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THE KASHMIR SERIES 

OF 

TEXTS AND STUDIES. 



c 



jtvntfi fit ate mid 
NO. xvn. 

THE 

TANTRASARA 

OF 

ABHINAVA GUPTA. 

Edited with notes by 

MAHAMAHOPADHYAYA 

PANDIT MUKUND RAM SHASTR1, 

Offlcer-in-Cliarge Eeseaxcli Department, 

JAMMU AND KASHMIR STATE, 
SRINAGAR, 

Published under the Authority of the Government of 
His Highness Lieut.-General Maharaja 

Sir PRATAP SINGH SAHIB BAHADUR, 

Q. C. S. I., Q. C. I. E., 

MAHARAJA OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR STATE, 




BOMBAY: 

PRINTED AT THE 'NIRNAYA-SAQAR' PRESS, 
1918. 



PK 
313/ 

ft 51 













-..- 







% f 

808994 . 

(All rights reserved). 

Printed by Ramchandra Yesu Shedge, at the 'Nirnaya-sagar' Press, 
23, Kolbhat Lane, Bombay. 



Published by Mahamahopadhyaya Pandit 

Mukund Ram Shastri for the Research Department, 

Jammu and Kashmir State, SR1NAQAR. 





t i 




V 







II ^ II 



PREFATORY. 

Before introducing the reader to the most abstruse 
and technical contents of this philosophical work I take 
this opportunity to express my heartfelt thanks to the 
owners of the manuscripts which have been made the 
main bases of this edition of the Tantrasara, appearing 
for the first time as volume XVII of the Kashmir Series 
of Texts and Studies. 

In all there were three manuscript copies used in 
preparation of this work for the Press. The first of 
these belonging to RajanakaSodarshana of Srinagar con- 
sisted of 72 leaves of Kashmiri paper written in Sharada 
characters, and of this a copy was made in this office. 
It is a transcript of another older manuscript and bears 
1903 anno Vikrami (1846 A.D.) as the date of its trans- 
cription. As regards omissions and mistakes it is, how- 
ever, not free from blemishes. 

The second manuscript copy with which the above 
was collated belongs to the collection of books bearing 
on the Shaiva philosophy in general which one Rivat! 
Raman of Southern India got copied during his visit to 
Kashmir for acquisition of rare manuscripts. On his 
death here in Kashmir these books fell into the hands 
of his servants, and from one of them I bought this 
manuscript copy of the Tantrasara for my personal use. 
It is in Devanagiri characters and consists of 48 leaves 
of old Kashmiri paper. Three more leaves which this 
manuscript seems to have contained are lost. It is 
generally incorrect and full of omissions. 

The third and the most useful manuscript copy of 
the Tantrasara was the one presented to me at Agra in 
1912 A. D. A brief history of its acquisition would not 
be out of place. It is as old as 1527 A. D., correspond- 
ing to the Laukika era 4603, and consists of 79 leaves 



II PREFATORY, 

of very old Kashmiri paper. It belongs to the 
collection of books which one Manmohan Chandra of 
Srinagar received as a heritage from his ancestors. 
During the tenor of the Emperor Shah Jahan the great 
Moghul's reign the aforesaid Manmohan Chandra left 
Kashmir for Dehli and, rinding favour at the Emperor's 
Court, settled down there. Of the precious books of 
Manmohan Chandra's only about one fifth were available 
when in 1895 A. D. on my visit to Agra I saw them 
in a state of preservation with the widowed wife of 
Kidar Nath, the source of all this information, being 
through her husband's side, one of the relatives of 
Narayan Chandra, a descendent of Manmohan Chan- 
dra. When I revisited this city in 1912, the widow- 
ed wife of Kidar Nath who had no male issue by 
her deceased husband, found the further preservation 
of the few remaining books a burden and willingly 
presented them to me in the sanguine hope of their 
utility in some way or the other. Of these the 
Tantrasara written on very old Kashmiri paper in 
Sharada characters is bound in one cover with ten more 
books. 1 All of them appear to have been copied by one 
and the same scribe, Krishna Swami, as stated by 
himself at the end of Mahanaya Prakash, one of the 
books of this collection, in two Shlokas which run thus: 



: II 
I 
: II* 



1. (a) Janma Marana Vichara; (b) Amaraugha Shasan; 
(c) Mahanaya Prakasha; (d) Kama-kala-Vilas; (e) Vatula 
Natha Sutra Vritti ; (f) Munimata Vartikam, (g) Bhavopahara- 
stotram Savivaranam, (h) Spanda Vivriti by Ram Kantha, 
(i) A jada Pramatri Siddhi, (j) Spanda Vritti by Kallata. 



PREFATORY. Ill 

It is generally correct and abounds in marginal 
notes. It has been made the principle basis in prepa- 
ration of this edition. 

At the same time it is a great pleasure to me to say 
that among the Pandits of this Department Rajanaka 
Maheshvara who assisted me in going through the 
proofs, has my thanks. 

Last though not least I gratefully acknowledge the 
promptitude and efficacy with which the Proprietor, 
Nirnaya-Sagar Press, Bombay, carried this work through 
the Press. 

But it is the Kashmir Durbar to whose liberal 
policy in matters of research into ancient Sanskrit 
Literature every credit is due in bringing out the 
literary books of this Department. 

SEINAGAR, i -MAHAMAHOPADHYAYA, 

Dated Wth Nov. 1918. } PANDIT MUKUND BAM SHASTRI. 

Officer I/O Research Department, 

Jammu and Kashmir State. 



ABSTRACT. 



The individual self is the Supreme Self or God Him- 
self, but with the only difference of being enwrapped 
with the veil of ignorance resulting from Mala or im- 
purity (classified under three heads, viz. Anava or little- 
ness or limitation as regards self-knowledge; Maylya or 
that caused by illusion; and Karma being the outcome 
of our deeds, good or ill ). 

That the individual self should realise himself as the 
Supreme Self, the All-powerful Lord ( Parama Shiva ), 
who is beyond time and space, dwelling in all beings 
but unaffected withal, like a crystal reflecting various 
hues, sets forth in Agama Shastras or revelations of 
divine authorship what is called Jnana or knowledge 
of oneself as the Supreme Self. With the obtainment 
of Jfiana the trammels of Mala as alluded to above 
are cut asunder by dawning of the divine light on the 
individual self. 

Shaivagama coming under the category of Agama 
Shastras forms a short cut towards the approach of 
Advaita Jnana or knowledge of the Supreme Self 
( Parama Shiva ) as identical with that of the individual 
self. 

Just as the renaissance of the Vedanta system of 
Philosophy was brought about by the great expounder 
of the system, Shankara, generally known as Shankara - 
charya, in exactly the same manner the exposition of the 
Advaita Shaivagama owes all its credit to the great pre - 
ceptor, Abhinava Gupta, who following in every minute 
detail the principles as laid down in the Malinivijaya 
Tantra, a leading work of Shaivagama, composed the 
voluminous work of Tantraloka which, as the name im- 
plies, is a cyclopaedia of Shaivagama. Considering the 



ABSTRACT. v 

volume of the Tantraloka as onerous to less assiduous 
people of later generations the aforesaid Abhinava 
Gupta epitomised the contents thereof in what is called 
the Tantrasfira, the subject of our discourse. In a 
prelude to the Tantrasara the author points out the 
necessity of the work in a verse which runs thus: 



u' 

In stating the aims of the book the author adds: 

3^f^r: 
<Tc[fisRJ 



It will be interesting for the reader to know that 
the present work lays down two ways by which the 
individual self can realise how he is identical with the 
Supreme Self. One way leads to this end irrespective 

1 "My Tantraloka is much voluminous and as such its 
thorough study will be trying to people of less assiduous 
habits. The Tantrasara which is an epitome of the Tantraloka 
will on a small scale be as useful to the reader as the 
latter work." 

2 "Ignorance is said to be verily the cause of all 
worldly trammels. It has been termed as Mala or impurity 
in the Shastras. With the knowledge of oneself as the 
Supreme Self such Mala is reduced to nothing, and the 
stage thus arrived at is called Moksha or freedom from 
miseries caused by Mala. I expose the means for obtaining 
such Moksha in this Shastra. Herein the reader will find a 
brief explanation of the Tattvas or principles, the knowledge 
whereof is indispensable for Self-realisation." 



VI ABSTRACT. 

of the performance of religious rites and ceremonies, 
while the other constitutes the three Upayas or means 
( Shambhava, Shakta and Anava ) based respectively on 
Ichchha, Jnana and Kriya Shaktis of the Supreme 
Lord. In this connection the author adds : 



This book is divided into 22 ahnikas (ahnika, 
signifying literally the work done in a day ) and for the 
reader's facility the author finishes each ahnika or 
chapter by one shloka, giving therein a gist of his detail- 
ed discourse. For the reader's information a very brief 
summary of the 22 ahnikas is given below : 

The first treats of the various kinds of Vijnana or 
the highest knowledge. 

The second shows how by stability of meditation 
on the significance of the all-important word, Aham, 
the individual self can realise his oneness with the 
Supreme Self. 

The third emphasises the Shambhavupaya as the 
means for attainment of the highest Bliss. 

The fourth dwells upon the Shakhtupaya as the 
way leading to the same goal. 

1 "The All-knowing Lord, Who is All-complete, suffers 
Himself, as it were, to be enveloped by Maya (illusory 
power ) and appear in the form of the Jiva or individual 
self and to enable this Jiva to recognise his identity with 
the Supreme Self brings to light the path of Jiiana in the 
three ways named above." 






ABSTRACT. VII 

In the fifth the author deals with the Anavupaya 
giving a detailed account of the functions of the Prana 
and the Apana, the two vital spirits of the body, in the 
form of recitation of prayers, postures of the body and 
contemplation of mind. 

The sixth contains an elaborate description of the 
Kaladhva or the significance of Kala or time, beginning 
from the second, the minute, the hour, the night, the 
day, the tithi ( time from one moon-rise to another 
moon-rise ), the month, the year, in short up to the 
Maha Pralaya ( dissolution of the whole universe ) as 
based on the working of the Prana, and shows thereby 
the way of recognition. 

The seventh shows how by stability of meditation 
on the significance of the Tattvas, ( viz. from Prithvl 
Tattva to Shakti Tattva ), enwrapped as they are with 
the five-fold aspects of Parama Shiva's power and glory 
Nivritti, Pratishtha, Vidya, Shanta and Shantyatlta 
and on the relation existing between them and the 
Kalagni-Rudra and other representatives of the Lord's 
supremacy as also on the extent etc., of all the Bhuvanas, 
the individual self can realise oneself as the Supreme 
Self. This is known as kaladhva. 

The eighth deals with the way of contemplation on 
the above-mentioned Tattvas and shows how by attain- 
ingperfection of knowledge therein, the vision of the 
Highest Reality dawns on the mind of the individual self. 

In the ninth the forms of all the Tattvas, taken 
one by one, are described and it is distinctly stated that 
stability of meditation thereon is the way to recognition 
of oneself as Parama Shiva. 

The tenth describes the three ways Padadhva, 
Mantradhva and Varanadhva as penetrable in Kala- 
dhva referred to above, and laying special stress on 
their relation with the Lord's five-fold power and glory, 
points out the means for Self-knowledge. 



VIII ABSTRACT. 

In the eleventh it has been decidedly shown that 
the benevolence of Parama Shiva is necessary for one to 
become worthy of initiation which is another way for 
attainment of Moksha by means of knowledge of the 
Highest Reality. 

The twelfth deals with the ordinances of bathing, 
so to speak, in divine waters, as preliminary requisites 
of initiation. 

The thirteenth ascertains means as to test of effici- 
ency of a certain disciple, termed "Samayi", for initia- 
tion as also of "Dlksha Yajna" or rites connected 
therewith. 

The fourteenth likewise subjects to examination 
another disciple by name "Putrak" and prescribes the 
various courses of initiation which he must go through 
as a preliminary measure. 

The fifteenth contains the"Samut Kramana Diksha", 
or initiation, by his descendants, for one about to die 
but desirous of being initiated by grace of the Lord. 

The sixteenth shows the way of initiation for him 
who is dead or missing in another country. Such ini- 
tiation can alone be made by the special grace of his 
guru or preceptor. 

The seventeenth enjoins how a man of another re- 
ligious denomination can, if he so desire, be initiated in 
Shaivaism after being freed from his former belief. 

The eighteenth formulates the way in which an 
initiate can obtain the position of a guru. 

The nineteenth ordains re-initiation for one already 
initiated but having apostatised under circumstances 
beyond his control, as also initiation, on his death, for 
the other who may be desirous of obtaining this end but 
may die before accomplishment of his heartfelt desire. 



ABSTRACT. IX 

The twentieth lays down the various religious 
ordinances for an initiate, such as recitation of the 
Mantras, study of the Scriptures, redemptions for 
regulation of his conduct, adoration of his guru etc., etc. 

The twenty-first proves how among the Shastras 
the Shaivagama is to be looked upon as an authority. 

The twenty-second enunciates the internal and 
external forms of "Kula Yajfia" or the special modes of 
worship towards the Highest Reality. 

Mahamaheshvara Abhinava Gupta, the author of 
this work, is silent as to the date of its composition. 
But as, in his great work Tantraloka, he often quotes 
from Tshvara Pratyabhijna Vimarshin!, which, he 
himself says, was written by him in the year 4115 
of the Kali age, corresponding to 1014 A. D., it follows 
that the former was composed after the year 1014 
A. D. Now the date of composition of the Tantrasara 
which is an epitome of the Tantraloka must necessarily 
be some time later than 1014 A. D. 

As to the lineage of Abhinava Gupta and a brief 
history of his age as well as of his literary activity, as 
recorded by himself in his Tantraloka and other books, 
the reader's attention is invited to my introduction on 
Para-Trimshika, forming volume XVIII of this Series. 



SRINAGAR, ^ Mahamahopadhyaya, 

KASHMIR, i PANDIT MUKUND RAM SHASTR!. 

The 20th Nov. 1918. ) Officer I/O Research Department, 

Jammu and Kashmir State. 



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PK Abhinavagupta, Rajanaka 

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A52T4. Abhinava Gupta