Skip to main content

Full text of "The Veterinary Journal 1911-04: Vol 67 Iss 430"

See other formats


Ne One Shilling Net, : “ 
* or 25 Cents. ay) LIBRARY 

eT HE ° APR 95 1911 

US.8 eC Oi AZT 


A Monthly Review of 
Veterinary Science. 

PRO ry 

Editors for Great Britain and Ireland :— 




Editor for Austraiasia :— 
J. A. GILRUTH, D.V.Sc., M.R.C.V.S., F.R.S.E., 


Annual Subscription for the British Empire, 12s. Post Free; 
for the United States, $3.00. 

Messrs. GORDON & GOTCH, Ltd., 
Melbourne, Sydney, Wellington, &c. 

851 and 853, Sixth Avenue. 42, La Salle Street. 

Entered as Second-Class Matter in the U.S. Post. 
No. 430. 



ee For the New Treatment 


As made for and used by Professor HOBDAY 
and other leading Members of the Profession. 

Vide “ VETERINARY JOURNAL,” January, IgI1. 


ee ee 

° | 


Prices on application to— Swabbing Forceps. 


Veterinary Jnstrument Manufacturers, 
Giltspur Street, London, E.C. 

Telegraphic Address : Telephone Numbers: 
“ INSTRUMENTS, Lonpon.” Crry 5240 (3 lines). 
Hoxzorn 518. 



Thomas Drummond Lambert F.R.C.V.S. 
Death of Professor Arloing wv. f 

The Common Channel of Infection in Tuberculosis 

The Veterinary Surgeons Act (1881) Amendment Bill . 196 

The Common Method of Infection in Human and Bovine Tuberculosis, 
Professor Sir JOHN McFapyEan, M.B., B.Sc., LL.D., M.R.C.V.S.__.,. 197 

Acute Contagious Mastitis in Cows due to the Bacillus Lactis Aerogenes. By 
. A, GILRUTH, et M,.R.C.V.S., F.R.S. a and NORMAN Mac- 
DONALD, B.V. Se. ‘ oo mer 
BNA. By W. Srap.ry, M. D., D. v. Se,, ™M. R. C. VS... . 2-7 

Association of Veterinary Officers of Health . 226 

YP the co ARTICLES— 
‘ is, By 

Use of Chloral Hydrate in Fistula. By R. FERGUSON STIRLING, M.R.C.V.S. 227 
Specific Coronitis, By E. S. GILLETT, M.R.C.V.S._... whe eet -. 228 
A Lame Case. By G. MAYALL, M.R.C.V.S. Ga ; . 233 
Lumbar Paralysis ina Cow. By G. MAYALL, M.R.C. v. s. sal hee st O00 
Acephalian Monstrosity, By A. C. DuNCAN, M.R.C.V,S. — 
Metro-Peritonitis ina Mare. By R, FERGUSON STIRLING po ‘ — 

(Continued on p. xiit.) 

Fluids, ries: 
Soaps, . 

Dog Soap, . ° 
Sawdust, “ > 
Vet. Ointment, . 
Embrocation, &c. 

SS = 
2S See 5 eS 

Se ee 
SF Bt 

SS ees Be Ss 

Best Disinfectants 

For Kennel, Farm 
and Stable use, 

‘‘ Sanitas’’ Sawdust 

Is now on Sale in 1/- Bags at all 
Stores and Chemists. . .. - 

Small Samples on application. 




nem and MALLEIN. 

‘In Hermetically-sealed Ampoules, containing about 4 cc., 9d. each. 

Veterinary Tetanus Antitoxin ot .-- 10 ce. 2/6; Dry form 3/- 
Anti-Streptococcus Polyvalent Serum ae a ce. 2/6; Dry form 3/- 
Canine Distemper cam sie. shi --- 460. 2/6 

PASTEUR VACCINE CO.’S TUBERCULIN for Diagnosis of Tubérculosis, 

PASTEUR VACCINE CO.’S MALLEIN for Diagnosis of Glanders, 

Foreign and Colonial Governments importing BRITISH STOCK. 


Single, 10 doses, 6/-; 20, 10/-; 50, 24/-. 
Double, 10 doses, 8/-. Needle Outfit, 2/6; Ditto with Forceps, 3/-. 
goo,000 doses have heen sold -in the United Kingdom. ‘The Easiest Method of Inoculation, and 

always ready for use. ; 
We also furnish Anthrax and Blackley Vaccine (powdet form); Rat Virus, White Scour Serum, &c. 

Pasteur Vaccine Co. 


ie = And Bronchitis Glandon. Persis- 

: tao aero os tent Cough, Chronic Catarrh, &c. 
VERGOTI N | N E Prepared by A. VELpPRy, Billancourt, 
Boulogne, S. Seine, France. 
Cure guaranteed inone month. Thousands of recommendations, Write for full particulars. 
e Specially Reduced Price to Veterinary Surgeons, 6s. 
Cc: H. HUISH & CoO., Surgical Instrument Makers. 

Telegrams—PROSUM, LONDON, General Agents for Great Britain and Ireland, 
Telephone—4639 Central. 12, RED LION SQUARE, LONDON, W.C. 


Cure “ ROARERS” ww 3 DAYS 
As ErrecrivEty as THRE New Operation pors 1s 3 MONTHS. 
Send for Revised Price List of the ORIGINAL ‘‘ JONES” TUBES. 

MISS JONE {Successor to the Patentee—the late F. B. JONES, M.R.C.V.S.), i 
Aberbraint, Stoughton Road,» LEICESTER. 


represented districts for the IMpeR1AL AccIDENT INSURANCE Co., 
Lrp. Established 1878. Horses Insured against Death from Accident 
or Disease; Mares for Foaling and Loss of Foals; Farmers’ Liability 
for Accidents to Labourers, Servants, and Workmen’s Compensation, 
Claims paid, £450,000. Address, AGeNcy Manacer, 17, Pall Mall 
East, London, S.W. 

: Se 


— - — — 


Reliable antiseptics, astringents, anzesthetics, "etc. 
Accurate in weight, readily soluble and extremely portable. 
Especially suitable for the treatment .of dogs, cats, birds, etc. 

Boric ACID 
gr. 15 

An improvement on _ the 
bulky powdered acid. Saves 
the trouble of weighing or 

fssued in bottles of 50, at 8d. per 


kKegular packing of ‘ Soloid’ 



gt.randgr.1to*.:! | 

Convenient for the instant 
preparation. of - fresh, accurate 
solutions of any — requited 

Issued In bottles of 100 ; gr: 1, at 8a 
per bottle ; gr. 10, at 1/- per bottle. ea 



Caré Town SHANGHAI ; 

’ — 
CON TEN TS—continued, 
Tuberculosis in the Dog. By E. WALLIs Hoarg, F.R.C.V.S, aod »-« 236 
A Case of Choking from an Unusual Cause... By E. WALLIs mee 
F.R.C.V.S. . 237 
Phlegm in the Throat an Chronic Seat. “By G. ‘Mevetts M. R. Cc. v. s. osqs 839 
Rupture of the Kidney ina Cat. By A. C. Duncan, M.R.C.V.S. ... w+: 239 
Acute Rheumatism in a Fox-Terrier. By G. MAYALL, M.R.C.V.S. ... ... 240 
Fowl Spirochztosis. By WALTER JOWETT, F.R.C.V.S., D.V.H.Liv. ++» 240 

By J. D. F. Gitcurist, M.A., D.Sc. 



The Intermediate Host of the Liver Fluke Diéstoma betaaiassiay tia 

Death from Lightning Stroke. By A. TAPKEN . - ea nee Ps 
A Case of Epilepsy. By Chief Veterinary-Surgeon Gecsme .. ” . 253 
Thrush in Pigs and ao~guuepcene Oidian a ‘By | Professor 

Roaring Due to a Tracheal Senicine. By Kasemacet We eee 608 re eS 
A Case of Botryomycosis of the Mammez ina Filly. By CuNy and AUGER 256 


- 249 
. 251 

. 26 

. 256 





Specially recommended in the treatment of Coughs, Bronchitis, 
Laryngitis, Pneumonia, Catarrh of Distemper, &c. 

HE value of this Mixture in the treatment of the above 
diseases in Horses and Dogs depends principally upon the 

two constituents Heroine Hydrochlorate and Terpene Hydrate, 
suitably combined with effective expectorants and healing balsas. 

HEROINE is the di-acetic ester of Morphine. The principal 
advantages of this derivative over Morphine or Codeine are that, 
whilst its dose, as a sedative, is much smaller, it does not cause 
constipation, and the blood pressure is not altered in any way. 
Heroine possesses the property of lowering the temperature to a 
greater degree than Morphine, whilst not giving rise to the cramp- 
producing effect which Codeine produces if given in larger doses. 
It has given excellent results in cases of Bronchitis, Pneumonia, 
Laryngitis, &c. Heroine is not more toxic than Codeine, whilst 
the dose is smaller and the effect greater. 

TERPENE HYDRATE is a crystalline derivative of Turpentine, 
and has been used with success in Bronchitis, chronic and sub- 
acute ; it assists expectoration in catarrhal affections. 

Mist. Heroin. Co. Conc. (Hewlett’s) is a palatable Mixture 
containing 7s grain Heroine Hydrochlorate and } grain Terpene 
Hydrate in each fluid drachm, and is the most efficient remedy for 
Coughs, soothing the respiratory tract and mitigating dyspnoea. 
It does not cause any stomachic disturbance nor impede the 

DOsE FOR HoRSEsS.—Half to one ounce every two or three 
hours is the usual dose in ordinary cases. 

DOsE FOR DoGs.—Ten to thirty drops every two to four hours 
is the average dose. For older and larger dogs, or in very acute 
cases, one-drachm doses may be given. 

Price, 4/6 per lb.; W. Qts., 4/- per Ib. 

introduced and prepared only by 

C. J. HEWLETT & SON, Ltd., 

Wibolesale Veterinary Druggists, 

Born 1837.--Died 1911. 



APRIL, t1g11. 


Memsers of the veterinary profession will be very sorry to 
hear of the death of Mr. T. D. Lambert, Senior, which occurred 
at his residence at Rathmines, Dublin, on March 25, in his 74th 
year. Mr. Lambert’s health had been failing ever since he met 
with a serious accident in May of last year, in which he sus- 
tained a broken thigh. He was one of the most prominent and 
most highly-esteemed members of his profession in Ireland, and 
his astute professional ability and his general kindliness to all with 
whom he was brought into contact made him at once respected 
and beloved by all. 

Mr. T. D. Lambert studied at Edinburgh, and in 1859 he 
obtained the Veterinary Certificate of the Highland Agricultural 
Society. He graduated as a member of the Royal College of 
Veterinary Surgeons in 1867. After settling down in practice in 
Dublin he was elected to his Fellowship in 1877. In 1894 
he became a Member of the Council of the Royal Col- 
lege of Veterinary Surgeons, of which body he became 
a vice-president. He was a very familiar figure at the 
great horse shows of the Royal Dublin Society, where he 
officiated as veterinary surgeon ever since 1869. For some years 
he was veterinary inspector for the Royal Commission on Horse- 
breeding. He was eight times president of the Veterinary Medi- 
cal Association of Ireland, and at the time of his death he was 

a governor of the Royal Veterinary College of Ireland. Mr. 


194 The Veterinary $ournad. 

Lambert successively held the appointments of veterinary sur- 
geon to Queen Victoria, to King Edward VII, and to King 
George V. During the last visit of Edward VII to Ireland, Mr. 
Lambert was summoned to the Viceregal Lodge, where the 
late King presented him with a beautiful diamond and ruby scarf- 
pin. Mr. Lambert frequently took part in the sport of the Turf, 
running horses for some years at the principal Irish race meet- 
ings, while his old grey jumper was for years a prominent figure 
in the prize lists in the jumping competitions at the Ballsbridge 

Mr. Lambert leaves a widow, two daughters, arid four sons, 
two of the latter being members of the same profession which 

their father adorned. 

ALL British veterinarians will be very sorry to hear of the death of 
Prof. Arloing, the famous bacteriologist, and director of the 
veterinary college at Lyons, which took place on March 21, 1911. 

We hope to refer to this great scientist again in our next issue. 


_ Kditorials. 


In this issue of the VETERINARY JOURNAL we reproduce a very able 
address on the above subject by Sir John McFadyean, and we 
commend it to the very careful perusal of all our readers. 

In the olden days tuberculosis was regarded as being almost 
invariably hereditary in origin. This theory was knocked on the 
head by the discovery of the Bacillus tuberculosis by Koch and the 
investigations of Bang. Subsequently, based on the common seat of 
the lesions, inhalation was generally and reasonably regarded as being 
the principal method of infection. A few years ago, however, Von 
Behring, Calmette and Guérin and others advanced, and sought to 
prove, that infection was nearly always by way of the alimentary 
tract. The evidence for and against these theories is carefully sifted 
by McFadyean, who concludes that inhalation is the commonest 
natural method of infection. 

This is based partly on the fact that of those cases where the 
disease affects only one of the two great body cavities 70 per cent. are 
thoracic, and partly on the results of experiments by which it was 
shown that inhaled tubercle bacilli would easily induce pulmonary 
tuberculosis. Moreover it is shown by those experiments that the 
minimum amount of infective material capable of producing the 
disease by inspiration is infinitely less than that required to produce 
the disease by ingestion. 

We do not observe, however, that any notice has been taken of the 
important fact that in the inhalation experiments the material was 
given in a spray of water, while in natural cases some degree of desic- 
cation of tubercular sputum or expectorate occurs before the infective 
material is inhaled, and that desiccation and exposure to sunlight both 
very materially reduce the virulence of the organisms. Hence 
natural infection is probably not so easy as experimental infection. 

Of course it is not denied that thoracic tuberculosis may occur after 
infection by the alimentary tract, but when it does it is probably 
always secondary to abdominal tuberculosis. Similarly abdominal 
tuberculosis may follow primary thoracic tuberculosis either by way 
of the lymphatics, or by the swallowing of material carried from the 

lungs into the pharynx. 

i a 

196 The Veterinary $ournal. 

The main issue, however, must not be missed. In infants and 
calves the abdominal form of the disease is predominant, and in those 
cases ingestion is the common method of infection. In adults (men 
and cattle) tuberculosis is more frequent than in young owing to the 
greater possibility of exposure to infection, and the primary thoracic 
form is the most common. Thus it will be seen that infection by 
either channel is all too frequent, and it behoves us to spare no effort 
to diminish the chances of infection by either channel. 

Sir J. McFadyean’s analysis of the available evidence is very 
opportune, for there was some danger of relaxation of precautions 
against infection by inhalation, which he regards as the most common 
channel. It also emphasizes the fact that although the bovine origin 
of tuberculosis of mankind by ingestion is all too serious, yet danger 
of infection from human sources by inhalation is even more serious, 
We must sfop the sale of all tuberculous foods, milk and meat, and 
we should insist on compulsory notification of phthisis so that some 
form of protection can be instituted against the phthisical patient. 


THE above much discussed Bill has been introduced into Parliament. 
It was presented by Sir Frederick Low, supported by Mr. Hayes 
Fisher and Captain Jessel, and read a first time. It has been shorn 
of practically all its contentious matter, and has now three principal 
sections. The most important, of course, is to institute the payment 
of an annual fee by Members of the Royal College of Veterinary 
Surgeons practising in the United Kingdom. The others are to bring 
existing practitioners under the discipline of the R.C.V.S., and to 
make companies liable for offences the same as individuals. 

The working expenses of the Royal College have for some time 
exceeded the income, and the invested capital is being drawn upon. 
Obviously that procedure cannot last long, and we sincerely trust that 
the Bill will become law. It is ordered to be brought for second 
reading towards the end of May. 

It is gratifying from one point of view to note that some voluntary 
subscriptions are being forwarded to the Royal College to help to 
prevent disaster, but although appreciating very highly the sentiments 
of the donors, the wisdom of the procedure is somewhat doubtful. It 

Human and Bovine Tuberculosis 197 

is a striking commentary, however, on the attitude of those who so 
strongly urged the institution of a voluntary subscription instead of a 

compulsory one, that their names are conspicuously absent from the ° 

subscription list. One would naturally have expected them to be 
amongst the first to contribute voluntarily. It is a deplorable state of 
affairs for the body corporate to be reduced to, and we hope it will 
soon be remedied. 

General Hrticles. 


By Prorgssor Sir JOHN McFADYEAN, M.B., B.Sc., LL.D., M.R.C.‘’.S., 

ladexed 8. A. |. Principal of the Royal Veterinary College, London. 

THE subject which I have chosen for my address is one about 
which opinions are still far from unanimous, but I hope to be 
able to show that the available evidence is sufficient to guide one 
to a tolerably confident conclusion regarding the matter in 

It is not necessary in this connection to discuss the methods 
of infection which are on all hands admitted to be comparatively 
rare, such as infection through the skin or the mucous membrane 
of the genital tract, or the direct admission of tubercle bacilli 
into the mammary glands. The matter in dispute is narrowed 
down to the question of the relative frequency of infection by 
inhalation and infection by ingestion. 

The evidence on which the matter may be decided falls under 
three heads : — 

(1) The most frequent seats of primary lesions in natural 
cases of tuberculosis. 

(2) The relative ease with which animals may be experiment- 
ally infected by causing them to inhale or to swallow tubercle 
bacilli and the distribution of the lesions in animals so infected. 

(3) The results of experimental attempts to introduce minute 

* The Presidential Address to the Section of Comparative Pathology and Veterinary 
Ilygiene of the Birkenhead Congress of the Royal Institute of Public Health, rg1o. 

198 The Veterinary Fournad. 

inanimate particles, such as carbon, carmine, &c., into the lungs 
by inhalation or ingestion (pulmonary anthracosis). 

(1) THe Most Common Seats OF Primary LEsIons. 

Fortunately the facts in this connection are generally accepted, 
though opinions are sharply divided regarding the interpretation 
of them. In cattle and in man it is incontestable that in the 
great majority of cases of natural tuberculosis the primary lesions 
are intra-thoracic. Probably in not less than 70 per cent. of the 
cases in which the disease is still limited to one of. the great body 
cavities in these species, the lesions are confined to the thoracic 
lymphatic glands or to these and the lungs. It was recognition 
of this fact which first suggested that inhalation of bacilli must 
be the common method of infection. The inference appeared to 
be natural and proper, because, in the absence of evidence to 
show that bacilli suspended in the respired air could not reach the 
pulmonary alveoli, the hypothesis was the simplest one capable of 
accounting for the observed facts. From the time when Koch’s 
researches placed the etiology of tuberculosis on a sound basis 
until a few years ago, the view that inhalation was the common 
cause of pulmonary tuberculosis in man and cattle was accord- 
ingly the dominant one. In 1903 Von Behring expressed dissent 
from this opinion, and put forward the view that pulmonary 
tuberculosis in man is usually the result of intestinal infection and 
is generally contracted during early life. Two years later Cal- 
mette and Guérin espoused Von Behring’s suggestion with 
regard to the common channel of infection, but repudiated the 
view that the disease which manifests itself during adult life is 
the belated result of infection during childhood. What may be 
called the ingestion theory of tuberculous infection undoubtedly 
owes whatever measure of acceptance it at present enjoys to the 
writings of Calmette and his school. The reasons which were 
advanced by them in support of the theory will be examined pre- 
sently, and at the moment it need only be said that these did not 
include a denial that the primary macroscopic lesions in cases of 
natural tuberculosis are in the majority of cases intra-thoracic. 
That fact is apparently admitted by them, but the view which 
they endeavour to controvert is that the bacilli which are the 
cause of primary pulmonary tuberculosis generally reach the 
lungs directly—that is to say, with the inhaled air. 

Human and Bovine Tuberculosis. 199 

(2) THe Retative Ease witH WHICH ANIMALS MAY BE EXPERI- 

Before proceeding to examine the evidence under this head it 
is important to take particular note of the problem which has to 
be solved. This is necessary because some authors appear to 
have misapprehended it. As previously stated, it is not disputed 
that there are many cases in man and animals in which macro- 
scopically distinct tuberculous lesions are found in the lungs and 
thoracic lymphatic glands without the presence of any such 
lesions in the abdomen or elsewhere. The question which has 
now to be discussed, therefore, is not whether intrathoracic 
lesions can be produced experimentally by feeding, but whether 
lesions confined to the thoracic organs can beset up experiment- 
ally by inhalation or by ingestion. 

As far as can be gathered from their writings, Calmette and 
his school maintain that it is difficult to the point of impossibility 
to produce pulmonary tuberculosis by causing animals to inhale 
tubercle bacilli, although they do not appear to have made any 
considerable number of experiments bearing on the point them- 
selves. In criticizing experiments of that kind by others they 
suggest that when positive results have been obtained these ought 
to be ascribed not to bacilli that have reached the pulmonary 
alveoli directly, but to the more or less accidental deglutition of 
bacilli during the course of the experiment and subsequent trans- 
port of those to the lung by way of the lymphatic vessels after 
absorption from the intestine. They also describe experiments 
of which the results are held to prove that it is comparatively 
easy to infect animals by feeding and to set up a pulmonary tuber- 
culosis in that way. 

Although the first paper* published by Calmette and Guérin is 
headed ‘‘ The Intestinal Origin of Pulmonary Tuberculosis,”’ the 
majority of the experiments described in it do not appear to have 
any bearing on the question which we are now considering—viz., 
whether a tuberculosis with the visible lesions confined to the 
thorax can be set up by causing animals to swallow tubercle 
bacilli. I therefore pass over the experiments in which an 
attempt was made to infect goats with tubercle bacilli of the 

* Annales de l'Institut Pasteur, 1905, p. 601. 

jsgeee 2 



200 The Veterinary $ournat. 

human and avian types and with Timothy grass bacilli, and I 
shall summarize only those in which bovine tubercle bacilli were 

A female goat at an advanced stage of pregnancy was experi- 
mentally infected by injecting part of a culture of bovine tubercle 
bacilli through the teat canals, and when parturition occurred the 
two kids were allowed to suck the milk from the infected udder. 
One of them was killed forty-five days after birth, and the post- 
mortem examination revealed intense lymphadenitis involving all 
the mesenteric glands and those situated along the curvature of 
the stomach. On section the cortical substance of these glands 
was found to be crammed with a multitude of small tubercles rich 
in bacilli. The other glands of the body and the lungs were free 
from lesions. ° 

The second kid died fifty-one days after birth. Its mother had 
then been dead for twenty-seven days, and since then it had been 
fed with the milk of another goat known to be non-tuberculous. 
The post-mortem examination showed lesions similar to those in 
the first kid—viz., most advanced lymphadenitis of the mesenteric 
glands, which on section were found to be filled with small firm 
tubercles, some of them caseous. The other abdominal lymphatic 
glands, and also the bronchial and retro-pharyngeal glands, were 
normal, but the lungs were crammed with very young translucent 
miliary tubercles containing bacilli. 

The authors obviously attach great importance to the fact that 
there were pulmonary lesions in this kid, as the statement is 
printed in italics. It need hardly be pointed out that in reality 
this experiment is not of the least value in enabling one to deter- 
mine whether cases of primary pulmonary tuberculosis are the 
result of infection by inhalation or not, because in this experi- 
mental animal the disease was not confined to the lungs. The 
experiment therefore not only does not prove that primary pul- 
monary tuberculosis cannot be produced by inhalation, but it also 
fails to prove that primary pulmonary tuberculosis can be pro- 
duced by ingestion. 

In the same paper the authors described certain experiments 
in which they attempted to infect young goats by introducing 
tubercle bacilli directly into the rumen by means of an cesophageal 
tube. These young goats were thus infected with tubercle 
bacilli of the bovine type. 

Human and Bovine Tuberculosis. 201 

Goat No. 1.—Received on four successive days 50 mg. of 
culture made into a fine emulsion with 10 c.c. of sterile water, 
and it was killed thirty-four days afterwards. The post mortem 
showed enlargement of the mesenteric glands, which contained 
tubercles that were partly caseous. The two lungs were filled 
with tubercles, and the bronchial glands were greatly enlarged 
and tuberculous. 

Goat No. 2.—Received in the same way on two successive 
days 50 mg. of culture. It was killed forty-five days afterwards. 
Here again the mesenteric glands were enlarged and tuber- 
culous, but the lungs and other organs were healthy. 

Goat No. 3.—Received in the same way on four successive 
days 50 mg. of culture. It died seventy-seven days afterwards. 
The post mortem showed great enlargement of the mesenteric 
glands, which contained caseous tubercles filled with numerous 
tubercle bacilli. The other lymphatic glands in the abdominal 
cavity and the liver and spleen were normal. Both lungs were 
crammed with tubercles, some of which were as large as a pea, 
and an adhesion had formed between the right lung and the chest 
wall. The bronchial and mediastinal glands were enormously 
enlarged and caseous. 

Here, again, it must be pointed out that such experiments 
have no bearing on the question of the intestinal origin of pul- 
monary tuberculosis. The authors must have entirely misunder- 
stood the position of those who maintain that inhalation is the 
commonest method of natural infection in human and bovine 
tuberculosis, and to have thought it necessary to prove what no 
one has ever denied—viz., that an animal infected with tuber- 
culosis by ingestion may, when it is killed, or when it dies, be 
found to have intra-thoracic lesions. 

The authors then proceed to give an account of similar ex- 
periments in which adult goats were employed. In one of these 
experiments a male goat, aged 2, had administered to it by means 
of the cesophageal tube on each of four successive days 50 mg. 
of a culture of tubercle bacilli of the bovine type. The animal 
was killed sixty-five days afterwards, and the post mortem showed 
that while the mesenteric glands were of normal size they con- 
tained some small tubercles calcified in their centres and without 
stainable bacilli. There were no other visible lesions in the 
abdominal organs, but the lungs were filled with tubercles in all 


SS aS 

SS Sew wera oer 

= as = = 


202 The Veterinary $ournad. 

stages of evolution, and there were enormous cavities in the 
pulmonary tissue filled with pus which was rich in tubercle bacilli, 

The second goat, aged 3, was similarly infected and killed 
after fifty days. In this case the mesenteric glands were very 
slightly enlarged, but sections of them showed small tubercles, 
caseous at the centre and containing numerous bacilli. The 
other abdominal viscera were perfectly healthy, but the two lungs 
contained about thirty tubercles about the size of a hemp seed. 
The mediastinal, bronchial, and pharyngeal glands were healthy. 

The third goat, aged 5, was similarly infected. When it was 
killed fifty days afterwards the post mortem showed slight en- 
largement of some of the mesenteric glands, and the larger of 
them contained numerous small tubercles rich in bacilli. The 
lungs were the seat of a recent tuberculous eruption, the tubercles 
being small but already beginning to caseate. The bronchial, 
mediastinal, and pharyngeal glands were healthy. 

The first conclusion with which the authors terminate this 
paper is, that in the immense majority of cases pulmonary tuber- 
culosis is not contracted by inhalation, but by ingestion. This 
conclusion is based partly on the result of the experiments pre- 
viously summarized, and partly on a consideration of the manner 
in which pulmonary anthracosis is produced. What value 
attaches to these latter considerations will be discussed presently, 
but in the meantime one need not hesitate to declare that the 
above experiments conducted by Calmette and Guerin afforded 
no grounds for abandoning the view previously generally held 
that inhalation is the common, if not the exclusive, method of 
infection in cases of primary pulmonary tuberculosis. 

These authors returned to the subject during the following 
year (1906),* and described further experiments in which they 
infected cattle with bovine tubercle bacilli by means of an 
cesophageal tube. In introducing an account of these experi- 
ments the authors explained that they preferred this method of 
experimental infection because they had found it difficult to infect 
animals by causing them to ingest even large quantities of 
tubercle bacilli in liquid, taken for instance, out of a pail. They 
account for this difficulty by assuming that the greater part of the 
liquid thus ingested finds its way into the rumen, where the 
bacilli became exposed to influences unfavourable *> them. 

* Loc. vtt., 1906, pp. 353 and 609. 

. tive liquid is allowed to flow slowiy through a tube introduced Hl) 
d into the cesophagus, care being taken that the end of the tube i 
y does not reach the rumen, and they assume that liquid so i 

administered escapes the first and second stomachs and therefore | 



FHluman and Bovine Tuberculosis 203 Hy! 

They believe that better results can be obtained when the infec- 

falls directly into the third, and from that into the fourth 
stomach. The authors have not furnished any evidence to show 
that this is the course taken by liquids administered through an 
cesophageal tube according to their directions, and my own ti 
experiments have convinced me that their assumption is entirely 
erroneous. When coloured liquids are so administered and the 
animal is killed immediately afterwards one generally finds that 
not a drop of the liquid has reached the fourth stomach. 

Time will not permit me to describe the experiments recorded i 
in the second and third papers by these authors, although they 
are by no means numerous. 

In reality the experiments were too few in number to justify | 
any very sweeping conclusion, but, so far as they go they indicate 
that the usual result of infection by ingestion is the development "| 
of a tuberculosis which primarily involves the mesenteric glands. 
It is true that some of them showed that when animals are in- 
fected by causing them to swallow doses of bacilli that must be 
considered enormous as compared with those that are commonly 
in operation in natural circumstances, the disease may become Mt 
rapidly generalized, with the result that tubercle bacilli or even Hf 
definite tuberculous lesions may be found in the lungs or thoracic 1 
glands wjthin a few weeks after the act of infection. But that 
falls far short of proof that a tuberculosis with well-defined 
macroscopic lesions confined to the thorax can be set up by | 
introducing tubercle bacilli into the alimentary canal. i 

The truth, however, is that Calmette’s and Guérin’s experi- 
ments give only a confused picture of the usual results of experi- 
mental tuberculosis determined by ingestion. th 

The published Reports of the Royal Commission on Tuber- i] 
culosis contain the records of numerous experiments (which the 
speaker here summarized) in which calves were infected by Hi 
causing them to ingest tubercle bacilli, and in no single case were 
the lesions found at the post mortem confined to the thorax. In 
many they were confined to the abdomen, and when thoracic Hh 
lesions were also present.they appeared not to be of older stand- 
ing than those in the abdomen. 

ES 7 SS eee 

=a ae oe 

204 The Veterinary $ournal. 

These cases might be supplemented by many others carried 
out by various experimenters with practically identical results. 
That, however, appears to be entirely unnecessary in order to 
convince any unbiassed person that in the case of cattle the almost 
invariable result of infection by ingestion is a tuberculosis with 
more or less conspicuous lesions in the abdominal cavity, and 
especially in the mesenteric glands. Incidentally, the experi- 
ments also indicate how difficult it is to set up a rapidly progres- 
sive or fatal tuberculosis, even in such highly susceptible subjects 
as young calves, and with relatively very large doses of bacilli. 

As the practically important point to be determined is the 
common method of infection in cattle and in man (in whom the 
question cannot be experimentally investigated) the experiments 
with calves have an importance far transcending those of the 
same kind which have been carried out with other animals, and 
the conclusions they warrant when taken by themselves would 
not be invalidated even if it could be shown that in other species 
feeding experiments yield different results. As a matter of fact, 
however, the numerous other experiments with different species 
which are described in the Reports of the Royal Commission on 
Tuberculosis had results that are almost completely concordant 
with those obtained in bovine animals. The only exceptions were 
a few cases in which dogs fed with bovine tubercle bacilli were 
found when killed to have pulmonary lesions (usually in the 
shape of a few small tubercles) without visible disease of any of 
the abdominal organs. It ought to be noted, however, that dogs, 
and particularly adult dogs, are highly resistant to infection by 
ingestion, as proved by the fact that a notable proportion of the 
feeding experiments carried out by the Royal Commission with 
animals of that species had entirely negative results. Further- 
more, in the majority of the positive cases lesions were present 
in the abdomen. In view of these facts, and of the results of 
comparative inhalation and feeding experiments with dogs pre- 
sently to be described, it will hardly be contended by anyone that 
the few exceptional results, referred to above, lend any real sup- 
port to the view that primary pulmonary tuberculosis in cattle or 
in man is usually the result of infection by ingestion. 

Attention may next be called to two papers, one by Findel 
and the other by Reichenbach, bearing: on this question, which 
emanated from the Hygienic Institute of the University of 

Human and Bovine Tuberculoses. 205 

Breslau in 1907 and 1908. The authors of these articles (Findel 
and Reichenbach) carried out researches which were intended to 
throw further light on the relative importance of infection by 
inhalation and infection by ingestion in tuberculosis, and the 
experiments have a peculiar value because they were so designed 
as to furnish a conclusive answer to the contention of Calmette 
and others that positive results obtained in animals compelled to 
inhale tubercle bacilli must be ascribed to accidental deglutition 
of the bacilli during the experiment. However improbable this 
suggestion might appear to be, it was impossible to refute it as 
long as (1) the inhalation experiments were conducted with large 
unmeasured doses of bacilli, and (2) information was lacking to 
show the minimum effective dose of bacilli administered by the 
mouth. Calmette and Guérin not only contended that direct 
infection of the lungs in inhalation experiments was impossible, 
but also assumed that comparatively small doses of bacilli were 
sufficient to ensure infection provided that these were swallowed. 
In the following experiments account was taken of this assump- 

tion by having for each set of animals caused to inhale a measured , 

dose of infective material a control set to which the same dose 
was administered by the mouth. Immediately this method of 
experimentation was adopted it became apparent that the mini- 
mum effective dose in simple ingestion experiments was im- 
mensely greater than the minimum effective dose by inhalation, 
and as soon as this was established it was easy to show that doses 
which constantly failed to infect when mixed with the animals’ 
food invariably infected when administered by inhalation in the 
form of a fine spray. In face of such results the suggestion that 
infection obtained in inhalation experiments with small doses of 
material was attributable to bacilli accidentally swallowed abso- 
_ lutely fell to the ground. When, for example, 1 mg. of bacilli 
mixed with the food failed to infect, while one-hundredth part 
of the same material administered as a spray invariably yielded 
positive results, it became ridiculous to suppose that the small 
proportion of the sprayed material accidentally swallowed should 
be held accountable for the animal’s infection. 

Reichenbach’s experiments* were carried out with guinea-pigs 
and goats. In the case of the guinea-pigs the animals had their 
heads fixed so that they could be exposed to a spray of water 

* Zeitschrift f. Hygiene, vol. |lx., 1908, p. 446. 

So er ee see Se eee 

SS a _= 

.—— | 

= 2 =o 
E — — 

206 The Veterinary $ournal. 

with which weighed quantities of culture of human tubercle bacilli 
were mixed so as to form a fine emulsion. The experiments 
were conducted in the open air, and during the period of ex- 
posure to the spray the animals were perfectly quiet and breathed 

The control feeding experiments were carried out with human 
tubercle bacilli from the same source, and again with carefully- 
weighed quantities of culture thoroughly mixed with a fine carrot 
pulp. The animals were fasted on the previous day, and they ate 
the mixture in a short time. 

By rubbing up weighed quantities of culture with sterile water 
Reichenbach prepared a series of emulsions varying in strength. 
Thus emulsion I contained 5 mg. of bacilli in each cubic centi- 
metre of liquid, and emulsions II, III, and IV were made 
respectively by diluting emulsion I ten, a hundred, or a thousand 

It is, of course, impossible to conduct such spray experiments 
so as to ensure the inhalation of all the tubercle bacilli in the 
spray, but in comparing the results of inhalation and ingestion it 
was assumed that this actually happened, and the comparison 
was therefore altogether in favour of infection by ingestion. The 
spray apparatus atomized 0.02 of fluid in a minute, and in 
each inhalation experiment the animal was subjected to the spray 
for ten minutes. Thus, even if none of it were lost, the total 
quantity inhaled was 0.2, and in each control feeding ex- 
periment the quantity of the mixture administered was the same 
—viz., A calculation showed that 1 mg. of the culture 
contained 40,000,000 bacilli. 

The result of the experiments was as follows :— 

Two guinea-pigs which received 5 mg. of culture or 4 million 
bacilli in spray.—No. 1, killed after thirty-five days. The lungs 
were filled with tubercles, mostly about the size of a hemp seed, 
and caseous. The bronchial glands were as large as a hazel-nut 
and caseous. The mesenteric glands were not enlarged. 
Tubercle bacilli detected in the spleen by microscopic examina- 
tion. No. 2 died after fifty-seven days. Severe general tuber- 
culosis of the lungs, liver, and spleen. All the lymphatic glands, 
including the mesenteric, were much swollen and partly caseous. 

Two guinea-pigs fed with the same amount.—No. 1, killed on 
the twenty-seventh day, healthy. No. 2, killed on the seventy- 
second day, also healthy. 

Human and Bovine Tuberculoses. 207 

Guinea-pigs which received .5 mg., or 400,000 bacilli in spray. 
—No. 1, killed after fifty-five days. The lungs contained twenty 
tubercles, of the size of hemp seeds, and mostly caseous. Bron- 
chial glands larger than hazel nuts and caseous. Mesenteric 
glands not swollen. Tubercle bacilli recognized in the spleen by 
microscopic examination. No. 2, killed after fifty-seven days. 
Severe general tuberculosis. 

Guinea-pigs fed by the same amount of bacilli—No. 1 killed 
after thirty-seven days, and No. 2 killed after one hundred and 
fifty days. Both healthy. 

Guinea-pigs which received .05 mg. of culture, or 40,000 
bacilli in spray.—No. 1, killed after thirty-five days. The lungs 
contained five tubercles about the size of small peas. Other 
lesions as in the two previous experiments. No. 2, killed after 
fifty-seven days. The lungs contained four large and very many 
small tubercles. Spleen markedly tuberculous. Mesenteric 
glands swollen. 

Guinea-pigs fed with the same amount of material.—No. 1, 
killed after thirty-seven days, and No. 2 killed after one hundred 
and fifty days. Both healthy. 

Experiment with .oo5 mg. of culture, or 4,000 bacilli as a dose. 
—In this case both the sprayed and the fed guinea-pigs were 
found to be healthy when killed. 

These facts are sufficiently striking, as they appear to prove 
the much greater certainty of infection by inhalation as compared 
with infection by ingestion, and make it absolutely impossible to 
ascribe the tuberculous lesions which were found in the sprayed 
guinea-pigs to deglutition of the bacilli contained in the spray. 

The difference in the susceptibility of the respiratory and 
digestive tracts was, however, brought out still more forcibly by 
the fact that in other experiments guinea-pigs which received 
respectively 14 million and 1.4 million of bacilli by feeding were 
found to be healthy when killed after fifty-seven days. The 
smallest dose which was found to produce infection by the mouth 
was 140 million, whereas, as already stated, infection followed in 
the case of both the guinea-pigs which received only 40,000 bacilli 
in the form of spray. 

A fact previously mentioned must here be emphasized—viz., 
that whereas each fed animal consumed the entire dose of bacilli, 
the sprayed animals could not have inhaled more than a fraction 
of the same dose. 


208 The Veterinary $ournal. 


Reichenbach calculated from his experiments that, even leay- 
ing out of account the loss of bacilli from the wind, the smallest 
infective dose for guinea-pigs by ingestion was 367,500 times 
greater than the smallest infective dose by inhalation. 

Experiments with Goats.—Special importance attaches to 
Reichenbach’s experiments with goats, inasmuch as Calmette laid 
particular stress on his infection experiments with these animals. 
The experiments were carried out in much the same way as those 
above described with guinea-pigs, save that the fed animals 
sucked the mixture out of a flask. ‘The culture employed in this 
case was of the bovine type. 

The experiments were carried out on April 24, 1907, and 
thirty-seven days later a goat, which had inhaled 1 mg. of bacilli 
was killed. The post-mortem examination showed the lungs 
completely filled with tubercles about the size of hemp seeds. At’ 
some places, especially in the anterior lobes, the tubercles had 
become confluent, and some of them showed distinct central casea- 
tion. The bronchial lymphatic glands were much swollen. All 
the other organs were completely normal. 

On June 19, or fifty-six days after the beginning of the 
experiment, two of the sprayed goats and one fed goat were 
killed. One of the sprayed animals had received 0.1 mg., and 
the other 0.01 mg. of bacilli, and in both these animals there 
were pronounced pulmonary lesions. In both cases the lungs 
were beset with tubercles of the size of a cherry and in great 
part caseous. In both, the bronchial glands were as large as 
walnuts and there were calcified places in them. The mesen- 
teric glands were a little larger than normal, but showed no 
pathological change. All the other organs were completely 

The fed goat killed on the same day had received by the mouth 
25 mg. of bacilli, and when killed it was found to be healthy, with 
the exception that one of the bronchial glands was as large as a 
bean, and the mesenteric glands were decidedly enlarged and 
showed in their outer part a number of calcified points. Distinct 
tuberculosis could not be recognized by the naked eye. The 
microscopic examination of the mesenteric glands revealed the 
presence of numerous tubercles with caseated and partly calcified 
centres. At the periphery there were numerous giant cells and 
some badly staining tubercle bacilli. 

Human and Bovine Tuberculosis. 209 

A second fed animal which had been given 5 mg. of bacilli by 
the mouth was killed one hundred and four days after the begin- 
ning of the experiment. At the post-mortem examination no 
lesions could be found in any organ save that the mesenteric 
glands were enlarged and showed a few calcified points. Micro- 
scopic examination revealed marked swelling of the lymph 
follicles but no other alterations. 

It is hardly necessary here to emphasize the fact that, whereas 
only doubtful or inconsiderable lesions were found in the goats 
which had swallowed respectively 5 and 25 mg. of bacilli, and 
that in these animals no lesions of any kind were found in the 
thoracic cavity, severe thoracic lesions were found in the two 
goats which received by inhalation respectively the tenth and 
hundredth of a milligramme. 

The conclusions drawn by Reichenbach from these and other 
experiments which space will not permit me to summarize here 
were as follows :— 

In all animals in which tuberculosis can be set up by feeding, 
infection can be produced more certainly and rapidly, and with 
much smaller doses, by inhalation. The lesions found in animals 
subjected to inhalation experiments cannot possibly be ascribed 
to the accidental swallowing of bacilli during the experiment or 
to the penetration of the bacilli into the lymphatics of the throat. 
In so tar as any conclusion regarding the method of infection in 
man can be drawn from animal experiments, the one which ought 
to be drawn is precisely the opposite to that drawn by Calmette 
and his co-workers. 

Findel* carried out inhalation experiments with a calf and two 
dogs, which had been tracheotomized some time previously. At 
the time of the experiments the tracheotomy wound had cica- 
trized, and the animals inhaled the spray exclusively through the 
tracheotomy tube. 

In the case of the calf the utmost amount of bacilli that the 
animal could have inhaled during the experiment was 3 mg. of 
a bovine culture. The animal became very ill, with elevated 
temperature, on the sixteenth day afterwards, and it had to be 
killed on the twenty-fifth day. The post mortem revealed a 
miliary tuberculosis of both lungs, the anterior lobes being most 
affected in each organ. The greyish tubercles varied in size from 

* Zeitschrift f. Hygiene, vl. lvii., p. 104. 



210 The Veterinary $ournal, 

a millet seed to a small pea. The mediastinal and bronchial 

glands were markedly swollen, but on section showed no recog- 

nizable tubercles. The whole of the abdominal organs and 

glands were perfectly normal. 
In the case of the dog experiments calculation showed that : — 

No. 1 might have inhaled *465 mg. or 16,270,009 bacilli. 
” 2 ”? ”” ” 28 9? %° 9,800,000 > 

” 3 9? ” ” “141 > ” 4,935,000 > 

Nos. 1 and 2 were killed thirty-three days afterwards and 
No. 3 thirty days afterwards. 

In No. 1 the post mortem showed scattered grey tuberculous 
nodules throughout both lungs, but most numerous in the 
anterior lobes. The bronchial glands were not enlarged. The 
whole of the abdominal organs and glands were normal in 
appearance, except that there was venous congestion of the liver 
and kidneys. 

In dog No. 2 the whole lung tissue was almost uniformly beset 
with small grey tubercles, and the bronchial glands were slightly 
swollen. The liver showed several flat irregular white spots in 
its peritoneal covering. 

In dog No. 3 the lungs showed lesions similar to those in the 
preceding case. The bronchial glands were swollen and showed 
a few small yellow centres. The spleen, liver, kidneys, and 
mesenteric glands were completely normal. Microscopic exami- 
nation revealed the presence of numerous tubercle bacilli in the 
lungs and bronchial glands of these animals, but no tubercles or 
tubercle bacilli were found in the other lymphatic glands 

As a control to these inhalation experiments five dogs were 
fed with culture of bovine tubercle bacilli, the dose being as 

follows :— 
Dog No. 4 13 mg. or 455,000,000 tubercle bacilli 
” ’” 5 ee 69 ” ” 2,415,000,000 99 3? 
os gle ian we S08 +9 93 ©,020,000,000__—=»—» is 
” 9? 7 4°48 ” ” 156,C00,000 9 ” 
8 13°44 5» s3 470,000,000 _ ,, ” 

In the case of the last two dogs the full dose was given at 
one meal, but in the other three it was spread over from twenty 

to thirty-eight days. 

Human and Bovine Tuberculosis. 211 

The post mortem in each of these cases revealed no distinct 
tuberculous lesions. 

Findel also carried out an extensive series of comparative 
inhalation and ingestion experiments with guinea-pigs, using in 
the former experiments an ingenious apparatus invented by him- 
self and Reichenbach, and which enabled one to calculate with a 
fair measure of probability the actual number of bacilli inhaled 
by each animal. In these experiments positive results were 
invariably obtained in the case of animals calculated to have 
inhaled sixty-two bacilli. A positive result was obtained with 
two animals which, according to the calculation, had inhaled 
only twenty bacilli. 

As a control to these inhalation experiments fourteen guinea- 
pigs were fed with doses varying from 19,000 to 312,000, and in 
no instance was infection produced. Findel, therefore, did not 
reach the minimum infective dose by feeding in these cases, but 
his experiments indicated that that was at least 19,000 times 
greater than the minimum infective dose by inhalation. 

The foregoing experiments were carried out with adult 
guinea-pigs, but the author also made a few experiments with 
guinea-pigs from three to four weeks old, and obtained infection 
by inhalation in two animals which were calculated to have 
received respectively twelve and five bacilli. 

Space will not permit me to refer at any length to the other 
two papers emanating from the Breslau laboratory, and I must 
content myself with saying that Alexander’s* experiments 
showed the immensely greater susceptibility of rabbits to infec- 
tion by inhalation than to infection by ingestion, while Heymannf 
found that it was always possible to demonstrate the presence 
of tubercle bacilli in the lungs, and sometimes also in the 
bronchial glands, of guinea-pigs killed from one to twenty- 
four hours after they had inhaled spray containing tubercle 

These experiments may be summed up by saying that they 
prove (1) that, with equal quantities of bacilli, inhalation is a 
much more certain method of infection than ingestion, and (2) 
that inhalation of bacilli can, and usually does, determine a 
tuberculosis which is primarily intra-thoracic. 

* Zeitschrift f. Hygiene, vol. |x., p. 467. 
t lbid., p. 446. : 

=o = 




212 Lhe Veterinary Fournadl. 

(3) PutmMonary ANTHRACOSIS. 

It is a familiar fact that both in men and in animals which 
have for any considerable period lived in a smoky atmosphere 
the lung tissue and the bronchial glands are often visibly pig- 
mented with carbon particles. 

Prior to the year 1905 it was generally accepted that the 
pigment was composed of soot particles which had been sus- 
pended in the atmosphere and had reached the lung tissue direct 
with the inhaled air. The pigmentation of the glands was 
ascribed to the transport of the same soot particles from the 
lung tissue by way of the lymphatic vessels. 

Very little reflection will show that as part of the case put 
forward by Calmette and others in favour of the intestinal origin 
of pulmonary tuberculosis it was necessary to show that this view 
of the genesis of anthracosis of the lungs and bronchial glands 
was erroneous. At Calmette’s suggestion the question was 
experimentally investigated by Vansteenberghe and Grysez,* and 
as a result they maintained that the easiest method of producing 
a typical pulmonary anthracosis in adult guinea-pigs consisted in 
mixing Chinese ink or carbon powder with their food. They 
declared that when the animals were killed twenty-four hours 
after such a repast the pulmonary parenchyma showed dis- 
seminated black spots, especially in the upper lobes and along the 
edges of the lower lobes. In these cases the mesenteric glands 
were normal, but those of the mediastinum were swollen and 

They found that when young guinea-pigs were used for 
experiment the results were completely different, inasmuch as the 
lungs showed no pigment, while the mesenteric glands were 
absolutely infiltrated with carbon particles. 

In support of their contention that pulmonary anthracosis is 
due to intestinal absorption of the pigment, they also reported 
that when the cesophagus had previously been ligatured pig- 
mentation of the lungs could not be produced by causing the 
animals to inhale a smoky atmosphere except when the experi- 
ment was very prolonged. 

As was to be expected, these statements attracted much 
attention, and auite a large number of experiments were soon 
afterwards carried out by various observers in order to determine 

* Annales de [ Institut Pasteur, 1905, p. 787. 

Human and Bovine Tuberculosis. 213 

whether the new view put forward regarding the intestinal origin 

of pulmonary anthracosis was correct or not. Time will not 
permit me, nor does it appear necessary, to describe all these 
latter investigations regarding this question. The following 
must suffice : — 

Beitzke* repeated the experiments of Vansteenberghe and 
Grysez and obtained diametrically opposite results. He upheld 
the older view as to the respiratory origin of pulmonary anthra- 
cosis, and contended that when the condition was found in 
animals experimentally fed with carbon mixtures the result was 
due to aspiration of the mixture during feeding. When precau- 
tions were taken to prevent this accident pulmonary anthracosis 
was never found in the experimental animals. 

Kuss and Lobsteinf found that it was possible to produce 
pigmentation of the lungs and bronchial glands by causing 
animals to inhale carbon for twenty minutes morning and evening 
for three weeks. In their experiments it was found that when 
the same quantity of Chinese ink was administered to some 
animals by inhalation and to others by ingestion only the former 
showed anthracosis. It is true they found that when massive 
doses of Chinese ink were introduced directly into the stomach 
or into the duodenum one might find in the animals killed from 
twelve to thirty hours afterwards some small sub-pleural points 
of pigmentation, but in order to produce a condition comparable 
with natural anthracosis it was necessary to inundate the intestine 
with Chinese ink. 

They therefore concluded that the ordinarily observed anthra- 
cosis is ascribable to inhalation and not to deglutition. 

Nieuwenhuysef{ as the result of experiments carried out on 
eight and twenty-seven guinea-pigs concluded that pulmonary 

anthracosis is not of intestinal origin. 

Arloing and Forgeot§ carried out experiments bearing on this 
question with guinea-pigs, rabbits, and other animals, which were 
given by ingestion Chinese ink, charcoal, or pigment from a 
melanotic tumour in a horse. The animals were killed from six 
to forty hours afterwards. In no case did they find any anthra- 
cosis of the mesenteric glands. They concluded that if such solid 

* Reference in Bulletin de [Institut Pasteur, 1907, p. 468. 
+ lbid., p. 469. 
t /bid., p. 472. 
§ Lbid., p. 473. 

214 The Veterinary $ournal. 

particles do ever traverse the intestine it can only be in excep- 
tional cases and not under physiological conditions. 

Sir William Whitla, who in 1908 delivered the Cavendish 
Lecture before the West London Medico-Chirurgical Society, 
chose as the subject of his address the ‘‘ Etiology of Pulmonary 
Tuberculosis,’’* and sought to show that recent researches had 
completely overthrown the previously accepted view that inhala- 
tion is the common method of infection in man. In the course 
of his address he outlined the researches of Calmette and Guérin, 
and Vansteenberghe and Grysez, regarding tuberculosis and 
pulmonary anthracosis, and adopted the conclusions of thesc 
authors with enthusiasm. He characterized the experiments of 
Calmette and Guérin as epoch-marking, declared that they had 
shifted the question of the portal of entrance of the tubercle 
bacillus from the site of the pulmonary alveoli to that of the 
intestinal epithelium, and prophesied that probably at no distant 
date it would be accepted that ‘‘in the immense majority of 
cases pulmonary tuberculosis is not contracted by inhalation, 
but, as taught by Von Behring, the germs enter through the 
intestinal tract.’’ In support of this view he described certain 
experiments which he had carried out in conjunction with Pro- 
fessor Symmers regarding the production of pulmonary anthra- 
cosis. The results of these experiments were in complete accord 
with those obtained by Vansteenberghe and Grysez, in that more 
or less marked pigmentation of the lungs was found in adult 
guinea-pigs into whose stomachs large quantities of Chinese ink 
had been introduced even as short a time as four hours before 
they were killed. In some cases the animals’ lungs exhibited 
““an almost ebony-like blackness.”’ 

Before attempting to explain the results of these experiments, 
it may be observed that even if they admitted of no other ex- 
planation than the one put forward by Sir William Whitla— 
viz., that the carbon particles had reached the lung tissue from 
the intestine by way of the thoracic duct—they could not be 
accepted as proof that the tubercle bacilli which cause pulmonary 
tuberculosis reach the lung by the same route in view of the 
results obtained by Findel, Reichenbach, Alexander, Heymann, 
and others, in the experiments to which I have already referred. 

It may, however, with some confidence be suggested that 

* British Medical Journal, 1908, p. 61. 

FHluman and Bovine Tuberculosis. 215 

Whitla and Symmers, as well as Vansteenberghe and Grysez, 
have misinterpreted their results, through failing to take account 
of certain possibilities of error invoived in their method of ex- 
perimentation. : 

In the first place it must be noted that they appear to have 
neglected the possibility that the anthracosis which they found in 
their experimental animals was spontaneous. The force of this 
suggestion will appeal to anyone who has paid attention to the 
frequency with which pulmonary anthracosis is found in healthy 
adult guinea-pigs. It is true that ‘‘ almost ebony-like blackness ”’ 
of the lungs from spontaneous anthracosis is never found in 
guinea-pigs, and if Whitla and Symmers found such a condition 
in guinea-pigs which simply ingested food mixed with Chinese 
ink, I, for one, must declare myself unable to offer any reasonable 
explanation of the occurrence. At any rate, the authors’ explana- 
tion cannot be accepted as reasonable, for they admit that in 
these cases the abdominal lymphatic glands, through which the 
pigment was supposed to pass, were of “‘ ivory-like whiteness 
and free from any obvious impregnation with carbon particles!’’ 

But in Whitla and Symmers’ experiments some of the animals 
had the Chinese ink, rubbed up with olive oil and water, intro- 
duced into their stomachs by means of a soft india-rubber 
catheter passed through the mouth, pharynx,,and cesophagus. 
This must be regarded as a dangerous procedure in experiments in 
which it was necessary to exclude the possibility of direct admis- 
sion of the pigment-containing liquid into the air passages, and 
it is therefore quite possible that aspiration of the liquid was 
the explanation of the ebony-black lungs found in some of the 

Probably, however, the main source of error in these experi- 
ments was that the authors did not attach sufficient importance 
to the frequency of spontaneous anthracosis in adult guinea-pigs. 
This suggestion finds striking support in the fact that the authors 
were unable to find pigmentation of the lungs when they selected 
young guinea-pigs. ‘‘ In ordinary feeding experiments, when the 
carbon was mixed with the food of these young animals we found 
usually that neither the glands nor the lungs became visibly 
infiltrated with carbon particles, the intestinal contents alone 
being black.”’ 

It is unfortunate that Sir William Whitla, in asking the 

216 The Veterinary $ournal. 

medical profession in this country to abandon the view that 
inhalation is the common cause of pulmonary tuberculosis, 
omitted any reference to the numerous experiments which had 
already been published at the date of his lecture with results 
diametrically opposite to those claimed to have been obtained 
by Calmette and Guérin, and Vansteenberghe and Grysez. 

A review of all the experiments which have been carried out 
in order to determine the mechanism of pulmonary anthracosis 
will, I think, compel any impartial person to conclude that Van- 
steenberghe and Grysez's conclusions were founded on error. 
The older view—viz., that the carbon particles are carried directly 
into the lung tissue with the inhaled air—has been thoroughly 
vindicated, and the contention that a degree of pigmentation 
of the lung tissue and bronchial glands comparable with what is 
commonly encountered in men and animals can be produced ex- 
perimentally by feeding with any amount of carbon or Chinese 
ink, must be considered disproved by the weight of experimental 

In reality, however, any discussion of the route by which the 
soot particles reach the lungs in natural cases of anthracosis has 
become quite superfluous when one is considering whether pri- 
mary pulmonary tuberculosis is caused by the inhalation, or by 
the ingestion, of tubercle bacilli. It is now absolutely vain to 
cite the experiments of Vansteenberghe and Grysez, since, as 
has already been shown, the possibility of producing a direct 
infection of the lung with tubercle bacilli by inhalation has been 
absolutely proved. 

(4) ConcLuSIONS. 

Conclusions which appear to be justified after a review of all 
the available evidence are the following :— 

(1) The inhalation of tubercle bacilli suspended in the atmos- 
phere is a very certain method of infection in susceptible animals 
even when small doses of bacilli are employed. 

(2) Experimental infection with tubercle bacilli by way of the 
alimentary canal is comparatively difficult to realize even in highly 
susceptible animals, and success is certain only when very large 
doses of bacilli are administered. 

(3) With few exceptions, in animals experimentally infected 

Acute. Contagious Mastitis in Cows. 217 

with tuberculosis by way of the intestine the primary lesions are 
intra-abdominal, and the intra-thoracic lesions when present are 

(4) Inhalation is probably the commonest natural method of 
infection in those species (man and cattle) in which the primary 
lesions of tuberculosis are usually intra-thoracic. 

(5) Naturally-contracted cases of tuberculosis in man or other 
mammals can be ascribed to infection by ingestion only when the 
lesions revealed at the post-mortem examination are confined to 
the abdomen, or when the existing abdominal lesions are recog- 
nizably older than those present elsewhere in the body. 

In formulating these conclusions I have endeavoured to evade 
the reproach to which Calmette and his supporters have laid them- 
selves open—viz., that of drawing far-reaching inferences from a 
small number of experiments, and assuming that the results 
obtained in animals under the conditions realizable in experi- 
ments may be immediately applied to explain the method of 
infection in cases of natural tuberculosis in man. That is why the 
word ‘‘ probably’* has been introduced into the fourth of the 
conclusions. The whole of the experimental evidence on which 
the theory of the intestinal origin of pulmonary tuberculosis in 
man was built up has been swept away, and valuable new sup- 
port has been provided for the older inhalation theory, but one 
ought to avoid the mistake of denying any importance to infec- 
tion by ingestion either in man or in cattle, or of asserting that 
tubercle bacilli which’enter the body by way of the alimentary 

canal are never the cause of tuberculosis with lesions apparently 

primary in the lungs. 

\ de emrsianenatsanentnenn 
By J. A. GILRUTH, D.V.Sc., M.R.C.V.S., F.R.S.E., anD NORMAN 

inined @, AT The Veterinary Research Institute, Melbourne. 

So far as we are aware this organism has not hitherto been 
proved pathogenic for bovines, nor indeed for any animal under 
conditions other than experimental. The following account of an 
outbreak of mastitis due to this bacillus as demonstrated experi- 

218 Lhe Veterinary $ournad. 

mentally is therefore of interest, more especially as the etiology 
of acute inflammation of the udder commonly known as “ weed,” 
‘“‘ garget,’’ &c., by dairymen is obscure. 

Mr. E. F. J. Bordeaux, G.M.V.C., veterinary surgeon, Mel- 
bourne, who was called in by the owner to make an examination 
of the herd, gives the following account of the history and clini- 
cal features of the disease : — . 

The herd of 40 cows had been milked by a milking machine. 
According to the owner about 30 out of the 40 cows being milked 
developed a diseased condition of one or more quarfers of the 
udder. As a result in some lactation had entirely ceased, while 
others showed one or more dry quarters. All the cows had 
evinced exactly the same symptoms. There had been no mor- 
tality. Two cows had been retained in the milking shed for my 
examination, and both showed typical acute mastitis. 

First Cow.—Animal emaciated. The appetite had been very 
poor but was gradually returning. The udder which had been 
affected for some time was very firm in consistency and swollen, 
but not painful to the touch; all quarters were affected. There 
was but little secretion, all that could. be removed being a thick 
purulent material which was drawn with difficulty from each of 
the four teats. 

Seconp Cow.—This animal was in the early stage of the 
disease. There was general evidence of illness, rumination being 
suspended, the back arched, and the temperature 105° F. One 
quarter was tense, firm and painful, being so severely affected as 
to cause the animal to show lameness on progression. The other 
three quarters appeared normal, although the milk from each was 
somewhat curdy. 

At the time of my visit the milking machine had been tem- 
porarily discarded, the healthy cows were milked by hand, and a 
sharp look-out was being kept for the appearance of altered secre- 
tion from any quarter. I could get no reliable information 
regarding the origin of the infection. All the cows were said to 
have been normal prior to the introduction of the milking 
machine. There had been no cases of milk fever necessitating 
the use of the milk syphon, which might have induced the first 

Examination of the milking machine, the teat cups of which 
I was informed were only washed after each milking with cold 

Acute Contagious Mastitis in Cows. 219 

tank water and placed once a week in lime-water overnight, dis- 

closed a very unsatisfactory condition. The cups which had 
been in daily use were very dirty, one containing a small dried 
splash of manure. This in itself showed the very careless 
management and readily accounted for the spread of infection 
from the original case of the disease. 

It will be seen from Mr. Bordeaux’s description that from a 
clinical point of view the cases more resemble “‘ garget ’”’ than the 
ordinary contagious mastitis of a sub-acute character which is 
due to invasion of the ducts and tubules by streptococci and 
occasionally by staphylococci. 

Specimens of the secretion from the two cases examined by 
Mr. Bordeaux were secured by him in sterile bottles and brought 
to the laboratory. 

Microscopical examination of these specimens showed the 
purulent material of the first to be composed of more or less 
degenerated leucocytes, chiefly polymorphs, some fibrin, and a 
number of bacilli, gram negative, the majority of which were 
included within the pus cells. Here and there a free diplococcus 
could be observed. The second specimen showed a slight deposit 
consisting of pus cells, but no bacteria could be demonstrated in 
smears. Agar tubes inoculated with the purulent secretion from 
the first case developed, in 24 hours at 37° C., colonies, spherical, 
whitish and about the size of a pin-head. These colonies, which 
were pure, were composed of short ovoid bacilli, some being 
almost cocci, non-motile and Gram negative. 

The milk from the second case, which was a composite sample 
from all quarters, after incubation for 24 hours, showed no coagu- 
lation, but was found to contain many short bacilli, especially in 
the ‘‘cream,’’ which was largely composed of pus cells more or 
less affected with fatty degeneration. Agar media inoculated 
from this developed pure cultures of a bacillus identical with 
that secured from the first case. 

The characters of this bacillus on the various media inoculated 
need not be detailed. Suffice it to say that they correspond in 
every particular with those of the Bacillus lactis aerogenes as 
described in ail text-books. Further, when compared with the 
cultural and morphological appearances of a type culture of 
Bacillus lactis aerogenes kindly supplied by the Bureau of Micro- 
biology, Sydney, the two are identical. 

The Veterinary Fournal. 


Inoculation experiments were conducted on different animals, 
the result of which showed that while pathogenic for small labora- 
tory animals on subcutaneous injection and for lactating cows on 
introduction into the galactophorous ducts, the bacillus is non- 
pathogenic when introduced into the subcutaneous tissue of cattle, 

The following are the details of the experiments : — 

A young guinea-pig and a young rabbit were each inoculated 
with 0.5 c.c. of a second subculture. The guinea-pig succumbed 
in 48 hours, the only abnormality being a hemorrhagic swelling 
at the seat of inoculation, in which large numbers of the bacilli 
were found. Examination of blood, spleen, &c., demonstrated 
a few bacilli of the same nature as proved by cultivation on arti- 
ficial media. The rabbit beyond a transitory swelling, which 
disappeared 48 hours after inoculation, remained apparently 
normal until the sixth day, when a slight laxative condition of the 
bowels was observed, the animal being found dead on the morn- 
ing of the seventh day. Post-mortem examination disclosed at 
site of inoculation a large irregular subcutaneous patch of caseous 
material, mucosa of large intestine congested, and on peritoneal 
surface of spleen a few flakes of false membrane, but otherwise 
no abnormality. Media inoculated from subcutaneous caseous 
material developed pure cultures of the bacillus. 

A calf, two months old, was inoculated with 2 c.c. of the same 
subculture in the subcutaneous areolar tissue behind the shoulder. 
The following day the animal was distinctly lame, a puffy swelling 
with a firm base being present where inoculated. The tempera- 
ture was but 103.2° F., and the appetite was not diminished. 
Next day the lameness and swelling had completely disappeared, 
and the temperature was normal. 

Experiments on Cows. 

First Cow.—An old animal, calved two months but yielding 
not more than four quarts of milk per day. 0.5 c.c. of the same 
culture as employed for the other animals was introduced into 
the teat-duct of the right posterior quarter, care being taken not 
to abrade the mucous membrane during the operation. This 
inoculation was made at 4.30 p.m. 

The following morning the animal was visibly ill, the back 
arched, appetite capricious, and temperature 106° F. The in- 
jected quarter was swollen, tense, het and painful, presenting all 
the appearances of acute mastitis. The milk secretion from this 
quarter was greatly diminished, being of the character of whey 
with curdled clots and a little gas formation. The general 
symptoms remained as above throughout the day. The following 
day there was slight improvement in the general condition, and 
the temperature had fallen to 103.5° I. The quarter, though 
still swollen, was not so tense or painful. The secretion con- 
sisted practically of a cloudy amber-coloured fluid with some 
purulent flocculi. 

The general symptoms of illness soon disappeared, but the 

Acute Contagious Mastitis in Cows. 221 

temperature remained about 103° F. for several days. The 
affected quarter became gradually less tense and painful and 
gradually hardened in consistency, finally becoming dense and 
nodular. The uninoculated quarters remained normal in appear- 
ance, but the secretion gradually diminished, until when the 
animal was slaughtered 14 days after inoculation they were dry. 

General Examination of Secretion. 

While during the first two days after inoculation the bacteria 
could readily be detected chiefly within leucocytes in the secre- 
tion, on subsequent days they were difficult to demonstrate. 
After the second day the material withdrawn from the inoculated 
quarter presented the appearance of a translucent amber-coloured 
serosity with, on standing, a small quantity of purulent deposit, 
and this character was maintained by the gradually diminishing 
amount that could be daily extracted till the time of slaughter. 
The clear serosity rapidly coagulated after withdrawal. It 
seemed, however, to exercise an inhibitory effect on the de- 
velopment of the bacteria, for although kept in the incubator for 
days no increase whatever of the organism could be demon- 
strated. This absence of any increase of the bacilli, and the 
retention by the straw-coloured serosity of its clear transparent 
character, suggested the possibility of an ultravisible organism 
being the real cause of the disease, in spite of the fact that only 
a subculture had been employed. To test this the serosity was 
mixed with ordinary broth media in equal parts and filtered 
through a Chamberland filter. Of the filtrate 5 c.c. was then 
injected into the left forequarter of another cow in milk. The 
following day the quarter showed no abnormality, but the milk 
on standing separated into two zones, the upper (a third of the 
total) having the appearance of cream and showing on micro- 
scopical examination many pus cells but no organisms. No 
deposit appeared at the bottom of the fluid. This condition had 
disappeared by the next day, and at no time did the quarter 
manifest any pathological change or was the general health of the 
animal affected. 

Seconp Cow.—Two-year-old heifer in poor condition. Calved 
ten days but yielding not more than a quart of milk at each milk- 
ing. Into one quarter was injected 0.1 c.c. of a broth subculture 
of the bacillus after passage through Cow 1. The following 
morning the quarter was greatly swollen, hot and painful. The 
animal showed lameness of the hind limb on the same side. The 
other quarters were normal. Temperature, 105°, ‘Appetite 
diminished and back arched. Secretion of inoculated quarter: 
First portion very curdy and flocculent, the remainder being of a 
whey-like appearance. No gas formation. The following day 
the quarter was less tense but still hot and painful; lameness less 
marked; animal feeding better; temperature 102°. The secretion 
from the affected quarter was very purulent with little clear fluid, 
the whole having the general character of human tubercular 
sputum, and being similar to that from the first of Mr. Bordeaux's 

222 Lhe Veterinary Fournad. 

cases. On the third day beyond a slight decrease af the tension 
the quarter and secretion showed no change. 

Effect of Inoculation with Blood Serum of Cow 1. 

It having become obyious that, as already mentioned, the 
serosity in the mammary secretion of Cow 1 exerted an inhibitory 
effect upon the growth of the bacteria, 50 c.c. of blood serum 
from Cow 1 drawn twelve days after the original inoculation, was 
injected subcutaneously into Cow 2 on the third day of the experi- 
ment. The following day a marked improvement of the diseased 
quarter was manifested; the consistency was much softer and the 
size of the quarter diminished. The secretion presented a much 
less abnormal appearance. At first a few clots of curdy material 
were removed, this being followed by milk fairly normal in 
appearance. On standing a small quantity of deposit formed at 
the bottom, and a thick layer of cream, amongst which were 
many pus cells, appeared on the surface. It may be here ob- 
served that the previous day’s secretion in a sterile test-tube which 
had been at 37° F. meanwhile showed no apparent increase in the 
bacterial content. The following day the affected quarter was 
practically normal to appearance and even to manipulation, being 
only slightly firmer than the other quarters. No clots or flocculi 
could be detected and no deposit occurred on standing, although 
the surface cream was unusual in amount and still contained pus 
cells. A gradual daily improvement was manifested, and by the 
eighth day after inoculation all abnormality of the quarter and 
also of the secretion had completely disappeared and no bacilli 
could be demonstrated. It was fairly evident that the rapid 
recovery in this case was due to injection of the blood serum 
from the first cow, but naturally this experiment requires to be 
controlled by others. 

Pathological Changes in the Affected Udder. 

On post-mortem examination of Cow 1 the uninoculated quar- 
ters exhibited no abnormality. The diseased quarter showed 
much infiltration of the subcutaneous connective tissue with clear 
cedema. On section the mammary tissue exuded a clear amber- 
coloured serosity similar to that extracted from the teat. The 
cut surface was pinkish but mottled throughout with irregular, . 
sharply circumscribed greyish areas, varying in diameter from 
1 in. to 14 in., the largest being situated in the centre of the 
affected tissue. 

Microscopical examination of sections shows the greyish areas 
to be composed of necrosed tissue in which the nuclei of the 
cellular elements do not stain with basic dyes. Elsewhere the 
interstitial tissue and alveoli are distended with fibrinous exudate, 
the mucous membrane is more or less degenerated, and often the 
epithelial cells are shed completely, the condition being an inter- 
stitial and catarrhal mastitis. Bacilli are fairly numerous, especi- 
ally within the fibrinous interstitial exudate, but are rarely 
observed within the ducts or acini. 



The observations above recorded indicate the possibility that 
many of the ordinary sporadic cases of acute mastitis so fre- 
quently observed in cows, especially soon after calving and 
generally attributed to blows, chills, &c., may be due to the 
B. lactis aerogenes, as in the outbreak under review. This 
bacillus is very common in certain, if not all, dairies, and in our 
experience is especially associated with piggeries. In other 
words, it is a common saphrophyte of dairy premises, and so it is 
not difficult to believe that it may often prove pathogenic when 
introduced by any means into the lactating udder, especially that 
of a newly-calved cow. 

The milking machine, if not carefully attended to, will un- 
doubtedly, as in this case, readily transfer the disease from udder 
to udder, just as it so frequently does with the less obvious but 
none the less serious streptococcic mastitis. No doubt the reason 
acute forms of mastitis are rarely transferred from cow to cow by 
the machine or by the hand is because of the painful nature of 
the affection compelling greater attention on the part of the 
owner and of the milker. 


(1) The B. lactis aerogenes, while not pathogenic by inocula- 
tion into the tissues of cattle, may yet cause acute inflammation 
if introduced into the lactating udder of cows. 

(2) Such an infection may be readily spread by milking 

(3) The bacilli after the first few days of infection may be so 
few as to be overlooked. 

(4) The secretion, although originally favourable to the 
growth of the bacteria, rapidly assumes an inhibitory power. 

(Ss) There is evidence that the blood serum itself rapidly be- 
comes antitoxic. 

By W. STAPLEY, M.D., D.V.Sc., M.R.C.V.S., 
Professor of Veterinary Anatomy and Surgery in the University of Melbourne, Australia, 

‘‘ BNA ts a shorthand title for a list of some 4,500 anatomical 
names accepted at Basle in 1895 by the Anatomical Society as the 

224 The Veterinary $ournadl. 

most suitable designations for the various parts of the human 
anatomy which are visible to the naked eye.’’—(Barker.) 

Irom 1909 at the Veterinary School of the Melbourne Uni- 
versity the BNA naming has been applied to comparative 
anatomy. The experience thus gained enables a review to be 
made of the system in its application to veterinary and compara- 
tive anatomy. The BNA is a defective system. It is a deplor- 
able fact that as late as the year 1895 a section of human 
anatomists were taking that narrow view of anatomy that led to 
the compilation of the BNA. This nomenclature was made with- 
out the slightest consideration of the needs of comparative 
anatomy. By deliberately confining the BNA to human anatomy 
the system shows the defects of specialization. The exclusion of 
comparative anatomy from this nomenclature shows the narrow 
base on which the BNA is built, a base quite inadequate to carry 
a system of naming suitable for the whole of anatomy. The BNA 
is not worked out on scientific principles, but by means of the 
ballot-box, on the principle of ‘‘ back your fancy.’’ When we 
reflect on the stupidity of such a plan we are amazed that the 
BNA system is as good as it is. The members of the congress 
that voted the BNA into being had imposed on them this restric- 
tion: ‘‘ The terms shall be merely memory signs and need lay no 
claim to description or to speculative interpretation.’’ This 
restriction strongly excites the suspicion that thought is an 
abhorrent process to the manufacturers of names. This restric- 
tion is retarding sound thought being given to anatomy as a 
whole. In spite of this restriction demanding ‘‘ memory signs,”’ 
the BNA has failed to produce *‘memory signs.’’. The BNA 
introduced nothing, it simply pruned human anatomy of its 
redundant words. The BNA still uses confusing terms in the 
pyramidalis and piriformis muscles. A memory system works 
different; for instance, it would point out that the pyramidalis 
muscle attains its greatest development in connection with the 
prepubic bones supporting the marsupial pouch; it would there- 
fore be termed the marsupial muscle, which term would remove 
all confusion and make the memory of this muscle easy. 

The BNA laboriously describes the facial muscles and imposes 
a tax on the memory of the student that he should not be asked to 
carry. Comparative anatomy clearly shows that the fanciful 
names applied to the facial muscles are names applied to a muscle 

panniculus dominated by the seventh nerve and best described 
under the control of that nerve as the muscles of expression. In 
the baboon this facial muscle is continuous over the face and 
forms and surrounds the cheek pouches. With this knowledge 
the common error of regarding the buccinator as a muscle of 
mastication cannot arise, nor a mistake occur about its nerve 
supply, nor any surprise arise from the fact that a horse suffering 
from paralysis of the seventh nerve quids its food. By ignoring 
function as a basis of naming structure the BNA threw aside a 
valuable means of investing anatomy with intellectual interest. 
Function and structure are most intimately related, and anything 
tending to divorce anatomy and physiology is against the true 
interests of these sciences. The BNA name for the superficial 
gluteal muscle—gluteus maximus—has been adopted against the 
teaching of function. Evolutionists say that the size of the 
gluteus maximus of man is due entirely to the erect position. 
From the weight of anatomical knowledge of gluteal muscles in 
general, the gluteus medius is the muscle that should be named 
maximus, if such an objectionable term must be used in anatomy. 

Important structures that do not occur in man have no desig- 
nation in the BNA. The guttural pouches are unnamed, the 
rumen is nameless. Thus anything but a partial application of 
the BNA to veterinary anatomy is impossible. Sisson is to be 
congratulated for making the attempt, in his book “‘ Veterinary 
Anatomy,”’ to apply the BNA to veterinary anatomy. For the 
protractor scapulze of Owen the BNA has no name, and Sisson 
calls it the omo-transversarius. This muscle is poorly developed 
in the dog, ox and pig; in the hyzna it is well developed, and is 
still more developed in the wombat. The point of human, and 
consequently BNA, interest in this muscle is its great develop- 
ment in primates; the baboon shows the protracting effect of this 
muscle so strongly on the shoulder that the master stroke in 
anatomical naming is revealed by Owen’s name, protractor 
scapule. Further, the weakness of the BNA is revealed in its 
ignorance of this very important comparative fact. 

Condemnation of the BNA is easy and just, but it must not 
blind us to its merits. Before its advent anatomical naming was 
chaotic: it has reduced some of the confusion to order. The 
absence of the clavicle in horses has led to a fusion of the muscles 


BNA. 225 

that splits into numerous strands—+.e., slips of the platysma or 

226 The Veterinary $ournad. 

of this region. We are compelled to adopt the BNA as a basis 
of comparison, and we are compelled to adopt it in its entirety 
arid to lament its incompleteness, but Sisson has committed an 
error of anatomical judgment in naming the fused clavicular 
muscles the mastoido-humeralis; these muscles are all named by 
the BNA; the word mastoido-humeralis is not a BNA name: it 
is-a hybrid term which leads to confusion. Of confusing terms 
there is no end in veterinary anatomy. The BNA offers a firm 
road out of this bog of names, a road rough in places but a road 
that can be travelled. The muscles composing the mastoido- 
humeralis of Sisson are all named by the BNA, -and they should 
have been given in this book, which is launched under the flag of 
the BNA. The BNA is not adopted on reason but on conveni- 
ence, and at present the adoption of the BNA is the convenient 
thing. In each succeeding edition of Chaveau more and more 
mutilation of the original work appeared, until the clearness of 
this great anatomist became obscured by the alterations of 
others. The original Chaveau and the BNA have many points 
in common. The naming of anatomy cannot rest on a purely 
human basis, but it must be based upon a comprehensive scheme 
including the whole of anatomy. Meantime we use the BNA 
because it is the best naming with which we are acquainted. 


THE annual meeting of the above Association is to be held 
in Edinburgh, on October 13, I9gII. 

The following papers will be contributed: ‘‘ Tuberculosis and 
the Milk Supply,"’ by Professor Delépine, Victoria University, 
Manchester; ‘‘ Existing and Prospective Legislation re Milk 
Supply,”’ by John Lindsay, Esq., Solicitor and Town Clerk 
Depute, Glasgow. 

The discussion is to be opened by J. S. Lloyd, Esq., 
F.R.C.V.S., D.V.S.M.Vict., Veterinary Officer of Health, 

Members of the profession who hold appointments under the 
Public Health Acts or the Dairies, Cowsheds, and Milkshops 
Order are invited to join the Association. 

Full information may be had from the Secretary, A. M. 
Trotter, M.R.C.V.S., Moore Street Abattoir, Glasgow. 


Clinical Hrticles. K 


Horsley Woodhouse, Derbyshire. 

I wonpeR if any of your readers have any large experience of 
the use of chloral hydrate as an external application in fistula? 

I had a case a little timé ago in which I used it with the 
following result :— 

Subject.—An aged draught mare. 

History.—About two and a half years ago she was affected 
with a fistula on one side of the summit of the withers. She was 
placed under a surgeon’s care and remained under treatment for 
some months, in consequence of which healing apparently took 
place. A few weeks later the fistula occurred again in the same 
place and a second opening also appeared on the other side of the 

A quack was now consulted, who appears to have been an 
expert, not in the way of treating fistula, but in his enviable and 
magnificent manner of extracting fees. Again the fistule were 
cured (?). Again they recurred, and this time another fee 
expert, a chemist, was applied to. Again they healed, and yet 
again they reappeared with renewed vigour. And it was at this 
stage that the profession was again consulted in the person of 

Symptoms.—The withers were much swollen. On either side 
there were two small openings from which pus was flowing fairly 
freely. The skin in the neighbourhood was blistered and devoid 
of hair, partly caused by the discharge and partly, I should think, 
by the application of some ‘‘ secret remedy’”’ or other. On 
probing the fistulz I found that they each measured about 73 in. 
deep and terminated on the superior vertebral spines of the 
region, which were distinctly rough to the touch of the probe. 

Treatment.—Cast mare and curetted bone and fistule, the 
walls of which I found to be very dense and fibrous, so much so 
that with all my scraping there was practically no bleeding. I 
then packed the openings with gauze saturated with a 10 per 
cent. solution of zinc sulphate. I renewed the plugs daily for 
several days. The tissues responded not at all. I had heard 

228 The Veterinary Fournal. 

from a medical friend of the success attending the use of choral 

hydrate under somewhat similar conditions. He could not inform 
as to the strength, so I started by using daily plugs with a 
5 per cent. solution of this drug. There was only a slight re- 
action. I then increased the strength to 10 per cent. and the 
effect was marvellous. On the third day after this the lips of the 
fistulae were looking extremely fresh, and on swabbing out the 
channels there appeared traces of blood on the swabs. 

On the sixth day the depth of the fistulae had decreased by 
half, but as the walls were becoming very tender and painful and 
bled readily, I changed back on to zinc sulphate for a day or two. 
Then as there had been no discharge for nearly a week I com- 
pleted the cure by means of gauze impregnated with ordinary dry 
dressing. Time occupied was between five and six weeks. 

Remarks.—I must first say that the reason I did not use 
corrosive sublimate was because I have always objected to the 
drug on account of the difficulty I have experienced in controlling 
its action. 

I have never heard or read of chloral hydrate being used in 
veterinary practice for fistulae, betraying thereby mine own ignor- 
ance, mayhap. But still, even although it may be in common use, 
my experience will perhaps be of some little interest. If it is not 
in common use then shall I assume a “‘ professorship ”’ and retail 
the solution in coloured bottles, adorned with labels fearful and 
wonderful to behold. 


Captain, Army Veterinary Corps, Southern India. 

CauLton REeEkKs, in his excellent work, ‘‘ Diseases of the 
Horse’s Foot,’”’ gives a short account of this disease. During 
the last eighteen months or so I have come across some fifteen 
mild cases and four bad ones; it would appear, therefore, that the 
disease is commoner in India than in England, and as my cases 
differ considerably from the descriptions given in the above- 
mentioned book in some important particulars, I append a short 
account of the disease as I have come across it in India. 
Definition.—Caulton Reeks gives the following :—‘‘ A chronic 

inflammatory condition of the keratogenous membrane, usually 

confined to that of the coronary cushion, the ergots and the 
chestnuts, but sometimes extending to that of the frog and sole, 
characterized by a malsecretion of the affected membrane similar 
to that observed in canker.” 

I may here mention that he also gives an excellent illustration 
of a bad case, and several of my cases were identical in appear- 
ance with the one he represents. 

I have only met with two cases in which the frog was affected. 
They were both cases which had been neglected and untreated for 
months, and in both it was only the bulbous portions of the frog 
at the heels that were affected. 

I have never come across a case in which the ergots, chestnuts 
or sole were affected; the disease, therefore, appears to run a 
milder course in India. 

I have not seen a case in which thrush existed at the same 

Symptoms.—The first symptom noticed is probably a scurfy 
swelled appearance of one or more coronets, the periople at the 
junction of hair and hoof being absent. The disease appears 
more usually to affect the fore feet, but may occur in any one 
limb or in all four at the same time. On examination the 
coronets will usually be found swollen and sometimes painful; in 
a case which has escaped notice on account of long hair or neglect 
the coronet may stand out } in. or even more, and the horn at 
the junction of foot and hair of coronet appears fissured and 
wrinkled and devoid of periople. If neglected the coronary 
cushion becomes seriously affected and the skin covering the 
coronet becomes under-run, and the hair curls up, and a watery 
discharge oozes from the affected portions. 

On removal of the scaly, proliferated horn a cheesy material 
somewhat resembling that of canker is observed, but drier, and 
without the offensive smell associated with that disease. The 

deeper tissues are moist and may even ooze blood slightly. After 
successful treatment in slight cases a well-marked “ ring ”’ is left 
on the affected foot, until in the natural course of events it grows 
out. In more severe cases the hoof is left rough for months and 
devoid of periople. 

In chronic cases the toe of the foot may be shot forward, 
resembling a laminitic foot. 

Specific Corontztes. 229 

———————— ee ee 

230 The Veterinary $ournal. 

Cause apparently unknown. Reeks considers the disease to 
be in all probability the same as canker, but the course of the 
disease (in this country), especially with regard to its not spread- 
ing rapidly, and no inclination to involve the walls of the foot 
and sole, absence of smell, and the fact that it is far more amen- 
able to treatment, I consider lay this open to serious doubt. 
Jowett (‘Blood Serum Therapy’’) describes a spirochete as 
being the cause of both grease and canker, so possibly this disease 
may be due also to a flagellate. I have examined several speci- 
mens by the method advocated by him, but have been unsuccess- 
ful in discovering a spirochete, though, as I have been equally 
unsuccessful in two canker cases which I examined with the same 
motive, my non-success may be due to faulty examination. 

Predisposing Causes.—As far as my experience goes I know 
of none. It occurs in the rains, in the dry weather, in stabled 
horses or horses in paddocks apparently promiscuously. I have 
seen it in Australians and Arabs, but cannot recollect a case ina 
country-bred, but this is probably merely a coincidence. 

Treatment.—lf taken early there is not very much difficulty in 
effecting a cure. I clip the hair off close round the coronet, 
scraping off all loose scurf and horn, and then thoroughly disin- 
fect the affected portion, tying on antiseptic swabs, which remain 
on at least twelve hours. After removal of the swabs the 
diseased tissues remaining will be found to have a whitish colour 
of a soapy consistency. This should all be removed carefully 
with tow or rag, and the coronet again thoroughly washed with 
soap and water and again disinfected. Finally iodine or iodine 
ointment well rubbed in should be applied. A month should 
effect a cure. 

Neglected cases give endless trouble, and may last months. 
I know of one of over eighteen months’ standing. As in the case 
of canker, perseverance and keeping the coronet dry appear the 
chief essentials to ensure success. 

I have found iodine and Stockholm tar made into a thick paste 
the most serviceable dressing, but success depends on whatever 
application is favoured being well rubbed in for from ten to 
fifteen minutes, at least twice daily. Bandages are advisable on 
the hind legs in order to prevent splashing with urine in the case 
of geldings; they appear unnecessary in the fore legs. 

A Lame Case. 



A ROAN gelding, the property of a coal dealer, was brought 
to me on February 22 with the history that he was all right when 
left in the stable at night and was found lame in the morning. 
He could only just put his off hind leg to the ground and could 
hardly bear any weight on it. I advised fomentations and sooth- 
ing liniment to the hock joint. On February 24 he was no 
better and was brought into the infirmary. As he could still 
bear no weight on the off hind leg, I put him in slings and gave 
a dose of physic. I had the shoe removed and carefully examined 
the foot, also the fetlock, and stifle joints, the pelvic bones and 
hip joint. 

When pressed on the inside and lower part of the hock-joint 
the horse flinched greatly, and when in slings stood on three 
legs constantly lifting the off hind leg. The hock was blistered 
three times, but without any good effect, and the animal kept 
lifting the leg constantly the whole of the time. 

On March 18, Mr. Wright, M.R.C.V.S., a partner in the firm 
of Messrs. John and Alexander Lawson, Manchester, was sent 
by the company in which the horse was insured, to consult with 
me. We agreed that he should be destroyed. This was done 
on March 18. On post-mortem examination some effusion was 
found in the capsule of the hock-joint, but the chief changes 
were in the astragalus and cuneiform magnum bones. 

At the upper third of the groove in the astragalus there was 
an erosion of the bone about half an inch long and one-eighth 
of an inch wide, causing a roughened and inflammatory surface 
for the median articular ridge of the tibia to play on. 

The upper surface of the cuneiform magnum had a hole as 
big as a pea on the inner half of its anterior facet, this cavity 
extending a third of an inch or more into the substance of the 
bone. The chief clinical symptoms of the case were the tender- 
ness about the lower inside part of the hock and the never- 
ceasing lifting up and down of the off hind leg, which was at 
times carried right up to the abdomen. 


232 The Veterinary $ournal. 



On December 12, 1910, I was called to attend a short-horn 
cow that was down in the stall and unable to get up on her 
hind legs. She had fallen away from her stall and been dragged 
into it by the farmer and his men previous to my arrival. 

I emptied her bladder and rectum, blistered her loins, and 
gave her an opening drench. 

On December 13 she was up, but weak on her hind legs, 
chewing her cud, horns warm, and dew on her nose. Gave her 
a draught of solution of ammon. carb. and tincture of nux 
vomica, and she made a complete recovery. 

This cow had calved some time previously and there was no 
sign of milk fever about her. A German writer remarks that 
under the collective name of ‘‘ Festliegen der Kithe”’ one in- 
dicates pathological states which do not allow cattle to rise 
without help. Authors hardly agree on the cause of the malady. 
Some believe in lumbar paralysis; others like Dieckerhoff in 
muscular weakness, and Horst-Tempel in lesions of the hock- 
joint. The latter, to support his own conclusions, says that 
butchers, when asked about post-mortem conditions, say that 
they find nothing but “‘a good deal of fluid on section of the 

He has treated several cases successfully by enveloping the 
hind legs from the fetlocks to the hocks in a cloth soaked in 
Burow’s solution and applying over this a woollen bandage, and 
this serves as a support to a similar enveloping of the hock-joint. 
His nine cows got up after a few days. Query.—Would they 
have got up sooner if he had blistered the region of the loins 
and opened the cows’ bowels? 

By A. C. DUNCAN, M.R.C.V.S. 

Professor in the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. 

THE accompanying photograph shows a type of monstrosity 
which I think is not common. It is briefly referred to by Fleming 
in his summary of Gurlt’s classification of monstrosities as Class 
I, Order I, Acephalus. 

Acephalian Monstrosity. 233 

In this case there were neither fore limbs nor head, the body 
was only about 4 in. long, but on dissection was found to contain 
a septum, which represented the diaphragm, and in the anterior 
cavity a very rudimentary heart and foetal lungs were found. 


The intestines, comparatively well developed, showed a dilatation 
which evidently represented the stomach. 

There was no breach in the continuity of the skin, save the 

The ewe which gave birth to the freak was an Exmoor ewe 
crossed with a Hampshire Down ram. The freak was a twin 
with a large and well-developed lamb. 


Horsley Woodhouse, Derbyshire. 

Subject.—An aged cart-mare. 
History, &c.—February 10, I was summoned about 7 a.m. 
to attend this mare at a farm about five miles distant. On 

234 The Veterinary $ournad. 


arrival I learned that she had been “‘ found foaling’”’ at about 
6 o’clock, and that she was about five weeks before her time. 
Anterior presentation with flexed knee-joints. I removed foal 
in about twenty minutes and the foetal membranes followed, 
looking in a normal condition. The owner informed me that on 
the last occasion she also aborted, then about two months pre- 
vious to time. Having given the usual directions, I left the case 
and promised to look in during the following day. 

Symptoms and Treatment.—February 11. Mare looked 
generally seedy. Temperature 103.49; pulse quick, but fairly 
large. I left some of the usual fever mixture and gave directions 
that she was to be given a pint of oil. The same night I re- 
turned to the case and douched the uterus with potassium per- 
manganate solution. At this time the temperature was 104.8° 
and pulse unchanged. 

February 12.—Went to the mare before breakfast and found 
the temperature had risen to 105.2°. On taking the pulse I was 
surprised to find that it had that thready character which is 
associated only with peritonitis. Hastily raising the many rugs 
with which the owner had covered her, I found it was all too 
true—abdomen was tense and extremely painful and there was 
no peristalsis to be heard on auscultation. 

I douched the uterus again, and having prescribed the standard 
powders for peritonitis, viz., p. digitalis, p. nuc vomic, aa 5ss., 
one every five hours; and having given a guarded prognosis to 
the owner I departed. 

On my return the same day about 9 o’clock p.m., I found 
that the peritoneal symptoms were intensified. The expression 
on the face had become haggard, eyes were glazy, abdomen 
distended so that the middle line was in the same horizontal 
plane as the hock-joint. Temperature 105°; pulse a wreck. I 
proceeded to douche as usual and kept on at it for upwards of 
half an hour, using about ten or twelve gallons of water in the 
process. Evading an interview with the owner, I crept away. 
As we drove homewards a medical friend, who was with me at 
the case, wished to ‘“‘lay me”’ all sorts of odds against her 
recovery, but as it was Sunday, and also perhaps (?) because 
I thought I might lose, I refrained from taking him up. 

February 13, 7 a.m., found me back in the box. Judge my 
surprise to find the temperature recorded 102°. In my anxiety 

Metro-perttonitis in a Mare. 235 

I used two thermometers. Pulse still a little quick, but wonder- 
fully improved, both in fulness and general tone; peristalsis 
restarted and abdomen not painful to touch, though still dis- 
tended. I douched the mare thoroughly again and left a few 
more of the powders. 

Returning at about 9.30 p.m., I found the condition of the 
patient still more improved. Temperature was now I01.1°; 
pulse and respiration normal; abdomen much diminished in size, 
pain and tension gone. I washed out the uterus as usual, this 
time with difficulty owing to the closing of the cervix. 

February 14: Mare normal, except for considerable weak- 
ness, from which she made a rapid recovery. 

Remarks.—(1) By dint of constant cross-examination of the 
owner I discovered, during the case, that he had noticed a little 
white discharge at the vulva after the previous abortion. I take 
it that the mare was suffering from chronic disease of the Fallo- 
pian tubes and that for some unknown reason this condition 
had been roused from its lethargic state to produce an endo- 
metritis—hence the abortion. The disease had then spread to the 
peritoneum. I take it that the difficult foaling at this abortion, 
for the mare may have possibly been in labour all during the 
night of February 10, had encouraged the setting up of these 
aggravated forms, whilst at the previous and apparently easy 
abortion the acute symptoms had not been developed, and hence 
the owner was lulled into security in the idea that the slipping 
had been the result of accident. 

(2) I should like to mention this fact. When I was an 
assistant I was instructed to use water at a comparatively warm 
heat for douching purposes. Since I qualified I learned that 
at the best midwifery hospital in the kingdom, so it is recognized 
to be, they have introduced the principle of using water at a 
much higher temperature—at such a temperature that one can 
hardly put one’s hand into it. And I have found that at such 
a temperature the douching has a much better effect. 

(3) I should like to draw attention to the frequency with 
which the douching was performed—every twelve hours or so. 
I can imagine some practitioners saying: ‘‘ Oh, yes, it’s all very 
well, if he had a practice as large as mine he couldn’t go running 
twice a day to a place five miles away.’’ Well, perhaps I 
could not, but I know that I was as busy as I could well be at 


236 The Veterinary $ournal. 

the time and it meant being out of the yard at 6 a.m., and paying 
the second visit very late at night. But I think the result, 
which I attribute in great measure to the frequent and thorough 
flushings of the uterus, fully rewarded me for the extra labour 

(4) It is interesting to notice the quick change from a highly- 
dangerous condition to one of safety—nine hours. 

I record this case in no sense as a smart cure. I simply wish 
to draw the attention of the junior practitioner, of whom I am 
one of the least, to the lessons I have learned from it, of which 
lessons not the least important is this, that one must never give 
in but persevere in one’s efforts, only relaxing them with the 
advent of the knacker’s cart. One never knows, I find, just 
how much stamina is left and how splendidly the forces of 
Nature can act when once they are turned in the right direction. 
““Vis medicatrix nature ’’ is still the most potent factor in 
bringing about many a good result. 

Canine and Feline Clinicals. 



On March 13 an Irish terrier dog, 18 months old, was brought 
to the infirmary for treatment. The following history was 
elicited from the owner : — 

The dog was never in good condition. Since last December 
he became gradually thinner. Two weeks ago he appeared sick, 
and commenced to breathe hard; no cough; loss of appetite, and 
emaciation were present. Owner thought it was a case of “‘ sup- 
pressed’ distemper. On examination the following symptoms 
were present: Emaciation fairly well marked, expression of 
countenance “ triste,’’ respirations greatly accelerated and of the 
“abdominal ”’ type; pulse thready. 

Physical Signs.—Percussion: Right side, complete dulness, of 
a ‘‘wooden’”’ character. Left side, resonance impaired at certain 

Auscultation.—Right side, complete absence of respiratory 

A Case of Choking from an Unusual Cause. 237 

sounds. Left side, respiratory murmurs dull, slight bronchial 
rales present. Heart, no increase in the area of cardiac dulness. 
Auscultation showed the cardiac sounds to be very weak and 
indistinct; cardiac impulse almost imperceptible. No cough was 
present. Muzzle moist. 

Diagnosis.—Pleuritic effusion on the right side of thorax, 
probably tubercular. (A mere guess, based on the view ex- 
pressed by some authors that nearly all cases of pleuritic effusion 
in the dog are tubercular.) In view of the long period of pining, 
destruction was advised. 

Autopsy.—Thorax: Right side distended to its utmost with a 
straw-coloured fluid. The lung was shrunken and faced up to 
spine; in fact, it looked as if the lung was absent at first sight. 
Extensive nodules close to attachments of the diaphragm; other 
nodules disseminated in the thoracic wall. Diffuse pleuritis. 
Left side, nodules in large amount, especially close to the 
diaphragm. Diaphragm covered with same. Pleuritis with ex- 
tensive attachments; no effusion. Diaphragm covered with 

Abdominal Cavity.—A nodular tumour attached to mesentery 
of ileum. No other lesions found. 

Liver showed disseminated white spots. 

The lungs, heart, liver, portion of diaphragm, and portion of 
intestine were forwarded to Professor Wooldridge, Royal 
Veterinary College, London, who kindly examined them and 
reported as follows :— 

“*T examined smears from the enlarged caseating mesenteric 
gland, from the liver, and from the mediastinal glands, and in 
each case was able to demonstrate the bacillus tuberculosis. The 
bacilli, however, were not numerous in any of the preparations.”’ 



On March 11, a kitten, aged six months, and of small size, 
was brought to the infirmary with the report that the animal was 
‘““choking ’’ for two days, and was only able to swallow small 
spoonfuls of milk with great difficulty. 


ape a 

238 Lhe Veterinary $ournadl, 

On examination a foreign body could be felt in the right side 
of the neck, about the upper part of the middle third, and in 
the region of the jugular furrow. When the animal moved the 
swelling became more prominent and caused distension of the 

I cut down on the foreign body and found a sharp point. In 
applying a forceps a long pin was drawn upwards, but could 
not be extracted owing to some obstruction at its lower end. 

Having drawn it up as far as possible, I dissected away the 
tissue at the lower end, and extracted what proved to be a lady’s 
hat pin, which measured seven inches in length. The skin 
wound was sutured and painted over with iodoform collodion. 
A milk diet was ordered. 

On March 14 the animal was brought back, and reported to 
be doing well, and only showed slight difficulty in swallowing 
for the first day after operation, but was never anxious for food. 
The wound was looking healthy, but not healing by first in- 
tention. I painted it with iodine. 

March 26: Owner reported that wound had healed and animal 
all right. 

Remarks.—This pin must have punctured the cesophagus and 
found its way to the right side of the neck. 

I cannot explain how the bulbous end of the pin was removed 
from the cesophagus, except that, when withdrawing the pin, the 
gullet must have been drawn to the right side and incised with 
the knife. The operation wound was very small, so I did not 
trouble to explore it, finding that the less handling these wounds 
get the better. 

Probably the more surgical method would have been to cut 
down on the cesophagus and thus remove the pin. 

After-events, however, proved that the method adopted was 
more successful. Great difficulty would have been experienced 
in bending the pin back so as to remove it by an incision in the 
left side of the rieck. 

I do not think this pin could have been swallowed longer thar 
the period named, as it was not discoloured and no traces of sup- 
puration were present, and it is hardly likely that it would have 

been aseptic. 

Rupture of the Kidney in a Cat. 239 


By G. MAYALL, M.R.C.V.S. i 
Bolton. . 

An Irish terrier brought to me on February 14 of this year 
was suffering from a sepulchral cough, which shook his whole i 
‘frame and was followed by voidance of thick phlegm, in pieces 
about the size of a shilling. 

He was put on to a mixture containing glycero-phosphate of q 
quinine, benzoate of eucalyptol, and benzoate of beechwood 4 
creosote, and after consuming two two-ounce bottles of this 
mixture in half-teaspoonful doses, mixed with water, three times } 
daily, he made an excellent recovery. 

A Blenheim spaniel, suffering similarly, also recovered with 
smaller doses. 

Several cases of this description have come under my notice 
recently, both in the dog and cat, the back of the throat being 
choked up with thick tenacious mucus and the larger bronchial 
tubes, too, seeming to be slightly affected. 


By A. C. DUNCAN, M.R.C.V.S. 

Professor in the Royal Agricultural College, Cirencester. 

Subject.—A well-bred Persian cat, about fourteen months old. 

History.—The cat was found dead on the morning of Feb- 
ruary 9, I9II, no previous symptoms having been noticed. 

It was said that when a small kitten, about four months old, 
she had been injured in a doorway, had been treated for spinal 
injury, and had slowly apparently recovered. 

The cat had not been moved from where she was found dead. 
She was lying on her left side beside a kitchen table. A careful 
examination revealed no external injuries. On opening the body | 
a small piece of kidney was found on the intestines at the floor 
of the abdomen. 

Further examination showed extensive wasting of intercostal 
muscles near the attachment of the diaphragm on the left side. 

The left kidney, which proved to be subject of fatty degenera- 
tion, was ruptured, being in five pieces, one of which was that | 
found on opening the body. The other kidney was normal. 

The Veterinary $ournal. 


A ROUGH-HAIRED fox-terrier, four years old, was brought in 
on March 10, of this year, suffering from stiffness all round 
and crying out with pain when his off hind leg was touched. ° 
From the 1oth to the 13th he was unable to rise without assist- 
ance, and his hind legs especially seemed to fail him. He was 
put on to a diet of barley water and milk and five grains of 
aspirin given to him three times daily. 

He made a complete recovery and from a doleful and dis- 
consolate state on March 10, was discharged gay and lively on 
March 17. 

, Abstracts. 


Indexed B. A. |. Veterinary Department, Cape Town. 

Tue object of the present note is to record the occurrence in 
the vicinity of Cape Town of a fowl disease known as “ Spiro- 
chetosis.’”’ This is a tick-borne malady, the causal agent being 
a protozoal parasite—a small spirally formed thread-like 
organism, found in the blood of infected subjects. 

In many parts of the Cape Province chicken-rearing is 
attended with a certain amount of difficulty; year after year, it 
has been reported, young birds die after exhibiting somewhat 
vague symptoms—the more noticeable being either diarrhoea or 
paralysis, and more or less wasting. In some instances no 
symptoms whatever seem to have been observed by the owner, 
merely the birds succumbed one after another without evident 

In some of these outbreaks which we have investigated we 
have attributed the cause of the mortality to a small (microscopic) 
parasite, known as a coccidium, which we have found present in 
the intestinal tract in the epithelial cells of the lining membrane 
as well as free in the contents.* 

Larger intestinal parasites (‘‘worms’’) are also exceedingly 
common, and these undoubtedly do a certain amount of harm 
to their hosts, especially if these be young or weakly subjects. 
Fowl cholera, again, is not infrequently met with, and the same 

* We have encountered a coccidium (C. cunzcudz) in the liver and intestines of 
rabbits in Capetown, the parasite producing a fatal disease in these animals. In 
pigeons also, on at least two occasions, we have seen coccidia in the intestines. 

Fowl Spirochetosis. 24! 

applies to another disease of fowls, namely, avian diphtheria. 
Both these diseases are formidable, the first nrentioned especially 
so, entailing, as it does, a very heavy mortality, as many local 
fowl-owners know to their cost. 

But occasionally one has examined the carcases of fowls in 
which none of the parasites or diseases we have mentioned were 
in evidence. One found that the birds were anemic, in some 
cases wasted, occasionally enlargement of the spleen was notice- 
able, but other marked alterations of the organs were con- 
spicuous by their absence. 

Attempts to cultivate any specific bacteria which it was thought 
might be present in the blood or organs generally proved 
fruitless. In some such cases the owners attributed the cause 
of the mortality to the attacks of the fowl tick (or to the ‘‘ tam- 
pan,’ as it is commonly termed here)—an opinion with which 
we, in many instances agreed, and certainly on adopting measures 
to eliminate the ticks from the premises the mortality often 
promptly ceased. 

Fowl-owners are well aware of the harm which the fowl tick 
is capable of causing their birds, but they attribute the deleterious 
effect excited by these arthropods solely to the blood which the 
latter abstract from the chickens at each meal. There can be 
no doubt that in consequence of a heavy infestation with ticks, 
young or weakly chickens may be killed outright by such means, 
assisted perhaps by a toxic and hemolytic substance which the 
tick introduces into its host when feeding on the latter: 

But we have long suspected that the real cause of the mor- 
tality in some of these cases was a parasite which the tick 
transmitted to the fowl—a parasite similar to or identical with 
the spirochzte found in geese in Transcaucasia in 1891, and 
subsequently in fowls first in Brazil in 1903, and later by various 
observers in many.other parts of the world, India, the Anglo- 
Egyptian, Soudan, Cyprus, Australia, Rhodesia, Martinique, &c., 

We have been constantly on the look out for the parasite in 
this country, but it is only recently that one has been enabled 
definitely to demonstrate its presence in the blood of fowls in the 
Cape Peninsula. From time to time fowls have been forwarded 
to the Veterinary Department, the owners being anxious to 
ascertain the cause of the death of their birds. In almost every 
instance, however, only dead fowls were forwarded, and these 

qty did not arrive until several hours after life was extinct. 

t so happens that in the disease now under consideration, 
although the causal parasite (spirochete) may be numerously 
present in the blood during the fever period at the early part 
of the infection, if it has not already disappeared when death 
occurs (and this often happens) it is a difficult matter to demon- 
strate its presence some hours after that event. 

The Government Entomologist (Mr. Lounsbury), like our- 
selves, has long suspected that the fowl tick possibly transmitted 
a parasite here amongst poultry, and that a disease probably 
existed in this country similar to the fowl spirochztosis of 


242 The Veterinary $ournal. 

Brazil. Recently, this gentleman had occasion to visit an estate 
on which young chickens were dying in considerable numbers, 
and in view of his suspicions he procured two living but ob- 
viously sick chickens, and these he very kindly forwarded to the 
writer for the purpose of investigation. On microscopical ex- 
amination of the blood of one of these chickens free spirochzte 
were found present, while in both certain bodies were observed 
in the red blood corpuscles—bodies which are believed to result 
from the penetration of the parasite (spirochztes) into the 

From these chickens, and from others subsequently obtained 
from the same estate, the disease has been transmitted to other 
healthy chickens at the Rosebank Experimental Station for the 
purpose of further study. 

The experimental work now in progress is still incomplete. 
In the present instance it is intended merely to give a brief out- 
line of the nature of the disease and of the parasite which causes 
it together with certain recommendations for dealing with the 
malady. By so bringing the existence of the disease to the 
notice of fowl-owners, one hopes as a result to gain an idea as 
to the prevalence of fowl spirochztosis in the Cape Province. 
So far, as already mentioned, we have met with but one out- 
break, but one inclines to the belief that the disease may have a 
fairly wide distribution in South Africa. For some time its 
existence has been known in Rhodesia. This appears to be the 
first occasion on which the disease has been met with south of 
that Colony. At any rate, one is safe in asserting that it has 
not been described previously from the Cape Province. 


In the blood of the naturally infected chickens we have found 
—existing either together or separately: 

(1) Free spirochzetze and 

2) Rounded “ bodies ”’ in the interior of the erythrocytes. 

It will be convenient to describe these separately. 

(1)}—Tue Free SpIROCcHETz. 

The spirochete is a delicate, extremely thin, thread-like, 
spirally formed (or corkscrew shaped) organism. Its body is of 
uniform thickness, except at the extremities, when it tapers 
gradually to a point. . 

Examined in the fresh state, the organism is found to be very 
actively motile. In fixed and stained preparations, the parasites 
are seen to vary greatly in size. Short forms are encountered, 
measuring 8 or 9 microns with 3 or 4 spiral turns; others—and 
these are more commonly encountered—measure 16 or 17 microns 
and possess 7, 8, or 9 spirals. Even larger spirochete are 
occasionally encountered measuring 20 to 25, and, in a few in- 
stances, 30 microns. In the case of these long forms, however, 
it is sometimes rather difficult to determine whether they are 
really constituted of but one parasite or of two joined end to end. 

Fowl Spirochetosts. 

Depending much, apparently, upon the position assumed by the 
parasite during the process of fixation (previous to staining), it 
may appear (1) as a regular ahd beautifully formed spiral, or (2) 
it may be looped in a circle, figure of eight pattern, or in fact, 
assume any form one might imagine possible with a long, 
extremely flexible, delicate, ribbon-shaped body, such as is pos- 
sessed by this parasite. 

Frequently two spirochetze are seen joined end to end. 
Whilst it is not unusual to see two spirochztz lying close against 
each other—approximated at one extremity, the others diverging 
at an acute angle—this is believed to represent a stage in the 
(longitudinal) division of the parasite. At certain stages of the 
infection spirochztes may be seen in which a number of trans- 
versely arranged unstained areas are present. Collections of the 
organisms in more or less intricately arranged and interwoven 
*‘tangles ’’ or ‘‘ clumps ”’ are quite frequently seen; this phenome- 
non is not observed at the commencement of the infection when 
the parasites are still scanty in the blood. Later, however, when 
they have increased in numbers, it is not uncommon for the spiro- 
chetes to form clumps and afterwards to disappear from the 
blood stream—this is the so-called ‘‘crisis.’’ Thereafter the 
spirochetes may not again appear in the blood in numbers suffi- 
cient to be demonstrated by ordinary, microscopic examination, 
and still the subject may die, although the parasite cannot be 
detected in its blood. On the other hand, in some of our ex- 
perimental cases in young chickens, the parasites have increased 
progressively in numbers until death. In any case, however, 
they usually disappear somewhat speedily after that event. 


We have encountered the bodies now to be described in 
naturally, as well as in experimentally infected subjects. They 
may co-exist with the free spirochetes already described; they 
may appear before the latter or on the other hand may not be 
seen until after the spirochztal crisis, t.e., until the free spiro- 
chztes have disappeared from the blood. 

Bodies similar to these in the interior of the red blood cor- 
puscles of the fowl were first described by Dr. Balfour in the 
the Anglo-Egyptian Soudan. This* investigator at first con- 
sidered that the intra-corpuscular bodies represented probably 
a parasite separate and distinct from the free spirochzete, but 
as a result of extended observation he concluded that they repre- 
sent ‘‘a definite stage in the life history of the parasite (spiro- 
chete). As Prowazek says,’’ Balfour observes, “‘it may be a 
true resting stage.’’ Balfour is inclined to think this intra- 
corpuscular stage in the life cycle of the spirochzte provides for 
re-infection. He considers that ‘‘the tiny granules into which 
the nitra-corpuscular forms break up may possibly be of a spore 

Galli-Valerio studied fowl spirochztosis in Tunis, and he, as 
well as Bouet, who studied a similar disease of fowls in the’ 




a es 

a ee ee 

net eee. - 
a ———_ ss 

244 ‘ The Veterinary Fournad. 

French Soudan, met with intra-corpuscular bodies as well as with 
free spirochztze in the blood of the infected birds. The first- 
mentioned worker looks upon thé North African disease (fowl 
spirochetosis) as distinct from that met with in Brazil, and due 
probably to a different species of spirochete. He believes the 
Tunisian spirochetosis to be the same as that found in the 
Anglo-Egyptian Soudan by Balfour. Dschunkowsky and Luhs, 
it may be mentioned, have found similar intra-corpuscular bodies 
in fowls in Transcaucasia—the same have also been seen in geese 
in spirochetosis. 

With regard to these intra-corpuscular bodies, Galli-Valerio 
is doubtful what interpretation to put upon them, but he thinks 
(says Balfour, who quotes this investigator) ‘‘ it is a question of 
a feeble infection passing into a chronic state.”’ 

The intra-corpuscular bodies we have encountered in the Cape 
Town chickens correspond very closely indeed with those figured 
by Balfour with this one difference—in the Anglo-Egyptian Sou- 
dan, apparently, as many as seven “ bodies’’ may be found in 
one red blood cell—here we have never yet seen more than four 
bodies in one erythrocyte. One and two bodies are the numbers 
usually observed in one erythrocyte—only occasionally are three 
or four encountered in any one cell. 

These *‘ bodies ’’ are usually rounded in form and invariably 
are situated in the extra-nuclear portion of the erythrocyte. They 
are perhaps more often found at the end of a cell than in any 
other position, still it is not rare to see them laterally placed. 
They may be situated quite close to the edge of the nucleus, or 
on the other hand, may border the periphery of the cell. Very 
frequently they occupy a mid-way position. 

The young recently-formed bodies are uniformly stained (dark 
red or purple with Romanowsky stains—the chromatin staining 
reaction in fact) throughout. Other bodies appear only partially 
stained, a portion of the body being purple coloured, the re- 
mainder unstained. 

Still others of the “ bodies ’’ are stained only at the periphery, 
the remainder (the interior) of the ‘‘ body” being entirely un- 
stained. Finally others are stained at the periphery, and enclose 
a number of granules (“‘ Sporulation forms ’’). 

Occasionally we have encountered a blood corpuscle contain- 
ing a collection of these granules unenclosed, apparently, by any 
peripherally stained ring or capsule—this phenomenon, however, 
is rare. 

In size the bodies vary—the smallest measure 1 micron, or 
considerably less, whilst the largest may attain in measurement 
a diameter of 4 microns. 

As already mentioned the two forms of parasite (free spiro- 
cheetes and intra-corpuscular bodies) may occur either together 
or separately in naturally infected fowls. In such subjects, 
therefore, one may observe :— 

(1) Free spirochetz alone. 
(2) Both free spirochztz and intra-corpuscular bodies. 
(3) Intra-corpuscular bodies alone. 

Fowl Spirochetosis. 245 

It seems that the free spirochetes may first appear and that 
the intra-corpuscular bodies may or may not make their appear- 
ance later or vice versa. 

The other blood changes usually associated with the presence 
of the parasites are polychromasia, vacuolation of the cells 
(especially of the leucocytes) and in short the general blood 
changes one associates with anzmia. 


We have endeavoured to transmit the spirochete by inocula- 
tion of blood containing it into (1) pigeons and (2) a young white 
rat. In neither case did the experiment succeed. 

The parasite is readily inoculable into young chickens (and 
into susceptible adult fowls). Passing from chicken to chicken 
by experimental inoculation, the organism seems at first to 
increase in virulence, later, however, it diminishes in this respect. 
As other observers have pointed out the disease cannot be 
indefinitely transmitted from fowl to fowl by experimental in- 
oculation of blood containing it—at any rate, not in fatal form. 
To retain its degree of pathogenicity passage through the tick 
becomes essential sooner or later. 


The spirochetz so far discovered in the blood of domestic 
birds are: — 

(1) Spirochxta anserina, first noted and described by Sakharoff 
in Transcaucasia in 1891. Subsequently Dschunkowsky and Luhs 
observed the same parasite in geese in Tunis. In this disease 
intra-corpuscular bodies are found in the erythrocytes in addition 
to the free spirochete, which latter morphologically resembles 
the spirochete found in fowls. The parasite is inoculable to 
several species of birds, including fowls, but in the last-mentioned 
animals the disease induced by this organism takes a benign 
course, and recovery is the rule. 

(2) Spirochxta gallinarum (vel marchouxi)—first described by 
Marchoux and Salimbeni as the cause of a fatal disease amongst 
fowls in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Intra-corpuscular bodies were 
not mentioned as associated with this parasite. The free spiro- 
chete we have described in the foregoing article corresponds 
with the Spirochzta marchouxi, morphologically at any rate. 

(3) A parasite (spirochete) similar to the Spirochzxta galli- 
narum, has subsequently been observed in fowls in many parts 
of the world—India, Cyprus, Martinique, Rhodesia, and Aus- 
tralia. Since the different authors make no mention of intra- 
corpuscular forms, apparently only free spirochzetz were en- 
countered in these different outbreaks. Whilst investigating 
iowl spirochztosis in Queensland (Australia), Dodd states that he 
looked for the intra-corpuscular bodies mentioned by Balfour in 
Egypt, but these were not present in the Australian fowls. 

(4) In the Anglo-Egyptian Soudan, as already mentioned, 

246 The Veterinary Fournal. 

Balfour in 1906 investigated a spirochztosis of fowls in which 
intra-corpuscular bodies occurred as well as free spirochetes. 
In this respect, at any rate, the disease we have now encountered 
in Cape Town seems to resemble that described by Balfour. 

Balfour considers that ‘‘ there is probably only one special 
avian spirochzte for domestic birds, namely, S. gallinarum (vel 
marchouxi). He considers it unlikely that the Sudanese spiro- 
chete forms a new and different species solely on account of its 
great tendency to cell parasitism. He observes, however, that 
this is much more marked in the case of the Sudanese spiro- 
chete than with the Brazilian parasite (S. marchouxi). (It ap- 
pears that Prowazek, who worked with the latter, observed it 
in some of his experimental cases.) Balfour thinks this may 
perhaps be explained by difference in the breed of fowls used 
or by difference in climatic conditions. 

The present writer had the opportunity, in Europe some time 
ago, of studying the Brazilian S. marchouxi (or S. gallinarum) 
in experimentally infected subjects, contrasted with these we 
consider that the Cape Town spirochete differs in several res- 
pects. Our investigations, however, are still incomplete, and 
we can express no decided opinion on this subject at the present 

(5) Spirochztes.—Some similar to the Brazilian S. marchouxi, 
others corresponding to Balfour’s spirochzete have subsequently 
been described by different investigators in the French North 
African possessions. 

According to Brumpt, the spirochztes parasitic in the domes- 
tic birds which have so far been described, may be divided into 
four species: 

(1) Spirocheta anserina (Transcaucasia). 

(2) Spirochzta gallinarum (Brazil, Somaliland, &c.). 

(3) Spirochzta neveuxi (Senegal). 

(4) Spirochzta nicollei (Tunis). 

This observer bases his differentiation on (1) slight morpho- 
logical differences between the different species, but more 
especially on (2) immunity reactions, and (3) differences in their 
degrees of virulence. 

Thus he noted that a fowl which had recovered from the 
spirochztosis of Somaliland (S. gallinarum V. marchiouxi) still 
reacted when inoculated with S. neveuxi, though it failed to do so 
with S. gallinarum—.e., it was immune to the latter. More- 
over, fowls cured of the Somali disease and hyper-immunized 
against the latter were still susceptible to the Tunisian spiro- 
chete (S. nicollei). Two other investigators (Compte and Bou- 
quet) have also shown that the Tunisian spirochete (S. nicollei) 
differs from S$. gallinarum (marchouxi). On the other hand 
Bonete’s experiments seem to point to the probability of the 
identity of S$. neveuxi (Senegal) and S. gallinarum (marchouzi). 

With regard to the Cape Town spirochete, in so far as the 
progress of one’s researches on this subject permit one to ex- 
press an opinion, the parasite we have encountered seems to 
resemble the spirochzte described by Balfour in the Anglo- 

Fowl Spirochetosts. 247 

Egyptian Soudan (and the fowl spirochzte encountered by Galli- 
Valerio in Tunis and by Bouet in the French Soudan) more 
closely than any of the other species (or different strains) of fowl 
spirochetes which have so far been described. It remains to be 
proved whether all these parasites do really constitute different 
species as Brumpt supposes, or whether, after all, they are 
merely but different varieties or strains of the one avian spiro- 
chete modified in regard to its degree of virulence and in certain 
other respects, as Balfour and some other investigators have 


A chicken was infected experimentally by inoculation of a 
small quantity of blood containing free spirochetes. The 
organism appeared in the blood thirty-six hours after inoculation, 
and increased in numbers progressively until death, which 
occurred four days later. The drooping head, the ruffled feathers, 
disinclination to move, ‘‘ crouching position,’’ and general sleepy 
appearance are well shown. Later the bird seemed unable to 
stand and lay extended with its head stretched out and eyes 
closed. If touched the eyes were sleepily opened for a 
moment then closed again. In the early stage of the disease 
thirst was intense and diarrhoea also in evidence. The 
body temperature of acute cases is invariably elevated—in one 
of our experimental subjects it rose to 109°. After the crisis 
it speedily fell to normal (106 to 107), and this fowl (an adult 
in good condition) ultimately recovered after exhibiting sym- 
ptoms of partial paralysis of the legs, intense thirst and diarrhoea 
for some days together with much wasting. In another bird 
the body temperature rose to 110°. The acute case may termi- 
nate fatally two to seven days after the appearance of the spiro- 
cheetes in their blood—on the other hand the acute attack may 
be succeeded by apparent recovery to be followed by a fatal 
relapse in a few days, or it may be followed by a slowly pro- 
gressing chronic form of the disease. In some birds again the 
disease assumes the chronic type from the commencement. 

Acute rapidly fatal forms of the disease are seen especially 
in young chickens of a few weeks old. The malady is apparently 
less fatal for adult fowls. 

The outstanding features of the chronic form of the malady 
are emaciation and anemia, diarrhoea (this may or may not be 
present), and sometimes paralysis, partial or complete, of the 
legs, or of one or both wings. In this form of the disease there 
is often no marked elevation of the body temperature. 

The post-mortem appearances in the acute diseases are: En- 
largement of the spleen, some congestion of the liver, and some- 
times also of the intestines. There is, of course, also anzemia. 
In the sub-acute and chronic forms of the disease one may en- 
counter none of these alterations—enlargement of the spleen may 
not be in evidence, and beyond wasting and the signs of anemia 
no marked morbid lesions may be apparent. 

246 The Veterinary $ournal. 

Balfour in 1906 investigated a spirochzetosis of fowls in which 
intra-corpuscular bodies occurred as well as free spirochetes. 
In this respect, at any rate, the disease we have now encountered 
in Cape Town seems to resemble that described by Balfour. 

Balfour considers that ‘‘ there is probably only one special 
avian spirochzte for domestic birds, namely, S. gallinarum (vel 
marchouxi). He considers it unlikely that the Sudanese spiro- 
chzete forms a new and different species solely on account of its 
great tendency to cell parasitism. He observes, however, that 
this is much more marked in the case of the Sudanese spiro- 
chete than with the Brazilian parasite (S. marchouxi). (It ap- 
pears that Prowazek, who worked with the latter, observed it 
in some of his experimental cases.) Balfour thinks this may 
perhaps be explained by difference in the breed of fowls used 
or by difference in climatic conditions. 

The present writer had the opportunity, in Europe some time 
ago, of studying the Brazilian S$. marchouxi (or S. gallinarum) 
in experimentally infected subjects, contrasted with these we 
consider that the Cape Town spirochete differs in several res- 
pects. Our investigations, however, are still incomplete, and 
we can express no decided opinion on this subject at the present 

(5) Spirochztes.—Some similar to the Brazilian S$. marchou.xi, 
others corresponding to Balfour’s spirochzte have subsequently 
been described by different investigators in the French North 
African possessions. 

According to Brumpt, the spirochetes parasitic in the domes- 
tic birds which have so far been described, may be divided into 
four species : — 

(1) Spirocheta anserina (Transcaucasia). 

(2) Spirocheta gallinarum (Brazil, Somaliland, &c.). 

(3) Spirochzta neveuxi (Senegal). 

(4) Spirocheta nicollei (Tunis). 

This observer bases his differentiation on (1) slight morpho- 
logical differences between the different species, but more 
especially on (2) immunity reactions, and (3) differences in their 
degrees of virulence. 

Thus he noted that a fowl which had recovered from the 
spirochetosis of Somaliland (S. gallinarum V. marchiouzi) still 
reacted when inoculated with S. neveuxi, though it failed to do so 
with S. gallinarum—.e., it was immune to the latter. More- 
over, fowls cured of the Somali disease and hyper-immunized 
against the latter were still susceptible to the Tunisian spiro- 
chete (S. nicollei). Two other investigators (Compte and Bou- 
quet) have also shown that the Tunisian spirochete (S. nicollei) 
differs from S. gallinarum (marchouxi). On the other hand 
Bonete’s experiments seem to point to the probability of the 
identity of S. neveuxi (Senegal) and S. gallinarum (marchouxi). 

With regard to the Cape Town spirochete, in so far as the 
progress of one’s researches on this subject permit one to ex- 
press an opinion, the parasite we have encountered seems to 
resemble the spirochzte described by Balfour in the Anglo- 


Fowl Spirochetosts. 247 

Egyptian Soudan (and the fowl spirochzte encountered by Galli- 
Valerio in Tunis and by Bouet in the French Soudan) more 
closely than any of the other species (or different strains) of fowl 
spirochetes which have so far been described. It remains to be 
proved whether all these parasites do really constitute different 
species as Brumpt supposes, or whether, after all, they are 
merely but different varieties or strains of the one avian spiro- 
chete modified in regard to its degree of virulence and in certain 
other respects, as Balfour and some other investigators have 


A chicken was infected experimentally by inoculation of a 
small quantity of blood containing free spirochetes. The 
organism appeared in the blood thirty-six hours after inoculation, 
and increased in numbers progressively until death, which 
occurred four days later. The drooping head, the ruffled feathers, 
disinclination to move, ‘‘ crouching position,’’ and general sleepy 
appearance are well shown. Later the bird seemed unable to 
stand and lay extended with its head stretched out and eyes 
closed. If touched the eyes were sleepily opened for a 
moment then closed again. In the early stage of the disease 
thirst was intense and diarrhoea also in evidence. The 
body temperature of acute cases is invariably elevated—in one 
of our experimental subjects it rose to 109°. After the crisis 
it speedily fell to normal (106 to 107), and this fowl (an adult 
in good condition) ultimately recovered after exhibiting sym- 
ptoms of partial paralysis of the legs, intense thirst and diarrhoea 
for some days together with much wasting. In another bird 
the body temperature rose to 110°. The acute case may termi- 
nate fatally two to seven days after the appearance of the spiro- 
chetes in their blood—on the other hand the acute attack may 
be succeeded by apparent recovery to be followed by a fatal 
relapse in a few days, or it may be followed by a slowly pro- 
gressing chronic form of the disease. In some birds again the 
disease assumes the chronic type from the commencement. 

Acute rapidly fatal forms of the disease are seen especially 
in young chickens of a few weeks old. The malady is apparently 
less fatal for adult fowls. 

The outstanding features of the chronic form of the malady 
are emaciation and anemia, diarrhoea (this may or may not be 
present), and sometimes paralysis, partial or complete, of the 
legs, or of one or both wings. In this form of the disease there 
is often no marked elevation of the body temperature. 

The post-mortem appearances in the acute diseases are: En- 
largement of the spleen, some congestion of the liver, and some- 
times also of the intestines. There is, of course, also anzmia. 
In the sub-acute and chronic forms of the disease one may en- 
counter none of these alterations—enlargement of the spleen may 
not be in evidence, and beyond wasting and the signs of anemia 
no marked morbid lesions may be apparent. 

248 The Veterinary $ournad. 


Regarding curative treatment by means of medicinal agents 
we have not yet had an opportunity to try the effect of drugs 
in this disease. 

For the Brazilian spirochetosis of fowls atoxyl in 5 centi- 
gramme doses (i.e., about ? gr.) has been found useful. In 
Queensland Dodd has found another of the arylarsonates, 
namely, soamin, of benefit in the treatment of the malady. He 
administered the drug intramuscularly after having dissolved 
it in distilled water. The dosage employed for adult fowls was 
one-fifteenth to one-tenth grain. Some observers have found 
that quinine acted beneficially. 

With regard to this disease it has been shown by several 
workers that after having passed through an attack of spiro- 
chzetosis the subject is immune against subsequent infection with 
the particular species of spirochzte from which it has suffered. 

Artificial immunity may be brought about by various means, 
but most of these are too costly to warrant their application to 
the average fowl of but low monetary value. 

Compared with attempts at drug treatment or methods of 
artificial immunization against the disease, far better practical 
results are likely to accrue, we consider, from the institution 
of measures to eradicate ticks and other insect pests from the 
fowl runs. These are the agents concerned in spreading the 
disease, and in their absence it is very certain that fowls will not 
contract the malady. Moreover, there is little doubt that such 
vermin are capable of transmitting other fowl diseases as well 
as the one we have now considered. 

Mr. Lounsbury, the Cape Government Entomologist, has 
already contributed several valuable articles on the subject of 
the fowl tick, and those interested in poultry, who have not 
already consulted these, will certainly profit by so doing. In 
these articles will be found full information regarding the nature 
and habits of the pests we have mentioned, together with advice 
on the best methods to adopt in order to eradicate them from 
infected premises, construction of “‘ tick proof’’ perches, &c. 

In their own interests, therefore, we advise fowl keepers to 
consult :— 

The Agricultural Journal of the Cape of Good Hope, vol. 
xxiii, No. 3 (September, 1903), p. 261. ‘* The Fowl Tick: Studies 
on its Life Cycle and Habits.” 

The Agricultural Journal of the Cape of Good Hope, vol. xxv, 
No. 5 (November, 1904), p. 548. ‘‘ the External Parasites of 

Indexed B. As le 

The Intermediate Host of the Liver Fluke. 249 


By J. D. F. GILCHRIST, M.A., D.Sc. 
Cape Colony. 

Tue Liver Fluke is the well-known cause of a serious disease 
in sheep in every country. In the winter of 1879-1880 about 
three million sheep succumbed to this disease in England, and 
similar, if not more extensive losses have been experienced in 
other countries. It not only causes serious loss to stock, but 
renders some excellent pasture land quite unsafe for the feeding 
of sheep. 

For some time a considerable amount of mystery hung about 
the disease. It was observed that it was contracted chiefly in 
damp and swampy places, and was specially prevalent in wet 
seasons, but what connection this had with the disease was 
unknown till the life history of the parasite was traced. It was 
found that the young fluke had to pass a certain stage of its life 
history in the body of a water snail, Limnza truncatula, and that 
in the absence of this particular snail the fluke perished and the 
disease necessarily disappeared. (For further details see the 
article by Hutcheon on ** Fluke or Slak in the Liver of Sheep,’’ 
in the Agricultural Journal, January, 1905). 

Experiments were made with a view to find out whether or 
not any other fresh water or land snails could transmit the 
parasite, with negative results, except partially in the case of 
Limnxa peregra, young specimens being attacked by the para- 
site, which, however, did not develop further. 

The disease, however, is prevalent in countries where Limnzxa 
truncatula is not known to occur, and it was suggested that this 
rather small snail might be present but would be readily over- 
looked. Further investigation appears to show, however, that, 
in these countries, other snails may convey the disease, as for 
instance, Bulimus tenuistriatus in Australia (T. Cherry, in Proc. 
Roy. Soc. Vict. VIII (U.S.), 1896, p. 183). 

In South Africa Limnaa truncatula has not been found, and 
there have been various attempts to find the intermediate host 
of the fluke in this country. One of the most ingenious if not 
accurate solutions of the question was forwarded to the Agricui- 
tural Department some years ago. It was stated that the inter- 
mediate host had been found to be a worm, and that the observer 
had watched the fluke escaping from its host into the water. 
On forwarding the specimen, however, the worm was found to 
be the spawn of a toad and the fluke the escaping tadpoles. 
There is a common water snail, Physa, found in damp and 
‘“‘flukey ’’ ground, and this naturally was an object of suspicion 
in endeavouring to trace the disease. For the last two or three 

years specimens of this snail have been procured and examined, 
some from places well known to be dangerous on account of the 
practical certainty of sheep contracting the disease there, but 
no traces of cercarix (the form the fluke takes in the snail) could 
be found. I am indebted chiefly to the Government Entomo- 




250 The Veterinary $ournal. 

logist and some of the students at Elsenburg for the material 
procured. The first indication of success was in a collection of 
snails forwarded by Mr. L. H. Walsh, who has for some time 
taken a great interest in the solution of this problem. One lot 
of snails” (Physa tropica) was procured about the beginning of 
December from Alderman’s Farm, near Fir Grove Station, 
and on dissecting about a dozen of these, two or three were 
found infested with cercarie. These were, however, not those 
of Distoma hepaticum, as, of the two kinds found, one had a 
large flat bifurcate tail, and the other was provided with eyes. 
This, however, indicated the season in which the snails might 
be expected to be infected, and on procuring and examining 
a number of Physa tropica from Muizenberg Vlei, the typical 
stages of the fluke were found. About one in twenty of the) 
snails dissected had the parasite. The redia stage and the 
cercarix stage was found in this way, and the free swimming 
cercariv were procured in the water in which the snails were 
kept for a time. The stage which occurs on the grass eaten 
by the sheep has not yet however been found, nor has the 
experimental proof of the infection been made so that the evid- 
ence as yet is incomplete. 

It is remarkable how many fresh water molluscs are at this 
time of the year infected by different cercariw. In addition to 
the three named, a fourth and very distinct kind characterized 
by its small size and bristly tail was found in a small snail, 
Tomichia ventricosa. The life history of these will probably 
prove of interest, and the adult stages will probably be found 
in frogs, water fowl, or other animals living near the water in 
which they occur. 

As to the practical utility of a knowledge of the intermediate 
host of the fluke in South Africa, it mav not be found possible 
to devise means of exterminating the snail (this would, of course, 
get rid of fluke at once) but it will indicate the source of danger. 
Physa can be readily recognized: It has a small shell of a 
yellowish colour and somewhat fragile; it can be distinguished 
also by the fact that it is a left-handed shell, that is, the windings 
when looked at from the apex and traced towards the opening, 
pass in a direction opposite to the hands of a watch, whereas 
in most other shells the winding is right-handed. The snail is 
somewhat difficult to find, and does not seem to occur in great 
numbers at any one place. The cercarie can be got from in- 
fected snails by keeping them in a tube for a time when the 
parasites may be seen as minute white specks in the water just 
visible to the naked eye. They look like very small white tad- 
poles, but are by no means so large, the body being somewhat 
less than the dot over a small ‘“‘i” in this journal. 

Readers of the Journal may afford valuable assistance in 
the inquiry by forwarding specimens of water snails to the 
Zoological Department, South African College, Cape Town, for 
examination. They should, if possible, be sent alive, but speci- 
mens preserved in strong spirit, or three per cent. ‘solution of 
formalin will be of value as will also the dried shell.—A gricul- 
tural Journal of The Cape of Good Hope. 



ProFEssor J. R. U. Dewar, F.R.C.V.S., has sent in his resignation 
of the post of Principal of the Royal (Dick) Veterinary College, to 
take effect from the end of this session. 

Mr. J. T. SHARE-JonEs, M.Sc., F.R.C.V.S., has been elected 
President of the Liverpool University Veterinary Medical Society for 
the present year. 



District Veterinary Surgeon, Varel. 

Deatu through lightning stroke occurs in neighbourhoods 
where summer pasturing is prevalent, generally on the meadow, 
seldom in the stall, or in horses in the team at work. As many 
animals are insured against lightning stroke the cause of death 
must be certified by a veterinary surgeon. Some reflections on 
lightning stroke and the appearances it causes may not, therefore, 
be out of place. 

Here in the Oldenburg country it is generally cattle, often 
horses, and rarely sheep, swine or other animals that are killed 
by lightning. Now it is only a single animal, and again two, three, 
or more that fall victims. Generally the lightning strikes where 
the animal stands, but occasionally the stroke is transmitted 
greater or less distance by means of the iron wire or barbed wire 
which encloses not a few of the meadows round here. In this 
way I have seen the lightning strike a poplar tree and immediately 
kill a cow thirty or forty paces away in the meadow. The poplar 
was encircled with a barbed wire which led to the gate of a field. 
Here the cow had stood. She lay flat on her side with her head 
turned towards the gate.. Inside the gums I found a burn scar 
about the size of a pea. . 

In another case four cattle were killed at one time, although 
they stood thirty paces from each other, all being near barbed 
wire. They all lay with their heads towards the wire. In a 
further case three cattle were killed at the same time, when stand- 
ing near wire, and a few steps from each other, and two fell into 
a grave which had been dug near to the wire. 

In the Oldenburg district it was reported in the agricultural 
press that twenty horses and cattle had been killed by lightning 
in 1908, and eleven of these had died through contact with the 
wire. It was therefore recommended to interrupt the wire and 
conduct it through the ground. Dieckerhoff, Frohner, and 
Friedberger state that where the electric stream is weak or only 

Se ___ 




252 The Veterinary $ournadl. 


strikes in the neighbourhood without hitting, stupefaction and 
paralytic symptoms may ensue; and the latter arising may remain. 
I have never noticed this result, but it is possible that here, where 
the animals are more or less far removed from dwellings of their 
owners, that short continuing stupefaction would not be noticed. 

The anatomical findings, according to Friedberger and 
Frohner and others, are not very characteristic. One generally 
finds engorgement of the venous system, with dark, thin fluid 
blood, quick putrefaction of the cadaver, incomplete rigor mortis, 
as well as small hemorrhages in the internal organs and under 
the serous membranes, besides singeing of the hair; in addition, 
burning or tearing of the skin and the white parts, and, according 
to Gerlach, ‘even fracture of bone. Occasionally one may en- 
counter quite a negative result. 

Although one generally conducts a post mortem if desired, yet 
in lightning stroke, owing to the difficulty and unsatisfactory 
nature of a post mortem on a meadow, it is usual to avoid this 
matter if possible and to establish the fatality by traces left on the 
surface of the body. In my experience, 90 per cent. of the cases 
show greater or less singeing of the hair. Most frequently one 
sees stripe-like singeing over the bones or under-surface of the 
belly, but often enough in other places. ‘The singed stripes are 
3 or 4mm. broad. They run as a rule parallel on the bones from 
below to above and close together at the rump. These stripe-like 
singeings are very characteristic. Only the points of the hair 
are singed and the hair stumps near the skin ruffed up. Not 
seldom one finds such stripes on all four limbs and at several 
places on the rump. There may be flat-shaped singeings on the 
head or rump. Sometimes there is quite insignificant singeing 
on the lips, eyelids, inside the ear, at the tail, on the forehead, 
and once, as I have already noticed, a small burning scar. 

According to Friedberger and Frohner, in white-spotted cattle 
only the white spots are at times affected. ‘This, in my opinion, 
is only correct in so far as in these subjects the limbs and under- 
surface of the abdomen are white as a rule, and here singeing 
usually takes place. For the rest, from my observations | find 
black equally as much affected as white places. Rents of the 
skin or deeper wounds I have never seen in cattle, and only twice 
in horses. 

In one horse there was a transverse wound in the neck 2 cm. 
long, I cm. broad, and t cm. deep. In another case a foal stand- 
ing with its mother on the meadow, and both being killed by 
lightning, I found two large pools of blood, one in front of the 
nostrils and the other under the ear of the foal. Two rents of 
the skin were present. in the ear, one external and the other in- 
ternal, going right down to the root of the ear. Diagnosis is 
difficult when a dead animal is found in a dyke where there is 
much water. Singeing of the hair in a wet carcase or one 
covered with mud is not easy to discover. It then becomes 
necessary to differentiate between lightning stroke and death by 
drowning. Gerlach says death through drowning séldom occurs, 
and only in the small domesticated animals. But drowning may 

A Case of Epilepsy. 253 

follow a fall into a deep, narrow dyke where the head doubles up 
under the body and where young stock put out to pasture in 
spring are not used to approaching the waterways carefully; they 
become stiff and numb at first, and finally die from drowning. 

Three swine killed in a sty by lightning showed the distinct 
appearances of death from suffocation, especially cyanosis of the 
body coverings. 

Besides singeing of the hair I have noticed injected places 
under the skin and in the subcutaneous tissue at these spots. A 
careful examination is necessary if there are no external signs of 
lightning stroke, because there are owners who put down other 
illnesses to lightning stroke and do not always see an ailing 
animal out at pasture previous to a thunderstorm. In very rare 
cases eschars occur, which, after careful examination, are difficult 
to discover. 

(Deutsche Tierarstliche Wochenschrift.) 


A HoRSE belonging to a regiment of Cuirassiers, which was 
known as one of the best and most strenuous of the first 
squadron, had during the last two years half-yearly attacks of 
epilepsy, which as time went on increased in violence. Most of 
the attacks occurred in the winter half of the year. Only one 
was noticed in the summer. Before and after the attacks, only 
lasting for one day, the horse performed his vigorous service 
(patrol duty) without any injury. Any reason for the occurrence 
of the illness at half-yearly periods could not up to the present be 
discerned. Neither the greatest exertion nor total rest seemed 
to be predisposing factors. What was more, the spasms occurred 
without visible cause. . The appearances of illness were as fol- 
lows: For about an hour the horse moved restlessly up and down 
with anxious look. Then symptoms of spasms appeared. They 
began at first at the head, with trembling movements of the ears 
and nostrils. The eyes were staring. The pupils dilated to the 
full extent. The head was held in a sunken position. The horse 
drew back from the manger and steadied itself by hanging on the 
halter and chain. At a later stage the head was raised, and head 
and neck bent to the right. Convulsions now occurred in the 
muscles of the jaw. The mouth was held open and tongue held 
out limply at the side. Eyes, pupils and nostrils were opened 
wide; conjunctival mucous membranes coloured dark red, and 
power of vision arrested. The last was shown by him bumping 
his head on anything in the way. Soon after the occurrence of 
convulsions of the jaw the spasms advanced over the neck to 
the muscles of the rump, and finally over the whole body. At the 
same time there was profuse perspiration over the whole body. 
The pulse-rate was 80 per minute. The pulse beats were throb- 
bing. The respirations were 60 per minute. As the. patient 

254 The Velerinary $ournadl. 

staggered a good deal he was loosened and swayed then sideways 
and backwards. His gait was groping, stiff, and uncertain. 
Anything in the way was not noticed, and although being led 
the subject would suddenly fall. After falling headlong the con- 
vulsions gradually ceased, the horse got up, and drank some 
water. Immediately after another similar attack of like violence 
occurred, but of shorter duration. Whilst, according to Fried- 
berger and Fréhner, the longest attack only lasts half an hour, 
these attacks lasted an hour and ten minutes. The first part of 
the attack occupied three-quarters of an hour and the second 
twenty-five minutes. Whether both were separate attacks or 
only one I am unable to say. As soon as the horse had re- 
covered he was led slowly into a dark box. No medicine was 
given. In the dark box he had three slighter attacks, followed 
by slight bowing of the head, but from these he quickly re- 
covered. Between and after the attacks the animal appeared dull 
for the day. On the next day the sensorium of the horse was 
quite normal. The patient got over his weakness after a few 
days’ rest, and was put to work, and up to to-day there has been 
no recurrence. 

(Zeitschrift fiir V eterinérkunde.) 


By Proressor I. POENARU. 

THRUSH is very frequent in weak or insufficiently-nourished 
children, but one rarely observes it in adults. This complaint 
seems to have been little studied in the domesticated animals and 
a few known clinical observations treat only of the symptoma- 
tology of thrush. 

Delafond had inoculated with success the Oidium albicans of 
children into debilitated lambs, but the experiences with Saccharo- 
myces albicans of animal origin have failed up te the present. 

Cadéac, in his pathology of the internal organs, says: “It is 
pretended that thrush rages in colts, calves, and poultry, but it 
is only hypothesis.”’ There are others who say that the illness 
is also known in cats and the dog; however, nobody, until to-day, 
has described it in the pig. 

During this year I have observed a very young pig nourished 
on the artificial teat that presented on the tongue rounded plaques 
of a dirty creamy white, assuming the form of pseudo-mem- 
branes and easily detachable from the mucosa. The pig was thin, 
held its mouth open, and suction and deglutition were painful. 
It was killed during the illness. 

The whitish plaques of thrush were constituted by des- 
quamated epithelial lamellz, filaments of mycelium, spores of 
the parasite, many other microbes and some leucocytes. 

In making cultures on potato and carrots, acidified by two 

Roaring Due to a Tracheal Sarcoma. 255 

drops of a fifth sulphuric-acid solution, I obtained pure cultures 
of a creamy white. The parasite presented in these cultures a 
double aspect; spherical or oval refracting cells (yeast), some of 
which were budding; some tubular-partitioned filaments, rami- 
fied once or twice and alternating with each other. 

By injecting pure cultures (in saccharated bouillon) into the 
peritoneum of young rabbits, I noticed in one of them that was 
rachitic a pseudo-tuberculosis of the liver and peritoneum. The 
tubercles resembled little isolated or confluent pearls of a snow- 
white colour, being formed by necrotic tissue. In all these 
lesions round cells (yeast) and filamentous forms of the S. albi- 
cans were found. We have, as a result, an experimental oidian 
saccharomycosis of animal origin. 

ConcLusions.—(1) Pigs are animals capable of contracting 
thrush; (2) S. albicans of pigs is as pathogenic as S. albicans 
isolated from children; (3) By injections into the peritoneum of 
rabbits experimental oidian saccharomycosis can be produced. 

(Arhiva V eterinara.) 


Tue German regulation of March 27, 1899, declared as 
prohibitory vices causing roaring all chronic and incurable lesions 
of the throat or the aeriferous conduits denoted by an abnormal 
noise. Stenosis of the trachea comes under this category. It is 
generally due to a fracture, a luxation, or deformity of the 
tracheal cartilages: these cases are easy to diagnose. It is not 
so with tracheal tumours, especially primary ones, which are, 
however, very rare. 

The author observed such a case in a nine-year-old horse 
whose roaring had been treated by tracheotomy without success, 
the tumour being situated in the inferior part of the trachea. 
The persistence of the noise led him to think there was tracheal 
stenosis, but this was not revealed by palpation. Sounding 
showed at the entrancé to the chest a hard mass almost com- 
pletely obstructing the lumen of the tube and dilating it. An 
operation was advised, but the owner preferred to sell the animal 
to the slaughterer. The tumour in question was situated at the 
level of the fortieth cartilaginous ring; it was as large as an apple 
in size and was firmly adherent to the posterior part of the wall 
of the trachea by a base as large as a five franc piece. Histolo- 
gical examination showed the sarcomatous nature of the 

It is impossible by actual diagnostic methods to differentiate 
roaring due to these tumours from troubles arising from paralysis 
of the recurrent. 

(Monatsschrift fiir praktische Thierheilkiinde.) 

256 The Veterinary $ournal. 


Cases of cure are rare in France. Prompt extirpation en- 
abled the authors to save this subject. Three years old, the filly 
had shown intermittent attacks of mammitis for six months, leay- 
ing the organ deformed and pierced, with consecutive fistule and 
little abscesses. The general state was good. External applica- 
tions were useless. Palpation revealed indurated nodules 
scattered in the swelling; the microscope showed some botryo- 
myces. The patient was cast, the skin folded back on each side 
of a median incision 40 centimetres long, and the two mamma 
extirpated after ligature of the afferent vessels. To stop profuse 
hemorrhage a tampon of aseptic wadding was placed under the 
skin; on the morrow the filly was again cast and the tampon 
removed, together with a two-litre clot of blood; the wound was 
cleaned, drained, and sutured at its edges. Commencing gan- 
grenous septicemia yielded to lavages and injections of 
oxygenated water. The wound cicatrized slowly after suppura- 
tion and multiple abscess formation. After five months cure was 

Nevertheless the authors hesitate to advise total and hasty 
ablation always, if one wishes to avoid relapse and generalization. 

(Revue Générale de Médecine Vétérinaire.) 

Letters and Communications, &c. 

Mr. L. E. W. Bevan; Professor J. T. Share Jones; Mr. G. Mayall; Mr. E. Wallis 
Hoare; Mr. R. Ferguson Stirling; Professor Duncan; Mr. R. H. Lambert; Mr. W. 
Jowett ; Board of Agriculture and Fisheries ; Department of Agriculture and Technical 
Instruction for Ireland. 

Books and Periodicals, &c., Received. 

Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine; Bulletin of the Bureau of Sleeping 
Sickness ; The Animals’ Friend ; Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps; Agricultural 
Journal for South Africa; Rhodesian Agricultural Journal ; The Encyclopzedia of Sport 
(Mr. W. Heinemann, in fortnightly parts, 1/- net). 

Norr.—All communications should be addressed to 8, Henrietta Street, Covent 
Garden, London, W.C. Telephone, 4646 Gerrard. Telegrams, ‘‘ Bailli¢re, London.” 

Letters for the JOURNAL, literary contributions, reports, notices, books for review, 
exchanges, new instruments or materials, and all matter for publication (except advertise- 
ments) should be addressed to the Editors. 

Marfuscript—preferably type-written—should be on one side only of paper, marked 
with full name of author. 

Illustrations for reproduction should be in good black or dark brown on white paper 
or card. 

Advertisements and all business matters relating to the JOURNAL should be addressed 
to the publishers, Messrs. Bailliére, Tindall and Cox.