideration, been licensed by the President of the 


The sifting of these numbers was a labor of anxious | Board of Trade. Whatever my illustrious friend, the 
care to Dr. Cornet. It had already been remarked by/|!ate Mr. Carlyle, may have said to the contrary, the 
Guttstadt that the commercial attractions of hospital | English public, in its relation to the question now be- 


service were insufficient, without the help of some ideal | fore us, are not ** mostly fools ;’ 


motive, to secure a permanent staff. This motive was 
found in devotion through a sense of religious duty to 
the service of the sick. ‘The sifting of his material 
made it clear to Cornet that, to secure a safe basis of 
generalization, by causing it to embrace a sufficient 
number of years, he must confine himself solely to the 
nurses of the Catholic orders. The greater freedom 
enjoyed and practiced by Protestants, in changing 
their occupation, in entering the married state, or 
through other modes of free action, rendered them 
unsuitable for the purpose he had in view. Cornet’s 





, 


and if scientific men 
only exhibit the courage and industry of their oppo- 
nents, they will make clear to that public the benefi- 
cence of their aims, and the fatal delusions to which a 
narrow and perverted view of a great question has 
committed the anti-vivisectionist. 

[While correcting the proof sheets of this article, the 
Times of August 11 reached my hands. Its leader on 
the Congress of Hygiene and Demography contains 
the following words, to which I heartily subscribe : 
** The most pressing work of sanitary reformers is not 
now so much to legislate as to educate; to make the 








mass of the people, in some degree, participators in the 
knowledge of the causes of disease which is possesseq 
by men of science.”|—Fortnightly Review. 





BREEDING AND REARING OF PUPPIES. 


ONE of the most important parts of the dog owner's 
duties is that relative to the rearing of the puppies 
that way be born in his kennel. The late Charles Dar 
win in his Descent of Man said : * It is surprising how 
soon a want of care, or care wrongly directed, leads to 
the degeneracy of a domestic race!" And breeders of 
all kinds of live stock know this to be perfectly true, 
No amount of care and attention will turn an ill-bred 
and badly formed animal into a good one, and years 
of anxiety, trouble and expense go for nothing if 
proper regard is not paid to the selection of the stock 
from which to breed |! We will admit that many good. 
looking dogs, including some that have won no end 
of prizes, hawe been bred in a haphazard or happy-go- 
lucky fashion, but it would be most injudicious to breed 
from such sires or dams, for sooner or later the breeder 
would meet with severe disappointment, and proba- 
bly throw up the whole thing in disgust, regarding 
the business as a lottery. That it is not a lottery js 
amply proved by the fact of there being so wany 
specimens at the present day the result of careful 
breeding from pedigree stock. We desire, therefore, 
to impress upon the minds of all breeders the necessity 
of exercising the greatest care in the selection of stock 
and the importance of adhering to one type. 

Before commencing operations the breeder wust 
make up his mind what he desires to obtain, but in 
the case of a novice we should suggest his endeavoring 
to secure the help of some one in his neighborhood 
who bas had experience in breeding. It is impossible 
to put down on paper with sufficient clearness rules 
to meet every individual case. So much depends upon 
the animal to be bred from, that we suggest the course 
already mentioned in preference to any other. Usually 
old breeders are most ready to belp the new beginner, 
But it is very desirable that the owner of the dog 
should know as much as he can, and therefore lie 
should study the uses of the varicus breeds which 
have been brought into existence ; so that in the de- 
cision as to any variety, he may know which is best 
suited to his purpose. In selecting a stud dog, it is 
advisable to choose one that conforms to the orthodox 
standard, and whose pedigree is pure. Even though 
the well-bred dog fails to impress his own likeness upon 
his stock, it is more or less probable that some of the 
puppies will ‘‘ throw” back to a well-bred ancestor of 
first-class proportions, while in the case of a badly 
bred sire the litter will be chiefly distinguished for its 
variety in type, temper, etc. 

The vexed question of in-breeding has been fought 
over and over again, and like any other subjects has 
its champions both for and against. But from the 
most reliable evidence before us, there seems to be 
little doubt that in-breeding may be permitted toa 
limited extent, and when not carried too far is useful 
in maintaining certain features. When adopted, it is 
much better to put father to daughter, and mother to 
son, than brother to sister. But the greatest care is 
needed in the adoption of this system, for when carried 
too far it not only stops the growth of the progeny but 
weakens their intelligence and constitutions. It isa 
general axiom that once in and twice out is a safe rule 
for in-breeding. 

Very much depends on the selection of the stud dog, 
and too much attention cannot be paid to the state of 
his health. A delicate or unhealthy dog is more likely 
than not to transmit some of his defects to his off- 
spring, the consequence of which will be that there 
will be greater difficulty in rearing the puppies, and 
they will probably be of less value when they reach 
maturity, if ever they doso. The diet of a stud dog 
must be good and liberal, and he should be exercised 
every morning and evening, either by being taken out 
for a walk or having a good scamper round his play- 
ground. A plunge into cold water helps wonderfully 
in keeping a stud dog in vigorous condition, and in 
warm weather this bath can be allowed daily. Those 
who wish to secure the services of a stud dog other 
than their own, are advised to see it for themselves and 
then judge from its condition and appearance whether 
it is likely to suit or is in a good state of health. 

An equal amount of attention should be paid in the 
selection of the female as of the male. And it must be 
borne in mind that the mothers should be specially 
strong in those points wherein the sire is deficient, so 
that the two may “nick” well together. It is a gener- 
ally accepted fact in breeding that the sire gives the 
outward formation, while the dam controls what may 
be called the internal qualities, such as temperament. 
Both in the case of sire and dam, the animals should 
be well grown before they are used for breeding, and 
it is inadvisable to use either until they have reached 
a year and a half old. Some young bitches showa 
disposition to breed very early, and when this is the 
case precautions will have to be taken in order to pre 
vent a mesalliance. When the proper time has come, 
and it is evident that the bitch is in season, arrange 
ments should at once be made for the service of the 
stud dog. The period of heat generally lasts about 
three weeks, and the best time to use the dog is aftera 
fortnight has expired, when a discharge which takes 
place about that time ceases. 

When it is clear that the bitch is with pups she 
should be very well exercised up to about the sixth 
week, after which, though daily exercise is necessary, it 
must be gentle, care being taken to see that she has 
no violent jumping, straining or galloping. It is also 
a good plan to lead her when out for a walk during the 
last week of her pregnancy. If these directions 
carried out a healthy biteh will need no medicine. 
During all this time her food must be regulated, and 
care taken that she is neither too fat nor allowed to 
get too thin, as both states of the body are equally 
dangerous. The happy mean wust be attained, 
this will be most compatible with a high state of health. 
In order to know whether the bitch is in this condition 
the ribs may be taken asa guide. If they can be felt 
but are not evident to the eye, she may be regarded 8 
in a proper state of body. he food should be liberal, 
and consist chiefly of slops, such as broth, gravy, mil 
and bread, with scraps from the table and vegetab 
The quautity of meat should be very limited, thoug? 
if she has always been used to it a swall portion may 








cag” 


eoe=<— Fr aeSRe 


on 


> —4 
“ 


eepeectre FOP Mees oe F OM CD 


i tt ed le i i ee) 





Ocroper 17, 1891. 


SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT, No. 824. 


18173 








still be given, as in such cases it would be unwise to 
withhold it altogether. 

A week or ten days before her time is ap, the bitch 
will begin to grow restless, looking out for a quiet 
corner where she may wake herself comfortable and 
be at home during her coming trouble. It is best to 
give hera quiet place where she will be alone, and free 
from interference by other dogs. All that will be 
necessary in her new abode is a flat, smooth piece of 
board raised a few inches off the floor, over which 
may be nailed a piece of old carpet and some straw 
over all. The board, which may be thirty to forty 
inches wide, according to the breed of dog, should 
have a flap nailed round it so that the whelps may not 
roll or tamble off, as they would otherwise be very apt 
todo. The carpet is needed so that the little strangers 
may hold themselves firmly, by their claws, while suck- 
ling. While whelping is going on the chief thing is to 
secnre perfect quiet for the biteh, who should be dis- 
turbed as little as possible. If she isin good health and 
her time of labor is not unduly prolonged, the best way 
ie to leave her alone, for some bitehes are very suspi- 
cious and easily made angry at such a time. o feed 
should be given during the process, but there should 
be some water within reach. After the labor is entirely 
over some milk-warm gruel should be given the bitch, 
who should have this every two or three hours for the 
firet three days. It is both strengthening and soothing, 
and can be made with either milk or water. Half milk 
and half water is avery good mixture. She will also 
relish a little beef tea or gravy after the first few dishes 
of gruel. 

tt has been already stated that at the time of the 
bitch giving birth to her pups she should not be in- 
terfered with, for many bitches are very suspicious and 
easily made angry at suchatime. It was also stated 
that she would require no food, only needing a dish 
of waterso that she can quench her thirst now and 
again. The milk-warm gruel should be the bitch’s 
food for the first three or four days. It is both 
strengthening and soothing, and can be made with 
milk and water—half of each is very good. She will 
also relish some beef tea or gravy after the first few 
basins of gruel. ‘The mother should be coaxed to leave 
her bench for a few minutes twice a day. This will 
stretch her legs, and also do good in that it will cause 
the milk to flow much more freely. Too many pups 
must not be left with the mother, for in addition to 
their being too great a strain upon her, it will be im- 
possible that they can all be reared, the sickly ones 
very soon reducing the number by their death, or 
what is much worse, all the litter being sickly and 
delicate. Five or six are sufficient for a moderate 
sized bitch to bring up successfully, and ten for a 
larger one. Should there be more than these in the 
litter, and the breeder does not wish to destroy them, 
they must be taken over by a foster mother, which 
usefulanimal can usually be secured by advertising 
and for areasonable sum. Many breeders, however, 
prefer to pieék out the best of the litter and let the 
bitch bring these up, destroying the others rather 
than trust them to a foster mother or to bringing them 
up by hand. 

For the first ten days or a fortnight the mother will 
give all the nourishment to her family that is neces- 
sary, but when the longer of these two periods has 
expired they should be taught to look after themselves 
a little. Some milk may be placed in saucer, and they 
be enticed to drink. It is often necessary to teach 
them to do this, and one of the best ways is to dip the 
finger in milk and then insert it into the mouth of the 
pup, at the same time drawing their mouths down 
into the saucer. They begin to suck the finger and 
learn from the result arrived at what it is desired to 
teach them. When once their eyes are opened, which 
is about the ninth day after birth, it is astonishing how 
soon they begin to crawl about their nest, and when 
they do this a very rapid increase of strength and size 
takes place. About a week after they begin to take 
the milk, they will eat and relish bread and gravy, and 
bread and milk. The latter, however, has been ob- 
jected to as liable to sour on their stomachs. and if 
cow’s wilk, to breed worms. Considerable discussion 
has taken place on this point, and there appears to be 
—_ an amount of force in the objection to milk. 
During all this time the mother must be kept on nour- 
ishing food, and have gentle exercise once or twice a 
day, so that she may not be subject to the constant 
persecution of the whelps, now getting very strong. 

When about five weeks old the weaning may be be- 
gun. This must be done gradually, as the puppies 
will thus suffer lessthen if at onec deprived of their 
natural sustenance. A good method is to remove the 
bitch for an hour or two during the warmest part of 
the day, gradually lengthening her absence until she 
is beside them only at night. This is a very critical 
period in the lives of the puppies, as they are subjected 
to an entire change in their mode of living. Some- 
times, although the food is within a few inches of 
them, it does not appear to enter into the head of pup- 
eepe to hunt about for a feed, until some one more 

id than the rest breaks away and begins to navigate 
the new world on his own account. He is soon brought 
face to face with his food, which it is needless to say he 
s0es at without a moment's hesitation, the others very 
soon learning to follow his example. 

Puppies suffer greatly from worms, which are the 
cause of very many of the diseases to which they are 
subject, and as soon as they are removed from the 
mother means should be taken to rid them of these 

ts. For this purpose there is nothing better than 
pratt’s worm powders, given in the doses recom- 
mended on the packets. When the pups are fairly 
weaned, their food should consist of crushed dog bis- 
cuits, Scotch oatmeal porridge, gravy, and a little 
chopped meat and vegetables. They should be fed 
coveral times a day, but as soon as they are satisfied the 
ood should all be taken away, as nothing disgusts 
them more than to see the food standing about, be- 
sides which it gets dirty and sour, and if then partaken 
of, evil results will certainly follow. The whelps should 
é kept in a warm and dry place where there is no 
meant, and be permitted to scamper about in a dry 
» or they will not grow as they should do, If par- 
teular care be paid to food and exercise, and they are 
wos clean, there will be less danger of distemper, or 
Should that disease attack them it will probably be of 
a wild character. 


he quantity of food required by a growing puppy 


is from the twelfth to the twentieth part of the weight 
of its body, varying of course with the rapidity of its 
growth and the breed. Thus a twelve pound dog 
would require between half a pound and a pound of 
food per diem, and a dog three times that weight 
from two pounds to three pounds. When the dogs are 
fully grown they will not often, except when hardly 
worked, need more than the smaller of the weights 
given—namely, one-twentieth of their own weight, 
which may be takén as the average weight of fairly 
substantial food for dogs with but a moderate amount 
of exercise. Dog feeding is a simple thing nowadays, 
and as soon as the puppies are well grown there is 
nothing better than Spratt's dog cakes, which seem to 
be obtainable everywhere, and are easily prepared— 
no light consideration in a small kennel. 

An all-important watter in the rearing of puppies is 
exorcise, which must on no account be neglected, or 
all the labor, care and expense will be thrown away, 
for without exercise they cannot possibly thrive. 
Those who are fortunate enough to live in the coun- 
try can generally secure any amount of exercise for 
their dogs in meadows, or on common lands, where 
they can scamper about to their hearts’ content with- 
out annoying any one. And there can be no question 
but that it is much easier to rear dogs in the country 
than in towns, the conditions in every way being 
more favorable. Those who live in towns are much 
more restricted in their opportunities of time for ex- 
ercising their dogs, for to nervous people nothing is 
more anpvoying than to meet a troop of dogs on a busy 
street. The best time to exercise dogs in towns is in 
the morning before any people are astir, or in the 
evening before the dogs go to rest. In all cases, the 
dogs, whether in town or country, should be exercised 
in the morning before they are fed, as after feeding 
they should be allowed to rest. 

A necessary provision for the rearing of puppies is 
that sufficient room should be provided, so that the 
youngsters may romp about their yard. A large bone, 
too large for them to swallow, will often be the means 
of causing them to exercise themselves, and will afford 
them hours of amusement. A portion of the play- 
ground should be covered over, as it is very bad for 
any dog to be exposed to the heat of the sun, and 
nothing will so soon throw him out of order as lying 
about in the heat. If these few simple directions are 
carried out, the breeding and rearing of dogs will offer 
no great difficulties to any one either in town or 
country, but be a source of very great pleasure.— 
Stephen Beale, in the Country Gentleman. 








RICE CLEANING IN CHINA. 


THE United States consul at Hong Kong says that 
all the rice received there is unclean, with the excep- 
tion of that brought from China, the average of peace 
being about 20 percent. It is prepared for market at 
Hong Kong, with the exception of that shipped to 
Canton, which, owing tothe cheapness of labor in com- 
parison with Hong Kong, is cleaned there. The pro- 
cess of cleaning is slow, and the labor most harassing. 
It is first ran through hand sieves to separate the pad- 
dy from the grain. The paddy is first run through a 
machine made of wood, shaped not unlike a set of mill- 
stones, both sawn from a log about three feet in diame- 
ter. Into the face of the under block, and flush with 
it, is let a circular stone of a diameter to leave a five- 
inch rim of wood. This stone is opposed to an open- 
ing or eye in the upper block of a like diameter, into 
which is fitted a perforated board. The opposing sur- 
faces of the two blocks are cut into grooves three- 
eighths of an inch wide, one-fourth of an inch in depth, 
and about the same distance apart, the intervening 
ridges of wood being carefully trimmed about every 
three hours, in order to be kept sufficiently sharp. 

The upper block is dragged round by means of a 
hook at the end of a wooden handle fastened to a 
staple driven into the rim, a single workman turning 
it and, at the same time, feeding the machine by 
throwing the paddy with a wooden paddle into the 
eye, from which it is distributed outward by the cen- 
trifugal force. ‘This breaks and loosens the husk from 
the kernel, after which it is run through a fanning 
mill, constructed with about the same regard to me- 
chanics as the rudimentary machines described above. 
The grain, divested of husk, is now ready for the 
scouring process, which is done in stone wortars, hold- 
ing about a bushel. These are set into stonework 
level with the floor, at an angle of about 30 degrees, 
twenty or more being distributed about. according to 
the size and shape of the room. A wooden framework 
is built over the mortars in such a way that a stone 
pestle, weighing twenty-five pounds, fixed toa beam 
pressing over a fulcrum, is rapidly dropped upon the 
grain. This is accomplished by a workman, who steps 
quickly upon the short end of the lever, and as quickly 
removes his weight when the pestle has been elevated 
to the highest point. 

The number of strokes considered necessary for this 
part of the process varies with the kind of rice, from 
two to fourthousand. Ashes made from rice husks, to 
the amount of one-fourth of a pound, are added to 
each mortar of grain at the beginning of the pound- 
ing, and a second time when the pounding is half fin- 
ished, the rice by this time having become quite warm. 
It is now taken from the mortar to be sifted, after 
which it is replaced for foot-scouring, ashes being 
added for the third time. A bare-footed workman, 
supported from falling by reclining in a kind of 
swing, treads in the mortar, which causes a rapid 
movement of the rice. This is continued for from 
thirty to forty minutes, when it is taken out and 
sifted, and is now ready for market. A part of the 
dust, com of ashes and disintegrated rice, result- 
ing from the scouring, is combined with 10 per cent. of 
salt and used in preserving vegetables. What remains 
is given to swine. Consul Simon says that, crude as 
these appliances are, they accomplish the work with 
the least breaking and crushing of the grain possible, 
and no doubt comprise most of the principles upon 
which rice-cleaning machinery is or should be con- 
structed. The rice merchants in Hong Kong say that 
owing to the cheapness of labor, improved machinery 
propelled by steam, such as is in use in Bangkok and 
Saigon, would not be profitable in Hong Kong, and 
would not be permitted in China, where a vast num- 





ber of ey find, in rice cleaning, their only means of 
earning a living. 


THE CHINESE CUSTOM HOUSE. 


It was Sir Robert Hart’s ‘‘ At Home” day, for every 
Wednesday afternoon the Inspector General of Chinese 
Customs at Pekin receives his friends in the garden 
surrounding his house, where they can enjoy lawn 
tennis and dancing. This is the only day of the 
week on which he is visible, except on actual business. 
He invited me to red to dinner, and I was glad of the 
chance of a quiet talk with him. Sir Robert, who was 
born in Belfast in 1834, joined her Majesty's Consular 
Service in Hong Kong in 1854; and the following is his 
own account of his career : 

‘** After I had been in the Consular Service five years, 
I was invited to join the Chinese Customs. This was 
shortly after Lord Elgin’s treaty, when certain ports 
were to be opened to Europeans. Something inspired 
me to accept the offer; one thing led to another, and 
in 1861 1 was made Acting Inspector General, in the 
place of Mr. Lay, who was going home on leave for two 
years. A few months after his return to China he was 
compelled to resign, and I was appointed Inspector 
General in his stead. So, in four years I bad risen to 
the highest post in the service. In those days the 
position was not nearly so important as it is now, for 
the Chinese Customs Service was in itsinfancy. It 
has since grown to such buge dimensions that the work 
it entails is something incredible. In 1861 there were 
only three ports open to Europeans, whereas there 
are now thirty ; the ramifications of the system extend 
as far south as Tonkin, and in the north to Corea. 
Over 700 Europeans and 3,000 Chinamen, of all classes, 
are employed in the land service alone. The entire 
coast line is guarded by twenty armed cruisers of the 
very latest types, built in England, most of them by 
Armstrong. hese cruisers are commanded by Euro- 
peans and manned by Chinese. There is, besides, 
quite a flotilla of armed steam launches used iu the 
various harbors. The lighthouses along the coast are 
also under my jurisdiction. Each port has its Euro- 
pean commissioner, who has acting under him a Chinese 
official and staff of assistants, European and other- 
wise.” 

‘* How do you admit Europeans iuto the service ?” I 
asked. ‘‘ Have you a competitive examination, or are 
special ee necessary ?” 

** Well, it is very seldom there is a vacancy,” replied 
Sir Robert, ‘‘but when there is, there are so many 
candidates on the waiting list that my agent in London 
has a sort of examination held ; but, of course, a man 
with some knowledge, however slight, of Chinese has 
the best chance of getting on.” 

‘** Bat how is all this supported ?” I naturally asked, 
though aware that the Chinese Government got a 
splendid revenue out of the Customs Service. 

‘*The Chinese Government,” replied Sir Robert, 
“allows about £400,000 a year for the support of the 
service. This is absolutely under my control ; also the 
appointment or dismissal of all officials. The Chinese 
Customs are assuming bigger proportions every year, 
and are an ever-increasing source of revenue to the 
State. The great mistake that foreigners make with 
regard to China is to imagine that she is in want of 
extraneous pecuniary assistance—that she is bordering 
on a state of insolvency. Nothing could be more 
erroneous ; it is rather the other way. If the Chinese 
moueyed men only trusted their own government a 
little more, China would undoubtedly soon be in the 
»0sition of being able to lend money to other countries. 

utting this aside, China is not trying, nor has she 
ever been trying, to borrow money, though many Ger- 
man, French, and other syndicates have been doing 
their utmost to lend her some.” 

I could not help remarking that this was a very 
enviable position for a country to be in. 

‘** Besides,” continued Sir Robert, ‘‘the system of 
such loans is contrary to Chinese ideas; for a China- 
man prefers a short loan at a high rate of interest to a 
long one at a low rate. I have been much amused, 
knowing what I do, to hear of agents of syndicates 
stopping in Pekin for months at a time on the chance of 
floating aloan. In several cases, in their anxiety to 
do business, they were on the point of doing so with 
the wrong people. After all, the Chinamen are no 
better than they ought to be; and as it takes so little 
to make the average European believe that every weil 
dressed Celestial is an official mandarin, they often 
took advantage of this simplicity of the Western bar- 
barian. There were some extraordinary cases, a few 
years ago, of people being introduced to one of these 
agents as the Grand Chamberlain of the Court, or 
some other high dignitary, empowered to negotiate a 
loan. They were absolutely nothing of the sort, but 
were perhaps connected with officialism in the remotest 
and obscurest way. In some instances, however, 
though not what they pretended to be, the agents 
were actually connected with the big officials. This 
was proved by the fact of the Government, though not 
recognizing the loan thus obtained officially, still 
assuming to a certain extent the responsibility of it, as 
it had been used partially for official purposes. Very 
little, however, has transpired of these curious trans- 
actions. 

‘As it has been with loans, so it is with railways. 
Undoubtedly China will one day have her railways, 
but though she has for years past been pestered with 
offers by foreign capitalists to help her start them, so 
far the reply has always been that when the time comes 
the engineers, the capital, all thatis needful, will be 
found by China—a strong hint, which has not, how- 
ever, been taken, that no foreigners need apply. Of 
one thing I feel convinced,” continued Sir Robert, 
“that China, though certainly very many years be- 
hind hand, is undoubtedly going ahead—advancing 
slowly, it is true, but still advancing, and every step 
she takes forward isa certainone. In spite of sarcasm 
and adverse criticism she adheres to her slow, steady 
pace, and, so far. has never receded a single step. As 
compared with Japan, she reminds me always of the 
old adage of the hare and the tortoise.” 

Having finished our coffee we rose from the table 
and had a stroll through the suite of roomsin which 
Sir Robert dwells in solitary grandeur. There was a 
striking absence of the “curios” which one would 
have expected to find in the quarters of a man who 
had passed so many years in the * far East.” Beyond 
his work Sir Robert had evidently but few hobbies. 
In one corner of the drawing roow was a large table ~ 





covered with the Christmas cards which my bost re- 











SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPSL ERENT, 





No. 824. 





Ocrosgr 17, 1891. 

















— 
— 















eS eee 






































ceived last 
world. Sir Robert's offiee—or, rather, his ‘‘ den,” as he 
called it--was very characteristic of the man, for here 
he spends the greater part of his day. He never sits 
down to write, but always stands at the tall desk in 
the center of the room. “ The air of Pekin,” he added 
with a amile, * has a very somniferous effect, and I feel 
sure I should instantly fall asleep if I were to sit down 
to my work of an afternoon.” 

Leading out of the “den” was a room which Sir 
Robert told me he uses as his audience chamber, where 
he receives all Chinese officials. The place was fur 
nished in a sort of semi-Chinese fashion, 
pensable raised platform for sitting, and the usual 
amall table. I remarked that I had often heard how 
difficult foreigners usually found it to get on with the 
Chinese mandarine of high rank. * Well,” replied Sir 
Robert, * owing to the favor of the Emperor, there are 
few with whom I am brought in contact who hold a 
higher rank than my own; for I am the happy 
possessor of almost all the distinctions, a Red Button 
of the First Class, a Peacock’s Feather, and the First 
Class of the Second Division of the Double Dragon. 
But the honor recently besto wed upon me is the high 
est that it is possible to confer on even a most distin 
guished Chinese subject ; my family was ennobled by 
Imperial decree, to three generations back—that is to 
say, ‘ Ancestral! rank of the first class of the first order, 
for three generations, with letters patent.’ The value 
of this decree may be estimated from the fact that at 
the same time the Emperor ennobled his own grand 
mother in the like fashion, she having been an inferior 
wife of the Emperor Taou Kwang, in whose reign took 
place the first opinm war.” Sir Robert is also a 
Knight Grand Cross of St. Michael and St. George, 
and a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor.—Julius 


M. Price, Illustrated London News. 
GLACIAL coogi egg ACID. 
By Jonn Hop@«try, F.L.S., F.1.C., F.C.8, 


A SAMPLE of glacial sree acid was received 


“ from America, which was stated to be the quality 
usually sold in the special market whence it came 
[United States]; it was imported from Europe. On 


analyzing it a large quantity of soda was found to be 
present ; it was, therefore, a matter of some interest to 
examine a few samples, English and foreign, to see 
what was being sold. 

Two English and two German samples were ex- 
amined. For purposes of comparison a small batch of 
glacial phosphoric acid was made by the regulation 
method given in the text books, namely, by calcining 
phosphate of ammonia. This was analyzed, and the 
results of the analyses of the other samples were com 
pared with it. The method devised for analysis of the 
free and combined metaphosphates was a new one, 
founded upon Thompson’s observations on indicators, 
based upon the facts that dihydrosodie phosphate is 
neutral to methyl orange, but acid to phenolphthalein, 
and that hydrodisodie phosphate is neutra! to the lat- 
ter indicator. By this means we are enabled to estim- 
ate the free and combined phosphates. The sample of 
glacial acid, consisting chiefly of metaphosphates, is 
boiled, preferably with a known quantity of stand- 
ard sulphuric acid, for about ten minutes, to convert 
the metaphosphate into orthophosphate. This is es- 
sential, since, though methyl orange reacts indentically 
with metaphosphoriec and authophosphorie acids, with 
the former acid phenolphthalein gives no definite re- 
sults. The sample isthen titrated with pormal soda 
solution, methy! orange being the indicator. The num- 
ber of ¢. c. used after subtracting the equivalent of 
the standard acid used for conversion into orthophos- 
phate represents the free metaphosphorie acid—l ¢. ec. 
NaHO solution being equal to008 HPO,. The reac- 


tion is: 
H,PO, + NaHO = NaH,PO, + H,O 

This same solution is then titrated afresh with 
normal soda solution, using one drop of alcoholic solu- 
tion of phenolphthalein as an indicator. The number 
of ec. ce. used represents the free and combined or total 
acids. To calculate results, subtract twice the num- 
ber of c. c. used in the methyl orange deterwination, 
and the balance represents the original combined 
metaphosphate. The reason for subtracting twice 
the number of ¢. ¢. originally noted is that it takes 
twice the quantity of normal soda to form the salt 


Na, HPO,, which is neutral to phenolphthalein. The 
reaction is: 
H,PO, + 2 NaHO = Na,HPO, + 2H,0 
This is an accurate method, and was carefully 


ehecked by the uranfum process, 

The sodium was estimated by Bettendorff’s process 
(Zeitschrift fur Analytische Chemie, 1888, p. 24), which 
consists in placing a few grammes of the glacial acid 
iu a known quantity of fuming hydrochloric acid— 
sp. gr. 1:190—allowing to stand twenty-four hours, fil- 
tering through spongy platinum, washing with fuming 
acid, igniting and weighing, allowing for the solubil 
ity of the NaClin the fuming acid (1 part NaCl = 1,348 
parts HCI, 1°190). The ammonia was estimated by dis 
tilling with an excess of soda into decinormal acid, and 
titrating with metaoyl orange. 

The results of the amalysis of sample A, namely, that 
prepared by calcining phosphate of ammonia, showed 
that it is not possible to drive off all the ammonium, 
about 8 per. cent. remaining. This requires a large 
yercentage of metaphosphoric acid for peutralization, 

he free acid is 48 per cent.; combined PO,, 42°98 per 


with the indis- | 


year from his many friends all over the | | cent. 


| per cent. of phosphate. 


| base than 





GLACIAL PHOSPHORIC ACID. 
| a [ Total | le 3 lal 2 
Free | Com- | Equal| Total} by | Total} 2 ¢ | 2 _ Equal to a) we | § 
Samole Origin | Form |HPO,| bined} to |HPO,)|Urani-| Base | —.= 3 |Nagl PO, \Vater 3 g Total 
: } | HPO,|—PO,) um |< A H jf +12H,0 | < 
SS SD ae Se a a ae ern eek ee mae? Boe aT? ree nig lige % ‘hea ecb 
A «+e+| Made by ammonia } } | i | ’ 
process Lump | 48°00 | 43°52 | 42 98 | 91°52! 9184} Sos; 8 05 | None — Trace | 0°54 Trace 99°57 
B ve English |, | §2°80 | 40°00 | 30°50 | 92°80 93°14, 7°82) 6°48) 1°34 10°44 | » | — |0°08| 100°20 
Cw ” 46°08 | 39°36 io 87 | 85°44.'85'40| 9°79| 0°07! 9°72 75°63 | 5°60] — | Trace} 100°34 
dD German 1°68 | 52°80 | 52°14 | 84°48 | 84°98, 14°09 | 0°05 | 14°04 109°30 2°40) — ac 100°31 
E e Sticks | 36°48 | 47°36 | 46 77 | 83°84 | 83°70 | 13°49 | 0°00) 13°45 104 °48 3°25; — »» | 00°00 
F scoel European® Lump | 42°21 | 37°39 | 37°41 | 80°10 80°41 | 10°20 None | 10°20 79°30 10°10; — - 99°92 
G Experimental »» | 44°16 | 46°72 | 46°14 90°88 | 90°65 | To"10| 4°57 } 5°23] 40°07 Trace| — on 100°40 
+++) Experimental from J } | | dl - 
| microcosmic salt | ,, | None; — -|l|- 78°12 | 22 so} — | 22 ad > oe — att 99°70 
| | | —_ Pm Ss i Eh 
This is the sample referred to as sent from America, and being f European origin. 





A small percentage of silica was found, which 
was contained in the phosphoric acid originally em- 
ployed to make the phosphate of ammonia. Sample 
B, of English make, was the best in comparison, but 
contained soda, as well as ammonia; the free acid 
was 52°8 percent. The sample contained appreciable 
quantities of arsenic. Sample C is also English, and 
contains large quantities of soda ; in fact, every pound 
weight of this acid contained soda equal to % lb. 
weight of hydrodisodic phosphate. D and E are both 
German samples, and contain soda equal to over 100 
F is the Awerican sample 
referred to, and somewhat resembles C in its compo- 
sition. Gis an experimental sample, made by delib- 
erately adulterating phosphate of ammonia with phos- 
phate of soda, and ealeining. It contains, 
enough, ammonia, whereas in sample H, made by cal- 


cining microcoswmie salt, HNH,NaPO,, all the ammonia | 


has been expelled. 

To sum up the results, the use of soda is discouraged, 
asit leads to extensive adulteration. A good article, 
hard enough for all purposes, can be made by adhering 
to the regulation ammonia method. There is no advan- 
tage in having a very hard preparation if the quality is 
to suffer so enormously. 

The author, in coneluding, advised pharmacists to 
use Bettendorff’s test qualitatively ; to unhesitatingly 
reject samples which show soda to be present ; to in- 
sist upon the article being soda free, and with noother 
ammonia present ; and, in order to insure 
the percentage of free acid being kept up, to use the 
simple titration method with methyl orange for free 
acidity.—Chem. Tr. Journal. 


THE SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 
Architects Builders Edition, 


$2.50 a Year. Single Copies, 25 cts. 


This is a Special Edition of the ScrENTIFIC AMERI- 
CAN, issued monthly—on the first day of the month. 
Each number contains about forty large quarto pages, 








equal to about two hundred ordinary book pages, | 


forming, practically, a large and splendid Magazine 
ot Architecture, richly adorned with elegant piates 
in colors and with fine engravings, illustrating the 
most interesting examples of modern 
Construction and allied subjects. 

A special feature is the presentation in each number 
of a variety of the latest and best plans for private 


residences, city and country, including those of very 
moderate cost as well as the more expensive. Draw 
ings in perspective and in color are given, together 


with full Plans, Specifications, Costs, Bills of Estimate. 
and Sheets of Details. 

No other building paper contains so many plans, 
details, and specifications regularly presented as the 
ScrEeNTIFIC AMERICAN. Hundreds of dwellings have 
already been erected on the various plans we have 
issued during the past year, and many others are in 
process of construction. 

Architects, Builders, and Owners will! find this work 
valuable in furnishing fresh and useful suggestions 
All who contemplate building or improving homes, or 
erecting structures of any kind, have before them in 
this work an almost endless series of the /atest and best 
examples from which to make selections, thus saving 
time and money. 

Many other subjects, including Sewerage, Piping, 
Lighting, Warming, Ventilating, Decorating, Laying 
out of Grounds. ete., are illustrated. An extensive 
Compendium of Manufacturers’ Announcements is also 
given, in which the most reliable and approved Build- 
ing Materials, Goods, Machines, Tools, and Appliances 
are described and illustrated, with addresses of the 
makers, etc. 

The fullness, richness, cheapness, and convenience of 
this work have won for it the Largest Circulation 
of any Architectural] publication in the world 

A Catalogue of valuable books on Architecture, 
Building, Carpentry, Masonry, Heating, Warming, 


Lighting, Ventilation, and all branches of industry | 


pertaining to the art of Building, is supplied free of 
charge, sent to any address. 

& CO., Publishers, 

361 Broadway, New York. 


Building Plaris and Specifications. 


NN 





In connection with the publication of the BUILDING | 


EDITION of the ScIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Messrs. Munn 
& Co. furnish plans and specifications for buildings 
of every kind, including Churches, Schools, Stores, 
Dwellings, Carriage Houses, Barns, ete. 

In this work they are assisted by able and experi- 
enced architects. Full pians, details, and specifica- 
tions fcr the various buildings illustrated in this paper 
ean be supplied. 

Those who contemplate building, or who wish to 
alter. improve, extend, or add to existing buildings, 
whether wings, porches, bay windows, or attic rooms. 
are invited to communicate with the undersigned. 
Our work extends to al) parts of the country. SEsti- 
mates, plans, and drawings promptly prepared. Terms 
moderate. Address 

MUNN & CO., 361 Broapway, New York. 


euriously | 


Architectural 








T = Bw 


Scientific American Supplement. 


PUBLISHED WEEKLY. 
Terms of Subscription, $5 a year. 


Sent by mail, postage prepaid, to subscribers in any 
part of the United States or Canada. Six dollars 
year, sent, prepaid, to any foreign country. 

All the back numbers of Tok SUPPLEMENT, from the 
commencement, January 1, 1876, can be had. Price, 
10 cents each. 

All the back volumes of THE SUPPLEMENT can like 
wise be supplied. Two volumes are issued yearly, 
Price of each volume, $2.50 stitched in paper, or $3.50 
bound in stiff covers. 

COMBINED RatEs.—One copy of ScIENTIFIC AMERI- 
CAN and one copy of ScrENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLE- 
MENT, one year, postpaid, $7.00. 

A liberal discount to booksellers, news agents, and 
can Vassers. 
















MUNN & CO., Publishers, 

361 Broadway, New York, N. Y¥. 
> 
TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

PAG 
{. CHEMISTRY .—Glacial Phosphoric Acid.—By JoHN HopGkKIN.— » 
Analysis of asample of commercial phosphoric acid, with tabie 
of results 1 
{l. CIVIL SERVICE. — The Chinese Custom House. — How the 
Chinese Custom House is conducted, and the peculiar aspects of 
business and official Chinese 


(Il. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.—Cranks set on an Angle.—An 
ingenious solution of a problem in mechanics; the communica- 
tion of motion between cranks set at an angle with each other.— 
3 illustrations 



































































































[V. MEDICINE AND HYGIENE.—-On the Origin, Propagation and 
“Prevention of Phthisis.—By JOHN TYNDALL.—A Very timely and 
practical paper, giving examples of the danger of infection from 
sputa of consumptive patients... .... 2.2.2... cce cence e ce eneeeeweeneeeee 

v. a ALLURGY.—Theory and Practice in Metallurgy.—By Prof. 


. C. ROBERTS-AUSTEN.—The conclusion of Prof. Austen's 
British Association address; a wonderfully exbaustive resume 
of the present aspect of metallurgy 


VI. METEOROLOG Y.—Artificial Rain Making.—By Prof. gy J. 
HousTon.—An examination of the conditions required to pro- 
duce rain artificially 

Rain Makers in India.—Curious example of the superstitions of 
Hindostan.—1 illustration. 13) 
Rain Makers in the United States.—A detailed account of the 
recent operations in the production of the rain recently carried 
out under a Federal appropriation in Texas.—! illustration. . 
The C —~| Compellers and the Press.— Note on the recent Texas 
experime: 13161 
The Weather Debating Society.—Serio-comic aspect of the 
question of artificial rain production 1 


VII. MILITARY ENGINEERING.—Rope Bridges and their Mtli- 
tary Applications.—A new military bridge.—The Gisclard bridge 
and details of its construction.—4 illustrations....................... 

The System of Military Dove Cotes in Eurepe.—The establish- 
ment of carrier pigeon communication in European countries for 
military purposes.—Details of the work of different ~pemaeerst =) 
GIDMETEINEOER, ... cccccccccccccscccccccceseseccsccosccesoscces a.. 


VILL. MISCELLANEOUS.—An Automatic Teapot.—A teapot which 
pours tea without tipping.—1 illustration. 

Improved Wire Mat and Indoor Wire Rugs, Stair C; its, etc.— 

A flexible wire mat, which can used on flat surfaces or on 

stairs.—A valuable accessory to cl li in k ing.— 

illustrations. es 
Breeding and Rearing of F 
Rice Cleaning in China 


LX. MUSIC.—A New Keyed Musica) Instrument for Just Intonation. 
A new keyboard to insure facility of performance, with its 
theory fully developed.—? illustrations 


X. ORDNANCE.—Six-Inch Five-Ton Hydro-Pneumatic Disappear- 
ing Gun.—The English solution of a problem of disappearing ord- 
nance.—1 illustration 








| XI. TECHNOLOG Y.—Process of Making Chrome Yellow.—The 
manufacture of chrome yellow directly from galen 
The Distillation of Molasses.—By CHARLES DERREMOND.—The 
preparation of spirits from molasses and sugar refuse 
The Uses of Chromium Fluoride.—By M. Tu. STRICKER. —A 
new mordant for use in dyeing, with formula 


A New Catalogue of Valuable Papers 


Contained in ScIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT 
during the past ten years, sent free of charge to any 
address. MUNN & CO., 361 Broadway, New York. 


Useful Engineering Book 
Manufacturers, Agriculturists, Chemists, Bees 
Mechanics, Builders, men of leisure, and profession 
men, of all classes, need good books in the line of their 
respective callings. Our post office department permits 
the transmission of books through the mails at very 
small cost. A comprehensive catalogue of useful books 
by different authors, on more than fifty different sub- 
jects, has recently been published, for free circulation, 
at the office of this paper. Subjects classified wi 
names of author. Persons desiring a copy have only 


to ask for it, and it will be mailed to them. Address, 
MUNN & CO., 361 Beeaduap, som You™ 


ATENTS! 


MESSRS. MUNN & CO., in connection with the pab- 
lication of the SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, Continue to examine 
improvements, and to act as Solicitors of Patents for Inventors. 

In thie line of business they have had forty-five years’ experience, aud 
now have unequaled facilities for the preparation of Patent Drawing 
| Specifications, and the prosecution of Applications for Patents in the 
United States, Canada, and Foreign Countries. Messrs. Munn & Co. also 
av‘end to the preparation of Caveats, Copyrights for Books, Labels, 
Reissues, Assignments, and Reporte on Infringements of Patents. All 
business intrnsted to them is done with special care and promptness, @ 
very reasonable terms. 

A pamphlet sent free of charge, on application, containing full infare 
mation about Patents and how to procure them ; directions concerniag, 
Labels, Copyrights, Designs, Patents, Appeals, Reiseues, Infringement 
2 gram Rejected Cases. Hints on the Sale of Patents, etc. 

We also send, free of charge, a Synopsis of Foreign Patent Laws, show- 
ing the cost and method of securing patents in all the principal countries 4 
of the world, 
MUNN & CO., Solicitors of Patents, 
361 Broadway, New York. 


BRANCH OFFICES.--Nos. 622 and 6% F Street, Pacific Buildings 
near 7th Street, Washington, D, C, 


























|