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Jewish History and Literature 









1 906 




Presented to the 




Farley Mernick 

in honour of 

his children 

Frances and Ron 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

University of Toronto 




Jewish History and Literature 








Copyright, 1906, by 
The Jewish Chautauqua Society 


The Cahan Pr(ess 
Philadelphia, Paj. 


Required Books. 

The Scriptures. 

The Apocrypha. 

Graetz, History of the Jews, Vols. L, II. 

The Jewish Encyclopedia. 

Encyclopedia Britannica. 

To the Student: 

The following pages of this pamphlet contain sixteen lessons, two 
for each month, covering the first year's work of the special course in 
Jewish History and Literature. 

These lessons are assigned to a period of eight months only, so 
that students may have ample time for reviews and for the study of 
recommended books, while those who begin late will be able to com- 
plete the year's work without undue haste. 

As in all the special courses of the Chautauqua, there is no absolute 
limit of time for the completion of the work, but students are urged to 
cultivate regular habits of study, and as far as possible to finish their 
work within the prescribed time. 

The following general directions will enable the student to use 
wisely the lessons offered: 

1. Study the lessons carefully in accordance with the "Sugges- 
tions" given, writing out in a separate note-book the answers to these 

2. At the end of each lesson close all books and do the work 
called for in the "Tests and Reviews." These may be written into 
papers as elaborate as time affords. Circles can also use these "Tests 
and Reviews" as topics for essays or discussions. Upon these "Tests" 
and the "Topics" the programs for circle meetings are to be based. 


Summary of Required Reading for Each Lesson. 

LESSON I— Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. I. ch. xix, pp. 354 to 

Eneyc. Articles: Palestine, Samaritans. 
LESSON II— Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. I, ch. xix, pp. 365 to 
Bible: Books of Ruth, Ezra, Nehemiah. 
LESSON III— Bible: Haggai, Zachariah, Malachi. 
Ezra ix, Nehemiah ix. 
Psalms 120 to 134. 
LESSON IV— Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. I, ch. xx. 

LESSON V— Bible: Psalms 68, 42, 43, 86, 89, 53-59. 
Bock of Chronicles. 

LESSON VI— Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. I, ch. xxi 
LESSON VII— Bible: Song of Songs. 
Encyc. Articles: Canticles, Apocrypha, Jesus, Son of 

LESSON VIII— Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. I, ch. xxii, xxiii. 

LESSON IX— Bible: Book of Daniel. 

Encyc. Articles: Daniel, Apocalyptic Literature. 

LESSON X— Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. I, ch. xxiv. 

LESSON XI— Encyc. Article: Septuagint. 

LESSON XII— Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. II, ch. i. 

LESSON XIII— The First Book of Maccabees (Apocrypha). 
Encyc. Article: Maccabees, books of. 

LESSON XIV— Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. II, chs. ii and iii to 
p. 77. 

LESSON XV— Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. II, ch. iii, p. 77, to ch, 
iv, p. 117. 

LESSON XVI — Encyc. Articles; Sibyl, Apocalyptic Literature. 



THE course in Jewish History and Literature, the first part 
of which is laid out in the following synopsis, commences 
with the return of the Jews from Babylon, and continues 
to the beginning of the Christian era. The whole period 
between that time and the present day will be covered in a series of 
special courses to follow this one. 

General acquaintance with the pre-exile Biblical History is as- 

One great difficulty in the study of Jewish History lies in the fact 
that outside influences, political, social, and literary, have had a large 
share in the development of the people. Even when the Jews were 
still a nation and in their own home, these influences were very 
marked. With the gradual dismemberment of the state, the Jew com- 
mended his Wanderings; there Is hardly a nation among whom he has 
not taken up his abode; there is hardly a great event in history in 
which he was not in some way concerned. (Read the essay by James 
Darmsteter, "Retrospect of the History of the Jewish People," in the 
Hebrew Review, Vol. ii, pp. 57 sq.; "An Essay on the History of the 
Jews" In Selected Essays of James Darmsteter, Boston, 1895, p. 241; 
S. M. Dubnow, "Jewish History," Phila., 1903.) 

This compels the student to go continually outside his own par- 
ticular field in order to study the genesis of the influences which have 
been brought to bear upon the Jew, or the extra-Jewish development in 
which the Jews have been one of the determining factors. 

I have generally indicated to which books the student is to turn. 
Where I have not, I have taken it for granted that the reader will, of 
his own accord, get the necessary information. 

It is desirable that the student should work through as much of 
the "recommended reading" as possible. Though the facts may be the 
same, the presentation and the standpoint of the authors are always 
different. In several cases, out of fear that some of the books might 
not be accessible, I have made a list longer than usual. 

A great deal of controverted matter is treated of in the following 
synopsis. While it is impossible to eliminate the subjective part in 
the treatment of any historical subject, it has been my endeavor to 
suggest points of view rather than to dogmatize. Special attention is 
generally directed to such topics, 


Bear continually in mind that the study of History does not mean 
simply the study Of facts, but the study of principles of which the facts 
are outward exponents. The principles are as living to-day as they 
were then. This is most evident in the history of the Jews. You will 
have no benefit from all your study of this history if you do not remem- 
ber that you are trying to grasp something more than a mere record 
of facts and dates; that you are trying to understand how the Jews 
have become what they are, what ideas they have stood for, and what 
part they have played in the economy of the world, for good or for 
evil. These are burning questions to-day. 

The following pages are intended to assist you to find satisfactory 
answers to these questions. 

No one system of study can be prescribed; each student must 
have his own; but use paper and pencil freely; do not be afraid to 
mark up books which are your own property. In my own work I have 
found a blue and red pencil my best aid. You have books in order to 
use them. As you read, make extracts and notes; not only in accord- 
ance with the suggestions in the lesson, but also according to your own 
judgment. These suggestions are not exhaustive, they are only meant 
to serve as directions. Keep also a sort of Index-rerum, in which to 
note facts and thoughts which you think worth keeping; arrange such 
an index alphabetically and make your references under certain sub- 
ject headings. The card index system is the best. In doing the work 
domanded under the Tests and Reviews, do it conscientiously. Be care- 
ful that whatever you write be good in diction and style. Clear diction 
goes hand in hand with clear thinking. A multitude of words often 
veils a shallow mind. 


The first edition of this syllabus having been exhausted, I have 
been asked to prepare a second one. I have subjected it to a complete 
revision, and have added references to books and articles which have 
appeared since it was first written. 

Though I have received a number of oral and written communica- 
tions complaining that some of the lessons were too difficult for the 
ordinary reader, I have not seen my way to make a change. I should 
like to impress upon the "ordinary reader" the thought that it is always 
difficult to acquire knowledge — in whatsoever branch of human activity 
such knowledge lies. That which is worth having is worth working 


for. There is only one golden rule for the student — hard labor. Even 
an "ordinary reader" becomes a student for the time being when ne 
takes up tnis syllabus. Such hard work need not be disagreeable or 
irksome. I have tried to make it as pleasant as possible. Grown-up 
people ought not to be satisfied when infant food is offered to them. 

The growth of clubs and of circles using these syllabi has made it 
seem advisable to add a separate section in each lesson, in which topics 
for public discussion, for written papers and the like are suggested. 
My idea has been throughout to make readers feel the real questions 
which were at issue. And these questions are as real to-day as they 
were at the time of which the various lessons treat. An especial rec- 
ommendation to use these suggestions goes with the added sections. 
Meetings of Jewish bodies should be informing and stimulating. They 
should deal with topics, and thus avoid personalities, which cause so 
many of such meetings to end in mutual recriminations. I have the 
additional hope that the topics here presented for discussion will re- 
move whatever remoteness the subject may seem to have. There are no 
dry bones in Jewish history and in Jewish thought. The hand of God 
has made such events and such thoughts live again and again; too 
often the chastening hand of affliction and pain. Our religion bas 
taught us the proper view to take of Israel's suffering. We must learn 
what that suffering teaches; and our study of Jewish history can be 
fraught with good only if we allow ourselves to be taught in this way. 


Columbia University, N. Y. 
May, 1906. 



I. Required Reading in History. 

1. Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. I, ch. xix, pp. 354 to 365. 

2. Jewish Encyclopedia, Encyc. Britannica, articles: Palestine, Samar- 

II. Suggestions. 

1. When you read history, always keep open before you a map of the 
country the history of which you are studying. A general knowl- 
edge of the lay of Palestine is needed. Study the relative positions 
of Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Assyria, Babylonia, the Arabian 
Desert, and Egypt. Townsend MacCoun, "The Holy Land in Geog- 
raphy and in History," N. Y., 1897, Vol. I, will be found especially 
useful because of its many maps. George Adams Smith's "The 
Historical Geography of the Palestine" may also be used as a 
reference work. It is full of accurate information and is in every 
way readable. See also the maps in the index volume of Graetz's 
History and in the Jewish Encycl. 

2. On Cyrus and the Persian Monarchy, read, Ranke, Universal His 
tory Edited by Prothero, N. Y., 1886, pp. 89-115. 

3. Observe the following Chronological Table: 

B. C. 

536. Cyrus. 

529. Cambyses. 

522. Pseudo-Smerdis (Gaumata), 

for seven months. 
522. Darius Hystaspes. 
516. Completion of the Temple. 
485. Xerxes. 

465. Artaxerxes I. (Longimanus). 
458. Mission of Ezra. 
444. Nehemiah's first visit to 

Jerusalem (Neh. 2, I). 
432. Nehemiah's second visit to 

B. C. 

Jerusalem (Neh. 13, 6, sq.). 
425. Xerxes II. (2 months). 
425. Sogdianus (7 months). 
405. Artaxerxes II. (Mnemon). 
359. Ochus. 
351—331. Jaddua, High - priest 

(Neh. 12, 11). 
339. Arses. 

336. Darius Codomanus. 
332. Persian empire overthrown 

by Alexander the Great. 


Note carefully the difference in the character of the people before 
and after the exile. They went into exile as a people and returned 
as a religious community. 

It is interesting to note that in the excavations made at Nippur 
by the Babylonian expedition of the University of Pennsylvania 
evidence was found that some of the captives must have been sta- 
tioned in that city. See Hilprecht, "Explorations in Bible Lands," 
Phil., 1903, p. 410. 

Note also that the difficulties the new colonists had to contend 
with were due largely to this changed character referred to in Note 

4. The opposition to mixed marriages on the part of Ezra and 
Nehemiah was necessary to the state as a religious body. 

Read the article Samaritans in Encyc. Britannica and in the Jewish 

III. Tests and Reviews. . 

What was the position of the Jewish community in Babylon? 

Why did not the whole community return to Palestine? 

What difficulties did the colonists have to contend with? 

Who were the Samaritans; what caused the opposition to them by 

the Jewish leaders; was such opposition beneficial to the new 


IV. Topics for Discussions and for Essays. 

Are the Jewish people to-day a nation or a religious community? 
See, on the one hand, the files of "The Maceabaean" (N. Y.), and 

5. A. Hirsch, "Israel a Nation," in his "Book of Essays," London, 
1905, p. 151; on the other, M. H. Harris, "Are the Jews a Nation 
To-day?" in Jew-Quart., Rev., Vol. II, p. 166, and C. G. Montefiore, 
"Nation or Religious Community," Ibid, Vol. XII, p. 177. 

What is the Jewish position in regard to mixed marriages? Are 
they ro be encouraged? Are they inevitable? 

What admixtures have been made to the Jewish stock; to what 
degree has the Jewish Race retained its Semitic characteristics? 
Was Nehemiah right in refusing the aid offered by the Samaritans, 
or is his action to be characterized as bigotry? 


5. Alexander the Great in Jewish Legend. See the article in the 
Jewish Encyclopedia. 

6. For recitation "In Exile," in Isabel E. Cohen, "Readings and Reci- 
tations," Phil., 1895, p. 179. 

V. Recommended Reading. 

Beecher, Post-Exilic History of Israel, Old and New Testament Student, 

Vols. IX and X. 
Budge, Babylonian Life and History. London, 1884. 
Geiger, Judaism and Its History. N. Y., 1886. Lecture 6. 
Montefiore, Hibbert Lectures, London, 1892, No. 6, pp. 286-354. 
Raphall, Post-Biblical History of the Jews, Vol. I, ch. i. 
Schaff, Through Bible Lands, ch. xxxi. (Samaritans.) 
Stanley, History of the Jewish Church, Lecture 43. 
Duff, The Theology and Ethics of the Hebrews, N. Y., 1902, p. 181 (The 

Exiles and Their Problems), p. 186 (The Exilic Literature). 
Ottley, The Religion of Israel, Cambridge, 1905, p. 106 (Israel in 

H. P. Smith, Old Testament History, N. Y., 1903, p. 301 sq. 
Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible, articles Palestine, Samaritans. On 

Cyrus, see Jewish Encyclopedia and Dictionary of the Bible, s.v. 

Life at Babylon During the Captivity, in T. C. Pinches' The Old 

Test, in the light of Assyria and Babylon, London, 1903, p. 430 sq. 



I. Required Reading in History. 

Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. I, ch. xix, pp. 365-388. 
Bible, Books of Ruth, Ezra, Nehemiaa, and the articles on them in the 
Jewish Encyclopedia. 

II. Suggestions. 

1. Observe the beginning of strict Legalism. Prophecy was dying 
out in the persons of Haggai, Zachariah and Malachi. Ezra was a 
Sopher and expounder of the Law. Whether the middle books of 
the Pentateuch were written at this time, or only thoroughly en- 
forced, is an entirely distinct question. The Law (Thorah) became 
the guide. 

2. Note the dual character of the leadership. The priestly head was 
on a par with the political, if not superior to it. The necessary 
results of such an arrangement will be seen in the after history. 

3. The century in which this history lies was a remarkable one; it 
saw the rise of Confucianism in China, of Buddhism in India, per- 
haps also of Zoroastrianism in Persia. 

III. Tests and Reviews. 

1. Who was Ezra; in what light did he look upon the Law; and to 
what extent are his teachings the precursors of the later Legalism? 

2. To what cause must the assistance granted by the Persian kings 
be ascribed? 

3. Who was Nehemiah; what prompted him to aid the struggling 
community in Jerusalem? 

4. Who was Sanballat, and in what manner did he hinder the work 
of consolidation? 

5. In what manner was Jerusalem populated; and how did Nehemiah 
make the humane tendencies of the Law operative? 

6. What were the "scribes," and in what did their chief activity 

7. What was the Great Assembly? 

IV. Topics for Discussions and for Essays. 

1. Jewish legalism; was the law a burden to the Jews? 

2. What are the relative positions of Orthodoxy and Reform on this 

3. Contrast Jewish prophecy with that of other great religious 

4. The history of the Torah in the Synagogue and the various prac- 
tices that grew up around the reading of it in the service. 

5. The relative value of Priests and Prophets in ancient Israel. 

6. Why are priests unnecessary in the Jewish polity to-day? 

7. The great century of religious light. Are there definite periods in 
the religious and mental development of mankind? 

8. Do we need a great Assembly or a Synod to-day? (See the dis- 
cussion in the Year book of the Central Conference of American 
Rabbis, since 1900, especially article of H. G. Enelow, p. 104 et seq.) 

9. For recitation, "Nehemiah," in Isabel E. Cohen, Readings and 
Recitations, Phil., 1895, p. 148. 

V. Recommended Reading. 

Beecher, Post-Exilic History of Israel. Old and New Testament Stu- 
dent, Vols. IX and X, id. Bible Studies, N. Y., 1893, p. 420 (Naomi 
and Ruth). 

Bible for Learners. Boston, 1S79. Vol. II, chs. 15, 16, 17. 

Ryle, Ezra and Nehemiah. Cambridge, 1893. 

Stanley, History of the Jewish Church. Lectures 44 and 45. 

Geiger, Montefiore and Raphall as in the previous lesson. 

Jewish Encyclopedia, article Synagogue (Great). 

J. Jacobs, Recent Research in Biblical Archaeology in his "Studies 
in Biblical Archaeology." London, 1894. 

Richard G. Moulton, Biblical Idyls (Ruth), N. Y., id. in Women of the 
Bible, N. Y., 1900, p. 89 (Ruth the Gleaner). 

Jewish Addresses, London, 1904, p. 134 (Liberty and Law), p. 188 
(A Fence to the Law). 



I. Required Reading in Literature. 

The prophets Malachi, Haggai and Zachariah. Read the fine exhorta- 
tions in Ezra, ch. 9; Nehemiah, ch. 9; the Psalms of Ascent, 

II. Suggestions. 

1. Note the decadence of the literary expression called prophecy. 

2. Compare the style of these prophets with the freshness and orig- 
inality of Amos or Hosea. 

3. Observe the tone of promise and consolation in Haggai and Zach- 
ariah, and their picture of the Messianic time. 

4. Note that only chapters 1-8 in Zachariah are by the author; and 
that these only are to be considered here. 

B. Note that "in place of the oratorical development of a subject, 
usual in earlier prophets, there appears in Malachi a dialectic 
treatment by means of question and answer. We have here the 
first traces of that method of exposition, which in the schools 
that rise about this time becomes ultimately the prevalent one." 


6. Work out for yourselves the references in Malachi to events occur- 
ring during the restoration. 

7. Read attentively the Psalms mentioned above. Remember that 
there is no consensus of opinion in regard to the actual date of 
their composition. To one wishing to read further on the subject 
(Hebrew poetry in general, the different compositions within the 
Psalm book, etc.) ch. 7, in Driver's Introduction to the Literature 
of the Old Testament, N. Y., is recommended; where the whole 
literature on the subject will be found. 

III. Tests and Reviews. 

1. In what matter does the style of Haggai and Zachariah differ from 
that of the earlier prophets? 

2. What ideas are contained in the subject matter of their prophecies? 

3. How does Malachi differ still further in point of style? 


4. What is the chief argument of his prophecies; and what bearing 
has the discourse at the end of ch. 3, upon the beginning of Legal- 
ism mentioned in Lesson II? 

5. Why are the Psalms 120-134 called Psalms of Ascent? Do you 
know of other psalm-books, or collections within the Book of 

IV. Topics for Discussions and for Essays. 

1. The Messianic Idea in Judaism: what was the reason for its rise, 
and what was its history? ("The Messiah Idea in Jewish History" 
by Rev. J. H. Greenstone J. Pub. Soc. Phila., 1906.) 

2. Do the Jews still await a Messiah? 

3. The gradual growth of the present Book of Psalms. 

4. Why did the Jews reject Jesus as the Messiah? 

V. Recommended Reading. 

Cneyne, The Origin and Religious Contents of the Psalter. New York, 

1891. See index. 
Articles Malachi, Haggai, Zachariah and Psalms, in Encyc. Britannica, 

in the Jewish Encyclopedia or in McClintock's and Strong's Encyc. 

of Biblical Literature. 
Briggs, Biblical Study. N. Y., 1887, ch. 9. 
Hunter, "After the Exile." One Hundred Years of Jewish History and 

Literature, 1890. 
George Rawlinson, Ezra and Nehemiah, Their Lives and Times. New 

York, 1891. 
Perowne, Haggai and Zachariah, Cambridge, 1890. 
G. Gottheil, The Great Refusal in Unitarian Rev. Vol. XXVII, 1887. 


I. Required Reading in History. 
1. Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. I, ch. xx. 

II. Suggestions. 

1. Note that the records of the history of this period are very scarce; 
no great names are mentioned. 

2. Observe that at this time the ordinary Hebrew characters came 
into vogue. See Taylor, The Alphabet, London, 1883, Vol. I, pp. 
268 sq., also article "Alphabet" Jewish Engl. 

3. Notice the various means by which the Jewish Church was estab- 
lished in these times. 

(a) The Supreme Court of seventy men was formed. 

(b) Schools were built. 

(c) Synagogues were founded, which, in the various communities, 
took the place of the Temple at Jerusalem. This was the first 
act of denationalization. 

(d) The Synagogue service was planned in its general lines; read- 
ings from the Law; later on,, readings from the Prophets. 

4. Observe how the study of the Law (Thorah) was bearing fruit; 
how this Law had to be applied to new circumstances; why "a 
fence" had to be built to protect the old Law; and how from both 
causes there arose an additional or "Oral Law." 

5. The theology, or system of religious beliefs, was also enlarged and 
deepened. Notice especially here the influence of Persian relig- 
ious ideas, not only in introducing new thoughts, but also in ad- 
vancing and deepening old ones. Cheyne, in his book quoted in 
the previous lesson, has tried to find this influence in a large 
number of psalms. Stress is laid on the laws of ritual cleanliness 
and uncleanliness. The doctrines regarding angels, devils, retri- 
bution, the resurrection and future life, are specially developed. 

6. Note the commencement of another influence, the Grecian, which 
was destined to advance still further at a later epoch. 

III. Tests and Reviews. 

1. What act on the part of the Samaritans finally and forever sepa- 
rated them from their Judaean brethren? 

2. In what body was the supreme authority vested at this time? 

3. What caused the expansion of the Law (Torah), and the increase 
in the number of its ordinances? 

4. What do you mean by the "Midrash"? 

5. How was the service in the synagogue arranged? 

What do you mean by the Readings from the Law; the Haftaroth? 

6. What outside influence was brought to bear upon the Jewish 
theology of the time? 

7. What doctrines seem to have been influenced? In what way did 
the Jewish belief, however, differ from the belief which in- 
fluenced it? 

8. What is the doctrine regarding the life after death as contained 
in the Old Testament? 

9. How did Greek influence commence to make itself felt in Judaea? 
1<j. At the death of Alexander the Great, to what power did Judaea 

become subservient? 

IV. Topics for Discussions and for Essays. 

1. The history and developement of education among the Jews. 
J. Ency, article Education. 

2. The development of the Synagogue Service from that of the 

3. The value of a Ritual Service. Does a set ritual promote worship, 
or the reverse? 

4. Is the growth of an oral law, side by side with the written one, 
a necessity? Illustrate this from other systems of law, religious 
and secular. Among the Jews, the instance of the Karaites is 
quite instructive! 

'). The doctrine of the resurrection and of the future life; its religious 
and its ethical basis. Why is so little stress laid upon it in the 
Old Testament? 

0. Do we believe in a "Devil"? 

7. The difference between the Grecian artistic and the Jewish ethical 

5. What have the Jews' done for the development of art? 


9. Ought art — e. g., painting and sculpture — to have a place in the 
Synagogue? Are representations of the human figure in Jewish 
religious art permissable and advisable? 

V. Recommended Reading. 

Cheyne, Hampton Lectures, 1891, Lecture 8, Part 2. 

Stanley, History of the Jewish Church, Lectures 45 and 47. 

Clarke, Ten Great Religions, ch. 5, or, 

Rawlinson, the Religions of the Ancient World, 1893, ch. 3. 

Jackson, Articles Avesta and Zoroaster, in the International Encyc. 

Encyc. Britannica, Articles Avesta, Zoroaster. 
Cheyne, Aids to the Devout Study of Criticism, N. Y., 1892, part 2. 
Nutt, Sketch of Samaritan History, London, 1874. 
Milman, History of the Jews, book 9, in part. 
H. P. Smith, Old Testament History, N. Y., 1903, p. 382 (Nehemiah 

and After). 
Morris Joseph, Judaism as Creed and Life, London, 1903, p. 297 (The 

Synagogue and Its Services). 


I. Required Readings in Literature. 

Psalms, 68, 42, 43, 86, SO, 53-59. 

Bible: Book of Chronicles. 

Article Chronicles in the Jewish Encyclopedia. 

II. Suggestions. 

i. It is well to call to mind again the extreme difficulty connected 
with the dating of the Psalms. Read the introduction and the first 
lecture in Cheyne's ■ Bampton Lectures; other schools of Biblical 
criticism assign very different dates. See Creelman, "Are there 
Maccabaean Psalms"? Old and New Testament Student, Vol. XV, 
pp. 94 sq. 

2. Examine for yourself the psalms mentioned above; see whether 
the whole tenor breathes the spirit of this epoch; can you find 
any more definite allusions in them to historical events? 

3. Observe the mention of the Jewish Church as a whole in these 
psalms; they are not individual: they are not even national. Do 
they not seem to you to have been composed for a congregation 
of worshippers? Bear in mind the difference in character of the 
people before and after the exile. 

4. Psalm 68 has been called the greatest ode in Hebrew Literature. 
Notice the Chasidim in Psalms 86, 85 and 89. 

5. Note that in the Book of Chronicles the author is very far removed 
from the events which he describes; that he differs in many small 
matters from the much earlier authors of the Book of Kings. We 
have here, to a certain extent, idealized history. Notice also, the 
didactic tendency of the narrative. 

Observe the stress laid upon the History of Judaea — to the exclu- 
sion of the "House of Israel." 

8. The sources used are undoubtedly the earlier historical books of 
the Bible; but there are others which are specially mentioned. 
In reading, make a note of these sources. 


III. Tests and Reviews. 

1. What Psalters can you name within the Psalter? 

2. Does the Psalmist of the poems mentioned speak in his own name; 
if not, in whose? Point out some examples. 

3. Who are the Chasidim? 

4. What sources have been used by the compiler of the Book of 

5. In what way does his whole presentation of Jewish History differ 
from that in the earlier books? Give some examples. 

IV. Topics for Discussions and for Essays. 

1. Is there a Jewish Church? 

2. The essential Unity of Judaism, in spite of much diversity. 

3. In order to preserve this unity, what concessions are necessary 
or advisable? 

4. The use of the Psalter in Jewish and Christian worship, and its 
influence upon the religious and spiritual development of the world. 

V. Recommended Reading. 

Cheyne, Bampton Lectures 3, part 2. 

James Robertson, The Poetry and the Religion of the Psalter, N. Y., 

1898 (especially recommended). 
Driver's Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament, N. Y., 

1905, ch. xii. 
Smith, Article Chronicles, in the mncyc Britannica. 


I. Required Reading in History. 
1. Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. I, ch. xxi. 

II. Suggestions. 

1. Note the gradual disintegration of the people, due to several causes. 

(a) The geographical position of Palestine, which made it a shuttle- 
cock' between the kingdoms of Syria and Egypt; some Judaeans 
were friendly to one power, some to the other. Compare this 
with the earlier history (Assyria and Egypt). 

(b) The influence of Greek Civilization. Note the character of this 
civilization, which was not the true Greek, but its later Syrian 
and Alexandrian development (see, e. g. Mommsen, History of 
Rome, Vol. V, chs. 10 and 12; Ranke, Universal History, ed. 
Prothero, N. Y., 1885, pp. 89-115). Dionysian festivals and 
other rites were introduced; a blind admiration of the things 
Greek worked evil. This caused the further advance of the 
Chasidim, or the intensely national and religious party. 

(c) The character of those occupying the high priestly office, 
which was sold to the highest bidder. 

2. Note the upper hand gained by the Seleucid Kings, and the internal 
quarrels which led to the direct interference of Seleucus II (P. C. 
1ST) in the person of his general, Heliodorus in Jerusalem. This 
afterwards led to the cruelties which culminated in the Macca- 
baean revolt. 

III. Tests and Reviews. 

1. In what manner did Simon the Just act beneficently upon the 
Jewish Community? 

2. What two political parties arose at this time; by what events was 
the split caused? 

:!. What two other parties were there, which to a certain extent had 

a religious character? 
4. What character had the Greek civilization which was introduced 

into Palestine? 


5. In what way was its whole spirit different from the spirit incul- 
cated by the Law, as understood by the strict Jews of this time? 

6. What position did the common people hold in reference to these 
parties ? 

7. Who were the Tobiads, and what improper use did they make of 
their opportunities? 

8. In what year did Judaea come under the rule of the Seleucid 

IV. Topics for Discussions and for Essays. 

1. The geographical position of Palestine as a point of contact be- 
tween three continents. 

2. The future of Palestine under modern conditions: railroads, com- 
merce, etc. 

3. What part are the Jews taking in its upbuilding? 

V. Recommended Reading. 

Rawlinson, Manual of Ancient History, N. Y., 1875, pp. 23S-247. 

Stanley, Lectures on the Jewish Church, lect. 47. 

Raphall, Post-Biblical History of the Jews, Phil., 1S5G, Vol. I, chs. 

2 and 3. 
Bible for Learners, Vol. II, chap. 21, in part (Boston, Roberts Bros., 

Edwyn Bevan, Jerusalem under the High-Priests, London, 1904, p. 1 

(jThe End of the Persian Period). 


I. Required Reading in Literature. 

Bible: The Song of Songs; Ecclesiasticus. (Apocrypha.) Jew. Encyc. 

article: "Sirach." 
Encyc. Britannica articles: Canticles; Apocrypha, Jesus Son of Sirach. 
Montefiore, The Bible for Home Reading, Vol. II, p. 62 (Ecclesiasticus). 

II. Suggestions. 

1. Note that Graetz stands pretty well alone in fixing the date of the 
Song of Songs as late as this. 

2. Study carefully, in Encyc. Britannica, the two chief views in refer- 
ence to the interpretation of the book. 

3. Compare it in form with the other drama of the Old Testament 
(Job), and study the difference in the presentation. 

4. Notice that there is nothing religious in the whole book, but that 
it has still a strong, ethical background. 

5. Try and arrange the material for yourself in the form of a drama. 

6. Study carefully the difference between the canonical books and 
the apocryphal books of the Old Testament, as this difference 
found expression in the Jewish, Catholic and Protestant Churches. 

7. Compare the ideas as expressed in the Book of Ecclesiasticus with 
those expressed in the Book of Proverbs. 

8. Observe the position which the fulfilment of the Law occupies as 
a large part of "the fear of God"; also the view of Wisdom as here 
expressed (see Drummond, Philo Judaeus, Vol. 1, pp. 144 sq). 

III. Tests and Reviews. 

1. Upon what argument does the late date assigned to the Song of 
Songs rest? 

2. What would you say in regard to its dramatic form? Is there 
really a plot, and how is the action terminated? 

3. What two views are current in regard to the dramatis-personae, 
and in regard to the lay of the different scenes? 

4. As a type, in what way has the book been regarded by both syna- 
gogue and church, in the endeavor to explain its admission into 
the Canon? 

5. What do you understand by the Apocryphal Books? 

6. When did Jesus Sirach live, and in what language was his book 
originally written? 


7. What caused the Alexandrian Jews to accept Sirach, whilst the 
Palestinean Jews excluded it from the Canon? 

8. What is the subject matter of the book, and what is its chief 

9. In what way did the author take the Book of Proverbs as his 

IV. Topics for Discussions and for Essays. 

1. The religious basis for ethical teaching. 

2. The recovery of the Hebrew original of Ecclesiasticus from the 
Cairo Geniezah. 

3. The necessity of a Canon of Scripture. 

4. The value of the Apocrypha for religious and ethical teaching. 

5. Ought the Apocrypha to be freely used in the service and ritual 
of the Synagogue? 

V. Recommended Reading. 

Driver's Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament, N. Y., 
Scribner's, 1905, chap. 10, sec. 1. 

Griffis, The Lily Among Thorns; A Study of the Biblical Drama, en- 
titled, The Song of Songs, Leonardsville, N. Y. 

Kirkpatrick, The Divine Library of the Old Testament, London, 1891. 

Article Apocrypha, in McClintock and Strong's Encyc. 

Edersheim, Ecclesiasticus, The Apocrypha, ed. by Wace, Vol. I, pp. 
1-239, and 

Salmon, Introduction to the Apocrypha. Ibid, pp. 10-46. 

Chadwick, The Bible of To-day, N. Y., 1869. 5th lect. 

Schuerer, The History of the Jews, at the Time of Christ, Vol. I, sec. 3. 
Introduction and sub-section 3 (Scribner's Sons, N. Y., 1891).* 

Beecher, Post-Exilic History of Israel, Old and New Testament Student, 
Vol. X, pp. 220 sq. 

The Religious Ideas of the Book of Ecclesiasticus, Old and New Testa- 
ment Student, Vol. XIII, p. 265. 

Streane, The Age cf the Maccabees, London, 1898, p. 96 (Apocrypha). 

Cheyne, Job and Solomon, N. Y., 1887, pp. 179-198 (The Wisdom of 
Jesus the Son of Sirach). 

Bevan, Jerusalem Under the High Priests, London, 1904, p. 31 (Hel- 
lenism and Hebrew Wisdom), p. 53 (Ecclesiacticus). 

* Schuerer's work is divided into two Parts, the first numeral always 
refers to the Part, without regard to the volume. The notation 
of the sections is similar in both the German and English Editions. 



I. Required Reading in history. 

Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. I, chs. xxii and xxiii. 
Montefiore, Bible for Home Reading, Vol. II, p. 655 sq. 

II. Suggestions. 

1. Study the synopsis of the History of Syria, in Schuerer 1, pp. 169. 
185 (Eng. Tr.), or, Rawlins'on, Manual of Ancient History, pp. 

2. Study well the causes which led to the Maccabaean revolt. 

(a) The character of Antiochus. 

(b) The degeneration of the High priestly office. 

(c) The still further advance of Hellenism in favoring Syrian 
interference and Syro-Grecian culture. 

(d) The attempt at forcible Hellenization; the inhibition of the 
Sabbath, and of eating ritually clean food; heathen altar in 

the temple. 

3. In studying the facts of the Rebellion, consider them in the fol- 
lowing groups: 

(a) The first uprising under Mattathias, 168 B. C. up to the cleans- 
ing of the Temple, 165 B. C. 

(b) Two years of comparative peace, 165-163 B. C. 

(c) The war against Lysias and Nicanor, up to the death of Juda, 
163-160 B. C. 

(d) The war under Jonathan against Bacchides, 160-152 B. C. 

(e) The comparative advance made during the reign of Alexander 
Balas, 152-146 B. C. 

4. Is it a coincidence that the Feast of Chanuka falls near the time 
of the winter solstice, and that it is celebrated by the lighting of 
lights? Do you know of any parallels? Read Psalm 30, which, if 
not composed for this occasion, is the proper psalm for the festival. 

5. Would the uprising have been successful had the Syrian kingdom 
itself not been divided into factions? 

6. Read the poems of Emma Lazarus, The Banner of the Jew, and 
Feast of Lights, in her collected works. Boston, 18S9, Vol. II, pp. 
10 and 18. 


7. Remark the first introduction of Rome into the affairs of Judaea, 
at the demand of Juda himself; this was afterwards to cost Judaea 
her hard-gained independence. 

III. Tests and Reviews. 

1. What causes led to the Maccabaean revolt? 

2. Who were the leaders of the insurgents, and to what family did 
they belong? 

3. Where were the chief battles fought, during the period mentioned 

4. Explain the festival of Chanuka, and its significance. 

5. With what other nations, besides Syrians, had Juda to deal; with 
what internal faction? 

G. What three parties now existed in the Jewish State? 

7. State the manner in which the sons of Mattathias met their death. 

8. What troubles in Syria contributed to the final success of the 
Jewish arms? 

9. What was the character of Jonathan, and in what way did it differ 
from that of Juda? 

10. Relate the story of Alcimus. 

11. How did Jonathan come to assume the dignity of High Priest? 

IV. Topics for Discussions and for Essays. 

1. The Maccabaean spirit among the Jews. 

2. The Jews as warriors while their own State existed. 

3. The Jews in the armies and navies of the world. 

4. The Jews in the army and the navy of the United States. 

5. Is physical resistance (self-defense) permissable at all times; is 
it demanded at some? 

6. Ought Jews in our modern times still celebrate Channkkah? Dis- 
cuss the attitude of Jews towards Christmas celebrations. 

7. "TheHannaukah Hymn" (by G. Gottheil) in the Union Prayer Book, 
p. 47, may be used as a recitation, or it may be sung to the ancient 
melody, "Ma'oz Tsur." See also "The Maccabaean War of Libera- 
tion," by Ludwig Stern, in H. Abarbanel, English School and 
Family Reader, N. Y., 1883, p. 115; Grace Aguilar, "The Martyr 
Mother," Ibid, p. 125. Mattathias a poem by Fredrick Atkinson 
Longmans, Green & Co., N. Y. 1906. 


8. Longfellow's "Judas Maccabaeus" may be recited, and the music 
of Handel's oratorio may be used at Channkah festivals. 

V. Recommended Reading. 

Schuerer, Vol. 1, sec. 45, 6. 

Milman, History of the Jews, Book 10. 

Stanley, History of tne Jewish Church, Lecture 48. 

Josephus, Antiquities, 12, 5-13, 6. 

Beecher, Post-Exilic History of Israel, Old and New Testament Student, 

Vol. X, pp. 294-300. 
Raphall, Post-Biblical History of the Jews, Vol. I, chs. 4, 5, 6, 7. 
Conder, Judas Maccabaeus and the Jewish War of Independence, 

N. Y., 1881. 
Riggs, A History of the Jewish People, N. Y., 1900, pp. 14-58. 
H. P. Smith, Old Testament History, N. Y., 1903, p. 413 sq., 441 sq. 
Bevan, Jerusalem Under the High Priests, London, 1904, p. 69 (Judas 

Maccabeus and His Brethren). 
Alfred J. Church, The Hammer: A Story of the Maccabean Times. 

Putnam, N. Y., 1893. 



I. Required Reading in Literature. 

Bible: Book of Daniel. 

Jew. Encyc, Encyc. Britannica, Dictionary of the Bible, Articles: 

Apocalyptic Literature, Daniel. 
Montefiore, The Bible for Home Reading, Vol. II, p. GS1 sq. 

II. Suggestions. 

1. Study carefully the character of the literature of this period under 
the following heads: 

(a) Its pseudepigraphic character. (Spurious writing purporting 
to be Biblical in character and inspired in authorship.) 

(b) Its apocalyptic form. ("Mystic pictures purporting to be vis- 
ions of the future unrolled before some seer of long ago.") 

(c) The general contents of such writings. 

(d) Tbe difference between them and the real prophetic works. 

2. Nearly all critics are now of the opinion that the Book of Daniel 
is a product of the Maccabaean period, and that it was published 
before the dedication of the Temple. 

3. Notice tnat the book ^divides itself into two parts, chs. 1-6 and 7 12. 

4. Read the book after you have gained a good knowledge of the 
history of the period, and note: 

(a) The Tour kingdoms, the last of which is the Grecian, divided 
into two parts after the death of Alexander. 

(b) In chs. 10-12 we have the history of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid 

(c) The details increase as the time of Antiochus Epiphanes is 
reached. Follow up the history of this king, in ch. 10, verses 

(d) The historical horizon does not go beyond this time. 

5. The book is (already) written partly in Aramaic (2, 4-7, 28). 

6. Why was Daniel admitted in the Canon, and not Ecclesiasticus, 
which was composed at an earlier date? 

7. On the Maccabaean Psalms, see Driver's Introduction, pp. 364-367, 


III. Tests and Reviews. 

1. What do you mean by pseudepigraphic and apocalyptic literature? 
What is the general thought they are meant to convey; are they 
historical or parenetic (hortatory, persuasive) in character? 
What effect had such writings upon the people? 
Point out in what manner the history of this period is really 
described in Daniel. 

When would you place the exact date of its composition, and why? 
Why is the language partly Hebrew, partly Aramaic? 

IV. Topics for Discussions and for Essays. 

1. The influence of the Book of Daniel on Maccabaean War, compared 
with that of Mrs. Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin," on Civil War in 
U. S. and other historic examples of a similar kind, "Ground 
Arms," by Baroness Bertha Von Suttner, and "The Future of 
War," by Jean de Bloch (Ginn & Co., Boston), in bringing about 
the Peace Conference at The Hague, 1899. 

2. The establishment and maintenance of a Library of Jewish Books 
by the Chautauqua Circle might well be discussed, and plans for 
same in connection with a Jewish congregation or the Public 
Library be worked out as a practical and permanent benefit to 
the community. 

V. Recommended Reading. 

Schuerer, Vol. I, sees. 32, 5 and 5, 1. 

Driver's Introduction, ch. 11 (omitting technical matter). 
Bible for Learners, Vol. II, pp. 555-566. 
Deane, Daniel: His Life and Times, N. Y., 1889. 
Streane, The Age of the Maccabees, Appendix C (on Daniel). 
Driver, The Book of Daniel, in the Cambridge Bible for Schools, Cam- 
bridge, 1901 (very valuable). 


I. Required Reading in History. 
Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. I, ch. xxiv. 

II. Suggestions. 

1. Note the gradual development of Judaism outside of Palestine, 
even whilst the Temple was still standing. 

2. Study the history of Alexandria in Smith's Diet, of Classical Geogr. 
s. v. (or McClintock and Strong, or Encyc. Britann.); the history 
of the Jews in Alexandria will be found in the Jew. Encyc. s. v. 

3. Read Kingsley's novel. "Hypatia," for a view of the social condi- 
tions of the city. 

4. Note the peculiar development of Judaism among Alexandrian 
Jews due to 

(a) Their surroundings. 

(b) Their comparative isolation from Judaea. 

5. On the Samaritans in Egypt, see articles Alexandria and Egypt 
in the Jew. Encyc. 

G. Study carefully the advances made in Palestine towards complete 

independence, under Simon. 
7. Simon turns to Rome for aid, as his brother Juda had done before 


III. Tests and Reviews. 

1. When did the successive emigrations of Jews to Egypt take place? 

2. Give a short account of the position of the Jews in Alexandria. 

3. Why was a temple built there; and what effect did this building 
of a temple have upon the developement of the people? Site of 
Temple of Onias was discovered in 1906 at Tel el Yetrudiyeh by 
Prof. Flinders Petrie of London. 

4. What claim had Onias to the leadership; and what extra-com- 
munal office did he hold? 

5. What do you know about the Samaritan colony in Alexandria? 

6. What do you know of the persecutions under Ptolemy VII 

7. What advantages, leading towards complete independence, were 
gained by Simon? 

8. How did he finally crush the Jewish Hellenists? 


9. What war took place in his reign? 
10. How did Simon meet his death? 

IV. Topics for Discussions and for Essays. 

1. The development of Hellenism in Alexandria. 

2. The Jews in Alexandria and their relations with other people there. 

V. Recommended Reading. 

Rawlinson, Manual of Ancient History, pp. 261-284. 

Raphall, Post-Biblical History of the Jews, Vol. I, ch. 8, Vol. II, pp. 9-63. 

Stanley, History of the Jewish Church, lect. 48 (as before) and 49 

(in part ). 
Schuerer, Vol. I, sec. 7. 

josephus, Antiquities, Bk. 13, chs. 6 and 7. 
Madden, Jewish Coinage (2nd ed. Numismata Orientalia). 
Reinach, Jewish Coins, London, 1903. 
Bevan, Jerusalem Under High Priests, London, 1904, p. 100 (The Has- 

monaean Ascendancy). 
Ottley, The Religion of Israel, Cambridge, 1905, p. 152 (The Contact 

of Judaism with Hellenism). 


I. Required Reading in Literature. 
Article Septuagint, in Encyc. Britann., and McClintock and Strong. 

II. Suggestions. 

1. Study carefully the causes which led to the translation of the Bible 
into Greek. In Palestine we see a similar need, satisfied by the 

2. Note the character of the Greek into which it was translated. 

3. How about the pronunciation of the proper names in the English 
Bible? Why are they so distorted? Do they come directly from 
the Hebrew? 

4. A translation of the Letter of Aristeas by H. St. J. Thackery will 
be found in the Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. XV, p. 337 et seq. 

5. Upon the various translations of the Bible made by Jews, see the 
article Bible Translations, in Jewish Encyc. 

III. Tests and Reviews. 

1. What is meant by the LXX? (Septuagint) 

2. What legends are connected with its production? 

3. What would be a fair statement of the manner in which it was 

4. What does Graetz mean by saying that "it was an apostle sent out 
to the neathen world"? 

5. In what light was the translation regarded by the strict Palestinian 

6. What other Greek translations were made shortly after this? 

IV. Topics for Discussions and for Essays. 

1. The effect of the study of the Bible upon the development of man- 

2. What is the value of the Hebrew language in the Jewish ritual? 
Should it be preserved in the modern synagogue? Should it be 
obligatory in our religious schools? 


3. What is the best method of teaching Hebrew the "natural" or the 
"grammatical" method (c.f. The Jewish Chautauqua System of 
Hebrew Instruction by Rabbi Gerson B. Levi.) 

3. What is the best method of teaching Hebrew? 

4. The modern revival of Hebrew as a written and a spoken language. 

5. The influence of the Bible upon the development of the English 
language. (See Hebraisms in the Authorized Version of the Bible, 
by Wm. Rosenau, Ph. D., Friedenwald & Co., Bait., 1903.) 

V. Recommended Reading. 

Schuerer, Vol. II, sec. 33, Vol. I, p. 2. 
Hatch, Essays in Biblical Greek, 1889. 

Friedlander, Are there Traces of Greek Philosophy in the LXX? Jew- 
ish Quarterly Review, Vol. II, pp. 205 sq. 
Schodde, The Septuagint, Old Testament Student, Vol. VIII, pp. 134 sq. 
Drummond, Philo Judaeus, Vol. I, pp. 156 sq. 


I. Required Reading in History. 
Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. II, ch. i. 

II. Suggestions. 

1. Note the way in which the work of the Maccabees was completed 
by John Hyrcanus. 

2. Compare the enlargement of his kingdom with the kingdom in the 
days of David and Solomon. 

3. Note, also, that Syria could never hold together as one ruling 
power. Was this not so in older times? Look up Encyc. s. v. 

4. Notice the beginning of proselytism, which spirit continued until 
the rise of Christianity. The sentiment of the Jews in later times 
and to-day is against all such proselytism. The Idumaeans 
brought direct evil upon the people, and partly prepared the way 
for the later Roman domination. Study Article: Edom, in the 

5. Comparative peace caused a deepening of the religious sentiment; 
hence, the rise of three sects in this period. 

C. Our knowledge of the different sects is small and fragmentary. 
They were both religious and political sects. (Pharisees and Sad- 

7. Note that the popular coupling of Pharfsees with hypocrites is 
entirely unjust. Look up the passages in the N. T. (with the help 
of some concordance), where they are mentioned. They were the 
opponents of the new faith; and are therefore branded. Paul 
calls himself a Pharisee of the Pharisees. See G. Gottheil, Mono- 
theism and the Jews. Institute Essays, Boston, 1888, pp. 89 sq. 

8. Note the layers of society from which the different sects took 
their followers. We are lineal descendants of the Pharisees. The 
Sadducees were protestants; and, denying tradition, were led into 
absurdities in trying to carry out the word of the Law. 

9. Of the Essenes we know still less. Asceticism never had a great 
hold on Judaism; but, through Christianity, the asceticism of the 
Essenes took on a wide character. Mysticism — the other side of 
their character — was not undeveloped within the walls of the 


synagogue. Montefiore has a beautiful article, Mystic Passages 
in the Psalms, in the Jewish Quarterly Review, Vol. I, pp. 143 sq. 
We shall meet with it again at a later period. 
10. Remark also that purely religious doctrines (not only observ- 
ances) formed a subject of dispute. See D. Castelli, The Future 
Life in Rabbinical Literature. Jewish Quarterly Review, Vo. I, 
pp. 314 sq. 

III. Tests and Reviews. 

1. In what manner did John Hyrcanus finally make the work of the 
Maccabees successful? 

2. What threatened the independence of Judaea at this time? 

3. Explain the forced conversion of the Idumaeans and Samaritans. 

4. Why are the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Essenes so named? 

5. What position did the Pharisees hold in regard to 

(a) The study of the Law. 

(b) The worth of tradition. 

(c) The doctrine of future life. 

6. From what classes did the Sadducees draw their support? 

7. What virtue in their eyes stood above the Law? 

Did they really deny the doctrine of future life? Explain their 
position. Upon what did they base their opinion? 

8. What relation did Essenism bear to Phariseeism? 

9. What do you know of the peculiar mode of life of the Essenes and 
of some of their custpms? How did they become ascetics and 

10. How did Hyrcanus come to ally himself with the Sadducees? 

IV. Topics for Discussion and for Essays. 

1. Debate: Is Judaism a missionary faith and ought the Jews to at- 
tempt proselyting? 

2. What active efforts, if any, should Jews make to counteract "Chris- 
tian missions to the Jews"? 

3. Are there sects in the Jewish synagogue? 

4. The use of the word Pharisee by English-writing authors. 

5. The ethical and the religious bases for the doctrine of the future 

Jewish history and literature. 35 

6. The Jewish view of asceticism. 

7. Is the alliance of church and state of advantage to a common- 

V. Recommended Reading. 

Schuerer II, sec. 8, II, sec. 26, I, sec. 30. 

Milman, History of the Jews, chs. x and xi (in part). 

Raphall, Post-Biblical History of the Jews, Vol. II, ch. x. 

Riggs, A History of the Jewish People, N. Y., 1900, p. 97 seq. 

Stanley, History of the Jewish Church, lect. 49. 

S. Adler, Contributions to the History of Sadduceeism, and its Influence 
on Phariseeism. Jewish Conference Papers, 1886, p. 1. 

Josephus, Antiquities, Vol. XIII, chs. viii and ix. 

Geiger, Judaism and its History, pp. 155-179. 

Beecher, Post-Exilic History of Israel, Old and New Testament Student, 
Vol. X, pp. 348-357. 

Monteflore, Hebrew and Greek Views of Retribution, in Jewish Quar- 
terly Review, Vol. V, p. 517 sq. 



I. Required Reading in Literature. 

Apocrypha, The First Book of the Maccabees. 

Jew. Ency. ; Encyc. Britannica; Diet, of the Bible; Article: Maccabees, 
Book of. 

II. Suggestions. 

1. Compare the style of the Books of the Maccabees with the style of 
Samuel or Judges. 

2. Note especially the poetical portions in Bks. II, 7-13, 49-GS; III, 
3-9, etc. 

3. Note the Hebraic coloring of the Greek. 

4. The tendency is not didactic but historical. 

III. Tests and Reviews. 

1. What is the subject treated of in the first book of the Maccabees? 

2. What is the character of its style'/ 

3. Sketch the chief religious ideas contained in the book. 

4. In what passages is the Messianic hope of the time expressed? 

5. In what language was the book originally written? 

IV. Topics for Discussion and for Essays. 

1. The development of the Messianic hope in the Old Testament. 

2. Do the Jews still look for a Messiah? 

V. Recommended Reading. 

Porter, Religious Ideas of the first book of the Maccabees. Old and 

New Testament Student, Vol. XIV, p. 84 sq. 
Rawlinson, First Book of Maccabees, Apocrypha, ed. by Wace, Vol. II, 

pp. 373-537. 
Riggs, A History of the Jewish People, N. Y., 1900, p. 1 sq. 


I. Required Reading in History. 
Graetz, History of the Jews, Vol. II, chs. ii and iii up to p. 77. 

II. Suggestions. 

1. Note that Greek names, and Grecian forms of Hebrew names, com- 
mence to prevail at this time. 

2. Note the extension of the Jewish kingdom under Aristobulus I 
and Alexander Jannaeus. Construct a map showing the extension 
of the kingdom at the death of Alexander. 

3. The taking of Gaza was of especial importance. From the earliest 
times it had been a great emporium, especially for the caravan 
route which, coming from India, passed through Arabia, landing 
the wares at Gaza, whence they were taken in ships to other parts. 

4. Sadducees and Pharisees were now, to a large extent, political 

5. Observe that both Alexander and Salome assume kingly titles on 
their coins. 

6. A queen on the throne of Judaea. Are there any other instances? 
In this connection it is interesting to study the position of women 
in ancient Judaea. (See the Encyclopedias s. v., and compare the 
position of women in the early Christian Church in Lecky's His- 
tory of Civilization. For Ancient Greece, cf. Gladstone, Juventus 
Mundi, Boston, 1869, pp. 408 sq. See, also, Wake, The Develop- 
ment of Marriage and Kinship, London, 1889, pp. 237, and Index 
s. v.) 

7. Note the regulations in regard to schools, etc., and read Leip- 
ziger's Education among the Jews, N. Y., 1890, also "Moral 
Training of the Young among the Jews." Henry Berkowitz in 
The Menorah Monthly Sept. 1904. International ' Journal of 
Ethics, Jan. 1905, and the article Education, in the Jew. Encycl. 

8. The growing dissensions among the people themselves opened the 
way for the enemies to come in. 

9. The forced conversion of the Idumaeans by Hyrcanus commences 
to bear evil fruit. Note the different steps by means of which 
Antipater fastened his grip upon Judaea. 
10. Study the History of the Jews in Rome, noticing especially the 
spread of Jewish influence there, which paved the way for the 
success of the daughter religion in later times. 


11. Note the preliminary steps by which Rome gradually came into 
possession of Judaea; the anomalous position under Hyrcanus 
(not a conquered province, and not independent); annexed to 
Syria at the time of Crassus; the dismemberment of the state 
under Gabinus; respite under Caesar. 

12. During all these troublous times the Students of the Law con- 
tinued their work of developing the intellectual life of the people. 

13. Read the History of the Roman Province of Syria, in Schuerer, I. 
Second Period. Iritrod. Eng. ed. pp. 326-370. 

III. Tests and Reviews. 


1. In what manner did Aristobulus enlarge the boundaries of Judaea? 

And in what manner Alexander? 

2. Which of the two religious parties was at the head of affairs dur- 
ing the reigns of Aristobulus and Alexander? When and how did 
a change come? 

3. Describe more fully the attitude of Alexander towards the Phari- 
sees and Sadducees, both at the beginning and end of his reign. 

4. What caused the uprising of the people in the year 94? 

5. In what way was the reign of Queen Salome of benefit to the 

6. What do you know of Simon ben Shetach? 

7. In what manner was the council in Jerusalem reorganized; and 
what effect did this have upon the practical interpretation of the 

8. In what way did the Pharisaic Synhedrin assure the stability of 
the contributions to the Temple? 

9. "State the causes which led to the intervention of Antipater in the 

affairs of Judaea. 

10. What difference was there in the characters of Hyrcanus and 

11. How Aid Pompey come to concern himself with Judaean affairs; 
in what manner did he treat Jerusalem and the Temple? 

12. What do you know of the settlement of Jews in Rome and their 
influence? To what would you ascribe Cicero's attacks? 

13. What was the religious influence of the Jews there, especially in 
relation to the later development of Roman Christianity? 

14. What attempts did the Jews make to throw off the Roman yoke? 


15. What can you say of Caesar's treatment of the Jews? 

16. How did Antipater divide Judaea among his sons? 

IV. Topics for Discussion and for Essays. 

1. What was the position of women in Old Testament times? 

2. Prominent Jewish women in olden times and in the Middle Ages. 
(See Zirndorf, Some Jewish Women, Jew. Publ. Soc, and Abra- 
hams, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, 1896, Index.) 

3. Should women have a voice in congregational affairs? 

4. The rapid spread of Christianity as favored by Jewish propaganda. 

5. Are distinctively Jewish secular schools desirable at the present 

V. Recommended Reading. 

Milman, History of the Jews, Bk. X (as before). 

Stanley, History of the Jewish Church, lecture 49. 

Schuerer I, sec. 9-14. 

Riggs, A History of the Jewish People, N. Y., 1900, p. 127 sq. 

On Jews in Rome, see 
Hudson, History of the Jews in Rome, 2d ed., London, 1884. 
Huidekoper, Judaism at Rome, N. Y., 1876. 
Schuerer II, sec. 31 sq. 
Neubauer, The Eearly Settlement of the Jews in Southern Italy, Jewish 

Quarterly Review, Vol. V, pp. 606 sq. 
The Story of the Jews under Rome, W. D. Morrison, G. P. Putnam's 

Sons, N. Y. 
Lanciani, in his "Rome in the Light of Recent Investigations" (Boston; 

1888), has a chapter on the Jewish remains. See, also, Gregora- 

vius, "Wanderjahre in Italien," p. 51 sq. 




I. Required Reading in History. ; i 

Graetz, History of the Jews, ch. iii, p. 77; ch. iv, p. 117. 

II. Suggestions. 

1. Observe how the hand of Rome, using Herod as an intermediary, 
fastens itself still firmer upon Judaea. Herod is proclaimed King 
by the Roman Senate. 

2. In studying the character of Herod, distinguish well the outward 
pomp and show from the inward rottenness. Introduction of 
Roman games and customs — but defying of the Synhedrin. Cesarea 
and Jerusalem are typical of the two opposing tendencies. Does 
Herod merit the title of "Great"? Compare him with the rulers to 
whom the world has given this title. Read Zirndorf, Some Jewish 
Women, Phil., 1892, No. IX, Mariamne. Study the plan of Herod's 
Temple in Perrot and Chipiez, History of Art in Judaea. 

3. Observe the weakness of the last scions of the Hasmonaean house. 

4. In Hillel, notice the growing influence of the Babylonian school. 
Parallels and contrasts have been drawn between Jesus and Hillel. 

5. In Hillel, Rabbinical Judaism is formulated for the first time. In 
this way he forms a new starting point. The interpretation of the 
Law in its application to new cases had to be systematized. 

6. Observe that the schools of Hillel and Shammai did not differ in 
principle, but only in the relative severity or literalness with which 
the Law was to be applied. 

III. Tests and Reviews. 

1. What was the character of Antigonus II and of Aristobulus, the 
last two Hasmonean princes? 

2. With the help of what power was Herod proclaimed king? 

3. Discuss the character of Hillel. 

4. How did Judaea fare under Antony, Octavius and Augustus? 

5. What plan did Herod cherish in regard to Samaria? 

6. Why was Cesarea built; what menace to Jerusalem did its erec- 
tion contain? 


7. What mark was put upon the Temple to denote the entire subjec 
tion of Judaea to Rome? 

8. What was the difference in the characters of Hillel and Shammai? 
What do you know of Hillel as an ethical ceacher? How does his 
maxim (p. 97) compare with a similar maxim in the New Testa- 

9. In what way was Hillel the founder of Talmudical logic; and why 
is he called a "regenerator of the Law"? On what was the differ- 
ence between the Schools of Hillel and Shammai based? 

10. Who was Boethus and what was the sect named after him? 

IV. Topics for Discussion and for Essays. 

1. The Jewish attitude towards gymnastic games. 

2. A parallel between Jesus and Hillel. 

3. The "Golden Rule" as formulated in the Old and New Testaments. 

4. The spirit of Hillel as contrasted with that of Shammai. Have we 
a similar distinction in trends of present-day Jewish thought? 

5. Recite Byron's "Herod's Lament for Mariamne." 

6. Recite "Hillel and His Guest," in Alice Lucas, The Jewish Year, 
1893, p. 88. 

7. Selections from Stephen Philips' drama, "Herod." 

V. Recommended Reading. 

Scherer I, sec. 15, and places in index s. v. Hillel. 

Ceiger, Judaism and its History, lect. 8. 

Raphall, Post-Biblical History of the Jews, chs. xiv, xv. 

Milman, History of the Jews, Book XI. 

Josephus, Wars, Book I, ch. xi sq. 

Stanley, History of the Jewish Church, lect. 49. 

Stapfer, Palestine in the Time of Christ, Book II, ch. ii. 

Grace Aguilar, Women of Israel, period VI, ch. vi, Mariamne. 

Jewish Forerunners of Christianity, N. Y., 1903, p. 1 sq. (Hillel the 

Forerunner of Christ). 
Riggs, A History of the Jewish People, N. Y., 1900, p. 179 sq. 
Bevan, Jerusalem and the High Priests, London, 1904, p. 132 (The Fall 

of the Hasmonaeans and the Days of Herod). 
Abrahams and Montefiore, Aspects of Judaism, London, 1895, p. 66 

(The Negative Form of the Golden Rule). 
Morris Joseph, Judaism as Creed and Life, London, 1903, p. 394 (The 

Golden Rule). 



I. Required Reading in Literature. 

Jew. Encycl.; Encyc. Britannica, Articles: Sibyl, Apocalyptic Litera- 
ture — The Sibyllines. 

II. Suggestions. 

1. Note the general tendency of the time to write in the name of 
older persons of note. Is this to be accounted literary forgery? 
Have not such books been written at all times? 

2. Study the character of the ancient Sibylline oracles, and the rela- 
tion to them of the Jewish Sibylline Books. 

3. Observe how the Greek legends of the gods are put into Mono- 
theistic dress. 

4. It must be remembered that these books were written for non- 
Jewish readers. 

III. Tests and Reviews. 

1. How can the Jewish Sibylline Oracles be distinguished from the 
non- Jewish ones? 

2. In what part of the Diaspora were they written? About what time? 
How is this proven? 

3. In what manner are the Greek legends treated? 

4. What Greek writer served as a model? 

5. What is Frankel's theory, and why is it untenable? 

IV. Topics for Discussion and for Essays. 

1. Was it an act of moral turpitude to ascribe writings to prominent 
men of older times? 

2. Does mythology exist in the Old Testament? 

3. The contrast between the Sibylline Oracles and the prophetic writ- 
ings of the Old Testament. 


V. Recommended Reading. 

The Sibylline Oracles, E. A. Hirsch. Jewish Quarterly Review, II, pp. 

Sch-uerer 11, pp. 189-804. 
Edinburgh Review, 1877, Vol. CXLVI. 

Article: Sibylline Oracles in McClintock and Strong's Encyc. 
Drummond, Philo Judaeus, Vol. I, pp. 167-176. 
J. Rendel Harris, The Sibylline Oracles, in the extra volume of the 

Diet, of the Bible, p. 461 sq. 
W. J. Deane, Pseudepigrapha. Edinborough, 1891, p. 276 sq.