Skip to main content

Full text of "Technocracy Digest. Issue Numbers: 171-176; some multiple copies"

See other formats

«♦*. ■ ■ 



r*3- ^7 

The Quarterly Survey 
Physical Costs Can Ruin Us 

The Scientific Method 

Jobs That Are Gone Forever 

The Electronic Age 

It's a Snap! 


Can We Foresee the Future? 





No. 171 


Donald Bruce Editor Ed Broderick Assistant Editor 

Milton Wildfong Assistant Editor Jane Urquhast... .Circulation Manager 

Rupert N. Urquhart, Assistant Editor Helen Slater Business Manager 

The Quartery Survey 3 

Physical Costs Can Ruin Us - 5 

The Scientific Method - - - - 17 


The Jobs That Are Gone Forever - 21 

The Electronic Age 25 

Cement 26 

It's a Snap! 29 

Through the Technoscope 31 

Can We Foresee the Future ? 41 

Technocracy Digest is published quarterly by Section 1, R.D. 12349, Technocracy Inc., 
1166 W. Georgia St., Vancouver 5, B.C. Single copy, 25 cents. Subscription: four 
issues for $1.00; all three Technocracy Magazines, one year, $3.00. Make all cheques 
and money orders payable to Technocracy Digest. Entire contents copyrighted 1958. 
Printed in Canada. Continental Headquarters of Technocracy Inc. is at Rushland, 


The Quarterly Survey 

Bane or Blessing 

Crop production in the United 
States last year was the largest 
ever achieved — by a margin of 
more than 9% — even though the 
acreage harvested was the small- 
est in 40 years. 

Unhappily, though, this achieve- 
ment stands more as a monument 
to failure than success — the fail- 
ure of 25 years of 'doing some- 
thing' for the farmer. We have 
merely piled surplus upon sur- 

Farmers, as everyone knows, 
planted only their best acres last 
year. The poorer ones they turn- 
ed over to the government's soil 
bank. Weather smiled as never 
before in modern history, with 
results that were as painful as 
they were spectacular. 

Last year's golden flood of 
nearly 1,500,000,000 bushels of 
wheat was almost three times as 
much as the domestic market 
could use; exports won't lift any 
major fraction of the remainder. 
The excess added to the 850,000,- 
000 bushels of old wheat on hand. 

Similarly, last year's 14,000,000- 
bale cotton crop was at least a 

February, 1959 

million bales bigger than the 
country could dispose of. And the 
U.S. previously had close to 
9,000,000 bales on hand from 
earlier crops. 

Technocracy Inc. has always 

Fitzpatrick in St. Louis Post-Dispatch 

Harvest Moon 

maintained that there is no solu- 
tion under the Price System to 
the problem of surpluses. Plen- 
ty and price just can't get along 
together. What is needed is a new 
social mechanism which can op- 
erate an economy of abundance. 

Machines vs. Men 

Automation and major techno- 
logical changes are resulting in 
fewer jobs was the major theme 
of a conference held in Washing- 
ton by the AFL-CIO Industrial 
Union Department. 

About 200 economists, indust- 
rial engineers and staff techni- 
cians representing 45 unions were 
told by IUD Director Albert 
Whitehouse that automation has 
failed to bring the 'great numbers 
of more highly skilled jobs' prom- 
ised by economists and business 
leaders. He noted that total em- 
ployment in manufacturing drop- 
ped between 1953 and 1955, with 
the latter a much higher produc- 
tion year. 

'The purpose of better machin- 

Herblock in The Washington Post 

'Goodness — Is That the Way 
I Look?" 

ery, he said, 'is to cut labor costs 
by eliminating jobs.' 

Here is further recognition of 
a trend which Technocracy for 
many years was almost alone in 
realizing — that machines displace 
men, not the reverse. 


We regret the extreme tardiness of the current issue of the 
TECHNOCRACY DIGEST in reaching you. It has been caused by 
a jurisdictional union dispute in the printing industry. 

4 Technocracy Digest 

Physical Costs Can Ruin Us 

Social costs of an area must be adjusted to the resources, the popula- 
tion, and the energy available. Failure to recognize the extreme 
importance of these factors and to heed them could lead to social 

AT least half the nations of 
the world face disaster, and 
the other half are mostly near 
the brink of disaster or rapidly 
approaching it. In this instance, 
we do not speak of the disaster 
of war; it is something more 
subtle, more futile, more hopeless 
than war. It is economic disaster 
— impoverishment. When the 
people of the world can still talk 
of war, there remains a sense of 
virility and a hope of ultimate 
victory with better times to fol- 
low. But when the means of 
nourishment are gone, there cea- 
ses to be a sense of virility; there 
is no hope but that of day-to-day 
survival; and the grave carries 
with it no terror. 

A discussion of this subject 
might seem out of place now that 
man is at his greatest height of 
scientific achievement — at the 
moment of his breakthrough in- 
to outer space. The harvests of 
the world reach new records al- 
most yearly, while experiments 

February, 1959 

with the nature and nurture of 
living things offers ever greater 
productivity on lesser space and 
at lesser cost. But we shall soon 
learn that these bright promises 
are like some magician's sneaky 
tricks of misdirection — of turn- 
ing our attentiton to one thing 
while quite different and more 
significant events are occurring 

For the moment, the Ameri- 
can dream is of a sprawling 
ranch house in a choice suburb, 
with spacious grounds and with 
two late-model cars in the gar- 
age, supported by a proprietary 
income or the salary of a cor- 
poration executive. This is the 
kind of ideal which Fortune 
Magazine flaunts before the Am- 
erican public as the birthright of 
every enterprising American cit- 
izen. But such a dream can have 
validity only if less than five per 
cent of the people aspire to it 
and the other ninety-five per 
cent are complacent about sup- 

porting the five per cent in its 
ostentatious grandeur. It is a mat- 
ter of social costs. 

It is the same in principle, but 
on a less elegant scale, as the 
grand estates of the late Euro- 
pean nobility and the princes of 
the Orient. It has a closer coun- 
terpart in the haciendas of Latin 
America. But these alien dreams, 
in their time and place, could be 
entertained by only a fraction of 
one per cent of the population 
and, then, only by the few who 
happened to be born into the 
'chosen' families. The castles of 
Europe and the palaces of the 
Orient are disappearing — by 
popular insistence on the one 
side and by the excessive cost 
of maintenance on the other side. 
The haciendas will go the same 

The physical resources of the 
earth are finite, even though the 
egoistic, acquisitive, and osten- 
tatious aspirations of certain in- 
dividuals are without physical 
bounds. Consequently, the econ- 
omy of mankind as a whole must 
be geared to what is feasible with 
what is at hand, not to human 
ideals and aspirations. Within 
the society, the economy of the 
individual must be further regu- 

lated by what is socially permis- 
sible. This latter varies from time 
to time and place to place. The 
physical factors, however, are the 
most decisive. 

'Castles in Spain' were physi- 
cally and socially permissible on- 
ly so long as they were severely 
limited in number; even so, their 
existence depended on the suc- 
cessful looting of areas beyond 
the borders of the homeland. To- 
day, in America, the sprawling 
ranch house is permissible only 
in limited numbers, albeit not so 
limited as erstwhile Castles in 
Spain. When ranch houses be- 
come the ideal and the aspiration 
of more than five per cent of the 
population, the economy is in 
serious trouble — even in a land 
as rich and fortunately situated 
as the United States. The only 
thing that has 'prolonged the ag- 
ony' thus far is the degree of 
practical compromisation most 
Americans are willing to make 
with their ideals. But the com- 
promise in the form of a moder- 
ately-priced home in the suburbs 
is proving too much of a burden 
when half the population accept 
it. The situation would be im- 
possible if the other half of the 
population would not submit to 

Technocracy Digest 

the economic compulsions which 
induce them to live in the slum- 
type dwellings of the big cities, 
the towns, and the countryside. 

The social costs are mounting 
throughout the world. All of the 
earth's inhabitants are, at this 
time, heralding an unprecedented 
expansion of their respective ec- 
onomies. While the Americans 
are looking forward to the bour- 
geois glories that 'will be com- 
monplace in 1975,' the Rus- 
sians are eagerly striving to sur- 
pass the Americans. India and 
Indonesia are beginning to em- 
erge from economic darkness. 
Western Europe is struggling up- 
ward with the resources of Afri- 
ca and economic handouts from 
the United States. China is glori- 
fying the Great Leap forward. 
Even Africa and South America 
are beginning to see the light of 
future economic brightness. 

These anticipated glories are 
all founded on the concept that 
there is adequate land, plentiful 
resources, and abundant energy 
in the world. The position of the 
United States is perhaps the most 
fictitious of all; for its advance 
is predicated upon unrestricted 
looting of at least half of the 
world's resources. Most of the 

other large areas are confined to 
that which is at hand — Russia, 
China, India, for example. The 
erstwhile imperial nations — Bri- 
tain, France, Germany, Nether- 
lands, Belgium, Spain, Portugal, 
Japan — are being relieved of 
their colonies and are being forc- 
ed to retreat to their homeland 
territories. The fulfillment of that 
trend will be disastrous for them. 
They have become accustomed to 
living far beyond their means. 

India and China, in spite of 
their huge populations, are large 
rich areas; and, under skilled 
technological management, they 
may advance considerably above 
their present status. But neither 
of these countries can look for- 
ward to a high standard of living 
as we define it. Russia is in a 
much better position to expand 
upward; but, if she continues in 
her present mania for emulating 
America, she is headed for de- 
feat too. Africa, starting from 
near the bottom, is subject to 
considerable expansion through 
technological applications and 
modern techniques. The Middle 
East is virtually without promise, 
being already heavily populated 
and deficient in arable soil. The 
present oil prosperity of the rul- 

February, 1959 

ing class is of a temporary na- 
ture. Latin America is open to 
major technological development, 
but is deficient in arable soil. 
Australia is approaching its max- 
imum of development, barring 
the discovery of exciting new 
techniques for handling that area. 
The wholej struggle for eco- 
nomic improvement is being 
complicated and handicapped by 
steadily expanding populations 
throughout the world. This factor 
is more than offsetting the ad- 
vantages of technological im- 
provement. For example, Egypt 
can increase its arable land some- 
what by building a high dam on 
the Nile; but, by the time the 
dam is built, Egypt would need 
more than twice as much new 
land in order to take care of the 
interim increase in population. 
Britain could reclaim a million 
or more acres of land from the 
North Sea; but, each million acres 
thus reclaimed would scarcely 
take care of the food needs of a 
two-year's increase in Britain's 
population. The United States 
has greatly expanded its produc- 
tivity and energy consumption 
since 1940, but the rapid increase 
in population has nullified most 
of it. 

According to the Statistical Ab- 
stract of the United States, the 
total energy consumption in the 
U.S.A. was about 34 thousand 
trillion BTUs in 1950 and about 
42 thousand trillion in 1957. This 
would appear to be an increase 
of more than 23 per cent in seven 
years; but, on a per capita basis, 
it is an increase of only a little 
more than six per cent, due to 
the addition of some 25 million 
more people to the population. 
It is obvious that if the prosper- 
ity boom in the United States 
should level off, the standard of 
living of the population would 
enter a decline. The physical ec- 
onomy would have to expand at 
the rate of nearly three per cent 
per year just to keep up with 
the population increase. (Percent- 
ages of increase based on dollar 
figures are fictitious due to the 
changing value of the dollar.) 

The Russians claim an annual 
expansion of about seven per 
cent for their economy. The pres- 
ent rate of expansion of the 
Chinese economy is about 25 to 
30 per cent per year — the fastest 
growing economy in the world. 
These are total national figures. 
The per capita increases would 

Technocracy Digest 

be less due to the increasing 

The exploding populations of 
Latin America are the primary 
cause of imminent national bank- 
ruptcies in that area. For the 
present, Uncle Sam is able to buy 
off social change in most of the 
Latin American countries for a 
few hundred million dollars per 
country. In this connection, it is 
interesting to note that when 
Jimenez, whom the oil interests 
sponsored in a rump election, 
started to go nationalistic in Ven- 
ezuela, he was forced out by vio- 
lence and a new election was 
held. But the candidate sponsor- 
ed by the oil companies and the 
U.S. State Department lost out 
to a more devoted nationalist 
than Jimenez. Social change must 
come soon to Latin America as a 
matter of economic compulsion. 

To summarize briefly, the fact- 
ors which are contributing to 
economic distress are these: (1) 
Increasing population; (2) Insist- 
ent demands for a rising stand- 
ard of living around the world; 

(3) Diminishing resources; de- 
creasing productivity of the soil; 

(4) Wastage, particularly that 
associated with merchandising 

February, 1959 

practices; and (5) Preparations 
for war. 

The problem of a continually 
growing population is beginning 
to be recognized among a few 
people in various parts of the 
world. Some nations are institut- 
ing birth control programs, but 
none of them adequate. Japan, 
with over 90 million people on 
an area which would be over- 
populated with 30 million is be- 
ing compelled by circumstances 
to use desperate measures and is 
doing the most of any| nation 
along that line; still, it is being 
done by individual volition ra- 
ther than as a positive national 
program. The fascist regimes are 
strongly opposed to any kind of 
birth curtailment, whether Ro- 
man Catholic, Mohammedan, Hin- 
du, Orthodox Jew, or other. The 
populations being spawned by 
these groups is, in general, of 
low biological quality. On the 
whole, the population of the 
world is increasing more rapidly 
now than at any previous time, 
due in large part to reduction of 
deaths from disease. The total is 
rapidly approaching three billion 
people; and there are casual est- 
imates of six billion before the 
century is out. 

In primitive times, when the 
world's population was only a 
few hundred million, and most 
of those were existing at a sub- 
sistence level, the drain on the 
natural resources was slight. Tim- 
ber and arable soil were the re- 
sources most likely to be affected. 
Further, there were great unpop- 
ulated areas extant on the globe 
into which migrations could take 
place whenever the survival 
pressures became too great. Even 
twenty years ago, when the pop- 
ulation of the earth was scarcely 
two billion, many hundreds of 
millions of people were living on 
the borderline of survival and 
extinction. Deaths from privation 
were numerous and little noted, 
even by those who were dying. 
Most of the others lived in pov- 
erty. Only a fraction enjoyed 
comfort and adequate diet, many 
of these at the expense of those 
who were dying of privation. 
Even so, the drain on the world's 
resources was beginning to show 
up and to alarm a few who were 
capable of comprehending its sig- 

The wars of the past half cen- 
tury, more than anythng else, 
have brought home to people the 
fact of finite resources. National 

leaders are worrying about the 
source of materials which they 
will require for fighting 'the next 
war.' Beyond that, they are wor- 
rying a little about supplying the 
demands of commerce. The wel- 
fare of the citizens is the last 
thing that concerns them. Nation- 
al leaders are ever ready to de- 
mand a 'tightening of belts' to 
supply the wherewithal for mili- 
tary adventures and to grease the 
skid-roads of commerce. Thus it 
happens that the 'needs' of na- 
tional 'defense' are raising the 
most concern over diminishing re- 
sources among the national lead- 
ers. In the meantime, the consum- 
er is asked to take a cut while the 
wastages of commerce continue 

The 'backward' peoples of the 
world are becoming increasingly 
more dissatisfied with their tradi- 
tional privation, disease, and early 
death. They are demanding more 
of the good things of life; and, to- 
ward this end, they demand na- 
tional independence first of all. 
Most of Asia has liberated itself 
from imperialism. Africa is on 
the way to doing so. National in- 
dependence, however, is only a 
first step; it must be followed by 
social change. Latin America and 


Technocracy Digest 

the Mohammedan countries dem- 
onstrate that people can have na- 
tional independence and still have 
poverty, that home rule can be 
just as corrupt and corrosive as 
foreign domination. 

The next step in area advance- 
ment, after political independ- 
ence, must be the elimination of 
business enterprise. This step 
alone can cut down wastage and 
loss through inefficiency, shoddi- 
ness, and duplication to a remark- 
able degree. Following that (or 
accompanying it) must be a trend 
toward collective living as con- 
trasted with individualistic house- 
hold living. This is particularly 
true for areas which are heavily 
burdened with population and de- 
ficient in resources. Few people 
have progressed to this stage, 
however, the Chinese being the 
most outstanding large-scale ex- 
ample at present. 

The Free Enterprise nations of 
the world are screaming at the 
Great Leap of China, fearful of 
the social significance of so great 
a change — fearful that it will 
show up the Free Enterprise sys- 
tem for the monstrosity that it is. 

The leaders of the West have 
suddenly developed a compassion 

February, 1959 

for the Chinese people, lamenting 
the changes in 'personality' being 
inflicted upon them by the sudden- 
ness of the change. No such com- 
passion for Chinese 'personality' 
was exhibited during the crushing 
oppression of landlordism or even 
over the contemplated 'leveling' 
of China with hydrogen bombs 
over the issue of Quemoy. Such 
compassion was only feebly ap- 
proached during the collection 
campaigns of Christian evangeli- 
cal expansionism. Now that the 
leaders of China are energetically 
cutting social costs and raising 
the relative standard of living of 
the Chinese people — thereby re- 
pudiating the poverty, filth, and 
corruption which are so 'charm- 
ing' in a foreign country to West- 
ern eyes — we suddenly exhibit 
pious concern over what is hap- 
nening to Chinese 'feelings.' 

Not many people in the West 
are seriously concerned over ad- 
verse social trends, especially if 
it appears that the 'deluge' will 
come after their time. They tend 
to be loose and flippant in their 
evasive maneuvers to avoid tak- 
ing a personal interest: 'It won't 
happen in our time.' 'The scient- 
ists will find a way.' 'We can sub- 

stitute plastics for metals; we can 
develop atomic energy as a re- 
placement for coal and oil; we can 
farm the oceans for food as well 
as the land.' 'Man has enough 
knowledge to solve any problem 
that might arise.' 'If things get 
really tough, we can always go 
back to the way our ancestors 

(There is one exception to this 
attitude, however. The public is 
more alarmed over the hydrogen 
bomb than anything else. The in- 
dividuals are not sure just how 
that problem can be met. That 
'deluge' can very well happen in 
our time. The individuals cannot 
evade or escape the consequences. 
The treasures of civilization may 
be destroyed along with most life, 
including their own. The puerile 
gestures of Civil Defense are 
more laughable than reassuring. 
This is the subject, more than any 
other, which causes the individual 
to get panicky at present. This ap- 
prehension is showing up with 
greater frequency now that it is 
realized that our side no longer 
h?s the lead in 'massive retalia- 
tion' of which it was so proud and 
arrogant only a few years ago. 

One can be enthusiastic over the 

principle of massive retaliation 
only when one has the greater 
capability. When the other side 
has it, we can become very un- 
happy about it. The American 
people are beginning to feel 'cor- 
nered' for the first time.) 

A rising standard of living re- 
quires much more than merely 
subsistence amounts of food. It 
includes clothing, housing, trans- 
portation, education, health, re- 
creation, and the use of numerous 
gadgets. These require metals, 
energy, soil, water, playgrounds, 
and freedom from toil. Money is 
only an incidental factor; it is not 
a means to a higher standard of 
living, only a facility within the 
Price System. 

But money can be a hindrance 
as well as a facility; rather, its 
absence can be a hindrance. None 
of the Western societies guaran- 
tees the individual the right to 
eat or to otherwise maintain life. 
The individual must provide for 
his own subsistence and manage 
his own affairs somehow. Lacking 
the ability or the means to do so, 
he may be carried for a while by 
the society, reluctantly, on suffer- 
ance. Failing to care for himself or 
get by on public charity, he may 
starve or die of exposure. This 


Technocracy Digest 

is as true in America as in less 
pretentious areas. Storage bins of 
grain may be bulging; livestock 
may crowd the feeding pens; but, 
to the man without money, this 
is no comfort. In this land of 
plenty and freedom, the greatest 
and most unsolvable problem of 
them all is how to get the grain 
from the storage bins and the 
surplus meat out of cold storage 
and place it in the hands of the 
man who is hungry but penniless. 
We all would like to see it hap- 
pen, but we don't know how to 
do it. The economists in our uni- 
versities do not know how to do 
it; the politicians in Washington 
do not know the answer. The edi- 
tors of our newspapers and maga- 
zines lack that wisdom. The best 
they can do is publicize a round 
number of the 'most needy cases' 
at Christmas time and appeal to 
individual chariy. A moron might 
say 'Why not just give the surplus 
to them?' That shows how little 
he knows about economics! The 
Price System makes no provision 
for so simple and direct a solu- 

Money is a facility only when 
the consumer has it. When he 
doesn't have it, money becomes 
an obstacle. Without it, the flow- 

lines stagnate and shut off; the 
movement of goods ceases. The 
same is true of services. For ex- 
ample, try getting admitted to a 
hospital for emergency treatment 
without being able to guarantee 
payments, and you will know 
what we mean. Or try getting a 
ride on a passenger train without 
producing the fare. 

The cautious, prudent individ- 
ual can generally get by, economi- 
cally speaking, if he can avoid 
serious emergencies and unfort- 
unate loss of his assets. But in 
order to do so, unless he happens 
to have plenty of money, he will 
have to ignore the prestige com- 
pulsions brought to bear upon 
him by the society and by the 
neighbors; he will have to curtail 
extravagances, avoid debt, snd 
exercise wisdom in the use of 
that which he has. But this eco- 
nomic pattern has validity only 
if a limited number of people 
practice it. If everyone tried do- 
ing it, the economic system would 
go into a tailspin. 

The solution of the economic 
problem of the individual or fam- 
ily has little or no relationship to 
the solution of the problem of the 
society. But the solution of the 
economic problem of the society 

February, 1959 


will solve the economic problems 
of all the individuals. 

The individual family may find 
'security' through accumulation 
of private wealth, or through fru- 
gality, or through skillful man- 
agement of its economic affairs; 
but none of these is the usual 
answer in America. Most families 
here live up their incomes and 
credit as it becomes available to 
them; then, they become frantic or 
psycho when their incomes do not 
keep up with their expenditures. 
Some find 'relief through more 
employment (taking on two jobs 
or putting the wife to work) ; oth- 
ers liquidate their assets and re- 
trench); others resort to larceny 
(crime is an expanding 'busi- 
ness'); others go on relief, go on 
the mooch, or do a little peddling 
on the side; some take the desper- 
ate way out. But most Americans 
merely muddle along somehow, 
intuitively feeling that the society 
cannot let the majority down. 
Whatever the individual solution 
may be, it does not constitute a 
pattern for the society. It can 
apply only to the individual. 

Socially, under prevailing cir- 
cumstances, the major problems 
facing the society are: cutting 
costs; developing productive ca- 

pacities on a long-term basis; el- 
iminating waste; and consolidat- 
ing human effort. 

But the solution to these prob- 
lems will be effective only if there 
is an early end to population 
growth, followed by a population 
decline. Western Europe has 
double its permissible population. 
Parts of the Orient have several 
times their optimum density; 
likewise the habitable parts 
of Latin America. Africa, Aus- 
tralia, and Eastern Europe are 
adequately populated, as is. Only 
Siberia and Canada can absorb a 
limited number of relocated peo- 
ple. The United States has passed 
its optimum by at least 15 per 
cent. Population replacement 
through births is rapidly becom- 
ing a primary social matter and 
cannot much longer be tolerated 
on the basis of decision or hap- 
penstance by the individual fam- 
ily unit. 

Social costs of an area must be 
adjusted to the resources, the 
population, and the energy avail- 
able. The standard of living will 
be in proportion to the degree of 
efficiency obtaining in the area. 
One factor in reducing costs is 
that of replacing human employ- 
ment with machines using extran- 


Technocracy Digest 

eous energy. The human engine 
is a very costly piece of appara- 
tus to maintain from the energy 
standpoint. A pound of crude fuel 
in a machine engine can produce 
more work in a day than several 
pounds of high-cost food convert- 
ed into power by the human 
muscle. Another element of cost- 
cutting consists of producing high- 
quality, long-lasting goods — cloth- 
es, housing, gadgets, equipment. 
(This means, off hand, the aboli- 
tion of business enterprise). An- 
other is a drastic reduction in 
duplication. This applies, among 
other things, to the individual 
consuming unit as now constitut- 
ed, wherein each private house- 
hold economy must duplicate, in 
a highly inefficient manner, all 
the facilities and services of the 
other private houshold economies. 
For example, it is far more eco- 
nomical to feed ten thousand 
people in one feeding unit than 
in 2000 separate feeding units; and 
there would be a wider selection 
of food, greater individual selec- 
tivity, and superior all-over qual- 
ity of food. This setup would re- 
place 2000 small, inefficient, part- 
time kitchens and dining rooms 
with one large, highly efficient, 
full-time kitchen and eating place. 

Collective living of a more shoddy 
sort is practiced at present in pen- 
al institutions, religious orders, 
and the armed forces — with the 
emphasis on cutting costs rather 
than on providing high quality 

We are concerned here only 
with the problem of cutting social 
costs; the problem of transition 
and its effect on the human 'per- 
sonality' is another issue and an- 
other story. 

In order to obtain the maximum 
economic benefits from an area, 
the social control must also insti- 
tute extensive research and ex- 
perimentation with the aim of in- 
creasing and improving the utili- 
zation of resources, energy, know- 
ledge, and techniques which are 
available. This research should be 
applied to everything of conceiv- 
able use, from direct conversion 
of solar energy to cheap purifica- 
tion of water to maximum utiliza- 
tion of organic waste products, 
from low-cost heating of space in 
buildings to eradication of disease 
and sickness, from physio-chemi- 
cal processing of materials to re- 
placement of scarce materials 
with more abundant materials. 

Another consideration for the 
social control is the channeling of 

February, 1959 


human activities into fields which 
are not wasteful of social resourc- 
es. For example, no responsible 
social control would permit such 
extravagances as 300 horsepower, 
chrome plated monstrosities as 
issue from Detroit and Windsor 
to go forth under the guise 
of transportation vehicles. Nor 
would it tolerate suburban living 
on a mass scale. There are many 
satisfying human activities and 
interests which are not extrava- 
gant and wasteful of resources, 
energy, and social effort. These 
must be promoted among the 
people while those which are 
wasteful and costly must be dis- 

The social aims which we have 
hinted at may not appeal to all 
upholders of Western Culture and 
some 'liberal arts' devotees may 
become vehement in their denun- 
ciation of them. We are not con- 
cerned with their values, only 
contemptuous of them. We are 

primarily concerned at this time 
with the problem of avoiding so- 
cial disaster and prescribing for 
long-term, tranquil, comfortable 
living of people within an area of 
social operations. If one is more 
interested in pursuing such quaint 
human objectives as 'massive re- 
taliation' with thermonuclear de- 
vices, or sanctimonious administ- 
ering to poverty and pain through 
charity racketeering, or quick 
squandering of irreplaceable re- 
sources for immediate profits to 
a few, or joy through work, or 
political protectionism; then, he 
belongs in an entirely different 
world than the one which we 
foresee for mankind. Between his 
world and ours, there can be no 
peace or compromise — his world 
must go. 

If the Old Order isn't abandon- 
ed by design, it surely will burn 
itself out in this technological 


—Wilton Ivie. C.H.Q. 

■* GENEVA — A British scientist told the world conference on atomic energy here 
that some of the cosmic rays reaching earth from outer space contain 10,000 times 
more energy than anything produced by man. 

Dr. C. F. Powell of Bristol University said one single high-energy particle of 
cosmic radiation produced a cascade of many millions of secondary particles, covering 
a square kilometre, during its passage through the earth's atmosphere. — Reuters 


Technocracy Digest 

The Scientific Method 

Science has produced a high level of achievement wherever it has 
been applied. The time for its methods of operation to be applied 
to the field of sacial governance is long overdue. 

QCIENCE is at once one of the 
^ most widely discussed sub- 
jects in spoken or printed word — 
and one of the least understood 
by the general public. 

What is it? 

Is it the work of the chemist, 
the nuclear physicist, the geolo- 
gist, the biologist and the astron- 
omer? Not exactly. More precise- 
ly, it is the method of operation 
employed to achieve their de- 
sired results. In short, science is 
simply a particular method of 
doing work. 

An understanding of this me- 
thod necessarily implies some un- 
derstanding of the foundations 
upon which science is based. The 
very word itself carries the key 
to this understanding. 'Science' is 
derived from the Latin word 
'Scio' meaning 'I know' — not 1 
think' or 'I believe' or 'I hope' — 
but 1 know'! Thus, science deals 
only with observable and mea- 
s u r a b 1 e physical phenomena. 
There is no room within its de- 
finition for the discussion or con- 

sideration of so-called ultimate, 
imponderable or metaphysical is- 
sues. The late British author- 
sociologist H. G. Wells has called 
science 'a working diagram of 
facts — not even all the facts, but 
only the known facts'. Howard 
Scott defines science as 'the me- 
thodology of the determination 
of the most probable'. 

A 'fact', incidentally, is one of 
numerous terms having specific 
meanings to a scientist who will 
use it, as a tool of his trade, only 
strictly within its precise defini- 
tion. To him a fact is 'the close 
agreement of a series of verifiable 
observations of the same pheno- 
menon', a circumstance establish- 
ed by him and many colleagues 
through meticulous research and 
numerous experiments. It is a 
fact, for instance, that common 
table salt is a chemical com- 
pound formed from the elements 
sodium and chlorine. This and 
all other facts lend themselves 
as invaluable tools to the scient- 
ist's work. 

February, 1959 


Yet, important as they are, 
facts are not the foundation upon 
which science is built. Why? Be- 
cause however often a given fact 
may have been tested and given 
identical results, there is always 
a chance that a hitherto uncon- 
sidered factor might enter subse- 
quent calculations and be respon- 
sible for completely different re- 
sults. Thus, what had been a fact 
would cease to be so, probably 
having given way to a newly 
established fact incorporating the 
new factor. It is imperative, 
therefore ,that something even 
more stable and fundamental be 
selected as the basis for scientific 
work. Such an immutable base 
is found in the postulates. 

Postulates differ from facts 
mainly in being so self-evident 
that they need not be proved. 
The scientist can accept them 
without worrying about the rea- 
sons for their so being, or wheth- 
er they will remain so. As long 
as man lives on Earth he can 
depend upon the stability of his 
three postulates. 

The first simply states that the 
external world actually is. In 
other words, a tree or a rock 
or an animal does exist. This 
assertion seems so obvious to- 

day as to be considered al- 
most an insult to our intel- 
ligence, yet prior to the adop- 
tion of the scientific method the 
substance of this postulate was 
subjected to extensive philosoph- 
ical controversy and debate. Was 
the world real or was it not? 
The shifting sands of indecisive 
conjecture were too insubstantial 
for the purposes of science — 
hence the formulation of this first 
postulate which took the world 
as it was as a material base upon 
which to work. 

The second postulate protects 
us from utter chaos through its 
assertion that nature is uniform. 
We need not flounder around 
amongst things which are con- 
stantly changing form. A book 
does not suddenly become a 
table, nor does sugar unexplain- 
ably become pepper. It should 
be instantly apparent how im- 
portant it is for everyone, and 
especially the scientist, to have 
this type of protection. 

There are symbols in the mind 
which stand for things and events 
in the external world. This third 
postulate is the basis for all lan- 
guage, spoken or written. Only 
when a correlation has been est- 
ablished between a vocal sound 


Technocracy Digest 

and an object can we thereafter 
relate one to the other if the 
sound is made in the absence of 
the object. Accordingly, anyone 
speaking the English language 
who has seen a particular type 
of water craft knows what the 
word 'canoe' means. It follows 
that the extent of a person's ac- 
quired knowledge depends over- 
whelmingly on how well he has 
employed the third postulate. 

Science, founded firmly on 
these imperishable postulates, 
has a relatively brief history in 
human affairs as a definitely est- 
ablished method of operation. 
While the technique has been 
employed haphazardly and been 
responsible for any previous gains 
in converting raw nature to hu- 
man uses, it is only in the three- 
century interval since its distin- 
guishing standard research pro- 
cedure was established that phe- 
nomenal advances have been 
made in productive techniques. 

What, then, is this scientific 

In its most elementary defini- 
tion, science is a method of pre- 
diction emanating from establish- 
ed facts, and principles derived 
from) those facts. Technocracy 
follows the definition of science 

as being the methodology of de- 
termining the most probable. Ob- 
serve carefully that no claims 
are made that predictions result- 
ing from scientific observations 
will definitely materialize, but 
only that they likely will on the 
strength of past experience. 

Take a simple example. Man- 
kind has always observed that 
the sun apparently rises each 
morning in the east and sets each 
night in the west. Therefore, on 
the strength of those innumerable 
observations and past results, we 
can reasonably predict that the 
same pattern will continue 
throughout our own lives. Yet 
there is no absolute guarantee 
that such will be the case for a 
number of reasons you may be 
able to imagine. However, in this 
case the probability is practically 
a certainty. Nevertheless, science 
leaves the door open to admit 
even the slightest shade of doubt 
in the prediction. 

Probably no field of endeavor 
is more reluctant to accept its 
own conclusions than is that of 
science. It never takes anything 
for granted, no matter how logi- 
cal it may first appear. Having 
established an hypothesis or sup- 
position to fit the circumstances 

February, 1959 


suggested by a newly-observed 
phenomenon, science then goes to 
the most extreme lengths to dis- 
prove the hypothesis. If it can do 
so, such proof is practically con- 
sidered a cause for celebration — 
even though a new hypothesis 
must be formulated and work 
started all over again, possibly 
with like results. On the other 
hand, if all available pertinent 
facts support the hypothesis, then 
it is accepted by science as cor- 
rect. It may then be used as 
a reliable reference in other 
scientific work. 

The rapidly accelerating em- 
ployment of this method of oper- 
ation has amassed an immense 
aggregation of facts from which 
science has been able to make in- 
numerable successful predictions 
that, given a certain set of phy- 
sical conditions, certain results 
likely accrue therefrom. This is 
the procedure and line of reason- 
ing behind virtually every inven- 
tion which led up to and now 
constitutes the complex techno- 
logy responsible for the present 
North American standard of liv- 
ing. Its only recommendation is 
that it works better than any 
other technique as yet devised. 
Should an even better one be 


developed, science will not be 
slow in adopting it. 

The scientific method compris- 
es two basic components which 
are essential elements of its suc- 
cess. The first of these — analysis 
— constitutes the observation of 
all factors and (Consideration of 
all encounterable problems; and 
the compilation of all informa- 
tion and gathering of all facts 
directly or indirectly relevant to 
carrying out a project. After all 
this has been done the job of 
synthesis begins. Synthesis in- 
volves determining from the ma- 
terial gathered whether or not it 
is feasible to proceed with the 
project under consideration. If an 
affirmative decision is reached, 
then it is the further job of syn- 
thesis to draw all necessary 
plans, work out procedures to be 
followed, provide for all person- 
nel and material requirements, 
and follow through in all respects 
to the completion of the project. 

The history of the scientific 
method which has been so tre- 
mendously successful in its North 
American application can be very 
briefly outlined. Two centuries 
ago the pace of living here was 
hardly faster than it had been 
(Continued on Page 33) 

Technocracy Digest 

February, 1959 

Compiled by Editorial Staff 

No. 115 

^/te flahi *1Uat Ale Qaae rf-aieuel 

T IKE beautiful new-fallen snow which soon turns to grimy slush, 
■■- 1 the dirty side of increased productivity — hailed as one of in- 
dustry's great strengths — began to show in Michigan recently. 

With Gross National Product well on its way to complete recov- 
ery, economists are pointing to throbbing auto production as one of 
the necessary giant steps out of the recession. And first-quarter 1959 
auto production actually is projected at one-third more than the 
same period last year. 

• GM's Plans — What gives observers the chills is the fact very 
few of the auto workers laid off during the last year will be rehired 
to help build these additional cars. General Motors, for instance, 
plans on 25% more cars but only 5% more hourly workers for the 
first three months. 

As auto production got back to full swing, the 328,000 Michigan 
jobless could be classed as the first large group of victims of 'pro- 
ductivity unemployment.' 

• Expansion — During the years of expanding consumer demand 
after World War II, and spurred to increase its efficiency by ever- 

February, 1959 


increasing labor costs, industry added capacity at a breakneck rate. 
Just in the three years, 1955-57, business poured over $100-billion 
into new plant and equipment. 

It's possible now for the auto industry to produce about 10-mil- 
lion cars a year, according to some economists. For 1958, production 
will be about 4.3-million. Even in 1959, which is beginning to look 
like a surge back to near 1957 levels, production probably will not 
pass the 6-million mark. And meanwhile, the investment in new 
equipment and techniques has lowered the manpower requirements. 

• More to Come — Economists say that what has happened in De- 
troit is merely a forerunner of what may hit other industries in a 
few years. Modernization has made possible more output per man 
hour; increased capacities mean that goods can be churned out for 
the rising population — but also that a growing pool of unemployed 
may plague welfare officials and threaten consumer buying power. 

Look at what has happened this fall to Detroit and the auto in- 
dustry. Christmas traditionally has been a period of high employ- 
ment, but this year it was the bleakest since Depression days. With 
the auto companies (except for strike-bound Chrysler) producing at 
the highest date for a year, 200,000 people — or 13% of the labor force 
— were jobless in the Detroit Metropolitan Area, more than twice as 
many as a year ago. 

• Benefits Used Up — Of the total, 75,000 have exhausted all bene- 
fits and have had only sporadic work for two or three years. The 
rest face run-out of benefits within weeks or months and have little 
prospect of reemployment. Welfare funds are in the red and benefit 
payments are exceeding payroll tax income. 

It used to be in hard times that the jobless could return to the 
farm — but now there are no farm jobs to be had, as productivity 
has found its way to agriculture also. Besides, many of Detroit's 
unemployed have found that even their welfare-supported slum 
standard of living is better than what they left on the farms and 
hills. This is particularly true of the Negroes, who can see no future 
in returning to the South. 

'.22 Technocracy Digest 

• Fewer Alternatives — It also used to be true that when a man 
was laid off from an auto assembly line, he could readily get an unskill- 
ed job in construction or elsewhere. Up to a couple of years ago there 
was a demand for skilled workers or white collar workers around 
Detroit. Now apparently there's no place at all for the jobless to go. 

While businessmen, taxpayers, and government officials wonder 
how they can keep welfare coffers from echoing empty and taxes 
from going up, the United Auto Workers has been wrestling with 
unemployment both internally and externally. The UAW's struggles 
are typical of what unions are facing. 

• Seniority First — Inside, the UAW has suffered from both a mem- 
bership and a dues loss. Although it is morally obligated to assist 
the members now laid off, seniority still prevails. 

The pressure of laid-off members is increasing as the realization 
grows that the auto companies are not going back to 1955 levels of 
employment. Unemployed Dodge workers have picketed not only 
Chrysler Corp., but Solidarity House, the UAW International head- 
quarters, as well. These pickets were protesting that overtime work 
was being done at Dodge and other Chrysler divisions and that 
neither the company nor the union were doing anything to put 
more workers on the job instead. 

• Overtime — The overtime issue pointed up two of the reasons 
for productivity unemployment. In the first place, decentralization, 
new machinery, and new methods (in a plant which the union says 
is outmoded) have dropped Dodge Main employment from a two- 
shift 20,600 in March, 1957, to a one-shift 7,100 today, while daily 
production rates have dipped only from 950 down to 550. UAW 
Dodge Local 3 has been complaining of 'speed-up,' saying fewer 
men are expected to turn out the same number of cars per hour. 
But the company points to time-studies and says the workers aren't 
working harder, it's new methods. 

On the other hand, the company finds it is more economical — 
even at an estimated additional labor cost of $15 per car — to pay 
overtime than to increase the work force for an indefinite period. A 
Local 3 official suggests why: 

February, 1959 23 

With SUB and its extensions to short work weeks and with 
severance pay, it costs them more to rehire a guy for a few weeks 
than to pay overtime. ' A Chrysler spokesman also points) out that 
rehiring additional workers would not increase production unless 
the plant went to a second shift (so as to utilize the equipment twice- 
over) — and sales don't justify that much increase. 
• Union Proposals — Publicly, the UAW has offered — or demanded 
— three solutions to the permanent unemployment problem; rehiring 
(which it knows isn't likely to bear fruit); retaining; and increased 
unemployment and welfare benefits. 

Retraining poses a ticklish problem. First there is the question of 
who should pay for and manage it, the company, the union, or the 
government? Then there is the even bigger question of retrain for 
what? Unions recognize that jobs are scarce in any event, so they 
think the federal government should finance an extensive survey of 
job opportunities. But they admit they don't know where the gov- 
ernment should start looking, or whether it will do any good. Furth- 
ermore, there are limitations to retraining itself. Not all unskilled 
or semi-skilled workers are capable of being upgraded, either be- 
cause of adaptability or ability. Meanwhile, there's always welfare. 

In Michigan, therefore, observers admit the outlook for the un- 
employed is grim. The pavement-pounding ranks are due to be swell- 
ed even more and no one knows what to do about it. 

— Business Week. 

•jfc- BIENFAIT, Sask. — A machine being used to strip over-burden from a coal 
seam 65 feet below ground here is believed to be the largest of its kind in Canada. 
It gouges out 35-cubic-yard mouthfuls. — Canadian Prest 

^ NEW YORK — Production machines that talk back to man — in his own lan- 
guage — are making themselves heard in the expanding age of automation. 

According to the publication, Product Engineering, any number of statements, 
pertaining to almost any situation the machine may encounter, can be set in its 
'memory.' The choice of the proper statement would depend on the situation the 
machine met. 

The computer selects and prints out the phrase. The back-talk ranges from such 
business-like statements as 'Have revised your last instruction' to 'Let's not botch it 
up again, Bud.' — Associated Press 

24 February, 1959 

*7lte £lect>io*tic A<j,e 

THE post office will be 30,000 feet in the sky. 
The traffic policeman will be able to pick your noisy car muffler 
out of the evening traffic rush and give you a ticket. 

An electronic sentry will telephone you at the office if your house 
is burning down. 

These are some of the things possible in the electronic age, the 
Canadian Electrical Council was told at Hotel Vancouver. 

Robert Storey, general manager of Radio Valve Co. Ltd., Toronto, 
outlined the technical advances of electronics in a speech prepared 
for the council meeting. 

The post office in the sky, he said, could send mail from North 
America to Europe at the rate of 6,000 pages a minute. 

Standard letter forms, similar to V-mail in the Second World War, 
would be converted to micro-wave radio signals at earth post offices. 

A satellite 20,000 or 30,000 feet above the Atlantic, travelling at 
a speed that would keep it above the same spot, would pick up the 
signals and relay them back to post offices in Europe. 

'These are not dreams, but are technically possible with today's 
known techniques,' Story said. 

Other tricks from the electronic bag: 

A noise-level meter for police. The meter will read the noise level 
of your muffler as your car passes in the traffic. If it's louder than 
allowed, Bingo! 

The dial-A-phone. This would nestle beside the telephone and 
store 850 names and numbers. 

Just turn an indicator to the name you want, push a button, and 
the gadget rings the number. If it's busy, the instrument will wait and 
ring when the line is free. 

The electronic sentry. The sentry will telephone you if your 
house is on fire, is being broken into, or flooded, etc. 

The dataphone. It will take data from a business machine, send 
it by sound along telephone wires, ^nd reproduce it. The inventory 
of a large supermarket could be sent \ 15 minutes. Vancouver Sun. 

February, 1959 25 

IN THE PAST few years, cement producers have used a dwindling 
share of their capacity. But that isn't keeping the industry from 
building new plants. At least 14 went into operation in 1957. 

Collectively, the industry is growing new muscles to get in on 
the roadbuilding program that is expected to push consumption of 
cement from today's annual 270-million bbl. to somewhere around 
450-million by 1966. 

Individually, cement makers are replacing ancient, high-cost 
plants with modern models of efficiency. And they are placing plants 
closer to major markets, in a trade where a 250-mi. haul effectively 
prices the product out of the picture. 

• In Maryland — The $17-million, 2-million bbl. plant opened last 
year at Lime Kiln, Md., by Alpha Portland Cement Co. neatly il- 
lustrates the individual approach: 

• By utilizing a variety of modern and sometimes pushbutton 
techniques it needs only 140 workers to operate it — about half the 
force at an older plant of comparable capacity. There are other 
economies and efficiencies, mostly arising from centralized control of 
a work problem that, in essence, is finding the best way to handle 
and move heavy raw materials. 

• Geographically, it will enable Alpha to wipe out a competitive 
disadvantage now suffered by the two plants that serve the big 
markets in Washington and Baltimore. At the same time, it will 
permit the company's plant near Easton, Pa. — which now supplies 
Baltimore — to concentrate advantageously on New York. 

• Quarries at Hand — The Lime Kiln plant is well placed for raw 
materials as well as for customers. Limestone, by all odds the largest 
ingredient in cement, is found in a 100-year supply at two quarries 
within a stone's throw of the plant. Thus there's no need for a con- 
veyor belt; a few trucks and a 24-man crew suffice to supply the 
needed 1,250 daily tons of rock. 

26 Technocracy Digest 

Plant efficiencies appear with the first rock-crushing operations, 
where the limestone is smashed down to 4-ft. boulders, and finally to 
%-in. bits. Thanks mainly to the substitution of big crusher units for 
banks of small ones, the whole operation needs only two men, instead 
of the usual four. For safety, there's an automatic shut-down of the 
entire setup if one parts gets out of whack. 

When the rock is crushed, conveyors move it to raw material 
storage, where it joins the other ingredients — iron oxide, sand, and 
alumina. Here, the ingredients are metered in proper proportion onto 
a conveyor that carries the mixture to the rough-grinding mills that 
reduce it to powder. 

• Slurry — The powder is watered down to a slurry, lab checked 
for chemical content, and pumped into the 400-ft.-long kilns. These 
kilns are simply refractory-lined tubes, nearly 12 ft. in diameter, 
which rotate slowly while the powder passes along till it is cooked 
to about 2,800F by a high-pressure blast of pulverized coal. The 
water in the slurry is driven off in the first 65 ft. of the kiln, and 
the powder is cooked to clinker form by the time it emerges at the 
far end. 

A bit of gypsum is added to the clinkers, which are then run 
through to finishing mills, where they are reduced to a powder so 
fine that 95% of it can pass through a mesh with 40,000 holes to 
1 sq. in. 

In the placing of its rough and finishing mills, Alpha adds an- 
other efficiency. Normally, in a continuous flow operation, the two 
types of mills would be set at opposite ends of the plant, connected 
by the kilns, which feed the powder from the first to the second sort. 
Instead, Alpha has set the two kinds of mills in one bank with the 
cement pumped out to the kiln, then cooked so the clinkers come 
back to the finishers. It is substantially cheaper to install all the 
mills in one area, with centralized power sources and controls. With 
the Alpha control setup, two men do work that used to require six, 
and do it better. 

• Storage Silos — The finished cement heads for the packing house, 
February, 1959 27 

and the 21 storage silos, where even the voids between the silos are 
utilized for stowing cement. The storage units are inter-connected, 
and each — in a pushbutton operation controlled by the packing house 
superintendent — can feed into the packaging silos, or to the bins 
that feed bulk cement into hopper cars for shipment. 

In bagging, a single operator handles a machine that fills the 
familiar 94-lb. sacks, four at a time. About 30% of all cement is 
shipped in bags, the rest in bulk. 

Dust — rising in smothering clouds at every stage of the opera- 
tion — is a basic cement-making problem that Alpha has attacked 
with vigor and success at Lime Kiln. A $l-million combined mech- 
anical and electrical system extracts about 99% of the dust from 
the kiln's exhaust gas; older systems did well to extract more than 

Elsewhere in the plant, nine big dust collectors continuously fill 
and empty vacuum cleaner type nylon bags. 

• Better Kilns — Efficient as it is, the Lime Kiln plant, stressing 
material handling and controls, is just one strike in the industry's 
march to better things. 

For the future, the biggest efforts are likely to aim at improv- 
ing the kilns, which have changed little in 20 years. 

One attack on kiln inefficiency is preheating the powder. By 
this method, a German developed kiln produced by Allis-Chalmers 
needs only half the length of the usual type, handling dry powder 
instead of slurry. For conventional dry kilns, Fuller Co. has a cyclone 
type preheater that blasts hot gases through the powder. Fuller is 
also working on the Pyzel process, which aims at reducing the fuel 
requirements by bypassing the kiln entirely. The raw cement is 
mixed with air so that it behaves much like boiling water — then 

For regular wet kilns, New York's F. L. Smith & Co. has a 
slurry preheater that is built into the kiln to improve efficiency. 

The most modern cement plants have generally concentrated 
their improvements in fields similar to those that Alpha explored at 

28 Technocracy Digest 

Lime Kiln. Among such new plants are those built by Lehigh Port- 
land Cement at Jacksonville, by Lone Star in Louisiana, by Ideal 
Cement at Baton Rouge, by Lehigh and by General Cement near 
Miami, and by Marquette in downtown Milwaukee. 

— Business Week. 

9fo a Snafii 

WASHINGTON— ^The government has come up with a trifling 
little gadget that may revolutionize the power industry. 

It is a five-pound device roughly resembling an old-fashioned 
flatiron. Its descendants could make obsolete all the cumbersome and 
costly plants now supplying the power needs of man. 

This gadget, called Snap III, was announced by the Atomic 
Energy Commission by way of the White House. It is a device for 
converting heat energy directly into electrical energy. 

It doesn't bother with steam, turbines, generators, or any rotat- 
ing machinery whatsoever. 

Snap III is, moreover, just one of many approaches to the dream 
of direct conversion. Its novelty, if any, lies in the fact that it uses a 
radioactive material as a heat source. 

This makes it immediately useful as an auxiliary power source 
in space where there isn't any oxygen to burn ordinary fuels. 

The Russians for years have been converting the heat of kero- 
sene electricity to run refrigerators and radios. 

The principle is the old one of the thermocouple. It was discover- 
ed back in the 19th century that when two; dissimilar conductors 
are coupled at two places having different temperatures, an electric 
charge flowed around the circuit. 

Conversion efficiencies up to 15% have been claimed. But the 
AEC said that its Snap III, with an efficiency of 8 to 10%, was the 
best practical thermo-electric machine yet devised. 

Experts feel that efficiencis up to . f !0% may be possible. That 
would be as good as some conventional power plants employing the 
expensive heat-steam generator cycle. 

February, 1959 29 

The AEC called Snap III 'a highly significant achievement.' But 
it was only a 'proof of principle device' — which means the AEC ex- 
pects more refined versions to produce more fantastic results. 

Fantastic is the word. Snap III, though its capacity is only 
around five watts, can turn out as much power in 280 days as 290 
times its weight in conventional batteries. It is not hard to imagine 
versions that would be even better. 

Thermo-electric materials, capable of translating heat into elec- 
tricity, may be metals, compounds, or even ionized gases. 

— United Press International. 

^r PORTLAND, Ore. — A number of Oregon plywood plants are slashing back 
production in an effort to prevent a plywood surplus. The cutbacks will range from 
15 to 25%. 

Some of the firms say they hoped to avoid layoffs by eliminating Saturday 
and overtime shifts. Others, however, were going on a four-day week and some were 
shutting down entirely for a brief time. 

Georgia-Pacific Corp., one of the biggest plywood firms in the U.S., was the 
first to announce the cutback. — Associated Press 

if NEW YORK — A scientist said here that nuclear energy and the abundance of 
power it will produce will leave the world facing a major problem — leisure. 

Dr. Boris Pregel, retiring pesident of the New Yok Academy of Sciences, said 
great masses of people will have to be re-educated to make good use of this leisure. 
He is president of Canadian Radium and Uranium Corporation. 

'It will not be easy to educate large masses of people in one lifetime, or one 
generation, and, I fear, this is all the time we have/ he said. 

With plenty of power, he said, the average industrial work week probably will 
soon be no more than 20 hours. In the not too distant future, it may very well be less. 

A major problem in cities will be displaced persons whose jobs have been taken 
over by machines, he said. — Associated Press 

it MELBOURNE, Australia — A television camera developed here to be used by 
surgeons to look around corners inside the body, weighs only 16 ounces. 

It measures 2x3x5 inches and uses transistors. Its developers say surgeons 
will be able to peer into cavities of the body previously hidden to medical science. 

The inventors have demonstrated how a patient can swallow a tube attached 
to the tiny television camera. The camera can magnify body tissues and organs 30 
to 40 times. 

^ NEW YORK — The Russians are testing a train operated by an automatic 
engineer, the publication Product Engineering reports- 

The human driver is replaced by a programming device and an electronic com- 
puter. All the needed information for a normal run is containd in the program device.. 

Soviet railroad experts are said to believe that automatic drive should provide 
greater safety. — Associated Press 

30 February, 1959 

Through the Technoscope 

» » » 

Technocracy examines the various scientific and technological trends 
in North America today which point to the necessity for a new 
social mechanism that will provide security and abundance, with 
a minimum of working hours, to every citizen on this Continent. 

system for gas-fired clothes dryers has 
been developed by the Controls Co. of 
America, of Schiller Park, 111. Formerly 
a glow coil or 'hot wire' was used to 
ignite a pilot flame, which in turn lit 
the main burner. In this new automatic 
system, a high-powered electrical spark 
ignites the main burner directly. 


meter 'ears' went into place recently to 
listen to the stars. The 'ear' — a radio 
telescope — was hoisted onto a 45-foot 
pedestal at California Institute of Tech- 
nology's new $1.5-million radio observa- 
tory in the Owens Valley desert of 

Like other radio telescopes now in 
operation in the United States and else- 
where, the new installation will catch 
signals from the so-called radio stars in 
its dish-shaped antennas and focus them 
to a point — just as a telescope mirror 
focuses light ray to a point. The signal 
will then be funneled to an amplifier 
and recorded. 

Unlike its predecessors, however, the 
new set of 'ears' will be movable in four 
directions — up and down railroad tracks 
1600 feet long. Scientists think this will 
make it possible to pinpoint much more 
accurately the location of the stars emit- 

ting the signals, through a technique 
known as interferometry. 


helicopters enables a ground operator to 
take control of the vehicle from the 
pilot. The 50-foot 'leash' is lowered from 
a hovering 'copter so the ground crew can 
control its movments during loading and 
unloading of the cargo sling, construction 
operations, and impaired-visibility land- 
ings. Manufacturer is Sikorsky Aircraft 
of United Aircraft Corporation, Strat- 
ford, Conn. 


force to pump oil in a new system that 
gives a different look to an oil field. 
Transmitted through an oil well's tub- 
ing, the sound waves set up vibrations 
in the tubing, causing the end of the 
pipe to move up and down with a half- 
inch stroke. 

A plastic check valve at the bottom 
of the tubing, acting very much like the 
valve on a regular pump's plunger, 
closes to push the oil toward the surface 
on the upstroke, opens on the down- 
stroke to push through the oil. Similar 
valves at every pipe joint — 28 feet to 32 
feet apart — keep the oil moving upward 
and prevent it from falling back if the 
pump should fail. 

February, 1959 


Initial cost of the sonic pump is ex- 
pected to be anywhere from 10 to 60% 
less than that of a conventional pump; 
$4500 as against $5000 for a 4000-foot 
well, for example. It will be marketed 
by Johnston Testers Inc., Houston, 


ously operating electromagnet in the 
non-Communist world has gone into ac- 
tion as the first major installation in 
the laboratory that is being set up at the 
University of California for Dr. William 
F. Giauque, Nobel prize winner in chem- 

The magnet, about the size and shape 
of a small beer keg, is designed for ex- 
periments in the ultra-cold range near 
absolute zero (-459.6F). The little pow- 
erhouse can produce a field in the 
100,000-oersted range, operating continu- 
ously. It can produce a homogeneous 
field over an area about 30 cubic inches. 

One application expected to yield use- 
ful results is the study of the 'entropy' 
of chemical compounds. This character- 
istic (roughly, a measure of the order 
or disorder of a chemical system) is 
difficult to measure in the presence of 

heat. Reaction of materials to magnetic 
field under the no-heat conditions near 
absolute zero can provide entropy figures 
that will be useful in predicting chemi- 
cal reactions that occur under more nor- 
mal conditions. 

has succeeded in developing a device 
they claim will make the loudest noise 
in the world, while another group has 
developed a set of electronic earmuffs 
for tuning out unwanted noises. 

The earmuffs, a variation of the con- 
ventional earphone, were developed for 
the U.S. Army so combat soldiers can 
hear their orders. Working on the prin- 
ciple that two sounds in opposite phases 
will cancel out one another, the earmuffs 
are said to reduce exterior noise to a 

Also at RCA, a compressed air loud- 
speaker that can squawk 20,000 times 
louder than a TV set at top volume is 
in final stage of development. The device 
initially will be used to test the vibration 
and sound sensitivity resistance of elec- 
tronic missile parts. It generates noise 
at 160 decibels and should be able to 
throw a human voice 10 miles or more. 

it MOSCOW — A Soviet scientist proposes construction of an atomic power station 
in the Polar regions where its heat byproduct would be used for fruit and vegetable 

Prof. Georgi Babat visualizes a station rated at 11,000,000 kilowatts. 

— Associated Press 

it TAPEI, Formosa — A process by which pig blood can be converted into plasma 
for human use has been perfected by a 38-year-old Chinese doctor, the Nationalist 
government's central news agency has claimed. 

The agency said the conversion can be done in five minutes and the plasma can 
be used on any person regardless of his blood type. —Associated Press 


Technocracy Digest 

{Continued from Page 20) 
throughout the rest of the world 
for thousands of years. The scien- 
tific method, though nearly a 
century old, had not yet been 
applied sufficiently to make any 
great impact on social patterns 
either here or abroad. However, 
the development of the first crude 
steam engine by Thomas Savery 
in 1698 provided the necessary im- 
petus to the use of this method 
to make it the greatest single 
physical influence in the lives of 
succeeding generations. 

The Savery engine was by any 
present standards a primitive and 
extremely inefficient piece of 
equipment. Yet it deserves men- 
tion as a genuine product of the 
application of the scientific me- 
thod to a physical problem. In 
its invention Savery had analyzed 
the problem as far as was then 
possible within the limits of 
available knowledge. There being 
no previous practical utilization 
of steam power for performing 
work, the inventor had to rely 
almost completely upon his own 
research to determine what could 
be done. Then he set about the 
actual construction of the steam 

While its performance was un- 

derstandably; very faulty, the 
principles involved in its opera- 
tion provided the basis for fur- 
ther experimentation and devel- 
opment. Seven years later, in 
1705, Newcomen and Cawley 
came out with their so-called 'at- 
mospheric engine', a distinct im- 
provement over the Savery mod- 
el but still expensively unsatis- 
factory. Still, progress remained 
so slow that it was not until 1769 
that any significant further im- 
provement was made in steam 
engines. It was James Watt's 

Watt's name is so closely link- 
ed with the development of the 
steam engine that many people 
still consider him its original in- 
ventor. This, we have seen, is 
incorrect, although his own in- 
ventions were so far-reaching as 
to detract nothing from him as 
an exponent of the scientific me- 
thod. His own work was largely 
dependent upon previously gain- 
ed knowledge as well as upon 
personal observations of existing 
machines. He, like his predeces- 
sors, employed scientific analysis 
and synthesis in attaining the 
outstanding mechanical develop- 
ments which preluded the In- 
dustrial Revolution and set the 

February, 1959 


pattern for subsequent rapid pro- 
gress in applying science to pro- 
ductive processes. 

By the 19th Century the mer- 
its of the scientific method had 
become sufficiently recognized to 
be put into quite general use. 
This explains the greater range 
of discoveries and inventions ac- 
counted for in this century than 
had occurred in all previous his- 
tory. Faraday in electricity, Bes- 
semer in steel production, Morse 
in telegraph, Bell in telephone 
and Edison in incandescent light- 
ing are but a few of hundreds 
who employed the methods of 
science to bring their respective 
indispensable contributions into 
being. These were the pioneers 
who, often working alone and 
without the benefits of earlier re- 
search in their particular fields 
of endeavor, opened the door to 
the wonders of the 20th Century. 
So great have been the ad- 
vances made in techniques of 
production of goods and services 
in this Century that a grandfa- 
ther often has less in common 
with his present day grandson 
than he would have had with an 
ancestor living a thousand years 
ago. In the physical world at 
least the scientific method had 


come into its own. Now, because 
of the spectacular results achiev- 
ed wherever it has been applied, 
industry and government have 
poured billions of dollars into 
the erection of laboratories to 
develop new products and opera- 
tional techniques to meet their 
particular purposes. Frequently 
this has resulted in research to 
develop inferior materials for 
business reasons, but science in 
its complete impartiality has 
proved its equal effectiveness 
whether used for socially bene- 
ficial or detrimental purposes. 

Remembering that science is 
simply a particular method of 
operation, it should now be clear 
that many of the perfidies with 
which it is blamed cannot pro- 
perly be ascribed to it. Thus, 
where disagreement occurs be- 
tween individuals with scientific 
training concerning some phe- 
nomenon under common study, 
said disagreement arises almost 
invariably from inadequate ap- 
plication of the scientific method. 
Each disputant, having only part 
(likely differing to some extent) 
of the relevant facts, have prob- 
ably filled in the jigsaw puzzle 
gaps with personal opinions. 
These are notoriously fallible by 

Technocracy Digest 

whomever expressed and certain- 
ly constitute no part of the scien- 
tific method. When all facts have 
been gathered and objectively 
analyzed, the conclusions derived 
therefrom generally indicate a 
remarkable degree of uniformity 
in suggesting a synthesis. Ac- 
cordingly, scientists in the course 
of their work are less inclined to 
express opinions than any other 
segment of the population, with 
the result that their conclusions 
are* much more often in close 
agreement. Unfortunately, many 
leave their scientific approach 
at their places of work when they 
quit for the day, and frequently 
become just as subjectively hay- 
wire and opinionated in social 
affairs as their fellow citizens. 
The foregoing deduces that a 
scientist is a person trained in 
the methods of science and who 
habitually employs them in his 
work. A geologist, then, is a per- 
son who studies the physical his- 
tory of the earth as recorded in 
rocks; but he is a scientist by vir- 
tue of the analytic and synthetic 
manner in which he conducts his 
investigations. It follows, there- 
fore, that science is capable of 
much broader application than is 
generally accorded it, and may 

be expected to produce the same 
high level of achievements where- 
ever it is applied. Yet there re- 
mains one very important field 
in the conduct of human affairs 
where its use has thus far been 
avoided as a peril worse than the 

While huge strides have been 
and are being made on this Con- 
tinent in changing the aspect of 
the physical environment, pro- 
gress has nevertheless been far 
short of its potential in the last 
forty years. Why? Simply be- 
cause North Americans have fail- 
ed to realize that their revered 
Price System economy with all 
its political and financial trap- 
pings is a relic of bygone natur- 
al scarcity conditions. They have 
not seen that the broad applica- 
tion of the scientific method on 
the one hand and its complete 
absence on the other has brought 
about an intolerable condition 
which has been responsible for 
extensive hardship through de- 
pression and war. So far, they 
still do not seem to understand 
that the instabilities of their pre- 
sent circumstances are attribut- 
able to the incompatability of 
conditions of abundance to an 
obsolete scarcity control (the 

February, 1959 


Price System) which depends up- 
on commodity evaluation rather 
than the measurement of energy 
determinants for distributing its 
goods and services. The pressure 
of accelerating events accompan- 
ied by an increasing discrepancy 
between abilities to produce and 
consume must soon convince 
North Americans that the time is 
overdue for the scientific method 
to be applied to the field of so- 
cial governance. 

Science in government? How 
can this be? The average citizen 
sees a wide, unbridgeable gulf 
between the usual concept of 
science and the intricate mach- 
inery of government. To him, 
science is epitomized in clinical- 
ly-white laboratories with white- 
gowned men manipulating series 
of strangely shaped bottles and 
tubes filled with bubbling liquids, 
or gazing fixedly through high- 
powered microscopes at innum- 
e r a b 1 e nondescript specimens. 
The purpose of it all seems 
somewhat vague and even a bit 

On the other hand, he sees the 
social order in the guise of his 
elected government and in the 
business he (has established and 
made financially successful. These 


are something tangible. Did not 
his firm provide the necessary 
support to insure the election of 
the political party with the most 
desirable promised legislation? 
Does not his firm provide many 
necessary ^commodities and much 
employment? How can there pos- 
sibly be a relationship between 
science and the operation of the 
social order? 

The necessity for a close liaison 
between science and social gov- 
erance was first recognized by 
the Technical Alliance of North 
America whose research work 
and consequent conclusions led 
to the 1933 formation of Tech- 
nocracy Inc., which was in- 
corporated under the laws of 
the State of New York as a non- 
profit, non-political, non-sectarian 
membership organization. The 
social blueprint of Technocracy 
is strictly the result of the scien- 
tific method meticulously applied 
by the members of the pioneer 
Technical Alliance. 

In the winter of 1918-19 a 
group of scientists, engineers and 
economists headed by Howard 
Scott, present Director-in-Chief 
of Technocracy Inc., met to study 
the ramifications of unique con- 
ditions created by World War I. 

Technocracy Digest 

What would be the eventual so- 
cial result of the extensive tech- 
nogical equipment installed dur- 
ing the war to do the work of 
men inducted into the Contin- 
ent's armed services? Would its 
effect be transitory, or had its 
high productivity become a per- 
manent factor in determining 
the future course of North Am- 
erican society? Unfettered by 
preconceived notions of what 
might evolve from the new tech- 
nology, the men of the Technical 
Alliance commenced the long ar- 
duous task of objective research 
which would produce the an- 
swers to these questions. 

The first self-imposed job was 
to take inventory. This involved 
an energy survey of the entire 
Continent revealing the hydroel- 
ectric potential of its rivers and 
lakes; its untapped reserves of 
coal, oil and gas; and, amongst 
many other findings, its extent 
of mineral, soil and forest re- 
sources. Results of the survey 
were most favorable. They show- 
ed this Continent to be singular- 
ly well-endowed with most raw 
materials necessary to create a 
high-energy civilization, far sur- 
passing any other area in the 
world. Its fresh water supply 

February, 1959 

alone exceeded half of the world's 
total quantity. 

In other respects, too, North 
America was shown as a prefer- 
red land area. With the lion's 
share of the world's known nat- 
ural resources contained in that 
19% of its area represented by 
this Continent there were half of 
the world's trained technical per- 
sonnel to convert those resources 
to usable form for a total popula- 
tion which was hardly a tenth 
that of the world's. All of these 
factors disclosed that North Am- 
erica possessed all the physical 
ingredients for a standard of liv- 
ing for all citizens far above any 
that had ever been known, and 
with due care it could be sustain- 
ed at that high level for hund- 
reds of years. 

Having learned the potential, 
the Technical Alliance group set 
about finding out what was actu- 
ally happening. How far toward 
that potential would the existing 
form of society carry us? 

It was soon discovered that the 
technology installed during World 
War I had completed a transition 
to a new era in the ways of do- 
ing work — a transition which had 
commenced with the invention of 
the first tool driven by extraneous 


energy. Hitherto, even with the 
help of increasing labor-saving 
inventions, it had been necessary 
to employ more men to produce 
more goods. But now a threshold 
was crossed which would never 
be recrossed. Henceforth, to pro- 
duce more, fewer wen would be 
employed as more machinery was 
installed. The stupendous impli- 
cations of this discovery contain- 
ed the answers to the questions 
asked earlier. 

Presuming the continuance of 
a Price System economy, this 
trend could ultimately lead to 
nothing but disaster for the citi- 
zenry of North America. Where 
a person's ability to consume was 
geared to the amount of time he 
could sell to some employer, it 
was obvious that this would be 
a decreasing quantity whenever 
said employer found machinery 
more efficient and less expensive 
than human services. Of course, 
the employer would also feel the 
pinch in the form of decreased 
sales — a pinch he would try to 
ease by installment buying, de- 
struction of surpluses or devious 
other means. Like his former 
employee, though, he would be 
fighting a losing battle against an 
inevitable trend. Sooner or later, 

the inexorable march of improv- 
ing technology would displace so 
much manpower and produce 
such an abundance of consumer 
goods that there would no longer 
be paid out enough money in 
wages and salaries to purchase 
enough product to realize a pro- 
fit on investment. Transitory? 
Hardly. The trend would contin- 
ue through the collapse of indi T 
vidual firms and the consolida- 
tion of many remaining ones into 
larger outfits' until no longer 
could any saving financial device 
be contrived. Businesses and gov- 
ernments alike would then face 
total bankruptcy. 

The members of the Technical 
Alliance saw no reasons for des- 
pondency in this trend. By scien- 
tific analysis they had simply de- 
duced that the existing Price 
System economy was a function 
of scarcity conditions and was in 
every respect inadequate to dis- 
tribute the abundance this Con- 
tinent's technology could pro- 
duce. The obvious conclusion was 
to design a mechanism of distri- 
bution specifically tailored to 
conditions of abundance. 

What would be the nature of 
such a design? 

Once again the methods of 


Technocracy Digest 

science supplied the answer. Ob- 
servation had shown manpower 
to be of steadily diminishing im- 
portance in performing the func- 
tions which sustain a society, 
while at the same time total pur- 
chasing power increased in im- 
portance even as its volume de- 
creased in direct proportion to 
the total number of manhours 
employed. It was apparent, then, 
that purchasing power must be 
geared instead to physical pro- 
duction itself. This could be ac- 
complished by measuring the 
amount of extraneous energy 
used in that production. By this 
means, the amount of energy thus 
used could be divided into as 
many equal parts as constituted 
the entire adult population of the 
Continent, then be issued to the 
individual citizens in non-negoti- 
able, non- transferable Energy 
Certificates. The amount of con- 
suming power represented in 
these Certificates would far ex- 
ceed the average consuming 
needs of recipients. More import- 
ant, however, would be the con- 
stant ability to balance produc- 
tion with consumption, thus com- 
pletely eliminating today's too 
prevalent wastefulness in unused 

While the design of this new 
distributing mechanism was cer- 
tainly one of the most important 
results accruing from the Tech- 
nical Alliance's research and an- 
alysis of the North American so- 
cial scene, many others also ma- 
terialized. Very important was 
the disclosure that for maximum 
effectiveness the Continent must 
be considered in its entirety in 
planning projects. It was found 
that any and all political bound- 
ary lines merely constitute ser- 
ious interferences to efficiency. 
The Continental Hydrology and 
Continental Power Grid were 
therefore designed for the entire 
land area, as were all other num- 
erous phases of social operation 
which were considered. All of 
these various aspects of the Tech- 
nical Alliance's work were ulti- 
mately coordinated and integrat- 
ed into the vast synthesis which 
the social program of Techno- 
cracy embodies. It still remains 
the most gigantic and successful 
application of the scientific me- 
thod to a physical problem. 

Earlier we mentioned the three 
all-important basic postulates of 
science. To these Technocracy 
adds a fourth which became evi- 
dent from the Technical Allian- 

February, 1959 


ce's investigations and has shown 
itself equally pertinent. Techno- 
cracy's postulate that 'the pheno- 
mena involved in the functional 
operation of a social mechanism 
are metrical' simply means that 
everything entering into the phy- 
sical operations of a society can 
be measured. This correctly im- 
plies that the methods of science 
can be applied to every aspect of 
social government — including its 
form of government. How this can 
be done is amply described in the 
Technocracy Study Course and 
in other Technocratic literature. 

Man has survived as a species 
and become dominant over all 
other animals — many of which 
were physically much stronger 
— because of a superior ability to 
adapt to adverse environmental 
conditions. Through long centur- 
ies of necessities he has learned 
not only to survive but to in- 
crease and progress in the face 
of a constant battle against scar- 
city of his bodily needs. He had 
become adapted to his constant 
environment of scarcity and had 
become reasonably proficient at 
meeting its challenge. If he failed 
to do so he simply ceased to sur- 


For most of the world for vari- 
ous reasons there still continues 
this tremendous struggle even 
though the enlistment of the 
scientific method has wherever 
applied been of great help. North 
Americans, by contrast, face a 
far different challenge. By virtue 
of their unusually rich land area, 
relatively small population and 
the extensive application of the 
scientific method, they have sud- 
denly been thrust into an envir- 
onment of physical abundance 
which even many of their fathers 
in their youth could never have 
imagined. It is a new environ- 
ment with which they are woe- 
fully unfamiliar and unprepared 
to cope. 

Should North Americans fail 
to adapt to the environment of 
abundance which they have cre- 
ated by their own efforts in large 
degree, it will be because they 
lack the necessary collective in- 
telligence to realize that the sci- 
entific method must be extended 
throughout their social mechan- 
ism — not merely in productive 
capacities. It must be extended 
to governance as has long been 
explained by Technocracy which 
is science in the social field. 

— Rupert N. Urquhart 

Technocracy Digest 

Can We Foresee The Future? 

Good forecasts require more realism, not less, than has been exempli- 
fied in past prophecies. A careful examination is needed of all elements 
that make up a valid prediction. 

IT TAKES 20 years to raise a 
child. It would help a lot to 
know what kind of world we are 
raising him for, not merely in its 
toys and excitements, but in the 
habits and customary comforts 
that will support his sanity. It is 
true that the future is uncertain, 
but not so uncertain as some may 
think. To prove this, it is only 
necessary to look for a moment 
at some of the old scientific pro- 
phecies of a generation ago to see 
how accurately they have turned 
out — and where they went wrong. 
Take Edward Bellamy's book 
of 70 years ago, Looking Back- 
ward, 2000-1887. This is a Social- 
ist tract cast in the form of a 
Utopian novel, which had a great 
influence on the social thought of 
the last generation. It is hung on 
a dream formula and baited with 
a quaint love affair ('sugar crys- 
tal,' Hey wood Broun called it), 
but it seems to be meant as a 
serious description of the social 
and technological changes that 
Reprinted from The New Republic 

February, 1959 

could occur in a city such as Bos- 
ton by the year 2000. 

What does it prophesy? Socio- 
logically, that Boston could be a 
communal society, with money 
entirely replaced by ration cards. 
This does not look quite like Uto- 
pia to me but from time to time, 
depending on what state of emerg- 
ency we are in, it does look like 
a dull possibility. In Boston of 
2000, messages would be shot 
from place to place by pneumatic 
tube, and lighting will have be- 
come artificial. But all this was 
up-to-date when Bellamy wrote! 
The telephone, the pneumatic 
tube, the electric light, all be- 
longed to the previous 20 years 
or so. On the technical side, Bel- 
lamy's most daring prediction is 
a kind of home radio or loud- 
speaker connected with a central 
station by telephone lines, with a 
choice of four programs. His hero- 
ine 'merely touched one or two 
screws, and at once the room was 
filled with the music of a grand 
organ anthem.' 


Bellamy's Bostonians of 2000, 
although magnificent physical 
specimens (the women have a 
'faultless luxuriance of figure'), 
did not come to be so through the 
marvels of medicine. In 1887, Pas- 
teurization and antisepsis were 
still being argued. X-Rays were 
eight years in the future. Medi- 
cine was still in the hands of doc- 
tors and had no marvels. Thus, 
the physical superiority of people 
in the 21st Century would be ach- 
ieved, Bellamy said, mostly by 
'the effect of untrammeled sexual 
selection.' Up-to-date again. Dar- 
win's theory of sexual selection 
had been published in 1871. But 
Mendel was unknown. 

The stores of the year 2000 
were to be like Roman temples, 
the clothes flowing robes, the at- 
titudes between the sexes genteel. 
It is all charming and in many 
ways forgivable. But a Utopian 
who limits himself to the techno- 
logy and romance of his time, to 
the almost-believable, limits him- 
self as a prophet. The most revo- 
lutionary party of Utopian re- 
formers, complete with undercov- 
er agents and mass meetings, may 
not remake society as fast as a 
single new invention. If a man 
does not know what is technically 

possible and probable, what new 
devices may stabilize or unstabil- 
ize the commerce between men, 
he is severely handicapped when 
he tries to foresee what is pos- 
sible in politics or in the distribu- 
tion of wealth. The desire for au- 
tomobiles may bring economic 
and political equality faster than 
the desire for equality. In Ameri- 
ca, the year 1940 outdid Bellamy's 
2000, perhaps in social reform as 
well as in automobiles. 

Yet if we turn to prophets who 
were better informed technically, 
we find similar errors. Take H. G. 
Wells' Anticipation, written in 
1902. Wells, as we all know, was 
a marvelously successful forecast- 
er. He imagined, decades before 
they appeared, nuclear weapons 
and robot battles, and space mis- 
siles reaching for the moon and 
Mars. And Anticipation is not fic- 
tion but a serious attempt to esti- 
mate what can happen in the re- 
maining 98 years of the 20th Cen- 

What does it predict? First, and 
most successfully, the social ef- 
fects of the horseless carriage. 
Wells sees it multiplying into mil- 
lions of private cars. He sees 
trucks and busses. Repair shops. 
Great roadways. Displacement of 


Technocracy Digest 

the railroad. Enlarged cities, with 
suburbs and commuters. And for 
war, 'ironclad road fighting ma- 

But his transportation predic- 
tions for the whole century were 
fulfilled in 25 years! Airplanes? 
He ventures to say, 'Very prob- 
ably before 1950, a successful 
aeroplane will have soared and 
come home safe and sound.' And 
then hastens to add, 'I do not 
think it at all probable that aero- 
nautics will ever come into play 
as a serious modification of trans- 
port and communication.' 

This was written one year be- 
fore Kitty Hawk. 

Wells estimated very well the 
future shape of war. He foresaw 
trench warfare with its stale- 
mates — the consequences of the 
machine gun — and how they 
would give way in turn to aerial 
blitzkrieg. He foresaw the domi- 
nation of war by science, and he 
states magnificently the central 
fact of the modern world: 

'The nation that produces in 
the near future the largest pro- 
portional development of educa- 
ed and intelligent engineers and 
agriculturists, of doctors, school- 
masters, professional soldiers and 
intellectually active people of all 

sorts . . . will certainly be the 
nation that will be the most pow- 
erful in warfare as in peace, will 
certainly be the ascendant or 
dominant nation before the year 

Later, in The World Set Free 
(1914), Wells even foresaw nu- 
clear weapons and the possibility 
that they might make war impos- 
sible. He predicted that they 
would be achieved about 1940, 
which suggests that he was be- 
ginning to have a pretty good 
understanding of the gestation 
time for research and develop- 
ment. He was writing just a short 
time after the physicist Soddy 
had first conceived that the atom- 
ic energy in a cup of water could 
drive a ship across the Atlantic. 
('That dreamer" the other physi- 
cists called him. They were still 
calling him that in 1939.) 

Yet we realize suddenly that 
Wells is not anticipating really 
new inventions at all, but only the 
consequences of things already 
done in his time. The airplane had 
already been foreshadowed by 
glider experiments and by Lang- 
ley's model. Wells foresaw heli- 
copters, but in all his predictions 
before World War I, there is noth- 
ing like radar or jet propulsion 

February, 1959 


or long-range rockets, all of which 
came within 30 years. There are 
no steel skycrapers, no plastics, 
although they were almost upon 
him. In biology, Wells imagines 
growth hormones. (The Food of 
the Gods, 1904), but nothing like 
vitamins or plasma; no new drugs 
or poisons like salvarsan and pen- 
icillin and DDT; no new tools 
like radioactive tracers or the 
electron microscope. 

Wells, the eager and specula- 
tive and successful, was too tame 
for history. 

After World War I, the proph- 
ets realized that they had to be 
bolder. But the story is much the 
same. Listen to Wells again, older 
and wiser, in The Shape of Things 
to Come (1932); and Aldous Hux- 
ley in Brave New World (1928); 
and J. B. S. Haldane in The End 
of the World (1923). In the next 
few hundred years (Haldane says 
the next few million), it seems 
we are to have helicopters and 
wrist-watch telephones or televi- 
sion. Clothes will be zippered, 
plastic and disposable. Haldane 
has rocket space-ships for colon- 
izing other planets, and tidal and 
solar energy for moving moun- 
tain ranges and controlling cli- 


In biology, life is to be prolong- 
ed and old age abolished. The un- 
fit will be sterilized. People will 
be like full-page color ads, larger 
than life, aseptic, healthy, com- 
mitting suicide only from air- 
planes. There will be new stimu- 
lants and new senses. New plants 
and animals created by artificial 
mutations. A Bureau of Hatchery 
and Conditioning producing child- 
ren to order, with their minds 
carefully shaped for their destin- 
ed social roles. Promiscuity. 'Ev- 
eryone belongs to everyone else, 
now.' A planned society, kept 
stable by incessant amusements. 

Alas, these fantastic futures 
have a familiar look, one not so 
different from the current head- 
lines in The New York Times. 
They are here now, the wrist- 
watch phones, helicopters, moon 
rockets, wonder drugs, synthetic 
plants and animals. Solar energy 
has its millions for research; is- 
lands are destroyed and moun- 
tains moved by atomic bombs; 
manipulating the weather has be- 
come a big business. Mindshaping 
and Miltown, artificial conception, 
promiscuity and the pressure of 
amusements — they are old famil- 
iars to us. And atomic energy is 
not even in these particular fore- 

Technocracy Digest 

casts, so that they were already 
surpassed by the first atomic pile 
in 1942. Today we transmute the 
immutable elements almost as 
routinely as we rearranged mole- 
cules when these prophets wrote. 

The errors in these forecasts 
are not to be cured by making 
prophecies wilder. That is the path 
down which science fiction has 
been increasingly driven: Pro- 
phecy becomes indistinguishable 
from fantasy and all connection 
with real live descendants disap- 

I think that for good forecasts, 
whether for a single industry or 
for all society, what we need is 
more realism, not less. And we 
need a careful examination of the 
elements that make up a good 
prediction. For the best political 
programs and legislation become 
dubious in the shadow of our ig- 
norance about the technological 

An interesting corollary is that 
if technology drives society, so- 
ciety vulgarizes technology. This 
is Aldous Huxley's repeated 
point. The grand organ anthem on 
Bellamy's Utopian radio becomes 
a singing advertisement for liver 
pills. The degree of vulgarization 
of a device will be one of the 

hardest things to predict. It may 
depend on trivia, and on variables 
such as the methods of distribu- 
tion. For example, in America, 
broadcast network radio has been 
more vulgar than wired music or 
hi-fi or books because it has had 
to reach a mass market to collect 
its fee. When good local FM sta- 
tions took away the more selec- 
tive part of the audience, radio 
became more vulgar still; when 
television took away the less se- 
lective part, it improved. Evident- 
ly anyone who tries to prophesy 
the full social impact of an in- 
vention will have to understand 
the detailed nature of the indi- 
vidual feedbacks in a competitive 
situation, questions intimately 
connected with secondary tech- 
nological tricks, economies and 

But this is getting ahead of the 
primary question, which is the 
forecasting of technological devel- 
opments themselves. This can be 
done successfully, I think, if three 
steps are clearly separated: the 
anticipation of inventions, the 
calculation of their development 
time and extent, and the estima- 
tion of their social consequences. 

Most persons will probably ag- 
ree that the second and third of 

February, 1959 


these steps can be accomplished 
if the first can be. Development 
times and markets, for example, 
are the natural province of vice 
presidents and research directors; 
and a lively and sympathetic im- 
agination will go a long way to- 
ward the estimation of social con- 
sequences. Starting from embry- 
onic inventions, the prophets 
whom we have just looked at did 
these two steps very well, and 
none of them had had any exper- 
ience with industrial research. 
But by contrast, a number of Am- 
erican atomic scientists testified 
after World War II that Russia 
would develop her own atomic 
bomb in four to ten years — when 
generals were estimating 30 years, 
or never — and four years turned 
out to be correct. In 1948, I heard 
two well-known physicists mak- 
ing bets on whether man would 
reach the moon by 1960; today, a 
year after the first Sputnik, this 
still looks like a good target date. 
For unbiased men, accuracy in 
such matters is a question of ex- 
perience. They take into account 
the fact that every device and 
idea has its limits. Trains and au- 
tomobiles reached their final 
cruising speeds within about 40 
years after they were invented. 


The mechanical theory of matter 
goes only so far. Science and tech- 
nology do not grow like a balloon, 
the same ball getting fuller of 
hot air; but like yeast, each bud 
reaching its limit and then new 
buds forming. By the time an 
idea has its Nobel prize, it is be- 
coming exhausted. Only the new 
guesses and speculations that 
spring from it have any capacity 
for growth. 

But what of the first step — an- 
ticipation of inventions? It is not 
necessary to be the inventor in 
order to see the general shape of 
things to come. In the first place, 
inventions as well as discoveries 
are not single but multiple, made 
simultaneously in many different 
places when the time is ripe. 
'There are now so many physi- 
cists that their behavior is becom- 
ing statistical,' one of them has 
said. A technical development 
generally rests on, and is planned 
from, an older substratum of 
ideas and related work, just as the 
voyages of Columbus and Magel- 
lan were implicit in Eratosthenes. 
A group working in one field goes 
ahead in the general direction 
set by work already done. Many 
of the discoveries they make, and 
most of the inventions, are there- 

Technocracy Digest 

fore not accidental but almost un- 
avoidable, and hence to a large 
extent foreseeable. 

Some research organizations 
now operate on such a large scale 
that the work of invention and 
even discovery can be program- 
med and can be partially turned 
over to an engineering develop- 
ment group. This shows us at the 
same time the second aspect of 
invention that makes it predict- 
able: It is a social process, satis- 
fying social wants. Whenever a 
highly concentrated research pro- 
gram gets under way, the tech- 
nological improvements become 
limited not so much by what is 
possible or by what an Edison can 
think up as by what men desire. 
If a result is impossible one way, 
it is often possible another, and 
the only problem is to run 
through all the conceivable me- 
thods until the right one is found. 
In this real sense our convenienc- 
es and gadgets are simply wished 
into being, when we wish hard 

Men wished to fly, and they 
got balloons — fire balloons, gas 
balloons and Zeppelins. They 
wished to fly without balloons. 
Four basic different devices have 
already appeared — the propeller 

February, 1959 

plane, the helicopter, the jet plane 
and the rocket plane, involving 
three different motors. Such ov- 
erlapping inventions might be 
even more nearly simultaneous if 
the appearance of the first success 
did not drain research energy for 
some time away from the other 
possibilities. To separate U-235, 
four different schemes were de- 
vised. All worked. Today we have 
not just one, but many different 
kinds of nuclear reactors and 
bombs and power plants. 

As soon as a problem can be 
stated clearly, we are within a 
generation of solving it. Of course, 
the prophet must be careful. The 
new toy is not likely to be exact- 
ly what was expected and it may 
not be as useful as anticipated. 
Automatic dishwashers, unfore- 
seen, can come and change our 
lives while we are still waiting 
for the moving sidewalks that 
many of the early oracles predict- 
ed. Going to the moon is not a mat- 
ter of physics, but of economics; 
the engineering advances that 
steadily make it easier are really 
vances in economy. And often 
when a fundamental restriction is 
encountered, we get around it by 
twisting our wants or rephrasing 
the question. We take an airplane 


instead of a flying carpet. The mo- 
tion picture gives us many of the 
pleasures of the time machine and 
far less dangerously. 

Nevertheless, the fact that we 
are usually able to will into exist- 
ence some approximation to our 
desires reduces the burden on the 
prophet of technology. The most 
important thing for him to do is 
to look realistically at what hu- 
man beings want and need and 
will pay for; at what the research 
laboratories will move to after 
they have done what they are 
doing now; and at what the de- 
tails are of cost, convenience and 
advantage, that determine the 
military, commercial or private 
acceptability of new devices. Ob- 
viously he needs to know science 
inside and out, but within cer- 
tain broad fundamental limits his 
central question is not so much 
'What are the scientists going to 
find?' which is hard, but 'What 
can we think of?' and 'What do 
we want most?' and 'How soon 
can it be ready?' which are the 

The laboratories are the focus 
of successful prophecy, techno- 
logical or political. Perhaps 10 
men in 10 fields — the hot hund- 
red — are the ones who determine 

in detail the shape of tomorrow. 
Oddly enough, even these, with 
their noses to the blackboard, do 
not always want to face the truth 
of how fast their latest pure 
theories will be transformed into 
daily necessities, or how fast in- 
conceivable invention will be 

One does not have to be a 
prophet to see that generally, 
barring catastrophe (whose form 
is also predictable and has a cer- 
tain probability), the shape of 
the year 2000 must represent 
what the great laboratories are 
working on most intensely today. 
To serve the doubled population 
of that time, with its doubled 
cities and doubled traffic and 
desperate expansion of birth con- 
trol and conservation measures, 
atomic power will dominate the 
scene. There will be solar power. 
Probably fusion power. Planes 
and rockets everywhere, far more 
versatile and better controlled. 
Space travel. Ion propulsion. Fab- 
ulous metals and ceramics. New 
practical devices from fundamen- 
tal nuclear physics. Remarkable 
understanding of molecules and 
of solids and liquids. A hundred- 
fold better knowledge of the new 
experimental fields of astrophy- 


Technocracy Digest 

sics and of deep oceanography. 
Cheap, versatile communications, 
television everywhere. Fantastic 
slave devices: automatic control 
systems, computing machines for 
every kind of problem and pol- 
icy, thinking-machines, pattern- 
recognizing and learning mach- 
ines. Accurate prediction and 
control of weather. In biology, 
the abolition of disease, the man- 
ipulation of species, and an un- 
derstanding and control of hered- 
ity and growth such as we hard- 
ly dream of. Solutions to many 
of our great riddles — photosyn- 
thesis, vision, genetics, enzymes, 
antibodies, cancer. A hundred- 
fold better understanding of the 

And I see the laboratories 
turning to many problems almost 
untouched today. New batteries 
and portable fuels for vehicles. 
A fundamental rethinking of 
clothing and shelter. Farming the 
oceans. In a recent book, Pro- 
fessor R. L. Meier has listed 26 
basic research problems connect- 
ed with our present population 
explosion which are not being 
worked on today. It would be 
interesting for an organized fore- 
casting group to work out the 
details of these predictions of the 

world for 42 years ahead. The 
believable we do in this genera- 
tion; the conceivable in the next. 
The third generation we do not 

To estimate such far-off inven- 
tion, I can only conclude that 
within very broad limits, the best 
guide is not going to be a tech- 
nical guide at all, but simply the 
knowledge of what men deeply 
want. Today the limitations on 
the development of science and 
invention in the foreseeable fu- 
ture seem to be set only loosely 
by nature, more tightly by the 
abilities of exceptional minds, but 
most tightly of all by the human 
desire and its balance of values. 

Among our many desires, the 
most powerful are the simple 
ones. To be warm and full and 
free, these are our first needs, 
the needs that can erupt in vio- 
lent revolution, but they are not 
all. What dissolves and remolds 
societies unawares is that we al- 
so want, like children, to have 
sweet smells, music, pictures, en- 
tertainment, bright lights and 
powerful servants. We want to 
make magic, to run like the wind 
and fly into the birds and talk 
across the miles and be as beau- 
tiful as gods and know how ev- 

February, 1959 


erything works. In the Western 
world, I think these longs are 
part of a deeper dream. Prome- 
theus, Daedalus, Frankenstein, 
Faust — there is psychological and 
racial truth for our questioning 
Greek minds in the dark power 
myths of human technical mast- 
ery stolen from heaven. This 
scientific age is the very time of 
their surging up and fulfillment 
and they burst daily into reality 
among us. It is the edge of crea- 
tion we skirt, recombing the 
genes and the viruses. Our mon- 
sters twitch, almost alive, as the 
antennae, the sense-organs and 
reflexes, the electronic brains and 
computers of planes and ships 
and guided missiles become ever 
more animate. , 

Some people today seem to pull 
back in horror as they once 
shrank fascinated from black 
magic or the hooded alchemist. 

With better reason the alchem- 
ists did not dream big enough. 
Was ever the imagined transmu- 

tation of lead into gold — that 
pretty relic of savage trade! — 
even a fraction so overwhelming 
as that of uranium to plutonium, 
which never was on land or sea, 
and then plutonium into every- 
thing? Even the names give the 
nightmare dream away: Uranus, 
the god of heaven; and Pluto, 
death. And today we fly up to 
the very spheres on which they 

To be accurate over the long 
run, the prophets of society will 
have to speak the language of 
technology, but they will have 
to dream as deep as myth. In the 
past, the serious ones have shrunk 
from such simplicity. They have 
spoken of what men can do, not 
of what they will to do. So their 
predictions have suffered always 
from a lack of realistic imagina- 
tion. The mad dreamers were ev- 
idently not mad enough. It is 
time for some madder realists to 
learn to prophesy. 

— John Rader Piatt. 

* WASHINGTON— The January total of idle workers in the United States rose 
to 4,724 000. the highest figure for that month s : nce the war. — Associated Press 

* TRENTON, N.S.— Federal Mines Miniser Comtois 'finished' four railway axles 
as workers looked on at a plant here. 

Actually Mr. Momtois just pressed two buttons, machinery raising the axles 
and stripping them of excess metal. 


Technocracy Digest 




it Technocracy is the only North Am- 
erican social movement with a North 
American program which has become 
widespread on this Continent. It has 
no affiliation with any other organiza- 
tion, group or association either in North 
America or elsewhere. 
it The basic unit of Technocracy is the 
chartered Section consisting of a min- 
imum of 50 members and running up to 
several hundred. 

it It is not a commercial organization 
or a political party; it has no financial 
subsidy or endowment and has no debts. 
Technocracy is supported entirely by the 
dues and donations of its own members. 
The widespread membership activities 
of Technocracy are performed volun- 
tarily; no royalties, commissions or bon- 
uses are paid, and only a small full-time 
staff receives subsistence allowances. The 
annual dues are $9.00 which are paid by 
the member to his local Section. 
it Members wear the chromium and 
vermilion insignia of Technocracy — the 
Monad, an ancient generic symbol signi- 
fying balance. 


^ There are units and members of 
Technocracy in almost every State in the 
U.S. and in all Provinces in Canada, and 
in addition there are members in Alaska, 
Hawaii, Panama, Puerto Rico and in 
numerous other places with the Armed 

it Members of Technocracy are glad 
to travel many miles to discuss Tech- 
nocracy's Program with any interested 
people and Continental Headquarters 
will be pleased to inform any one of the 
location of the nearest Technocracy unit. 


it Technocracy originated in the winter 
of 1918-1919 when Howard Scott formed 
a group of scientists, engineers and econ- 
omists that become known in 1920 as 
The Technical Alliance — a research or- 
ganization. In 1933 it was incorporated 
under the laws of the State of New York 
as a non-profit, non-political, non-sec- 
tarian membership organization. In 1934, 
Howard Scott, Director-in-Chief, made 
his first Continental lecture tour which 
laid the foundations of the present 
nation - wide membership organization. 
Since 1934 Technocracy has grown stead- 
ily without any spectacular spurts, re- 
vivals, collapses or rebirths. This is in 
spite of the fact that the press has gen- 
erally 'held the lid' on Technocracy, 
until early in 1942 when it made the 
tremendous 'discovery' that Technocracy 
had been reborn suddenly full-fledged 
with all its members, headquarters, etc., 
in full swing. 


it Technocracy was built in North 
America by North Americans. It is com- 
posed of North American citizens in all 
walks of life. Technocracy's membership 
is a composite of all the occupations, 
economic levels, races and religions which 
make up this Continent. Membership 
is open only to North American citizens. 
Aliens and politicians are not eligible. 
(By politicians is meant those holding 
elective political office or active office 
in any political party.) 

it Doctor, lawyer, storekeeper, farmer, 
mechanic, teacher, preacher or house- 
wife — as long as you are a patriotic 
North American — you are welcome in 


Whatever the future of Technocracy, one must fairly say 
that it is the only program of social and economic recon- 
struction which is in complete intellectual and technical 
accord with the age in which we live. 

—Encyclopedia Americana 



'My Mama Done Told Me' 

The Safe Car You Can't Buy 

Automation and Wages 

Commodity or Service? 

Farming Isn't What It Was 

Foamed Metal New Success 

Automation Speeds Mail 

Automation and the Jobless 










MAY, 1959 No. 172 


Rupert N. Urquhart Editor Ed Broderick Assistant Editor 

Milton Wildfong Associate Editor Jane URQUHART....C*rcw/afw» Manager 

Donald Bruce Advisory Editor Helen Slater Business Manager 

The Quarterly Survey 3 

'My Mama Done Told Me* 5 

Commodity or Service ? 16 

Automation and the Jobless 21 

Automation Speeds Mail 25 

Foamed Metal New Success 26 

Automatic Tools Prove Virtuosos 28 

Through the Technoscope 31 

Farming Isn't What It Was 37 

The Safe Car You Can't Buy 44 

Automation and Wages 48 

How Not to Get Along 50 

Technocracy Digest is published quarterly by Section 1, R J). 12349, Technocracy Inc. 
1166 W. Georgia St., Vancouver 5, B.C. Single copy, 25 cents. Subscription: four 
issues for $1.00; all three Technocracy Magazines, one year, $3.00. Make all cheques 
and money orders payable to Technocracy Digest. Entire contents copyrighted 1958. 
Printed in Canada. Continental Headquarters of Technocracy Inc. is at Rushland, 


The Quarterly Survey 

Productivity Jumps 

In all U.S. manufacturing, the 
number of production workers 
rose less than 1% (from about 
12.8 million to 12.9 million) be- 
tween 1947 and 1957. During the 
same decade, the index of indus- 
trial output shot up 43%. 

Workers are being automated 
out of their old jobs, as shown by 
the following examples: 

In the Boeing Airplane Co. 
plant at Wichita, Kansas, four 
punched tape-controlled machines 
each run by one man and)a helper, 
are building wing panels for the 
B-52G Stratofortress, replacing 
48 riveters. 

Two men monitor a machine 
that assembles and tests printed- 
circuit radios in Philco Corp.'s 
Philadelphia plant as fast as 40 
women used to do it. 

Automated devices, tended by 
a single man, produce 2,000 elec- 
tric bulbs an hour at a Corning 
Class plant, where a three-man 
shop once took 14 hours to make 

Electrical equipment output 

May, 1959 

rose 103% in a decade; employ- 
ment went up only 43.7%. 

The same trend is visible in 
Canada: The nation's automakers 
have turned out 151% more ve- 
hicles this year than last, with 
2% fewer workers. In the Blind 
River uranium mining district, 
mine operators are finding ways 
to cut work forces as much as 
10% while keeping up produc- 

Herblock in The Washington Post 

"Don't Look Now, 
But I Think We're Being FoUowed" 

New Check Sorter 

The checks cashed in the United 
States in 1958 would form a pile 
of paper which would stretch 900 
miles into outer space. Last year, 
it is estimated, the country's 475,- 
000 bank clerks spent roughly 
100 million hours sorting these 
checks — enough time to build 
about 500,000 automobiles, or 
make 170 million pairs of shoes 
or bake 25 billion loaves of bread. 

New electronic machines have 
now been developed which make 
it possible for the first time to 
handle the nation's checks auto- 
matically. The new system in- 
cludes one electronic marvel that 
completely sorts checks at the 
superhuman speed of 7,500 an 

With just one human assistant, 
it will do in two hours a job that 
takes as much as 40. It does not 
make mistakes, get bored with its 
job, or require any training. 

Declining Dollars 

A married man with two child- 
ren earning $57 a week in 1939 
has to make $135 a week in the 
United States in 1959 to get the 
same purchasing power, the Na» 

Herblock in The Washington Post 

"Well, Men, Whafll 
We Refrain from Doing Now?" 

tional Industrial Conference 
Board has estimated. 

The husband and father of two 
had to pay less than 60 cents a 
week in taxes in 1939 on a salary 
of $57 a week. Today, if he earns 
$135 a week, the tax bite is $16 a 
week, while inflation drains off 
$62 a week from his buying pow- 
er of 20 years ago. 

The $5,000-a-year man of 1939 
must earn $12,113 today to break 
even in terms of buying power. 

Technocracy Digest 

'My Mama Done Told Me' 

What a child learns at his mother's knee too often fails to square with 
the realities of the world around him. In later life, he finds that his 
degree of progress depends largely on how successfully he unlearns the 
misdirections of his parents and of many other people. 

T7VERY North American child, 
^" J if 'properly' reared, learned 
the fundamentals of life at its 
mother's knee. But, if the child 
was at all bright, he soon learned 
that that was a very poor source of 
information; that is, if he wanted 
information that would square 
with reality. His degree of pro- 
gress in later life depended on 
how soon and to what extent he 
unlearned much of what his 
mother had taught him and re- 
appraised the rest. 

As the individual progresses 
through life, he discovers that 
his mother was only the first one 
to misdirect him. There are many 
mother-substitutes to enter his 
life and to guard him against 
learning the realities of the world; 
to tell him lies and to misdirect 
his learning and thinking. Among 
these others are the adults of the 
neighborhood, his school teachers, 
the merchants, the preachers, the 
politicians, the advertisers, the 
youth guidance experts, the edit- 

May, 1959 

ors of newspapers, and his em- 
ployers and fellow workers. It 
appears that the whole world is 
in a conspiracy to keep the child 
from knowing what is and what 
is going on. The child may some- 
day learn to distrust everyone 
and question all information; but 
the chances are heavily against 
it. Gullibility has been bred into 
the human race for so long that 
it is easier for one to believe that 
which is absurd than to question 
that which is dubious. To know 
the facts, one soon learns, can be 
subversive; and to question false- 
hoods can be immoral. So the 
youthful individual builds up a 
shield of pretense to expose to the 
outer world that which he is ex- 
pected to know and have faith in 
and to shield from the outer 
world that which he thinks is 
really so. Eventually, the world 
of pretense comes to dominate his 
'inner world' and in later life he 
becomes a devout conformist and 

helps to perpetuate the falsehoods 
that were passed on to him. 

If one is able, as a child, to 
mingle freely with other children 
of his own age or a little older, 
he soon learns that there is sort 
of a clandestine fraternity among 
them. And from this fraternity he 
is able to gather a great deal of 
information of the first order of 
importance — the kind of informa- 
tion which he is unable to get in 
any direct form from his parents 
or other adults. His elders may 
have uncomplimentary names for 
his youthful associates; but, just 
the same, their vivid, direct ex- 
positions are far more satisfying 
than the vague circumlocutions 
of his parents. 

Probably before his first birth- 
day, the infant has his introduc- 
tion to a major yearly fuss in the 
household, which concerns itself 
with bright lights, fancy decora- 
tions, and wrapping of packages; 
and which ends up very early 
one morning with his being given 
a flood of brilliant objects to 
slam around and break up. Some- 
times he is uncertain which is the 
more important, the gorgeous 
wrappings or the contents of the 
packages. But he soon learns that 
it is all some kind of a sham; for, 

the beautiful wrappings are soon 
discarded and the joy and happi- 
ness of the adults and older 
children turn to irritation and 
sullenness, particularly when he 
breaks up some bauble which 
they gave him with great osten- 
tation. Oh, well! It was a lot of 
fun while it lasted; and he gathers 
that it will all be repeated again 
next year. 

By this means, the child is 
taught to expect something for 
nothing. And, if the idea becomes 
firmly enough fixed in his 'sub- 
conscious,' he continues through 
life trying to find a replacement 
for that generous old spook who, 
he was told, passed out the good- 
ies. He knows presently that the 
Santa Claus his mother told him 
about was a fake; but the idea 
was all right, and there must be 
someone or something in the 
world of reality that pays off in a 
similar manner. Maybe Santa 
Claus will be found in the guise 
of a rich relative, a patron 'angel/ 
a benevolent employer, a well- 
to-do spouse, a bookie, or a tip- 
ster. Or maybe the pay-off will 
come in the form of a buried 
treasure, a legacy, a quiz prize, a 
lucky gamble, a mineral discov- 
ery, some stolen loot, or other 

Technocracy Digest 

find or gratuity. Whatever it is, 
it must come without special 
effort or talent on his part. The 
desire and expectation of some- 
thing for nothing becomes a com- 
pelling hope and interest in our 
lives. Its quest occupies much of 
our time, attention, and effort. 
And that he we learned about 
Santa Claus at our mother's knee 
had more than a little to do with 
installing this corrupting feature 
into our personality. 

That story about the stork 
bringing little brother or sister 
had a short run; but it did prove 
to you that parents can tell some 
awful whoppers in dead-pan seri- 
ousness. When it became obvious 
to them that you know different, 
they probably substituted that 
rigamarole about the birds and 
the bees. Besides coming too late 
to be new, it was a terribly round- 
about and awkward way of com- 
ing to a point. Unless, perchance, 
you had been raised in a very 
sheltered environment, you had 
already picked up all that infor- 
mation and more. You were able 
to develop certain suspicions 
simply by keeping your ears open 
and adding two plus two. Then 
you had talked it over with your 

May, 1959 

young companions and exchanged 
information with them. 

The reproductive routine, you 
eventually understood, is natural 
and uncomplicated among the 
'lower' animals. But among hu- 
mans, it becomes all involved and 
messed up with philosophy. First 
of all, you gather that it is a field 
of activity which society officially 
leaves to the individual as a pri- 
vate matter, except that society 
imposes all kinds of complex reg- 
ulations on the individuals within 
this field. For the individuals to 
behave according to natural law, 
you learn, may be very sinful and 
may produce dire social conse- 
quences. But how to avoid those 
consequences is 'classified' knowl- 
edge; and, if you do happen to get 
access to it, the knowledge is not 
to be used, except clandestinely. 
However, if you do not use the 
knowledge which you are not 
supposed to know, and which it 
is improper to use, you are looked 
upon by the neighbors as some 
sort of an irresponsible character. 

Not all the misinformation that 
you gathered from your parents 
and teachers was intended by 
them to mislead you; for, they had 
been misinformed, themselves, in 
their day and had never learned 

-any different. In fact, much of the 
wisdom of the society has been 
handed down for generations and 
centuries in all sincerity as re- 
£"**rds its authenticity. It was not 
until science came along and be- 
gan to set things straight that 
much of the old wisdom was 
proven to be false or groundless. 
Yet the falsehoods had never been 
corrected by either revelation or 
philosophy; rather, those fount- 
ains of wisdom and omniscience 
had long supported error in the 
name of Truth. When scientists 
upset the old dogmas, they were 
scorned by Authority as mis- 
chievous intruders seeking to un- 
dermine men's faith in Authority. 
Eventually Authority has yielded 
to science in every instance where 
there was conflict. 

One of the fields of knowledge 
that has been most saturated with 
superstition and misinformation 
is that of animal breeding and 
plant propagation. Much of this 
superstition has since been dis- 
pelled; yet a great deal still per- 
sists among backward peoples and 
amateur breeders, some even 
hanging on among the profession- 
als. It is only recently that the 
determination of sex, for example, 
has been understood; that it is 

determined at the time of fertil- 
ization of the ovum by the sperm, 
and that it is essentially a matter 
of chance with equal probability 
for each sex ... It is only recently 
that the more educated people 
have stopped believing that en- 
vironmental factors (influence the 
heredity of subsequent genera- 
tions or that the heredity is affect- 
ed by the age or relationship of 
the parents. Rather, it is now gen- 
erally known that only factors 
which can change the chemical 
nature of the genes in the nucleus 
of the reproductive cells can affect 
heredity; and this occurs as a ran- 
dom effect, not as an influence. 
This is where radioactivity comes 
in; it tends to increase the num- 
ber of random mutations in the 
genes, hence tends to alter hered- 

The things that people have 
done and still do to influence the 
productivity of agricultural crops 
is amazing to one familiar with 
the modern knowledge revealed 
by the scientific method. The 
attempted influences range from 
planting the seeds only during a 
certain phase of the moon to voic- 
ing certain incantations to offer- 
ing up sacrifices. Some people 
even set out ikons of one kind or 


Technocracy Digest 

another, expecting them to favor- 
ably influence benevolent factors 
and to dispel detrimental factors. 
With more reliable knowledge 
dow at hand, agriculturists tend 
to rely on fertilizers, irrigation, 
cultivation, disease inhibitors, and 
pest exterminators to get results. 
Some devout plant growers, while 
disclaiming belief in the old super- 
stitions, nevertheless still attempt 
to retain faith in the mysterious; 
for example, they may have an 
intuitive feeling that there is a 
major distinction between 'natur- 
al' fertilizers and 'mineral' fer- 
tilizers. And they even go so far 
as to form themselves into semi- 
religious cults on this issue. 

One of the greatest myths per- 
petrated upon the infant is that 
relating to money. Very early in 
life we are taught that money is 
a magic fetish that will get us 
what we want. And, if we don't 
have money, the good things of 
life are not available to us. Yet 
money is an abstraction, an imag- 
inary something that is without 
finite reality. But, it may be mat- 
erialized in the form of certain 
tokens, provided those tokens 
have been properly sanctified. A 
piece of paper may represent a 
great deal of money, or it may 

represent very little, or none at 
all; and the amount of money it 
does represent may vary from 
time to time, all depending on the 
hocus-pocus that is associated 
with that piece of paper. But indi- 
viduals, cities, nations, and (pre- 
sumably) even the heavenly 
hosts are rendered helpless with- 
out money to provide them with 
the magic that is needed to pro- 
mote life and progress. 

Money is strictly a human in- 
vention. It is not found in animal 
nature. Man evolved and multi- 
plied on the earth for many 
thousands of years with no com- 
prehension of money or contact 
with it. But now we learn that 
man is helpless and doomed to 
failure and want without money; 
in fact, he is a disgrace to his fel- 
lowmen and to his gods. One is 
also led to suppose that money is 
necessary to lubricate the wheels 
of action in the spook world. 

One of the great fears gripping 
the leaders of nations is that their 
respective countries will not have 
access to sufficient money to main- 
tain governmental operations, that 
their nations may go bankrupt. 
Yet, money is absolutely unneces- 
sary in a national operation; what 
is more, the very concept of 

May, 1959 


money is a direct interference 
with worthwhile national endeav- 
or. Still, if a nation should aban- 
don money, it would become the 
object of hatred and violence from 
its neighbors; for, it would have 
scorned one of the most sacred 
myths of modern times. A nation, 
to carry on its operations, need 
only mobilize its manpower, 
its resources, and its machines, 
then proceed with doing what 
needs to be done. The population 
can be cared for by direct main- 
tenance rather than through the 
complexities and hazards of the 
monetary obstacle course. And. 
in short order, that nation can 
outstrip all its neighbors of equiv- 
alent potential, provided they re- 
main with jthe superstition of 

The child has occasion to learn, 
if he happens to think about it 
(for no one will tell him so out- 
right), that he has a social heri- 
tage. He is fed, clothed, housed, 
schooled, and entertained in his 
early years as a matter of course, 
without payment or the creation 
of debt on his part. But society is 
very interested in weaning him 
from his beneficient situation and 
getting him into the struggle for 
money. So he is taught the funda- 

mentals of money while still a tod- 
dler. This is more so now than 
it was even a century ago. Hardly 
anything can be done now to 
maintain or enhance life without 
tokens of money changing hands. 

As a child, you were taught 
that the proper way to get money 
is to work for it. But it doesn't 
take you long to learn that that 
is about the hardest way there is 
to get it. However, because of 
your indoctrination as a child, 
and as a matter of expediency, 
you generally settle for a job of 
some kind as a means of making 
a living. But you wish that those 
who had instructed you in how 
to get along in life had concen- 
trated less on earning a living 
through work and more on the 
easier ways of getting ahead. In 
fact, you notice that everyone 
Vvho is anybody in the society 
gets his money through some 
other means than working for it, 
often through maneuvring other 
people into working for him. 

Even finding a suitable job 
isn't always certain. There was a 
time when getting a job was not 
so difficult, but the pay was mis- 
erable. Now that the pay is some- 
what better, the chances of get- 
ting a job are less; for, the quali- 


Technocracy Digest 

flcations are higher and there are 
more complications. 

As a child, and repeatedly since 
then, you were told the lie about 
your country being a democracy; 
also the lie about its laws being 
made by and for the common 
people. Eventually, you find out 
that you have nothing to say how 
the country is managed or how 
the loot is divided up. But by 
that time you have so succumbed 
to the fiction about democracy 
that, except for a little grousing 
about decisions being made in 
smoke-filled rooms, you accept 
the fiction as a matter of course. 
And you tell the same fiction to 
your children, perhaps not with 
complete conviction, but dead 
pan. (After all, you don't want 
a rumor to get started that you 
harbor dissenting thoughts.) 

You are also taught patriotism 
for your country and chauvinism 
for your locality. You may pos- 
sibly become aware, if you are 
alert, that this is a slick device for 
getting you to accept social regi- 
mentation in support of the prim- 
ary beneficiaries of the status quo. 
On occasion, you are even talked 
into 'joining up' to go off to some 
foreign land and get shot at (or 
worse) to protect the investments 

of billion-dollar corporations; 
only, those who talk you into it 
don't state it in those words. Fur- 
thermore, you are always told 
that it will be a 'short war,' all 
over in a few weeks at the most. 
But if you look back in your his- 
tory book, you will find that the 
'short wars' average something 
like four years. 

You are asked to fight for Free- 
dom, Peace, Democracy, Liberty, 
or Honor. But before you're half 
way through 'basic training' you 
know you've been taken — that 
Freedom, Peace, Democracy, Li- 
berty, and Honor are only word- 
lies to trap you into a situation 
that denies all of these openly and 
blatantly. You have become the 
victim of a tyranny that was in 
operation the day you were born. 

We are told that the Free En- 
terprise system is the most bene- 
ficient economic system ever de- 
vised by mankind; that all other 
systems are evil, degrading, and 
incompetent. It is implied that the 
incentive of operating an enter- 
prise for profit is benevolent, pro- 
gressive, and inspirational to all 
concerned. But a closer analysis 
reveals that the incentive is never 
for supplying more or better mer- 
chandise to the consumer but, 

May, 1959 


contrariwise, to cheat, gyp, de- 
ceive, and misdirect the consumer 
into accepting less goods of lower 
quality at a higher price. Today, 
when a consumer goes into a gro- 
cery store, for example, and sees 
the price on the package of a fami- 
liar item marked up four cents 
from its previous marking (which 
is merely crossed out), or finds 
that the 16 ounce bottle has been 
subtly redesigned to hold only 
14 ounces (at the same price), he 
hardly feels like rejoicing over the 
benevolence of the Free Enter- 
prise system. 

The consumer is the 'fall guy' 
for all the rackets; and, if he 
should try to organize with other 
consumers in protest, he is treated 
as a subversive agitator — even by 
other consumers, so thoroughly 
have they become indoctrinated 
with the prevailing lies. The best 
that the consumer can hope for 
in this system is to establish a 
personal relationship with cer- 
tain merchants and thereby get 
a slightly more favorable break 
than the average consumer. Other 
than that, he may locate some 
cut-rate outlet, possibly handling 
low-priced foreign imports or dis- 
tress merchandise. 

In our dealings with the neigh- 

borhood merchants, we learn that 
the small retail merchant is, on 
the average, a reasonablly re- 
spectable individual — just one of 
the neighbors struggling to get 
along and is himself the victim of 
all the community shake-downs, 
which he has to accept as part of 
the 'public relations' routine. The 
consumer tends to have a folksey 
respect for the small neighbor- 
hood merchants, although he 
knows that they are not above 
putting across a few tricks on the 
consumer; but, after all, business 
is business. This personal rela- 
tionship between the consumer 
and the small retail merchant 
helps to misdirect the consumer 
away from a true understanding 
of business enterprise as a system 
— which is a conniving, cheating, 
lying conspiracy against the con- 

We are told, in our youth, with 
the utmost piety and insistence 
that the ideal objective of every 
young person shall be marriage, 
a home, and a family. But it is 
obvious to anyone who scans the 
newspapers that a rather high 
percentage of both men and wom- 
en are unsuited to marriage, a 
home, and a family. A steady 
number of adults find this com- 


Technocracy Digest 

hi nation such a distressing con- 
dition to them that they break 
under the tension and murder 
the rest of the family, then kill 
themselves. A larger number 
simply desert to parts unknown, 
abandoning their families. Others 
call it quits and dissolve the fam- 
ily. A much larger number con- 
tinue to maintain a semblance of 
the prescribed pattern in what is 
anything but a happy home. Yet, 
many are successfully adjusted 
and reasonably happy under the 
pattern of marriage, home, and 

The fault lies in the attempted 
regimentation of the entire popu- 
lation into only one pattern of 
social unit, and in the frustration 
of the lives of those who fail to 
conform to that pattern (or who 
become involved with others who 
fail to conform) . The Good People 
are those who, in spite of every- 
thing, pretend to conform to the 
'proper' pattern and thereby set 
themselves up as guardians of 
the status quo. However, their 
spirited resentment against the 
non-conformist belies their sin- 
cerity, indicating instead pent up 
frustration and envy. But the 
Good People are the exemplary 

ideals which all children are 
taught to emulate. 

From earliest times people have 
been told about spooks, essences, 
and mystical powers which influ- 
ence natural events and the lives 
of people. The children have been 
terrorized with stories and warn- 
ings about the 'things' that are 
not quite of this world. They were 
led to believe that theirs was a 
really hazardous existence, in 
which bad spirits had to be guard- 
ed against, while the good spirits 
had to be placated lest they turn 
bad. Most such beliefs are now 
regarded by enlightened people 
as 'primitive superstitions' or as 
frauds perpetrated upon the gul- 
lible public by those who would 
gain control over the lives of 
people and defraud the laity for 
their own profit. Today, the more 
erudite scholars reject the concept 
of personal spooks, yet many of 
them are unable to go all the way 
and settle for a faith in the mys- 
terious Laws of Nature. 'Mother 
Nature knows best' is their creed. 

We need not dwell at length on 
a detailed survey of the many 
sources of misinformation. We 
know that politicians are chronic 
liars; they will say anything to 
get elected and to stay in office. 

May, 1959 


We know that the propaganda 
offices of the government spew 
forth spurious information, de- 
signed to deceive not only foreign 
governments but also the people 
at home. The State Department, 
the Atomic Energy Commission, 
and the public relations offices of 
the Armed Forces are notoriously 
lax with the truth. The same can 
be said for the Chamber of Com- 
merce. The numerous cultists 
around the country warp the facts 
to support their doctrines. Most 
biographies and national histories 
belong in the fiction department 
of our libraries. The sources of 
misinformation are endless. 

Part of the basis for so much 
misinformation can be attributed 
to 'human nature.' Most people 
would rather have an explanation 
for the phenomena around them, 
however conjectural it may be, 
than hold the uncertainties in 
abeyance. Since they want an 
immediate explanation stated in 
explicit terms, it is up to the Wise 
Ones to provide the explanation. 
Such explanations are usually 
widely at variance with reality, 
but, if they are stated positively 
and emphatically, they are ac- 
cepted. There is, of course, an ex- 
planation for all the phenomena 

in the world (and beyond); and 
this explanation can be stated in 
physical terms. Such an explana- 
tion, however, may not be im- 
mediately forthcoming because 
too many pertinent facts remain 
unkown. Yes, Virginia, there 
really is an explanation for all 
things; but it is not likely to be 
the explanation you received as 
a child at your mother's knee. 

The only reliable basis for 
knowledge is observation; and the 
only reliable method of making, 
checking, and correlating obser- 
vations is the scientific method. 
Science is a method devised by 
man to determine as nearly as 
possible that which is so, and that 
which goes on, in the universe. 
The knowledge of science is far 
from complete, but it is the most 
complete and most reliable knowl- 
edge there is; for, in science, every 
fact must be thoroughly verified. 
If knowledge cannot be verified, 
it is unworthy of retention; it 
may as well be discarded and 
forgotten. A fact is not to be 
accepted on faith; its validity 
must be tested by experience. 

The application of scientific 
knowledge to human use is called 
technology. As the name implies, 
it is the study of technique. The 


Technocracy Digest 

test of technology is 'Does it 
work?' This is a rigid test and 
there is no way of getting by with 
nonsense (as is done so commonly 
in fields other than science and 
technology, politics and econom- 
ics for example). 

In the past, the youth had little 
occasion to question the Wisdom 
and Truth given them by their 
parents and teachers, for events 
were relatively stable over long 
periods of time. Now, however, 
changes are coming so fast that 
facts and events invalidate the 
wisdom of the parents while the 
youth are still young and adapt- 
able. Yesterday's Truth becomes 
today's falsehood. Authority and 
legend are losing out to science 
and technology in the struggle for 
men's minds. Philosophy has 
made too many mistakes to be 
taken seriously any more. 

Science and technology are 
applicable to any field of human 
knowledge and interest. They are 
as applicable to the social field as 
to the mechanical field. But when 
we say that, the authoritarians 

scream in outrage; for, to them, 
the world of fiction is sacred while 
the world of reality is — well, it's 
'materialistic' Science and tech- 
nology are contemptuous of tra- 
dition, authority, and philosophi- 
cal speculation. They hold that 
knowledge which does not work 
is no good. 

Technocracy is the application 
of the knowledge of science and 
the method of technology to the 
social order; it is the only such 
approach to the social problem. 
All other social 'systems' are 
based on philosophy. Philosophi- 
cal incentives do not enter into 
Technocracy; hence, it can devise 
a social order that works — one 
that works to the benefit of the 
human beings living in it. 

Technocracy invites the youth 
of North America to question the 
Wisdom of their elders, to accept 
the intellectual discipline of sci- 
ence and technology as the test 
for all knowledge, and to study 
Technocracy in the light of to- 
day's social problems on their 
Continent. —Wilton Ivie, CHQ 

* FULLY AUTOMATIC ELECTRIC EYE controls are now available on still 
cameras as well as movie cameras. A photocell computes the J-Jrrent light reading and 
automatically sets the lens opening, adjusting it whenever light reaches the cell. All 
the photographer has to do is sight and shoot. — Business Week 

May, 1959 


Commodity or Service? 


The Price System has perverted the purposes of society by treating as 
commodities for sale functions which are essentially services. Tech- 
nocracy's blueprint of social operation will restore these basic purposes 
to their proper perspective. 

WHAT motorist has not ex- 
perienced the inconveni- 
ence of car trouble when no help 
was available? The old jalopy al- 
ways seems to go haywire after 
the garage mechanics have all 
gone home for the day. At such 
times the frustrated motorist may 
be excused some caustic thoughts 
toward service station operators 
who neither have their premises 
open twenty-four hours daily, 
nor have mechanics on duty even 
during all the hours they are 

Non - motorists have different 
but no less exasperating trans- 
portal >n problems. During rush 
hours on practically all lines they 
ar-, packed sardine-like on trains, 
streetcars and buses — when they 
are lucky enough to get aboard 
at all. Between these morning 
and evening peak loads, service is 
generally sufficiently frequent to 
satisfy more leisurely patrons. 
Later, however, in the hours just 
before and after midnight, it 


drops off to a fraction of the desir- 
able level. It is not uncommon to 
have to wait as long as an hour, 
whatever the weather, for a trans- 
portation vehicle to show up. 

So it goes not only for these 
and other phases of transporta- 
tion, but with most other osten- 
sible services within the Price 
System. Have you ever tried to 
buy a much-needed bottle of pre- 
scribed medicine in the middle 
of the night? Have you walked 
for blocks in a strange city on a 
Sunday morning to find an open 
restaurant in which to have 
breakfast, meanwhile passing 
numerous closed eateries which 
had catered to the late Saturday 
night trade? Or have you ever 
sought a dentist to attend a rag- 
ing toothache on either a Sunday 
or public holiday? I f your answer 
to any of these questions is 
affirmative, you have some first- 
hand appreciation of the factors 
determining whether certain 

Technocracy Digest 

operations within our society are 
commodities or services. 

Any standard dictionary will 
give each of these words several 
meanings. Amongst others are 
the following most generally un- 
derstood and used definitions as 
given by 'Webster's Collegiate 
Dictionary, 5th Edition.' It de- 
scribes 'commodity' as 'that 
which affords convenience or pro- 
fit, especially in commerce; goods, 
wares, et cetera'; while a 'service' 
is an 'act or means of supplying 
some general demand, especially 
of conducting some public utility.' 
These are the definitions to be re- 
membered in subsequent refer- 
ences to the title words. 

An accurate review of the per- 
tinency of either definition to var- 
ious functions necessitates some 
understanding of society. We must 
know its reasons for existing be- 
fore we can determine how well 
equipped it is to fulfil those rea- 

Society, fundamentally an asso- 
ciation of people having certain 
common interests, arose out of 
the realization that the needs of 
all could be more adequately 
satisfied conjointly than separ- 
ately. Initially these needs chiefly 
concerned the procurement of 
May, 1959 

food and protection from preda- 
tory animals, subsequently pro- 
gressing through numerous inter- 
mediary stages to the complex 
technological mechanism which 
has brought physical abundance 
to North America. Between these 
extremes are tremendous differ- 
ences — but they are differences 
in form and magnitude rather 
than in purpose. This latter has 
not varied from its original con- 

Somewhere along the line the 
means employed to gain the ends 
of society became confused with 
the ends themselves. People who, 
by virtue of superior strength or 
ability, had gained possession of 
greater supplies of food or other 
materials than they themselves 
required, found that they could 
enhance their social status by 
t r a d in g those possessions to 
people wishing them. It was this 
advantageous trading of smaller 
quantities of highly favored 
articles for larger quantities of 
lesser favored articles which 
brought the concept of 'value' into 
the field of production and distri- 
bution. This concept has been a 
major offender in subverting the 
original purposes of society. 

The Price System, originating 


from the concept of value, is the 
material form which this treason- 
able subversion has assumed. 
Since value, defined by Techno- 
cracy as 'the measure of the force 
of human desire impinging on 
relative abundance or scarcity,' 
changes drastically from item to 
item, from person to person, and 
from time to time with little or no 
relationship to physical needs, it 
is obvious that the value-based 
Price System must also be ex- 
tremely unreliable for any form 
of measurement. This very un- 
reliability, however, proved a 
most useful tool to sharp opera- 
tors who found the Price System 
especially well adapted to their 
purposes. They began to regard 
the goods they handled less as 
material necessities than as means 
to gain power and prestige. Their 
objectives became the creation of 
a general desire for something 
they could supply. Should the de- 
sire for a particular item become 
quite extensive in the face of 
actual or created scarcity, the 
value thereof would be high; 
while an opposite condition would 
result in a low trade value — quite 
independently of the relative in- 
trinsic importance of the goods so 
adjudged. Transactions hitherto 

negotiated on a straight barter 
basis were enormously simplified 
by the introduction of deferred 
payment in the form of money, 
but were not altered in actual 
character. They were still based 
upon commodity evaluation in- 
herited from natural scarcity con- 

It soon became evident that 
those who by devious means accu- 
mulated greater monetary or pro- 
prietary wealth than their fellow 
citizens enjoyed a correspond- 
ingly greater degree of comfort 
and security. The answer was 
simple. Such wealth must be the 
most effective protection against 
a niggardly environment, and 
therefore emulation of the prac- 
tices which most successfully 
achieved that result must be the 
most important objective to strive 
toward. While the manifest falla- 
cies of this assumption are too 
numerous to be elaborated upon 
here, it should now be apparent 
that it was mainly this line of 
reasoning that subordinated the 
ends of society to the means of 
gaining those ends. 

The pursuit of monetary 'secur- 
ity' has intensified rather than 
diminished as populations have 
increased and societies have be- 


Technocracy Digest 

come more complex. It is not sur- 
prising, therefore, that North 
Americans today living in the 
most complex society in the world 
are amongst the most acquisitive 
people. Paradoxically, there is no 
longer any justification (if there 
ever was) for this acquisitiveness, 
for the scarcity conditions respon- 
sible for its birth and growth have 
been effectively dispersed by the 
extensive application to produc- 
tive techniques of science and 
technology. However, the insist- 
ent retention of the obsolete Price 
System has thus far enforced the 
rules of its operation within an 
environment of abundance in 
which it has no validity. As long 
as this remains the case we must 
continue to give financial con- 
siderations precedence over social 
welfare. If, in the process of amas- 
sing debt tokens, society should 
be provided with certain neces- 
sary goods and services, it will 
be merely as an expedient by- 
product of the primary quest. 

Our Price System being what 
it is, it was to be expected that it 
would give priority rating to 
strictly commercial enterprises 
engaged in the competitive manu- 
facture and sale of consumer com- 
modities. This first line of attack of 

the chiseler for fleecing the suck- 
er has become so established in 
our social mores as to be accep- 
ted almost without question. The 
second line of attack has been par- 
tially camouflaged to appear as 
services run strictly in the public 
interest. These are the utilities 
largely supplied by public service 
corporations under various levels 
of governmental control, and as 
such are considered indispensable 
in contrast to the first mentioned 
group which does not always en- 
joy this distinction. Such arbi- 
trary division prompts much legal 
argument in some cases to deter- 
mine into which category certain 
functions should fall. Railroads, 
for instance, while generally con- 
sidered indispensable to North 
American transportation, are not 
listed as public utilities because 
of certain unique characteristics. 
However arbitrary the selec- 
tion of those functions constitut- 
ing the public utilities, their in- 
clusion implies that they are con- 
sidered more important than those 
not so chosen. This further im- 
plies, correctly or incorrectly 
according to the merits of each 
individual case, that while other 
functions may cease operating 
from time to time without undue 

May, 1959 


hardship resulting, those of the 
public utilities must never be per- 
mitted to discontinue their indis- 
pensable operations. Certainly this 
should be the case with any func- 
tions so highly essential, yet the 
distinction between them and un- 
masked commodity enterprises is 
more often apparent than real. 
The public utilities are for the 
most part treated as commodities 
for sale, and are sold only at such 
prices and under such conditions 
as can assure a favorable return 
on investment. Should this neces- 
sitate service curtailments here 
and there, they will be 'regret- 
fully' made at whatever physical 
inconvenience to patrons. 

The reasons for such perversion 
are inherent in the Price System 
structure. Whether they supply 
goods or services, businesses are 
bound to consider their financial 
objectives above all else. To do 
less would lead to their ultimate 
liquidation. If, despite all they 
can do, the operating costs fcr 
public service corporations con- 
tinue mounting, their only re- 
course is to reduce operations 
sufficiently to stay ahead of the 
game and keep their stockholders 

This Price System requirement 


manifests itself in peculiar ways 
under both private and public 
auspices. An outstanding ex- 
ample, again taken from the field 
of transportation, concerns the 
thoroughfares primarily, but has 
immediately detrimental second- 
ary effects on all traffic moving 
upon them. 

Every day millions of motorists 
are irritated by having to stop 
to pay toll fees before entering 
onto certain of the Continent's 
bridges and highways. The tolls 
themselves, while running to con- 
siderable amounts for those who 
must use the facilities frequently, 
are not the principal source of 
aggravation. It is the necessity of 
1 aving to stop for this purpose 
alone, however heavy the traffic, 
which prompts explosive invect- 
ive from citizens stalled behind 
long lines of automobiles edging 
forward at snail's paces to await 
their turns at the toll gates. Broad 
bridges spanning bodies of water 
for the ostensible convenience of 
the motoring public have their 
service degraded to a commodity 
as rush-hour traffic is backed up 
behind the toll gates which effect- 
ively cancel out many physical 
advantages otherwise to be gained. 

(Continued on page 33) 

Technocracy Digest 


May, 1959 

Compiled by Editorial Staff 

No. 172 

Autamatiatt and tlte flo/Uete 

^^■HICAGO — Increased employment and unemployment, both at the 
^■^ same time: that's the strange economic scene as viewed from 
here, looking out across the nation. Sure signs point toward a renewed 
prosperity. Yet, to the north, there is Detroit, where the jobless speak 
eloquently of increased automation and plants going elsewhere and 
of the defense contracts which have gone to the Southwest and Far 

To the east and south there are the still-depressed parts of West 
Virginia, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and southern Virginia — where 
automation and an ebbing demand make the coal fields a place 
where men still walk the streets for work. 

Automation? In Clinchfield , Va., a push-button processing 
machine 10 stories high has just gone into operation. This mammoth 
machine, said to be the largest and most highly automated coal- 
preparation plant of its kind in the world, separates coal from mine 
refuse and then washes, screens, and dries the coal at a rate of 15,000 
tons in a two-shift day. 

Approximately 90% of this giant plant is controlled by one man. 
May, 1959 21 

He and four others use 600 push buttons in five control centers to 
perform the following operations 

Bumping the railroad cars that bring the raw coal to the plant 
at the rate of about 22 to 24 70-ton cars an hour; guiding the coal 
through the labyrinth of conveyors, screens, huge wash boxes, centri- 
fuges, and scores of other processing steps; operating the largest 
battery of heat dryers ever erected; loading the processed coal into 
empty railroad gondola cars on five different tracks at the rate of 
from 15 to 18 cars per hour, and finally dumping the shale into a deep 
valley half a mile away. 

Here in Chicago nearly 200 jobless wait at the gates of United 
States Steel Company's giant South Works. But it is to no avail. 
Steel, nationally, with South Works and the Gary plant playing a 
big role, has just poured 2,631,000 tons of steel, the largest weekly 
volume in the industry's history. The workers are all back, or, at 
least, most of them — the companies say. So the jobless wait and wait. 

But steel-union leaders contend there is a significant 'slippage,' 
a loss of workers on the job that is not being perceived in the slow 
return to work after the recession. 

'If Joe and Bob get laid off,' says one union official, 'everyone 
notices it. But if, after a long layoff, only Joe is rehired — no one may 
notice that Bob go fired.' 

In the Indiana Harbor area, according to this official, one big 
company — 'operating at 90% of capacity' — is 1,000 below its employ- 
ment of two years ago when a similar capacity was being attained. 
In the South Chicago area, a similar 'slippage* is reported — about 
1,000 workers who are no longer employed. 

In Gary, the union people claim a drop in steel-workers employed 
from about 18,000 to a present total of 15,000. 

Where did these workers go? Many were low in seniority, of 
course. Some drifted back to the southern hills, from which they had 
migrated. Many still are here. These are usually the non-whites, 
who swell a local unemployment total which remains at the highest 
level since last March — with the 210,000 jobless comprising 7.5% of 
the labor force. 

22 Technocracy Digest 

In February, unemployment nationally rose to 4,749,000, or 
7.0% of the civilian labor force. So Chicago's 7.5% is somewhat higher 
proportionately than the percentage for the nation as a whole. 

Efficiency and automation in a heavy-industry area are behind 
this story of rising production and the beginning of a thinning in the 
ranks of labor. There is a steel foundry in the Indiana Harbor region 
where there has been a conversion from green-sand moldings into 
shell moldings. This has resulted in the doubling of production with 
a reduction of workers from 600 to less than 300. 

A new mill in South Chicago will replace two old mills. And 
it is expected that 1.000 workers will lose their jobs as a result. 
One company has a new strip mill, where a punch card is put in and 
the machine automatically makes the changes the card calls for. There 
are several of these new mills around the country. All this means 
fewer workers. 

In steel this automation has hardly been perceived, it has come 
so slowly. But, according to a high official in one large steel company, 
the recession enabled the steel companies to eliminate the accumu- 
lation of unneeded workers — those who were most inefficient, those 
who actually had been made expendable by the gradual increased 
mechanization during the years since the war. 

Actually, this off-the-record disclosure by a member of man- 
agement is an isolated instance of individual company information 
on the subject of employment. Individual companies keep such infor- 
mation within a 'classified' category. The reason given: This is infor- 
mation that would aid the competition. Thus, for the specifics, one 
must turn to labor figures which, admittedly, may be somewhat 
padded — for negotiation purposes. 

Nonetheless, there are many unemployed workers today who 
testify quite convincingly to their replacement by mechanization. This, 
plus management-conceded gains in productivity, totals up to an 
obvious trend in the economy: machines to replace workers as fast 
as practicable. 

For example, if you have a high-school degree and a little mech- 
anical aptitude, there are plenty of jobs around here. Said one 

May. 1959 23 

employment-office official, 'I could use 200 men with these qualifi- 
cations right today. But there is no one available.' So while men walk 
the streets — the need, and opportunity grows for highly qualified 
personnel to man the machines. 

In Youngstown, Ohio, Edwin A. Lahey of the Chicago Daily News 
has found a similar scene in that steel city. Writes Mr. Lahey: 

'The workers in this area are learning with bitterness that after 
each spasm of unemployment in the steel mills the industry improves 
its processes and goes back into full production with fewer workers 
each time, leaving a new batch of "disemployed" men after each such 

'We think this increased efficiency and productivity are good,' 
one union official commented here, 'but we are laid off because of the 
machines coming in.' It is thinking of this kind that will likely be 
heard this spring as the union negotiates a new wage contract with the 
steel industry. Proposals may take the form of three-month paid 
vacation every five years or a shorter work week. 

Meanwhile, the consumer is hoping for a solution for auto- 
mation that stops short of paid idleness — for he knows from experi- 
ence that the cost of such a concession will eventually be passed 
along to him. 

But until solutions do come along, it looks as though this country 
will increasingly become an economic society of paradoxes — of more 
and more production with more and more people being displaced 

With the proper solution of the automation problem, however, 
can come a higher standard of living, a better life for everyone. This 
is the challenge involved in Joe coming back to work and Bob still 
walking the street. 

Godfrey Sperling in The Christian Science Monitor 

j( LONDON — The British post office has installed an automatic electronic letter- 
sorting machine claimed to be the most advanced in the world. 

The machine automatically turns letters around so they are facing the same way 
for cancelling and then sorts them into first and second-class mail. — Reuters 

24 Technocracy Digest 

Autamatiatt Speed* Mail 

IT may be typed, printed or hand-written, but starting at 2 p.m. 
today, when your mail leaves Vancouver post office for the train, 
it goes by automation. 

At 2 p.m., with a push of a button, the post office started using its 
$1,590,000, 2,400-foot long tunnel-conveyor system to ship mail bags 
underground across town to the Candian Pacific Railway station. 

Paris has its sewers. Toronto has its subway. Now Vancouver 
has what post office officials call the only automated mail tunnel on 
the continent, maybe in the world. 

It is drafty and full of noise, like the Toronto subway, and 
moisture drips down its walls in places. 

Unlike Paris and Toronto underground routes, Vancouver's 
half-mile of tunnel, 10 feet high, holds nothing but a mile of concave 
rubberized conveyor belt. 

Its four conveyor systems run from inside the mail room in the 
northeast end of the main post office west under Dunsmuir to 
Richards, north under Richards to Cordova, and west under Cordova 
to the mail room inside the CPR station. 

But let's go back to your mail. 

Most first class mail goes by air. 

If it goes where there is no air mail service, or if it is not first 
class mail weighing half a pound or less, it gets the tunnel treatment. 

First it is sorted for destination and loaded into a bag. This is 
still the work of human hands. 

Then it enters the automated era: 

In a second-floor office, a man presides over a master control 
panel for the tunnel. 

As your mail bag plops onto the concave tunnel loading belt 
a light glows red on the panel. If the bag is the first of a series, he 
presses a button to let the boys in the CPR mail room know a set 
of mail bags is coming. 

May, 1959 25 

If not, he just sits and watches his panel. The conveyer belts 
move continuously. A red light blinks on each time a mail bag makes 
a turn in the tunnel. Other lights blink on if smoke or gas are detected 
in the tunnel by special overhead detectors. 

All these gadgets work electronically. The electric eye system 
directs the course of each of the 2,400 to 3,000 mail bags scheduled 
to travel over it each day, to and from the CPR station. The system 
can handle 2V2 tons of mail a minute. 

If all goes well, the red lights blink. If something goes wrong, 
within 10 seconds the conveyors automatically switch off. 

If the detectors register fire, an alarm bell rings. 

This system cuts to 9 V2 minutes the average transport time of 
a letter from post office to station. It saves the efforts of 15 round- 
trip truck journeys daily between the two buildings. It saves both time 
and labor of loading and unloading each truck and driving it through 
city traffic. — Ruth Pinkus in Vancouver Sun 

^aasneci Metal A/ ecu Buccedb 

"POAMED metal that resembles a petrified sponge and is nine times 
* lighter than solid metal has been developed by General Electric's 
Flight Propulsion Laboratory Department at Cincinnati, Ohio. 

The new, foamed metal, called F-alloy, is a major step toward 
developing lighter, more efficient engines for advanced concepts such 
as recoverable air-breathing boost units, vertical take-off systems, 
and hypersonic applications. 

Ways to make true foamed metals have been sought for decades. 
Now, a General Electric program of research, testing and retesting, 
extending over several years has been successful. 

It's made much the same as you'd bake a cake,' explained one 
engineer describing the process for making F-alloy. 'The proper ingre- 
dients must be mixed carefully in the right proportions, poured into 
a pan or mold, then baked at a given temperature. The rising or 

26 Technocracy Digest 

foaming action takes place 'early in the baking process. The "cake" 
is rigid, low density material, so light and porous that cigarette smoke 
passes through it easily.' 

Although the technique is still in the development stage, nickel, 
copper and cast iron have been successfully foamed. Laboratory 
experiments and actual engine tests have demonstrated the value of 
the foamed metals for use as rubbing seals in high temperature areas 
of jet engines. The lightweight material improves engine perform- 
ance in two ways. 

First, the lighter weight means that more fuel of payload can be 

Second, the foamed metal makes possible closer tolerances inside 
a jet engine, thereby providing better performance. 

Other potential jet engine applications include labyrinth seals, 
high temperature niters, thermal insulators, transpirational cooling 
devices, and as filler material for sandwich-type metal structures. 
The high surface area and cell construction of foamed metals make 
it suitable for cooling and insulating 

Many other uses have been conceived for foamed metals, some 
outside the jet engine field. For example, foamed copper may find 
its way into many large electrical installations. The heat generated 
by electricity passing through solid copper limits the amount of 
electricity it can carry. However, foamed copper has the same capa- 
city for electrical conductivity per unit of weight as solid copper. 
The natural cooling action of foamed copper, plus small amounts of 
cooling air, appears to increase its capacity to carry electricity. 

The weight and strength of foamed metals are in proportion to 
their density, which can be controlled. 

Foamed metal can be molded into practically any desired shape 
during the baking process, and it can be machined with conventional 

The lightest samples made so far weigh only one-ninth as much 
as solid metal, or about the same as an equal volume of water. 

— General Electric News 

May, 1959 27 

Autatnatic ^oalb Ptaue tfisitualai, 

NUMERICALLY controlled machine tools — which run almost un- 
touched by human hands from instructions punched on tapes 
or cards — behaved beautifully in protoype form in the development 
labs. But almost no one expected them to duplicate the performance 
when they had to work for a living in production. 

However, from the records of the new tools already in use, it's 
apparent that they are real virtuosos. They are working even better 
than their prototypes — so much so that they are beginning to revo- 
lutionize short-run metal-working production. And 75% of U.S. 
metalworking companies are concerned with short-run production. 
The accomplishments of the new tools will be exciting to the entire 
industry, though, whether the company is a small job shop or a giant 

Three Strands — Actually, there are three simultaneous develop- 
ments in the field of numerically controlled tools: 

Case histories are revealing savings of 50% to 90% on production 
costs with numerical tools. The figures are ample to convince tool- 
makers and users alike that numerical control is much more than 
just another complicated accessory. It's an improvement of impressive 
magnitude that can offset the higher cost of the tool by reducing 
direct and indirect manufacturing costs simultaneously. 

Manufacturers are beginning to introduce new standard tools 
that can take full advantage of the automatic techniques. The new 
generation includes, among others, Kearney & Trecker Corp.'s 
$120,000 Milwaukee-Matic multipurpose machine tool. All by itself, 
the K&T machine can interchange 31 different cutting tools and 
perform hundreds of operations in sequence without a touch from a 
machinist. Designed from base to spindle as a numerically controlled 
machine, it's three times more efficient than standard machines refitted 
for numerical controls, K&T claims. 

New processes are speeding preparation of the tape that tells 
the machine tool what to do. In the past, one big objection to numerical 

28 Technocracy Digest 

control has been that it takes so long to process the data necessary 
for the machine's instructions. The argument was that it merely 
substituted drudgery on the calculator for drudgery with machine 
tools. Now tool and controls makers and users are shortcutting the 
tedium. New programming techniques make it possible in some cases 
to turn out a control tape as cheaply and quickly as a detailed drawing. 

The most promising method so far for some of the most compli- 
cated jogs blends the talents of the tape-controlled machine and the 
computer. It was developed by the servomechanisms laboratory at 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in conjunction with the Air- 
craft Industries Assn. and the Defense Dept.'s Air Materiel Command. 
Called APT — short for Automatically Programmed Tools — the system 
makes use of a high-speed, high-capacity digital computer. In effect, 
it teaches the computer to understand a machinist — much simpler 
than it would be to try to teach a machinist to understand a computer. 

Using the APT system, an experienced machinist's directions 
for producing a part can be converted in a few minutes by the com- 
puter into the hundred — or even thousands — of machine tool positions 
necessary to do the job. 

Without APT — or one of several similar techniques that are only 
a little less sophisticated — it would take a number of computer 
experts hours or days to process the data. Without a computer at all, 
a beehive full of calculator operators could spend weeks or even 
years on the task. 

Transfusion — Machine toolmakers are counting on numerically 
controlled machine tools — which they abbreviate to NCMT — to rescue 
them from recession doldrums. Most of them, including K&T, don't 
intend to make the control equipment. They will leave that to special- 
ists such as Bendix Aviation, General Electric, North American 
Aviation, Stromberg-Carlson, and a few others. 

A few toolmakers — including Cincinnati Milling Machine, Pratt 
& Whitney, and Jones & Lamson — are going into the business of 
building control systems themselves, however, on the ground that 
such systems will involve a big chunk of the cost of the new tools. 

Flurry of Orders — For the controls manufacturers, business in 

May, 1959 29 

the first two months of 1959 suggests that volume is due for an extra- 
ordinary increase. 

'We've been swamped with inquiries, visitors, and requests to 
turn out samples,' says George Knopf, manager of Bendix Aviation's 
Industrial Controls Div., which makes tape reading systems for 
machine tools. 'Our sales are up about four times over last year.' 

At GE's specialty controls department, it's the same story. Sales 
of more than 100 units in the year's first two months were just about 
double the results for all of 1958. That represents a lot of money, 
since the controls alone cost $10,000 to $80,000, and the machine tools 
usually come to several times that much. — Business Week 

^ WASHINGTON — The business recession in the United States may be about 
over, but it has left a painful paradox in its wake: Unemployment has not melted 
fast enough in an economy once again moving into high gear. 

Industry has been accelerating the trend to push-button factories, robot produc- 
tion lines and automatic offices. And in the labor market, a broad band of 
vanished jobs appears. 

The transition is far-reaching, and not directly connected with the recession, 
but today's lagging re-employment serves to focus attention afresh on what labor 
leaders call 'the silent revolution.' 

There are 1,500,000 fewer non-farm jobs in the United States today than in 
March, 1957 — before the onset of the recession. 

Despite a steadily-growing labor force — increasing at the late of nearly 1,000,000 
a year — automation-equipped factories, farms, mines, railroads and business offices 
manage to keep the economy humming with fewer and fewer workers. 

To the army of jobless, averaging $30.62 a week in unemployment compensation, 
the situation is tragic. — Associated Press 

it NEW YORK — The nations of the west are trying to export their economic 
headaches to one another and, by doing so, are making it progressively easier for 
economic raiding to take place from behind the Iron Curtain, J. R. White, president, 
of Imperial Oil, said here. 

He told the Canadian Society of New York that the free world's commodity 
markets can be seriously upset by friends as well as foes. 

Examples affecting Canada were Russian dumping of aluminum, Russian and 
Chinese forays on the tin market; U.S. quotas on lead, zinc, and oil imports; and 
the U.S. farm surplus disposal program. — Associated Press 

it CINCINNATI — The National Shoe Manufacturers' Association says the in- 
dustry will produce 75,000 styles of women's footwear this year. It expects 'the 
average woman will buy four pairs a year.' — Associated Press 

30 Technocracy Digest 

Through the Technoscope . . . 

Technocracy examines the various scientific and technological trends 
in North America today which point to the necessity for a new 
social mechanism that will provide security and abundance, with 
a minimum of working hours, to every citizen on this Continent. 

Science and Technology 


ens with wear is one of the first consumer 
applications of tungsten carbide fused to 
steel. A strip of tungsten carbide .0001 
inch thick is fused to one side of a steel 
blade. The steel base wears faster than 
the tungsten, so a constant sharp edge is 
presented to the material being cut. 


size of an ordinary miniature tube and 
needing one-fifth less the power, are 
Radio Corp. of America's counter to the 
transistor. By redesigning the compon- 
ents and substituting metal for glass in 
the tube's envelope, RCA thinks it has 
eliminated most of the fragility that has 
been a big talking point for switching 
to transistors. RCA calls the new tubes 
Nuvistors, says they can withstand tem- 
peratures ranging from 600F to -320F. 

diameter — makes possible more intricate 


developed by General Electric as an an- 
swer to utilities' constant problem of 
meeting short-time power peaks. GE 
claims its 20,500-kw. peaking-power tur- 
bine lends itself to remote operation, 
takes very little time to warm up, and 
has a proven reliability of about 98%. 


being marketed by the Dage Television 
Division of Thompson Ramo Wooldridge 
brings the latest information on sales, 
shipping, and production instantaneously 
into the top brass' offices by means of 
closed-circuit television. An executive 
merely dials for the chart, table, or 
schedule he needs and the centrally locat- 
ed data console automatically selects and 
skips it before the camera- 


that can fuse together such tough atomic 
age materials as beryllium, tantalum, 
molybdenum and zirconium are being 
sold by Air Reduction Co. The high 
vacuum does double duty by shielding 
the highly reactive metals from atmos- 
pheric contamination. And the small- 
ness of the electron beam— ^ inch in 

chine installed for Cooper Alloy Corp. by 
Picker X-Ray Corp. uses up to 1500 
curies of Cobalt 60 to radiograph up to 
a 12-inch thickness of stainless steel to 
detect interior flaws. Previously such 
radiographs could be obtained only with 
X-ray machines using 2-million to 3- 
million volts. 

May, 1959 


kind of steel building that can be con- 
structed more than 5000 ways is being 
introduced by Inland Steel Products Co., 
Milwaukee. Inland estimates that a third 
of its building output will go into com- 
mercial and industrial applications such 
as garages, shelters, warehouses, offices, 
and generally utility buildings. Agricul- 
tural uses include shelter for livestock, 
feed, machinery, crops and processing 


dustry recently took two big steps to- 
ward more automation. Philadelphia 
Electric Co. has ordered a control system, 
directed by a digital computer, to moni- 
tor operation of its generating plants. 
The controls and computer will be sup- 
plied by Minneapolis-Honeywell's Brown 
Instrument Division and Datamatic 
Division. The system will determine 
which generating facilities can most 
economically meet power demands, and 
will automatically assign the load 
throughout the electric company's plants. 

Louisiana Power & Light Co.— al- 
ready a digital computer user in its 
Sterlington station where a computer 
monitors plant operations — has announc- 
ed that it is going one step further in its 
new $30-million Little Gypsy station. 
There a Daystrom Systems Division 
computer will actually run the plant from 
start to shut down. It will be the first 
fully automatic generating station. 

The two events are a victory for pro- 

ponents of digital computer control. 
Most load distribution computers have 
been of the analog type. 


print 3,000 words a minute and has a 
theoretical top speed of 500,000. 

signed to do the work of 25 field hands. 
Deere & Co., its manufacturers, claims 
it's the first time a picker can be econ- 
omically justified on 40 acres or less of 

100 of them can be packed into a square 
inch are expected to give a big boost to 
the flexibility and capacity of electronic 

The line-up of photorectifiers — tiny 
cadmium sulphide cells — are placed be- 
tween transparent strips that will con- 
duct an electric current. When the light 
strikes one of these cells, it closes a 
switch, completing a circuit. In the dark, 
the current will not go through, and the 
circuit remains open. 

The photorectifier plate is called 
Rex- Array. Each cell does the work of a 
much larger (but still tiny) diode, send- 
ing signals to other computing circuits. 
The plate saves space by packing more 
'switches' into a given area. 

The photorectifier plate was devel- 
oped by MIT's Lincoln Laboratory under 
joint sponsorship of the Army, Navy and 
Air Force. 

* LONDON — For the first time in 20 years,, unemployment has become a major 
political issue in Britain. Some 620.000 workers now are without jobs. —Reuters 

32 Technocracy Digest 

(Continued from page 20) 

Can there be no departure from 
the profit-making requirement 
even within a Price System? Is it 
not possible to operate a few serv- 
ices without charging a fee for 
their rendering? 

Only on an extremely limited 
scale is this possible. The Price 
System, as already shown, de- 
mands that the vast bulk of opera- 
tions be financially profitable. If, 
then, some very few operations 
cannot meet this qualification and 
yet are sufficiently important to 
the entire society to have to be 
maintained in any case, they must 
be carried as deficitly financed 
projects. Usually this is accom- 
plished through tax allocations 
or through financial grants appro- 
priated by interested concerns, 
or by both such means. Amongst 
the most outstanding of such op- 
erations are the public libraries 
which provide genuine cost-free 
services wherever they are main- 
tained throughout the Continent. 

Public libraries, being operated 
purely as services without provi- 
sion for collecting revenues other 
than the trifling fines imposed for 
the tardy return of books, are 
necessarily restricted within their 
allotted budgets. Accordingly, 

village libraries are generally 
severely handicapped in assisting 
their patrons by reason of meagre 
book supplies, large proportions 
of which are fiction. The services 
of metropolitan libraries, by con- 
trast, include extensive lending 
divisions representing thousands 
of both fiction and non-fiction vol- 
umes; and, in many cases, also 
films and records. Such libraries 
also have large reference divi- 
sions containing information on 
practically any subject. From 
their midst, trained librarians 
stand ready to find answers to all 
questions put to them — even to 
locating telephone numbers of 
persons in distant cities. Library 
personnel are constantly asked to 
seek information on the most ab- 
struse subjects from the most 
fragmentary data, yet they im- 
mediately set about finding an- 
swers satisfactory to the inquir- 
ers. If they fail in their quest it is 
simply because the desired infor- 
mation is not available to them. 
Service without charge is their 
first concern, and its performance 
is of a highly commendable cali- 
bre in most public libraries. 

This example demonstrates the 
minimum standard of perform- 
ance which the public has the 

May, 1959 


right to expect of all functions 
comprising the social mechanism. 
We have seen, however, the im- 
possibility of their being accom- 
plished within a Price System 
administration which must de- 
pend upon tax revenues from 
going concerns to maintain those 
essential services that are not 
money makers. These revenues 
rise and fall with the very un- 
certain fortunes of business, being 
high or low according to respect- 
ively prosperous or recessive con- 
ditions. Businesses which are 
squeezed out by economic pres- 
sures cease, along with their laid 
off employees, to be taxpayers. 
The revenues thus lost to the 
political government accordingly 
cannot be used for subsidizing 
facilities which have depended 
almost solely on tax support, with 
the result that there must be a 
corresponding reduction in the 
effectiveness of service rendered. 
In the face of such chronically un- 
certain financial support, it should 
now be obvious that only a 
moneyless society — one specific- 
ally designed for the job — can 
consistently furnish the optimum 
calibre of service which should be 
the main objective of any society. 
All essentials for achievement, 

including the elimination of 
money, have been incorporated 
into the social blueprint which 
Technocracy Inc. has designed for 
North America. Services, for one 
thing, would have a much broader 
application than that set out in 
the definition given earlier. They 
would include all functions in- 
volved in the operation of the 
social mechanism, and, moreover, 
would be available at all times. 
If they are deemed necessary in 
the first place, does it not follow 
that there will always be some 
people wishing to use them, ir- 
respective of day or time of day? 
Many people who have become 
conditioned to the limitations of 
the Price System may find it diffi- 
cult to imagine the tremendous 
possibilities in istore for them 
when they relinquish the right to 
'pay' for what they want. In any 
case, it should already be appar- 
ent to them that the payment of 
money contributes nothing to- 
ward the provision of physical 
goods. Instead, it runs in con- 
stant interference thereto. 

How would Technocracy's 
social blueprint ensure the full- 
time rendering of services on the 
standard inferred above? 

A major step in this direction 


Technocracy Digest 

would be the institution of a func- 
tional calendar. This would have 
each of seven groups of operating 
personnel (between the ages of 
25 and 45) starting their four-day 
stints on successive days of the 
week. On any given day, then, 
four-sevenths of the functionaries 
would be working while the other 
three-sevenths would be off-duty. 
Moreover, each group would be 
divided into sufficient shifts to 
cover the entire twenty-four 
hours of each day. In most cases 
this would involve a six-way divi- 
sion of four hours each, though in 
spec i a 1 cases unique circum- 
stances might require other ar- 

The implications of such sched- 
uling are more extensive than 
might immediately be realized. 
It would mean that approximately 
the same amount of activity 
would be going on throughout 
every day, with the result that all 
services would have to be main- 
tained at a constant level in order 
to give adequate coverage. Trans- 
portation vehicles, for instance, 
would not be jammed to the doors 
for a couple of short rush-hour 
periods each day and then be 
relatively empty the rest of the 
time. It would be feasible to oper- 

ate them at frequent intervals all 
day every day and in sufficient 
numbers to avoid crowding. 

Even in a Price System such an 
arrangement would be much more 
advantageous than existing hap- 
hazard operations. As it is,' it sim- 
ply does not pay transportation 
concerns to run their vehicles 
when there are practically no 
passengers aboard, while during 
rush hours there are not enough 
vehicles to handle the temporary 
crowds. Such a setup is entirely 
unsatisfactory to all concerned, 
and is much more costly than 
would be a consistent level of 
operation both energy-wise and 
financially. However, there are 
too many other barriers in the 
way for the Price System ever to 
be likely to attempt such a 
smoothing out of working times. 

The twenty-four hours' daily 
operations would be all-pervading 
in its effects. At all hours there 
would be people wishing to travel, 
eat, obtain personal items, and 
clothing for laundering or dry 
cleaning, attend recreational 
centres, or perform any of a multi- 
tude of other things. To fulfil these 
needs or desires, the facilities de- 
signed therefor would be opera- 
ted on an around - the - clock, 

May, 1959 


around-the-calendar basis. There tive. Society would again, as in its 

would be no arbitrary discontinu- original form, have as its prime 

ance as now in the continuity of objective the assistance of all per- 

certain operations with a 'now sons in obtaining more easily the 

they're needed, now they're not' necessities of life. The fulfillment 

attitude. of this objective would reach its 

The institution of the Technoc- maximum attainment in the 

racy blueprint would automatic- standard of service built into the 

ally restore the basic purposes of design of the North American 

society to their proper perspec- Technate. — Rupert N. Urquhart 

* WASHINGTON— Science is getting close to producing life in a test tube, says 
the Smithsonian Institution. 

Such an accomplishment, it claims, would be 'one of the outstanding events in 
all history.' 

Summarizing an article by Dr. Wendell M. Stanley, director of the virus 
laboratory at the University of California, the Smithsonian says: 

The way seems open, following recent revolutionary chemical developments, 
to the actual laboratory synthesis of a structure having most of the properties of a 
living agent.' 

Dr. Stanley has described remarkable recent progress in breaking down the 
barriers between non-living molecules and living organisms. 

The Smithsonian's digest added: 'The remaining essential step, he says ; seems 
to be synthesis of one of the chemically highly complicated nucleic acids which 
forms an essential component of viruses and of genes, the units of heredity. This 
may be close at hand.' — Associated Press 

* THERE IS A BIZARRE ELEMENT in much of the American economy these 
days. Under the farm subsidy plan we now have an incredible $9 billion worth of 
unwanted crop surplus in storage at taxpayers' expense. . . . 

To maintain the pretense of his phony budget balance next year Eisenhower 
continues to pre-date billions of dollars worth of expenditures into this year's budget 
with the idea that the current deficit is so whopping that it doesn't matter any 
more anyway. . . . 

And on the oil front the Administration has just slapped compulsory quotas on 
cheap oil from abroad so as to keep up prices at home (which of course is inflation- 
ary) ; and by some really beautiful sophistry does this in the name of 'conservation' 
though it means quicker exhaustion of America's limited oil supplies. Oh, well, it will 
keep up oil company profits, that's the main thing. — T.RJB. in New Republic 

it OTTAWA — The federal mines department is building a special machine which 
will help Canada to learn more about its mineral wealth. 

The machine — known as a carbon 14 test apparatus — will be used to determine 
the age of rock formation. The information will help later in the search for new 
deposits of metals and petroleum. — Canadian Press 

36 Technocracy Digest 

Farming Isn't \\ hat It Was 

Farming has become big business. With the number of farms decreas- 
ing and their size increasing, these 'factories in the fields' constituting 
the top 27% of farms have assumed a dominant role in agriculture, 
being responsible for four-fifths of all produce placed on the market. 

*pHE U.S. Congress has begun 
"■■ its annual debate on how much 
and what the federal government 
should do for agriculture. It has 
been assumed by the more sophis- 
ticated in Congress that argu- 
ments that make economic sense 
may not make political sense: any 
farm program that is adopted no 
doubt must reconcile the politic- 
ally feasible and the economically 
reasonable. But how much of this 
old debate is being centred on 
realities? One thing is sure: no 
federal program can make any 
kind of sense if it is not construct- 
ed on an understanding of what 
American agriculture has become 
and where it is going. Farming is 
not what it used to be; the changes 
have been and will be more radi- 
cal than most citizens — and Con- 
gressmen — have yet to appreci- 
ate. The reality in recent years 
is that farmers have become 
America's most rapidly shrinking 

■Reprinted from Thf New Republic 
May, 1959 

minority, farm production has be- 
come a business and the rural 
life is increasingly available to 
people who are not engaged in 
agriculture. The mystique of the 
old oaken bucket no longer holds 

Between 1950 and 1958, farm 
population fell off by nearly 17%. 
Forty-five states — all except the 
three on the Pacific coast — lost 
farm population, and in 10 states, 
the decrease was over 30%. About 
1.4 million people are giving up 
farming each year, and at the 
same time more than half a mil- 
lion people have moved from 
non-farm to farm residences. Am- 
erican society is thus being homo- 
genized: more and more people 
on farms are doing work off the 
farm, and more and more people 
from cities are living in outlying 

Actually, it may be a mistake to 
count only the persons on farms 
as workers in agriculture. For to- 
day, the CIO trade unionist who 


assembles tractors in a farm ma- 
chinery factory is doing the equiv- 
alent of the job that the horse 
breeder did a generation ago; oil 
refinery workers have replaced 
the sowers of 83 million acres of 
feed and pasture that formerly 
kept farm draft animals fueled; 
more workers are sacking fer- 
tilizer as fewer wield pitch-forks. 
And the scientist in his labora- 
tory, the farm management ex- 
pert in his office are equally in- 
dispensable parts of commercial 
agricultural production. Indeed, 
so great is the variation among 
the 4.8 million farms now under 
cultivation that to lump them all 
under the word 'agriculture' is to 
put a strange collection of eggs 
into a single basket. 

From one point of view, to- 
day's farming is big business. 
Considered strictly as the means 
by which food and fibre are 
brought onto the market, only a 
small percent of America's farms 
have any relevance. Almost 80% 
of the farm products marketed 
are raised on the top 27% of the 
farms — those with sales of more 
than $5,000. Nearly one-third of 
all marketings come from the 
134,000 farms that dispose of pro- 
duce valued at $25,000 or over: on 

these farms, sales vary from an 
average of $50,000 on poultry 
farms through $70,000 on cotton 
farms and $66,000 on fruit and 
nut farms to the vegetable farms 
which average $101,000 nation- 
ally, but run to double that 
amount in specialized areas like 
New Jersey and California. 

The character of today's com- 
mercial production is illustrated 
in the February issue of 'Success- 
ful Farming.' Under the title 
'Materials Handling Systems,' a 
layout of augurs is described 
which in 12 minutes draws out of 
storage and delivers a silage-corn- 
concentrate mixture adequate to 
feed 170 head of cattle, and of 
which the owner says: 'The great- 
est advantage from a management 
view is the automatic premixing 
of our ration.' 

The acreage of these top farms 
is being consistently expanded in 
order to carry the costs of their 
mechanized overhead. As evi- 
dence, in the five years 1950-54, 
the average size of commercial 
farms went up from 300 to 360 
acres; by the latter year, farms 
of more than 260 acres numbered 
some 300,000.. The enlarged acre- 
ages have been made doubly pro- 
ductive by the application of fer- 


Technocracy Digest 

tilizer: purchases which totalled 
$306 million in 1940 had reached 
$1,277 million by 1957, and the in- 
creased use of sprinkler and ir- 
rigation systems in non-arid parts 
of the country are making pos- 
sible ever heavier applications. 

With the expansion of the major 
commercial farms there have 
arisen new financial structures. 
On the 134,000 Class I farms, in- 
ventory per farm in land, live- 
stock, machinery and equipment 
runs from $100,000 to $200,000 on 
most types except poultry farms, 
where the average is around $44,- 
000; for the vegetable farms, the 
average is $219,000. On some of 
the biggest of these farms, par- 
ticularly where a great deal of 
hand labor is necessary, corpor- 
ate structures on the industrial 
model have produced the 'fac- 
tories-in-the-fields' of which much 
has been written. Predominately, 
however, even on the big farms, 
family control has been maintain- 
ed while new business arrange- 
ments have been adopted. 

Memberships in trade associa- 
tions, from black angus to white 
turkeys, and contacts with state 
agricultural college research and 
the extension service provide cen- 
tralized access to the latest know- 

May, 1959 

how. Specific applications of new 
technology can now be quickened 
through contracts with farm man- 
agement consulting firms that 
advise on everything from in- 
creasing dairy herds to improving 
systems of record keeping. 

Vertical integration — tying in 
producers to suppliers, shippers 
and processors as sources of fin- 
ancing, marketing or both — is 
likewise increasing. The decline 
in per capita consumption of 
wheat by humans has given mil- 
lers incentive to push sales as 
feed; turkey, broiler and egg pro- 
duction are more and more being 
carried by feed companies, with 
subcontracts by large operators 
through arrangements under 
which smaller farmers become 
caretakers of other people's poul- 
try. Similar arrangements are 
frequent in specialty crops such 
as fruit and vegetables that go 
with meat and fowl in the diet of 
today's high-income consumers. 
Around Salinas, where a good 
part of California's $85 million 
lettuce crop is grown, farmers are 
often at one and the same time 
the landlords and the hired hands 
of the shippers. Since lettuce is a 
crop in which a killing may be 
made one year by the grower, and 


the next year by the frost, farm- 
ers hedge their bets by contracts 
under which they plant agreed 
quantities of lettuce at an agreed 
pre-season flat rate price, with 
the shippers balancing out the dif- 
ferences in the actual take on the 
market from season to season. 

The size of the over-all farm 
finance job, of today's capital re- 
quirements for commercial agri- 
culture, is indicated by the figure 
for the assets of all farmers as of 
January 1, 1958 — $186 billion. 
In 19^0, the average value per 
farm of assets used in produc- 
tion was $6,094, with real estate 
accounting for $4,394 of that 
amount; in 1958, the total was 
$29,600, of which $21,326 was in 
real estate. Farm debt, over the 
same period, rose from $9.6 billion 
to $19 billion. 

Recent figures from the Farm- 
ers Home Administration, suc- 
cessor to the Farm Security Ad- 
ministration with its tenant farm- 
ers program of 20 years ago, show 
the same trend. In the late 1930's, 
a $3,000 loan would cover the pur- 
chase of as much land as a man 
and a pair of mules could manage; 
the Agency's real estate loans for 
1958, many of which were made 
to enable an operator to enlarge 


and improve holdings that he 
already had rather than to buy a 
whole farm, averaged $15,000 — 
up from $14,400 the year before, 
up from $8,000-$10,000 in the 
early '50's. The loans to provide 
initial equipment s and supplies 
follow a parallel upward line. A 
tractor and what follows after it 
costs $3,000-$4,000, and it runs on 
a diesel fuel-gas-oil bill payable 
in dollars as are the bills for fer- 
tilizer, chemicals, purchased feed, 
and so on. Tax bills reflect rising 
values. A starter's loan for these 
expenses now averages around 
$5,400— up from $4,800 a year 
ago, up from $3,500 in the early 

The modern, high-cost, business 
type family is also the kind of 
farming that delivers the goods 
in 1959. It is also the kind of farm- 
ing that profits most from the 
government's agricultural pro- 
grams, whether through rapid 
application of government re- 
search on plants, animals, and 
practices, or through receipts of 
government payments. Ninety 
percent out-payments under the 
government's price support pro- 
gram for wheat go to the operat- 
ors of the top half of wheat farms, 
and 75% of cotton payments 

Technocracy Digest 

go to the big producers in the top 
quarter of the cotton farms. Gov- 
ernment price-support programs 
are available to all complying pro- 
ducers; but the producer who has 
little to sell has proportionately 
little to gain from a program 
which is geared to the price mech- 

Yet even this type of agricul- 
ture^ — what Professor John Black 
of Harvard calls 'agro-business' — 
does not yield income comparable 
to income provided from other 
major occupations in the United 
States. The per capita net income 
of the people who live on the 2.2 
million most productive farms — 
the top half of American agri- 
culture—averaged about $5,400 in 
1956; that was about $1,500 less 
than the average for all other 

The other half of American 
agriculture is much further below 
the national income average. The 
average net income per capita of 
the entire farm production from 
agricultural sources (and this fig- 
ure includes a money value for 
the produce raised on the farm 
that is consumed at home) was 
$658 in 1957. There ar e 1.2 million 
farms where farming is the oper- 
ator's main job but where the 

gross sales total less than $2,500 
a year; nearly half a million of 
them yield a gross of under $1,200. 
These farms add up to 40% 
of the farms that are classified as 
'commercial,' but they produce 
only seven percent of the com- 
modities sold in the US. For the 
most part, they are located in 
areas too rugged, on soils too poor, 
in patches too little, to take ad- 
vantage of modern methods. 
Whether as producers or as con- 
sumers, the families living on 
them are largely outside the mar- 
ket places of American life. These 
are the farms which account for 
most of the recent large exodus 
from agriculture; their number 
declined by 400,000 in the years 

But as the good-sized farms 
have been getting fewer but larg- 
er and small farms have been dis- 
appearing, a third type of farm 
has been coming to the fore — the 
farm that is an adjunct to indus- 
trial or urban life. The nearly 1.5 
million farms classified either as 
part-time farms (where the oper- 
ator does at least 100 days of 
work a year off the farm) or as 
residential (where sales amount 
to less than $250 a year) are two 
types of this new development. 

May, 1959 


Those who have been attacking 
what they consider the 'privi- 
leged' status of the American 
farmer need to be reminded that 
the average income per person 
from all sources of all persons 
living on farms in the United 
States was $967 in 1957. Of this 
amount, $309 or almost a third 
represented income jfrom inon- 
farm employment. This non-farm 
income figure increases annually 
— in 1950, it was only $212 in an 
average income of $838. The kinds 
of outside employment vary wide- 
ly. Particularly in the South, 
some of it reflects work made 
available by the installation of 
new industry. Sixty percent of the 
industrial development in the reg- 
ion since World War II has been 
located in formerly rural areas. 
Some of it represents jobs in the 
service trades. Over a generation 
the percentage of farms equipped 
with electricity has grown from 
11 to 95, and all-weather roads, 
built on a farm-to-market form- 
ula, have proved to be two-way 
streets; as a result, more man- 
power is needed for sales and dis- 
tribution. In many sections, par- 
ticularly near mountains, rivers, 
and coasts, recreational develop- 
ments provide employment that 

supplements or supplants mar- 
inal farming. And with the expan- 
sion of the radius of metropoli- 
tan commuting, living in the 
country and working in the city 
is becoming a more familiar pat- 
tern. Another new pattern that is 
becoming familiar as a result of 
the rapid rise in the population 
beyond the age of 65 is farming 
by the retired. On the periphery 
of a metropolitan area, a small 
holding can offer a double oppor- 
tunity; produce raised and con- 
sumed at home does not have to 
be reported as income and in good 
locations may easily run up to 
$500-$600 worth a year, and cur- 
rent rates at which farm land is 
being bought up for subdivisions, 
condemned for superhighways, 
or included in city limits support 
tidy possibilities of capital gains 
for owners or their heirs. Over- 
all, between March, 1957, and 
March, 1958, the year - to - year 
gain in the price of farm land av- 
eraged $6,815 per acre; value rose 
by at least five percent in 41 of 
the states, and in 13 states the 
gain amounted to 8% or over. 

Consider the startling fact that 
if all the farmers who raise wheat 
did not plant one single grain this 
year, supplies would be entirely 


Technocracy Digest 

adequate for next year. By the 
end of the current fiscal year, the 
value of agricultural products 
held off the farmers' hands and 
off the market by the Commodity 
Credit Corporation will approach 
$8 billion, and the annual bill for 
storing them will pass the $1 bil- 
lion mark. 

At the same time, the cost of 
our federal agricultural program 
has become a major government 
expenditure: it is likely to top $7 
billion by the close of business 
next June 30. The pie charts 
showing the outgo of the public 
dollar presented with the Presi- 
dent's 1960 budget show a 7% 
slice going to veterans and an 8% 
slice for farmers. But veterans 
and their families constitute near- 
ly half of the US population; farm- 
ers and their families number 
12% of America's 173,435,000 

Most farm forecasts suggest 
that the need for a farm program, 
if agriculture is to maintain even 
some degree of stability, will re- 
main. They rightly forecast a 
sharp increase in demand since 
our population is increasing by 
some 3 million a year. With more 
than 190 million Americans hav- 
ing to be fed by the end of the 

next five-year period, much more 
of many commodities will be con- 
sumed. But the likelihood of the 
country's eating its way out of 
agricultural surpluses is remote; 
the required additions to present 
production could be made avail- 
able simply by wider application 
of the top farm techniques now 
in use, with no allowance for 
future advances in what is cur- 
rently a very dynamic technology. 
To illustrate, at the end of World 
War II, each worker in agriculture 
was producing enough to support 
himself and 13 other persons. To- 
day, each such worker produces 
enough for himself and 23 other 
persons. The expansion of output 
has gone on about twice as fast 
as the expansion of markets. 

For the immediate future, the 
increased plantings permitted 
under the 1958 farm legislation, 
and the release of 20 million acres 
that had been held out of produc- 
tion by the now-terminated Soil 
Bank program, are expected to 
step up farm surpluses rather 
shaiply. More meat animals will 
be on the market, thus turning 
prices down. The surplus problem 
may be expected to be larger, not 
smaller, next year. 

—Helen Hill Miller 

May, 1959 


The Safe Car Yon Can't liny 

Automobile manufacturers are still designing lethal highway weapons 
designed for style, cost and calculated obsolescence. They are not 
interested in producing a car, such as described in the article below, 
which is designed primarily from the point of view of safety. 

*pHE Cornell Aeronauical Lab- 

"■■ oratory has developed an ex- 
hibition automobile embodying 
over sixty new safety concepts 
which would enable an occupant 
to withstand a head-on collision 
at 50 mph with at most only min- 
or scratches. In its design, six 
basic principles of crash protec- 
tion were followed: 

1. The car body was strength- 
ened to prevent most external 
blows from distorting it against 
the passengers. 

2. Doors were secured so that 
crash impacts could not open 
them, thereby saving passengers 
from ejection and maintaining 
the structural strength of the side 
of the car body. 

3. Occupants were secured to 
prevent them from striking ob- 
jects inside the car. 

4. Interior knobs, projections, 
sharp edges and hard surfaces 
have been removed and the ceil- 

Reprinted from The Nation 

iug shaped to produce only glanc- 
ing blows to the head (the most 
vulnerable part of the body dur- 
ing a crash). 

5. The driver's environment 
was improved to reduce accident 
rjsk by increasing visibility, sim- 
plifying controls and instruments, 
and lowering the carbon monox- 
ide of his breathing atmosphere. 

6. For pedestrian safety, dan- 
gerous objects like hood orna- 
ments were removed from the ex- 

This experimental car, devel- 
oped with funds representing only 
a tiny fraction of the annual ad- 
vertising budget of, say, Buick, is 
packed with applications of simple 
yet effective safety factors. In the 
wrap-around bumper system, for 
instance, plastic foam material be- 
tween the front and rear bumpers 
and the back-up plates absorbs 
some of the shock energy; the 
bumpers are smoothly shaped to 
convert an increased proportion 

Technocracy Digest 

of blows from direct to glancing 
ones; the side bumpers are firmly 
attached to the frame, which has 
been extended and reinforced to 
provide support. Another feature 
is the installment of two roll-over 
bars into the top of the car body 
as added support. 

It is clear that Detroit today is 
designing automobiles for style, 
cost, performance and calculated 
obsolescence, but not — despite the 
5,000,000 reported accidents, near- 
ly 40,000 fatalities, 110,000 perma- 
nent disabilities and 1,500,000 in- 
juries yearly — for safety. 

Almost no feature of the in- 
terior design of our current cars 
provides safeguards against in- 
jury in the event of collision. 
Doors that fly open on impact, in- 
adequately secured seats, the 
sharp-edged rear-view mirror, 
pointed knobs on instrument pan- 
el and doors, flying glass, the 
overhead structure — all illustrate 
the lethal potential of poor design. 
A sudden deceleration turns a 
colla-psed steering ! wheel or a 
sharp-edged dashboard into a 
bone- and chest-crushing agent. 
Penetration of the shatterproof 
windshield can chisel one's head 
into fractions. A flying seat cush- 
ion can cause a fatal injury. The 

apparently harmless glove com- 
partment door has been known to 
unlatch under impact and guillo- 
tine a child. Roof - supporting 
structure has deteriorated to a 
point where it provides scarcely 
more protection to the occupants, 
in common roll-over accidents, 
than an open convertible. This is 
especially true of the so-called 
'hard-tops.' Nor is the automobile 
designed as an efficient force mod- 
erator. For example, the bumper 
does not contribute significantly 
to reduction of the crash decel- 
eration forces that are transmit- 
ted to the motorist; its function 
has been more to reflect style 
than absorb shock. 

The remarkable advances in 
crash - protection knowledge 
achieved by research organiza- 
tions at a cost of some $6 million 
stands in marked contrast to the 
glacier-like movements of car 
manufacturers, who spend that 
much to enrich the sound of a 
door slam. This is not due to any 
dearth of skill — the industry pos- 
sesses many able, frustrated safe- 
ty engineers whose suggestions 
over the years invariably have 
taken a back seat to those of the 

In 1954, a U.C.L.A. engineer 

May, 1959 


could conclude that 'There has 
boen no significant automotive- 
engineering contribution to the 
safety of motorists since about the 
beginning of World War II. . . .' 
In its 1955 annual report, the Cor- 
nell crash-research group came 
to a similar conclusion, adding 
that 'the newer model automobiles 
[1950-54] are increasing the rate 
of fatalities in injury -producing 

In 1956 Ford introduced the 
double-grip safety-door latch, the 
'dished' steering wheel, and in- 
strument panel-padding; the rest 
of the industry followed with 
something less than enthusiasm. 
Even in these changes, style re- 
mained the dominant considera- 
tion, and their effectiveness is in 
doubt. Tests have failed to est- 
ablish, for example, an advan- 
tage for the 'deep-dish' steering 
wheel compared with the con- 
ventional wheel; the motorist will 
still collapse the rim to the hub. 

This year, these small conces- 
sions to safety design have vir- 
tually been discontinued. 'A 
square foot of chrome sells ten 
times more cars than the best 
safety-door latch,' declared one 
industry representative. Dash- 
board padding remains one of a 

few safety accessories available 
as optional equipment. This is 
like saying to the consumer: 
'Here's a hot car. Now, if you 
wish to be safe in it, you'll have 
to pay more.' 

None of this should be con- 
strued as placing the increasingly 
popular mites from abroad in a 
more favorable light. Most foreign 
cars offer far less protection to 
the motorist than domestic ones. 

Prevailing analyses of vehicu- 
lar accidents circulated for pop- 
ular consumption tend to impede 
constructive thinking by adher- 
ence to some monistic theory of 
causation. Take one of the more 
publicized ogres — speed. Cornell's 
findings, based on data covering 
3,203 cars in injury-producing 
accidents, indicate that 74% of the 
cars were going at a traveling 
speed under 60 mph and about 
88% involved impact speeds un- 
der 60 mph. The average impact 
speed on urban roads was 27 mph; 
on rural roads, 41 mph. Danger- 
ous or fatal injuries observed in 
accidents when the traveling 
speed was less than 60 mph are 
influenced far more by the shape 
and structure of interior car com- 
ponents with which the body 
came into contact than by the 


Technocracy Digest 

speed at which the cars were ways be characteristic, to some 
moving. Many fatalities have degree, of the traffic scene; ex- 
been recorded which occurred in hortation and stricter law en- 
panic stops or collisions at a forcement have at best a limited 
speed under 25 mph. effect. Much more significant for 

In brief, automobiles are so saving life is the application 

designed as to be dangerous at of engineering remedies to mini- 

any speed. mize the lethal effects of human 

Our preoccupation has been error by designing the automo- 
almost entirely with the cause of bile so as to afford maximum pro- 
accidents seen primarily in terms tection to occupants in the event 
of the driver and not with the of a collision. In a word, the job, 
instruments that produce the in- in part, is to make accidents safe, 
juries. Erratic driving will al- — Ralph Nader 

* MORE THAN A MILLION of New York's 8,000,000 residents are slum dwellers 
despite the fact that this city has torn down more slum buildings in the last ten 
years than any other American metropolis. 

One reason is that overcrowding and blight have spread to new districts as 
fast as — and in some cases faster than — the wreckers and redevelopers could bring 
light, air, decent living space and sanitation into the old slum areas. 

Manhattan's lower East Side has been vastly upgraded in little more than one 
generation. Yet in almost the same time the fine residenlial West Side district between 
Central Park and the Hudson River has become crisscrossed and pocketed with 
housing horrors as bad as those of any historic slum. 

Both situations have been duplicated in other parts of the city. The slums 
don't hold still for the slum clearers. Their contagion is carried to new areas— some- 
times by families displaced in the slum clearance process without adequate relocation. 

In some cases, slum conditions have worsened at the periphery of urban redevel- 
opment and housing projects into which billions of public dollars have been 
poured. — New York Times 

* WASHINGTON— 'The U.S. national debt, spurred by bigger spending and a 
decline in income, has climbed to its highest point in the nation's history. 

The treasury's daily financial statement showed that the total gross public debt, 
including certain non-treasury securities the government guarantees, touched the 
all-time high of $280,851,429,657 on October 23. 

The previous high of $280,821,613,238 was set on December 31, 1955. 

Based on the present population of 175,000,000, the new record represents a per 
capita debt of $1604.87 for every man, woman and child in the nation. 

— United Press International 

it LONDON — Russian scientists have 'produced wool from cotton,' Moscow radio 
has reported. The new wool may soon compete successfully with synthetic and arti- 
ficial fibres, it added. — Reuters 

May, 1959 47 

Automation and Wages 

The following article appeared in the British magazine Automation 
and Automatic Equipment News. It points out that automation can 
make our dreams come true, but our dreams can become nightmares 
if we don't quit relying on wages as a means of purchasing power. 

THE paramount fact in all con- 
sideration of automation is 
that it has fulfilled the purpose 
of economic systems. It is not a 
mere outcrop on the old inade- 
quate struggles for existence. Not 
only has it released mankind from 
the curse of Adam, hard labour, 
but it has released the brain (and 
will progressively apply this re- 
lease to greater numbers) from 
outmoded political constrictions. 
It has exploded the Marxian bo- 
gey, namely, the power of the 
few to exploit the brawn and 
sweat of the many. It disproves 
the basic Communist philosophy 
that if a man does not toil neither 
shall he eat, as it has blown sky- 
high that muddle-headed shibbo- 
leth: 'from each according to his 
ability and to each according to 
his need.' Civilized communities 
now have the complete answer to 
Socialism — always provided they 
are prepared to see automation 
for all that it implies outside 
sheer production methods. 


Much present trouble arises 
from the fact that many cannot 
get used to the idea that produc- 
tion no longer depends upon 
brawn and sweat, and the few — 
including the boffins — accept 
some part of that outmoded view, 
and persist in presenting a sort 
of apologia to labourers for sav- 
ing them from labour. 

But the whole purpose of auto- 
mation is to displace labour, and 
the sooner both sides of industry 
accept that fact the sooner shall 
we emerge from the conflicts that 
bedevil all production at present. 

In spite of the Trade Union 
boss's pronouncement that the 
government might have to 'create 
temporary work artificially' in 
order that the steel and tinplate 
men might wear boots and eat 
mutton chops — in spite of this, 
some of the more forward-looking 
South Wales workers are gradual- 
ly realizing that their day is 
ever. It does no good, and brings 
no comfort, to the unemployed to 

Technocracy Digest 

keep repeating that although the 
state coach has gone out the car 
trade uses more men than the 
coaches did and that if car men 
become redundant it is probably 
because of our foggy, foggy win- 
ters or what have you. 

The fact is that the Trade Un- 
ions are now slap up against what 
has been an imminent fact for the 
past 80 years; namely that the 
progress of science has achieved 
a great 1 part of its purpose: to set 
men free from toil without re- 
stricting supplies of wealth; in- 
deed while supplying avalanches 
of wealth for the enjoyment of all. 
The whole labour movement must 
accept the fact that the wage 
system is on the way out. For it 
is as certain as that night follows 
day that consumption is the dyn- 
amic of production; that unless 
wealth can be bought its produc- 
tion will run down to cessation; 
that overseas markets are rapidly 
assuming the same automated as- 
spect as our own. It follows from 
this that wages can no longer be 
regarded as the workers' sole 

source of purchasing power. Wal- 
ter Reuther's famous repartee to 
the motor tycoon has not been 
logically followed up. Merely to 
assume that if industry cannot 
bear the costs of modern wages 
(so that it embraces automation) 
it can bear the greater costs of 
redundancy compensation schem- 
es is to run away from financial 
realism as wildly as to imagine 
that Birmingham firms can oper- 
ate from places like Anglesey. 

The inescapable financial fact 
is that automated production 
needs oodles of purchasing power 
in the hands of its displaced work- 
ers if it is to continue to find mar- 
kets at home as well as abroad. 
That is the problem that shrieks 
for solution. 

Automation has introduced a 
new economic conception; our 
dreams have come true, and un- 
less we get rid of the old notion 
of wages as a sole means of mass 
purchasing power our dream will 
become a nightmare. 

—Gladys Bing. 

^ OTTAWA— Canada's unemployment insurance fund in two years of recession 
skidded $300,000,000. This reduced it to $625,300,000 at the end of the current fiscal 
year, or about two-thirds of the record $926,777,000 that was in it at the end of fiscal 
1956. It will be much less before the annual period of seasonal unemployment ends in 
the spring. —Canadian Press 

May, 1959 


How Not to Get Along 

TTOW not to get along in the 
■^ •*■ world. 

If the Other Fellow suggests 
that you talk over your differ- 
ences denounce it as propaganda. 

If he swears that he won't shoot 
any more accuse him of trying to 
trick you. 

If he offers to trade with you 
blast him for attempting to get 
strategic material. 

If he beats you at sports assert 
that his athletes are all state- 

If he proposes an exchange of 
artists belittle the idea. 

If his children make better 
school progress than yours claim 
they are dragooned into it. 

If he complains that your planes 
are flying over his territory say 
he is crazy. 

If he sells something cheaper 

than you do flay him for resorting 
to economic warfare. 

If he manufactures a car, dress, 
or a suit of clothes point out how 
ugly they are. 

If he reproaches his own people 
for drinking or for other short- 
comings laugh at him. 

If he has a flood, a crop failure, 
or a scandal, play this up as good 
news for your side. 

If he entertains your own and 
other diplomats in a large friend- 
ly way sneer at him. 

If he makes a scientific advance 
before you do boast that you 
could have done it, only you 
didn't want to. 

If he doesn't at once OK some 
proposition of your own accuse 
him of letting the human race 
down. — Barry Mather 

-^ WASHINGTON — A machine for peeling shrimp has been developed and 
patented. It involves the use of two rotating cones. 

Shrimp deposited at the upper end of the cones slides down to a point where the 
shells are caught and stripped from the meat. — Associated Press 

^ TRENTON, N.S. — Federal Mines Minister Comtois 'finished' four railway axles 
as workers looked on at a plant here. 

Actually Mr. Comtois just pressed two buttons, machinery raising the axles 

and stripping them of excess metal. — Canadian Press 


Technocracy Digest 




if Technocracy is the only North Am- 
erican social movement with a North 
American program which has become 
widespread on this Continent. It has 
no affiliation with any other organiza- 
tion, group or association either in North 
America or elsewhere. 
^r The basic unit of Technocracy is the 
chartered Section consisting of a min- 
imum of 50 members and running up to 
several hundred. 

^r It is not a commercial organization 
or a political party; it has no financial 
subsidy or endowment and has no debts. 
Technocracy is supported entirely by the 
dues and donations of its own members. 
The widespread membership activities 
of Technocracy are performed volun- 
tarily; no royalties, commissions or bon- 
uses are paid, and only a small full-time 
staff receives subsistence allowances. The 
annual dues are $9.00 which are paid by 
the member to his local Section. 
if Members wear the chromium and 
vermilion insignia of Technocracy — the 
Monad, an ancient generic symbol signi- 
fying balance. 


it There are units and members of 
Technocracy in almost every State in the 
U.S. and in all Provinces in Canada, and 
in addition there are members in Alaska, 
Hawaii, Panama, Puerto Rico and in 
numerous other places with the Armed 

^ Members of Technocracy are glad 
to travel many miles to discuss Tech- 
nocracy's Program with any interested 
people and Continental Headquarters 
will be pleased to inform any one of the 
location of the nearest Technocracy unit. 


^r Technocracy originated in the winter 
of 1918-1919 when Howard Scott formed 
a group of scientists, engineers and econ- 
omists that become known in 1920 as 
The Technical Alliance — a research or- 
ganization. In 1933 it was incorporated 
under the laws of the State of New York 
as a non-profit, non-political, non-sec- 
tarian membership organization. In 1934, 
Howard Scott, Director-in-Chief, made 
his first Continental lecture tour which 
laid the foundations of the present 
nation - wide membership organization. 
Since 1934 Technocracy has grown stead- 
ily without any spectacular spurts, re- 
vivals, collapses or rebirths. This is in 
spite of the fact that the press has gen- 
erally 'held the lid' on Technocracy, 
until early in 1942 when it made the 
tremendous 'discovery' that Technocracy 
had been reborn suddenly full-fledged 
with all its members, headquarters, etc., 
in full swing. 


tAt Technocracy was built in North 
America by North Americans. It is com- 
posed of North American citizens in all 
walks of life. Technocracy's membership 
is a composite of all the occupations, 
economic levels, races and religions which 
make up this Continent. Membership 
is open only to North American citizens. 
Aliens and politicians are not eligible. 
(By politicians is meant those holding 
elective political office or active office 
in any political party.) 

it Doctor, lawyer, storekeeper, farmer, 
mechanic, teacher, preacher or house- 
wife — as long as you are a patriotic 
North American — you are welcome in 


Whatever the future of Technocracy, one must fairly say 
that it is the only program of social and economic recon- 
struction which is in complete intellectual and technical 
accord with the age in which we live. 

—Encyclopedia Americana 



/4-0><3 ■ 3" 

Enemy of the People 
New Tool Found in Silent Sound 

Education For Survival 

The Threat of Germ Warfare 

Automated Continuous Seam Welding 

Robot Miners Mine Coal 

Television's Straitjacket 

A Genii With Two Faces 

No. 17 






AUGUST, 1959 No, 173 


Rupert N. Urquhart Editor Donald Bruce Advisory Editor 

Milton Wildfong Associate Editor Jane Urquh art. ...Circulation Manager 

Helen Slater Business Manager 

The Quarterly Survey -'.-'- - - - - 3 

Enemy of the People 6 

Education for Survival --15 

New Tool Found in Silent Sound 21 

More Oil Needs More Steel ...... 24 

Robot Miners Mine Coal 26 

Automated Continuous Seam Welding 28 

Through the Technoscope ------- 30 

The Threat of Germ Warfare 37 

Television's Straitjacket .44 

A Genii with Two Faces 48 

Robot Holiday --------- 50 

Technocracy Digest is published quarterly by Section 1, RJ>. 12349, Technocracy Inc., 
1166 W. Georgia St, Vancouver 5, B.C. Single copy, 25 cents. Subscription: four 
issues for $1.00; all three Technocracy Magazines, one year, $3.00. Make all cheques 
and money orders payable to Technocracy Digest. Entire contents copyrighted 1959. 
Printed in Canada. Continental Headquarters of Technocracy Inc. is at Rushland, 
Pennsylvania. . 


The Quarterly Survey 

St. Lawrence Seaway 

With its official opening by Her 
Majesty Queen Elizabeth the 
Second, the St. Lawrence seaway 
has been hailed as 'one of the 
greatest engineering triumphs of 
all time' and 'a mighty symbol to 
the world of what can be accom- 
plished through international co- 

But every Technocrat knows 
that the present seaway project is 
a political and financial abortion, 
and that the United States agreed 
to participate in its construction 
only afer Canada had threatened 
to 'go it alone.' 

For nearly thirty years, Tech- 
nocracy has proposed a Contin- 
ental Seaway via the St. Law- 
rence River into the Great Lakes 
as a part of a Continental Hydrol- 
ogy System. 

Technocracy's specifications call 
for a depth of 49 feet over sills — 
instead of the present 27 feet — 
and width enough to allow for 
two-way passage of ships. They 
call for a single lift lock between 
Lakes Ontario and Erie capable 
of simultaneous transfer of 60,000 

August, 1959 

tons up and 60,000 tons down in 
some 15 minutes. This would pro- 
vide a capacity for handling over 
a million tons each way per day. 
Present capacity of the seaway is 
a mere fifty million tons of ship- 
ping a year. 
Also specified by Technocracy 
are major Seaway connections to 
New York City via Lake Cham- 
plain and the Hudson River, and 
to the Gulf of Mexico via the Mis- 
sissippi River. 

Justus in The Minneapolis Star 

What a Bite! 

Since World War II, at much 
less than the cost of the Cold War, 
the Continental Hydrology Sys- 
tem (and many other major pro- 
jects) could have been well on 
their way to completion by now. 

Electronic Highways 

In another 20 years, motorists 
will be able to drive on electron- 
ically controlled expressways 
without touching the steering 
wheel, according to a prediction 
by the American Automobile 

The AAA news release cites 
major gains by U.S. industry in 
applying electronics to traffic 
control and foresees the time 
when car owners will be able to 
turn over to electronics many of 
today's manual driving responsi- 

A number of large U.S. cities, 
such as Chicago, Baltimore and 
others, already utilize electronics 
to control the flow of traffic, and 
the major automobile companies 
are working diligently on elec- 
tronic experiments to make driv- 
ing more fool-proof. In a recent 
RCA demonstration a test car 
was driven blind over an elec- 
tronically-geared road. 

Herblock in The Washington Post 

"Let Me Know 
When You Decide Something" 

Devices now on the drawing 
board will warn motorists when 
they are too close to the car in 
front, thus reducing the number 
of rear-end collisions. Others will 
make it possible to travel without 
touching the steering wheel for 
many miles on electronic free- 

Farm Ouipui Jumps 

In the past decade, North Am- 
erican agricultural workers have 
increased their output per man- 
hour three times as much as work- 
ers in the rest of the economy. 

Technocracy Digest 

Farm production is rising in- 
exorably as farmers race each 
other to adopt technological ad- 
vances, and the supply of agricul- 
tural products characteristically 
outruns demand. 

Agricultural authorities esti- 
mate that in the 10 years ahead, 
output per man-hour in farming 
could easily double the past de- 
cade's impressive 84% increase. 

The impact of this productivity 
on the Price System will be one 
of the big economic stories on this 
Continent in the next few years. 

Alcoholism Increases 

VANCOUVER (CP) — Alcohol- 
ism has increased 178 per cent in 
Canada in the last 10 years. Wil- 
liam Wilson, field and education 
officer of British Columbia's Al- 
coholic Research Council, said in 
an interview. 

A slim, 53-year-old man who 
quit the Regina police force to go 
into temperance work, Mr. Wil- 
son said he does not condemn 
people who drink. 

'But we want to give them the 
facts — particularly the young 
people. Alcoholism in Canada has 
increased 178 per cent in the last 
10 years. 

'And alcoholics are getting 
younger, some as young as 15. 
About 20 years ago most alcohol- 
ics were past 50. Today the biggest 
group of liquor addicts are be- 
tween the ages of 33 and 40.' 

A big part of his campaign in 
the province will be directed at 
people, and he says he is hoping 
to get cooperation from the B.C. 
education department to go into 
the schools. 

^ OSLO, NORWAY — A heavy water reactor built for atomic energy inside a 
mountain near the town of Halden was successfully operated for the first time this 

The reactor, claimed to be the first of its type in the world, is fuelled with 
elements supplied by Britain and heavy water supplied by the United States. It will 
eventually provide power for a paper mill. — Reuters 

-k PARIS — At a recent clock and watch show a French firm, Cetheor, unveiled a 
solar-energy clock, which receives light by means of a four-element photo-electric cell 
and transforms it into low-voltage electric current. 

An accumulator no larger than a lipstick stores the energy,, assuring automatic 
functioning thereafter for as long as three years even in total darkness. — Reuters 

August, 1959 

Enemy Of The People 

The greatest enemy of man is the ancient Price System which pene- 
trates and pervades nearly all society, fostering the development of 
predatory instincts and acquisitive tendencies. Establishment of the 
Technate will eliminate this enemy. 

/^NE of the basic laws of or- 
^^ ganic nature is the struggle 
for survival. Among human beings 
it is, in effect, a struggle to be 
born, to live out a full life-span, 
and to fulfil the aspirations of an 
enjoyable life. This struggle is 
against the hazards of inanimate 
nature, against the similar strug- 
gles of other biological species — 
plant, animal, micro-organic — 
and against other human beings. 
At this time, inanimate nature 
has been relegated to the position 
of a minor hazard, manifesting it- 
self, in most instances, as local 
violent disturbances, such as 
storms, floods, earthquakes, fires, 
volcanic eruptions, and excesses 
of temperature. The struggle of 
men against plant and animal haz- 
ards, likewise is being waged in 
favor of man. And the micro- 
organic foes are being substan- 
tially reduced in their overall 
virulence. The greatest enemy of 
man at present is to be found 
within the human species. It is 

with this enemy that we shall deal 
exclusively at this time. 

When we speak of 'enemies of 
the people' it is most natural that 
we first think of individual vil- 
lains. That is a well-precedented 
historical pattern. The tendency 
has been to name some person as 
a Public Enemy and then proceed 
to take 'appropriate' action 
against him. Even when the 
enemy was defined as a group of 
people, a class, a nation, or a sect, 
the tendency has been to name 
some leader of the group as the 
enemy. The action which followed 
sought to 'render harmless' that 
leader and to subdue and subju- 
gate his followers. This proced- 
ure was not necessarily an im- 
provement; for, the victorious 
leaders and cults were often more 
tyrannical and frightening than 
those they deposed. 

These historical struggles 
among people for survival and/or 
supremacy have resulted in num- 
erous individual disasters of the 

Technocracy Digest 

first magnitude and they have 
created much social unpleasant- 
ness. That kind of struggle still 
goes on, but with increasingly 
more fearful potential. 

Out of the struggle for sur- 
vival have arisen two opposite 
tendencies. One is a tendency to- 
ward individual aggressive tyran- 
ny. The other is a tendency to- 
ward mutual protective associa- 
tions of individuals. Both of these 
tendencies are strongly manifest- 
ed in human beings as they are in 
many other animals, and in vary- 
ing relative degrees within the 
same individual. Both have sur- 
vival value in a struggle against 
hostile neighbors; for, those who 
are more strongly aggressive will 
lead the fight against the adver- 
saries of the group, while those 
with stronger mutualist tenden- 
cies will retain group cohesive- 
ness and collective endeavor. In 
times of severe struggle against 
the outside, the tyrannical ego- 
ists are likely to become popular 
heroes, for they will desperately 
seek the glory of victory for their 
side and, in doing so, they are not 
greatly dismayed by losses of 
either their own followers or those 
of the foe. But in a tranquil so- 
ciety they are out of their ele- 
August, 1959 

ment; given the opportunity, they 
tend to turn their tyranny upon 
their own people and make life 
unpleasant for them. 

Another type of aggressive lead- 
ers, however, does possess posi- 
tive concepts and really turns its 
attention to constructive works. 
These leaders are the organizers, 
the planners, the builders. They 
attack the problems of the physi- 
cal environment with the same 
kind of enthusiasm that the mili- 
tarist tyrants displayed toward 
the destroying of life and the 
wrecking of man's constructive 
efforts. Such leaders may or may 
not become well-known within 
their time and area; it all depends 
on whom the promotional bally- 
hoo is focused. It may happen 
that the publicity is lavished on 
some politician or businessman 
who is nothing more than a stuffed 
shirt, and the real genius behind 
the accomplishment is ignored. 

In any society, there is room, 
in fact a need, for positive aggres- 
sors. Their works become the 
pride of the areas where they 
have been. But all too often the 
genius, the skill, and the drive 
of the builders is diverted by 
political, religious, or commercial 
tyranny into wasteful channels 

which in overall effect are a deficit 
to the society. Thus, certain areas 
today exhibit grandiose tombs, 
cathedrals, palaces, merchandis- 
ing marts — to their shame. Such 
perverted works sometimes have 
been only slightly less wasteful 
and costly than the ravages of 

For the most part, the great 
majority of the people prefer tran- 
quility to adventurism. It takes 
some political stimulus or induce- 
ment to arouse their fervor for 
war, and most of them soon tire 
of it — especially when they realize 
that the war will not be won in a 
few days or weeks as they had 
at first supposed. It even takes 
promotion and prodding for the 
public to accept new gadgets. And 
new social customs are even more 
difficult to introduce. In the main, 
people are content to be fenced 
in a secure pasture, to graze con- 
tentedly from the largesse of the 
area, and to accept whatever con- 
trols are necessary to provide 
that stability. In fact, their toler- 
ance of abuse is amazing. 

But the people of a social area 
are seldom permitted to live in 
tranquility and comfort for long. 
If they appear prosperous and 
weak, they become objects of ex- 

ternal conquest and looting. More 
insidiously, they become the ob- 
jects of internal predation. It is 
this latter hazard that we are most 
concerned with here; and, in con- 
nection with it, we shall seek to 
find the Enemy of the People. 

Even in areas which are poor in 
resources and energy, deficient 
in technology, and heavily popu- 
lated, there is a capability in most 
cases to produce more than 
enough to merely sustain the life 
of the population. Yet, we usually 
find, as in Egypt, Portugal, Cuba, 
the Philippines, etc., that the great 
majority are ground down to the 
lowest levels of poverty while a 
few live in great wealth and lux- 
ury; and other wealth is exported 
abroad. Still other wealth is wast- 
ed senselessly within the area on 
non-functional construction and 
ostentation. The people obviously 
are being victimized. Who are the 
culprits? Who are the enemies of 
the people? 

Is the wealthy minority the 
enemy? The individuals of this 
minority are behaving according 
to their natures and opportuni- 
ties, a form of behaviour which 
the majority tend to envy rather 
than despise. In a way, of course, 
they are culpable; for, they are 

Technocracy Digest 

taking more than their pro rata 
share from the provender of the 
area. Yet, the system under which 
they live permits it, and they are 
not violating its rules. To expect 
them to be 'honorable' about their 
behavior throws it into a question 
of morality; and moral reforma- 
tion does not have a very favor- 
able historical record. The Enemy 
of the People must be sought else- 
where than among the individu- 
als who take advantage of their 
opportunities, however abusive 
their effects may be. 

Can the enemy of the people be 
found within some specific group 
or organization? Could it be a 
political party, an economic asso- 
ciation, a religious (or anti-reli- 
gious) sect, a fraternal group, or 
a secret society? Here, again, we 
must acknowledge failure to find 
the real culprit. Certain groups 
may be social deficits or even 
social cancers in their own right; 
but still, we must admit, their 
eradication would not alter the 
primary ills of the society. 

The real Enemy of the People 
is not to be found among indi- 
viduals or even cults, be their 
banners red, black, blue, yellow, 
white, or multi-colored. These are 
merely the legions of the Big 

Enemy — they are the pawns in a 
bitter game that, too often, is 
merely diversionary in effect, hav- 
ing no positive goal in itself. 

The Cold War is such a game. 
It has no definable goal. It seeks 
no victory. It is a struggle for 
the sake of the struggle — and to 
create diversion from the real 
issue in the world, which is social 

Let us not look for the Enemy 
of the People among individuals 
or even among groups of people, 
as such. Behind all of these is 
an ancient economic system which 
penetrates and pervades nearly 
everything within the society. It 
seems, in a logical way, to have 
a useful and indispensable place 
in the society, and that has en- 
abled it to endure. Yet its func- 
tioning develops insidious and 
vicious maladies in the social 
body. It forbids the people to en- 
joy the full benefits of their en- 
deavor — often to the point of 
death. It fosters the development 
and expression of predatory in- 
stincts and acquisitive tendencies. 
It generates anti-social attitudes 
and behavior among individuals 
and gangs. It creates class distinc- 
tions and class hatreds. It supports 
social tensions, internal strife, and 

August, 1959 

suspicions. It causes the individual 
to seek advantage for himself at 
the expense of others in the 
society and often in opposition to 
the general welfare. 

This system is the one that 
Technocracy has correctly de- 
fined as the Price System. It is the 
system that evaluates goods and 
services in terms of relative hu- 
man desire for them and states 
this evaluation in terms of money 
and price. Goods and services are 
then bought, sold, and exchanged 
with monetary forms circulating 
as a medium of exchange. But the 
evaluations — the prices — are not 
fixed or stable; they are subject 
to tactical manipulation all along 
the line. Hence, it is possible for 
the more astute manipulators to 
profit handsomely from the hand- 
ling of goods without themselves 
adding anything of intrinsic value 
to them. 

In the Price System, money is 
more than a medium of exchange. 
It is also a commodity. Further, 
it provides its holder with power 
over other individuals and over 
the society. It can be used as a 
weapon against the people; or it 
may be used to corrupt and 
suborn them. Money is suscept- 
ible of accumulation, with the 

corollary that great power may 
be concentrated in the hands of 
certain individuals and institu- 
tions. Such individuals and insti- 
tutions may be selfish, arrogant, 
and merciless in their use of this 
power, and they often are. Yet 
they are acting within their 
'rights' under the Price System. 
If, for example, the collection of 
a debt from a family (no matter 
how trickily the debt may have 
been imposed) reduce that family 
to extreme poverty and misery, 
even to death from starvation, 
exposure, and frustration, the 
collector of that debt is held 
blameless by the Price System. 
Any attempt to 'clean up' the 
more flagrant abuses within the 
Price System — be it directed 
against internal corruption by 
Labor Unions, against merchan- 
dising excesses by better business 
bureaus, against influence peddl- 
ing and bribery by federal agen- 
cies, against excessive leaching 
for alleged charity purposes by 
people's committees, or against 
the overt racketeering of crime 
syndicates by grand juries — will 
fail to get at the core of the prob- 
lem. It attacks only surface symp- 
toms and leaves the source of the 
infection untouched. 


Technocracy Digest 

Nothing short of the elimina- 
tion of the Price System itself will 
permit a cure to be effected. This 
is a big order. But it is not nearly 
as big a problem as trying to re- 
concile the conflicts within the 
Price System. It is not nearly as 
dangerous as the hazards that in- 
evitably must arise from a con- 
tinued operation of the system. 
The operation of the Price Sys- 
tem threatens the world with 
thermo-nuclear annihilation as 
well as with many less inclusive 
disasters. Its elimination is not 
merely a matter of desire or ex- 
pediency — it is a matter of sur- 

More specifically, the Price Sys- 
tem is guilty of many major 
crimes against the people. One of 
these is the crime of commercial 
enterprise or business. This is 
a process of handling goods and 
services in such a way as to give 
the consumer the least for the 
most. The consumer is usually 
charged several to many times 
the cost of producing the things 
he buys; and, if he cannot meet 
the price, he can 'jolly weir go 
without, regardless of how abund- 
ant and otherwise undistributable 
the goods may be. Besides the 
practice of marking up the price 

of things all out of proportion to 
their cost, business has other 
operating characteristics which 
make it inimical to the society; 
among these are planned obsoles- 
cence through production of 
shoddy goods and refusal to pro- 
vide high quality goods and serv- 
ices and planned scarcity through 
the destruction of 'surpluses.' 

Politics is the handmaiden of 
business, facilitating and protect- 
ing it from all sides. But politics 
goes beyond being a mere ad- 
junct to business enterprise. It 
legislates or decrees restrictive 
laws and regulations; it levies 
taxes; and it provides a stage, 
with spotlights, for the exhibi- 
tionism of egotistical political buf- 
foons. Politics in all its forms 
must be considered an integral 
part of the Price System. 

Among the other crimes against 
the society are charity and phil- 
anthropy. For the most part, these 
are minor pay-offs from major 
shake-downs. The charities collect 
dollars and give out cents. The 
philanthropists take millions and 
give back thousands. 

The Price System fails to 
accomplish the function that is 
claimed for it and which is ad- 
vanced as the principal reason 

August, 1959 


for its continued existence. It fails 
to achieve an equitable distribu- 
tion of goods and services among 
the people of an area. This is par- 
ticularly so in the United States 
and Canada at the present time, 
where a basic scarcity of goods 
cannot be blamed for this failure. 

Many people are compelled to 
do without that which they need, 
or which would improve their 
standard of living, although the 
goods are available in the area 
or, at least, potentially available. 
A few families, on the other hand, 
have access to far more goods and 
services than they can use and 
tend to be wasteful of them. On 
the whole, the people must strug- 
gle much harder for what they 
get than is necessary. 

The Price System encourages 
waste; for, wastage contributes to 
scarcity and scarcity contributes 
to value. Thus we are presented 
with the economic anomaly of a 
system which treats scarcity as a 
virtue and abundance as a sin. 
At the news of a crop failure, 
the commodity speculators are 
jubilant; at news of bumper har- 
vests, they are depressed. 

Manufacturers often produce 
two qualities of goods, a service- 
able quality for use by other in- 

dustrialists and professionals, and 
an inferior quality for the consum- 
ers. Those who operate for a pro- 
fit can obtain tools and supplies of 
a quality seldom available to the 
public. The public is sold, instead, 
the most shoddy, the most sleazy, 
the most obsolescent, and Jthe 
most unusable things that mer- 
chandising methods can foist up- 
on them. This principle applies to 
clothes, food, housing, automo- 
biles, toys, gadgets, and supplies 
of all kinds. The sooner these 
things need repair or retirement 
from use, the quicker the aims of 
the Price System are fulfilled. 

The consumer is caught in a 
squeeze applied by business mark- 
ups, political taxation, charity 
shakedowns, and social compul- 
sions. These are mostly effects of 
the Price System, direct and in- 
direct. With the abolition of the 
Price System they would disap- 

The elimination of the Price 
System would mean the installa- 
tion of a non-Price System. Tech- 
nocracy is such a system. When 
Technocracy replaces the Price 
System, the whole emphasis will 
change. The social system of the 
area will cease to be the enemy of 


Technocracy Digest 

the people and become their 

Instead of giving the people of 
North America the least for the 
most, as the Price System does, 
Technocracy would give them the 
most for the least. Every effort 
would be made to cut costs (the 
social costs per unit of produc- 
tion) , reduce human toil and vigi- 
lance to the minimum, and con- 
serve natural resources. At the 
same time, the production of con- 
sumer goods would be maintained 
at the level of abundance and 
various area construction pro- 
jects carried out. Such an accom- 
plishment would be considered 
'absurd' under the Price System 
— in fact, impossible of execution 
— the 'costs' would be too great. 

The individual will be guaran- 
teed abundance in a Technocracy 
for as long as he lives — ample 
high quality food, clothing, hous- 
ing, recreation, education, health 
care, transportation, and all the 
other things required for a se- 
cure, long, and vital life. 

With the establishment of the 
Technate, the citizens will dis- 
cover that the lesser villains will 
have vanished along with the Big 
Enemy. There will be no business 
enterprise, no politics, no shake- 

downs, no squeeze. Even salva- 
tion will be dispensed in some 
other way than selling it for 
a price. Financial institutions, 
business establishments, political 
debating forums (also smoke- 
filled rooms), and swank layouts 
of the crime syndicates will be 
only a historical memory — along 
with slums, marginal farms, sub- 
urbias, and private estates. 

In the Technate, no one, no 
institution, not even the Tech- 
nate, can deprive the individual 
Citizen of the wherewithal for liv- 
ing. If for any reason a person 
must be institutionalized — be- 
cause of chronic illness, mental 
incapacity, anti-social tendencies, 
treason, etc. — he will be provided 
with the best of care and of ma- 
terial things. He will not be pun- 
ished with miserly subsistence, 
barren surroundings, crowded 
quarters, or disdainful activities. 
The sadistic tyranny which has 
become routine, under the Price 
System, in penal institutions, wel- 
fare hospitals, insane asylums, 
religious orders, and military 
posts will receive no tolerance in 
the Technate. 

In its basic fundamentals, oper- 
ating beneath the surface, the 
Control of the Technate will be 

August, 1959 


strong and 'tough.' Its major con- 
cern will be with the physical 
forces and materials of an inani- 
mate environment; but not exclus- 
ively that, for its field will also 
include agriculture, animal hus- 
bandry, forestry, and fiishing. 
Since any social discipline of the 
individuals will be functional, as 
contrasted with authoritative dis- 
cipline, it will be applied indirect- 
ly for the most part and be in- 
conspicuous, being effected 
through control of the environ- 
ment. Where its manifesations are 
apparent, social discipline will be 
applied in such a way that the 
people will view it and accept it 
as being beneficial and necessary. 
Examples of the latter would be 
regular health checkups, traffic 
controls, education for function in 
the Technate. 

The Technate will have the 
strength and stability to deal with 
the 'human element' in a genteel 

and seemingly casual manner, but 
with firmness where firmness is 

Who or what will be the Enemy 
of the People in the Technate? 

Barring outside aggression 
(which will be unlikely), there 
will be no enemies as such. There 
may be problems, possibly a few 
sticky ones, but no enemies. 

The Price System will be gone 
and, along with it, overt waste, 
corruption, chiseling, poverty, and 
human degradation. The motive 
for instigating aggressive wars 
will vanish; hence, cold wars, pre- 
ventive wars, holy crusades, mas- 
sive retaliation, and all that ilk of 
national psychoses will cease to 
dominate our international rela- 
tions and diplomatic policy. 

When North Americans estab- 
lish the Technate upon their Con- 
tinent, the Enemies of the People 
will be where they belong — in 
limbo. —Wilton Ivie, CHQ 

+ WASHINGTON — Americans were deeper in debt last year than ever before, the 
Commerce Department reported today. But economists said this was not surprising. 
With population and incomes rising, total individual indebtedness continued its long- 
term climb. 

It rose by $18,700,000,000 from 1957 to a Dec. 31, 1958, peak of $239,700,000,000. 
Debts of all kinds including those of government, at all levels, and corporations, hit a 
total of $770,200,000,000 — also a record. The corresponding 1957 total was 

A 10% or $13,000,000,000 rise in mortgage indebtedness last year was second only 
to 1955. Consumer debt rose by only $300,000,000 in 1958, reflecting cutbacks in install- 
ment buying — especially cars — and heavy repayments of back credit. 

—United Press International 

Technocracy Digest 

Education For Survival 

The efficient operation of a complex technological social mechanism 
demands high calibre education. Education holds the key to human 
survival. Technocracy's social blueprint will provide all North Ameri- 
can youth with the necessary calibre of functional education. 

TNADEQUATE education for 
■"■ our Continent's youth is one 
of the most serious problems fac- 
ing North American society to- 
day. Critical as is this qualitative 
and quantitative deficiency for 
the future of our high energy civ- 
ilization, most people are still in- 
clined to consider it merely as 
a temporary nuisance or incon- 
venience. Instead, whether or not. 
the problem is satisfactorily solv- 
ed may well determine the matter 
of survival for most presently 
living North Americans. It be- 
hooves them, then, to acquaint 
themselves immediately with all 
aspects of the education problem 
with a view to solving it as soon 
as possible. 

The problem might first be ex- 
pected to manifest itself in the 
secondary schools where students 
are reaching ages where they 
should be seriously considering 
their future occupations, but actu- 
ally the trouble starts even sooner. 
Elementary school pupils are too 

August, 1959 

frequently graduated to high 
school without having mastered 
the work necessary for their next 
phase of education. This means 
that high school staffs, already 
overworked, must either teach 
their new students what should 
have been learned in elementary 
school, or proceed with their own 
courses and let the laggards catch 
up as best they can. Usually the 
choice is the latter, and usually 
there is no catching up. As a re- 
sult, subsequent employers com- 
plain about being sent high school 
graduates who cannot spell cor- 
rectly, write or speak grammati- 
cally, or solve simple mathemati- 
cal problems. If not alarmed, such 
employers are certainly exasper- 
ated over the failure of schools to 
produce the calibre of students 
required for their industrial 

The problem and the blame are 
thus peremptorily thrown in the 
teachers' laps. Surely they can- 
not be satisfactorily discharging 


the responsibilities entrusted to 
them. As usual the members of 
the teaching profession are the 
convenient scapegoats for the 
charging of a failure more fitting- 
ly accountable to a delinquent 
society. The few competent teach- 
ers who may be personally delin- 
quent in performing their jobs do 
not constitute a sufficiently large 
group to be a concernable factor 
in the present crisis. A main diffi- 
culty stems from a considerable, 
increasing placement of teaching 
personnel who are not qualified 
for their functions by inclination, 
aptitude or training. 

The Canadian Conference on 
Education estimates that the 1959- 
1960 school term commencing in 
September will be short 15,000 
qualified teachers. Conference 
officials predict that 155,000 teach- 
ers will be required for Cana- 
dian schools but that only 110,- 
000 are likely to be available. Fur- 
ther, there has been a steady de- 
cline in the number of qualified 
teachers since 1953 when only 
55% had senior matriculation 
(equivalent to first year univer- 
sity) plus one year's teacher's 

In April, 1959, the British Col- 
umbia Teachers' Federation ex- 

pressed grave concern over the 
existing situation in this west- 
ernmost Canadian province. The 
Federation, reporting that over a 
thousand secondary school teach- 
ers are underqualified to teach 
the subjects they are teaching, 
stated, 'Each of these teachers will 
instruct daily at least 150 stud- 
ents in subjects about which he 
himself knows too little. Multi- 
plying 1000 such teachers by 150 
gives 150,000 students handicap- 
ped for life in at least one subject.' 
Schools in the United States are 
similarly plagued with insufficient 
fully trained teachers. The lack 
became acute in 1948 and has 
steadily intensified since that 
time. Much of the trouble is attri- 
butable to a booming birthrate 
which has produced new crops of 
school-age children faster than 
teacher-training institutions have 
been able to graduate teachers, 
despite increases in graduation 
numbers. American schools, says 
United States Education Commis- 
sioner Lawrence C. Derthick, 
started in 1957 - 1958 academic 
year with a shortage of 135,000 
teachers. Moreover, of those who 
started teaching this year, 50% 
are expected to discontinue with- 
in five years. 


Technocracy Digest 

Another outstanding reason for 
the inadequacy of education pro- 
grams lies in the crazy quilt sys- 
tem of administration vested in 
thousands of school districts 
throughout Canada and United 
States. Practically autonomous 
except for a loose inspectional 
authority extended over them by 
their respective provincial or state 
governments, these school districts 
are individually responsible for 
most of the funds raised for build- 
ing schools and paying teachers. 
How successfully this is accom- 
plished depends upon the number 
of property owners within the 
districts, and upon the amount of 
school taxes they can be assessed 
with reasonable hope of collec- 
tion. Naturally, relatively pros- 
perous urban school districts are 
far better able to pay attractive 
salaries than are those in sparsely 
settled marginal farming districts. 
Understandably, most competent 
teachers choose urban schools 
with their seemingly greater offer 
of security rather than take 
chances on the uncertainties of 
rural school income. 

Urban school choices do not 
always pan out as fortunately as 
expected. Frequently in recent 
years teachers have been obliged 

to procure part-time jobs to sub- 
sidize insufficient incomes. They 
have done this rather than actu- 
ally quit teaching which they 
have recognized as a very import- 
ant function. Such part-time jobs, 
however, have been frowned up- 
on by their public employers who, 
while reluctant to pay salaries 
that would support such osten- 
tation, have nevertheless expected 
the teachers to maintain facades 
of comfortable financial respecta- 
bility. It is not surprising that 
such muddled attitudes have dis- 
gusted many competent teachers 
to the point of abandoning their 
profession forthwith in favor of 
less socially demanding but more 
lucrative employment. 

Still, the incidence of part-time 
jobs held by urban teachers, 
while increased beyond the point 
where they might be considered 
unusual, has not materially alter- 
ed the general relationship be- 
tween urban and rural school 
districts — the preference remain- 
ing with the former. A brief sta- 
tistical review will provide its 
own explanation. 

There were in 1957 in Canada 
and United States a total of 72,- 
326 school districts (Canada Year 
Book, 1957-1958, and Book of the 

August, 1959 


States, 1958-1959), of which 51,- 
941 were in the United States. 
This latter figure represented a 
considerable consolidation over 
the past quarter century. There 
were 127,530 school districts in 
1932. By 1948 they had been re- 
duced to 99,719, and to 59,270 by 
1955. While another 7,329 districts 
were dropped in the next three 
years, the Book of the States still 
sees as a major problem 'that of 
developing school districts large 
enough and wealthy enough for 
efficient operation.' How Can- 
adian educationists view the mat- 
ter is not known to this writer, 
but roughly 40% as many school 
districts as a country with ten 
times the population does not in- 
dicate any large-scale similar 
trend toward consolidation. 

The inability of so many school 
districts to deal satisfactorily even 
with the single problem of teach- 
ers' salaries is further revealed in 
Canada Year Book (1957-1958) 
statistics. These show median sal- 
aries for the 1954-1955 academic 
year (latest available figures) 
covering all provinces except 
Quebec to be slightly over $2400. 
Compared with this figure which 
represents the average for all in- 
structional staff such as princi- 

pals, supervisors and class room 
teachers, is the nearly $3400 med- 
ian salaries for the supervisory 
and production staff of eighteen 
industries. Included are manu- 
facturers of food and beverages, 
textiles, paper products and many 
other commodities. Most of their 
personnel do not require the spe- 
cialized training of educators — 
that is, presuming the latter are 
adequately qualified for their 

While United States teachers' 
salaries average somewhat higher 
than those in Canada, they also 
run sufficiently lower than indus- 
trial income to account for many 
personnel losses from the teach- 
ing profession. Even New York's 
$5700 is not proof against such in- 
roads since most of the Empire 
State's teachers receive far less 
than this average for the state — 
the nation's most generous em- 
ployer of teachers. 

Statistics further establishing 
the tenuousness of North Ameri- 
ca's current education problem 
could be quoted endlessly, but 
enough have been given to show 
that said problem is purely one 
of Price System origin. The main 
points which stand out are (1) 
the absurd number of adminis- 


Technocracy Digest 

trative bodies having governing 
authority over all phases of edu- 
cation; (2) the inability of many 
school districts to pay salaries 
which will attract competent 
teachers; (3) the siphoning off of 
many exercising or prospective 
teachers into more lucrative in- 
dustrial positions; and (4) an 
alarming increase in unqualified 
teachers attending the education- 
al needs of the Continent's youth. 

Quite obviously the first three 
points are directly linked to Price 
System deficiencies. The correla- 
tion, while possibly less apparent, 
is actually no less pronounced in 
the fourth instance. It follows that 
the only hope of alleviation can 
come from the removal of the 
monetary obstructions. Tremen- 
dous potentialities in the field of 
education immediately open up. 

Educationists already blame 
the excessive number of school 
districts, even though consider- 
ably reduced from earlier figures, 
for much of the existing educa- 
tion fiasco. They have found it 
utterly impossible to achieve any 
degree of effective uniformity in 
academic standards or in curri- 
cula. Only in cases where two or 
more school districts have con- 
solidated into olne have there 

been hopeful signs of achieving 
such uniformity. The greatest 
success in this respect has accom- 
panied the largest consolidations. 
By this token it appears that the 
maximum effectiveness would be 
achieved by consolidating all dis- 
tricts on the Continent into just 

A single administrative district 
would make possible a uniformly 
high standard which would en- 
able a student living anywhere on 
the Continent to move anywhere 
else on the Continent without the 
danger of academic upgrading 
or downgrading from his particu- 
lar level of progression. Such is 
far from the case today. A student 
attending his third year in an 
urban high school may find upon 
moving to a village or rural school 
that the third year students there 
are only then being taught what 
he had learned in his second year. 
It gives him a definite advantage 
over his new classmates, but only 
at his own loss for it means that 
in one or more subjects he will 
progress no further until the 
others have caught up to him. 
Conversely, a student moving in 
the opposite direction would find 
himself — through no fault of his 
own — far behind in the course of 

August, 1959 


studies being taught classes of 
ostensibly the same grade. Unless 
his native intelligence is some- 
what above average so that he 
can pull himself abreast of his 
fellow students, the chances are 
that he will have to be down- 
graded to a class nearer his own 
academic level. Manifestly, both 
students in the foregoing cases 
would be victimized by inequali- 
ties in scholastic standards. In the 
functional design of a Technate, 
education of the highest calibre 
for all students would be avail- 
able throughout the Continent. 
Elimination of money with a 
life-long guarantee of an equit- 
able ample claim on the Contin- 
ent's abundance by all citizens 
would remove other vexing prob- 
lems from the education field. No 
lure of higher income would 
attract teachers to other func- 
tions. Moreover, the condescend- 
ing attitude toward members of 
the profession which currently 
deters many excellent personnel 
from entering it, irrespective of 
remunerative considerations, 
would give way to a new attitude 
of respect deserving of the func- 
tion's high social importance. Re- 
moval of the unwarranted stigma, 
teamed with an encouragement 

to competent personnel to become 
or continue being teachers, would 
assist invaluably in overcoming 
the initial difficulty of replacing 
unqualified teachers with fully 

A solid foundation for a Con- 
tinent-wide education program 
must be followed by a program 
which will adequately fit the 
youth for their future roles in 
society. It is at once obvious, with- 
out discussing highly controver- 
sial matters of curricula or de- 
tails of procedure, that a more 
objective approach than hereto- 
fore must be employed to fulfil 
specialized technological require- 

Basic to all other aspects of edu- 
cation is an understanding of writ- 
ten and spoken language, accom- 
panied by an ability to express 
oneself competently in both 
media. Merely to be able to read 
and write is not enough. A new 
term coming into use describes a 
wide-spread deficiency. 'Func- 
tional illiterates' are people who 
can read and write without com- 
prehending what they read. Some- 
times this reflects plain native 
moronity, but more often is the 
result of inadequate training in 
(Continued on page 33) 


Technocracy Digest 


August, 1959 

Compiled by Editorial Staff 

No. 173 

A/eiu ^aal tyo-und in 'Silent Bound' 

QJOUNDS pitched so high that you cannot hear them are finding 
*^ applications in almost every science and industry in the nation, 
according to Science Service. Despite the widespread public attention 
focused on the latest developments in nuclear energy and the conquest 
of space, utrasonics remains one of the magic words in twentieth 
century science. 

Ultrasonics refers to the study and use of high-frequency, inaud- 
ible sound waves. These waves have been referred to as 'silent sound' 
or merely 'high-frequency vibrations.' 

Call them what you will, these ultrasonic waves have been used 
to tenderize meat, make facial creams, clean and degrease precision 
tools, mow lawns, age whisky, detect submarines and cut jewels. And 
that is not all. They have also been used in industrial drilling and 
grinding, in speeding up chemical reactions, in emulsifying and 
homogenizing materials, in removing barnacles from the hulls of 
ships, and in burglar alarms, to say nothing of numerous applications 
in medicine and dentistry. And that is still not all. One could go on 
all day listing applications of ultrasonics. 

August. 1959 


• Nature of Sound — But let us first look at the nature of sound waves 
as related to the human ear to better understand ultrasonic waves. 
Basically, sound consists of a series of alternate increases and 
decreases in pressure, like the ripples caused by throwing a stone 
into a still pool. The frequency, or pitch, is determined by the number 
of times the pressure increases or decreases, and is measured in 
cycles a second. Intensity, on the other hand, expresses the varying 
strengths of this pressure, and is measured in decibels. 

The word supersonic, often used interchangeably with ultrasonic, 
more correctly applies in current usage to speeds higher than the 
speed of sound. Sound travels at about 741 miles an hour at 32 degrees 
Fahrenheit at sea level. Ultrasonic on the other hand, refers to fre- 
quency of sound waves. 

The average person cannot hear frequencies of less than 16 
vibrations a second or more than 15,000 to 20,000 vibrations a second. 
Similarly, the human detection range of intensity is from zero to 120 
decibels. That is, any intensity above 120 decibels becomes painful. 

No matter how loud a sound is, it cannot be heard unless it lies 
in the audible frequency range, because the limit of audibility is set 
by the frequency and not by the intensity. Thus it is possible to have 
silent, inaudible sound of very high intensity. 

Try moving your hand rapidly back and forth in front of your 
face. You are now setting up vibrations in the air, yet you do not 
hear them. This is because the vibrations are too slow, less than 16 
a second. 

If you could vibrate something in front of you at a frequency 
greater than 17,000 vibrations a second, you would not hear anything 
either, because the sound would be at the other extreme of inaudibility 
to the human ear. 

• Example of Ultrasonics — To take an everyday example of ultra- 
sonics, consider the dog whistle that can be heard by your dog but 
not by any of the neighbors, or yourself for that matter. The vibration 
frequency of the whistle is pitched too high for your ear to detect 
it. But your dog can detect frequencies up to about 35,000 a second 
and both hears and responds. 

Technocracy Digest 

For ultrasonics' surprising ability to easily accomplish formerly 
difficult tasks, it is necessary to obtain a sound intensity sufficiently 
high to produce a secondary effect known as cavitation. This is essen- 
tially the creation and collapse of millions of tiny vapor bubbles in 
the medium through which the sound is traveling. 

In cavitation, instantaneous pressures as high as 75,000 pounds 
a square inch — 5,000 times greater than normal atmospheric pressure 
—can be created. Along with these pressures are localized tempera- 
tures as high as 20,000 degrees Fahrenheit — above that of the surface 
of the sun. A thin aluminum foil subjected to cavitation in ordinary, 
tap water can be literally chewed to pieces within a few seconds. 

To produce ultrasonic waves, electrical energy must be changed 
into mechanical sound vibrations by such devices as quartz crystals 
or transducers. With quartz crystal vibrators, sounds a thousand 
times as intense as a violent crack of thunder have been produced. 

Let us turn in more detail to some of the applications of ultra- 
sonics. By using frequencies between 35,000 and 50,000 vibrations a 
second, cosmetic manufacturers can surround a particle of water with 
oil to make a cleansing cream, or surround a particle of oil with 
water to produce a vanishing cream. 

•Tenderizing Process — An ultrasonic tenderizing process that breaks 
up tough fibres in frozen foods is said to cause no taste or color change 
in meat, fish, fruits or vegetables. The frozen food is immersed in a 
brine-filled tank and then subjected to vibrations varying from 1,000 
to 1,000,000 cycles a second through the use of a transducer. The freez- 
ing guarantees retention of the original shape and natural juice of 
the food. 

An ultrasonic washing machine for cleaning soiled surgical instru- 
ments far more speedily and thoroughly than ever before is probably 
the forerunner of an ultrasonic home dishwasher. Within such wash- 
ing machines, the penetrating energy of high-pitched waves loosens 
and disintegrates dirt, dried blood, bits of tissue and other soils, even 
those packed into microscopic holes. One hospital has reported an 
80 per cent saving in time for cleaning instruments and ultrasonic 

August. 1959 23 

washing machines. Experimental models of ultrasonic kitchen sinks 
have also been demonstrated. 

Minute particles of soot from industrial stacks, normally too tiny 
to be caught by ordinary collection methods, have been made to form 
into large clumps and subsequently captured by sound vibration of 
high frequency. In this way the carbon is saved and the countryside 
is free of the soot nuisance. 

In a similar mannr, ultrasonic waves have been made to condense 
fog by causing the tiny water droplets to gather together and fall 
as water. 

Applications that perhaps affect you most directly are the medical 
ones. For example, ultrasonic energy has been successfully- used to 
diagnose lumps in the human breast and tumors in the brain. When a 
narrow sound beam encounters human tissue, a pattern of echoes 
is returned, converted into electonic signals and displayed on a tele- 
vision picture tube. Irregularities such as cancer, nonmalignant 
solid tumors and liquid-filled cysts can thus be recognized from theiv 
characteristic pictures, and appropriate treatment can be undertaken. 

— New York Times 

Mo-te Oil Aeedd. Male Steel 

^^NE hundred years ago, in Western Pennsylvania, the nation's 
^^ oil industry was born when a 69-foot deep well began producing 
25 barrels of crude oil a day. Since then, production has increased 
to more than 7 million barrels daily — an industrial achievement 
largely made possible by steel. 

From tough rotary bits drilling miles below the earth's surfaco 
to basement tanks containing household fuel supplies, steel products 
are used widely in the production, processing, transportation and 
consumption of oil and its co-product, natural gas. These products 
include, among others, large amounts of 'oil country goods' (well 

24 Technocracy Digest 

casing, tubing and drill steel); standard pipe, line pipe, hot rolled 
sheets; plates, and hot rolled bars. 

From 1946 through last year, steel products shipped to the oil 
and gas industry accounted for 7% of total domestic shipments— 
60.1 million net tons out of 864.2 million. The record year was 1957, 
when oil and gas shipments totaled nearly 6.5 million tons, 8.6% 
of total domestic shipments. 

Indications are that the production of oil and natural gas will 
require increasingly larger amounts of steel products in the future. 
According to a recent study made by one of the nation's largest bank- 
ing institutions, petroleum hydrocarbons — oil and natural gas — pro- 
vided 69% of the energy requirements of the United States in 1957. 
the equivalent of 13.7 million barrels of oil per day. By the end of 
1967, the study predicts the percentage will rise to 74.5 and be equal 
to 22.3 million barrels daily — a 63% increase. It concludes that the oil 
and gas industry must step up sharply its drilling operations to 
achieve large additions of reserves. For oil alone, approximately 670 
thousand wells and about 3 billion feet of hole must be drilled by 
1967. (In 1957, the record production year, the American Petroleum 
Institute reports that 54 thousand oil, gas, dry and service wells, and 
nearly 222 million feet of hole were drilled.) Marketed domestic 
production of natural gas, according to the study, must increase from 
10.7 trillion cubic feet in 1957, to 16.2 trillion cubic feet in 1967, a 
51% gain. 

Large amounts of steel will be required. Some 728 net tons of 
steel products are used in drilling a 10,000-foot oil well. The largest 
tonnage item is more than 24 thousand feet of steel casing weighing 
346 tons. Other big items are the derrick, its substructure and acces- 
sories, 102.5 tons; 10 thousand feet of tough steel drill pipe, 83 tons; 
slush pumps which force mud to the surface, tubing and a massive 
25-ton draw works which raises and lowers the drill string. Miscel- 
laneous equipment includes a dog house or tool shed, mud tanks, 
blow-out preventers for arresting violent escapes of oil, tools, wire 
line, an electric light plant, a shale shaker or mud screen, motors, 
and an anchor. 

August, 1959 25 

Another 20 tons of steel is used in the drive group, while drill 
collars, hollow shafts of tough alloy steel that are fitted just above 
the bit, and tool joints, connections between lengths of drill pipe, weigh 
17.5 tons each. Three engines with a combined weight of 17.5 tons, 
and three torque converters weighing 4 tons are the other tonnage 
items. —Steel Facts 

(laLat Mineld, Mine Qaal 

TiyfECHANICAL giants with more and more voracious appetites 
*" "■* for digging, plus vast reserves near cheap transportation, have 
kept coal the top fuel source for U.S. electric power plants, despite 
the greatly expanded use of oil and gas and the much-touted promise 
of atomic energy. 

To the modernized soft coal producers, the future looks even 
rosier. And they are betting on it with even more fantastic mechanical 
marvels, such as a remote-control tunneler and robot miner. This 
dragon-like monster, ordered by Peabody Coal Co., will get at coal 
seams when they dip too deep for open pit equipment. 

The rosy glow such coal producers see in the future comes largely 
from the utilities. Today, nearly 70% of U.S. steam generating plants 
use bituminous coal. Even deep South power companies, anxiously 
gauging the rising cost of gas, are beginning to consider coal- 
firing some of their new plants. New mines in such virgin territory 
as Oregon are now being opened up for the utilities use. 

Primary credit for coal's continuing dominance as a power fuel 
is due to the industry's ability to hold the line on prices — which have 
stayed close to $5 a ton for a decade. In order to manage this feat, 
the coal industry has quietly revolutionized itself. It has become a 
business for giants — in company organization, for huge, sprawling 
complexes; and on the production side, for monster machines. 

Peabody Coal Co., with headquarters in St. Louis, is one of these 
growing company giants whose strides can be measured only in king- 

26 Technocracy Digest 

size terms. In the past decade its output has nearly doubled — largely 
as the result of merger with the Sinclair Group — and it now ranks 
second only to Pittsburgh's huge Consolidation Coal Co. It operates 
23 mines in a six-state area, owns its own barge line, coal-loading 
docks, and belt line railroads. 

When it comes to strip mining — in which coal lying as deep as 
100 feet is uncovered from the top and mixed with power shovels — 
Peabody has no peer. The most prodigious performers to date in Pea- 
bedy's arsenal of mining tools are its giant shovels. Three of these 
already are in the monster class, and an even bigger one is on order. 
The $3.5-million giants, close to 100 times the size of a standard power 
shovel, have a reach long enough to dump their diggings on top of 
a 10-storey building. 

In strip mining, these monster shovels are the advance guard, 
cleaning over-lying dirt and rock off the coal seam in 70-ton to 100- 
ton bites. Operated by one man, who rides up to his control cab by 
private elevator, they waddle along the length of a coal seam on four 
crawlers weighing 60 tons apiece. Their size and reach make it 
possible to get at coal that's buried 90 feet to 100 feet deep. Their 
stripping capacity is credited with saving the southern Illinois coal 
fields from economic extinction. 

• Follow-Up — But the giant shovels don't dig the coal; they just 
uncover it. The digging is done by smaller shovels that follow in their 
wake, after the coal is blasted loose. The smaller shovels scoop up the 
coal in hunks as big as 6 feet by 6 feet. These are transported in special, 
long-bodied trucks, capable of hauling 55 to 75 tons at a time, to 
coal preparation plants. 

There the coal is crushed to sizes of V/2 inch and smaller and 
washed to remove impurities. 

This all-out mechanization has proved well worth the investment 
for Peabody. Its productive rate, it proudly boasts, is well above 
the national strip mining average of 17 tons per man-day. (In under- 
ground mining, the average is seven tons per man-day.) 
' Weapon of the Future — It's Peabody's satisfaction with the record 
of its stable of mining marvels that has led it to be the first to order 

August, 1959 27 

a remote-control tunneler and robot miner to tap the deep-lying coal 
deposits that even its monster shovels can't get at. Strippers have 
had to by-pass deposits below 100 feet, and to use underground 
mining methods is too costly. 

The new pushbutton miner will start at the wall where the giant 
shovels leave off. Four rotary cutters mounted in front will break 
up the coal, which will be carried back out of the tunnel by the 
conveyor system the robot miner drags behind it. 

Sensing devices attached to the robot miner will register any 
deviation from the coal seam, flashing their 'blips' on a radar-like 
screen in front of the operator in the control room. These will permit 
him to direct the angle of the robot miner's attack. 

Peabody officials say tests with a prototype prove the machine 
will enable them to recover millions of tons of coal that otherwise 
might be lost. The robot miner is expected to scoop out about 100 
feet of coal seam per hour. 

The pushbutton miner has been more than six years in the 
making. It was originally developed by Union Carbide Olefins Co., 
a division of Union Carbide Corp. Joy Mfg. Co., mining equipment 
specialist, is manufacturing it. With development, Joy officials say, 
it should have a future also in underground mining. — Business Week 

•Autamated Gantinuaul Becuft tyJeldiucj, 

TJtrHAT is believed to be the first automated, continuous seam, 
■ * ultrasonic welder has been produced by Gulton Industries, Inc., 
Metuchen, N.J. 

This revolutionary piece of equipment was developed as a result 
of a research contract and built to exact specifications to be used in 
a classified project. 

The continuous seam, ultrasonic welder joins aluminum to alum- 
inum, aluminum to stainless steel, or any two dissimilar or similar 

Through high frequency sound alone, two pieces of metal are 

28 Technocracy Digest 

joined as a result of a molecular transference or plastic flow at the 
interfaces of the two metals and below the melting point of either 

The continuous seam ultrasonic welder is similar in performance 
to standard electric seam welders. It achieves a rate of speed of 200 
inches of welding per minute. However, it accomplishes this with 
aluminum which previously was impossible. 

The prototype welder was designed to weld corrugated sheets 
to long curved aluminum extrusion. Its operation is completely auto- 
matic including feed. 

Designed for the production of 30 inch seams, any length seam 
can be produced by incurring only the slightest redesign of the 
mechanical equipment. Although the machine can be made to weld 
flat sheets, one particular model was specifically constructed for 
the welding of semi-circular sheets. It is capable of welding eleven 
different radii without any modifications. 

Standing 13 feet high, 12 feet long and 10 feet wide, the ultrasonic 
welder weighs roughly three tons. It is powered by two 2k w gen- 
erators which operate alternately depending on the forward or 
backward motion of the welding heads, and which supply 500 watts 
of power to each welding head. 

The machine was designed to accept pieces for welding of a 
thickness .010 inches. Other pieces can be welded from .080 inches 
down to very fine foil. The pieces to which it is to be welded, under 
the present characteristics of the machine, can be five inches thick 
or more if necessary. 

The continuous seam ultrasonic welder is a multiple-head welder 
with eight heads, four heads operating simultaneously. It is a self- 
monitoring instrument in that it is constantly checking itself against 
failure. Should failure occur, the machine automatically shuts down. 
A control board of panel lights is used to locate the defective part 
in the event of failure. However, once set or modified for a specific 
operation, an operator only has to stack the sheets or pieces to be 
welded, turn on the machine and finally remove the finished work. 
— Reprinted from Electronics & Communications 
August, 1959 29 

Through the Technoscope . . . 

Technocracy examines the various scientific and technological trends 
in North America today which point to the necessity for a new 
social mechanism that will provide security and abundance, with 
a minimum of working hours, to every citizen on this Continent. 

Science and Technology 


Haloid Zerox, Inc., Rochester, N.Y., that 
uses a dry photocopying process to make 
continuous-tone prints may bring about 
a radical change in the printing of photo- 
graphs. Until now, the process, known 
as zerography, generally has been re- 
stricted to reproductions of documents 
and line drawings. The new Haloid 
machine can produce prints at a rate of 
22 sec. for the first one and 2%, sec. for 
succeeding pictures. The machine oper- 
ates in daylight and uses no chemicals 
or sensitized paper, though the paper is 

A prototype of the machine, developed 
for the U.S. Air Force, was demonstrated 
in Washington in April. Designed for use 
with conventional aerial negative or posi- 
tive films, the machine exposes, prints, 
and finishes pictures from a 500-foot roll 
of film up to 9 inches wide at the rate of 
20 fee* per minute. The pictures have a 
resolution of 750 lines per inch. 

veloped by Westinghouse Electric Corp. 
can be screwed into an ordinary light 
socket, just like an incandescent bulb. 
This would make them popular with 
householders who have shied from fluor- 
escents because of the bulky fixtures 

hitherto necessary. Designers should like 
the bulbs, too, because of the added free- 
dom they will give in designing decor- 
ative lighting. 


sniff out 30 toxic gases and is so simple 
that any amateur can operate it is the 
latest piece of precision equipment from 
Japan. Its principle is much like the in- 
dicators used in chemical labs, which 
change color to indicate a particular re- 
agent. In the Japanese detector, the 
operator has only to pump a sample of 
air through a tube previously inserted 
into the pump- detector. If any toxicity 
is present, the chemical reagents in the 
detector tubes will color. The amount oi 
color, and the brightness, indicate the 
degree of toxicity. To test for any one 
gas merely requires selecting the right de- 
tector tube and inserting it. Accuracy of 
the detector, called a Kitagawa Precision 
Gas & Vapor Detector, is considerably 
better than any squeeze bulb detector, 
according to Union Industrial Equipment 
Corp., the U.S. company that imports 
the device. 

strument called Datascope promises to 
make several other types obsolescent. Its 
manufacture, Microsound, Inc., of Los 
Angeles, claims it can take the place of 


Technocracy Digest 

devices that track electric waves visually, 
like an oscilloscope; in writing, like a pen- 
recorder, and photographically. It will 
also work with electric waves produced 
by a wider variety of phenomena. 

Microsound Inc. says Dictascope pro- 
vides an easier and more economical way 
to preserve data than other methods. 
Photographing oscilloscope images is slow 
and costly, and using a pen recorder is 
very slow. It's possible to learn to oper- 
ate the Datascope in 20 minutes, against 
two hours for an oscilloscope, the manu- 
facturer says. 

cuts noise levels in a room by at least 
10 decibels is being marketed by Acoustic 
Chemical Corp., New York. The sound 
absorbent quality comes from minute 
granules mixed in the alkyd-latex paint 
which is odorless and brushes on readily. 

a voracious appetite is supplanting con- 
ventional methods of building irrigation 
canals along the Rio Grande in Texas. 
The 44-ton Gar Wood Industries machine 
termed the world's largest production 
model ditcher can push along at an aver- 
age 7 ft. a minute as it gouges out a 
trapezoid-shaped ditch 22 ft. across the 
top. At full tilt, it gobbles up to 800 cu. 
yds. an hour. 


ginning to bring to their craft all of the 
wizardry in shaping of the master glass 
blowers. Latest sample is a new metal 
shaping technique that fabricates from 
an aluminum slug, in one fast stroke, 
such complex shapes as valve handles 

and the hub and spokes of a steering 

The method, developed by Aluminum 
Co. of America, in effect combines forg- 
ing and extrusion operations. The metal 
is flowed outward at any angle to form 
the desired spokes or vanes at the same 
time the core is being formed. Alcoa says 
the process will produce parts of higher 
strength, lower tolerances, and less poros- 
ity than is normally obtained from cast- 
ing, forging, or drawing. 

loads and unloads a 20-ton cargo in a 
minute or less. The Straddle Trailer, 
manufactured by Straddle Trailer Co.. 
1701 East Louisiana Ave., Denver, Colo., 
is a cross between a standard trailer and 
a lumber carrier. Instead of a bottom, it 
has a pair of steel arms with flanges that 
squeeze, lift, and hold the freight; the 
trailer simply backs over a palletized 
load and lifts it into place. 

The cradling effect of the trailer's 
squeeze-and-lift arms makes it well-suited 
for fragile cargo such as crated fruit and 
eggs. Its inventor, Denver businessman 
Chester C. Clifton, says one unit moved 
28,000 boxes of apples in 24 hours over a 
10-mile haul. Gates Rubber Co. of Den- 
ver, which used one of the first units to 
haul tires, reports it would have taken 
six conventional trailers and 50 man- 
hours to do the job one Straddle Trailer 
and driver did in each eight-hour shift. 

nounced by Matrix Controls Co., Inc., of 
Summerville, N.J., simplifies a measuring 
job that has always plagued the textile 
and needle trades industries. The device 

August, 1959 


gauges the width of fabrics as they come 
off finishing operations or unroll from 
bolts. It's difficult to take the measure 
of soft cloth because the edges of the 
fabrics curl up if they hit the least resist- 
ance, and optical or air techniques tend 
to get clogged with lint. The Margin 
Meter teams up a couple of high-pre- 
cision potentiometers — variable resistors 
that feed a varying voltage to a recorder 
that indicates the width of the cloth— 
with utlra-lightweight wands sensitive to 
feathertouch contact. The wands, made 
of high-strength steel, won't snag, are 
fllexible. and virtually indestructible. 
They ride along the edges of the material 
without a ruffle, and compensate auto- 
matically if the fabric moves. 

The gentle touch enables the Margin 
Meter to total up a constant record of 
width along the yardage and to locate 
narrow sections. Such a record will en- 
able manufacturers to guarantee mini- 
mum widths of the fabric to within 
' i; inch. In layout, a small error can 
mean the difference between profit and 
loss for the manufacturer. 

The Margin Meter can also give the 
span of almost any type of continuous 
sheet — from transparent plastics or paper 
to metal screening or foils. 

veloped by General Electric for off-the- 
road vehicles have electric traction 
motors built into their hubs. Vehicles 
using them wont need transmissions, 
axles, or gearshifts. Power for the wheels 
comes from a single direct-current gener- 
ator driven by the vehicle's engine. The 
motorized wheel is intended for 60-ton 


haulers for open-pit mining and large 
scale construction work. 


axles may be simplified by an ultrasonic 
probe mounted in a three-wheeled vehicle 
that runs alongside railroad tracks. The 
unit bounces ultrasonic waves off the 
sides of the axle in an angular pattern 
designed to insure maximum coverage; 
a flaw in the axle breaks the pattern and 
activates a warning light. The operator 
can inspect over 600 axles a day without 
leaving the vehicle. Manufacturer is 
Sperry Products, Inc., Danbury, Conn. 


at offshore drilling sites, U.S. Rubber Co. 
has developed underwater tanks of fabric 
covered by synthetic rubber. Hanna Con- 
struction Co. of Houston, builder of off- 
shore drill rigs, helped develop the tank 
system. Each cylindrical tank holds 50,- 
000 gallons; its fabric is said to be im- 
pervious to salt water and to marine 
organisms. U.S. Rubber says the system 
can reduce offshore storage costs for 
liquids from $40 to about $25 a barrel. 

life expectancy of 12 years have been de- 
veloped by the American Electric Power 
Co. in collaboration with the Debevoise 
Co.. New York paint manufacturer. The 
new paint, a combination of stainless 
along with other paint pigments, owes its 
long life to its glasslike smoothness and 
its slow chalking characteristics. Cutom- 
ers must, nevertheless, balance this 
against its high cost, approximately three 
times that of aluminum paint. 

Technocracy Digest 

(Continued from page 20) 
the vocabulary, grammar and 
composition of one's own lan- 
gauge. Overcoming this difficulty, 
as well as the hardly less import- 
ant one of mastering simple 
mathematics, should be a matter 
of major concentration in the ele- 
mentary years. 

By the time a student reaches 
his teens he usually has begun to 
display more aptitude for one 
course of study than for the rest 
being taken. Still, should he be 
asked at what occupation he in- 
tends to work when grown up, his 
probable answer will be 'I dunno.' 
He is still not aware how signifi- 
cant is his propensity for the 
more favored subject, or possibly 
he has been discouraged from its 
further development because, in 
the Price System, it offers less re- 
wards than the end product of 
some other line of study. 

A Technate society, recognizing 
that every function sustaining the 
social mechanism is integrally im- 
portant will place the emphasis in 
occupational training on students' 
natural biological aptitudes for 
various pursuits. Almost invari- 
ably such aptitudes are reliable 
indicators of the most suitable 
occupations to be followed later. 

These are the lines of work where 
the students will display their 
greatest respective proficiencies; 
and where after having finished 
their training they will likely be 

Functional education requires 
that students be guided toward 
occupations likely to employ their 
particular abilities. Much of to- 
day's problem arises from push- 
ing practically all students, at 
least up to the university level, 
through a few only slightly dis- 
similar courses and expecting all 
to display comparable degrees of 
proficiency. The record of failure 
of this practice is too familiar to 
require elaboration. Vocational 
guidance would largely obviate 
the disastrous results of leaving 
students with their unspecialized 
training to decide their future 

It is in the formative years when 
primary attention should be given 
to vocational guidance. As stud- 
ents commence displaying great- 
er aptitudes in certain subjects 
than in others, special provision 
should be made to allow greater 
concentration in those subjects — 
especially if they can be success- 
fully integrated later into the 
functional operation of society. 

August, 1959 


Though other courses of study 
need not be completely dropped 
in favor of the preferred subjects, 
it will probably be advantageous 
to discontinue those that, far from 
supplementing a student's prefer- 
ence, are intolerable to him and 
consequently constitute a com- 
plete waste of his time. 

The functional sequences sup- 
porting North America's social 
operations break down into about 
a hundred major categories, each 
of which can be greatly subdivid- 
ed to provide a range of functions 
requiring extremely diversified 
aptitudes. Through the Contin- 
ental Control all functional se- 
quences in the Technate would 
maintain close liaison with the 
Education Sequence, informing it 
of future requirements necessi- 
tated by promotions, retirements, 
deaths, et cetera. By films, lec- 
tures, tours through factories, 
cross-Continent trips and other 
effective means of communication, 
the students would be made 
directly aware of these require- 
ments and would receive trained 
assistance in deciding their future 

Having made such decisions, 
the students' final years of formal 
education would be spent in spe- 

cialization. Those specializing in 
similar courses would be grouped 
into classes which would make 
numerous field tours to learn at 
first hand the operating character- 
istics of their chosen functions. 
Instructors would themselves be 
specialists in such functions and 
would demand high standards of 
demontrated knowledge of what 
had been taught as graduating 
qualifications. The only limitation 
on advancement would therefore 
be the students' individual capa- 
cities to learn and to use what 
they learned. Final instruction 
would be given in the actual 
places where functional service 
would commence. 

The efficient operation of a com- 
plex technological social mechan- 
ism such as has developed in 
North America demands no lesser 
calibre of education than inti- 
mated in the foregoing outline. 
Phases of learning apart from the 
specialized spheres would, because 
of their subjective rather than 
objective tendencies, be largely 
relegated to spare time pursuits. 
The formal education period pre- 
ceding a citizen's twenty-fifth 
birthday would necessarily be 
mostly devoted to training him 
adequately for the functions for 


Technocracy Digest 

which his aptitudes best equipped 

A student's opportunity to learn 
more about his chosen function 
would not end with the conclu- 
sion of his formal education 
period. Throughout his functional 
service the Education Sequence 
would be prepared to instruct 
him further along any desired line 
of study. A person endowed with 
leadership capabilities would 
likely make the most of such fur- 
ther opportunity, especially if he 
had aspirations toward eventually 
heading the entire sequence. In 
such a quest he would have con- 
siderable competition, for others 
would be striving toward the 
same goal, and in order to achieve 
it he would have to prove himself 
functionally superior to all such 

In the slower pace of past gen- 
erations the casual attitude to- 
ward education could be con- 
doned, for the predominantly 
handtool functions required little 
if any intensive training. Today 
the picture is drastically different. 
Practically all North Americans 
are now dependent upon the con- 
tinuous operation of a technolog- 
ical mechanism which is already 
the most intricate in the world 

and is constantly becoming more 
so. It is a matter of survival for 
all, therefore, that enough scien- 
tists, engineers and technologists 
be trained along with other oper- 
ating personnel to ensure that 
continuous operation. The provi- 
sion of these vital needs is pri- 
marily an educational problem. 

Manifestly the Price System 
cannot and does not attempt to 
provide such needs. Today its 
main concern seems to be to per- 
petuate a senseless race with the 
U.S.S.R. in rocketry and missile 
development. So far from con- 
tributing to the social welfare of 
people either before or behind the 
Iron Curtain, such an objective 
can only become an increasing 
provocation toward hostilities of 
genocidal proportions. Actually, 
it is unimportant at any time 
whether a land area is ahead or 
behind another in physical devel- 
opment as long as it develops to 
its own optimum advantage 

Education holds the key to 
human survival throughout the 
world. Whether or not the people 
of other land areas realize this 
and do something about it is out- 
side our bounds, but we North 
Amercians can certainly apply a 
solution to our own educational 

August, 1959 


problems — as soon as we are pre- 
pared to discard the archaic Price 
System which is completely out 
of step with current requirements. 
We are in the ridiculous position 
where we recognize the need for 
more and better teachers, but 
cannot train them. We need more 
basic research scientists, but have 
not the money to educate them. 
These and many other difficulties 
stem directly from the inability 
of the Price System to cope with 
conditions of abundance. 

Technocracy's blueprint of 
social operation — the only exist- 

ing one geared to an environment 
of abundance — holds the solution 
to the education problem along 
with all others indigenous to the 
North American scene. Because 
it recognizes that science has built 
the physical structure of our ex- 
isting society and sustained its 
operation, it will pay particular 
attention to educating personnel 
who are biologically adapted to 
such work. It will be equally dili- 
gent in the selection of personnel 
most competent to instruct our 
youth in the functions necessary 
to assure our continued survival. 
— Rupert N. Urquhart 

^ STOCKHOLM — The sorting of timber by television, tested in Sweden for several 
years has proved successful and will be adopted by the country's biggest sorting 
centre, Sandlans, in the Angeman River estuary. 

The course is used simultaneously by many lumber and pulp companies, but each 
log bears the mark of its owner. 

Before TV, sorting had been a complicated and time-consuming process. Soon 
a single operator, sitting in a heated cabin, will see the insignia on a screen and by 
pushing buttons direct the logs to the various owners' spots. A method for the 
simultaneous automatic measuring of the logs has also been worked out and 
may be added to the new system. —Vancouver Sun 

^r WASHINGTON — The Army Chemical Corps has developed an electronic instru- 
ment that counts microscopic airborne germs, dust and moisture particles at the rate 
of 100 a second. 

Designed primarily as a defense weapon against germ warfare, the device may 
find its greatest use in civilian industries such as flour mills, cosmetic concerns, paint 
factories and other industries that are vitally concerned with the control of particle 
size or the detection of air-carried contaminants. 

The instrument is called the 'aeroscloscope.' Its principle, the Army chemists say, 
is relatively simple and is based on the phenomenon that the dust particles seen in 
a shaft of light actually are only reflections of themselves. 

— North American Newspaper Alliance 


Technocracy Digest 

The Threat Of Germ Warfare 

Some of the potential dangers of biological war are indicated in the 
following condensation of an article appearing in the BULLETIN OF 
THE ATOMIC SCIENTISTS. Dr. Brock Chisholm points out the 
need for a form of international controlling force. 

rPHOUGH active research in the 
* development of biological 
weapons began at least as early 
as 1936 in Germany, and though 
at least five governments are 
publicly known to be, or have 
been, active in this field, only 
recently, within the last few 
months has a real demand for 
reliable and complete information 
been rising. 

Assurances from some military 
authorities that they are able to 
defend their citizens do not 
specify how they propose to deal 
with possible biological attack. 
Certainly normal military meth- 
ods of defense would be quite use- 
less. During the Second World 
War, on at least two occasions, 
the fear that biologicals would be 
used against the allies was acute. 
These were when the Japanese 
launched a total of perhaps ten 
thousand balloons, over a period 
of some months, which crossed the 
Pacific and penetrated North 
America, in some cases farther 

August, 1959 

east than Chicago; and when the 
emplacements along the French 
and Belgian Channel coasts, from 
which were later launched the 
V-ls, were recognized. In both 
cases use of the biologicals (if they 
were of the kind with which the 
allies were equipped) could have 
been very serious indeed, even 
disastrous to the allied cause. Be- 
cause of fear of such possibilities 
a quantity (some 235,000 doses) 
of a protective toxoid against Bo- 
tulinus toxin was taken from 
Canada to England, administered 
to British, U.S., and Canadian 
troops, and that fact fed into Ger- 
man spy channels, as a warning 
that the allies were prepared to 
use biologicals if the Germans 
started doing so. 

There are many possible bio- 
logical weapons. Botulinus toxin 
is probably the most widely 
known, but influenza, brucellosis, 
tularemia, psittacosis, hoof and 
mouth disease, plague, cholera, 
smallpox, typhus, wheat rust, and 


many others have been experi- 
mented with. It is theoretically, 
and perhaps practically, possibly 
by laboratory methods to increase 
the virulence of some of these 
agents to such an extent that 
they could break through the na- 
tural or artificially acquired im- 
munities which now hold them 
in check. Whether or not this has 
been done is not known outside 
of highly restricted circles. 

It is widely known that at Por- 
ton in England, at Fort Detrick in 
the U.S.A., and at Suffield in Can- 
ada, large institutions are devoted 
to the development of such weap- 
ons and to defenses against them, 
but what the known threats are 
and how effective such defenses 
would be in practice is not pub- 
licly known. Nor is it publicly 
known what precautions are being 
taken to see that accidents, sabo- 
tage, earthquakes, plane crashes 
or bombs could not release any of 
these biologicals to destroy, locally 
or widely, our own people. 

Of course the major problem in 
the practice of biological warfare 
is distribution, and the choice of 
method would depend on the 
characteristics of the agent to be 
used, the type of target, and 
whether the objective would be 

destruction of populations, with 
or without later occupation of the 
territory, or just to render a 
government powerless for a long 
period, or to destroy crops and 
domestic animals, or any combin- 
ation of these goals. Aerosol 
sprays have been used from U.S. 
Navy submarines and have cov- 
ered very large areas, but at what 
concentration has not been an- 
nounced. Another useful form is 
a very fine powder, something 
like the pollen from trees, which 
can be distributed over great dis- 
tances. One method of such dis- 
tribution, multiple local distribu- 
tion, would be particularly suit- 
able in the use of Botulinus toxin. 
This bacterial product is extra- 
ordinarily potent, but it is oxi- 
dized in air within twelve hours, 
and so does not contaminate 
ground, nor does it propagate it- 
self as it is not a living organism, 
only a poison. Breathed in, on lips, 
in eyes, in food, or in liquids it is 
fatal in microscopic doses and 
within six hours. Death is very 
painful as it acts directly on the 
central nervous system produc- 
ing convulsions. 

Let us suppose, for instance, 
that 'Ruritania' or any other 
country, or for that matter any 


Technocracy Digest 

sizable group which includes a 
good biologist, a few appropri- 
ately experienced technicians who 
had perhaps worked in penicillin 
or other biological production, 
and a hundred or so distributors, 
should become convinced that 
North America needs to be taught 
a lesson in humility and respect 
for other peoples. Botulinus toxin 
might be thought useful for that 
purpose. A probable way of using 
it would be to send say one hun- 
dred persons, all previously pro- 
tected by toxoid, to the U.S.A. 
and Canada, not at all difficult to 
do. Any greater number could, of 
course, be sent if many more 
deaths were thought desirable. 

Each of these persons would 
carry a few pounds of Botulinus 
toxin; it could be carried in a 
body belt with practically no risk 
of detection. They would distrib- 
ute themselves over the countries 
to all major cities, power sites, in- 
dustrial areas, railway centres, air 
force, military, naval and atomic 
bomb centres, et cetera, and at a 
prearranged time, perhaps pre- 
ferably between 4 and 6 a.m., 
each would take a small private 
plane from the local airport. Many 
such planes can be found at any 
airport, usually not even locked. 

With a very simple, easily made 
apparatus, any city could be well 
dusted in a very short time. It 
would not be necessary to do it as 
thoroughly as is done over field 
crops or orchard, because the 
Botulinus toxin is far more diffus- 
ible and would spread much more 
widely than, for instance DDT 
when used to kill mosquitoes in 
the control of malaria or other 
chemicals to kill parasites in 
crops. The toxin would be invis- 
ible, and in any case it could be 
done in the darkness of very early 
morning. Perhaps, for greater ex- 
pedition, some of the largest cities 
might be dusted by two or three 
of the distributors. 

Depending on the density of 
the population, the time of distri- 
bution, for instance to catch the 
crowds of commuters coming into 
the cities in trains, busses, sub- 
ways, and cars, the amount of 
toxin released and over what 
area, the strength of the wind, 
etc., fatalities might range from 
a figure that possibly might be as 
low as 40 per cent to a high of 
nearly 100 per cent. Many further 
casualties would result from 
panic, and the flight of any sur- 
vivors. Clearly all transportation 
would be frozen, roads and rail- 

August, 1959 


ways tuocKeu oy crasnea cars. 
There could be no effective com- 
munication between communities, 
nationally or even locally, nor any 
police or military controls. It is 
true however that certain people 
might be selected by any defend- 
ing government to be survivors 
by toxoiding them well in ad- 
vance; at least that is true in the 
case of the use of Botulinus tox- 
in. If live bacteria or viruses, of 
artificially enhanced virulence, 
were to be used instead of a non- 
self -propagating toxin, infection 
might spread from the originally 
implanted foci over a country or 
continent. In the face of such 
possibilities as these, we are being 
assured that our military are 
equipped, or soon will be equip- 
ped, to defend us from any ene- 
mies, although it would seem that 
the most they can really hope to 
do is retaliate after most of us, 
and of them, are dead. 

If our governments have any 
effective means of protecting us 
from a sneak biological attack, 
surely the cooperation of all 
people would be necessary and 
we should know what our role is 
to be, or do we just die quietly? 
Our governments are not at all 
fooling any potential enemies by 

uit; ucep secrecy wiui which uicy 

surround the facts of biological 
warfare. Our governments are 
fooling only us, their own people, 
not anybody else; and apparently 
for the purpose of maintaining 
the myth of the value of military 
preponderance on ensuring our 

We, the people of the world, 
are not children. Many of us are 
not resigned to having whatever 
future we or our children may 
have, be one of continually re- 
newed anxiety and fear, crisis 
following crisis and brink of war 
following brink of war. Neither 
are we resigned to our govern- 
ments taking the attitude that 
we should just keep quiet, not 
worry, and not ask embarrassing 
questions, and they will do all 
our worrying for us. Such atti- 
tudes insult our intelligence and 
our maturity. We are entitled to 
know about these or any other 
potential threats to our lives or 
our welfare about which we may 
still have been kept in the dark. 
We are also entitled to know what 
our governments are doing, or 
propose to do, about any such 

Unless our governments can 
give us an assurance of peace, or 


Technocracy Digest 

at least effective defense, far more 
convincingly than any of them 
has done yet, or has shown any 
signs of being able to do, we shall 
have to accept as a fact that 
governments cannot now, or pro- 
bably ever again, provide a rea- 
sonable degree of security for 
their own people. If that must be 
our conclusion, then we must also 
conclude that at least some parts 
of our social and/or political sys- 
tems are obsolete and must be 
changed. The basic test of any 
human behavior pattern is its 
ability to ensure survival, or at 
least not to endanger survival, of 
the people who use it. This may 
well not be true for individuals, 
but it would seem to be so for 

If national armaments can only 
act as a threat to other nations, 
stimulating their buildup of arm- 
aments, and without the possibili- 
ty of ensuring peace or secur- 
ity, as seems to be the case, we 
must begin to consider alterna- 
tives. Leadership in national dis- 
armament is not to be expected 
under present circumstances. 
Britain did it almost completely 
between the two world wars, but 
no country apparently finds it 
possible or politically expedient 

seriously to consider assuming the 
responsibility for any such leader- 
ship now. It would seem that first 
we must have some new kind of 
police force, which no nation of 
the world is, or will be, capable 
of providing. That would mean 
some kind of world federation of 
governments which would police 
the world. Only then, it seems, 
can we have any real hope of 
effective disarmament by nations, 
a lowering of world tensions, and 
some relief from the crushing 
anxieties under which we all labor 

Unless our governments can, in 
some way not visible at the pre- 
sent time, show us that our pre- 
sent system of national and in- 
ternational lawlessenss can give 
us real peace, and soon, we have 
an inescapable obligation to fu- 
ture life on this planet. That obli- 
gation is to explore the alterna- 
tives and then to move in the 
direction which we find most 
hopeful for the survival of the 
human race, no matter what the 
cost to ourselves in terms of local 
loyalties, standard of living, or 
change from the ways of our an- 

We do not well serve our great 
pioneers and prophets by freezing 

August, 1959 


them at the point of their deaths, 
and not allowing them to grow 
any further. They were all rebels, 
whether in social, educational, 
economic, military, or religious 
fields, and would be still if they 
were still alive. Their value to us 
is not in the detail of their con- 
clusions, no matter how wise and 
appropriate for their time and 
place, but in their conviction that 
significant change in circum- 
stances may require drastic 
changes in thinking and living 
patterns. It becomes increasingly 
clear that ancestral patterns by 
which each nation, alone or in 

cooperation with some others, ar- 
ranged for its own defense, have 
now become exceedingly danger- 
ous for us all. The prospect of 
existing only from day to day, by 
a system of threats and counter- 
threats, is increasingly being 
found to be intolerable. A wide- 
spread demand is arising that our 
governments face facts, make 
public all the realities of potential 
weapons and their possible uses, 
and lacking effective defense, 
make proposals for world peace 
through world law for our con- 
sideration. — Dr. Brock Chisholm 

Editor's Note — Dr. Chisholm, past President of the World Health Organization, has 
succinctly stated a distinct threat to our civilization. While he has made a factual 
analysis, however, he seemingly has nothing to offer by way of solution except a brief 
reference to some nebulous form of world 'federation of governmnts' which should 
be established. 

In May, 1954, this magazine carried an article 'Implications of the Hydrogen 
Bomb' which recognized a similar need, but went the rest of the way by setting out 
some of the requirements to be met by such a federation. In part, the article stated 
'The knowledge of how and the means to destroy all life on the earth — whether by 
lethal gases, atomic fission or fusion, bacteriological poisons, or other effective means 
— must be guarded by a trusteeship set up by the world's inhabitants. The gravity of 
the circumstances demands this, and nothing else has any probability of effectiveness. 
We shall attempt here to make some recommendations for the specific qualifications 
of such a trusteeship. 

'The trusteeship should be composed of a sizable personnel, with interdependent 
and interlocking functions. No one individual, no matter how "reliable," can be 
trusted with such power. It should be restricted to relatively young people, in good 
health. Psychologically, they should be lacking in strong egocentric tendencies and 
be emotionally well-balanced. And they should be free of "other world" philosophies. 
In other words, the personnel should consist of persons who have every reason to want 
to live out their lives on this earth and to let others live. Further, we recommend 
that the personnel be selected from a variety of social backgrounds, geological locali- 


Technocracy Digest 

ties, and ethnic groups. Thus, it would not all come under the discipline of any one 
cult or philosophy.' 

Even these few recommendations show that Technocracy Incorporated antici- 
pated by several years a phase of development which is only now being recognized 
by other people. In matters such as described by Dr. Chisholm and in all other aspects 
of social phenomena, Technocracy has long since projected factual analyses and 
provided functional solutions. 

* AGRICULTURAL PROBLEM CHILD of the United States today is wheat. 
Taxpayers are now paying $3.5 billions for wheat in storage and are deeply involved 
in this problem. The government forecast of a nearly 1,200,000,000 bushel wheat 
crop this year, adding an estimated 200,000 bushels to the surplus stock, underlines 
the urgency of this problem. 

The present surplus of wheat totals 1,258,000,000 bushels — enough to satisfy 
normal domestic needs for about 30 months. This has been piled up under a price- 
support program that guarantees what Congress considers an adequate profit to wheat 
farmers. Some highly efficient wheat farmers in the Great Plains area who, it is 
reported, can grow wheat at an approximate cost of 82 cents a bushel, realize con- 
siderable profit when price supports are set at $1.81 a bushel as they are now. Farmers 
may grow, without restriction, 15 acres of wheat eligible for price supports. These 
15-acre wheat operations account for about 600,000,000 bushels now in storage, 
according to Ezra Taft Benson, Secretary of Agriculture. — Christian Science Monitor 

* NEW TOBACCO CURING EQUIPMENT may eliminate the jobs of 1,500 to 
3,000 of Canada's highest-paid migrant farm workers — tobacco curers. The curers 
move from U.S. tobacco areas to Southern Ontario to help farmers cure the tobacco 
crop during the August to September harvest. 

Designed and manufactured by Tobac Curing Systems Ltd., Simcoe, Ontario, 
the new equipmtnt will do the same job semi-automatically, the company says. 'We 
think this will enable the growers to dispense with the curers,' said C. E. Scythes, 
Chairman of the Board. The growers will be able to look after the curing them- 
selves.' Fuel for the new curing system is natural gas. Mr. Scythes claims the new 
system has advantages besides its semi-automatic nature: 1. It reduces up to 24 hours 
the time taken for curing — usually five or six days; and 2. Chances of damage through 
improper temperature or humidity are reduced, an important consideration since good 
grade tobacco brings higher prices. — Financial Post 

* THE FOOD INDUSTRY is launching big drives to whittle some fat off the 
growing surplus stocks of dairy and some meat products. Consumption — in some lines 
quite good — just isn't keeping pace with soaring production. 

Surplus stocks of butter amount to some 50 million pounds as consumption 
continues a decline. Over 60 million pounds of skim milk powder overhangs the 
market. Hog output continues to outstrip demands with over 73 million pounds of 
pork (frozen and canned) are stored in government stockpiles. 

The $1,000 million dairy industry is working on a $5 million budget this year 
to promote dairy products. Now the Federal Department of Agriculture is jumping 
into the picture with a drive of its own to sell more pork. — Financial Post 

August. 1959 43 

Television's Straitjacket 

Producers may take the public bows for television shoivs, but their 
every move must have the approving nod from the agency men. The 
function of selling, not the show, is paramount in all commercial 
television programming. 

TLJOW advertising agencies op- 
* "■ erate in television — their 
strict supervision of shows and 
the business factors that influ- 
ence or limit the choice of pro- 
grams that the public sees — was 
explained by agency executives 
testifying at a hearing held in 
New York in July by the Federal 
Communications Commission. 

The initial witnesses — C. Ter- 
ence Clyne, senior vice president 
of McCann-Trickson; Robert L. 
Foreman, executive vice president 
of Batten, Barton, Durstine & 
Osborn; Richard A. R. Pinkham, 
senior vice president of Ted Bates 
& Co. and Dan Seymour, vice- 
president of the J. Walter Thomp- 
son Company — spelled out the 
advertising side of TV with un- 
common vividness and forthright- 

Indeed, seldom has there been 
a more revealing summary of the 
conditions apart from purely 
theatrical matters, that govern 
Reprinted from the New York Times 

the day-to-day operations of the 
video medium and affect its sub- 

The testimony of the executives 
was part of the continuing inquiry 
by the F.C.C. into the practices 
and policies of the TV networks. 
Very probably it will be a matter 
of months if not years before the 
commission decides whether any 
new regulations are necessary in 
the TV broadcasting field. 

What was made abundantly evi- 
dent was that advertising agen- 
cies, which never solicit billing 
on the screen, in practice may be 
virtually the actual producers. 
The Theatre Guild, David Sus- 
skind and Desi Arnaz may take 
the public bows, to judge by the 
testimony, but they don't make 
an important move without an 
approving nod from the agency 

In the case of most shows in 
which they are active, for in- 
stance, the agencies said that they 
review all scripts in advance, 

Technocracy Digest 

scrutinize dialogue and story lines 
and have their 'program repre- 
sentatives' on hand to check each 
day's production work. 

The Theatre Guild, one of the 
more independent institutions of 
Broadway, agrees in the case of 
television to let B.B.D. & O. sit 
down and jointly review what 
dramatic property to do, the wis- 
dom of the casting and 'each re- 
vision' of script, Mr. Foreman 

The agencies readily acknowl- 
edged that considerations of ad- 
vertising dictate limitations on 
subject matter. 

Mr. Seymour testified that 'on 
dramatic show after dramatic 
show' the advertising agencies 
delete material deemed contrary 
to a sponsor's interest. 'An ad- 
vertiser cannot afford to lose any 
segment of society,' he said. Any 
political mention is prohibited in 
drama supervised by his agency, 
he added. 

Mr. Clyne, speaking for clients 
of his agency, said as a matter of 
company policy a sponsor does 
not want to leave a viewer 'sad 
and depressed' about the one-tenth 
of one per cent of the country 
that knows desolation and misery. 
The sponsor is not in 'the busi- 

August, 1959 

ness of displeasing' and wants to 
leave with the viewer 'a pleasant 
and favorable impression,' he said. 

A program that displeases any 
substantial segment of the popu- 
lation, Mr. Foreman said, is 'a 
misuse of the advertising dollar.' 
Most advertisers do not want to 
spend their money to arouse con- 
troversy that might cause custom- 
ers to think ill of a sponsor. 'It's 
just bad business,' he said. 

Mr. Foreman added that even 
a relatively small volume of cri- 
tical mail can make a sponsor 'ap- 
prehensive.' He recalled an ex- 
perience of seeing the head of a 
very large corporation personally 
reading each letter received. Be- 
cause of the nature of their busi- 
ness in dealing with the public 
advertisers are 'extremely sensi- 
tive,' he said. 

The agency executives agreed 
that the policies of sponsors did 
not usually lead to difficulties 
with most writers, producers and 
directors. The creative folk are 
'hep,' Mr. Pinkham observed; they 
know the headaches to avoid. One 
result, Mr. Seymour reported, is 
that script conflicts have become 
fewer and fewer. 

Mr. Pinkham noted that a man- 
ufacurer of non-filter cigarettes 


wanted the villains in a drama to 
be shown smoking a filter cigar- 
ette. Similarly, he said, a filter 
manufacturer wanted the villain 
to be depicted as preferring non- 
filters. An aspirin company, he 
noted, would not stand for a 
drama that showed a suicide com- 
mitted by swallowing too much 

Despite the high degree of 
agency participation, the execu- 
tives stressed that in their opinion 
their companies often improved 
programs in terms of theatrical 
effectiveness and that their super- 
vision did not dampen creative 

In deciding what show to spon- 
sor the agency men also were in 
general agreement on the mani- 
fold factors that are regarded as 

Mass circulation was a domin- 
ant objective, particularly for low- 
cost package goods such as deter- 
gents and cigarettes. Another ap- 
proach may be to implant an im- 
age of a product — an automobile, 
for example — against the day 
when the consumer is ready to 

Mr. Pinkham observed that a 
cigarette company, which sells 
mostly to men, should choose 

action shows and sports. A food 
company, selling mostly to 
women, should avoid newscasts, 
which have a large masculine 
audience, and pick situation com- 
edy or drama, he said. Mr. Fore- 
man said that 'Lassie' had proved 
very satisfactory for Campbell's 
Soup because it reached a family 

Other advertising considera- 
tions may be to enhance the 'im- 
age' or 'profile' of a sponsor and 
not have a direct sales purpose. 
Also the development of a sales 
personality, such as Dinah Shore's 
pitches in behalf of Chevrolet, 
can be sufficiently important in 
itself to warrant settlement for 
less than a maximum audience. 
Stimulating dealers, both on the 
retail and wholesale level, to sell 
a sponsor's wares also is an in- 
fluence in program choice. 

The sum of the first days of 
the F.C.C. hearing is to establish 
a fresh factual record of the limi- 
tations of commercial TV inher- 
ent in advertising sponsorship. 

In the lucid questioning by 
Ashwood P. Bryant, counsel to 
the broadcast bureau of the 
F.C.C, it also was made clear 
that, in one way or another, the 
function of selling, not the show, 


Technocracy Digest 

is paramount. Even when a spon- it is to fulfil an advertising pur- 

sor may offer a public service pose of some sort. 

attraction, according to Mr. Clyne. — Jack Gould 

if DETROIT— Those auto junkyards that dot the landscape on the edge of town 
grew by leaps and bounds last year. An authoritative estimate shows that almost 
4,500,000 motor-vehicles were scrapped in 1958. Since the figures include trucks and 
busses as well as passenger cars, the scrap heap welled by more than 10,000,000 

The trade paper 'Automotive News' figures that 3,850,000 of the vehicles were 
passenger cars. The overall figure of 4,425,000 was second only to 1956 highest. And 
1958 generally was a recession year when many car owners tightened their belts and 
decided the old buggy would do for at least another twelve months or so. 

Despite tht huge number of discards, there were more than 1,000,000 additional 
vehicles on the roads at the end of the year than at the start. The Bureau of Public 
Roads says that a survey of individual states showed that 68,299,408 vehicles were 
registered during 1958. That represented an increase of 1,168,337 over 1957. 

— Associated Press 

* A SELL-OUT OF AMERICAN JOBS to foreign interests was recently seen as 
a threat by Senator William Proxmire of Wisconsin who said: 

'In at least two industries vital to employment in my State — machine tools and 
tractors — American companies have recently, in effect, transferred part of their 
production fom Wisconsin to foreign countries ... In the case of a Wisconsin com- 
pany . . . the 40% of production that used to go into export is now produced in a 
foreign factory with a loss of more than 2,000 Wisconsin jobs . . . 

'Reliable reports indicate that this export of American jobs has just begun. The 
combination of available American capital, American automation and know-how 
fused with low foreign wges is not only cutting a terrible swath in the export market 
for American factories, it is beginning to cost them some of their domestic markets.' 

— U.S. News and World Report 

it OTTAWA — Uranium became Canada's leading metal in 1958 in terms of dollar 
value of production, Eldorado Mining and Refining Ltd. said in its annual report 
to Parliament. 

Production by the Crown corporation and by private companies amounted to 
13,537 tons of concentrate value at $274,416,000. The combined total, the report 
says 'put Canada in the forefront of uranium producers in the free world in 1958.' 

Uranium exports during the year, in terms of dollar value, were exceeded only 
by pulp and paper products and by wheat. — Canadian Press 

* ONE MAN COMPANIES in the Canadian manufacturing field have been 
steadily giving way to corporate ownership. Only 40.6% of the country's manufactur- 
ing firms were under individual ownership in 1957 compared with 47.2% in 1946, the 
Bureau of Statistics recently reported.. Incorporated companies in the same period 
rose to 44.9%. —Edmonton Journal 

August, 1959 47 

A Genii With Two Faces 

Automation can give us all more of this world's goods with far less 
effort but is stUl regarded with suspicion and fear. This fear that 
automation will distmploy many people results from our having solved 
our production problems but not our distribution problems. 

TT is one of the paradoxes of 
"■■ our times that automation — 
the genii that can give us all more 
of this world's goods with far less 
effort on our part — is still widely 
regarded with suspicion and even 

The fear, of course, is that au- 
tomation will do a great many 
people out of their jobs and that 
our political and social organiza- 
tion may be unable to tame the 
new giant to human service. 

Some of this feeling was evid- 
ent at the convention here of 
Canada's largest national union, 
the Canadian Brotherhood of 
Railway Employees, which asked 
the Federal Government to set up 
a permanent advisory committee 
on automation. 

The convention believed the 
proposed committee should con- 
sider shortening working hours to 
relieve unemployment that might 
be occasioned by automation; that 
wages should be increased com- 

mensurate with the country's pro- 
ductive capacities; that new mar- 
kets should be sought for increas- 
ed productive potential and that 
legislation be passed providing 
for retraining of workers adverse- 
ly affected by technological ad- 

All this is a subject with tre- 
mendous ramifications and it is 
not our purpose to try to discuss 
all of them here. 

There is, however, one simple 
guide-rule that will have to be 
observed by all those who are 
called upon to meet the problems 
that will continue to be posed by 
automation for some time to 
come. This rule is that one should 
not look at one side of automation 
without also looking carefully at 
the other. 

On one side of automation are 
the great production lines. Accel- 
erated by discovery and invention 
they are pouring out an ever- 
quickening and widening stream 
of consumer goods with less ef- 
fort in terms of human labor. 

Technocracy Digest 

All this, however, will be of problems. But we have not solved 

little avail if on the other end of all our distribution problems, 

these burgeoning production lines These, in the final analysis, are 

there is not an equally increasing just as important. If goods are 

line of customers with enough not taken off the production line 

money in their hands to buy the as fast as they are manufactured 

products of our bountiful tech- they will back up and finally 

nology. choke the machinery that made 

Increased production will be them, 

sterile and dangerous if it is not Like all other human inven- 

accompanied by increased con- tions automation can be a won- 

sumption. This applies on a do- derful servant or an impossible 

mestic or an international basis. master. It will depend on how 

With the aid of science we have much it is used and not abused, 

almost solved all production — Vancouver Province. 

* SPACE TECHNOLOGISTS have opened up a revolutionary new way to detect 
and to fight forest fires. The technique includes using infra-red sensing devices, such 
as are found in air-to-air missiles, and the missiles themselves, loaded with fire- 
suppressing chemicals. 

An infra-red sensing device in fire detection saves precious time. Such a device 
on a hilltop vantage point can pick up a heat source within a range of 20 miles. 
It is capable of detecting heat without tell-tale smoke. Once fire is detected, the infra- 
red mechanism transmits an alarm from a small transistorized radio, powered by a 
combination of solar and storage batteries. 

The infra-red sensing device would scan a critical fire area 24 hours a day. Not 
only would it locate a fire, but the device would then direct and trigger a fire- 
suppressing missile. 

Already the forest service has discovered the feasibility of using the navy's 
Sidewinder missile to fight fires. In tests, it was launched from a hovering helicopter 
and armed with an infra-red senser, it unerringly sought out hot spots of fire. Future 
use will see the Sidewinder carrying fire-suppressing chemicals to spray over the 
flames. Some of these chemicals are available now and other more potent ones are 
being developed. 

The changing concept in fighting forest fires is one of automation. The automatic 
forest fire sentry of the future will be backed up with jet planes and helicopters 
carrying anti-fire bombs whose payload is made up of powerful chemicals. 

—San Barnardino Sun Telegram 

* THE METAL CAN INDUSTRY will mark in 1960 the 150th anniversary of the 
invention of the can, attributed to Peter Durand, an Englishman, who was granted a 
patent in 1810 by King George III. Today the 'tin can' is more than 98% steel and 
o e in than 2% tin * Some 42 billion cans are made annually in this country, or about 
860 a year for each family in the United States, according to can makers.— Steel Age 

August, 1959 49 

Robot Holiday 

rpHE remote-control stove, the 
■*" robot housemaid and the built- 
in home dry-cleaner are among 
appliances in the coming stage, 
reports 'The Wall Street Journal/ 

The remote-control stove will 
work like this. Suppose a woman 
shopper is delayed getting home. 
She takes out of her purse a 
thing the size of a cigaret pack- 
age and pushes a button on it. By 
this means she turns down the 
heat under the roast she has 
earlier put on to cook. The gad- 
get in her purse is wave-lengthed 
to the stove control at home. 

By slowing the stove the old 
girl gets another half hour be- 
fore she has to be home on the 
range. This thing is now being 

The robot housemaid is simply 
an appliance that runs around 
the kitchen scrubbing, rinsing 
and drying the floor all by itself. 
The home dry cleaner is going to 
be a closet in which ultrasonic 
waves dry clean clothes, over- 

Men, the day is nigh when you 


won't need a wife — just a revolv- 
ing credit account. 

In the meantime how about 
science producing — 

The robot dog - silencer. This 
device, installed on the roof, will 
de-woof all dogs making a noise 
near the house after 1 a.m. It will 
automatically throw small stones 
at the dogs. (For SPCA persons 
it will automatically throw small 

The towel rack de-lingerie'r. 
Any lingerie foolishly left to dry 
on this rack will cause it to rotate 
fiercely, making a threatening 
sound, and to deposit the lingerie 
on the bathroom floor instead of, 
as now, in a male towel-hunter's 

The switcher-outer. This gad- 
get will automatically turn off 
lights, irons, TVs or radios left 
operating in person-less rooms. 

The dish-picker. One of these 
little things will run around the 
table, whistling cheerily and pick- 
ing up all dishes left after meals, 
carrying them uncomplainingly 
to sink or washer. 

— Barry Mather 

Technocracy Digest 




if Technocracy is the only North Am- 
erican social movement with a North 
American program which has become 
widespread on this Continent. It has 
no affiliation with any other organiza- 
tion, group or association either in North 
America or elsewhere. 
if The basic unit of Technocracy is the 
chartered Section consisting of a min- 
imum of 50 members and running up to 
several hundred. 

if It is not a commercial organization 
or a political party; it has no financial 
subsidy or endowment and has no debts. 
Technocracy is supported entirely by the 
dues and donations of its own members. 
The widespread membership activities 
of Technocracy are performed volun- 
tarily; no royalties, commissions or bon- 
uses are paid, and only a small full-time 
staff receives subsistence allowances. The 
annual dues are $9.00 which are paid by 
the member to his local Section. 
ic Members wear the chromium and 
vermilion insignia of Technocracy — the 
Monad, an ancient generic symbol signi- 
fying balance. 


if There are units and members of 
Technocracy in almost every State in the 
U.S. and in all Provinces in Canada, and 
in addition there are members in Alaska, 
Hawaii, Panama, Puerto Rico and in 
numerous other places with the Armed 

if Members of Technocracy are glad 
to travel many miles to discuss Tech- 
nocracy's Program with any interested 
people and Continental Headquarters 
will be pleased to inform any one of the 
location of the nearest Technocracy unit. 


if Technocracy originated in the winter 
of 1918-1919 when Howard Scott formed 
a group of scientists, engineers and econ- 
omists that become known in 1920 as 
The Technical Alliance — a research or- 
ganization. In 1933 it was incorporated 
under the laws of the State of New York 
as a non-profit, non-political, non-sec- 
tarian membership organization. In 1934, 
Howard Scott, Director-in-Chief, made 
his first Continental lecture tour which 
laid the foundations of the present 
nation - wide membership organization. 
Since 1934 Technocracy has grown stead- 
ily without any spectacular spurts, re- 
vivals, collapses or rebirths. This is in 
spite of the fact that the press has gen- 
erally 'held the lid' on Technocracy, 
until early in 1942 when it made the 
tremendous 'discovery' that Technocracy 
had been reborn suddenly full-fledged 
with all its members, headquarters, etc., 
in full swing. 


if Technocracy was built in North 
America by North Americans. It is com- 
posed of North American citizens in all 
walks of life. Technocracy's membership 
is a composite of all the occupations, 
economic levels, races and religions which 
make up this Continent. Membership 
is open only to North American citizens. 
Aliens and politicians are not eligible. 
(By politicians is meant those holding 
elective political office or active office 
in any political party.) 

if Doctor, lawyer, storekeeper, farmer 
mechanic, teacher, preacher or house 
wife — as long as you are a patrioti. 
North American — you are welcome in 


Whatever the future of Technocracy, one must fairly say 
that it is the only program of social and economic recon- 
struction which is in complete intellectual and technical 
accord with the age in which we live. 

—Encyclopedia Americana 

,r- ••** .V 



Shape-up for the Showdown 

Nerves Yield Secrets 

The Ownership Myth 

Test-tube Revolution 

Fuel Facts Faced 
America's Forgotten Man 

Frozen Gas Challenge 

Electronics Aid Mapmakers 


IN CANADA BY SEC. 1 • R.D. 12349 






NOVEMBER, 1959 No. 174 


Rupert N. Urquhart Editor Donald Bruce Advisory Editor 

Milton Wildfong Associate Editor Jane URQVHAKT....Circulation Manager 

Helen Slater Business Manager 

The Quarterly Survey 3 

Shape-up for the Showdown 6 

The Ownership Myth - - - - - - - - 17 

Nerves Yield Secrets 21 

Electronics Aid Mapmakers 25 

America's Forgotten Man ------- 26 

Riding on Air 28 

Frozen Gas Challenge 29 

Through the Technoscope 31 

Fuel Facts Faced 39 

Test-tube Revolution 43 

Peace Porridge 50 

Technocracy Digest is published quarterly by Section 1, RX>. 12349, Technocracy Inc 
1166 W. Georgia St., Vancouver 5, B.C. Single copy, 25 cents. Subscription: four 
issues for $1.00; all three Technocracy Magazines, one year, $3.00. Make all cheques 
and money orders payable to Technocracy Digest. Entire contents copyrighted 1959. 
Printed in Canada. Continental Headquarters of Technocracy Inc. is at Rushland, 



The Quarterly Survey 

The Split Personality 

Nikita Krushchev's adventure in 
the U.S., where he's the invited 
guest of the nation, called for tact 
and good humor on both sides; 
but the visitor has made many of 
the hosts look like juvenile delin- 
quents. By either Emily Post or 
Dale Carnegie rules, the Ukrain- 
ian shepherd boy has outpointed 
the sophisticated paragons of 
western culture. 

Bad manners were no doubt the 
natural result of the lead given 
in advance by addled and frantic 
politicians, clerics and news- 
papers. When Mr. Eisenhower in- 
vited Mr. K., one American mag- 
azine headed its comment: 'Wel- 
come, Murderer.' Another, having 
published a proposal to 'kill the 
bastard,' advertised large stickers 
saying ' "Krushchev Not Welcome 
Here"— 1,000 for $17, "adhere to 
any surface".' 

Perhaps it's a wonder that mass 
hysteria didn't turn the whole 
expedition into a shambles; but 
parts of the actual program, as 
devised by top official and 'cul- 
tural' brains, were bad enough 

November, 1959 

to make any self-respecting and 
sensible citizen curl up and moan 
with grief. 

What bird-brain suggested en- 
tertaining Mr. K. with Holly- 
wood's version of the can-can? 
Hasn't anyone in Los Angeles 
heard that the Soviet theatre is 
severely unsexy and that puritan- 
ism blankets the whole of Soviet 

Another idea straight from the 
loony bin was the assignment ot 

"It looks as if we'll have a good corn crop too" 

Henry Cabot Lodge, a stiff and 
proud Boston brahmin, to lecture 
the Soviet premier on the beauties 
of capitalism as they went along. 
This was a perfect recipe for in- 
furiating Mr. K., who has heard 
ell the arguments and will be con- 
vinced, if at all, only by seeing 
what he came to see, with obvi- 
ously passionate curiosity. After 
all, Lodge in the United Nations 
has for some years been the pro- 
fessional U.S. ranter against 
everything Russian. 

Fortunately, Mr. Lodge was 
toned down; but lesser politicians 
have scrambled on to the front 
pages by needling the visitor 
about Soviet errors and shortcom- 

All is not lost, for Krushchev is 
far too hard-boiled to let rude and 
inappropriate noises interfere 
with political bargaining. But as 
an experiment in cultivating good- 
will between peoples his trip has 
been somewhat marred by the 
childish half of the American split 
personality. — Financial Post 

Mechanical Cow 

British scientists have unveiled 
an $84,000 'mechanical cow' which 
operates on a grass diet and is 10 
times as efficient as the farmyard 

beast at producing protein for 
human consumption. 

The heart of the mechanical 
cow is a three-foot long, electric- 
ally-driven rotating shaft which 
sets off shock waves through an 
encasing shield of water by the 
use of beaters. 

Vegetables, bed into the water, 
are decomposed by the shock 
waves. The protein goes into a 
solution and it comes out as a 
water paste. The water is then ex- 
tracted and a powder remains. 

Some experts consider the vege- 
table protein yielded by this 
method is up to 10 times as rich 
as milk protein from a cow or 
meat protein from a steer. 

Rural Slums 

If the lower income 30% of 
Saskatchewan's farmers were con- 
centrated in one area 'you'd* have 
a worse slum than exists in any 
city in this country,' Dr. W. B. 
Baker, director of the University 
of Saskatchewan centre for com- 
munity studies, stated recently 
in Winnipeg. 

Dr. Baker, who was chairman 
of Saskatchewan's Royal Commis- 
sion on Agriculture and Rural 
Life, addressed the Manitoba Fed- 
eration of Agriculture on the 

Technocracy Digest 

topic, "The Changing Rural Com- 

Asked about farm living stand- 
ards in comparison with city 
standards, Dr. Baker said about 
30% of Saskatchewan's farmers 
have living standards comparable 
with the best in cities, but the 
lower 30% lived in shocking 

Scientists' Importance 

The man who invented radar 
says that the education of future 
scientists should include 'an 
appreciation of Jiow important 
their work is to the world at 

Sir Robert Watson Watt of Tor- 
onto made the statement this sum- 
mer at an international scientists' 
conference in Pugwash, Nova 

Herblock in The Washington Post 

"What I Really Want 
Is a Few Jars of Instant Science" 

He said that science has two 
aspects — the possibility of im- 
proving the ease and comfort and 
satisfaction of the whole world, or 
anything up to the complete an- 
nihilation of the whole world. 

it MONTREAL — Mediocrity is the most distinguishing feature of Canadian society, 
states William J. Eccles, professor of history at the University of Alberta. Speaking at 
the annual seminar of the National Federation of Canadian University Students, 
Mr. Eccles said hockey is the only field in which Canada has produced any outstand- 
ing men. 

Low standards in universities and schools are partly to blame, he said. 'When one 
is faced at the university with students straight out of our high schools — and this is 
particularly true in the West — it is quite apparent something is wrong. These students 
are almost bereft of anything like a critical attitude.' 

Students accept without question everything that is in print and think it a 
'sacrilege' to disagree with professors, said Mr. Eccles. Freshmen students had to 
be taught material that should have been covered in high school. In universities where 
degrees were granted after three years, this meant students were graduated after only 
two years of actual university study. 

'This is pitifully inadequate. Yet to suggest that another year be added brings 
an immediate outcry from university administrators, boards of governors and poli- 
ticians. — Canadian Press 

November, 1959 5 

Shape-up for the Showdown 

There is in North America more uneasiness and uncertainty about 
the future than anywhere else. Events and conditions are shaping up 
for a showdown, the symptoms of which will be increasingly impressed 
upon the citizenry in a tightening squeeze. 

T7VENTS are shaping up for the 
■■-* greatest crisis in the course 
of human social events. The focal 
point of that crisis is the North 
American Continent, where the 
relevant symptoms are the most 
aggravated. Here, there is more 
uneasiness and uncertainty about 
the future than, perhaps, any- 
where else. But, although there is 
general uneasiness, the public is 
riot as yet seriously disturbed and 
there is scant agitation for social 
advancement of the people as a 

During the Great Depression, a 
conspicuous fraction of the people 
were truly disturbed, and they, 
began questioning the validity of 
the existing social order. That dis- 
turbance and skepticism lacked 
the momentum, as it turned out, 
to maintain itself in any promin- 
ent popular form through the 
prosperity and witch-hunt of the 
war and postwar periods. Events, 
not spontaneous human volition, 
determine whether society stag- 

nates or advances. And it is 
events that, now, are forcing a 
showdown on this Continent and, 
secondarily, around the world. 

For centuries, employment of 
human beings has been touted as 
a virtuous means of maintaining 
economic viability within the 
population as a whole and as a 
means of providing individual 
livelihood. The social mores and 
values have been built up around 
the concept of human employ- 
ment; for, by this means alone, the 
needs of production and service 
were effected. The vast majority 
of the population were producers 
and servants and only a tiny min- 
ority were permitted to live in 
luxury and ease. 

But, now, human employment 
is entering a period of crisis, in 
which the customs and values of 
all the yesterdays will have to be 
reappraised and for the most part 
discarded. With the development 
of automatic technology, the hu- 
man being, as a work engine or 

Technocracy Digest 

control device, is being eliminated 
from .the essential operations of 
the soQjety. For not much longer 
can he be looked upon as a mech- 
anical element in the functioning 
mechanism. Man's primary func- 
tion in society is becoming that 
of consumer. Yet, the concepts of 
the ages of toil and scarcity still 
prevail in the social philosophy of 
our day, and this is causing dis- 
crepancies and contradictions 
which are forcing a showdown. 
The urgent economic question of 
North America is no longer one of 
production, but one of selling that 
v/hich is produced. 

In order for the North American 
citizen to function as a consumer 
in any way commensurate with 
the productivity of this Contin- 
ent, it is necessary that he obtain 
an income which is excessive in 
terms of what he contributes 
directly to the society. The em- 
ployee of today with a steady full- 
time job receives an income far 
above that paid for similar em- 
ployment in the past — even after 
allowing for inflated values. But 
the employee, in his conceit, is 
beginning to believe that he is 
worth what he gets, and more. 
When one is afflicted with this 
kind of conceit, he tends to go con- 

servative and bourgeois in his 
concepts. That tendency, under 
the present circumstances, is 
drawing him into an economic cul- 
de-sac and forcing him into a 
psychological neurosis. 

In the United States, production 
employees have now become a 
minority while service employees 
are the majority. To date, the 
application of automatic processes 
has been pushed with greater vig- 
or in the production industries 
than in the service functions. The 
production employees have dwin- 
dled in terms of units of produc- 
tion for many years, although, 
due to rapidly expanding produc- 
tion the total number has in- 
creased. But recently they have 
been declining as a total number 
in spite of a continuing increase 
in production. This change is most 
noticeable in the manufacturing 
and mining industries and least 
apparent in the construction em- 

Automaticity now is also enter- 
ing the field of service employ- 
ment; and, here, the 'slaughter' 
will be terrific. In the offices of the 
nation, machines are being de- 
vised and installed which can 
handle the 'paper work' rapidly, 
accurately, and automatically. 

November, 1959 

Bookkeepers, file clerks, steno- 
graphers, and data processing per- 
sonnel are being dumped in large 
numbers by the more up-to-date 
business offices. Transportation 
and communications workers have 
been undergoing steady attrition 
for years. Where an attempt is 
made to avoid direct layoffs, de- 
vious means are employed to 
encourage retirement or transfer 
to other employments; and no 
replacements are hired for those 
who die, retire, and transfer out. 
Building service employees are 
diminishing with the installation 
of automatic elevators and other 
technological service equipment. 
The handling and dispensing of 
food and merchandise below the 
wholesale level is still overloaded 
with workers, due mainly to an 
excessive number of small, in- 
efficient retail establishments and 
old-fashioned human toil methods 
of handling materials. But the 
squeeze is on here, too, and it is 
bound to get more intense as 
labor costs continue to rise. Retail 
merchandising can be readily 
mechanized and automated to 
where hardly any sales clerks are 
needed at all. The soft drink dis- 
pensers demonstrate one way in 
which this is accomplished. 

The labor unions, failing to 
make a strategic adjustment to 
the trend, are righting desperately 
for members and employment. 
They are in serious conflict with 
Management over automation. 
But the technological trend is to- 
ward more productivity and less 
human employment. So the labor 
unions that view themselves as a 
facet of the status quo are facing 
defeat. Their objective appears to 
be one of special gains for union 
members, and their tactics tend 
toward anarchic disruption of the 
economy to enforce their de- 
mands. The objectives and tactics 
of Management are of the same 
nature but more aggravated al- 
though handled more covertly. 

Factional struggle for economic 
gain is not the answer to the prob- 
lems of Continental economics. 
The struggle must be for the wel- 
fare of the whole population, not 
for specific elements of it. Fac- 
tional struggle could be tolerated 
by an economy of scarcity; for, the 
results, though often severe to 
those directly affected, were local- 
ized. The whole economy was sel- 
dom disturbed. 

At the time of the American 
Revolutionary War, about 95% of 
the people were on the farms, and 


Technocracy Digest 

they produced most of what they 
consumed. Today, less than 12% 
of the American people live on 
farms, and these produce only a 
fraction of what they consume. 
The number, as well as the per- 
centage, of people living on the 
farms is steadily declining as the 
remaining homestead farms are 
being consolidated into larger 
agricultural units or are being 
sold for other developments. Fur- 
ther, many people living on farms 
derive a portion of their income 
from non-farm sources. As agri- 
culture becomes more mechanized 
and more consolidated into larger 
units, the trend is toward a farm 
population of not more than 5% 
of the total. On the more efficient 
units, today, agricultural opera- 
tions are carried out with only a 
fantastically small amount of 
human work as compared to a 
century ago. Hence, agriculture 
is not the economic cushion that 
it has been in the past, when the 
majority of the people could 'sit it 
out' on the farms at low social cost 
during periods of economic stress. 
Another major trend on this 
Continent, particularly since the 
war, has been the migration of the 
people to the suburbias which 
spread out in various directions 

from the large cities and which 
even surround the smaller towns. 
The suburbias are made up of 
individual houses on small lots 
tor the most part. The costs of 
purchase, taxes, service, and main- 
tenance are high, often taking 
more than 25% of the dweller's 
income. Further, it is mandatory 
that the residents of suburbia 
have private cars for transporta- 
tion to and from home since public 
transportation is usually neglect- 
ed. Aside from taking up vast 
acreages of productive farmland, 
the suburbias are so extended 
horizontally that the flowlines are 
excessively long and complex. 
The unit cost of services is high. 
The building of suburbias has 
given much employment to skilled 
workers and considerable profit 
to promoters and financial insti- 
tutions. But most of the merchan- 
dising of the houses has been on 
long-term credit; and the payments 
must continue for many years to 
come. Beyond the down-payment, 
the mortgage installments and up- 
keep on the suburban home are 
competitive with rents for similar 
facilities; but there are certain 
risks involved in ownership. So 
long as the worker was getting 
overtime pay or the woman of the 

November, 1959 


house also had a paying job, the 
payments could be met without 
too much sacrifice. But with only 
one income and no overtime, 
economic distress is affecting 
many suburbanites. When this is 
aggravated with shortened work- 
weeks or periodic layoffs, the costs 
become excessive. The local 
papers carry long lists of fore- 
closure sales. 

Almost nowhere on this Con- 
tinent is there such a thing as low- 
cost housing. A small minority of 
the inhabitants who fortuitously 
obtained full ownership of homes 
prior to the inflation, and who has 
kept them free of further encum- 
brances, is in a relatively favor- 
able situation in respect to this 
one factor; provided further, that 
the homes happen to be located 
outside of high tax districts and 
away from civic improvements. 
For the most part, the costs of 
housing on this Continent are ex- 
travagant in terms of energy and 
materials consumed; a*id, with 
respect to money, the costs are 
excessive to the dwellers; but bil- 
lions of dollars are poured into 
the coffers of big financial insti- 

There is much official and un- 
official condemnation of slum 

housing in both the large cities 
and in the rural areas; and the 
proposed remedy is usually the 
destruction of such slums and 
their replacement with high-cost 
housing. No effort is made to pro- 
vide improved housing for the 
people who are compelled by 
economic circumstances to live in 
the slums; they are merely forced 
to move to other slums. 

The people of this Continent 
soon will learn, if they are not 
already learning, that the cost of 
housing must be drastically re- 
duced, both from the standpoint 
of the individual and that of the 
social area. 

At the showdown, the society 
will be forced to guarantee ade- 
quate housing for the entire popu- 
lation. The emphasis, then, will 
be on a reduction of social costs 
with reference to construction, 
maintenance, and servicing. The 
trend will be toward large mul- 
tiple-dwelling structures rising 
many stories into the air. Such 
structures will concentrate the 
points of delivery and service, will 
shorten the flowlines, and will take 
up a minimum of land area. They 
are the antithesis of the costly, 
wasteful, land-consuming suburb- 
an houses of the Continent. Even 


Technocracy Digest 

the Russians and (Chinese are 
moving iai that direction with 
their emphasis on apartment 
buildings rather than individual 
houses, although they are still a 
long way from the ultimate in 
design of housing. 

Perhaps the most irritating pre- 
dation on the consumer is that 
of taxation. Taxation stings are 
numerous, widespread, and 
drastic. Not so many years ago, 
taxes were no more than 'flea 
bites.' Only the relatively rich 
paid income taxes; and other 
taxes were modest compared to 
present standards. Now everyone 
is being hit by taxes on all sides; 
and they are in the magnitude of 
bumble bee stings. 

The federal government is the 
worst offender when it comes to 
taxing the public. But the states 
or provinces, the counties, town- 
ships, and municipalities, as well 
as other special taxing bodies, are 
all after a portion of the citizen's 
economic blood. And, aside from 
all the other taxes, he is bitten 
with numerous additional taxes 
on his purchases of goods and 

The governmental bodies are 
called upon to subsidize the econ- 
omy in various ways, direct and 

indirect, so as to validate the busi- 
ness enterprise system. This cost 
is charged to the consumer, ulti- 
mately, often two or three times 

In spite of repeated increases 
in the rate of taxation, the govern- 
ments of the Continent are becom- 
ing ever more desperate for addi- 
tional revenues. More and more 
avenues of the economy must be 
explored for taxation purposes. It 
all adds up to more and greater 
squeezes on the consumer income. 
For this reason, among others, life 
for the citizen of this Continent 
is no longer free nor easy. 

For many years, Technocrats 
have directed the public attention 
to the explosive dangers of un- 
controlled population growth in 
the world. Stating this warning in 
the words of Howard Scott, 'the 
fusion of the sperm and ovum is 
far more dangerous than the fis- 
sion of the atom.' The increase in 
numbers, as serious as that is in 
itself, is made even more danger- 
ous by the steady decrease in the 
quality of those produced, par- 
ticularly on the American Con- 
tinents. Those categories which 
spawn the fastest happen also to 
be those of lowest intellect, mini- 
mal responsibiliy, and least social 

November, 1959 


usefulness. Still, this deluge of in- 
ferior human types is being 
applauded rather than deplored 
by the spokesmen of business, 
politics, and ecclesiasticism on the 
grounds that more people mean 
more business, more votes, and 
more salvation. It also means 
more poverty, more slums, more 
'delinquency,' and more dissen- 

One effect of the population in- 
crease is a relative decline in the 
average standard of living. In the 
United States, for example, there 
has been a sizable increase in the 
total rate of energy consumption 
over the past ten years. But the 
per capita increase in standard of 
living has been of lesser proportion 
due to the rapidly rising popula- 
tion numbers. The Statistical Ab- 
stracts of the U.S. give the total 
energy consumption for 1950 as 
about 34 thousand trillion BTU's 
and for 1957 as 42 thousand tril- 
lion BTU's. This would indicate 
an increase of nearly 25% in the 
consumption of energy. Yet, when 
we also take into consideration 
the interim increase in population, 
the per capita increase in energy 
consumption is hardly 6.5% — 
from about 155,000 Kilogram Cal- 
ories per person per day in 1950 

to only 165,000 KgC's n 1957. (In- 
cidentally, the energy figures 
given in the Statistical Abstracts 
need some adjustment to correct 
fictitious and irrelevant elements.) 

History reveals the sad fate of 
various societies which succumbed 
because of internal rot. That most 
of these were in the end extin- 
guished by external conquest does 
not detract from the proposition 
that internal decay was the fatal 
malady. The health and vigor of 
those societies were devitalized by 
the 'viruses,' first, of commercial- 
ism and, secondly, of bourgeois 

Trade and commerce has a 
healthful place in the life of a 
society when conducted as a con- 
sequence of need or essential ex- 
pediency. But when it degener- 
ates into a predatory art, it be- 
comes a debilitating disease. Then 
it focuses attention on gain 
through nefarious manipulation of 
the articles of commerce and the 
fortunes and misfortunes of men. 
Commerce becomes a vocation 
and an obsession rather than a 
facility. It cultivates avarice and 
treachery. It promotes into social 
prominence those whose' instincts' 
have shown proficiency for finagl- 
ing personal gain at the expense 


Technocracy Digest 

of their fellowmen. And it follows 
that those who would sell out 
their neighbors will not hesitate 
to sell out their community or 
their country when the payoff is 

A sequel to commercialism is 
bourgeois ostentation. The suc- 
cessful traders tend to exhibit 
their success in the form of lux- 
urious possessions and elegant 
waste. Their personal possessions, 
their elegant living, and their 
social status become the obsession 
of their lives. They seek to mani- 
pulate the social controls so as to 
persuade the society to register 
official recognition, respect, and 
protection for their acquisitions. 
Their example sets the pattern of 
the social ideal, toward which all 
the lesser aspirants to success 
shall seek to wriggle their way. 
Those afflicted with the disease of 
bourgeois success become arro- 
gant and self-centered; they be- 
come envious of those who attain 
similar or greater success, and 
they become disdainful of those 
who reject such aspirations or 
who fail in the quest for them. 

A society afflicted with these 
twin maladies becomes divisive 
and anarchic in its internal opera- 
tions. It comprises its strategic 

considerations for the immediate 
advantages of commercial expedi- 
ency. It subordinates the welfare 
of the great majority of its mem- 
bers to the adulation of its Best 
People. It mistakes a show of 
wealth for a possession of strength. 
And it exposes itself to the lust of 
those social organizations which 
are better prepared for depreda- 
tion than for commerial inter- 

At this time, the bourgeois ele- 
ments of the United States have 
acceded to the pinnacles of success 
and arrogance. They are manipu- 
lating the economy, the social con- 
trols, and the military establish- 
ment for the protection and fur- 
ther promotion of their success. 
In their quest for further aggran- 
dizement, they are leeehing the 
resources of other Continents, 
suborning the political leaders of 
other nations, and subordinating 
to themselves (through debt and 
dependence on jobs) the majority 
of the citizens of their own coun- 
try. Yet those who might pretend 
bourgeois affluence number less 
than ten per cent of the popula- 
tion, even when we count numer- 
ous families with a gross income 
of less than ten thousand dollars 
per year. 

November, 1959 


Another 20% of the people are, 
more or less, staying abreast of 
the economic struggle and may be 
said to live comfortably. (In Can- 
ada, the corresponding percent- 
ages are much lower.) The re- 
maining 70% live in circum- 
stances of economic distress or 
uncertainty. Their stake in the 
Price System is of dubious merit. 
They are squeezed by increasing 
debt, rising costs, higher taxes, 
diminishing employment, and the 
attrition of inflation. This great 
majority is without hope of econ- 
omic advancement or enduring se- 
curity. They have little in the way 
of valued possessions or savings. 
Their seeming loyalty to the pres- 
ent system is more a matter of 
lethargy and day-to-day expedi- 
ency than a matter of devotion 
or major self-interest. They are 
not beyond being seduced by that 
which offers more substantial re- 
wards in the form of living stand- 
ards, lifetime security, and free- 
dom from toil. And they are not 
above expressing their resent- 
ments in violence and destruc- 

As events and conditions shape 
up for the showdown, the major- 
ity will be increasingly reminded 
of the squeeze that is being tight- 

ened upon them. Their irritations 
and resentments will be articu- 
lated by those in the upper min- 
ority who, partly for purposes of 
dissembling and misdirection and 
partly out of exasperation over 
certain effects upon themselves, 
find a more ready means of voic- 
ing their complaints. Politicians, 
particularly, will seek the public 
sympathies by playing up the 
grievances of the majority. Entre- 
preneurs will seek to cover up 
their leeching effects by lamenta- 
tion and condemnation of high 
costs, high taxes, and 'unfair' com- 
petition. The professional elite 
will complain about the high cost 
of education and maintenance of 
social status. Thus, although the 
upper ten per cent may be consid- 
ered as having a real stake in the 
status quo in so far as their pre- 
sent advantages are concerned, 
they must pretend, defensively, 
that their woes are not dissimilar 
to those of the majority while 
their risks are greater. The 
rhetoric of dissent, then, will be 
formulated by those who have the 
least cause for dissent — as it was 
at the time of the American Revo- 
lution by Thomas Jefferson and 
Benjamin Franklin. 
To summarize, the factors which 


Technocracy Digest 

are shaping up for a showdown 
on this Continent are these: (1) 
Growing unemployment, which is 
eroding away the income of large 
numbers of the population and 
denying the opportunity of econ- 
omic participation to many others. 
(2) Increasing dependence of the 
individual upon the society for his 
livelihood and safety and the fail- 
ure of the society adequately to 
take care of him. (3) Insecurity 
and uncertainty of individuals 
and families who face possible 
destitution, incapacity, misfortune, 
or failure. (4) Overpopulation, 
which is placing an increasing 
burden on the resources and facil- 
ities of the Continent and aggra- 
vating the quest for gainful em- 
ployment and opportunity. (5) 
Accelerating taxation, which eats 
away at the income without pro- 
viding obvious benefits in return. 

(6) Rising costs of everything, 
which deplete savings and devalue 
earnings, making higher educa- 
tion, medical care, and enjoyable 
recreation, as well as choice food, 
clothing, housing, and transpor- 
tation prohibitive for the many. 

(7) Disunity, which results from 
competition and factionalism; such 
as, Management versus Labor; 
race against race; Republicans 

versus Democrats; Roman Cath- 
olics against Protestants and 
Jews; private enterprise against 
public enterprise. (8) Lack of 
social goals to inspire the people 
to enthusasm and endeavor. In- 
stead, the people are left dang- 
ling without a worthwhile objec- 
tive — left to concentrate on their 
own petty ambitions, miseries, and 
quarrels. (9) Irresponsible lead- 
ership, which seems incapable of 
analyzing the situation correctly, 
which rejects all proposals for 
organizing the people for their 
own general welfare and security, 
which concentrates on prepara- 
tions for war and international 
depredation. (10) Stagnation of 
the flowlines, resulting from the 
technological production of a near 
abundance and the failure of an 
obsolete economic system to effect 
adequate distribution. 

It is in answer to the challenge 
of events that leaders arise and 
social programs are formulated. 
Many would-be leaders have 
appeared on the American scene 
with a weird assortment of social 
programs based on some manipu- 
lation of the Price Systme. These 
have not withstood the test of 
time. No doubt, others will come 
forth as we approach the show- 

November, 1959 


down. The social leaders and pro- 
grams will be evaluated in terms 
of their compatability with the 
potentials of our age. No mere 
reform of the Price System will 
rate consideration. 

When the failures of our Price 
System society are high-lighted, 
they must be countered by a pro- 
gram which will turn failure and 
defeat into a victory for the Con- 
tinent. The alternative may very 
well be chaos. The new program 
cannot be formulated in the shape 
of a predatory victory over other 
continents; the reason for that is 
already apparent. Rather, it must 
prepare us for the achievement of 
social stability and security here. 
It must be predicated upon the 
physical conquest of our own Con- 
tinent. Further, it must glorify 
the Continental society and the 
individual citizen; and it must 
rescue us from the hazards of the 
Price System. Nothing less will be 

What program is there on the 
'drawing boards' that has specifi- 
cations which meet the above gen- 
eralities? Neither communism on 

the left not fascism on the right 
are suited to the job that must be 
clone on this Continent; and lib- 
eralism in the center is unpre- 
pared to organize anything — it 
always bogs itself down with 
verbal quibbling over definitions 
of values and objectives. The pro- 
gram must be technological in de- 
sign rather than philosophical; 
for, the problem of operating a 
Continental society is a technical 
problem, one based on physical 
measurements rather than on 

The only social technology on 
this Continent (or anywhere in 
the world) is Technocracy. Al- 
ready, Technocracy has correctly 
analyzed the social factors on the 
North American Continent and 
has designed a mechanism and a 
program of operations in full 
accord with the requirements. In 
this respect, nothing else comes 
close to Technocracy. So, at the 
showdown, Technocracy will 
stand out as the one social pro- 
gram suited to the conditions on 
this Continent and the circum- 
stances of our time. 

— Wilton Ivie 

-fc WASHINGTON — Military purchases of U.S. electronic products, including com- 
munications equipment, reached a record $4.1 billion during 1958—about 52% of 
the year's $8 billion worth of electronic sales. — Vancouver Sun. 


Technocracy Digest 

The Ownership Myth 

The average citizen is convinced that ownership of property is his 
proudest heritage. A close examination of this 'right' indicates that, 
far from playing a vital role in society, ownership is often an intoler- 
able burden, as growing numbers of citizens are learning. 

If title deed to a piece of real 
■*^" estate is about the proudest 
possession the average North 
American feels he can have. From 
as soon as he shows awareness 
of what is going on around him, 
Mr. Average Citizen is subjected 
to a ceaseless bombardment of 
propaganda on the merits of 
property ownership. An early 
receptiveness to the indoctrina- 
tion is exhibited in quarreling 
with his brothers and sisters over 
the right to play with toys brought 
into the household. If he is the 
recipient, he stands guard over 
said toys against the advances of 
other children wishing to play with 
them; and by so doing expresses 
his initial acceptance of the own- 
ership concept. His aggressive dis- 
play further confirms the accept- 
ance in establishing a character- 
istic behavior pattern. 

Some years later, when he has 
managed to earn a few dollars at 
an after-school-hours job, he ex- 
hibits intensified ownership mani- 

festations toward articles he has 
bought with money received for 
services rendered. He may be 
sufficiently magnanimous to lend 
his brother his best tie — but not 
likely without letting said brother 
know in no uncertain terms whose 
tie it is. His possessiveness devel- 
ops progressively with the pur- 
chase of more expensive items, 
reaching its adolescent peak in the 
buying of his very own car ! It 
might be only a broken-down 
jalopy, but it is his, and woe be- 
tide any one seeking to take un- 
granted liberties with it. 

The concept of ownership is one 
of the most cherished myths soci- 
ety has developed and nurtured 
through the centuries. In all times 
and places where it has enjoyed 
allegiance (practically everywhere 
that people have lived) it has been 
a major cause for crime, strife 
and misery. Within the first half 
of the present century, the owner- 
ship concept has resulted in his- 
tory's two most devastating global 

November, 1959 


massacres, and presently threat- 
ens mankind with a third holo- 
caust. Yet today it remains sacro- 
sanct to millions of people, includ- 
ing most North Americans, who 
have been conditioned to consider 
it their greatest heritage. 

What are the elements of this 
concept which has been accorded 
such importance? Does it really 
play the vital role society has 
made it to appear? 

There is a popular notion that 
ownership endows a person with 
an inviolable right to do as he 
pleases with a piece of property. 
No matter how it was acquired — 
by purchase, gift, inheritance or 
outright chicanery — he feels he is 
automatically granted complete 
sovereignty in its control. How he 
can remain so blindly duped in 
the face of so much evidence to 
the contrary is a bit of a mystery. 
What he can or cannot do with his 
property is largely determined by 
where he lives. Let us return to 
our aspiring Mr. Average Citizen 
to illustrate our meaning. 

We left him gloating adoles- 
cently over the purchase of his 
first car. He has a bill of sale say- 
ing the vehicle is his, but before 
he takes it out on the street he 
finds he must buy a licence for its 

operation on public thorough- 
fares. He must also sufficiently 
convince examiners of his ability 
to drive to induce them to issue a 
driver's licence to him. Then he 
finds he must obtain collision in- 
surance to cover possible liability 
resulting from accidents in which 
he might be involved. Already he 
has found that automobile owner- 
ship has not granted him all the 
privileges he expected from it. 

Presuming he fufills all neces- 
sary preliminary obligations and 
finally gets his pride and joy 
mobile, he immediately finds him- 
self confronted with numerous 
other compulsions. He is restrict- 
ed to certain speeds within certain 
zones; he must obey traffic signals 
governing the movement of traffic; 
in some parts of his city's down- 
town area he may proceed only 
in a given direction on various 
designated streets; he may park 
only in certain areas and for cer- 
tain lengths of time — areas and 
times which are subject to can- 
cellation of parking privileges 
during busier hours; and he must 
not leave his vehicle parked un- 
attended and unlocked with the 
key in the ignition. A serious 
breach of these traffic regulations 
can result in the prompt with- 


Technocracy Digest 

drawal of his driving privilege, 
though he may be allowed to keep 
the vehicle. By another token, 
should he commit a criminal 
offence — such as robbery — in- 
volving the use of such vehicle, 
the chances are that, in the event 
of arrest and conviction, he would 
not only be sentenced to prison 
but would also have his car con- 
fiscated. His ownership thereof 
would thus be a nullity — com- 
pletely devoid of meaning or sig- 

Assuming, however, that he is 
a law-abiding individual and does 
not get himself involved in crimi- 
nal entanglements, how would 
ownership affect him in another 
set of circumstances? He finds out 
in a visit to a farmer friend. 

On arriving at the farm several 
miles from the city he finds that 
his friend owns the same type of 
car as his. But something is mis- 
sing. It lacks license plates, yet its 
owner drives it all over the farm. 
He doesn't even use his driver's 
license while operating it as long 
as he remains on the premises. 
He has no worries about traffic, 
parking, or leaving his key in the 
ignition. In short, he has come 
much closer to the ideal of auto- 
mobile ownership privileges than 

has urban living Mr. Average Citi- 
zen — but obviously it is strictly 
a matter of geography. It would 
not have made the slightest differ- 
ence whether the persons con- 
cerned had owned their respective 
automobiles. They would have, in 
their given fields of operation, 
been subject to the same restric- 
tions and latitudes. Reversed cir- 
cumstances would have imposed 
corresponding reversals of oppor- 
tunity upon each operator — 
simply because of the changed 
environmental conditions. 

A few years and a few cars 
later, Mr. Average Citizen is a 
married man with a growing fam- 
ily. He has managed to remain 
sufficiently clear of the legal haz- 
ards of driving to keep intact his 
belief in the sanctity of owner- 
ship. Now he is taking his next 
and, so far, most important step in 
that direction. The suite he has 
rented since he was married 
seems to have shrunk with the 
coming of the children; and. more- 
over, the landlords are rather un- 
kindly disposed toward the new 
state of affairs. Only one thing to 
do. He must buy a home of his 

After due consideration he de- 
cides to buy a lot on which he 

November, 1959 


can build a house of his own 
choosing. He contacts a real estate 
firm for listings of available pro- 
perties, stating his preference for 
a certain locality. Sorry, they tell 
him, he cannot build a residence 
in that area since it is zoned only 
for commercial development. An- 
other is zoned for apartment 
blocks, and another for duplexes. 
Still another in a very desirable 
locality zoned for single resi- 
dences requires that all houses be 
of a minimum standard consider- 
ably above his means to finance. 
Finally, he selects a lot in a sub- 
urban housing development — a 
lot which, while not all he had 
hoped for, will still provide some 
room for his children to play, and 
for him and his wife to exercise 
their horticultural imaginations. 

Now he finds that he cannot 
build exactly to the plan of house 
he had intended. Certain modifi- 
cations are required to meet local 
building specifications. Then, 
throughout construction, he must 
submit to series of inspections to 
determine whether the structure 
is satisfactory in all details. This on 
his own property! Eventually, con- 
struction is completed and with 
proprietorial pride he moves his 
family into their very own home. 

Their very own? Well, it will be 
in twenty years or so if he con- 
tinues working and keeps up the 

In due course, privileges he had 
not counted on begin to manifest 
themselves. After a few years the 
roof needs shingling, so he is 
privileged to hire someone to do 
the job, or do it himself. He over- 
looked the fact that he was not 
trained for carpentry, plumbing, 
electrical wiring and a variety of 
other skills that seem to be re- 
quired to maintain the piace. His 
income is insufficient to allow the 
employment of qualified person- 
nel whenever there are repairs or 
changes to be made, so, for better 
or worse, he usually has to tackle 
such jobs himself in his spare 
time. So what, though? These are 
small inconveniences to be charg- 
ed against the great advantages 
of owning his own place. No one 
can tell him what to do or what 
not to do within its bounds. 

His memory is short. Under the 
pressure of salesmanship with 
which he has been deluged he has 
already forgotten the restrictions 
imposed upon him before and 
while building his house. Even in 
his yard he does not have full 
(Continued on page 33) 


Technocracy Digest 


November, 1959 

Compiled by Editorial Staff 

No. 174 

Nekvel yieldl Secletd 

rPHE fish, long useful chiefly on Fridays, is about to join the guinea 
* pig, the white mouse, and the rhesus monkey as a contributor to 
scientific knowledge — and in the same passive way. 

Researchers studying nervous diseases have discovered that the 
fish is an ideal subject on which to test the effect of nerve stimulants 
and depressants. The fish reacts sensitively, and in a manner start- 
lingly similar to human beings, to the same drugs that influence the 
nervous system of man. 

A tiny dose of tranquilizer, for example, will change a blood- 
thirsty fish into a tame, docile, and apparently contented one. A 
similar dose of a nerve stimulant will turn a timid sole into a raging 
tiger of a fish. Other chemical compounds will cause fish to lose their 
sense of balance, to swim upside down or flop over on their sides; 
some will even make fish swim backward. Physical damage to a fish's 
nervous system produces the same kind of symptoms as those found 
in the nervous afflictions of man. 

The use of fish in nerve research is still too new to produce any 

November, 1959 


startling discoveries yet. But it's typical of the fresh angles that 
medical researchers are following in nerve research today. 

In other fields, medical science has made great strides, with a 
long list of important new drugs in the past 15 years. In neurological 
research (the study of the nervous system and its disorders) , progress 
has been slow. 

Medical men hope that the new surge of effort will result not 
only in a fuller explanation of how the human nervous system operates 
but also in ways of protecting it against abnormalities and disease. 

Cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, and Park- 
inson's disease still incapacitate hundreds of thousands of Americans 
evtery year. And researchers still don't fully understand how the 
tranquillizers and so-called 'lift pills' act on the system. 

Now it seems as if the mist is lifting. In the laboratories of many 
medical schools, universities, pharmaceutical companies, the National 
Institutes of Health, hope is rising that major developments in neuro- 
logy can be reported before long. 

The University of Chicago has been a center of such studies since 
World War II, when the military joined there in research on poison 
gases. It became the place for postwar study of the Germans' new gas 
called 'Tabun.' 

Unlike previous poison gases, Tabun was colorless, tasteless, and 
odorless. It entered the body with the air a man breathed, with the 
food he swallowed, or even through his pores, and it had a reputa- 
tion for turning him insane before it killed him. However, it was 
never used in combat. 

After the war, Allied soldiers tracked down a quantity of Tabun 
and shipped it to Chicago for analysis. It was found to be an organic 
phosphate — a discovery that led to development of a whole family of 
commercial pesticides with advantages over DDT, which had also just 
been developed. It also proved to have value in medical research. 

In 1947, the Chicago research group was able to theorize that 
organic phosphates act as nerve poisons by inhibiting the action of 
cholinesterase, an enzyme vital to the functioning of the human body. 

22 Technocracy Digest 

Early this year, after thousands of experiments, the group was able 
to say how it was done. 

Once in the bloodstream, the so-called nerve poison travels to 
the liver, where it is converted from a relatively harmless substance 
to the form in which it attacks cholinesterase. Worse yet, it tends to 
gravitate to the very section of the liver that produces cholinesterase. 

This discovery alone could help solve medical problems such as 
myasthenia gravis, a condition of muscular weakness brought on by 
damage to nerves. It could also lead to more accurate methods of 
testing the toxicity of some agricultural sprays and food additives, 
by applying the tests to liver tissue and by more knowledgeably 
observing the reaction of laboratory animals. 

At the Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, 
researchers have been using electric eels to help them study the 
action of enzymes in the nervous system. , 

First, they refined and concentrated cholinesterase. Then they 
studied its action on acetylcholine, a chemical that the nerves of the 
eel release as they discharge electricity. Finally, they sought a chemi- 
cal that would react to the acetylcholine as the cholinesterase would. 
The chemical they settled upon is 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide. 

Now researchers at Columbia and elsewhere are studying the 
interaction between the nerve enzyme and the enzyme that is released 
by the nerves as they act. With a substitute available for cholinest- 
erase, researchers can remove in laboratory animals the part of the 
liver that produces this substance, then carry out their neurological 
studies under closer control. 

In many company labs, the search is going ahead furiously to 
find ways to repair nerve damage. At Bell Telephone Laboratories, 
for example, scientists have just finished constructing an electronic 
cell that can become tired and react in many other ways similarly 
to a living nerve cell in the eye or ear. 

Using several of these cells, other scientists are pushing ahead 
into even more fantastic areas — the building of whole electronic 
systems that imitate the simpler workings of the various nerve net- 

November, 195S 23 

Those working in nerve research today are the first to admit 
the tentative nature of what they're doing. Bell researchers admit 
their synthetic nerve networks have only a vague similarity to the 
real thing. But, at least, it's a beginning. Only a few years go, not even 
the most farsighted medical researcher could have envisioned the 
possibility of manmade nervous systems. 

An equally important discovery was reported to the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science earlier this year. Nerve 
cells, long considered incapable of regenerating themselves in the 
body after birth, have been observed to divide, This discovery, accord- 
ing to Indiana University's Dr. Warren Andrews, means that there 
is the possibility that doctors may someday learn to restore nervous 
functions in human beings. 

Indiana's experiments in which the regenerative power of nerve 
cells was observed were run on baby mice. The left facial nerve in 
each of 20 mice (the facial nerve is a typical motor nerve) was 
crushed. The mice were divided into five groups of four animals each, 
then sacrificed at time intervals of one day, two days, three days, 
one week, and two weeks. In each case the nerve cells of the crushed 
facial nerve were compared with those of the uncrushed facial nerve 
on the other side of the animal's head. 

No regeneration of nerve cells was detected in the one, two, and 
three day animals. In the crushed facial nerves of the older mice, how- 
ever, a startling thing was observed. Dr. Andrews, chairman of the 
Indiana School of Medicine's Department of Anatomy, describes what 
researchers found under the microscope as 'very clear-cut figures of 
cells with two nuclei.' Such double cells, he believes, are actually an 
early stage in formation of new nerve cells. In the vast number of 
cases in which human beings suffer nerve cell destruction, such a 
regeneration probably also starts, but, for some still-unexplained 
reason, it rarely goes to completion. The why of this, and the develop- 
ment of drugs to sustain the process, could well be the means to 
'grow back' nerve tissue in patients who have suffered nerve cell 
damage. — Business Week 

24 Technocracy Digest 

Clectnaaic*, Aid Maf^make^l 

ANEW electronic device that determines ground elevations frons. 
aerial photographs has been developed by a Canadian group of 
air survey companies. 

The machine, called a 'stereomat', scans pairs of photographs 
taken from slightly different angles, and automatically records contour 
lines showing the terrain relief. 

Developed by Hunting Associates Ltd., and its group of compan- 
ies the stereomat is the result of two years of research. Company 
officials say it represents a major breakthrough in the technique of 
aerial map-making. 

In determining ground elevations, the stereomat performs auto- 
matically work that previously required hours of intense concentra- 
tion by skilled operators. The time required for interpreting aerial 
photographs is reduced by 80% to 90%, and company officials claim, 
claim, the degree of accuracy is higher than can be achieved by 
the human eye and hand. 

The development is of particular value for civil and military 
mapmaking, resources exploration and other fields where fast, accur- 
ate mapping service is required. 

U.S. military and civil interests have expressed interest in the 
stereomat, and Hunting Associates say they expect initially to sell at 
least 100 of the units in the U.S. The stereomat will be manufactured 
under license by Benson-Lehner Corp. of Los Angeles. Cost per unit 
is estimated at $30,000 to $50,000. 

Charles Spooner, chief of technical development for the U.S. 
Army Map Services, recently studied the machine and said: 'We look 
for the device to speed up our operations from the present 20 to 40 
hours required to analyze a pair of aerial photographs to about two 
hours' time. With development of associated automatic equipment we 
look for ultimate speeds of one hour or less to do the job.' 

— Globe and Mail 
November, 1959 25 

Am&Uca '<£ fyosujotten Man 

■^■■HE forgotten man of American natural science is, paradoxically, 
* the scientist. 

With the modern trend toward mammoth facilities, research by 
teams, and complex projects, the individual creative thinker has 
tended to be lost in the general scramble or be turned into an ever- 
burdened administrator. 

One of the main points to emerge from the three-day symposium 
on basic research held at the Rockefeller Institute here is the need 
to rescue the individual from this organized morass. If this is not done, 
no amount of top-quality basic research, something that is urgently 
needed to strengthen American natural science today, will help the 

Dr. Merle A. Tuve of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 
made some candid comments on this subject that evoked an enthusi- 
astic response from his audience May 15, the second day of this three- 
day conference. 

His message was simple. 

The one really needful thing, Dr. Tuve said, is honestly to face the 
fact that basic research, the search for new knowledge, needs no other 
justification than men's compelling desire to know and understand 
the universe. This search, he explained, can be carried on only by 
dedicated competent individuals. The lack of support for such indi- 
viduals, as opposed to teams or projects, is the only fundamental road- 
block to American basic science today. 

'I do not agree that the primary reason for underwriting basic 
research in science is a utilitarian one, to provide new facts and ideas 
to be utilized by industry,' he declared. 
Solution Suggested 

'Instead, one of the good reasons for us to have a productive 
industrial plant is to give some excess social energy for us to invest 
in science and the arts for their own sake. Our individual convictions 

26 Technocracy Digest 

regarding academic research are thus rooted in our views of what 
constitutes a good life.' 

Dr. Tuve explained that such research is creative activity of a 
highly individual nature. Yet, he said, 'we have not had much success, 
as a nation, in encouraging quietly creative scholarship and intensely 
personal activity in research.' 

Funds and facilities for basic science have increased substantially 
in the past 15 years. But in Dr. Tuve's analysis these have been sup- 
plied in such a way that research scientists have left the actual 
investigations to subordinates and have become, perforce, adminis- 
trators of large projects or designers and operators of gadgets rather 
than more effective thinkers. 

'The number of these academic men in basic research still is not 
too different from the prewar number of similar fully trained scien- 
tific investigators,' he said. 

What is to be done? In suggesting one possible solution, Dr. 
Tuve echoed a theme that has recurred throughout the conference — 
support the man and not the project. * . . . The subsidy of true basic 
research is the subsidy of ideas, and this always means the support 
of a creative investigator,' is one way he expressed it. 

He then suggested a plan by which the government would under- 
write the creative scientist's lifework by essentially 'buying (his) 
time and giving it back to him' to follow his own creative bent. 
Grants Urged 

Under this scheme, special professorships or scholarships would 
be set up in cooperation with universities. The government would 
make a grant sufficient to pay the remaining lifetime salary of a 
gifted researcher after he or she has been clearly identified as a 
creative investigator, say at age 30 or 35. 

A lump sum of about $700,000 per individual should suffice. This 
grant would be reverted if the researcher left basic research or became 
more of a manager of other people's efforts than a creative worker in 
his or her own right. 

By allocating 40 million to 60 million dollars a year for supporting 
such research professors or research scholars, 'in one decade we 

November, 1959 27 

would have in this country a solid phalanx of 500 or 600 oustanding 
investigators dedicated to basic research and unquestionably free to 
devote their personal time and attention to creative ideas for the rest 
of their lives,' Dr. Tuve explained. 

"If we all believe that the real key to basic research is the con- 
tinued stable support of the individual research man, to give him full 
freedom . . . ,' he said, quoting the words of a statement that had 
accompanied the invitation to the symposium, ' "what are the blocks 
which prevent our doing what we all say we believe is important" V 

— Christian Science Monitor. 

(lidina an Ail 

TX700D-RIDGE, N.J.— The Curtiss-Wright Corp. has announced 
* * development of an experimental air-car that rides on a cushion 
of low pressure air 6 to 12 inches over ground or water. 

The firm said a prototype had been tested successfully. It plans 
mass production. 

Roy T. Hurley, chairman and president of Curtiss-Wright, said 
the air-car does not have conventional wheels, axles, brakes, clutches, 
transmissions or frame. 

It uses a conventional piston-type gasoline engine ranging in size 
from 50 to 200 horsepower. It will be able to carry from one to four 
passengers, and travel forward, backward, sideways or turn in a circle. 

The air-car was described as oval-shaped and about the same 
length but slightly taller than an automobile. 

There is a propeller in the back of the vehicle that sucks in air 
from an opening on the top. The air emerging from vents at the bottom 
provides the cushion of air. The air also can be directed through vents 
in the front, back or sides to provide control. 

The company declined to give estimates on such things as speed 
or mileage, but did say that operating costs would be low and, when 
in production, the price would be competitive with conventional car 
prices. — United Press International 

28 Technocracy Digest 

T ONDON — Another competitor for coal, even on an island such as 
^ this that is literally built on coal, has appeared from overseas. It 
is liquid gas. 

And it may even prove such a competitor that it will beat coal 
right back into the ground for keeps. 

In the House of Commons, Alfred Robens, Labor's chief spokes- 
man oh power problems, has reported that there now are plans in 
view for building four tankers of 32,000 tons each to ship liquid 
methane into this country from the United States and Venezuela. 

Just these four tankers alone could bring in enough methane to 
produce as much town and industrial gas as can be made here from 
13 million tons of coal a year. They would not remain alone for long. 

The Robens report may be a little premature but it does show 
that some very hard thinking is already being done following the first 
Atlantic voyages of the Anglo-American natural gas carrier Methane 

The ship is shared by the British Gas Council and Constock 
International Methane. 

Actual results of these ferry trips with deep frozen gas from 
Louisiana for the North Thames Gas Board will take some time to 
evaluate officially. But unofficially it seems to be accepted that the 
Pioneer is the harbinger of an entirely new worldwide trade. 

Besides the United States, Britain, and Venezuela, many other 
countries are interested in the possibilities. Mexico hopes to export 
gas by sea. French plans for the export of Saharan gas to Europe may 
be changed decisively as a result of voyages of the Methane Pioneer. 
And, of course, every oil producing country of the Middle East must 
sit up and take notice. 

Natural gas, in many oil fields, is strictly a waste of material. Nearly 
two billion cubic feet of it are 'flared off' daily in Venezuela alone. 

November, 1959 29 

This is about as much gas as needs 80 million tons of coal to make in 
the time-honored way. 

It now has been proved that if you turn this gas into a liquid and 
freeze it at minus 258°F. it contracts to such a degree that it takes up 
only l/600th of its normal space. 

The tiny Methane Pioneer has only five tanks but they hold the 
equivalent of 100,000,000 cubic feet of natural gas (whose manufacture 
would require a stock of coal weighing five times as much as the ship) . 

The estimate on which the North Thames Gas Board went to work 
with the gas council and Constock on the Methane Pioneer's trial 
runs was that the delivered cost of 40 billion cubic feet of methane 
to Thames side storage would likely prove to be just half the cost of 
the town gas they are manufacturing from British coal. 

That's the size of the challenge. 

The sea transport of liquid gas is not only a challenge to Britain, 
it is likely to have repercussions right around the world. The United 
States for instance is aware already of the fact that liquid methane 
from foreign sources could be bought much cheaper than America's 
own piped gas. While the United States is unlikely to allow free com- 
petition with its own gas it may well import liquid gas to take care 
of the problem of peak load conditions. 

Sahara gas, carried by tanker to the ports of northwestern Europe, 
could bring big changes to the whole European power industry. 

For the coal industry, however, its challenge is both unavoidable 
and basic. If coal is now on the way out as a fuel — and with oil, gas, 
and nuclear power it looks as though it could be — does a country fight 
the trend or accept it; protect its industry, the jobs of its miners, and 
its own natural resources, or buy where fuel is cheapest and then find 
other work for the tens of thousands of men whose jobs have dis- 
appeared? — Christian Science Monitor 

* EDINBURGH— Some, 1,000,000 people in Britain will die of cancer by the end 
of the Century, the General Assembly of the United Free Church of Scotland was 
told last June. The Assembly passed a resolution 'viewing with concern the increase 
in smoking and urged all parents and teachers to discourage the young from forming 
the habit.' —Reuters 

30 Technocracy Digest 

Through the Technoscope . . . 

Technocracy exammes the various scientific and technological trends 
in North America today which point to the necessity for a new 
social mechanism that will provide security and abundance, with 
a minimum of working hours, to every citizen on this Continent. 

Science and Technology 

door public address systems may be 
eliminated to a large extent by a circuit 
developed by Bell Telephone Labs. Most 
howls come from feedback — the public 
address system microphone picks up noise 
from the loudspeaker and the sound goes 
round and round. Bell's trick is simple. 
Its device lowers the frequency of the 
signal from the mike about five cycles — 
scarcely detectable to listeners — so that 
the sound that goes in the mike is differ- 
ent from the sound that comes out the 
speaker. The result is no feedback buildup. 

out by the Dixie Cup Division of Ameri- 
can Can Co. is designed for use in hospit- 
als. The pitcher is discarded after a 
patients' use, thus eliminating need for 
sterilization. The container has a snap-on 
cover that keeps out airborne bacteria, 
dripless fold-out spout and nests for stor- 
ing in a fraction of the space taken up 
by glass, metal, or plastic pitchers. 

rollers is now a white-glove job. A new 
brush cleaner produced by Westway Mfg. 
Corp., Westlake, Ohio, spins paint-caked 

November, 1959 

brushes inside a jar containing a solvent 
solution. Solvent softens the paint and 
whirling spins it out of the brushes. A 
Yo-yo like m e c ha n i s m sticks down 
through the jar lid and grips the handle 
of any brush up to four inches wide. A 
pull cord and spring return spins the 
brush at high speed. To dry, just spin 
without solvent. 

by Jervis Corp., Grandville, Michigan, 
gives the homeowner the advantages of 
no-rust, easy maintenance aluminum out- 
side frames and the beauty of wood in- 
side sashes. The wooden inside is bonded 
to an aluminum frame which has pre- 
punched holes for easy nailing to stud- 
ding. It is available in 25 sizes in case- 
ment, awning, and picture window styles. 

fully mechanized post office was started 
under construction in April. The $20- 
million working postal laboratory in 
Providence, R.I., is a two-block-long facil- 
ity. It will be a continuing lab for trying 
out and adapting the latest sorting and 
conveying equipment into an efficient 
and swift mail handling system that can 
be duplicated in other major post offices. 
Within the next two years, 11 post 
offices, starting with Denver and Detroit, 
will be made over completely into mod- 


em, semi-automated plants, and another 
15 will get extensive mechanization. 

Letter-handling equipment slated for 
use in the Providence post office includes 
machines that automatically separate, 
stack, cancel letters. 

All processing operations will be di- 
rected from a control tower 26 feet 
above the floor, giving supervisory per- 
sonnel a chance to keep tabs on things 
and to exercise pushbutton control of 


tion canals, and contractors' earthen 
water-storage tanks — a serious problem 
in arid areas — may be stopped by a new 
chemical compound. Called SS-13, it 
works by increasing the absorptive quali- 
ties of soils to produce a saturated condi- 
tion near the surface. This slows down 
the rate at which water filters through. 
A $4,500 treatment of a golf course pond 
system is expected to pay for itself in 

water savings within six months. Manu- 
facturer: Brown Mud Co., Torrance, 


eye controls are now available on still 
cameras as well as movie cameras. A 
photocell computes the current light 
reading and automatically sets the lens 
opening, adjusting it whenever light 
reaches the cell. All the photographer 
has to do is sight and shoot. Manufac- 
turer is Bell and Howell Co., Chicago, 

called Armorline will protect against 
abrasion ten times longer than steel* 
according to the manufacturer, B. F. 
Goodrich Co., Akron. It can be applied 
as a protective lining to metal, concrete, 
wood, and other materials with a thin 
film of tacky rubber bonded to the 'stick- 
ing' side and covered with Holland cloth 
before use. 

* HUNTINGTON BEACH, CALIF.— The world's most advanced computer-auto- 
mated steam-electric power generating units will be installed here next year by 
Southern California Edison Co. 

In operation, the computer control system will continuously scan 900 points to 
monitor such conditions as fuel and water flow, steam temperatures and pressures, 
and electrical values. Each hour, 50 critical quantities — those needed for permanent 
records of operating conditions — will be logged in digital code and printed out on an 
automatic typewriter in the form of common engineering terms such as psi, degrees, 
volts, and the like. 

Heart of the control system is a magnetic drum storage in the computer which 
has a permanent memory of 16,000 'words' — greater than the vocabulary of the 
average college graduate. Using its facility for immediate recall, the drum storage 
allows the computer to compare current operating conditions with predetermined 
'safe' valup p sto r ed in the memory core. 

In addition to eliminating the manual recording process and precluding the 
possibility of human error, the computer also brings 'lag' time between recording 
and analysis to the irreducible minimum, engineers said. — General Electric News. 


Technocracy Digest 

(Continued from page 20) 
autonomy. If, in the summer time 
he wishes to water his lawn, he 
must not do so except on days 
allowed for it in the local sprink- 
ling regulations. If he burns rub- 
bish in the open during the fire 
season he is likely to be prose- 
cuted. He cannot run engines or 
do anything else unduly noisy 
after certain hours lest he disturb 
the peace and tranquillity of the 
neighborhood. Once again, of 
course, as with the car, if his place 
is far out in the country with no 
other residences within hearing 
range, his latitude of movement is 
correspondingly greater. 

It evolves from the foregoing 
that the concept of ownership is 
less concerned with actual pro- 
perty than with a mode of behav- 
ior toward it. People buy property 
because they believe it gives them 
more freedom of action than can 
be achieved otherwise. Yet often 
they bemoan their inability to go 
on outings because of work that 
must be done 'around the place.' 
They are so engrossed in owning 
it that they have not recognized 
it as a considerable and unneces- 
sary burden. 

Ownership is a function of scar- 
city. Apart from clothing and the 

few other items required for per- 
sonal use, ownership of things 
used accrues no benefit to the re- 
spective owners. Where and when 
natural scarcity exists there is a 
tendency for people to accumu- 
late quantities of unneeded mate- 
rials to hold within their control 
against the time when the said 
materials might be needed. This 
pack-rat trait is evidenced in 
practically every basement or attic 
in the land in the form of odds and 
ends of furniture, clothing and 
assorted junk which have been 
gathered over a period of years 
without ever having been looked 
at again once their original use- 
fulness was done. 

Actually, many people are be- 
ginning to recognize ownership 
as an intolerable burden. This is 
particularly so amongst people 
whose occupations require their 
considerable moving. Very often 
they have settled in new com- 
munities, bought houses with the 
expectation of staying there for 
several years, then been suddenly 
uprooted as the result of a trans- 
fer to another locality. Because 
such occupational transfers are 
frequently accompanied by pro- 
motions and pay increases, the 
persons concerned rarely feel that 

November, 1959 


they can turn down the offers. But 
what to do with their recently 
acquired property? The usual dis- 
position is sale both of the real 
estate and of the furnishings, 
though in some cases the furnish- 
ings are moved by van to the new 
homes. A few experiences like 
this increasingly results in such 
home owners throwing up their 
collective arms resignedly as they 
decide that henceforth they will 
rent furnished suites. This has 
proved the most satisfactory solu- 
tion in numerous instances for 
people whose jobs require them 
to make frequent movs. It elimin- 
ates all headaches relative to buy- 
ing or selling homes and furnish- 

Comfort, privacy and freedom 
to do the things one wishes to do 
are the main features sought in a 
home. We have seen that these 
are not automatically endowed by 
the device of ownership; while, on 
the other hand, they are fre- 
quently achieved without ques- 
tion of ownership being involved. 
Such is the case in the instance of 
good quality apartment hotels 
which not only afford the desired 
features in measure equal to or 
superior to the average private 
home, but also offer a range of 

services which the latter cannot 
duplicate. Room service, launder- 
ing and constant unfettered avail- 
ability of local transportation 
combine with various other con- 
veniences to swing the balance 
heavily in favor of this mode of 
domicile amongst some people 
whose financial means are great 
enough to allow them to make 
their manner of living a complete 
matter of choice. That they choose 
to live in an apartment hotel suite 
rather than a palatial private resi- 
dence indicates that they are more 
interested in using their living 
accommodation than owning it. 

Many such people further real- 
ize that there is no particular ad- 
vantage gained in owning their 
own automobiles. Accordingly, if 
they do not hire taxis to run them 
about town, they probably sub- 
scribe to a self-drive car arrange- 
ment. Leasing firms undertake, as 
a condition of contract, to have the 
preferred types of cars for their 
various patrons available at all 
times and in good operating con- 
dition. It does not matter whether 
the same vehicles are obtained 
each time as long as the main 
requirements of availability and 
efficient operation are met. Should 
a particular car not measure up to 


Technocracy Digest 

standard, the leasing firm is 
obliged to substitute it immedi- 
ately for one that is. 

Such an arrangement has fur- 
ther advantages over car owner- 
ship. A number of firms have car 
rental agencies throughout the 
Continent, any of which on being 
financially satisfied will have one 
of their vehicles ready for any 
patron wishing to use it. He may 
drive it several hundred miles 
from home, then suddenly learn 
that he must return home im- 
mediately by some means faster 
than he can drive. All he has to do 
is to turn the vehicle into a local 
agency of the firm from which he 
rented it, then take a train or 
plane home. Were he using his 
own car he would either have to 
drive home and take a chance on 
being late, or else worry about 
getting it home after having re- 
sorted to the faster transportation. 
Even discounting emergency, it 
frequently happens that people 
tire of driving after long motoring 
trips and, without actually pausing 
in their journeys, would like at 
least a temporary change. Car 
owners must either sell their ve- 
hicles or proceed at the risk of in- 
creasing driver weariness and its 
accompanying hazards. Lessees, 

by contrast, may turn in their 
vehicles to the nearest agency 
offices, use public transportation 
for awhile, then resume motoring 
when they again feel like it. 

North Americans have been 
sold a bill of goods on the sup- 
posed merits of property owner- 
ship. Until quite recently most 
have succumbed to the phony 
propaganda that it was their in- 
violable birthright, for a stated 
sum of money exchanged for a 
fancily inscribed document, to 
fence off a piece of land and con- 
sider it their private domain. They 
have not understood that every 
division, political or proprietorial, 
of the Continent on which they 
live constitutes a further obstruc- 
tion to the operation of the physi- 
cal equipment upon which their 
lives depend. Some, we have seen, 
have at least temporarily sus- 
pended their pursuit of this ob- 
jective because of ownership diffi- 
culties imposed by frequent 
occupational transfers, though not 
all of these have completely 
abandoned their life-long dreams 
of acquiring indefeasible titles to 
blocs of real estate. Others, while 
possibly not realizing the signifi- 
cance of their changed outlook, 
are wondering why they should 

November, 1959 


bother owning homes, cars or 
other appurtenances when as 
great or greater benefits accrue 
from not owning them — even in a 
Price System society in which the 
alternatives to private ownership 
are operated as commercial enter- 
prises for financial gain. This 
reasoning, most prevalent among 
that growing body of North 
Americans who are moving about 
considerably, is gradually produc- 
ing a citizenry that is more inter- 
ested in availability and use of 
facilities than in property owner- 

The sanctity of ownership is 
suspect from another facet. 

Almost daily we read of indi- 
vidual or collective disasters strik- 
ing at citizens. It may be fire, 
wind, flood, earthquake or any of 
various other causes that does the 
damage, but frequently there is 
considerable if not irreparable 
loss. Who suffers this loss? The 
accounts usually indicate that it 
was the owners of the property 
who took the beating. 'They lost 
all they had' is too often the gist 
oi the reports. Because the owners 
were induced to take the respon- 
sibility for their own welfare in 
the purchase of property, they 
must by the 'privilege' thus grant- 

ed them therefore accept respon- 
sibility for any disaster which 
might befall them during that 
ownership. True, they can insure 
themselves against some forms of 
catastrophe, but this depends up- 
cn the receipt of a steady income 
— so if for any reason the source 
of revenue dries up and premiums 
on the insurance policies cease 
being made, that form of protec- 
tion discontinues forthwith. In 
such cases, a home-destroying fire 
oi crop-ruining hailstorm can be 
completely calamitous to the per- 
sons concerned. Society as a 
whole, apart from expressing its 
sympathy and, in extreme cases, 
doling out small measures of char- 
itable relief, accepts no responsi- 
bility for the victims' welfare. 
They are free agents and are free 
to get themselves out of their fix 
as best they can. 

Any society worthy of its forma- 
tion will, by contrast to Price 
System practices, at all times 
assume its obligation of fulfilling 
the needs of its citizens and of 
protecting them as far as possible 
against misfortune. Nor will it 
permit any individual or indi- 
viduals to wield an authority 
which could possibly obstruct the 
efficient operation of the facilities 


Technocracy Digest 

supporting the social structure. In 
short, a functionally designed 
society would eliminate most diffi- 
culties stemming from the exer- 
cise of the ownership concept. 
This concept, born of scarcity, 
would largely disappear in the 
flood of supplies and services issu- 
ing from an abundant economy. 

The social blueprint of Technoc- 
racy provides such an economy 
specifically designed for the physi- 
cal wealth of the North American 
Technate. The Technate will not 
'own' the land within its scope, 
but will have full range of func- 
tional operation therein. What are 
some ramifications of such a tech- 
nique of social control? 

We have observed that already 
many citizens prefer to rent fur- 
nished suites and operate leased 
cars, having found straight use 
superior to ownership. The Tech- 
nate would vastly increase and 
improve upon the existing facili- 
ties in these and all other fields 
of operation. Citizens would not 
own their living quarters — any 
more than they do their present 
telephones which they use con- 
stantly without any thought of 
owning — but they would have the 
use of them as long as they liked. 
Moreover, housewives would, if 

they wished, be completely re- 
lieved of the necessity of house- 
keeping, cooking, laundering, and 
performing other tasks which con- 
stitute part of their present 'pri- 
vilege' of ownership. Facilities 
would be constantly at hand to 
have this work done at no cost to 
them. Of course, if some ladies 
(or gentlemen for that matter) 
wished to do these things them- 
selves, that would be their pre- 
rogative — with as much or little 
technological assistance as desired. 
How strongly would they insist on 
doing their own laundering, 
though, when all they need actu- 
ally do is drop it in a chute, then 
wait for a couple of hours for it 
to come back — washed, dried, 
ironed and ready to wear? 

Nobody would own a car in the 
Technate. The privilege of buying 
annual licences, paying expensive 
maintenance bills and worrying 
about the possibility of family de- 
privation in the event of liability 
incurred through accidents would 
no longer exist. Instead, the citi- 
zen would have to be satisfied 
with using a car whenever he 
wanted — as long as he held an 
operator's permit. Then, if he 
were responsible for an accident, 
he would have to be satisfied in 

November, 1959 


knowing that, however he might 
be disciplined for his negligence, 
at least his family would not 
materially suffer as a result. 

Physical misfortune, aside from 
actual injury, would not be a 
personal incursion within the 
Technate. Citizens of an area 
devastated by a tornado, for in- 
stance, would be moved as quickly 
a? possible to another region 
where they would be completely 
rehoused and reclothed. The Tech- 
nate, not its citizenry, would ab- 
sorb the material losses sustained 
and would cushion the people as 
much as possible from their effects. 

Elimination of property owner- 
ship would have other beneficial 
effects. Nobody would be able to 
maintain substandard housing, as 
is now a general practice, to ob- 
tain high rentals at the expense 
of other citizens. They would be 
unable to block major projects for 

extended periods — such as high- 
way construction — in order to 
extract exorbitant prices for the 
land being purchased for such 

Technocracy does not advocate 
elimination of the ownership con- 
cept. It does not have to. The con- 
cept, valid only under conditions 
of scarcity, has been having an in- 
creasingly difficult time surviv- 
ing in the midst of the growing 
abundance produced by North 
America's accelerating abundance 
The trend toward a decreasing in- 
terest in property ownership has 
already been established. Tech- 
nocracy Inc. points out that the 
surrender of this obsolete concept 
to that of functional utilization of 
facilities will be an important lub- 
ricant in opening the gateway to 
a new social era — the North 
American Technate. 

— Rupert N. Urquhart 

-fc TORONTO — The tendency to weaken and even paralyze business efficiency by 
paper is exemplified by the predicament of Britain's atom industry. 

Firms competing for orders for atom power stations have to submit specially 
denned tenders. It has emerged, according to the Daily Express of London, that the 
specifications, reports, and drawings of one company for one tender weighed 2% tons 
and cost £250,000 to prepare. In the words of The Daily Express comment: This is 
sheer lunacy. Britain just cannot afford it. Imagine the waste of invaluable brainpower, 
let alone money, when three or four firms compete.' — The Outlook 

it DETROIT — West H. Gallogly claims he has invented 'that better mousetrap.' 

His firm is manufacturing a new 'mouse house,' a disposable trap that comes pre- 
baited. He said the outstanding feature is that the beast is trapped inside a house 
and can be tossed into the trash can without ever being seen. Gallogly said there is 
'no muss, no fuss' and his traps are clean, easy and so simple anyone can use them. 

— United Press International 


Technocracy Digest 

Fuel Facts Faced 

The fallowing article by Admiral H. G. Rickover first appeared in 
Kiwanis Magazine, Chicago. Admiral Rickover, skipper of the U.S. 
atomic submarine 'Nautilus', takes a hard look at the growing prob- 
lem of dwindling fossil fuel supplies. 

/^NLY 100 years ago man did 
^^ the work of the world. At the 
time of the Civil War, men and 
animals supplied 94% of the 
world's energy. The remaining 
energy came from fossil fuels — 
the coals, oils, and natural gases 
lying beneath the surface of our 

But that was 100 years ago. 
Now the position is reversed, and 
man has literally retired to his 
rocking chair. Presently men and 
animals account for a mere six 
per cent of the world's energy, 
with water power providing an- 
other one per cent. The bulk of 
our power — 93% to be specific — 
comes from the long ignored fossil 

Nowhere are these rates higher 
and growing faster than in the 
United States, which with only 
six per cent of the world's popula- 
tion, uses one third of the world's 
total energy input. This propor- 
tion would be even greater except 

that energy is used more effici- 
ently than in other countries. 

With the high energy consump- 
tion goes a high standard of liv- 
ing. Thus the enormous fossil en- 
ergy we control feeds machines 
making each of us masters of an 
army of mechanical slaves. Ma- 
chines furnish each industrial 
worker with energy equivalent to 
that of 244 men, while at least 
2,000 men push his automobile 
along the highway, and the jet 
pilot has at his finger-tips the 
power of 700,000 men. 

Truly, the humblest American 
enjoys the services of more slaves 
than were once owned by the 
richest nobles, and lives better 
than most ancient kings. In retro- 
spect, and despite wars, revolu- 
tions, and disasters, the hundred 
years just gone by may well seem 
like a 'Golden Age.' 

Whether this age will continue 
depends upon our ability to keep 
energy supplies in balance with 

November, 1959 


the needs of our growing popula- 

A reduction of per capita en- 
ergy consumption has always led 
to a reversion to a more primitive 
way of life. For example, exhaus- 
tion of wood fuel may have been 
the primary reason for the fall of 
the Mayan civilization and the 
decline of Asia's once-flourishing 
civilization. India and China once 
had large forests, as did much of 
the Middle East. 

It is a sobering thought that the 
impoverished people of Asia, who 
today seldom go to sleep with 
their hunger completely satisfied, 
were once far more civilized and 
lived much better than the people 
of the West. And not so very long 
ago, either. 

Our civilization rests upon a 
technological base that requires 
enormous quantities of fossil fuels. 
What assurance do we have, then, 
that our energy needs will con- 
tinue to be supplied by fossil 
fuels? The answer is — none ! 

The earth is finite. Fossil fuels 
are not renewable. In this respect 
our energy base differs from that 
of all earlier civilizations. They 
could have maintained their en- 
ergy supply by careful cultiva- 
tion. We cannot. 

How long will our fuel reserves 
last? In the face of the basic fact 
that fossil fuel reserves are finite, 
this is an academic question. It is 
important in only one respect: The 
longer they last, the more time 
will we have to invent ways of 
living off substitute energy sour- 
ces and to adjust our economy to 
the vast changes which we can ex- 
pect from such a shift. 

For it is an unpleasant fact that 
readily recoverable fossil fuel re- 
serves are likely to run out some- 
time between the years 2000 and 
2050, if present standards of living 
and population growth rates per- 
sist. Oil and natural gas will dis- 
appear first; coal last. There will 
be coal left in the earth, of course. 
But it will be so difficult to mine 
that energy costs would be econ- 
omically intolerable; it would 
then become necessary either to 
discover new energy sources or 
to lower standards of living. 

The popularizers of scientific 
news would have us believe that 
there is no cause for anxiety, that 
reserves will last thousands of 
years, and that before they run 
out science will have produced 
miracles. Our past history and 
security have given us the senti- 
mental belief that the things we 


Technocracy Digest 

fear will never really happen — 
that everything turns out right 
in the end. But prudent men will 
reject these tranquilizers and pre- 
fer to face the facts and plan in- 
telligently for posterity. 

Looking into the future, we can- 
not feel overly confident that pre- 
sent standards of living will con- 
tinue through the next century. 
Fossil fuel costs will rise as the 
reserves are exhausted. More 
effort will be required to obtain 
the same energy from remaining 
reserves. Liquid fuel synthesized 
from coal will be expensive. Can 
we feel certain that science will 
learn how to maintain a high 
standard oi living on renewable 
energy sources? 

We can expect renewable fuel 
to supply only seven to fifteen 
per cent of future needs. The most 
important of these sources are 
wood, farm wastes, wind, water 
power and solar heat. 

Growing food requirements rule 
out the use of land for wood fuel 
and farm wastes. Land is more 
likely to be used for food produc- 
tion than for tree crops; farm 
wastes may be more urgently 
needed to fertilize the soil than 
to fuel machines. 

Wind and water power can fur- 

nish only a very small percentage 
of our energy needs. Nor would 
anything we know today justify 
putting too much reliance on solar 
energy, though it will probably 
prove feasible for home heating 
and for cooking in hot countries, 
such as India, that lack wood. 

More promisiing is the outlook 
for nuclear fuels. These are not, 
properly speaking, renewable en- 
ergy sources, at least not in the 
present state of technology. But 
their capacity to 'breed' and the 
very high energy output from 
small quantities of fissionable ma- 
terial, as well as the fact that such 
materials are relatively abundant, 
do seem to put nuclear fuels into 
a separate category from exhaust- 
ible fossil fuels. The disposal of 
radioactive wastes is a problem 
that must be solved before there 
can be any widespread use of 
nuclear power. 

Another limit in its use is that 
we do not know how to employ 
it other than in large units. Be- 
cause of its inherent characteris- 
tics, nuclear fuel cannot be used 
directly in small machines, such 
as cars, trucks, or tractors. It is 
doubtful that it could, in the for- 
seeable future, furnish economical 
fuel for civilian airplanes or ships, 

November, 1959 


except very large ones. Rather 
than nuclear locomotives, it might 
prove advantageous to move 
trains by electricity produced in 
nuclear central stations. We are, 
however, only at the beginning of 
nuclear technology, so it is diffi- 
cult to predict what we may 

Transportation — the lifeblood of 
all technically advanced civiliza- 
tions — seems to be assured once 
we have borne the initial high 
cost of electrifying railroads and 
replacing buses with streetcars or 
monorails. But, unless science can 
perform the miracle of synthesiz- 
ing automobile fuel from some en- 
ergy source yet unknown, it will 
be wise to face up to the possi- 
bility of the ultimate disappear- 
ance of automobiles, trucks, buses 
and tractors. Before all the oil is 

gone and hydrogenation of coal 
has ended, the cost of automotive 
fuel may have risen to a point 
where private cars will be too ex- 
pensive to run and public trans- 
portation again becomes profit- 

I suggest that this is a good time 
to think soberly about our re- 
sponsibilities to our descendants 
— those who will ring out the Fos- 
sil Fuel Age. Our greatest respon- 
sibility, as parents and as citizens, 
is to give our youngsters the best 
possible education. We need the 
best teachers and enough of them 
to prepare our young people for 
a future immeasurably more com- 
plex than the present, and calling 
for ever larger numbers of compe- 
tent and highly trained men and 
women. — Admiral H. G. Rickover 

^ VANCOUVER — Billions of bodies paint a picture of world growth and change 
which the west is going to have to study. They are the 2.8 billion people of the world, 
growing at the rate of 45,000,000 a year, and growing much more rapidly in the east 
than in the west. Over half the world's population now lives in Asia, only 14% in 
Europe. And by A.D. 2000 Asia will probably have 60% of the total, Europe only 10%. 
The higher the social development of a country, the lower the birthrate and 
the lower the deathrate. Russia's population stands at over 200,000,000, the United 
States' 170,000,000; but these figures are dwarfed by China's 640,000,000, and 
India's 400,000,000. The birthrates of the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. are moderate and 
identical — 25 per thousand as compared with an extreme of 60. They approach 
stability while the Far East burgeons. — Vancouver Province 

it PARIS — Dr. Solomon Lefschetz, a well-known American mathematician, said 
here recently that the Soviet Union is 10 to 15 years ahead of the United States in 
the enormously complicated and important field of non-linear differential mathematics. 
The mathematical systems involved in non-linear differential equations underlie virtu- 
ally all natural movement. — New York Times 


Technocracy Digest 

Test-tube Revolution 

The following article from THE NEW YORK TIMES indicates how 
science applied to food production has created an embarrassing abund- 
ance problem for the present economy. Typically, it fails to indicate 
that scientific methods can solve that problem. 

TN the evening the vast reaches 
"■■ of corn — thick and yellow and 
bursting with an ironic prosperity 
— turn to gold and a brief hazy 
aura settles over the prairies. All 
across the land farmers are har- 
vesting record crops in wheat and 
corn fields, and filling the gleam- 
ing sheet-metal storage bins that 
are the oddest hybrid of our times. 
They have worked the final al- 
chemy of nature: they planted 
nitrogen and phosphorus and pot- 
ash and up came gold. It is a tri- 
umphant symbol of a vast revolu- 
tion in farming — the chemical 
revolution of the past fifteen or 
twenty years. 

The food keeps piling up, higher 
and higher, despite the abnormal 
demands of two wars in recent 
years, despite the fact that some 
1,800,000 farms have disappeared 
in the last twenty years, despite 
the fact that about a million acres 
of farmland every year are turned 
into highways, housing develop- 
ments and factories. What hap- 

pened? Why has food production 
continued to go up and up and up? 

Because of the two revolutions 
that have shaken American agri- 
culture in the past century. The 
first was the mechanical revolu- 
tion of the nineteenth century, the 
age of the reaper and binder and 
tractor that gave farm productiv- 
ity its great impetus from mid- 
century to mid-centry. The sec- 
ond was the chemical revolution 
that started about the time of 
World War II and gave vast new 
dimensions to farm productivity. 
About 1850, four farmers could 
produce enough food for five per- 
sons. By 1940, one farmer could 
produce enough food for ten per- 
sons. Today one farmer can pro- 
duce enough food and fibre for 
twenty-four persons. Thus the 
chemical revolution has increased 
farm capacity more in twenty 
years than the mechanical revolu- 
tion did in almost 100 years. 

How? Here are the three most 
significant uses of chemicals to 

November, 1959 


help increase farm productivity — 
and increase it by more than 
enough to cover the cost of the 
chemicals themselves: 

Fertilizers: Every plant needs 
to be nourished by at least fifteen 
different elements. Some of these, 
such as oxygen, hydrogen and car- 
bon, are absorbed from the air and 
from water. But others must be 
supplied by the soil. Every crop 
that is harvested takes some of 
these plant foods out of the soil; 
as recently as 1948, a half-million 
tons of plant nutrients were re- 
moved from the soil of Minnesota 
in one year of farming. Fertilizers 
are the means by which farmers 
return those chemicals to the soil 
for new crops. 

In the past, manure, animal 
bones, even the decaying stalks 
helped provide the chemicals 
needed. (Long before the first 
white settlers arrived in America 
the Indians placed dead fish under 
their stalks of corn, though it is 
unlikely that they understood 
why.) As the drain on the soil in- 
creased over the years, more con- 
centrated and balanced mixtures 
became necessary. Today's fertil- 
izers are chemical compounds, us- 
ually rich in nitrogen, phosphor- 
us and potassium — the most 

essential of the plant foods — which 
are placed in or on the soil to feed 
vital nutrients to the new crops. 
'They serve as a substitute for 
time. A poor soil today can be a 
good soil tomorrow,' Dr. Firman 
E. Bear, a soil scientist of Rutgers 
University, has said. 

Since World War II, the pro- 
duction of chemical fertilizers has 
become a billion - dollar - a - year 
business. Between 1942 and 1952, 
the use of chemical fertilizers 
doubled; since 1952, it has gone 
up another 10%. By now, some 
22,000,000 tons of fertilizer are 
sold annually, enough to create 
stunning increases in productiv- 

'Numerous experiments,' re- 
ported the National Planning 
Association a few years ago, 'show 
that the yield of corn, cotton, hay 
or other crops may be increased 
from 50% to more than 200% by 
one application of fertilizer.' 

Protectant chemicals: In the past 
twenty years, a highly varied fam- 
ily of sprays has been developed 
to kill the insects, diseases, rod- 
ents and weeds which prey upon 
crops. In 1938, insects were eating 
about 25% of everything that 
American farmers grew; by 1954, 
that figure had been cut to 12%. 


Technocracy Digest 

In 1952, the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture estimated 
that weeds cost American farmers 
about $4,000,000 a year; today it 
is possible to kill as many as 20,- 
000,000 weeds in an hour with 
tractor-drawn spray equipment. 
In 1939, only $39,000,000 worth of 
protectant chemicals were sold; 
by 1956, sales had risen sixfold to 
$250,000,000 annually. 

Chemical additives: These are 
vitamins, hormones, enzymes, 
antibiotics and the like, which are 
added to commercial feed to help 
the livestock or poultry fatten 
more on less feed. In 1930, it took 
five pounds of feed to add one 
pound of meat to a broiler chick- 
en; today it takes only 2.4 pounds 
of feed to gain that same pound 
of meat. In 1944, it took 7.2 pounds 
of feed for hens to produce a dozen 
eggs; by 1958, it took only 5.8 
pounds of food to get that dozen 

Just a few years ago it was dis- 
covered that minute quantities of 
one hormone — diethylstilbestrol — 
added to cattle feed would in- 
crease the marketable weight of 
the cattle 20%, while the amount 
of feed was gradually cut down. 
The success of these methods has 
greatly stimulated manufacture of 

commercial feed. In 1946, some 
28,000,000 tons of feed were manu- 
factured; in 1958, some 40,000,000 
tons, or 42.8% more. 

The chemical revolution made 
little change in the appearance of 
the land. In the heartland of the 
nation, where the Mississippi 
river and its tributaries branch 
like veins in an aged hand, the 
fields are still carpeted every year 
with corn. Across the Great Plains 
stretch endless fields of wheat, 
broken here and there by a silo 
or a grain elevator rising above 
the field like a sail on the sea. And 
in the United States Treasury's 
counting rooms, sweat breaks out 
on the men who watch the ex- 
panding abundance of the chem- 
ical age. 

This is where the impact is — 
in the economy of a nation which 
has not yet learned to live with 
abundance. Last year the total 
acreage of farmland under culti- 
vation was the smallest since 1918, 
yet farm production was 11% 
higher than any previous record. 
The wheat and corn crops were 
so huge that they threatened the 
entire concept of price supports. 
The Federal Government has 
about $2,500,000,000 tied up in 
stored wheat. It has $1,800,000,000 

November, 1959 


invested in surplus corn and is 
paying $370,000 a day just to store 
more than a billion bushels of it. 

The Administration's latest eff- 
orts to stifle the mounting sur- 
pluses developed into a macabre 
miscalculation. Last November, 
Secretary of Agriculture Ezra 
Benson offered corn farmers an 
astonishing choice in a referen- 
dum: (1) no restrictions on how 
many acres they could plant to 
corn if they would accept a lower 
support price (about $1.12 a bush- 
el this year as compared with 
$1.35 a bushel last year), or (2) 
continued acreage restrictions 
with a higher price support. Farm- 
ers in twenty-six corn-producing 
states embraced the no-restriction 
plan fervently, 71.1% of them vot- 
ing in favor of it. 

Apparently the Secretary 
thought the law of supply and de- 
mand would work in his favor; 
if the demand for corn (as reflect- 
ed by the lower price) went down, 
the supply also — he hoped — would 
go down. Instead, corn farmers 
saw in his proposal something they 
had never received in the wildest 
days of the New Deal: a guaran- 
teed income for as much corn as 
they could produce. So they set 
earnestly about breaking all re- 

cords for corn production — aided 
enormously by the chemical revo- 
lution in farming. The number of 
acres planted to corn shot up at 
least 15%; the yields also shot up 
as the demand for fertilizer 
mounted. A farmer in Manhaska 
County, Iowa, who grew only 
fourteen acres of corn last year, 
planted 250 acres this year. An- 
other farmer near Des Moines has 
two and one-half times as much 
acreage in corn this year as he 
had last year. 

Simultaneously, the sale of hy- 
brid corn and of chemical fertil- 
izers rose 15% to 30%. One fertil- 
izer plant in Chicago found de- 
mand for its liquid fertilizer 
doubled over last year; it ran out 
of phosphoric acid — a part of its 
chemical fertilizer compound — 
for the first time in memory. 'If 
they want corn,' an Iowa farmer 
said a trifle grimly, 'we'll give 
them corn.' 

James F. Holderman, an Illinois 
corn grower, has 680 acres of the 
most intensely fertilized acres in 
the nation, planted solely to corn. 
He uses fertilizers not freely but 
extravagantly. His father began 
importing fertilizer from Ger- 
many before World War I, when 
the 'acid in the compounds ate 


Technocracy Digest 

away the burlap bags.' One of his 
earliest memories is breaking up 
the 200-pound bags of fertilizer 
with a hammer 'so it would go 
through the corn planter/ (Today 
most fertilizer comes in solid 
granules, usually quite small.) 

Over the years, James Holder- 
man has consistently increased 
his chemical cultivation. 'It was 
an evolutionary process/ he says. 
'In the last two years weVe really 
stepped up its use.' Today Holder- 
man uses some 1,150 pounds of 
fertilizer per acre. 'Probably no- 
body else in the country uses as 
much fertilizer on an acre as I do,' 
he says. The reasons are obvious. 
In the summer, as you drive along 
the country roads, the corn on 
the Holderman farm grows so 
thick and tall that you can hardly 
see the farm buildings for the 

Holderman has three men work- 
ing for him permanently and adds 
seasonal help when he needs it. 
'We accomplish more per man-day 
than other farms,' he says, 'but 
then larger operators have the 
opportunity to do that.' He has 
planted, he says, as many as 105 
acres to corn in a single day. 

But corn is not the income- 
producer on the Holderman farm. 

'My income is from hogs,' he says 
He fattens about 2,500 hogs a year 
for the market. Those hogs con- 
sume about 40,000 bushels of corn 
a year. ('He's a lot smarter to run 
that corn through the hogs and 
get $2 to $2.50 a bushel on the hog 
market than to take $1.12 from the 
Government on the grain market.' 
says one farmer.) 

Actually, Holderman does not 
take anything from the Govern- 
ment in price supports for corn. 
Anything he has left over is sold 
on the open market at nearby 
Morris, Illinois, a farm town of 
about 7,000 persons some fifty-five 
miles southwest of Chicago. 'Some 
folks kid me about adding to the 
surplus,' he says. 'That's the thing 
I'm interested in — adding to my 

For the last year or so Holder- 
man has been using nine or ten 
carloads of fertilizer every year. 
Unlike most farmers, who buy it 
in 100-pound acid-resistant bags 
and shift it to and from a truck 
by hand before tearing it open by 
hand, he hauls it in from nearby 
Morris by the truckload. 'We don't 
handle it by hand at all,' he says. 

Holderman is not satisfied with 
what he knows about chemicals 
and their uses. This summer he 

November, 1959 


set aside twelve acres of ground 
to run 400 tests of different quan- 
tities — 'from two tons an acre 
down to zero' — on seven different 
hybrids of corn. 

Perhaps the most spectacular 
of his experiments has now be- 
come virtually routine on his 
farm; planting the rows of corn 
only twenty-one inches apart in- 
stead of the historic thirty-eight 
to forty-two inches. 'There was a 
lot of room between the rows,' he 
says simply. The protectant chem- 
icals — the herbicides, for instance 
— help him keep the space be- 
tween rows clear of weeds. Once 
the stalks grow tall enough, their 
shade discourages growth of 

'But trying to get people to 
change the space between rows is 
like trying to change the width of 
railroad tracks,' he says. Holder- 
man himself had to build special 
equipment to plant and cultivate 
the corn. 'The only reason corn 
has been planted in rows forty- 
two inches apart all these years,' 
he says, 'is because that was the 
width of a yoke of oxen. 

'The total impact of chemicals 
and denser planting has more 
than tripled my yield in the last 
twenty-five years,' says Holder- 

man. Last year he averaged double 
the sixty-nine-bushel per acre Il- 
linois average. He has gotten 
yields as high as 202 bushels per 
acre in certain selected fields and 
has averaged as high as 175 bush- 
els per acre on other fields. 'Farm- 
ing is a science and a profession 
today,' he says. 'It's not a way of 
life anymore.' 

As time goes on there will be 
fewer farms and fewer acres of 
crops harvested and more mouths 
to feed in the United States — five 
every minute. To some, this is a 
fearful combination. To others, it 
is a challenge. They assert that 
farm production can be stepped up 
as much as 85% over its present 
record-breaking levels simply by 
using the knowledge now avail- 

There will be improvements in 
the uses and applications of fertil- 
izers. Already they are becoming 
richer and richer in their plant 
food content. 'Twenty years ago, 
the average amount of plant nu- 
trient in any chemical fertilizer 
was 20% of the compound,' says 
one industry spokesman. 'Today 
you can get fertilizers made up of 
75% plant nutrient.' 

New protectant chemicals are 
being developed every year (some 


Technocracy Digest 

of them to regulate the growth of years it will be commercially 

plants) at a cost of $750,000 to feasible to use only one and one- 

$1,500,000 for one insecticide. Fur- half pounds of feed for every 

ther success in adding chemicals pound of meat added to a broiler 

to feed is indicated by an experi- chicken. 

ment at the University of Mary- Thus the immediate prospects 
land, where a pound of meat was are not for famine but for con- 
added to a broiler chicken with tinued abundance — and the prob- 
only 1.04 pounds of feed. The feed lems, especially the crop surplus, 
industry believes that within ten that go with that abundance. 

— Wm. B. Furlong 

-fc BOSTON— Sleeping and driving may go together on an automatic highway 
designed by General Motors Corporation in conjuction with AR&T Electronics, 
Inc. The new electronic chauffeur service takes over steering, speed control, and 
obstacle detection. 

All the driver has to do is sit back and relax, look at the scenery, doze, or do 
whatever he does on an automatic electronic highway. It is only necessary for him 
to touch power steering, power brakes, toe-tip accelerator, and push-button trans- 
msision to get on and off the electromagnetic system, or for fuel and rest stops. 

Once on the automatic lane of the Auto-Control System, a car is steered down 
a magnetic path created by low-frequency electrical current from a cable buried in 
the road. An electronic computer translates signals from the cable into right and 
left directional movements to steer the car. This cable also measures car speed. 

A second cable controls speed and spacing of cars. Obstacle detection is accom- 
plished by dividing the highway into a series of control blocks. When a car is in a 
particular block, its speed determines automatically the speed of the vehicles in the 
two preceding blocks. A stalled vehicle automatically stops a car in the block to the 
rear, and this chain reaction backs up all along the highway as other vehicles come 
in range of preceding cars. 

At least if there is an automatic traffic tie up from Chicago to New York, it 
won't be bumper to bumper, but block to block. — Christian Science Monitor. 

* THE AVERAGE NEWSPAPER READER spends only four minutes a day on 
international news, according to recent surveys. When 2000 persons were interviewed 
recently in the United States, it was shown that 79% did not know what the term 
NATO stood for, and that 54% were not familiar with the United Nations and its 
work. v.. 

It was shown by other surveys that 80% of readers follow the comic strips and 
letters to the editor, but that only 20% read serious news and editorials. 

— Western Producer. 

it WOMEN SHOPPERS in some food stores are now able to reach for nylon 
stockings packed in steel 'tin' cans. The manufacturer's slogan is 'Freshness sealed 
in to give you guaranteed satisfaction — double wear in every pair.' No can opener is 
necessary with canned stockings. Each can has a key and tag for rim opening. 

Steel Facts 

November, 1959 49 

Peace Porridge 

■^EACE porridge hot, peace por- 
* ridge cold. 

Wall Street is watching the Ike- 
Nik situation with feverish and 
accrued interest. 

The market keeps running up 
and down, looking over its should- 
er at Mr. Krushchev. It suffers 
from what the experts call 'un- 
certainty', another word for K 

One gets the impression that if 
Ike had shaken hands with Nik 
openly he would have simultan- 
eously shaken five points off In- 

On the other hand, had Ike 
clenched his fist Metals would 
have jumped for joy, (at least 

As it was, by shaking hands be- 
hind his back, the President has 
managed to keep both Dow & 
Jones guessing. 

As far as I can see Wall Street 
doesn't wish Nik and Ike any 
harm. All it wants is for them to 
get into a fight. 

This situation may be alright 

for the professional financier. But 
1 find it trying. My plight is this — 
I'm an old stockholder and I'm 
also an old peacemonger. 

As a stockholder I know that 
should I read on the front page, 
'NIK BLASTS IKE' I can turn 
quickly to Page 12 and see, 

As a peacemonger I might like 
to read, 'IKE LAUDS NIK' on 
page one — yet think what would 
happen to me in the Financial 

I wonder if today's investor 
should beat his uraniums into 
plough shares. 

I wonder if the Ice-enhower 
look is symbolic of continued Cold 

These are serious questions, 

Maybe the best thing for Wall 
Street to do during the Visit 
would be to have a little holiday, 
have a vacation for a while . . . 
That way it wouldn't need to take 
any stock in the news. 

— Barry Mather 


Technocracy Digest 




if Technocracy is the only North Am- 
erican social movement with a North 
American program which has become 
widespread on this Continent. It has 
no affiliation with any other organiza- 
tion, group or association either in North 
America or elsewhere. 
if The basic unit of Technocracy is the 
chartered Section consisting of a min- 
imum of 50 members and running up to 
several hundred. 

if It is not a commercial organization 
or a political party; it has no financial 
subsidy or endowment and has no debts. 
Technocracy is supported entirely by the 
dues and donations of its own members. 
The widespread membership activities 
of Technocracy are performed volun- 
tarily; no royalties, commissions or bon- 
uses are paid, and only a small full-time 
staff receives subsistence allowances. The 
annual dues are $9.00 which are paid by 
the member to his local Section. 
if Members wear the chromium and 
vermilion insignia of Technocracy — the 
Monad, an ancient generic symbol signi- 
fying balance. 


if There are units and members of 
Technocracy in almost every State in the 
U.S. and in all Provinces in Canada, and 
in addition there are members in Alaska, 
Hawaii, Panama, Puerto Rico and in 
numerous other places with the Armed 

if Members of Technocracy are glad 
to travel many miles to discuss Tech- 
nocracy's Program with any interested 
people and Continental Headquarters 
will be pleased to inform any one of the 
location of the nearest Technocracy unit. 


if Technocracy originated in the winter 
of 1918-1919 when Howard Scott formed 
a group of scientists, engineers and econ- 
omists that become known in 1920 as 
The Technical Alliance — a research or- 
ganization. In 1933 it was incorporated 
under the laws of the State of New York 
as a non-profit, non-political, non-sec- 
tarian membership organization. In 1934, 
Howard Scott, Director-in-Chief, made 
his first Continental lecture tour which 
laid the foundations of the present 
nation - wide membership organization. 
Since 1934 Technocracy has grown stead- 
ily without any spectacular spurts, re- 
vivals, collapses or rebirths. This is in 
spite of the fact that the press has gen- 
erally 'held the lid' on Technocracy, 
until early in 1942 when it made the 
tremendous 'discovery' that Technocracy 
had been reborn suddenly full-fledged 
with all its members, headquarters, etc., 
in full swing. 


■if Technocracy was built in North 
America by North Americans. It is com- 
posed of North American citizens in all 
walks of life. Technocracy's membership 
is a composite of all the occupations, 
economic levels, races and religions which 
make up this Continent. Membership 
is open only to North American citizens. 
Aliens and politicians are not eligible. 
(By politicians is meant those holding 
elective political office or active office 
in any political party.) 

if Doctor, lawyer, storekeeper, farmer 

mechanic, teacher, preacher or house 

wife — as long as you are a patrioti: 

North American — you are welcome in 


'...... . IS A SOUNDLY 





/^\£?. £d 

The Betrayal of Youth 

The Peril of Pesticides 

Plastic's Thousand Faces 

Atomic Clock 

Automated Weather Man 

New Shape Cutter 

Dynamic Equilibrium 

The Unseen Destroyer 

No. 175 

SEC. 1 • R.D. 12349 





FEBRUARY, 1960 No. 175 


Rupert N. Urquhart Editor Donald Bruce Advisory Editor 

Milton Wildfong Associate Editor Jane URQUHART....Circ«Zafwn Manager 

Helen Slater Business Manager 

The Betrayal of Youth 3 

The Peril of Pesticides 16 

Plastic's Thousand Faces 21 

Atomic Clock 24 

Automated Weather Man 26 

New Shape Cutter 29 

Through the Technoscope ----31 

Dynamic Equilibrium -35 

The Unseen Destroyer 45 

Technocracy Digest is published quarterly by Section 1, R.D. 12349, Technocracy Inc., 
3642 Kingsway, Vancouver 16, B.C., Canada. Single copy, 25 cents. Subscription: 
four issues for $1.00; all three Technocracy Magazines, one year, $3.00. Make all 
cheques and money orders payable to Technocracy Digest. Entire contents copy- 
righted 1960. Printed in Canada. Continental Headquarters of Technocracy Inc. is 
at Rushland, Pennsylvania. 


The Betrayal of loath 

Today's youth, betrayed into complacency by its elders and lured 
into a tinseled Utopia of luxury and indolence, has responded by 
being drab and colorless. Technocracy invites the youth to avenge 
the betrayal by renouncing the Price System and starting to live. 

rPHE youth of North America 


appears, on the general social 

scene, to be without bister or 
initiative; it is certainly without 
dissent. The older generations, 
as always, are inclined to blame 
the youth for its indifference and 
for its failure to live up to their 
expectation of it. But the youth 
responds only to the environ- 
ment and the examples set before 
it. How can the youth of today 
behave differently than it does? 
In the main, this youth is no dif- 
ferent in its basic aspects from 
the youth of previous genera- 
tions; but it appears to be more 
drab, more colorless. The youth 
has been betrayed into a world 
of complacency. 

We can discount in our gen- 
eralizations that small minority 
of degenerates who resort to 
private or gang violence as a 
means of expressing themselves, 
also the pathological thrill-seek- 
ers such as the hot-rodders; and 
we can bypass the rare few of 

"Can You Afford $25 a Head for Us?" 

exceedingly high ability who can 
work their way through the re~ 
straints of their environment. 
These are exceptions; they do 
not represent the youth. But, 
because these exceptions receive 
undue publicity, they tend to 
create a distorted picture of the 
younger generation. The big 

February, 1960 


majority simply is too colorless 
to be noticed. 

The typical North American 
child of today is provided a com- 
fortable home and most of his 
wants are fairly well met by 
doting parents, grandparents, and 
other relatives. He has little to 
do in the way of work or chores; 
discipline is lax; corporal punish- 
ment is 'old fashioned'; school- 
ing is not much of a burden; he 
is conveyed where he must go 
quickly, easily, and comfortably 
by automobile; and at home he is 
entertained by that big-eyed 
monster in the front room, the 
television. Since the beginning 
of World War II, few of the youth 
know what it is like to be with- 
out money in their pockets — 
money that comes easily and in 
generous amounts. On the at- 
tainment of maturity, the major- 
ity of youth expects to settle 
down to a conventional pattern 
of life — a home, a job, a family, 
a late-model car, and a TV set. 
That is their dream-world; and 
to them it is a dream-world that 
is both practical and imminent— - 
one that will come to them almost 
as a heritage. Thus the youth is 
betrayed into the complacent ac- 
ceptance of a tinseled Utopia far 

more glittering with promise 
than any land of milk and honey 
pictured by the prophets of old- 
en days. But such a world is 
superficial and transitory. If it 
were the reality of a permanent 
social pattern, to continue for all 
time, then we could accept it and 
have little basis for complaint; 
we would become reconciled to 
it as the order of the universe. 
The probabilities, however, in- 
dicate far otherwise. 

When we of North America 
think of progress, we tend to 
think of more glamorous para- 
phernalia and accouterments, of 
increased comfort and non-pro- 
ductive leisure, of hours sitting 
before the television. We want 
to be provided for and entertain- 
ed with the minimum amount of 
creativeness and responsibility on 
our part. We not only want 
everything for nothing but we 
also want to be considered big- 
shots by our fellowmen. In this 
respect, North Americans are no 
different than anyone else in the 
world or in history; we just have 
more opportunities! to contem- 
plate it as a probability now than 
anyone else ever had. For many 
of us, the disappointing thing 
about it is that, when the opport- 

Technocracy Digest 

unity does arrive for us to be 
Somebody, the same opportunity 
arrives for so many others also 
that it really isn't as much 'fun' 
as it should be. In the Good Old 
Days, when someone got to be a 
big-shot, he had numerous peo- 
ple of inferior rank to push 
around. Further, with so many 
people graduating into the bour- 
geoisie, that status has become 
commonplace and mediocre. Be- 
sides, the hired help, instead of 
being cheap and servile, is ex- 
pensive and arrogant. Who can 
you be a big-shot to? 

Yes, it is true, North Ameri- 
cans are not much different, in 
their basic natures, from any 
other people; and, alas, they are 
not much of an improvement 
over the worst. All they need is 
the opportunity, and North Am- 
ericans can be as pompous, arro- 
gant, and cruel as any that his- 
tory affords. Of course, with our 
Judaic - Christian culture, we 
have become more advanced in 
the art of dissimulation than 
most; that is, we are more hypo- 
critical. We partially conceal 
our native desires for blood, lust, 
and violence in the vicarious 
pursuit of it through the media 
of make-believe — movies, TV, 

comics, paper-back fiction. The 
Good People would not permit 
the public exhibition of a bull 
being tormented to death in the 
arena (north of Mexico, that is), 
but they would permit their sons 
to participate in 'missions' dur- 
ing wartime in which thousands 
of people are indiscriminately 
blasted to pieces or burned to a 
crisp; and these same Good Peo- 
ple complacently permit the Top 
Brass to prepare for thermonu- 
clear, bacteriological, and chemi- 
cal warfare with the same devo- 
tion (that is, indifference) that 
they permit them to sponsor 
'foreign aid' to reduce to catas- 
trophic proportions the deathrate 
around the world. 

We present the youth with the 
spectacle of an adult population 
that is at heart virtuous; that is, 
respectable, suspicious, intoler- 
ant, humorless, frustrated, duti- 
fully generous. We try to ob- 
serve the established patterns of 
the society and do the proper 
things. We try to be decently 
clothed, live in a stylish house 
(with a large picture window 
which exposes the household to 
public inspection), and we must 
have an obvious means of liveli- 
hood. We must keep a close 

February, 1960 

watch on the neighbors to see 
that they behave themselves; for, 
after all, 'ours is a respectable 
neighborhood' and we don't 
want to be contaminated by im- 
proper associations. To those who 
are heretical, in terms of our 
cherished values, we can be most 
cruel and intolerant; in fact, our 
sadistic impulses often so over- 
whelm us in moments of extreme 
fervor that we usurp the powers 
of our Deity and pronounce ever- 
lasting damnation and hellfire 
upon the 'outlanders,' and we at- 
tribute this sadism to self-right- 
eous virtue. 

We look upon humor as being 
somehow wicked or pornographic, 
so we reserve it for surreptitious 
indulgence behind closed doors 
and within a circle of intimate 
cronies. Because our professed 
standard of virtue is so 'high' 
and because this virtue must be 
catered to by commercial advert- 
isers, it is extremely rare that 
any touch of humor at all is to be 
found in advertising or other pub- 
lic relations material. The ex- 
ceptions are so rare that they 
stand out like sequoias among 
scrub oaks. Where is the humor 
in politics? Imagine if you can, 
the vice-president's exhibiting 

any of the witticisms of a Will 
Rogers, or the president's dis- 
playing the innuendos of a W. C. 
Fields. (The thing about Mr. 
Khruschchev that appeared most 
exasperating to our public of- 
ficials during his recent visit to 
the United States was his facile 
excursions into humor.) 

We are generous in a dutiful 
fashion; we give regularly to the 
Red Cross, to the Community 
Chest, and to a selection of other 
'charities;' and we carefully note 
the amounts and honestly claim 
income tax exemptions on them. 
Our hearts melt at the pleas for 
handouts to the poor unfortun- 
ates in distant lands, especially 
the little children and the home- 
less 'refugees.' We somehow feel 
that we have done a good deed 
with our pitiful little contribu- 
tion although we are almost sure 
that very little of it reaches the 
intended destination after it pass- 
es through a procession of sticky- 
fingers. Another year finds the 
little children in foreign lands 
just as poor and hungry, the ref- 
ugees just as destitute, and the 
appeals for aid even more insist- 

The youth of North America 
is lured into a fantastic dream- 

Technocracy Digest 

world of luxury, extravagance 
and indolence by carefully select- 
ed and exaggerated portrayals of 
such circumstances in Hollywood 
movies, feature articles in For- 
tune and Life, in commercial ad- 
vertisements, and in Chamber of 
Commerce propaganda brochures. 
They are led to believe that any- 
one with an income of less than 
$30,000 a year is an economic 
flop; that anyone who really 
works for wages is lower class; 
that anyone who operates strict- 
ly within the law is a 'rube.' The 
revenue statutes, the speed laws, 
the moral code (vice regulations) , 
tithing, social democracy, con- 
servation of resources, equal jus- 
tice and fair play — these are all 
right for boobs but not for smart 
guys who can evade the legitim- 
acies, procure an indulgence, or 
arrange a fix. 

The youth is exposed to such 
phenomena as the professional 
practitioner who prefers his pay- 
ments in cash rather than by 
cheque; the politician who lives 
substantially above his recorded 
income; the policeman or public 
inspector who collects a routine 
donative; the landlord or super- 
intendent who demands an oc- 
casional tip; the repairman who 

cheats a little on parts and time; 
the salesman who pads his ex- 
pense account; the handler who 
pilfers a 'percentage'; the charity 
agency that withholds 'collecting 
and administrative costs'; even 
that symbol of the highest moral 
virtue, the celibate priest, who 
manages to have an attractive 
'housekeeper.' These all serve as 
exhibits for the character training 
of the youth. 

Plunder in its many forms has 
always had more appeal to those 
who would 'get ahead' than the 
slow increment from 'honest ef- 

The social compulsions under 
the Price System promote the in- 
cubation of schemes for getting 
more for less. The individuals 
are drawn into a rat-race after 
the 'fast buck.' But the competi- 
tion for this is so keen and the 
individual ambitions are so ex- 
pansive that frustration and de- 
feat are the order of the day. 

The great depression of the 
1930's nearly took the conceit 
out of the majority of the people. 
Then, survival gained priority 
over ostentation; and ideas per- 
taining to collective effort and ef- 
ficiency were open to widespread 
consideration. Some attention was 

February, 1960 

given to designing possible ways 
of improving social operations so 
that the population could live at 
a comfortable standard of living, 
with poverty abolished and great 
wealth de-emphasized in society. 
But World War II, with its lavish 
expansion of credit (debt) and 
planned waste on a gigantic scale, 
abolished all such interests and 
considerations. The younger gen- 
eration of today knows nothing 
of the great depression and the 
lessons it contained, and cares 
less; they live in a society which 
has outgrown such 'stupidities.' 
And it is we who have told them 

A generation of children who 
ruled as little tyrants in their 
homes is now coming of age. 
Their parents were so engrossed 
in the rat-race and with getting 
ahead that they did not have 
time for, or devoted interest in, 
preparing their offspring for the 
vicissitudes of a disciplined and 
responsible life. The parents may 
be excused in part by their con- 
fusion over the rapid change 
which has come about in their 
own lifetime and by the 'disarm- 
ing' advice of those 'experts' in 
psychology and education who 
sponsored 'modern' and 'progres- 

sive' philosophies regarding the 
'development' of juvenile char- 

The 'error' of this trend was 
first exposed in a big way during 
World War II when the demands 
of our military leaders were for 
youth of healthful vigor and en- 
durance but sufficiently subdued 
by authoritarian discipline that 
they would march without dis- 
sent into machinegun fire at the 
command of an officer. Even the 
youth who had been subdued by 
the great depression 'responded' 
poorly to such demands; and the 
nation became alarmed at the 
prospect of having spawned a 
brood of sickly, puling, yellow- 
bellies who were more intent on 
being survivors than casualties. 
But the war was soon over 
(thanks in great measure to the 
technology and fighting man- 
hood of the East) and America 
returned to its experiment in 
juvenile supremacy. The preval- 
ence of odd jobs at good pay for 
children during the war, plus 
employer preference for draft- 
exempt employees, provided the 
youth with the wherewithal to 
assert its 'independence' from 
parental discipline. 

Parental authority in the home 


Technocracy Digest 

disintegrated, particularly that of 
the male parent, who came to be 
treated almost an an intruder in 
the matriarchal households of 
suburbia. Whereas, in the mem- 
ory of the grandparent genera- 
tion, the word of the male parent 
was The Law of the household 
and the children of that time con- 
ceived of no alternative to strict 
obedience, the parent of today is 
exposed helplessly to sassiness, 
argumentation, and defiance 
from his young offspring. His 
usual recourse is the futility of 
sporadic tantrums, which merely 
degrades both his prestige and 
their respect for him. Thus the 
circumstance of domestic anarchy 
is added to that of social anarchy. 

Human nature being what it is, 
anarchy leads to disharmony; 
social patterns lose definition and 
precision; and the energies of the 
society are dissipated and wast- 
ed in useless motion and internal 

(Let it be stated here that we 
hold no brief for the old patri- 
archal authority, nor for the old 
tyrajnny of employer over em- 
ployee, nor for the authoritarian 
discipline of the military camp. 
These were far too often char- 
acterized by arbitrary cruelty, 

repression, and deprivation to be 
worthy of eulogy or further ac- 

To a society whose fulfillment 
of purpose demands such a high 
order of development and inte- 
gration of its operational mech- 
anism as ours does, the emphasis 
mist be on organization and func- 
tion. Individual anarchy cannot 
provide the personnel for such a 
social mechanism; neither can 
laissez faire business enterprise. 
Political regulation superimposed 
upon both of these can only stifle 
operations. What is most needed 
is a functional control. To a cer- 
tain extent, functional control al- 
ready is in command, but mostly 
with respect to detailed opera- 
tions. It has to be used, else the 
system would not function at all. 
However, under the Price Sys- 
tem, functional control is being 
smothered by interference regu- 
lations — to our detriment. 

We have lived to see a relativ- 
ly primitive, backward country 
institute a regime of social regu- 
lations which was only a little 
more disciplined and organized 
than our own and, with that 
slight advantage, overtake us in 
a period of forty years in most of 
the essentials of social achieve- 

February, 1960 

ment. This country, the Soviet 
Union, maintained a repressive 
discipline of the individual and it 
imposed a depressive political 
authority over its domain, but it 
did minimize the negative factors 
of business enterprise and cleri- 
cal narcosis. This improvement, 
coupled with a concept of tech- 
nological progress and stimulated 
by outside irritations, has demon- 
strated the efficacy of unified 
control and coordinated social or- 

We have yet to learn that hu- 
man freedom in a high-energy 
society (as well as in any other 
society) must come through dis- 
cipline rather than through laissez 
faire anarchy. We have repeated- 
ly told our youth, from every au- 
thoritative source, that ours is 
the best possible society for man- 
kind; and, now, the youth sus- 
pects differently — but not with 
any zeal for corrective action or 
even thinking. 

The human being is funda- 
mentally an animal. He has some 
advantages and some disadvan- 
tages when compared with other 
animals of his class, the mam- 
mals. Instincts, which serve as 
rigid and useful guides to most 
animals, are almost lacking in 

man. To counterbalance this con- 
dition, man has more intelligence 
and greater ingenuity. He is open 
to a wider choice of action; and 
he is liable to a wider range of 
errors. The history of mankind 
reveals how destructive to man's 
welfare certain of his choices 
may become. The human being 
certainly needs restraint and dir- 
ection if he is to be anything 
other than a wild beast. But we 
need not fall into the error of 
instituting restraint and discip- 
line merely for the sake of re- 
straint and discipline; the human 
race has already experienced too 
much of that. 

The discipline of the individual, 
to be most satisfying to all con- 
cerned, must be based upon his 
function in the society and upon 
the accumulated knowledge of 
the society; and it must be tied 
in with the general discipline of 
all members of the society. 

Before this can be effective, it 
is necessary to define the func- 
tions and objectives of the soc- 
iety. On this score, our present 
society is extremely vague and 
delinquent. For example, the 
basic test of good citizenship — 
yea, the legal test of sanity — is 
the ability to distinguish between 


Technocracy Digest 

'right and wrong.' Yet, where can 
one find a definition of 'right and 
wrong?' A diversity of sectarian 
'thou shalt nots' is hardly a suit- 
able basis for defining the func- 
tion of a citizen in society. Can 
we reasonably ask the youth to 
adjust its behavior to arbitrary 
philosophical codes pertaining to 
property, sex, diet, social rank, 
special privilege, and vocational 
prestige? Yet, it is on vague phil- 
osophical surmises concerning 
such matters that we ask them to 
distinguish between right and 
wrong. At the same time, they 
have no clear-cut alternatives 
laid out for them by instinct pat- 
terns, and their individual judg- 
ments are inadequate for the job. 
No wonder the youth is without 

Discipline of the individual, to 
be respected and useful, must 
make sense from the functional 
point of view. This turns out to 
be a problem, not of authority, 
but, of technology. The technolo- 
gist asks, what is the objective to 
be attained and what must be 
done to attain it? Suppose, for 
example, the social objective is 
defined as a high degree of health 
for the entire population; and the 
health technologist specifies that 

this objective requires, among 
other things, a thorough health 
examination of all individuals 
twice a year. If such a program 
were to be complete and thorough 
it must include every member of 
the population; and all individuals 
of record would have to be ac- 
counted for. Toward this end, 
the Health Sequence would have 
to be highly organized and effi- 
cient. The population would be 
under strict discipline with re- 
spect to this particular function 
of society. But the function 
makes sense; hence, the individu- 
al person would have little basis 
for complaint. This would be par- 
ticularly so once the program 
had been in use for a generation 
or more; for, the individual, hav- 
ing been involved in it from 
birth, conditioned to its recur- 
rence, and being unable to avoid 
it, would accept it as a matter of 
course. And he would be much 
healthier because of it. 

This discipline with respect to 
health examinations would have 
several uses to the society: it 
would provide a semi-annual 
census of the population; it 
would reveal all pregnancies and 
births, and it would note or pre- 
sume all deaths; it would provide 

February, 1960 


a continuous health record of all 
citizens, thus making it possible 
to detect well in advance any 
physical or mental deviation that 
might need attention, either now 
or later. It would enable the soc- 
iety to place the functional em- 
phasis on keeping people well 
rather than merely treating the 
sick and ailing. It would provide 
a thorough statistical record 
with respect to many traits of 
the population, such as age 
groups, physical features, physio- 
logical types, pathological factors, 
psychological traits, and intellec- 
tual capacities. No such 'inven- 
tory' exists today. As for the in- 
dividual, he would be assured 
the longest and most healthful 
life that society can obtain for 

Another field of discipline 
would be that of 'employment.' 
In a functional control, the main 
objective would be to get the 
work done. The simplest and 
least costly method of doing it 
would be the choice of the social 
technologist. Hence, as a matter 
of productive speed and efficien- 
cy, the emphasis would be placed 
on automatic machine processes, 
and human effort would be re- 
duced to the minimum. The 'em- 


ployment' of the people would 
not be fouled up with such con- 
siderations as 'making a living' 
or keeping busy or 'developing 
character' or earning salvation. 
It would simply be handled as a 
job to be done. Further, it would 
make sense to divide the total 
working hours required of human 
beings equally among the 'labor 
force' of the area; and function 
of the individuals would be ex- 
pected as part of their duty to 
society without extraneous or 
contingent considerations such as 
wages, pay scale, or family status. 
Since the main objective is to get 
the work done and not to provide 
employment for people, it would 
be a matter of functional effic- 
iency for the society to carry a 
small percentage of non-func- 
tionals — based on incompetence, 
disability, emotional instability, 
or on 'Section X.' This is in addi- 
tion to the young and those who 
have passed the retirement age. 

Today, our society must carry 
many non-productive individuals 
— some in wasteful luxury, many 
in poverty, and a great many at 
socially useless and detrimental 
occupations. Consider, for exam- 
p^, all the people employed to 

Technocracy Digest 

Mauldin in The St. Louis Post-Dispatch 

"This Disarmament Talk 
Sure Has Panicked the Boys Upstairs" 

handle money and to keep track 
of financial records. 

Most of the factors associated 
with employment today do not 
make sense; and that contributes 
to the difficulty of achieving and 
maintaining discipline in the field 
of employment. For example, ty- 
ing employment to the factors of 
wages, profit, squeeze, and fringe 
benefits often results in disrup- 
tion of essential production and 
service, through strikes, lockouts, 
shutdowns, and curtailments. To 

February, 1960 

provide incentives, opportunity, 
and personal advantages as re- 
wards for misfunction, then to 
try regulating the individuals to 
behave contrary to their natures 
is about the worst way there is to 
operate an economy. 

Under a functional control, it 
would be the duty (function) of 
the society to provide everyone 
with a livelihood commensurate 
with the productive capacity of 
the area. This would be so re- 
gardless of age, sex, or employ- 
ment status. Further, under a 
technological design of distribu- 
tion, there would be no incentive, 
opportunity, or possibility of gyp- 
ing the system to personal advan- 
tage; hence, there would be no 
reward for misfunction. 

In a functional social organiza- 
tion, as contrasted to a philoso- 
phical regime, the essential fields 
of discipline would be these: (1) 
Health; (2) Education; (3) Care 
and training of children; (4) Op- 
erational function (employment) 
(5) Use of living and recreational 
facilities; (6) Social living — com- 
patability with, and respect for 
the rights of, others; (7) Avoca- 
tion or hobbies. In these fields 
of life, all control and regulation 
shall be of a type that is function- 


ally useful and which makes 
sense. Arbitrary regulations, 
such as present-day Blue Laws, 
would have no place in a techno- 
logical control. 

In these fields of discipline, the 
opportunities for evasion would 
be reduced to a minimum by 
technological control devices; in- 
dividual volition would play a 
minor role. For example, the in- 
come of the citizen would be is- 
sued to him in the form of per- 
sonalized, non-accumulative, non- 
negotiable purchase certificates. 
He could use these certificates to 
make purchases for himself; but 
no individual could beg, borrow, 
steal, swindle, or trade for the 
purchasing power of another. 
Further, the certificates cannot 
be given away, lost, gambled 
away, or exchanged; and they 
cannot be used to create debt or 
pile up savings. This 'technologi- 
cal currency' would abolish the 
incentives for nearly all present- 
day crime. There would be other 
effects: Since it would not be pos- 
sible for one to hire the services 
of another, there can be no such 
social disease as employer-em- 
ployee relationships, hence no 
economic permission for one per- 
son to push others around. Since 

there would be no selling for pro- 
fit or other business dealing, the 
pathology of dealer - customer 
(buyer-seller) relationships also 
would be cured. The 'operator* 
would become a misfit in the 

Today, the youth of North Am- 
erica, filled with hope and prom- 
ise, is looking for an easy road 
into the future — a road that is 
all prepared, lighted, and mark- 
ed. What the youth does not 
yet realize is that, if it walnts 
that kind of a road, it must build 

The past course of mankind has 
been a sorry course for the 
youth; it has been burdened with 
toil, poverty, and oppression, and 
discipline has been arbitrary, 
authoritarian, and intemperate. 
Science and technology have 
shown us the way out of that 
sorry rut of history. But the youth 
has been so betrayed by a glam- 
orous make-believe world that it 
does not see what lies ahead. It 
is still suffering from the delu- 
sions of a Price System binge of 
debt-creation. It is still fascin- 
ated with scavenging in the gar- 
bage dumps of the Price System, 
along with the rats and the cock- 
roaches, for salable loot. Like 


Technocracy Digest 

rats in a rat-race, the youth is 
dominated with rat-like incen- 
tives. All it appears to want is 
a more favorable scavenging con- 

The dnly wide, smooth high- 
way into the future for the youth 
of North America is the super- 
highway of Technocracy. But 
every effort has been made by the 
guardians of the Old Order to 
guide the youth away from this 
super-highway and onto the 
treacherous, bog-infested trails 
of the Price System. With hocus- 
pocus and tinsel promises, the 
youth has been misled. It has 
been coddled and weakened with 

ease and luxury; the knife in the 
back comes later. 

Technocracy warns the youth 
of the conspiracy of betrayal and 
offers it the blueprint for the new 
super-highway of Abundance. 
Technocracy challenges the youth 
with the greatest social design 
yet offered to mankind. It is 
now up to the youth to set about 
building that super-highway to 
the New America. 

Youth of North America! Your 
elders have betrayed you. But 
all is not lost. By fighting your 
way out of the Price System, you 
can avenge your betrayal and 
start living the life of decent hu- 
man beings. — Wilton Ivie, CHQ. 



Enclosed find $ to cover Subscriptions to TECHNOCRACY'S Maga- 
zines as follows: 

Q All three Magazines, one year, $3.00 
Q All three Magazines, six months, $1.50 

□ TECHNOCRACY DIGEST, 4 issues, $1.00 

□ THE NORTHWEST TECHNOCRAT, 4 issues, $1.00 

□ THE TECHNOCRAT, 4 issues, $1.00 

Send to: 

Single copies: Current issues, 25c; Back issues, 15c; More than a year old, 10c 
] This is a new subscription ] This is a renewal. To begin 


February, 1960 


The Peril of Pesticides 

In this reprint from THE NATION magazine, Robert L. Rudd, 
professor of zoology at the University of California, explains how 
pesticides have created as many problems as they have solved. This 
type of pest control should be substituted by normal biological control. 

^■^ tion of 1959's cranberry crop 
dramatizes hazards which accom- 
pany the growing use of chemical 
pesticides. Yet the danger reveal- 
ed by the incident is not, in the 
long run, the basic one involved 
in the use of pesticides, and to 
that extent our alarm is misdir- 

Traditionally, man has resist- 
ed the onslaughts of competing 
animals and plants with the crud- 
est of measures. He has been 
compelled to pay a certain tariff 
to these competitors — a portion 
of his crops, his livestock, his 
timber or his person. Occasion- 
ally the tax is too great and he 
fails. But he has never been 
content to pay the tithe and has 
followed every path that promises 
to reduce or to eliminate his 
competitors. Less than two dec- 
ades ago, new chemical discov- 
eries revealed a pathway which 
promised total release from this 
competition. DDT was and re- 

mains the best known of the pes- 
ticides along this pathway of 
promise, but there are dozens of 
others. Many are quite unlike 
DDT; some are more toxic; many 
are widely used. 

Although our experience with 
these chemicals has been brief, it 
has also been intense and greatly 
varied. We are therefore now 
justified in asking the question: 
Have chemical controls led to the 
Eden which earlier experience 
promised? In spite of short-term 
gains in crop yields, and localiz- 
ed alleviation of disease, my an- 
swer is 'No!' Their use has in 
fact created as many problems 
as have been solved. Witness a 
few: Increasing contamination of 
our lands, waters and foodstuffs; 
increasing billions to support un- 
needed production; increasing de- 
struction of natural - control 
agents; increasing misery from 
overproduction in many areas of 
the world. 

A great deal of publicity has 

Technocracy Digest 

already been given to 'kills' of 
fish and wildlife resulting from 
wide-spread use of chemical 
pesticides; to the omnipresence 
of chemical residues in our foods, 
to the possibility of injury to hu- 
man beings (the cranberry crisis) 
and livestock. The public de- 
bate on these matters has led to 
a greater awareness of the haz- 
ard, a general heightening of re- 
sponsibility in users, industry 
and government, a greater re- 
search effort, and to some cor- 
rective legislation. 

Most of this emphasis has cen- 
tered on chemicals alone. A com- 
mon belief is that solution of 
hazard problems will also solve 
pest-control problems. This is 
by no means true. Following 
present land-use practices, we 
must use chemicals — and the 
frequency with which we use 
them must increase as our land 
use continues to intensify. Elim- 
inate pesticides and our 'plagues 
and pestilences' would be far 
more severe than they were be- 
fore the advent of pest control. 

Why is chemical pest control 
now a necessity? Why does one 
chemical treatment normally lead 
to another — to repetitive applica- 
tion? An ecologist would answ- 

er 'Simplification of the ecosys- 
tem.' The ecosystem is the total 
living complex, relatively stable 
because of the great diversity of 
actions and kinds of organisms. 
When something gets out of bal- 
ance in such a system, correc- 
tions occur quickly and the im- 
balance is corrected. Hawks and 
owls, for example, congregate in 
unusual numbers where large 
numbers of mice occur. Checks 
to abnormal increase of any 
species are inherent in most eco- 
systems. In simplified ecosys- 
tems, natural controls are fewer 
and respond less rapidly. Poten- 
tial pests become actual pests un- 
der this condition, and herein lies 
the real danger of our present 
control practices. 

All managed crop and timber 
production deals with simplified 
ecosystems. The first person to 
harvest and store natural cereal 
grain for later sowing started the 
simplification of agriculture. Un- 
til the mechanization and later 
chemicalization of agriculture, 
there was little substantial depar- 
ture from the methods of the first 
agriculturists. Acreages were 
small, landscapes diverse. Eco- 
system simplification was rela- 
tively slight and was in any event 

February, 1960 


local. Hedgerows, trees, weed 
patches, seasonal cropping and 
multipurpose farming combined 
to form a diversified base for a 
diversified fauna. Mechanized 
and chemicalized crop production 
has resulted in large expanses 
of single crop species — the de- 
struction of diversity in the land- 

Simplification of the fauna fol- 
lows simplification of the land- 
scape. A pest species provided 
with abundant food and few com- 
peting animals to check its in- 
crease, may under these condi- 
tions become far more numerous 
than was ever remotely possible 
before present-day, large-scale 
simplification. When the pest is 
introduced from another coun- 
try, rarely does it bring with it 
any of the animals which control 
it in its native land; as a result, 
great increase in numbers with 
devasting consequences can be 
expected. Most of our major in- 
sect pests are 'introduced' spec- 

We further simplify the fauna 
by two means. We remove single 
species — ■ coyotes for example — 
when the methods are available 
to do so. When such methods 
are not available, we do so by 

nondiscriminating means such as 
blanket chemicals. The use of 
parathion in citrus groves, for ex- 
ample, kills most insects non- 
selectively. Control of a pest 
species may be temporarily 
achieved by chemicals, but the 
resurgence of pest species is al- 
most assuredly more rapid than 
is that of the predators and para- 
sites normally checking the pest 
species. Initial chemical control, 
therefore , creates the later need 
for more chemicals. Once begun, 
there is no stopping if the crop 
is not to be lost. 

If repetitive treatment with the 
same chemical is continued, con- 
trol of one pest may be achieved 
in time to herald the arrival of a 
new one. Shifts in animal bal- 
ances can well result in the in- 
crease of previously harmful 
species to pest numbers. The em- 
ergence of spider mites to pest 
status followed successive treat- 
ments with DDT in orchards 
throughout the world. As anoth- 
er example, the control of coy- 
otes and to some extent the 
smaller predatory mammals, may 
be responsible for the irruptions 
of rodents in Western rangelands. 
Although this belief is hotly dis- 
puted, the fact is that many live- 


Technocracy Digest 

stock growers have forbidden the 
poisoning or trapping of preda- 
tory mammals on their property. 
Their aim is rodent control; their 
method — natural check and bal- 
ance in an ecosystem previously 

I have described the conditions 
under which chemicals may per- 
petuate pest control by reducing 
natural checks to population in- 
crease, and the particular way in 
which new pests can be created. 
It is also apparent, in rodents, 
that partial reduction of a pest 
population may actually act as a 
stimulus to breeding by the pest 
species. This reaction does not 
seem to be widely appreciated 
among pest controllers; yet it is 
a maxim of livestock growers 
and managers of game species 
that reduction in numbers is of- 
ten necessary to yield maximum 
vigor and reproduction. 

Simplification of the ecosystem 
is the result of most current pro- 
duction practice in the United 
States. Clearly, immense biolog- 
ical and economic problems are 
created by it. Yet, one other 
characteristic of our age compli- 
cates these problems further — 
transportation. To an unprece- 
dented extent, animals and plants 

are being moved from one part 
of the world to another. Rela- 
tively few are intentional intro- 
ductions (certain game birds and 
the biological-control organisms 
are exceptions); most introduc- 
tions are unintentional. The 
hardier species become establish- 
ed, spread and may well become 
spectacular pests. The gypsy 
moth, corn borer and boll weevil 
are examples among insects; 
house rats and mice are excellent 
examples among mammals. No 
practical way of defending un- 
wanted alien introductions has 
yet been found. 

Quarantine measures, now 
standard practices at ports of en- 
try, consist of prohibitions against 
certain plants and animals known 
to be contaminated, and inspec- 
tions of admissible kinds to inter- 
cept contaminated stocks. Valu- 
able as quarantine is, it is only 
partially effective. Fifteen of our 
major insect pests appeared in 
this country after the establish- 
ment of federal quarantine pro- 
cedures. It is virtually impossible 
to prevent the entry of major 
pest species. 

The only recourse available 
when such a pest becomes estab- 
lished is an 'eradication' cam- 

February, 1960 


paign. A serious belief in the 
ability to eradicate pest-insect 
species is very recent: only the 
combination of aerial application 
and new synthetic chemicals 
make it possible. In only one 
species — the Mediterranean fruit 
fly — has such a campaign been 
successful; the recent eradication 
of the pest in a few counties in 
Florida followed just such meth- 
ods. But the fly had been 'eradi- 
cated' previously — thirty years 
ago. The 'eradication' programs 
against the gypsy moth and the 
imported fire ant aim at species 
well established in a number of 
states. Chlorinated hydrocarbon 
insecticides distributed by air are 
the control means. Both cam- 
paigns have been bitterly oppos- 
ed. Eradication of these species 
is indeed possible, but an in- 
formed public will not tolerate 
the hazards nor the cost necessary 
for such efforts. 

The simplification of ecosys- 
tems resulting from the use of 
nonselective, toxic chemicals 
creates problems in addition to 
the loss of, or threat to, desirable 
species. To illustrate, two pest 
insects — the rice stink bug and 
the sugar-cane borer — in Louisi- 
ana last year irrupted to econom- 

ically serious levels following 

fire - ant 'control' measures. 
Competent entomologists 'credit' 
these outbreaks to the nonselec- 
tives action of a control chemical 
— the removal of the natural 
checks on the populations of pest 
species. Of course, additional 
chemical means are available to 
control the insect irruptions caus- 
ed by the initial chemical treat- 
ment. Simplification of the eco- 
system followed by unimagina- 
tive methods to keep it simple! 
The total price is much greater 
than the cost of the first insect- 
control treatment. 

If simplification of the ecosys- 
tem has produced serious pest 
problems, the obvious solution 
to them is to reverse the pattern. 
Complicate it! The eminent eco- 
logist, Professor Charles Elton of 
Oxford, in a recent book sug- 
gests that we both conserve var- 
iety and cultivate ecological di- 
versity. He says in fact that we 
must do so if we are to produce 
indefinitely from lands now in 
use. We must do so if our aesth- 
etically satisfying landscapes are 
to remain. How can we accom- 
plish this 'complication'? 

We do know how. But before 
(Continued on page 33) 


Technocracy Digest 


February, 1960 

Compiled by Editorial Staff 

No. 175 

PlaltiaL ^Uauland tf-aced. 

npHE research crews who come up almost every day with new 
*■■ products made of plastics are much like Lon Chaney, the movie 
character actor who was known a generation ago as the 'man of a 
thousand faces.' 

New plants are being announced to cope with the steadily in- 
creasing demand and new products undreamed of in Lon Chaney's 
era, when Leo H. Baekeland gave the budding industry a big advance 
with his discovery that a synthetic resin could be formed by the 
condensation of phenols and formaldehyde. The product was named 
Bakelite, after its developer and then the rush began. 

In addition to plastics used to make end-products, there are a 
host of 'intermediates' as well. One of these way-station products is 
acrylqnitrile, now being used commercially to modify the end prop- 
erties of a natural product. American Cyanamid Company is re- 
sponsible for this inovation, which in essence modifies paper pulp 
for use in General Electric insulation. 

Up to now acrylonitrile has been used chiefly in making syn- 
FebRUaRV, 1960 21 

thetic rubber and acrylic fibers, such as Cyanamid's new Creslan 
fiber. The plastics industry is using increasing quantities to turn out 
surface coatings with better resistance to marring, molding com- 
pounds with greater impact strength and less brittleness and rubber- 
reinforcing resins that modify rubber's physical properties. 

The Polymer Chemicals Division of W. R. Grace & Co., Inc., 
which produces Grex high density polyethylene, reports that imag- 
ination knows few bounds in dreaming up new uses for the highly 
versatile polyethylene. 

One of these, soon to appear on the market, following consumer 
testing, is a molded dish in the shape of a conventional frozen vege- 
table package in which food can be prepared, cooked, frozen, dis- 
tributed, kept and eventually served. Owens-Illinois Glass Com- 
pany will open a plant near Toronto to make similar containers for 
detergents and other items. 

In the field of commercial coatings and paints, vinyl resin salens 
were in 1958 expected to top 85,000,000 pounds, which not only is a 
record, but is 30 per cent more than 1957's volume. 

The figure was given by H. W. Greenwood, market manager 
of the Union Carbide Plastics Company, a division of Union Carbide 
Corporation and formerly known as the Bakelite division. Mr. 
Greenwood also told the Paint Industries Show at Atlantic City that 
the expected volume to reach 130,000,000 pounds a year by 1963. 

Vinyl dispersions are being used more and more for factory- 
coating of computing machines, television cabinets, automobile dash- 
boards, parts of automobile bodies and other surfaces. One big 
advantage they offer is that they lend themselves well to automatic 

A new plant to make methylamines, basic chemicals used in 
agricultural supplies, rocket propellants, textile fibers and dyes, rub- 
ber ingredients and pharmaceuticals, is to be built by E. I. du Pont 
de Nemours & Co., Inc., at Belle, W.Va., more than doubling present 

The Borden Chemical Company is preparing to start work on 

22 Technocracy Digest 

a combined resins and formaldehyde plant, with a 95,000,000-pound 
capacity, in the San Francisco Bay area. 

Union Carbide is planning to put up a customer service labora- 
tory for plastics in Geneva, under the supervision of Union Carbide 
Europe, S.A., an affiliate. It will be used chiefly to help customers 
using polyethylene made in this country by Union Carbide. 

An example of what a person with imagination can do with 
plastics is supplied by Norman Forrest, a designer, who used a fry- 
ing pan, a waffle iron and a steaming kettle to transform flexible 
vinyl film to turn out flooring that closely imitates the grain of ran- 
dom oak flooring, cork and terrazzo in three-dimensional effects. 

Mr. Forrest, working in a small laboratory at Elmsford, N.Y., 
now uses a baking oven, an electrolytic bath and a pedal-operated 
sewing machine to make a simulated rhinestone inlaid fabric, par- 
quet flooring, translucent 'stained glass' windows and even, in the 
experimental stage, cut glass and gems, all of vinyl, by the roll. 

He also was able to make reproductions of leather, straw, lace 
and beading for use in furniture, luggage, wall coverings, golf bags, 
floor mats and the like. One of his innovations was a leopard design 
for use in auto seat covers. 

Mr. Forrest formed the Forrest Process and Development Com- 
pany to market his output and later sold it, after which it was bought 
by the General Tire and Rubber Company for a price said to be 
about $1,000,000. 

The heart of the process is to make the film red hot so that its 
molecular 'memory' is destroyed and it retains the embossed effect 
instead of returning to its original form upon cooling. 

One of his latest accomplishments is the production of a prac- 
tical high-speed machine for three-dimensional automotive door 
panels, trim and carpeting, and another is mastery of a method of 
making deep-tufted vinyl cushions at a mass production rate. 

Wm. M. Freeman in New York Times 

February. 1960 23 

Atomic Clock 

OTTAWA — An atomic timepiece accurate within a few billionths 
of a second has been developed and put into operation by the Na- 
tional Research Council. 

Second of its kind in the Western world — the other is in Britain 
— it represents man's greatest measure of accuracy in telling time. 
Scientists have successfully combined astronomy and atomic physics 
to determine time to an almost infinite degree of fineness. 

A massive instrument connected to a bank of electronic control 
equipment, the atomic clock will play an invaluable role in research, 
especially in space travel and in learning more about the secrets of 
nuclear fission. 

It will also have important industrial and military applications 
in fields where precise timing is a necessity, including communica- 
tions and the firing of missiles. 

The atomic clock, similar to one at the National Physical Labor- 
atory in Britain, was built at NRC's division of applied physics 
under direction of Dr. S. N. Kalra, 32-year-old head of the division's 
high frequency laboratory. 

Dr. Kalra, a native of India who has been with NRC since 1952, 
started work on the clock in 1956. Associated with him in this re- 
search are Ralph Bailey, 47, formerly of Eyebrow, Sask., and Herman 
Daams, 42, a native of Holland on the NRC staff for 2Vz years. 

The sand and water clocks of early times and the pendulum 
clocks of more recent years are crude instruments compared with 
high-precision timing devices now in general use, but even these 
clocks — using crystals — do not fill today's need for accurate time. 
Scientists doing research with radio waves — which travel at the 
speed of light, or 186,282 miles a second — need timing accuracy up 
to a millionth of a second and better. 

The atomic clock works in conjunction with a crystal clock. It 

24 Technocracy Digest 

periodically checks the crystal clock, improves its performance and 
ensures that there is no change in its radio fresuencies. By doing 
this the system tells time with an accuracy of within one second in 
300 years. 

'In techniques of timing, precision of a few billionths of a sec- 
ond have become a reality,' Dr. Kalra said in an interview. 

He said his research program has made it possible to compare 
astronomical methods of time measurement against an atomic clock. 
'The work has already revealed many shortcomings in using 
the rotation of the earth around its axis as a means of measuring 
time. The earth has shown itself to have both predictable and un- 
predictable changes in its period of rotation, and these give rise to 
uncertainty in time measurements.' 

Astronomers also determine time in terms of the motion of the 
moon around the earth. This results in a more uniform time scale, 
but requires observations over long periods to obtain high precision. 

The latest astronomical definition bases time on the period of 
the earth's orbit around the sun, but once this time is established it 
is another matter to keep it, to measure it off in fractions of a second 
and to calibrate clocks which will record it. 

Measurement of the time interval therefore is a supporting job 
to be done by physicists, and their most revolutionary time-piece is 
the atomic clock. 

The clock itself does not tell the time directly. It is used to con- 
trol the radio frequencies of quartz crystals, the most accurate form 
of time measurement yet devised. 

Dr. Kalra said all man-made clocks which depend on some 
mechanical or electro-mechanical property of matter are not stable 
to the required accuracy, and a means of checking their rate is thus 

'Atomic clocks fill this need quite adequately, and represent the 
highest precision attained so far.' 

— Canadian Press. 

FEBRUARY. 1960 25 

Automated Weatkei Man 

WASHINGTON— If you don't like the weather forecast in the 
future, you can blame it on Amos rather than the weather man 
or the wisp of hair from a Teutonic blond. 

Hopefully, however, Amos will not be the same target of disbelief 
and criticism that his human predecessor has been in the past. If 
Amos lives up to predicted capabilities, he should be far more ac- 
curate and comprehensive in his weather observations than the 
weather man ever was. 

Amos is the new Automatic Meteorological Observing Station 
that in the years ahead will supplant the weather man in collecting 
the observations that form the basis of weather predictions. 

Also disappearing from the meteorological scene are the blond 
hairs, normally obtained from long-tressed German girls, that for 
years have been used by the weather man to measure changes in 
humidity. Instead a new electronic beam instrument is coming into 
use to measure automatically the moisture content of the air. 

The emergence of Amos and the electronic hygrometer to sup- 
plant the human weather observer and the blond-hair instrument 
are symbolic of a major technological revolution that is revamping 
the whole art of weather forecasting. Out of this revolution is 
expected to come a new era of more timely, more accurate weather 
forecasting — so precise, in fact, that housewives will know exactly 
when to take in their wash, umpires will know whether to call off a 
ball game, and truck drivers will know which highway to take to 
avoid a storm. 

Basically, the system used by the Weather Bureau today for 
issuing its daily weather maps and forecasts differs little from that 
used in 1870 v/hen the first weather map was issued in the United 

At some 330 principal stations in the United States and its ter- 
ritories observations are made, primarily by human observers, of 

2G Technocracy Digest 

weather conditions, such as the temperature, humidity, wind direc- 
tion, cloud formations. This weather data, along with that from air- 
planes, ships at sea and foreign stations, is transmitted in coded form 
over teletype to the national weather analysis center in nearby 
Suitland, Md. 

At the center, which receives tens of thousands of reports a day 
from throughout the world, the data are decoded and placed on a 
chart, again by human hands. 

With this picture of the existing weather before him, the fore- 
caster steps in and makes his prediction of what the weather will be 
in the hours and days ahead. Every six hours new forecasts are 
issued and transmitted by teletype and facsimile to the regional 
weather stations and the newspapers and radio and television sta- 
tions. More frequent forecasts are made for the aviation weather 

This system, as the much-maligned weather man knows only 
too well, suffers from several basic weaknesses. The weaknesses are 
such that they cannot be overcome by improvements in the present 
system but only by development of a radically new and automated 
system for the collecting and dissemination of weather information. 

Among the major weaknesses in the present system are the 
great gaps which exist in the weather observation network, even in 
the United States. 

There also are great gaps in weather observations over such 
areas as the oceans and the polar regions, which often are the breed- 
ing grounds of new storms. 

It is here that Amos will come to the rescue, particularly within 
the continental United States and perhaps in the Arctic regions. 
Over the next five years the Weather Bureau hopes to scatter 1,000 
of the Amos stations in areas not covered now by weather observa- 
tion stations. 

• Another basic weakness in the present system is the lag be- 
tween the time observations are taken and forecasts are made. Be- 
cause of the sheer mechanical problems of collecting, transmitting 

February, 1960 27 

and translating thousands of pieces of weather information, as much 
as three hours and more can now pass between the time of observa- 
tions and forecasts. As a result, the weather man is always racing 
to keep up with the changing weather — and never quite succeeding. 

To shorten this critical time lag, several steps will be taken. 
Weather observations will be made automatically and transmitted 
over high-speed teletype systems operating at 600 to 1,000 words a 
minute — or more than ten times faster than the present teletype 
network. In the weather forecasting station the information will 
be collected and translated by large electronic computers than can 
operate far faster than the human brain. The forecasts from the 
computer, checked for accuracy by human observers, will be trans- 
mitted automatically back over the teletype system and onto new 
methods of display, such as television screens carrying a constantly 
changing picture of the weather. 

A third basic weakness underlying the present system is the 
meteorologist's fundamental ignorance of the complex factors that 
create weather in the 5,000,000,000 cubic miles of air that constitute 
the earth's atmosphere. The advent of rockets and satellites has 
provided the meteorologist with important new tools for clearing 
up the mysteries behind the weather. While the wide use of 
weather satellites is still in the future, much of the automated fore- 
casting can be carried out with existing technology. 

The impact of such a high-speed, automatic system upon weather 
forecasting will be profound. Weather men will be able to issue 
forecasts as fast as the weather changes. And with the more timely 
forecasts will inevitably come greater accuracy. For an economy 
intimately dependent upon the weather — from agriculture to the 
resort hotels — such improved weather forecasting should result in 
manifold economic dividends. 

The weather man, who now prides himself on being accurate 
85 per cent of the time with his forecasts, will probably not be able 
to reach perfection. But any shortcomings will not be because ot 

2St Technocracy Digest 

the inherent difficulties of predicting weather, which itself some- 
times does not know what it wants to do. — New York Times. 

At eat £Uafie Quttel 

K NEW fully automated, unlimited-capacity shape-cutting machine 
"• will easily reproduce any quantity of intricate metal parts of 
any shape or size. 

The machine features co-ordinate drive and is powered by two 
electrically synchronized, heavy-duty motors providing ample power 
for every type of flame-cutting operation. 

It can flame-cut intricate parts of any length, width or thickness. 
Standard models can be equipped v/ith ten torches to cut any width 
up to ten feet. 

Larger models will cut shapes of any width and can be equipped 
with additional torches. Thickness of the metal that may be cut is 
limited only by the capacity of the torches used. 

The Oxweld CM-60, product of Linde Co., division of Union Car- 
bide Canada Ltd., Toronto, is equipped with the recently-introduced 
Linde photocell tracer, is said to be the world's first large-capacity 
cutting machine to have an automatic kerf compensator. 

The automatic kerf adjustment represents a radical improve- 
ment over existing types of tracing units. Parts can be reproduced 
from an exact-sized drawing without the necessity of making allow- 
ance for kerf width on the drawing. 

Drawings of parts are made in the exact size of the part desired. 
Kerf compensator dial is then set for the plate thickness being cut 
and automatically compensates for kerf width, so that reproduced 
parts are exactly the same size as the line drawing. 

Simple pencil or ink sketches of intricate metal shapes and forms 
can be used to guide the CM-60, since the photocell tracer accurately 
follows easy-to-prepare pencil sketches on ordinary paper. 

February, 1960 29 

This eliminates need for expensive metal or plastic templets, 
photographic negatives or complicated and costly silhouettes. 

Because the photocell tracer can accurately follow crossing 
lines, extremely intricate shapes can be cut. Wear on templets and 
cover sheets is completely eliminated as neither the machine nor 
tracer ever come in contact with the templet or tracing surface. 

The machine is said to be so advanced that all cutting operations 
can be instantly and accurately controlled by a single operator sitting 
at a convenient, easy-to-use control panel. 

Tracing, ignition, preheat, cutting oxygen, height adjustment 
of the torches, movement of the carriages and positioning of the 
tracer can be handled from the control panel. Individual motors 
in each cutting torch holder provide independent and accurate 
vertical control of each torch. 

Use of a new, automatic height adjustment control on the motor 
of each cutting torch. Unit rides the plate in front of the torches 
and quickly senses the slightest deviation in the levelness of the plate 
surface. Motorized torch holders react instantly, lowering or raising 
the torches to compensate for any deviation. 

Complete cutting cycle is controlled through the operating 
sequence dial on the control panel. Torch ignition, preheat and 
cutting oxygen gases are automatically operated through solenoid 
valves. Flames can be shut off instantly eliminating any bleed-down 
flow from the cutting oxygen orifice which causes gouging after the 
cut is complete. 

When the operator wants to pierce the plate, a pilot valve at 
the control panel allows him to turn on the cutting oxygen slowly 
and evenly to prevent fouling of cutting nozzles. 

— Financial Post. 

* WASHINGTON— A special Senate committee said on December 8th that 
unemployment has reached disaster proportions in some sections of the United 
States. The latest government report listed 3,270000 unemployed in October, 
about six per cent of the work force. Associated Press. 

30 Technocracy Digest 

Through the Technoscope . . . 

Technocracy examines the various scientific and technological trends 
in North America today which point to the necessity for a new 
social mechanism that will provide security and abundance, with 
a minimum of working hours, to every citizen on this Continent- 

Science and Technology 

ing device made by the Brush Instru- 
ment Div. of Clevite Corp., Cleveland, 
can detect movements as tiny as 1/10,- 
000, 000-inch wobble as easily as a 4- 
inch wobble. Properly adapted, the 
Metrisite can measure pressure, flow 
rates, temperature, and fluid viscosity 
and density in addition to linear and 
angular movement. 

The Metrisite, a simply constructed, 
rugged device, supplies the answer to 
measuring minute physical motions in 
ultra-sensitive control instruments. Of- 
ten, the act of taking measurements can 
disturb a system enough to cause an in- 
correct report. Resembling a phono- 
giaph in action, the Metrisite operates 
on the transducer principle — changing 
physical movements to electrical sig- 
nals. Even the most microscopic move- 
ments are detected by this fist-sized de- 
vice which can be made larger or small- 
er according to need. 


system utilizing all the wizardry of elec- 
tronics — noise detectors, closed circuit 
television, sound wave generators — has 
been developed by Minneapolis-Honey- 
well Regulator Co. The device can keep 

February, 1960 

tabs on what is going on in a plant 
much more effectively than human pat- 
rols, and can cut down guard-manning 
requirements by as much as 50%. In 
many cases, one guard can take over 
the responsibility for the security of a 
large plant without leaving the central 
control station. 

The components of the detection 
equipment are already pretty well known 
to industry, though it contributes to ex- 
isting experience by centralizing plant 
security. Even the eventuality that 
something might happen to its guards 
at the control station is provided for. If 
for any reason a guard fails to take ac- 
tion on an alarm after a reasonable 
lapse of time, an alarm rings at the local 
police headquarters. 

longer has to depend on eyesight to 
determine the wrinkle resistance of 
wash-and-wear fabrics right after they 
have been washed. An electronic mach- 
ine, developed by the Sanforized Div. 
of Cluett, Peabody & Co., now does a 
thoroughly scientific job of evaluating 
the smoothness of these fabrics. 

The machine casts a beam of light 
across a fabric wrapped loosely around 
a cylinder. Its wrinkles are projected 


as shadows onto photoelectric cells that 
put out voltages that vary with the 
height and shape of the shadows — the 
roughness of the wrinkled fabric. 

An analog computer translates these 
voltages into new readings according to 
a mathematical formula and accumulates 
them as different sections of the fabric 
are tested. Then the process is repeat- 
ed with the fabric pulled taut, to obtain 
a reading for its natural roughness (twill, 
for instance, is rougher than broad- 
cioth). This second reading is sub- 
tracted from the first by the computer, 
leaving a reading for the wrinkles alone. 
The computer makes the appearance 
value approximate what the eye sees 
vhen viewing the fabric under tangen- 
tial light. 


removable tread of three wire-reinforced 
rubber rings was recently introduced 
by Pirelli S.P.A. of Milan. Italy. Pirelli 
officials say tests prove it is superior to 
conventional tires in its shock resistance, 
traction, noise level, and ease of steering. 
The surface of the tire carcass is 
smooth except for two ridges around the 
circumference that serve as tracks to 
keep the three tread rings in place. The 
rings are stretched on the tire while it is 
deflated. They're smaller in diameter 
than the inflated tire; when the tire is 
blown up, they fit tightly. Because a 
flat might be more dangerous than usual 
if it deflated the tire sufficiently to 
loosen the rings, the new tire is equip- 
ped with a special valve that Pirelli 

says controls the deflation, making op- 
eration safe. 

So far Pirelli is producing the new 
tires in Europe to fit foreign cars, but 
they will be available on this Continent 
in a few months at prices comparable 
to those of other premium tires. 


five times faster than can be accomplish- 
ed by mechanical methods is the feat 
made possible by a hand-operated torch, 
the Oxweld FSJ-6 Stone Shaper, de- 
veloped by Linde Co., a division of 
I nion Carbide Corp. The Stone Shap- 
er. weighing seven pounds and measur- 
ing 37 inches long, is expected to have 
its chief application in major construc- 
tion, having already proved its worth 
in removing granite from New York's 
Queensboro Bridge. 

Like a tiny jet, the torch burns oxy- 
gen and kerosene in a miniature rocket 
chamber. The flame comes through a 
nozzle at 7.000 ft. per second at temper- 
ature of 5.500F. The combination of 
intense heat and high velocity makes 
stone spall, or break up into tiny chips; 
the flame, though only four inches long, 
has a mechanical energy equivalent of 
over 25 hp. 

The rocket chamber is water-cooled. 
The water is ejected through the front 
end of the burner to do two additional 
jobs: The stream can be directed so 
that one side of the stone is protected 
horn spalling, and it prevents the stone 
from overheating, which might make it 
crack through. 


Technocracy Digest 

(Continued from page 20) 
we attempt to do so, we must 
protect the present. We must 
conserve variety and prevent 
more simplification. 

The first necessity is to con- 
tinue quarantine programs to 
prevent access of the hardy, ad- 
aptable organisms that become 
pests. Experience with such or- 
ganisms makes clear that our food 
and fiber production areas are 
ripe for further invasions. Al- 
though the quarantine program 
cannot be totally successful, it 
must be counted as necessary un- 
til such time as we can make the 
biological adjustments necessary 
10 minimize pest problems. 

In the same light, it becomes 
necessary to minimize cultivation 
practices or chemical applications 
which might lead to further sim- 
plification of the fauna. A siz- 
able margin of insurance will be 
demanded by growers. Such 
'safety' margins can in many in- 
stances be reduced by utilizing 
available information on resist- 
ant plants, timing of planting, 
management of water and so on. 

Both of the foregoing are pro- 
tective measures to be operative 
while the most important phase 
i<= being put into effect. Professor 

Elton's suggestion — cultivate di- 
versity — must be implemented. 
Some existing land-use practices 
already do so; we have a good 
base from which to proceed. Con- 
servationists and wildlife enthus- 
iasts have already arranged for 
and continue to speak for re- 
fuges, for the legal protection of 
existing species, for the educa- 
tion of the general public, and 
for proper utilization of renew- 
able resources. The practices of 
the Soil Conservation Service 
have led to diversified landscapes 
accompanied inevitably by faun- 
al diversity. The efforts of Soil 
Bank and similar 'reserve' plans 
will result in this diversity. 
So also will any change to less in- 
tensive land use, such as that 
now occurring in many parts of 
the Midwest and South. 

But only in the conscious pit- 
ting of one living thing against 
another — biological control — can 
we directly control pests with- 
out the hazards accompanying! 
repetitive chemical applications. 
Many species of insects and vir- 
uses have been introduced into 
the United States to aid in bio- 
logical control. Only a few have 
been truly successful, but these 
few have repaid the cost of all 

February, 1960 


biological-control efforts to date 
a thousandfold. Their import- 
ance is grossly unappreciated, 
particularly by industry and gov- 

To such established controls as 
the lady-bird beetle, University 
of California's entomologists have 
recenty added 'living' insecti- 
cides — bacteria and fungi that 
can be applied when certain 
pest insects reach damaging num- 
bers. The effect of using biologi- 
cal control agents is, of course, the 
sought-for complication. Simplifi- 
cation of the ecosystem resulted 
in the absence of natural checks; 
we can now 'complicate' the life 
of a pest without chemical hazard 
to plants, animals and man and 
without following the primrose 
path of ever-increasing simplifi- 
cation of the ecosystem. 

Some entomologists, particular- 
ly in Canada, have already shown 
the way to manage complex in- 
sect relationships with efficiency 
and safety. European entomolo- 
gists now speak of managing the 
entire plant-insect community. It 
is called manipulation of the bio- 
cenose. The biocenotic environ- 

ment is varied, complex and dyn- 
amic. Although numbers of in- 
dividuals will constantly change, 
no one species will normally reach 
pest proportions. The special con- 
ditions which allow high popula- 
tions of a single species in a com- 
plex ecosystem are rare events. 
Management of the biocenose or 
ecosystem should become our 
goal, challenging as it is. 

The way is clear, the condi- 
tions ripe, for a shift away from 
chemical controls and from the 
oversimplified environments that 
create the need for them. In many 
crop environments it is already 
too late to make the shift. Before 
the pest-producing, simplified 
ecosystem becomes so wide- 
spread as to insure a constant 
chemical prophylactic blanket on 
the all outdoors, we should look 
to our biological reserves. For the 
good of us all, chemical techni- 
ques must give way to ecological 
emphasis. The cultivation of eco- 
system diversity will yield crop 
safety, sustained productivity, re- 
duction of chemical hazards, and 
a landscape much more appealing 
to the eye. — Robert L. Rudd. 


34 Technocracy Digest 

Dynamic Equilibrium 

North Americans have achieved abundance within the Price System 
only at the expense of serious resource depletion. The state of dynamic 
equilibrium thus upset must be put in balance again within our own 
territorial limits and without predatory Price System interference. 

H LL living organisms are in 
^^ constant interplay in their 
struggle for survival. Classified 
broadly, they include vegetable 
species, herbivorous animals 
which feed directly from vege- 
tables of different kinds, and car- 
nivorous animals whose diet is 
the herbivorous animals. 

The vegetable kingdom has the 
initial struggle. To begin with its 
numerous species are being con- 
tinually modified as to luxuri- 
ance or sparsity by the richness 
of soil, the availability of water 
and the prevailing climates in the 
respective areas where they are 
growing. Further modifying the 
vegetable growth is the amount 
of animal life in a region feeding 
directly from it. There is an up- 
per limit to the number of her- 
bivores which can live in a given 
area without the rate of vegetable 
depletion exceeding the rate of 
growth. In a natural environ- 
ment this upper limit is normally 
never reached, for any excess 

February, 1960 

herbivores population unwilling- 
ly feeds the resident carnivores 
whose numbers consequently in- 
crease. The resulting drop in 
the number of herbivores makes 
possible more vegetable growth, 
thus effecting a renewed increase 
of vegetable-eating species, and 
so on. There is, then, in any clos- 
ed system free from external in- 
terferences, a continually active 
state of balance between oppos- 
ing forces or agencies. This fluc- 
tuating relationship is called 'dy- 
namic equilibrium'. 

An established state of dyna- 
mic equilibrium is susceptible to 
many upsetting influences. Thus, 
fire or drought might cause half 
of the vegetation in an area to be 
destroyed, in which case only the 
remaining half could feed the 
herbivorous animals which must 
necessarily decrease in numbers 
to a figure commensurate with 
the changed conditions. A cor- 
responding drop in carnivores 
would inevitably ensue. Almost 


anything which might happen in 
an area will somehow affect the 
dynamic equilibrium, for better 
or worse. 

Dynamic equilibrium patterns 
can be altered either naturally or 
artificially. However done, they 
tend unceasingly toward estab- 
lishing new patterns incorporat- 
ing the effects of interferences. 
Artificial interferences, gener- 
ally invoked for special reasons 
to benefit a particular species, 
have practically all been intro- 
duced by man, for only he has 
learned to control his environ- 

Man, the dominant living or- 
ganism in the world, has, in gain- 
ing and maintaining that domin- 
ancy, completely eradicated cer- 
tain species and seriously deci- 
mated others. The story of that 
accomplishment is sufficiently 
familiar to most people, having 
its greatest merit in highlight- 
ing man's realization that he 
could use fire, water, wood and 
assorted minerals to his physical 
advantage. He found that the 
more he could learn to use the 
materials around him, the more 
secure and comfortable was his 
life. There was little advantage 
in living in a resource-rich area 

if he did not know how to con- 
vert those resources to use forms. 
This Continent presents a strik- 
ing example. 

An estimated two million peo- 
ple were living on this land area 
when the white men discovered 
it. Some were living at bare sub- 
sistence levels; others, by virtue 
of more favorable climates, et 
cetera, lived quite comfortably. 
All native cultures, though, in- 
cluding that of the Mayans who 
were the most advanced, were 
restricted by the amount of hu- 
man muscle power which was 
available to perform necessary 
tasks. This limitation alone im- 
posed severe curbs on their num- 
bers, quite apart from high infant 
mortality rates, inter-tribal con- 
flicts, frequent decimating pes- 
tilences and famines. A state of 
dynamic equilibrium had been 
reached between their mode of 
living and their physical envir- 

Yet today, less than five hun- 
dred years later, there are more 
than a hundred times as many 
people living in North America, 
most of whom enjoy a far higher 
living standard than could pos- 
sibly have been imagined in 1492. 
Significantly, most of these popu- 


Technocracy Digest 

lation and material gains have 
come about since the introduc- 
tion of the Industrial Revolution 
to this Continent in the early 
1800's. In the preceding three 
hundred years it had been a 
touch-and-go matter whether 
many white settlements would 
survive in the midst of hostile 
natives who were fighting to de- 
fend their homes. Eventually, 
more effective weapons combin- 
ed with sheer weight in numbers 
of immigrating western Euro- 
peans and their improved func- 
tional techniques achieved dom- 
inancy of the entire North Am- 
erican Continent for the white 

Probably some statistics on 
population growth will illustrate 
the salutary effect of the Indus- 
trial Revolution on the North 
American scene. Whereas it took 
three centuries to increase from 
the original two million native 
inhabitants to a combined popu- 
lation approximating five million 
natives and whites, it skyrocket- 
ed to over 80,000,000 (Canada 
and U.S.) during the 19th Cen- 
tury. This 16-fold increase how- 
ever gained, indicates a basic 
change in the rate of converting 
resources to use forms fast 

enough to sustain so rapid a 

While historical circumstance 
prompted the Industrial Revolu- 
tion's origin in England, it has 
had its most successful applica- 
tion on this Continent. Irrespec- 
tive of the immediate early ef- 
fects on society, the greatest 
significance of the event has 
been its introduction of a change 
in the methods of doing work. 
Human muscle, previously the 
major source of energy conver- 
sion, commenced to be replaced 
by converted energy from sources 
outside the human body, that is, 
extraneous energy. There had 
been some earlier uses, such as 
the power of water in turning a 
waterwheel, the force of the wind 
in turning a windmill, and the 
applied strength of a few dom- 
estic animals; but none of these 
were sufficient to have any 
significant effect on improving 
man's environment. His own 
muscles, or those of hirelings or 
slaves, had remained his greatest 
energy resources. When he learn- 
ed to burn coal to boil water and 
use the resulting steam to supply 
the power to machines that would 
do his work for him, he crossed 

February, 1960 


an important threshold in his 
social development. 

The Industrial Revolution 
launched what has popularly 
been called the Machine Age, 
though throughout the 19th Cen- 
tury, most work continued to be 
done by hand. The Machine Age 
splashed over into the 20th Cen- 
tury, still not having gained suf- 
ficient momentum for its next 
phase. This momentum, achiev- 
ed during World War I, acceler- 
ated North America's technology 
into the so-called Power Age 
which is distinguished from the 
preceding era (in which consid- 
erable manpower was vitally 
necessary in mechanical process- 
es) by requiring steadily dimin- 
ishing amounts of that commod- 
ity. Until this occurrence, the 
machine had not been developed 
enough to operate without exten- 
sive human assistance; but the 
shortage of assistance during 
World War I in the face of in- 
creased materiel demands neces- 
sitated the design of equipment 
which would assume many jobs 
previously performed by human 
operators, and do them better 
and faster. 

We have observed that the In- 
dustrial Revolution has had its 

most pronounced effects in North 
America. This presumes that (1) 
we have or have had a prepon- 
derance of the world's techni- 
cal and scientific brains at our 
behest; or (2) we have an unusu- 
ally good supply of materials 
necessary to support a high-en- 
ergy industrial operation. With- 
out downgrading our technically- 
trained personnel in the slightest 
all evidence indicates the second 
possibility to be the case. It 
would certainly have been im- 
possible to build the kind of tech- 
nological mechanism we have to- 
day without having had func- 
tionally-trained men in numer- 
ous specialized fields. But global 
events are bringing home rather 
forcibly to North Americans that 
they have no monopoly on tech- 
nical personnel and scientific 
brains. Yet no matter how in- 
genious such intellects might be 
in invention and production, 
they are restricted in practice to 
the quantity of raw materials at 
their disposal. In this respect 
North America has been most 

The introduction of the Indus- 
trial Revolution to this Contin- 
ent made necessary extensive 
searches for resources which 


Technocracy Digest 

hitherto had lain virtually un- 
known and untouched either be- 
neath the earth's surface or be- 
yond convenient reach. Results 
of the searches were most en- 
couraging. Coal was found at 
several places along the Atlantic 
seaboard in quantities later esti- 
mated to contain two-thirds of 
the world supply. This energy 
source was complemented by 
huge iron deposits, the greatest 
cf which was the Mesabi Range 
which for a time produced 61% 
of all iron mined in the world. A 
tremendous advantage was its 
close proximity to Lake Superior, 
enabling its ore to be carried by 
iow-cost water transportation to 
the eastern smelters and steel 

Fresh water proved to be an- 
other bountiful resource with 
lakes and rivers constituting a 
major share of those around the 
globe. Having its first important 
use as a common carrier of in- 
dustrial and agricultural prod- 
ucts, the Continent's fresh water 
was soon required in huge vol- 
umes to satisfy the growing needs 
of industry. More went to the ir- 
rigation of fertile but dry lands 
which needed only water to be 
able to grow practically any crop 

February, 1960 

that was planted. Later, the riv- 
ers took on special importance 
as producers of hydroelectric 

Other resources found in in- 
dustrial quantities as time went 
on were such metals as copper 
(next to iron in industrial im- 
portance), nickel, lead, zinc, 
molybdenum and silver. Petro- 
leum achieved prominence as a 
fuel with the introduction of the 
internal combustion engine at the 
beginning of the present century. 
Since then, because of the im- 
mense pools located in oil ex- 
plorations, petroleum and coal — 
both of which are fossil fuels — 
have dominated the North Am- 
erican energy supply picture. 
Electricity is not included be- 
cause that form of energy is de- 
rived from the conversion of 
others — such as the burning of 
coal. Eighty percent of present 
electrical power on the Contin- 
ent is produced by coal-steam 
generators, and the balance main- 
ly by hydroelectric generators. 

The resource wealth of North 
America has abetted more strong- 
ly than any other single factor 
the ability to create a comfort- 
able environment for its citizenry 
through the rapid conversion of 


energy and consequent produc- 
tion of abundance. Everything 
should look rosy and wonderful. 

It probably would look that 
way (as it does anyway to some 
people) except that in arriving 
at our present status we have 
been carelessly and criminally 
wasteful. In other words, to ac- 
complish the ends of our exist- 
ing form of society we have ser- 
iously upset the dynamic equili- 
brium of the Continent. We have 
lived extravagantly at the ex- 
pense of an extravagant deple- 
tion of our resources. 

What has been the reason for 

The reason lies with the persis- 
tent retention of a predatory eco- 
nomy which invariably places 
business expediency before social 
benefit, and which is prepared at 
a'ny time to sacrifice the latter on 
the high altar of the former. Un- 
doubtedly, the Price System has 
been responsible for the gaining 
of much technical and scientific 
knowledge in the past century 
and a half, but only for reasons 
sufficient to advance its primary 
motives — such as the develop- 
ment of increasingly mechanized 
equipment to cut operating costs 
and increase production to gain 

greater bank balances. There is 
no point expecting it to act other- 
wise, for it is working according 
to its design. The Price System 
has never been interested in soc- 
ial improvement as such, but only 
as a means by which it might 
make a fast buck. It might be 
claimed that the Price System 
is responsible for the meteoric 
rise of North American living 
standards to their present level. 
This is problematical, but if it 
can be thanked for bringing us 
this far, it can be blamed for not 
taking us much farther, and at 
considerably less physical re- 
source expe'nse than has been in- 

The unexpectedly rich re- 
sources of North America seems 
to have given the citizenry the 
impression that they are inex- 
haustible. Nothing could be 
more incorrect. Yet, despite un- 
mistakeable indications that some 
resources are being fast depleted 
and others, while still abundant, 
are becoming more inaccessible 
and more costly to procure, the 
people of the Continent continue 
being the most prodigal in the 

A review of our resources as 
they are being used presents 


Technocracy Digest 

some grim aspects. Mesabi has 
been reduced to low-grade ore 
which was originally thrown on 
slag heaps. Its iron has gone to 
produce annually obsolescent 
fleets of automobiles, mountains 
of metal containers, and volumes 
of miscellaneous other items and 
gadgetry which for the most part 
are used but once and then dis- 
carded. The evidence of this can 
be seen in countless junk piles 
across the Continent where iron 
is rusting away — completely ir- 
recoverable for future use. It 
bad to be this way in the Price 
System, for any systemized re- 
clamation program would have 
severely crippled the iron mining 
industry. The same holds true 
for other industrial minerals. 

North America produces over 
half of the world's petroleum, 
but that production is not equal 
to the mounting demands made 
upon it by the aforementioned 
fleets of cars in addition to diesel- 
ized trucks and locomotives, the 
extensive conversion to oil furn- 
aces for space heating, plus num- 
erous other uses. Technocracy 
has fully described measures 
which would reduce the deple- 
tion of oil, but has also pointed 
out that we cannot expect to see 

them applied within a Price Sys- 
tem economy. 

There are heavy depletions in 
other commodities also, all of 
which indicate the existing trend. 
Copper ore deposits, for instance, 
have in some cases been deplet- 
ed so badly that they are yielding 
only four-fifths of one percent 
pure metal per volume of ore. 

Not only mineral and fossil 
fuel supplies are suffering ex- 
ploitation. Forests have been cut 
down far faster than their re- 
placement rate, causing excessive 
erosion. Further erosion has 
been caused by the farming of 
marginal lands which should 
never have been farmed, and by 
extensive faulty methods of ag- 
riculture which have caused in- 
cidental precipitation to be lost 
through run-off, rather than be 
absorbed and used where needed. 
Erosion has accounted for the 
annual loss of 2,500,000 tons of 
nutrient - important phosphates 
and 3,000,000 tons of various 
other grades of soil. 

These losses have had the ad- 
ditional effect of polluting some 
lakes and rivers too badly to 
make them suitable for industrial 
and domestic consumption, so 
that an abnormal drain has been 

February, 1960 


made on underground water res- 
ervoirs which, also because of 
erosion, are not being replenish- 
ed as fast as used. This has rel- 
sulted in serious declines in the 
Continental water table so that, 
even though more than half of 
the world's fresh water supply is 
here, there nevertheless have 
been chronic cases of shortages 
in recent years. Too often, also, 
the surface waters have provid- 
ed convenient means of dispos- 
ing of industrial wastes and ur- 
ban sewage. 

Still, production figures in 
most important commodities con- 
tinue climbing, keeping well 
ahead of the Price System's abil- 
ity to dispose of them in spite of 
concurrently rising population 
figures. This would almost ap- 
pear to be a contradiction of the 
premise that Nature tends to 
seek a state of dynamic equili- 
brium between organisms and 
their environment, but such is 
not the case. 

The consideration that has re- 
sulted in this seeming contradic- 
tion has been the importation of 
extensive amounts of strategic 
industrial commodities to sub- 
sidize deficits thereof in our daily 
operations. Petroleum, of course, 

is one of the principal imports, 
with iron ore being another. 
Combined raw materiel imports 
are so great that this Continent 
(principally the United States) 
now accounts for 60% of physi- 
cal resources used annually 
throughout the world, even 
though North America's popula- 
tion accounts for only 10% of 
the total. 

Having belatedly observed the 
dwindling materials, Price Sys- 
tem business men have been 
looking abroad for new supplies 
which they have thus far been 
able to find in sufficient supply. 
Until recently, most outside sup- 
plying areas have been agrarian 
societies insufficiently advanced 
to require their resources in any 
great quantity. Accordingly, they 
have been quite happy to sell the 
materials North America has 
been seeking. This situation still 
pertains in some areas, notably 
around the Persian Gulf from 
which much oil is imported, but 
other areas are showing signs of 
awakening from their long social 
dormancy. Having witnessed the 
advantages of technology (fre- 
quently installed in their coun- 
tries by North American govern- 
ment or business, some are 


Technocracy Digest 

showing reluctance to dispose of 
resources needed for their own 
technology from which they ex- 
pect social or financial benefits. 
There is a rising tide of nation- 
alism throughout the world 
which, because of the growing 
inclination of recently primitive 
peoples to improve their status, 
might well prompt them to dis- 
continue exporting vital re- 

A tightening of the global re- 
source supply would ultimately 
oblige North America to operate 
within its own territorial limits. 
It would result in a contraction 
of the economy which would be 
fatal to the Price System, but 
would be the best thing ever to 
happen to the people of this Con- 
tinent. We would be obliged to 
exercise conservation and re- 
clamation measures on the broad- 
est possible scale, for as long as 

we depend on other land areas 
for any considerable part of our 
materials we can never achieve 
dynamic equilibrium. 

What is past is past. The re- 
sources that have been wasted 
are irrecoverably gone, but there 
still remain sufficient to ensure 
us a bright future if we act now 
to preserve those that are left. 
This automatically indicates the 
necessity for instituting a scien- 
tific-technological social control 
especially adapted to the North 
American environment. 

Technocracy Inc. presents the 
design for a technological society 
which will not only make it pos- 
sible to attain dynamic equilib- 
rium with our land area, but to 
maintain it for an optimum popu- 
lation at many times above the 
existing level for many hundreds 
of years. 

— Rupert N. Urquhart. 

^ TONAWANDA, NY. — A new method of quick-freezing blood at extremely 
low temperature is expected to permit indefinite storage with almost no spoilage, 
blood bank researchers disclosed. 

This would have the effect of increasing the supply of blood available for 
transfusions. Under present methods blood is kept for a maximum of 21 dayjs 
and then must be discarded because of steady loss of quality due to aging of the 
red blood cells. 

Laboratory workers of the Linde Co., a division of Union Carbide Corp., re- 
ported they have discovered that by using liquid nitrogen, blood received from 
donors may be frozen almost instantly at a temperature of 320 degrees below zero 
Fahrenheit. It may be stored at this temperature almost indefinitely with slight 
loss of red blood cells, the research indicated. — United Press International. 

February, 1960 


The Unseen Destroyer 

Strontium-90, the unseen destroyer, is discussed herein by the 
eminent physicist, Dr. J. Gordin Kaplan, a specialist on the bio- 
logical effects of high energy radiation. This reprint from a 
WEEKEND MAGAZINE article is the first of two parts. 

WHAT is strontium-90? In 
1770 a Scotsman named 
Crawford discovered a new, sil- 
very metal in a mineral deposit 
near the Scottish Highland town 
Strontian. This metal was given 
the name of strontium. One of 
its principal uses has always been 
in the fireworks industry, since 
it produces a magnificent red 
color when put into a flame. 

Chemically, strontium is class- 
ed among the elements known as 
the 'alkaline earths,' a group of 
related elements including cal- 
cium, barium and radium. Nat- 
ural strontium may occur as one 
of four isotopes — all stable. That 
is, they are not radioactive. 

Radioactive strontium was dis- 
covered only after the explosion 
of nuclear bombs on the surface 
of the earth. It is one of the pro- 
ducts of uranium fission (split- 
ting). Many radioactive isotopes 
of strontium have been discov- 
ered, but only two, those of atom- 

ic weights 89 and 90 (Sr.-89 and 
Sr.-90) have any significance. 

Strontium-89 has a half-life of 
50 days which, in fall-out, is not 
long enough to constitute a ser- 
ious hazard to human health. 
(The half-life of a radioactive 
substance is the time required 
for half of it to 'decay,' or change, 
into another form of matter.) 

Strontium-90, on the other 
hand, has a half-life cf 28 years, 
and is the isotope which is caus- 
ing so much worry all over the 

At the instance of explosion of 
nuclear bombs, some of the ur- 
anium-235 which undergoes fis- 
sion is transformed into krypton- 
90, one of the rare inert gases, 
like helium and neon. Krypton- 
90 is radioactive, with a half -life 
of only about 30 seconds. The 
gaseous krypton is swept up in 
the mushroom cloud into the tro- 
posphere (the atmosphere up to 
about 50,000 feet), during which 
time almost all of it changes into 


Technocracy Digest 

rubidium-90 (half-life about 2% 
minutes) . 

The radioactive cloud con- 
tinues to rise into the strato- 
sphere, by which time the rubi- 
dium has changed into stron- 
tium-90, whose relatively long 
half-life (28 years) guarantees 
that plenty of it will be left un- 
changed when the radioactive 
fallout settles to the surface of 
the earth from the stratosphere 
in the years after the original ex- 
plosion. About five to six per 
cent of the original uranium-235 
will be transformed into Sr.-90. 
The Sr.-90 eventually decays into 
ittrium-90 which is also radio- 
active, quickly decaying into zir- 
conium-90, which is non-radioac- 
tive and is thus the end of the 

The problem of radioactive 
fallout in general, and of Sr.-90 
in particular, became serious on 
March 1, 1954, when the United 
States Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion exploded the first hydrogen 
(fusion) bomb at Bikini, in the 
Pacific Ocean. Since that time 
Britain and the Soviet Union 
have joined the United States in 
numerous series of explosions of 
this type, including the particu- 

larly 'dirty' Russian series of Oct- 
ober, 1958. 

The vaporized products of the 
nuclear explosion condense in 
upper atmosphere, forming tiny 
particles of matter whose diam- 
eter is less than one twenty-five 
thousandth of an inch. These 
particles begin to drift with the 
prevailing currents, circling the 
earth in about one to two months. 
Ultimately, they form a mantle 
which drapes the entire globe. 
Slowly, some of the radio-active 
strontium, caesium, carbon, io- 
dine and other elements start to 
'drip' through the atmosphere, to 
land on the surface of the earth. 
It now appears that half of the 
radio-active particles injected in- 
to the stratosphere by a nuclear 
blast will fall to earth in a period 
of two years. Half of the re- 
maining particles will take an- 
other two years. Fallout from 
Russian tests in the Arctic Circle 
seems to take even less time. 

The strontium-90 which falls to 
earth is in a chemical form which 
is soluble in water and which can 
dissolve in the atmospheric mois- 
ture. It has now been clearly 
shown that Sr.-90 does not fall to 
earth under the influence of 
gravity but rather that this sub- 

February, 1960 


stance dissolves in atmospheric 
water and falls to earth during 
precipitation of rain or snow. 
Thus, there is a direct relation 
between the amount of rainfall 
received by any region in a given 
hemisphere and the amount of 
Sr.-90 found in the area. 

Places which have practically 
no rainfall — such as the city of 
Antofagasta in Chile, have virtu- 
ally no Sr.-90 in the soil. Con- 
sequently, fallout is not at all 
uniform throughout the world. 
The Northern Hemisphere seems 
much more heavily contaminated 
than the Southern. Within the 
Northern Hemisphere, fallout is 
heaviest in the middle latitudes 
and the soil concentration of Sr.- 
90 in the United States is by far 
the highest in the world. I don't 
have any information about Can- 
adian soils but they are almost 
certain to be similar to those of 
the United States. Fallout is no 
respecter of frontiers. Indeed, 
Canada would probably receive 
a higher fraction of fallout from 
the Soviet Arctic tests than would 
the United States. 

The strontium-90 in soil is, as 
I have said, in a water-soluble 
form and some two per cent of it 
will be easily absorbed by vege- 

tation, unlike some other fallout 
elements. The poorer the soil is 
in calcium (lime), the more the 
strontium is taken up; converse- 
ly, adding calcium to soil dimin- 
ishes the uptake of strontium by 
plant life. 

Some of the strontium-90 will 
be incorporated into potatoes 
and carrots, into wheat, cabbage, 
lettuce, peas, beans, other vege- 
tables and fruit. In all, slightly 
more than one-third of the Sr.-90 
taken into the human body by 
way of our own food comes dir- 
ectly from these sources. I should 
mention that my calculation is 
based on figures for the British 
population and would apply ap- 
proximately to Western Europe 
and North America, where the 
bulk of the calcium in our diet 
comes from milk and milk prod- 
ucts like cheese. In the Far East, 
India and other countries of the 
world, where rice is the principal 
item in the diet, most of the cal- 
cium comes from rice, as does 
the strontium-90. 

Some of the strontium-90 will 
be incorporated into grasses or 
will lie on the surface of grazing 
land, and this is the start of the 
major problem in Western coun- 
tries. The average milk coW 


Technocracy Digest 

grazes about 300 square yards 
per day and thus concentrates 
the fallout from quite a large 
area into her body. Some of 
the Sr.-90 is eliminated from her 
body. Some goes to her bones. 
But a sizeable amount goes to her 
milk glands and soon appears in 
her milk. More than 50 per cent 
of the Sr.-90 in our diet comes 
from milk and milk products. 

The most important channel 
by which Sr.-90 enters the human 
body is via our food. Roughly 
90 per cent of the Sr.-90 in our 
iood enters in the form of bread, 
vegetables, milk and milk prod- 
ucts, as I have shown. The re- 
maining 10 per cent comes from 
meat (six per cent) and other 
foods. Since strontium-90 fall- 
out occurs mostly in rain and 
snow, some of it would naturally 
enter our drinking water and it 
is likely that some of it could en- 
ter the body via the lungs, in the 
air we breathe. {However, it 
seems that our food is by far the 
most important source of Sr.-90. 

The bodies of animals tend to 
discriminate against strontium 
in favor of calcium. For example, 
a cow eating food which contains 
a certain ratio of strontium to 
calcium, say 60 strontium units 

(a strontium unit is a micro-mic- 
rocurie of Sr.-90 per gram of cal- 
cium, and thus measures the 
quantity of Sr.-90 in a substance 
relative to the amount of cal- 
cium) will put out milk with only 
10 strontium units. 

This is because Nature has 
provided the cow with a sort of 
built-in filtering system which 
enables her to partly purify her 
milk of the contaminating stron- 
tium which she took into her 
body while grazing. This is why 
we in the West are lucky that 
milk is our principal source of 
calcium. It was recently estim- 
ated that a vegetarian who took 
no food of animal origin would 
absorb twice as much Sr.-90 as 
would be taken in the usual 
mixed diet. 

Similarly, the bowels and kid- 
neys of man act as filters, since 
most of the Sr.-90 we eat is elim- 
inated from our bodies. 

Chemically, strontium is very 
similar to calcium. For this rea- 
son, its fate within the body of 
animals and man is also similar 
to that of calcium. For example, 
calcium is required in order for 
blood to clot. It has been known 
since 1914 that strontium can re- 
place calcium in blood clotting, 

February, 1960 


but that it is not nearly as effec- 
tive as the natural calcium. 

The principal site of the cal- 
cium in the body is in the skele- 
ton — in the bones, and teeth. 
Radioactive strontium would thus 
be expected to concentrate in the 
bones, and so it does. In much 
the same way and for the same 
reason radium also concentrates 
in the bones when accidentally 
taken into the human body. Sub- 
stances like strontium and rad- 
ium which concentrate in the 
skeleton are called bone-seeking 
elements. In the bone, strontium 
and radium decay into other sub- 
stances, emitting radiation in the 

Recently a team of Swedish 
workers showed that five min- 
utes after the injection of Sr.-90 
into the abdominal cavity of rats 
a significant amount of it had 
been picked up by the skeleton. 
After 15 minutes, when the ani- 
mal (which had been killed and 
frozen) was pressed for some mo- 
ments against an X-ray-sensitive 
film, it was seen that most of the 
radioactive Sr.-90 was now in 
the skull and backbone. These 
bones brilliantly 'lit up' the black 
X-ray plate, which looked the 
way the main street of a city does 

when viewed from the air — the 
lights corresponding to the orig- 
inal vertebrae. 

In 1947, D. H. Copp, now a pro- 
fessor at the University of Brit- 
ish Columbia, showed that young 
rats tended to retain radioactive 
strontium more than did old rats. 
It has now been shown by study- 
ing the Sr.-90 content of human 
bones (taken at autopsy from 
people who died of other causes) 
that the concentration of stron- 
Uum-90 per unit of calcium is 
about 10 times as great in one- 
year-old infants as in adults. The 
peak concentration of Sr.-90 is 
reached in the bones of infants 
of seven months to one year, 
and thereafter declines to the 
adult levels. Studies on human 
bones from all the major con- 
tinents of the world have shown 
that the growing skeletons of 
children take up and retain on 
the average some three times as 
much Sr.-90 as do those of the 
adult population. 

Recently, the Swedish team 
which I mentioned before pub- 
lished a book and a series of pap- 
ers on their experiments, show- 
ing exactly where in the bone 
strontium-90 is concentrated. 
They show that the so-called 


Technocracy Digest 

'spongy' bone tissue takes up 
much more Sr.-90 than does the 
more mineralized compact bone 
tissue, since the spongy bone has 
a greater rate of bone-building 
and rebuilding. It is in the 
spongy bone tissue that the mar- 
row is located. And it is in the 
bone marrow that the red and 
white blood cells are formed. 

Furthermore, the Swedish sci- 
entists found that, even within 
the spongy bone, the radiostron- 
tium tends to collect in 'hot spots' 
— as do other radioisotopes such 
as calcium 45, phosphorous 32, 
radium, etc. And even within 
these microscopic 'hot spots' the 
distribution of Sr.-90 is not homo- 
geneous, since a small cluster of 
cells may take up much more of 
the isotope than neighboring 
cells within the spot itself. 

Is Sr.-90 harmful to man? 

For reasons which I need not 
explain, no reputable scientist 
has tried, or will try, to answer 
the above question by means of 
a direct experiment on human 
beings. We can therefore only 
make an educated guess at the 
answer by relying on experi- 
ments on animals with Sr.-90, 
and on accidents when human 
beings have become poisoned 

February, 1960 

with radium, a close relative of 

Many cases are now known of 
human beings who through acci- 
dent or ignorance took small 
amounts of radium into their 
bodies and who died many years 
later of cancer. Indeed, bones 
taken from such unfortunate vic- 
tims of radiation death would 
'take their own pictures' when 
placed against X-ray-sensitive 
film, much as the rat skeletons 
which I have described. 

Many scientists all over the 
world have reported experiments 
on the effects of Sr.-90 on ani- 
mals. These experiments have 
been done on mice, rats, rabbits, 
dogs and monkeys. At high con- 
centrations, death occurs within 
weeks, due to acute radiation 
sickness. At somewhat lower 
concentrations many, or most, of 
the experimental animals die sev- 
eral months after the Sr.-90 has 
been administered, from malig- 
nant tumors (cancers) of the 

One of the most alarming ef- 
fects of small amounts of radia- 
tion is to cause changes, or muta- 
tions, in the heredity of man. 
These hereditary changes are un- 
likely to be caused by Sr.-90, 


since this isotope is a bone-seek- cells are located, and the radia- 
er, and is trapped in the skeleton, tion from the decaying strontium 
too far away from the sex cells could easily ^penetrate to and 
of the ovaries and testicles to do through the marrow where the 
damage to the genetic material blood formation is going on. And 
which they contain. the type of radiation which Sr.- 
On the other hand, one of the 90 emits is known to cause can- 
other effects of small doses of cer. 

radiation was to cause fatal blood While it has not been proved 

cancers (that is, leukemia) and that Sr.-90 has caused a single 

other diseases of the blood. Sr.- death in the human species, it 

90 might well cause leukemia, seems highly probable that radio- 

although this has not been prov- strontium will, in sufficiently high 

ed. For, as I have mentioned, concentration in the human body 

this isotope is concentrated pre- cause death through cancers of 

cisely in that part of the bone the bone and the blood, 

closest to where the blood-form- — Dr. J. Gordin Kaplan 

{To be continued) 

it MINNEAPOLIS — A bubble building which requires no support from air, 
nails, or screws has been developed by two inventors here. A. M. Anderson and 
G. A. Visser have founded a new firm, Space Structures Inc., at Chanhassen, Minn., 
to market their product. 

Their bubble buildings are said to be constructed in a few hours with a 
minimum of labor. A bubble made of reinforced polyester plastic is first inflated 
to the size and shape desired. Then it is sprayed for permanency with a compound 
which includes fibers, cement, glass and clay. 

When the compound hardens, the air is released from the building interior, and 
doors and windows are cut into the structure- Mr. Visser said the buildings are 
noncorrosive, resistant to all chemicals, and are not affected by temperature 
extremes. They can be used for greenhouses, warehouses, barns, chicken coops, 
silos, tool sheds, aircraft hangars, garages, implement sheds — and even igloos. 

— Associated Press. 

* WASHINGTON, D.C.— The Government is preparing 4,000,000 square feet 
of maps to find all the people in the 1960 national census. Each of the 160,000 
census takers will get a map showing boundaries of the area he is to canvas}* 
house-to-house in April. 

One census taker, or enumerator, will visit 350 to 400 households, collecting 
vital statistics on about 1,000 to 1,200 persons. The Bureau is trying to make sure 
that every inhabited road in the country is mapped. On many charts, every 
building is marked. — Associated Press. 

50 Technocracy Digest 




if Technocracy is the only North Am- 
erican social movement with a North 
American program which has become 
widespread on this Continent. It has 
no affiliation with any other organiza- 
tion, group or association either in North 
America or elsewhere. 
if The basic unit of Technocracy is the 
chartered Section consisting of a min- 
imum of 50 members and running up to 
several hundred. 

if It is not a commercial organization 
or a political party; it has no financial 
subsidy or endowment and has no debts. 
Technocracy is supported entirely by the 
dues and donations of its own members. 
The widespread membership activities 
of Technocracy are performed volun- 
tarily; no royalties, commissions or bon- 
uses are paid, and only a small full-time 
staff receives subsistence allowances. The 
annual dues are $9.00 which are paid by 
the member to his local Section. 
it Members wear the chromium and 
vermilion insignia of Technocracy — the 
Monad, an ancient generic symbol signi- 
fying balance. 


it There are units and members of 
Technocracy in almost every State in the 
U.S. and in all Provinces in Canada, and 
in addition there are members in Alaska, 
Hawaii, Panama, Puerto Rico and in 
numerous other places with the Armed 

it Members of Technocracy are glad 
to travel many miles to discuss Tech- 
nocracy's Program with any interested 
people and Continental Headquarters 
will be pleased to inform any one of the 
location of the nearest Technocracy unit. 


if Technocracy originated in the winter 
of 1918-1919 when Howard Scott formed 
a group of scientists, engineers and econ- 
omists that become known in 1920 as 
The Technical Alliance — a research or- 
ganization. In 1933 it was incorporated 
under the laws of the State of New York 
as a non-profit, non-political, non-sec- 
tarian membership organization. In 1934, 
Howard Scott, Director-in-Chief, made 
his first Continental lecture tour which 
laid the foundations of the present 
nation - wide membership organization. 
Since 1934 Technocracy has grown stead- 
ily without any spectacular spurts, re- 
vivals, collapses or rebirths. This is in 
spite of the fact that the press has gen- 
erally 'held the lid' on Technocracy, 
until early in 1942 when it made the 
tremendous 'discovery' that Technocracy 
had been reborn suddenly full-fledged 
with all its members, headquarters, etc., 
in full swing. 


if Technocracy was built in North 
America by North Americans. It is com- 
posed of North American citizens in all 
walks of life. Technocracy's membership 
is a composite of all the occupations, 
economic levels, races and religions which 
make up this Continent. Membership 
is open only to North American citizens. 
Aliens and politicians are not eligible. 
(By politicians is meant those holding 
elective political office or active office 
in any political party.) 

if Doctor, lawyer, storekeeper, farmer 

mechanic, teacher, preacher or house 

wife — as long as you are a patriots 

North American — you are welcome in 









Keep It Running! 

The Best Is the Worst 

The Unseen Destroyer 

Japan Taps Solar Power 

Electronic Eye for Biologists 

Jets and Jobs 

'Foam Core' Housing 

Unicenter Speeds Delivery 








MAY, 1960 No. 176 


Rupert N. Urquhart Editor Donald Bruce Advisory Editor 

Milton Wildfong Associate Editor Jane Urquhart Circulation Manager 

Helen Slater Business Manager 

Keep It Running! 3 

The Best Is the Worst 9 

Japan Taps Solar Energy 17 

Electronic Eye for Biologist 24 

Soviet Leads Hydro Race 25 

Unicenter Speeds Delivery 28 

Through the Technoscope 31 

The Unseen Destroyer 24 

Jets and Johs 39 

'Foam Core' Housing 47 

New Process Waterproofs Cotton 50 

Technocracy Digest is published quarterly by Section 1, R.D. 12349, Technocracy Inc., 
3642 Kingsway, Vancouver 16, B.C., Canada. Single copy, 25 cents. Subscription: 
four issues for $1.00; all three Technocracy Magazines, one year, $3.00. Make all 
cheques and money orders payable to Technocracy Digest. Entire contents copy- 
righted 1960. Printed in Canada. Continental Headquarters of Technocracy Inc. is 
at Rushland, Pennsylvania. 


Keep It Running ! 

Most people do not and will not understand Technocracy before 
physical trends make its institution mandatory. The best they can 
do, then, is make sure they keep the essential technology operating 
and take direction from competent social engineers. 

■"PURNING on a television set is 
* a simple matter. A twist of a 
knob does the trick, then other 
knobs control volume, channel 
selection and image clarity. Luck- 
ily, in view of the generally low 
calibre of scheduled programs, it 
is even simpler to turn it off. Only 
the 'on-off knob need be turned. 

Understanding why the tele- 
vision set works is quite a differ- 
ent matter. What are the elec- 
tronic principles which make it 
possible for a picture to be shown 
on a television screen many miles 
from the televised scene and 
simultaneously with its occur- 
rence? Most people have not the 
foggiest idea what the answer is, 
nor do they care about such tech- 
nical explanations as long as they 
achieve the desired results. Mod- 
ern sets are therefore designed 
with easy controls for the bene- 
fit of the average 'big-eye* view- 
ers who operate but do not un- 

Similarly, collectors of phono- 

graph records generally have no 
comprehension how the sound of 
music or anything else is cap- 
tured and retained in the tiny 
grooves of records. All that con- 
cerns them is that the music they 
wish to hear is reproduced when 
they follow a set of simple dir- 
ections. They, too, are operators 
of equipment they do not under- 

These two instances furnish 
the hint of an answer to a ques- 
tion frequently asked of Techno- 
crats, namely, 'How can you in- 
stitute the social program of 
Technocrary until most North 
Americans understand it?' 

Most people do not understand 
the economy under which they 
presently operate any more than 
they understand the mechanics 
of the vast technology which they 
take a part in operating. They 
rely on the judgment of others 
apparently better qualified than 
themselves to keep the Price 
System going, even as they call 

May, 1960 

on technicians and engineers to 
remedy mechanical difficulties 
which they encounter. It is for- 
tunate that full-scale understand- 
ing is not necessary, else Tech- 
nocracy Inc.'s self-imposed task 
would indeed be hopeless. 

Mankind's history of material 
progress has largely been a docu- 
mentation of constant struggle 
against change. Practically every 
invention and scientific discov- 
ery that brought us to our pres- 
ent stage has been severely op- 
posed before being accepted by 
the general public. Acceptance 
has come slowly as it has been 
found that personal gain or com- 
fort could derive from adopting 
certain innovations. Generally, 
though, it has been unnecessary 
to understand the mechanics of 
equipment in order to operate it. 
Instruction manuals on operation 
are usually supplied with each 

A modern North American 
home contains a considerable 
array of technological equipment 
— more than would be realized 
without taking inventory. The 
kitchen has an electric or gas 
range likely equipped with an 
automatic oven which can be set 
to start or stop cooking at any de- 

sired later hour. Its controls are 
easily designed so that most peo- 
ple can learn to use them very 
shortly, but if anything goes 
wrong the difficulty must be rec- 
tified by someone familiar with 
the design. 

There are also in or near the 
kitchen a refrigerator, possibly a 
deep-freeze unit, an automatic 
clothes washer and drier, and 
maybe even a dish washer and a 
garbage disposal unit. Smaller 
appliances include an electric 
frypan, food mixer, teakettle, 
toaster, steam electric ironer, as 
well as an electric can opener! 
Numerous other electrically- or 
gasoline-operated devices are 
about the home to help either 
husband or wife do their work, 
but most fall into the same cate- 
gory in at least one respect. The 
owners know how to run them 
but cannot fix them if anything 
goes wrong. They operate the 
equipment without understanding 

If this is so with machinery 
they operate every day, either at 
home or on the job, it is even 
more so with the society of which 
they are part and in which they 
take some part in running. Many 
are not even sure why the institu- 

Technocracy Digest 

tion of society exists. They con- 
fuse its basic purposes — the 
grouping together of people to 
solve common problems that can- 
not be solved by individual ef- 
fort — with the predatory charac- 
teristics of their Price System 
economy which uses those pur- 
poses as a potent means to the 
end of amassing monetary wealth. 
This objective, which is a com- 
plete perversion of the reasons 
for society, has become so domi- 
nant that the average citizen has 
virtually forgotten (if he ever 
knew) that if the technological 
phase of our society were to 
cease operating, then even the 
largest bank account on the Con- 
tinent would be worthless to its 

Society, having its base in the 
physical processes which provide 
food, clothing, shelter and all 
other essentials to life, must con- 
tinue to be operated irrespective 
of what happens to the Price Sys- 
tem overburden. Whether or not 
the operators understand the 
workings of those processes is 
not vital as long as they are kept 

North Americans have become 
so accustomed to modern day 
conveniences that they give little 

thought to how they are supplied. 
Lighting and heating systems, 
factory motors, transit systems 
and innumerable other conveni- 
ences are powered by electricity 
— a service that everyone takes 
for granted until for some rea- 
son it is disrupted. Then con- 
fusion reigns supreme in the af- 
fected area until the service is 
restored. Meals go uncooked; 
transportation is confounded by 
the immobility of trolley coaches 
and the discontinuance of traffic- 
control signals; people cannot 
work because of inadequte light 
or because their electrically-pow- 
ered machines have been reduc- 
ed to heaps of metal. Some build- 
ings, such as hospitals, have aux- 
iliary generators to run vital 
equipment in such emergencies, 
but these in turn are dependent 
upon other services. Should 
transportation also be disrupted 
for any protracted period, the 
auxiliary units would be forced 
to discontinue for lack of fuel. 

This Continent's population, 
especially north of the Rio 
Grande, depends utterly upon 
the continuous operation of the 
installed technological equipment 
for survival. Because any pro- 
longed interruption of services 

May, 1960 

could have the most disastrous 
consequences, it cannot be em- 
phasized too strongly that no 
such interruption be permitted. 
Admittedly, the excessive dupli- 
cation characterizing Price Sys- 
tem operation is very wasteful 
and indicative of lack of organi- 
zation, but rather than take a 
chance on all operations — neces- 
sary and unnecessary alike — 
coming to a complete halt, it is 
better for the time being that all 
be continued. For one thing, the 
extra pressure of increasing 
abundance will help hasten the 
demise of the scarcity-born Price 
System control. When this has 
occurred, the main job will be to 
streamline all operations for the 
greatest social advantage at the 
least physical cost. This can only 
be achieved by making sure that 
the vital functions — electric pow- 
er generation and transmission, 
transportation, communications , 
et cetera — are kept running. 

As long as operatives continue 
receiving regular pay cheques, 
they are not likely to walk off 
their jobs which are considered 
merely as tasks that must be ex- 
changed for personal require- 
ments. The dairy farmer is not as 
interested in supplying a nutri- 

tional need for a segment of the 
population as he is in getting a 
good enough price on his milk to 
buy a new automatic milker. The 
truck driver who delivers the 
milk cans to a city dairy is also 
more concerned with the amount 
of his remuneration than with 
continuing the milk supply pro- 
cess commenced on the dairy 
farm. The dairy plant personnel 
are in a similar category. While 
the man at the bottle capping 
machine watches the bottles whiz 
through, he probably sees them as 
representing the next payment 
on his car. He couldn't care less 
about where the milk goes after 
leaving his machine, or how it 
will be used. Finally, the driver- 
salesmen may be sincerely inter- 
ested in seeing that more cus- 
tomers use more dairy products 
— but for monetary rather than 
nutritional reasons. It does not 
matter what the motivation is, 
though, as long as the combined 
effort gets the product from the 
source to the ultimate consumer. 
Most personnel in other fields 
similarly work for the monetary 
gains attached to jobs rather than 
because of the intrinsic import- 
ance of those jobs to society. 
Many people thus take jobs for 

Technocracy Digest 

which they have little aptitude, 
but for which the pay is higher 
than that in jobs for which they 
are more functionally adapted. 
Little can be done about the situ- 
ation within an economy which 
arbitrarily decides that certain 
jobs rate higher consuming privi- 
leges than others. The natural 
result is that numerous people 
are so disinterested in what they 
are doing as to show no desire 
to understand their jobs beyond 
what is required to satisfy their 
employers. Because they are not 
interested in understanding their 
immediate jobs, neither are they 
interested in how those jobs fit 
into the complete pattern. 

Such disinterest is not entirety 
unassisted. Billions of dollars are 
spent annually to divert public 
attention from serious matters. 
Toward this end, vast sums go 
into television programming and 
advertising, wide screen motion 
picture extravaganzas, profes- 
sional sports, escapist literary 
trash and other campaigns. If 
these evasive media are insuffi- 
cient to wean some individuals 
from their immediate troubles, 
they can always get soused. Then, 
of course, there are the super de- 
luxe attractions afforded by our 

political governments in the tra- 
ditional form of elections and in 
the modern form of outer space 
explorations. Both are always 
good for banner headlines in all 
major daily newspapers across 
the Continent, and can always be 
counted on to precipitate new 
gossip and speculation about 
matters unrelated to social prob- 
lems. It is not surprising in the 
face of such a barrage of distrac- 
tive 'entertainment' that North 
Americans are exceptionally un- 
informed about their social mech- 
anism. They neither understand 
nor care to understand as long 
as they can call on someone else 
to pull them out of difficulties. 

Thus far they have called on 
their financial and political lead- 
ers to remedy the recurrent 
troubles besetting the Price Sys- 
tem. It is becoming increasingly 
evident, however, that the trouble 
is too technically complex to 
yield an answer to the fumbling 
efforts of such untrained person- 
nel. These men have had experi- 
ence only in manipulating the 
scarcity controls of a monetary 
economy and are totally unequip- 
ped to solve the problems of 
abundance created by this Con- 
tinent's technology. The solution 

May, 1960 

of that problem must be left to 
the scientists, technologists and 
engineers who designed and in- 
stalled that equipment. 

It is essential that these key 
personnel understand the enor- 
mity of the problem caused in 
North America by the conflict 
between the tools of abundance 
and! an economy of scarity. 
They have often been so absorb- 
ed with the immediate problems 
of directing and controlling tech- 
nology that they have lost per- 
spective. Many still do not realize 
the full significance of that tech- 

Technocracy Inc. has, on the 
basis of a complete study of the 
unique problem facing this Con- 
tinent, drawn a blueprint of soc- 
ial operation which is specially 
tailored to the requirements of 
an abundance economy. It pre- 

sents that blueprint — the only 
program which is preparing 
North Americans for social 
change — for the investigation of 
all technical and scientific per- 
sonnel whose functions automati- 
cally place them in positions of 
strategic social importance. They 
must be fully aware of the signi- 
ficance of fast-moving trends so 
that, when necessary, they will 
be able to give competent direc- 
tion to their fellow citizens. 

This does not absolve those fel- 
low citizens from making a simi- 
lar investigation of the Technoc- 
racy blueprint. All North Am- 
ericans are in the same boat, and 
as a matter of self-preservation 
it behooves them to learn where 
to get the necessary direction to 
keep themselves afloat when the 
battered hulk of the Price Sys- 
tem sinks in a sea of abundance. 
— Rupert N. Urquhart. 

^ BRIDGEPORT, CONN. — Crooked executives, supervisors and workers will 
continue to steal U.S. business blind in 1960, according to a New York management 

Norman Jaspan of Norman Jaspan Associates told the Controllers Institute 
of America that 'management will continue to lose its battle against internal dis- 
honesty' this year. He said 250 firms will go to the wall because of thefts by officers 
or workers — 50 more than in 1959. Employees will steal more than $4 million a 
day, most of it by executives and supervisors rather than by ordinary workers. The 
total, exceeding $1 billion, will be more than twice as much as professional burglars 
and robbers manage to steal from the public in the course of a year. 

Jaspan said stealing and payola cost business so much that if they could be 
eliminated the general price level of goods could be cut by 15%. Mismanagement 
is mainly responsible and dishonesty is greatest among executives and supervisors. 
His company investigated $60 million in theft losses last year and found the bosses 
stole 62% of this. — United Press International. 


Technocracy Digest 

The Best is the Worst 

This article from the May, 1952, issue of Technocracy Digest points 
out why practices which often seem best for short range business 
expediency are worst, socially, in the long run. Current trends 
have amply borne out this observation. 

■"PHROUGH the centuries, vari- 
■"■ ous civilizations, nations, regi- 
mes, and individual personalities 
have risen to prominence, flour- 
ished for awhile, then faded or dis- 
appeared. Most of these were 
praised highly during their ascen- 
dency and declared to be Good; 
but, in the light of later develop- 
ments, many of these have been 
condemned as Bad. Whether the 
regimes of the past were Good or 
Bad is of little moment to us now; 
at most, they serve mainly as ex- 
amples of human fallacies in our 
own social order. Other than that, 
they are just interesting sagas of 
the past. The amount of knowl- 
edge from the past that we can 
convert into modern use is piti- 
fully small, and most of it is pro- 
ving to be more of a handicap 
than a benefit. The rise of science 
in recent times provides man with 
a means of making new discover- 
ies and acquiring new knowledge 
as the need demands; and this 
new knowledge has scarcely any 

relationship to the knowledge of 
the past. 

Much has been said and written 
in praise of the great civilizations 
of the regions around the Medi- 
terranean Sea — civilizations that 
once flourished and now are gone. 
Among them were the Persians, 
the Israelites, the Egyptians, the 
Greeks, the Spanish, and the 
Arabs. These were among the 
brightest spots that history afford- 
ed the student of Western culture. 
Each in turn was regarded as the 
best in social development; and, 
unfortunately, they are still the 
civilizations, the cultures, and 
the social patterns that are being 
eulogized and emulated around 
the world by the Best People. 
Nevertheless, they are of the past; 
their utility as models of social 
structures is outmoded; and most 
of the techniques that they devel- 
oped and the knowledge that they 
accumulated are better ignored 
and forgotten. 

Among all of these civilizations, 

May, 1960 

a very few people had extreme 
wealth while the great majority 
lived in abject poverty, filth, and 
despair. The few who had the 
power and the means to build a 
social structure of benefit to all 
of the people shunned that oppor- 
tunity and responsibility; and, 
when they did build at all, built 
merely grandiose and useless 
monuments to themselves and 
their idols. In doing so, they 
ground out the lives of untold 
thousands of slaves and subject 
citizens. Some of their buildings 
remain — many only as ruins 
(places for tourists to go and take 
photographs of each other) — but 
their lessons in social cost are 
blithefully ignored. Few people, 
when viewing the terrible pyra- 
mids, the frightful colosseums, and 
the horrible temples and cathe- 
drals, see them as monuments to 
the worst in men, built by the 
Worst of men. 

Prior to the advent of modern 
machinery, powered with extra- 
neous energy, the means of doing 
work were slow and laborious, in- 
volving long hours of toil by the 
great majority of men, women, 
and children. One would natur- 
ally suppose that the social areas 
would have been organized and 

strategically directed toward 
achieving the highest degree of 
efficiency and productivity that 
the circumstances permitted; and 
that as favorable a balance among 
population, resources, standard of 
living; and human effort as could 
be worked out would be maintain- 
ed. But what actually happened 
was very different from this. 

Most of the people worked hard, 
lived miserably, and died young. 
The raising of food, fiber, and 
leather was crude and inefficient 
and very toilsome. Most of the 
dwellings, instead of being built 
to last for centuries (they knew 
how to do it) , were shoddily con- 
structed and required frequent 
replacement. Inefficient toil and 
low productivity was stabilized 
and perpetuated by tradition and 
superstition, and very little effort 
was ever made to improve pro- 
duction techniques and to relieve 
the human being of his wearisome 
work. The few who gained posi- 
tions of power lived in extrava- 
gant luxury. Through taxation, 
confiscation, tithing, chiseling,and 
looting, the common people were 
kept reduced to a bare subsistence 
and often experienced starvation. 
They were enslaved and were 
worked unmercifully in the con- 


Technocracy Digest 

struction of huge, grandiose build- 
ings and other bric-a-brac to the 
glorification of the ruling minor- 
ity; also in the production of mate- 
rial of war for the armies and in 
making articles for commerce. 
What has been designated and 
praised as Noble, Good, Just, Hon- 
orable, and Divine — as The Best 
— has been cruel, predaceous, ar- 
rogant, selfish, and destructive — 
it has been The Worst as com- 
pared to what might have been. 

What has been acclaimed as 
The Best, was always; so appraised 
from the viewpoint of the few 
beneficiaries of the systems con- 
cerned. They had control of the 
mediums of articulation and re- 
cording. To the great numbers of 
the people, the social systems 
meant only toil, filthy living con- 
ditions, a very low standard of 
living, and early death of disease, 
overwork, and abuse. But this 
situation is not all in the past; 
much of it still remains. The con- 
ditions still prevailing in most 
Latin American and Mohamme- 
dan countries are stinking ex- 
amples of this barbaric pattern 
extended into the modern world. 

All during the past centuries, 
in order to have The Best on a 
limited scale, it was also neces- 

sary to have The Worst on an ex- 
tensive scale. In order to have a 
few who were very rich, it was 
necessary to have many who 
were very poor. Until recently, 
that was a long-term pattern, 
maintained and perpetuated by 
the authorities of the prevailing 
gods, kings, generals, and slave- 
masters. There was no chance for 
a new regime, dedicated to the 
general welfare, to arise. Al- 
though there were many idealists 
who envisioned a better way of 
life for the people and, on occa- 
sions some of them were able to 
recruit popular followings, they 
were usually soon obliterated as 
'heretics' to the status quo, or else 
their organizations were taken 
over and subverted to the pattern 
of the old regime. There was no 
effective means for men who were 
honorable and humane and en- 
dowed with practical social vision 
to attain positions of leadership 
and power — no more than there 
is in Italy and Spain, or even the 
United States today. 

Nearly two thousand years ago, 
a small and obscure group of ideal- 
istic men preached a new form of 
practical religion, based on peace, 
generosity, and love of their fel- 
low men. It had a strong popular 

May, 1960 


appeal and, after many years, 
gained a powerful underground 
following. When the movement 
continued to grow despite cruel 
measures of suppression, it was 
taken over by the ruling class 
and subverted to serve their pur- 
poses — to support war, slavery, 
selfish interests, superstition, and 
social degradation of the masses 
of people. In this role, Christian- 
ity flourished as the dominant 
religion of the West for many 
centuries. In the name of its 
founder, Jesus Christ, more people 
have been slaughtered, tortured, 
and debased than in the name of 
any other leader. The Christian 
Era has been more famous for its 
wars than its peace; more notori- 
ous for its hatreds than for its 
good will among men; more con- 
spicuous for its exploitation of 
human beings for purposes of 
gain to a few than for its gener- 

It is stated that the fault is not 
with Christianity as such, but 
that the acts committed in the 
name of Christianity are the evil 
deeds of wicked men who have 
donned the guise of Christians. In 
any case, Christendom is many 
centuries overdue for a thorough 
housecleaning; for, on the record 

of its effects, the Best in idealism 
has proven itself to be the Worst 
in practical application. The 
Christian monarchies of Medieval 
and Renaissance Europe were 
among the most ruthless and cruel 
in history. And World Wars I and 
II must be recorded as Christian 

In modern times, as a conse- 
quence of the discoveries of 
science, human affairs have be- 
come dynamic, and regimes and 
patterns that in the past could 
have been perpetuated for cen- 
turies, now have a short tenure. 
Before this century, the rise and 
fall of a social 'experiment' took 
several to many centuries — the 
further back in time the more 
centuries involved. But, in this 
Twentieth Century, a regime that 
is heralded as the Best often be- 
comes generally acknowledged as 
the Worst within the lifetime of 
its founders. For example, the re- 
vival of clerical fascism under 
Hitler and the Nazi Party in Ger- 
many was supposed to endure for 
a thousand years, but Hitler lived 
to see its downfall and its con- 
demnation as the worst scourge 
of the Twentieth Century. 

As a transitional example, one 
that lasted for a few centuries, 


Technocracy Digest 

we can select the colonial exploi- 
tation of the 'backward areas' of 
the world by the imperialistic na- 
tions of Europe following the ex- 
ploratory discoveries of Marco 
Polo and Christopher Columbus. 
With the development of improved 
sailing ships and the knowledge 
of new lands to be conquered and 
means of reaching them, there was 
a frantic rush among the powers 
of Europe to grab off as much 
colonial territory as possible for 
the private enrichment of their 
ruling classes. Spain, Portugal, 
England, Holland, France, and 
Italy proceeded to expand their 
domains by conquest, with Bel- 
gium and Germany coming into 
the struggle at a later date. 

In this colonial expansion, some 
of the national policies were 'bet- 
ter' than others; that is, the native 
populations were treated with less 
cruelty and neglect than those 
under certain other national col- 
onial policies. For example, the 
British and Dutch provided the 
natives with better protection, 
introduced more general sanita- 
tion and medical care, ensured 
greater and more regular food 
supplies, and abolished some of 
the more cruel and inhumane of 
the native practices. Under these 

regimes, the native populations 
were enabled to bound upward. 
In this respect, from the stand- 
point of humanistic philosophy, 
the British and Dutch colonial ad- 
ministration could be considered 
among the Best, while those of 
Italy, Spain, and Portugal were 
among the Worst, and those of 
the French and Germans in be- 

But, it happened, the 'better' 
the process of colonial exploita- 
tion, the sooner the colonials de- 
veloped effective resentment 
against their exploiters, and the 
sooner they were enabled to or- 
ganize independent movements, 
and the sooner they were able to 
achieve partial or complete separ- 
ation from the mother country. 
On the other hand, Portugal, the 
worst administrator of all, is in 
the least danger of losing her 
colonies from internal revolt. In 
over-all retrospect, the chief dif- 
ference between the Best and the 
Worst in colonial exploitation is 
that the Best has been more effi- 
cient in exploiting and squander- 
ing the resources of its areas, 
and from the standpoint of the 
future, that makes it worse than 
the Worst. 

Under the direction of a super- 

May, 1960 


ior statesmanship, one with a stra- 
tegic sense, an empire like that 
of Britain need not have gone 
under. While the British adminis- 
trators were, indeed, Gentlemen, 
and although they were clever 
opportunists, they did not have 
a long-range perspective. Their 
main concern was to gain superior 
wealth for themselves from the 
toil and poverty of others and, 
thus, continue to live as Gentle- 
men and Ladies. So, instead of 
skillfully seeking the loyalty and 
whole-hearted cooperation of the 
conquered areas on the basis of 
social equality and mutual wel- 
fare, the 'Empire Builders' tend- 
ed to nurture among the subject 
peoples enmity, resentment, and 
desire for autonomy. The relation- 
ship of the conqueror and con- 
quered was continued into the 
post-expansion period and a dif- 
ferential of social status was main- 
tained between the 'superior' 
Europeans and the 'inferior' Col- 
onials. Consequently, it was only 
a matter of time before the col- 
onials would take advantage of 
opportunities to cut themselves 
loose from the empires. And, now, 
the flags of Britain and the other 
major empires of Europe are 
homeward bound, while new flags 

are being unfurled over the do- 
mains of new 'sovereign repub- 
lics' around the world. 

The greatest economic success 
of all time has been achieved in 
America during the past century 
under* the corporate enterprise 
system of management. Hence, 
corporate enterprise has been bal- 
lyhooed around the world by Am- 
ericans as the Best possible econ- 
omic system. On the strength of 
the success of the American 'Free 
Enterprise' system, the American 
businessmen has thrown his 
weight around in all parts of the 
world to which he has been per- 
mitted access. The successful Am- 
erican businessman has flattered 
himself with the illusion that his 
way of life is superior to any 1 other 
way of life. (However, we might 
add parenthetically, he is not en- 
tirely sure of himself; for, in spite 
of their great self-esteem, the most 
successful of the Americans are 
fascinated by the trappings and 
traditions of the erstwhile royalty 
of Europe. Anyway, it has been a 
fad among the very rich Ameri- 
cans to import from Europe the 
debris of the late royalty, rang- 
ing from their candlesticks to their 
castles, or to go to Europe and 
buy a villa or a castle as an 'extra' 


Technocracy Digest 

domicile for occasional use. And 
the very wealthy American fe- 
male wants to buy and marry a 
European title.) 

The success of the American 
businessman has served as ade- 
quate 'proof that he had the 
superior wisdom and foresight 
among the world's leading per- 
sonalities, and that his adopted 
formula for success, the corpor- 
ate enterprise system is the Best 
that could be devised. On the 
strength of his economic success, 
the American businessman has be- 
come the world's foremost 'auth- 
ority' on any and all subjects. His 
success has qualified him for any 
position of social significance, in- 
cluding presidencies of universi- 
ties, foreign ambassadorships, and 
terms of office in the United 
States Senate. 

Under the American 'Free En- 
terprise' system, the Continent 
was settled from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific; the great forests of 
North America were destroyed; 
the land was plowed up, the soil 
leached of its fertility, and much 
of the ground later abandoned as 
worthless; great cities were built 
helter-skelter without planning or 
design, as centers of commerce 
and business; the mineral deposits 

were gutted and sacrificed to com- 
merce and to war; the industrial 
technology of the Continent was 
advanced to ever greater produc- 
tivity in the frenzy for more pro- 
fits; and more low-grade human 
beings were promoted than in all 
the rest of the world combined. 
This Continent had rich resources, 
new land, and a laissez-faire social 
administration. Almost anyone 
who could obtain a foothold in 
the system and learn the rudi- 
mentary financial manipulations 
could move upward with the gen- 
eral expansion. 

The American petroleum indus- 
try, a favored example of applied 
American business 'genius,' be- 
came the most advanced petro- 
leum industry in the world. It 
has drilled more oil wells, pump- 
ed more oil out of the ground, and 
merchandised more petroleum 
products than all the rest of the 
world combined. The American 
oil magnates are, beyond doubt, 
the Best oilmen in the world. 
Their explorations cover the most 
ground and their exploratory tech- 
niques arel unsurpassed. They 
sink more wells and do it faster 
than anybody else. They obtain 
more oil from the geological for- 
mations of the earth than every- 

May, 1960 


body else. And their salesmen are 
tops in finding and inventing mar- 
kets for their products. The more 
oil that is pumped out of the 
ground and sold in the channels 
of commerce, the greater the pro- 
fits and the greater the success 
which accrue to the petroleum 
financial interests. 

Also, the faster the supplies of 
oil in the ground are depleted. 

Americans do not need to wait 
until their oil reserves are near 
exhaustion before they realize 
that their strategy with respect to 
petroleum exploitation was not 
the Best in the world but the 
Worst. All they have to do is 
wake up some morning and dis- 
cover that their petroleum pro- 
duction is on the decline — that 
production does not fulfill the re- 
quirements of consumption. True, 
there may still be 30 million bar- 
rels of 'proven reserves'; but, if 
it cannot be taken out of the 
ground at a rate in excess of six 
million barrels a day, the 'cap- 
tains' of the petroleum industry 
won't be sticking out their chests 
in public — in fact, they won't 
dare be seen in public at all. 

The Paul Bunyans of the Am- 
erican lumbering industry were 
the most proficient in the world 

at clearing saw - timber off the 
land and leaving a devastated 
shambles in their wake. There 
once were quick and easy profits 
to be made in the forests of North 
America. The markets of this Con- 
tinent and of the world were 
flooded with cheap lumber. Now, 
four-fifths of those former timber 
lands don't have timber anymore. 
Instead, millions of acres are still 
unfit for much of anything. It 
took the Greeks, the Romans, the 
British, and the Chinese many 
centuries to denude their forested 
hills; but, Americans, beginning 
with the grandest forests in the 
world, have been able to obliter- 
ate them in slightly more than a 
century. Again, the Best has turn- 
ed out to be the Worst. The 'Free 
Enterprise' system has sold out 
the people of this Continent in its 
slap-happy scramble for the fast 

In the same way, the American 
steel industry has long claimed 
world leadership; for, it has min- 
ed out more iron ore, manufac- 
tured more steel, found more ways 
of marketing its product, and of 
providing more steel per capita 
to its people than has the steel in- 
dustry of any other nation in the 
world. Verily, it is the world's 


Technocracy Digest 

Best, in terms of quantity produc- 
tion if not in quality. In a few 
decades, the American steel in- 
dustry has mined out one of the 
world's largest deposits of high 
grade iron ore — the only first 
magnitude deposit in the United 
States — and squandered it in the 
production of any and everything 
that could be sold on the market, 
from one-use razor blades to one- 
use tin cans, from bobby pins to 
'tin lizzies.' 

But the iron and steel industry 
had no long-range vision, no stra- 
tegic sense in terms of the general 
welfare. Now, iron and steel in- 
dustry of the United States — the 
Best in the world — has reduced 
the nation to that unenviable posi- 
tion of the wastrel who has squan- 
dered his inheritance and must 
beg gratuities from others. The 
U.S.A. must now go abroad and 
bribe, bully, and beg from other 
nations the right to 'develop' and 
squander their iron resources in 
order to maintain commercialized 
production on this Continent. 
From a short-range, profit-mak- 
ing viewpoint, the American steel 
industry has been a wonderful 
success; but, seen in the light of 
long-term Continental strategy, its 

behavior has been very disgrace- 
ful, if not treasonable. 

American industry has shown 
a remarkable ability to get things 
done when there was a sufficiently 
great profit incentive to get them 
done; and it has shown an equal 
ability to keep things from being 
done when financial interests lay 
in that direction. For example, 
the American railroads have 
shown an ability to move freight 
and passengers. But they have 
also shown an ability to keep 
transportation costs high and in 
preventing cheap inland water- 
way transportation from being de- 
veloped. In spite of its limitations 
of concept and its conservative 
dislike of adventure, American 
industry has built a capacity to 
produce so much so fast that it is 
destroying the very foundations 
on which its financial operations 
rest — scarcity values. Not only is 
American industry destroying its 
own corporate structure, but it is 
destroying the resources on which 
future generations of Americans 
must depend for their welfare 
and survival. A most fitting epi- 
taph to American Corporate En- 
terprise shall be: 'The Best was 
the Worst.' 

The American electoral system 

May, 1960 


is ballyhooed around the world 
(by American spokesmen) as the 
Best political system in the world. 
Under it, the 'common man' is 
supposed to have a voice in select- 
ing the politicians who will govern 
him and spend his money. He 
does have a voice of a sort, but 
his wisdom and judgment are 
open to serious doubts. He lets 
special-interest political gang- 
sters choose the candidates from 
which he makes the final selec- 
tion. The common man demands 
only one characteristic in those 
who shall be his leaders; that is, 
they must be at least as common 
as he is himself Anyone who has 
real ability would have no chance 
at all of being elected to anything 
under the American 'democratic' 
system. The voters are most joy- 
ous when they can flock to the 
polls and vote for someone they 
know is inferior to themselves, 
someone who will make more 
blunders than they would make 
in the same position. They like to 
feel that they are more intelli- 
gent than the man they elect to be 
president. In 1948, the American 
voters had a grand time trying to 
decide which of the candidates 
was the most common. 

The United States of America 

finds itself in a position of a con- 
tender for world leadership; yet, 
it finds its affairs in the hands of 
men whose training and capabili- 
ties completely unfit them for 
world statesmanship. Our 'states- 
men' enter the world arena with 
the concepts and attitudes of a 
group of small town businessmen. 
They approach world problems 
with the concepts of the mercan- 
tile chiseler, the ward politician, 
and the underworld gangster. 
They are incapable of thinking in 
terms of fundamentals, of such 
things as population density, min- 
eral resources, energy potentials, 
organic productive capacities, and 
area operation. They can think 
only of grabbing off the world's 
monetary riches and dividing the 
loot with the 'right people,' of 
nations into accepting directives 
capturing the world's commerce; 
and of bribing and bullying other 
from the U.S.A. Their only anti- 
dote for frustration is a global 
war; and their only substitute for 
a defeat of their established way 
of life is a maniacal destruction 
of the world. 

A government 'of the people, by 
the people, and for the people,' as 
a democratic ideal is the Best 
political concept yet devised by 


Technocracy Digest 

man. In actual practice, it is prov- 
ing itself to be one of the worst; 
for, in this modern age, it tends to 
destroy any nation that tries to 
institute it. 

American businessmen, mission- 
aries, diplomats, publicity men, 
tourists, and soldiers have gone 
around the world, carrying with 
them propaganda for 'the Ameri- 
can way.' With self-righteous 
pride, they naively suppose that 
their way of life is the Best in 
the world, and all they need do to 
'convert' other people to its ac- 
ceptance is to let them know the 
'truth' about what it has done for 
us and to us. Yes, the conveyors 
of the American way have parad- 
ed themselves before the peoples 
of the world; and, now, they are 
leaving many parts of the world 
and returning home — for good. 
American businessmen, mission- 
aries, diplomats, publicity men, 
tourists, and soldiers are among 
the most hated in the world; and 
the way of life which they repre- 
sent is becoming unwelcome in 
one area after another. It has 
reached such a state that Ameri- 
cans cannot even bribe their way 
into many parts of the world; and, 
if somehow they do get in, they 
are subject to arrest and impris- 

onment. 'American go home' is 
becoming a very popular slogan 
in many foreign countries still 
open to American entry. 

The peoples of other parts of 
the world have admired our tech- 
nology and production techniques 
and they would like to have some- 
thing similar for their own use. 
But they don't particularly care 
for the way we use them here. 
They intuitively feel that, if they 
had the same kind of machines 
and facilities that we have, they 
could make much better use of 
them. Now that other people are 
gradually getting machines and 
improving on them, they are be- 
ginning to threaten our suprem- 
acy in the world of technology. 
'Backward peoples' are also show 
ing that they can meet and match 
the best in military effort that we 
can throw at them. Conceit is the 
prelude to many a defeat. 

The peoples of the world have 
seen what the American Way of 
Life has done to us Americans, 
and they want none of it for them- 
selves. In spite of ample evidence 
to the contrary, many Americans 
still believe that the people of 
other nations would gladly aban- 
don their established ways of life 
and enthusiastically adopt ours if 

May, 1960 


only they could know 'the truth' 
about it and it were made avail- 
able to them. This is a grand illu- 
sion. Other people have their own 
ideas of how they want to live; 
and, now, more of them are gain- 
ing the f acilities for living lives of 
their own choosing. 

What is more, the position of 
other areas with respect to re- 
sources, population, and topo- 
graphy prohibit most of them from 
even beginning to aspire to the 
American Way. The American 
Way, as we have known it, is a 
unique phenomenon — a short- 
term, profligate dissipation of a 
rich inheritance. But even the 
American inheritance is not un- 
limited. Most other areas have no 
such inheritance to begin with, 
and they cannot approach us in 
our commercialized wastage of re- 

American leadership appears to 
have operated on the assumption 
that, when the resources of this 
Continent were finally expended, 
we would still have free and easy 
access to the resources of other 
parts of the world, and that we 
could still continue in outf favored 
way of life while the other peoples 
of the world continued on in their 
lowly ways of life. However, the 

facts of present day geography 
and history refute that assump- 
tion. Americans will soon have to 
retreat to the reality of their own 
Continent and build their future 
with what they have here. 
North America is not a poor 
Continent; rather, considering 
everything, it is the most favored 
area on the earth. Its greatest 
handicap is its mode of social 
operation. Once it were techno- 
logically organized into a unified 
social mechanism, its resources 
appraised and developed with a 
view to their long-term use, the 
social cancers of business and pol- 
itics eradicated from its social 
organism, and the general welfare 
of the people given prior consider- 
ation, this Continent could be 
made into a very decent place to 
live for its people. 

Europe was once the Best con- 
tinent on earth from the view- 
point of Western cultural devel- 
opment. In terms of its future 
prospects, it is now the Worst 
continent on earth. Millions of 
Europeans would like nothing 
better than an opportunity to 
abandon Europe. The same pro- 
cesses that have undermined Eur- 
ope now are eroding this Con- 

(Continued on Page 33) 


Technocracy Digest 


•■■•: ■ ' 

May, 1960 

Compiled by Editorial Staff 

No. 176 

fjafian ^api. Solan, &nei<f,4f> 

"QHOENIX, Ariz. — More than a million Japanese bathe each eve- 
•*" ning in water heated by the sun. A few natives of the Flowery 
Kingdom are eating algae grown in sun-heated pools. More are 
cooking their food with concentrated solar rays. Solar house heating 
is practiced to an extent not approached in any other country. 

'Japan is the first nation to make substantial use of sun radiation 
for supplying domestic energy,' reports John I. Yellott, just back 
from a visit to Tokyo as guest of the Japan Society of Mechanical 
Engineers. Formerly executive director of the Association for 
Applied Solar Energy, Mr. Yellott now is chairman of the American 

Society of Mechanical Engineers' solar energy applications commit- 

More exactly, the Arizonan was a guest of the Japanese society's 
committee on applied solar energy, which is making significant prog- 
ress toward easing Japan's chronic fuel shortage. Its only fossil fuel 
comes from meager coal measures. 

May, 1960 



'Coal and oil . . . cost as much at $3.50 per million BTU, and 
the charcoal which is widely used for cooking is even more expen- 
sive/ Mr. Yellott found. 'Hot water for bathing plays an important 
part in the life of a typical Japanese family, and the low tempera- 
tures which prevail in winter make some form of house heating es- 

'Electricity is available almost everywhere at from one to two 
cents per kilowatt-hour, but manufactured gas is to be had only in the 
larger cities.' 

Since 1948, sunshine duration and intensity measurements have 
been made at 30 stations scattered over Japan. On an average the 
sun shines 2,000 hours a year. In the south the mean value of solar 
radiation is 1,480 BTU per square foot in a day, but it is only 880 
BTU in the foggy northeastern islands. This isn't much sunshine, 
or much heat, but 'the incentive for learning how to use it is very 


By far the most important application of solar energy is for 
water heating, with more than 200,000 heaters in use throughout 
central and southern Japan. 

There are more than a dozen different designs. The simplest is 
a plastic envelope, or 'pillow/ with transparent top and black 
bottom. The device is simply exposed to the sun through the day 
and by nightfall it has warmed perhaps 30 gallons to 110 or 120 de- 
grees. It is then used in the deep cylindrical bathtubs which are a 
part of every Japanese house. 1 

Another type, with blackened sheets as heat collectors, was seen 
by Mr. Yellott on the roof of Keio University's gymnasium. It has 
720 square feet of collector units and supplies 'most of the hot water 
required by a succession of very active baseball and soccer teams.' 

Five residential solar heater systems have been built around 
Tokyo by Masanosuke Yanagimachi, an engineer specializing in solar 
energy. Mr. Yellott inspected one house that has its entire roof 

22 Technocracy Digest 

covered with aluminum, which serves both as roofing and heat col- 
lector. Water circulated and wanned under the aluminum is stored 
in a basement tank. 

Inside that tank are heat-absorbing coils connected with a heat 
pump that "upgrades" the water in a smaller reservoir. Water from 
the second tank is circulated through radiant ceiling panels. 

A number of solar furnaces are used in research laboratories. 
They are generally of the common searchlight reflector type found 
in other countries. A giant furnace, 10 meters in diameter, is planned. 

Japanese technicians are also to the fore in developing silicon 
solar batteries, which convert sun energy directly into electricity, 
and are building them bigger and bigger. 

Just over a year ago the Nippon Electric Company put one into 
service as the power source for an ultra-high-frequency repeater 
station atop Mt. Shinobu, 150 miles northeast of Tokyo. It consists 
of 4,320 silicon cells. These emit charging current to nickel cadmium 
batteries, which in turn supply current for receiver and transmitter 
tubes. So far, performance has been 'highly satisfactory.' 

The Japanese Government liberally supports the Japan Micro- 
algae Research Institute, established in 1957 to carry on the work 
started by Prof. Hiroshi Tamiya. In a Tokyo suburb is an establish- 
ment with nearly an acre of ponds that grow the edible alga called 

Although these single-celled organisms manufacture protein 
25 times faster than grass, production cost is still too high to com- 
pete with soybeans in the food market, but 'is already cheaper than 
skim-milk powder.' 

The possibilities of using algae in space vehicles as a means of 
producing oxygen and food are intriguing. It may well prove that 
the first application of this sun-operated process will be in outer 

— Christian Science Monitor. 

May. I960 23 

"K NEW electron microscope designed to make visible life's details 
•** with greater clarity than ever before has been described to 

The instrument is expected to fill an important need in the study 
of the structures of the smallest components of living things that 
can be viewed with any microscope. This includes the smaller 
viruses and some single molecules of proteins, the basic building 
blocks of living tissue. 

A specialist who made an extensive tour last year of 150 electron 
microscope research laboratories throughout the world described de- 
velopment research on the new instrument as 'the most impressive 
being done in the field of biological electron microscopy.' 

The principle advantage claimed for the new electron micro- 
scope is that it produces an image showing greater contrast between 
background and biological specimen than has hitherto been possible 
therefore the specimens must be stained or shadowed. 

As a consequence, said Dr. Alvar P. Wilska, inventor of the 
new device, it will be possible to observe the fine details of protein 
structure with greater clarity than has ever been possible. Such 
studies could prove extremely important to research on the life and 
growth processes of living things. 

Using the instrument, Dr. Wilska has captured the image of 
structures as minute as molecules of hemoglobin, the red blood pig- 
ment, and details of bacteria, such as the internal structure of their 
wavy external filaments called flagella. 

This is the far portion of the microscopic world in which dimen- 
sions are in the range of 50 Angstrom units or less, the equivalent 
of less than one-five-millionth of an inch. 

Electron microscopes owe their tremendous powers of magni- 
fication to the use of electron beams, rather than visible light to 
'illuminate' their targets. But thin biological specimens tend to 

24 Technocracy Digest 

be transparent to the microscopes' high-voltage electron beams and 
therefore the specimens must be stained or shadowed. 

Shadowing, most commonly used in electron-microscope work, in- 
volves spraying a fine film of heavy metal at an oblique angle across 
the specimen. The effect is a permanent dark shadow that enhances 
contrast and gives a three-dimensional effect reminiscent of a scene 
observed in late-afternoon shadow. 

But the metal coating also obscures fine detail much as a blanket 
of snow will preserve the rough contours of a fire hydrant, but oblit- 
erate its details. 

Dr. Wilska said his instrument operates at a voltage intensity 
as little as a quarter of that in conventional electron microscopes. 
Biological tissue is much less transparent to the low voltage electrons. 

The instrument is the fifth in a series Dr. Wilska has been build- 
ing since 1950 in Finland, where he is Professor of Physiology at the 
University of Helsinki. He is currently visiting professor in cell 
research at Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New 

He described his instrument to the New York Society of Elect- 
ron Microscopists at the New York Academy of Sciences. 

— Harold M. Schmeck in New York Times. 

£auiet Jdeadl cMifdio Race 

TITASHINGTON— The Russians have taken over world leadership 
■ » » in hydro-electric power development. 

The Soviet Union's total generating capacity is still only a bit 
more than one-third that in the United States, but Russia has sur- 
passed America in the building of new power plants. 

These are two of the main conclusions brought back from Russia 
by an 11-ma^i U.S. Senate delegation. Alex Radin, general manag- 
er of the American Public Power Association, was on the tour and 
has summed up what the delegation found. 

Here is what he reported: 

May. 1960 25 

The Russians are working hard on a tremendous expansion of 
their power facilities. 

They are sacrificing other objectives, such as consumer goods, 
to do this, because electric power forms the basis of the industrial 
might of a modern nation. 

The Russians are using their power leadership to strengthen 
the ties with Communist and non-Communist countries, including 
Red China. 

The evidence of the expansion splurge is: 

The world's largest dam, Kuibishev, is now in operation. Cap- 
acity is 2,300,00 kilowatts. Grand Coulee in the U.S. has 1,900,000 
kilowatts capacity and was previously the biggest. 

The Stalingrad dam nearing completion will have a capacity of 
2,530,000 kilowatts. 

A dam being built on the Angara River in Siberia will have an 
installed capacity of 4,500,000 kilowatts. 

Another dam, Krasnoyarsk in Siberia, will have not less than 
5,000,000 kilowatts. 

A 2,400,000-kilowatt steam plant is also abuilding in Siberia. 
The largest in the U.S. is 1,400,000 kilowatts. 

Power is being transmitted over long distances — more than 600 
miles — compared to 300 in the U.S. The goal is an interconnected 
transmission system stretching 4,000 miles from Vladivostok to Len- 

Higher voltages are used, 400,000 compared to 345,000 in the 
U.S. The Russians plan to transmit power at up to 800,000 volts, by 
direct current. 

Larger generating units are being used than in the U.S. Grand 
Coulee has units of 108,000 kilowatts each, top size for the U.S. The 
Russians already use 115,000-kilowatt units, plan some of 500,000 

Red China is building 255 dams of varying sizes. Largest has 
a capacity of 3,000,000 kilowatts. Engineering work is being done 
in Russia on a huge scheme to dam the Yangtze River. Initial cap- 
acity would be 25,000,000 kilowatts. 

26 Technocracy Digest 


To place the Russian program in proper perspective, it should 
be pointed out that the total power capacity of the Soviet Union at 
the beginning of 1959 was about 53,000,000 kilowatts. The U.S. had 
about 142,000,000 kilowatts. 

The goal of the Soviet Union for 1965 is 110,000,000 to 112,000,000 
kilowatts. By 1965, it is estimated the U.S. will have an installed 
capacity of 223,000,000. 

But if the rate growth of the U.S. and the Soviet Union continues 
at the present pace, the Soviet Union could equal if not overtake 
the U.S. in power capacity in the 1980's. 

The delegation did not feel the Russians had made any momen- 
tous scientific breakthrough, but it was impressed with several 
aspects of the project. 

One was a model that the Russians said would revolutionize the 
art of building dams. 

In the model, the Russians had standardized six different types 
of concrete blocks which will be used to build 65% of the structure. 

The blocks will, in effect, be used as forms, with concrete poured 
between them. This simplifies the pouring of concrete and elimin- 
ates the tremendous carpentry work in the building of wooden forms 
and the substantial chore of removing the forms once the concrete- 
has been poured. 

The blocks will be used for a 1,000,000-kilowatt dam to be built 
soon on the Volga River. The Russians expect to cut the building 
time to three years from five, and save 30% on costs. 

The Russian power projects are being used as the basis for a 
vast complex of new industrial development, particularly in Siberia. 

All the construction camps for hydro-electric projects are built 
as permanent cities. As work on the dam slackens, industries are 
built in the immediate area, and the new cities are used to house 
industrial workers. 

The various Russian design institutes for hydro-electric projects 
also are working with many other countries. 

— North American Newspaper Alliance. 

May. 1960 27 

fynicettten, Speed* ^beliueiy 

TX7ESTWOOD, Mass.— Suppose Harry Smith, Raytheon distribut- 
» * or in Los Angeles, wants 5,000 tubes delivered as soon as pos- 
sible. Now he can get them in 24 hours or less by ordering directly 
from Raytheon's new Unicenter here. 

The electronics manufacturer demonstrated Dec. 2 a new dis- 
tribution system using the most modern communications devices, 
data-processing techniques, automatic inventory controls, and jet air 

The new system could mean the end of New England's isolation 
from cherished markets in the rest of the United States. 

In the past, Mr. Smith ordered his tubes and any other of Ray- 
theon's 2,000 products from the Los Angeles warehouse. If the ware- 
house had the goods, he got his order within hours. But all too many 
times, according to John T. Thompson, manager of Raytheon's dis- 
tributor products division, the order had to be referred to the West- 
wood center because the desired product was not available in Los 

Under the old system, Mr. Smith might have had to wait as long 
as 13 days for his order to be mailed here, processed, and shipped out 
to Los Angeles. With Raytheon's new Unimarket method, if he places 
his order before 9 a.m. he can have his goods by 5 p.m. the same day. 

A typical order of 5,000 tubes can be received here in about 17 
minutes, assembled in 90 minutes, and sped to Logan International 
Airport in another 45 minutes. There, it can be loaded onto an airline 
jet which will arrive in Los Angeles in fewer than six hours. 

Here is how the system works: prepunched Rayci (Raytheon con- 
trolled inventory) cards are inserted in each package of five electron 
tubes leaving the warehouse here. As the merchandise is sold, dis- 
tributor Smith collects the cards and places his replacement order 
without paper work. 

He simply sends in the cards which are identified with his ac- 

28 Technocracy Digest 

count, the type of merchandise, and the unit cost. The cards are fed 
into Western Union's Tel-O-Riginator equipment which will be 
supplied to 200 of Raytheon's distributors. 

The new Western Union private wire communications equipment 
accepts the pre-punched cards in the field and instantaneously con- 
verts the information into an electronic signal. The transmitted signal 
duplicates the card at headquarters here. Then an invoice and shipping 
manifest against which the order is filled are automatically prepared. 

'Now no point in the United States is any further from the 
Westwood center than the time it takes to transmit an order,' Mr. 
Thompson said. 

Besides providing faster and more complete service to distributor 
customers, the Unimarket concept will eliminate three field ware- 
houses and reduce duplicated inventories by some $2,000,000. Mr. 
Thompson said. It will also eliminate taxes on duplicating inventories, 
back ordering, and extra billing costs on back orders. 

With the nation shrunk to one marketing area, Mr. Thompson 
said, 'we will be able to phase out our present components ware- 
houses in Chicago, Los Angeles, and Atlanta with resulting savings 
in building, rental costs and overlapping inventories.' 

What does this mean to the New England area? Up to now, a 
big factor in limiting the market area for products produced in New 
England has been its isolation from the rest of the country. 

Now this drawback can virtually be eliminated. It remains for 
other New England industries to adapt the concept to their own needs 
and goals. 

The estimated $2,000,000 saving is based on 'one-shot' reduction 
of duplicated inventories, a Raytheon spokesman said. At the same 
time, he revealed, the investment will be spread out over the months 
and years the system is in use, as the equipment is to be rented from 
Western Union at rates as yet undetermined. Therefore, there has 
been no large initial capital outlay by Raytheon, he added. 

Moreover, estimates of savings of $250,000 yearly on order pro- 

May. 1960 29 

cessing and inventory handling will accrue to Raytheon, according 
to estimates by Western Union. 

Western Union developed the system within its own organization 
to speed deliveries of needed equipment to its thousands of offices 
across the United States. Other companies, notably Sylvania Electric, 
have used the Western Union leased wire system before. But Ray- 
theon's Unimarket is the first system in which jet transport of the 
orders has been included. — George F. W. Telfer. 

it OTTAWA — Canadian scientists are peeling potatoes and apples without knives. 
They are using a new process developed at the agriculture department's plant 
research institute. 

Infra-red heat treatments are used to blanch celery and peas as well as apples 
and potatoes to prepare them for freezing and canning. Temperatures up to 4,000 
degrees have been used. In apple peeling the heat treatment blisters the fruit's 
skin— making it easy to flake it off. Weight loss is under 3 c /c compared with 15^ 
to 189^ when mechanical peeling devices arc used. 

Dr. E. A. Asselbergs led the experimenting team that came up with the process 

superior to blanching by the usual steam-water combination. The department 

has answered queries on the process from the United States, Yugoslavia, Spain, 

Belgium, Italy and South American countries. — Canadian Press. 

if WINDSOR, ONT-— Architects and engineers are taking a new look at coal as 
an economical and efficient fuel, Edwin Hooker of Toronto, president of the Bitum- 
inous Coal Institute and the Canadian Commercial Coal Dock Operators' Associa- 
tion has reported. 

In a speech to the opening sessions of a two-day conference of the organizations 
Hooker said the commercial coal market in Canada is expanding, particularly in 
the field of apartment buildings and business establishments. He said the trend 
toward coal is predicated on the desire for savings. More and more architects and 
engineers are being asked to include the cost of heating with coal in their cost 
estimates, he added. — Canadian Press. 

ic TORONTO It might sound harsh, says Rev. Allen R. Huband, but the time 
will come when parents will have to get a licence to have a child. Dr. Huband, 
United Church minister in suburban Etobicoke, said from the pulpit that govern- 
ments will have to control the population expansion or in 600 years each human 
will have only one square yard of living space. 

There wiJl be no more stork derbies,' he added, 'and proud papas with 12 to 15 
children will not be hailed as heroes but will have dunce caps clapped on their heads.' 

— Canadian Press. 

* A MACHINE IS WINNING at checkers from an American scientist who 
taught it the game And eury time they play, the machine wins by a bigger margin. 
That means it's learning from its mistakes, something some humans never seem to 
do when they make mistakes. —Brantford (Ontario) Expoitor. 

30 Technocracy Digest 

Through the Technoscope . . . 

Technocracy examines the various scientific and technological trends 
in North America today which point to the necessity for a tuw 
social mechanism that will provide security and abundance, with 
a minimum of working hours, to every citizen on this Continent. 

Science and Technology 


about the size of one of the metal tubes 
in which cigars are sometimes packed is 
designed to help heart patients and to 
provide protection against shock, smoke, 
and oxygen-failure in planes. 

The Oxy-hale was invented by Dr. 
Alvan L. Barach, professor of clinical 
medicine at Columbia University, to 
provide a ready source of oxygen to re- 
lieve cardiac pain initially caused by 
lack of oxygen and to help fend off the 
effects of a coronary attack before the 
patient gets to a hospital. It also makes 
it easier for heart patients to take nor- 
mal exercise, and in some cases its regu- 
lar use may reduce the incidence of an- 
ginal attacks, according to Barach. Other 
possible applications include the easing 
of bronchial asthma, croup, and oxygen 
shortage caused by strenuous exertion 
and high-altitude flights. 

The Oxy-Hale is an aluminum tube 
containing a 2V2-inch cylinder that com- 
presses three liters of oxygen to 5,000 
pounds per square inch — 2 l /i times the 
pressure of hospital oxygen cylinders. 
One cylinder provides up to minutes of 
oxygen which is mixed with air through 
a device that allows the user to adjust 
the concentration of oxygen from 26% 
to 909?. The cylinder can be replaced in 

eight seconds. The user inserts 
directly into his mouth. 

the tube 

for car engines has been developed by 
Dow Chemical Co. It will do the com- 
bined work of antifreeze, water and rust 
inhibitors and will eliminate seasonal 
draining, according to Dow. Once filled, 
a car's cooling system needn't be touch- 
ed for a year. Made of diethylene glycol, 
ethylene glycol, inhibitor chemicals, and 
very pure water, it will protect a car 
from minus 40F up to 240F. 


has been mostly eliminated by an elec- 
tronic machine developed by Dr. K. L. 
Hertel at the University of Tennessee's 
fiber research laboratory. The machine, 
manufactured by the Spinlab Corp. of 
Nashville, aims to meet a long-felt need 
for an accurate and dependable machine 
to speed up measurement of the grade 
and staple length of cotton fiber. The 
electronic device combs the fibers, then 
measures their length electronically to 
a hundreth of an inch. 

The grading job till now has been 
done by skilled workers who comb the 
cotton fibers by hand and grade them 

M\y, 196(1 


visually, at a much slower pace and less 
accurately than the machine. The com- 
bination comber and electronic measur- 
ing instrument can handle about 100 
samples per hour, about three times the 
workers' speed. 


variety of new materials in a long-term 
Canadian project. The Ontario Research 
Foundation, Toronto, has developed new 
processes for the combustion of rice hull 
ash to produce a refractory material 
that can withstand 3000° F. tempera- 
tures, as well as an abrasive material 
and a plastic filler. Another technique 
produces a high-porosity material for fil- 
ter plates that is also used as an addi- 
tive lor cement and concrete. 

parts will be able to cut down on their 
large inventories of different-shaped ex- 
haust pipes soon as the result of a new 
machine that bends them to order- At 
present the distributors are obliged to 
stock 700 to 800 variations of exhaust 
pipes in anticipation of their need by 
any of the numerous models of trucks 
and cars on the road. If they install one 
of the new pipe twisters, all they will 
have to do is to install lengths of straight 
pipe and bend them as they are needed. 
The Bend-O-Matic, being marketed 
by Nu-Era Corp. of Rochester, Michi- 
gan, is a highly automatic, tape-controll- 
ed machine which in two minutes can 
turn a piece of straight pipe into a tail- 
pipe answering any specification. With 

this machine on his premises, all a dis- 
tributor will need will be a supply of 
tubing in four basic diameters and a 
library of tape — one for each pipe con- 
figuration. Thanks to tape controls and 
automation, the new machine will reduce 
by 507c the amount of time required to 
bend exhaust pipes and the amount of 
inventory space required to store them. 


made of a new 'tailored' high-density 
polyethylene is competitive in price 
with paper for packaging products such 
as fertilizer and cement that are tradi- 
tionally distributed in multiwall bags, 
according to Phillips Chemical Co. The 
new resin, which is under test by almost 
all bag makers, produces containers with 
double the burst strength of paper bags. 

movie camera that records sound simul- 
taneously with the pictures is being 
marketed by Fairchild Camera & Instru- 
ment Corp., Syosset, N.Y., as the firm 
makes its debut into the consumer field. 
The camera, the Fairchild Cinephonic 
Eight contains a constant-speed motor 
and a 5-transistor amplifier powered by 
a rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery. 
A microphone attachment picks up sound 
up to nine feet away. Special film with 
a thin magnetic strip down the side for 
recording is used, making synchroniza- 
tion of sound and lip movements auto- 
matic. One push-button controls both 
sight and sound. 

^MAN HAS TWELVE billion brain cells, just to give you an idea of the un- 
employed situation. — Dewel. 


Technocracy Digest 

(Continued from Page 20) 
nent, except that, over here, 
things happen much faster than 
they have happened in Europe. 

North America, viewed objec- 
tively as a physical entity, is still 
the best Continent on earth; and, 
under the correct strategic direc- 
tion, it can continue to be so for 
an indefinite time ahead. Certain- 
ly, no American citizen worthy 
of that designation wants to see 
North America go the way of 
Europe. Therefore, it becomes the 
duty of every genuine American 
citizen to help make this Conti- 
nent a suitable and secure place 
to live for all Americans, and to 

help protect it from the corrod- 
ing practices and aspirations of 
its Best people, who are in the 
final analysis its Worst people. 

Technocracy donates to the Am- 
erican people the strategic design 
and operating specifications for a 
long-term civilizatioin of the high- 
est order. Nowhere else is such a 
design obtainable. Unlike the 
Price System, Technocracy is not 
a means of converting the Best 
into the Worst; rather, it is a 
means of taking the best there is 
and, through science and technol- 
ogy, developing it into the best 
that it can become. 

—Wilton Ivie, CHQ. 

^r TOKYO — Attempts by Japanese engineers to make better use of high technical 
standards and the availability of dexterous hands here have resulted in the pro- 
duction of a pocket-size radio with a built-in camera. The new product, named 
Ramera, is a combination of typical Japanese export items, camera and transistor 

The camera part, adding only about an inch to the width of a tiny radio, 
takes 16mm. pictures through an F-3.5 lens at speeds up to 1/200 of a second. 
Flash equipment can be attached. —New York Times. 

it MONTREAL — A Montreal scientist has proposed a giant ice-box that no one 
will want to raid — a bomb-blasted vault in Antarctica to hold the world's radio- 
active wastes. 

Dr. Joseph Sternberg of the University of Montreal said the ice-box idea 
seems to be the best way to get rid of dangerous radioactive wastes that could 
some day stunt industrial growth. Nuclear wastes could be rammed into the ice 
by dropping bombs over the remote Antarctic. — Canadian Press. 

it TORONTO — Toronto transit commissioner Allan Lamport sees free bus rides 
as the 'coming thing' here. Lamport said a proposal to provide free city transport 
to cut down the use of cars in the city was 'great.' 

'It has never reached the point where I have advocated it,' Lamport said, 'but 
I see it coming very definitely.' — United Press International. 

May, 1960 


The Unseen Destroyer 

In this second of two installments from a WEEKEND MAGAZINE 
article, Dr. Kaplan, Canadian physicist specializing on the effects 
of nuclear radiation, concludes his observations on the dangers of 
strontium-^ fallout. 

QJINCE 1952, the Sr.-90 content 
*^ of the air has increased ex- 
ponentially (that is, the increase 
every year is considerably larger 
than the increase in the preceding 
year) and this would be expected 
to cause increases in the Sr.-90 
content of our diet and of our 

As for our diet, let us consider 
what has been happening to Can- 
adian milk. From a report recent- 
ly released by Hon. Waldo Mon- 
teith, Minister of National Health 
and Welfare, it is possible to cal- 
culate that the Sr.-90 content of 
Canadian milk, pooled from many 
sources, increased approximate- 
ly 13 times between 1954 and 
1958. And it is still rising. 

As for human bone, between 
1953 and 1957, the amount of Sr.- 
90 per unit calcium in human 
bone from North America and 
Western Europe rose about 16 
times and it, too, is still rising. 

When do we reach the danger 


Let me explain why this ques- 
tion is so difficult to answer. For 
one thing, as I have stated, there 
are no experimental facts on the 
effect of Sr.-90 on human beings. 
For another, most of the experi- 
ments on the effects of Sr.-90 on 
animals have been performed us- 
ing much higher body concentra- 
tions of this isotope than we are 
likely to be subject to by fallout. 
And, since cancer remains a mys- 
tery, no one can be sure whether 
conclusions from experiments 
using high doses of radiation are 
valid for those in which low doses 
of radiation are employed. Cer- 
tain countries, in exploding their 
nuclear 4 bombs, have in effect 
been performing such experi- 
ments with their fellow human 
beings as guinea pigs. 

Despite this general ignorance, 
rational attempts have been made 
to fix the limits beyond which 
the Sr.-90 content of the humaln 
body must not be allowed to pass. 
This limit is called the maximum 

Technocracy Digest 

permissible body burden (M.P. 
B.B.) and has been fixed by both 
international (Internationa Com- 
mission on Radiological Protec- 
tion) and American (National 
Committee on Radiological Pro- 
tection) committees. 

These groups arrive at an esti- 
mate of the M.P.B.B. in the fol- 
lowing way: From the acciden- 
tal cases of radium poisoning it 
is possible to guess at the highest 
concentration of radium in the 
human body which seems unable 
to cause cancer. Making a cor- 
rection for the weaker radiation 
emitted by Sr.-90 (a gjiyen amount 
of radium is approximately five 
to ten times as effective) they ar» 
rive at a maximum permissible 
body burden for Sr.-90 of one 
microcurie (unit of radioactivity) . 
It is assumed if a body contains 
no more Sr.-90 than this, cancer 
is highly unlikely to result. 

One point should be stressed. 
The international M.P.B.B. was 
fixed not for the population at 
large but for those working with 
the isotope in question under 
controlled conditions. It is ob- 
viously necessary to fix a lower 
limit for the population at large, 
who are not protected by the 

same safety regulations as work- 
ers with radioactive materials, 
and a level 10 times lower was 
thus arbitrarily set for the hu- 
man race at large — one-tenth of 
a microcurie per human body. 
It is important to note that a 
separate M.P.B.B. for children 
has never been set by the Inter- 
national Commission. 

On the basis of the M.P.B.B., 
and making certain assumptions 
about the average consumption 
of a given type of food, various 
agencies in different countries 
have calculated the maximum 
permissible concentration of Sr.- 
90 in the more important types of 
food, such as milk and bread. Let 
us see how the actual, present- 
day concentrations of Sr.-90 in 
these foods compare to the maxi- 
mum permitted levels set in 1955. 

Milk: Mr. Monteith in his 
statement of May 8, 1959, which 
I have mentioned, concluded that 
the Canadian findings presented 
in the report 'indicate no basis 
for alarm about this matter. Al- 
though it is evident that the 
strontium-90 levels have con- 
tinued to increase, it is made 
clear that they are well below 
the stringent standards suggest- 

May, 1960 


ed by international authorities.' 
(Parenthetically, let me say 
there seems to be some doubt 
that these standards are string- 
ent. I shall say more about this 
later) . 

I have carefully read the re- 
port tabled in the House of Com- 
mons by Mr. Monteith and I — 
unlike him — find basis for alarm. 
What strikes me as significant is 
not the fact that the Sr.-90 levels 
in today's milk are still well be- 
low the maximum permissible) 
concentration, but rather the 
speed with which the Sr.-90 con- 
tent of milk is approaching the 
maximum permitted levels. 

This report, in discussing the 
increase in the Sr.-90 content of 
Canadian milk, states that 'these 
levels have increased nearly lin- 
early since January, 1955.' How- 
ever, their data would seem to fit 
an exponential curve better than 
they would a straight line. If the 
authors of the report are correct 
that the increase in Sr.-90 in 
Canadian milk is 'nearly linear/ 
the maximum permissible level 
will have been reached in about 
1969. If the increase is better 
expressed in a curve, the maxi- 
mum permissible level will be 
reached by about 1964. 

But I must emphasize that the 
maximum levels these workers 
have been talking about were set 
for adults, and not for children, 
who concentrate strontium in 
their bones more efficiently and 
who keep it around longer. When 
do we reach the danger point for 
children? This is the question 
which the Department of Nation- 
al Health and Welfare should 
answer — not whether today's 
milk is still safe for adults! 

Other food: I have no figures 
on the approach of Sr.-90 in oth- 
er Canadian foods to the maxi- 
mum permissible levels. But re- 
cently a report released in Wash- 
ington by the Atomic Energy 
Commission stated that white 
bread sold on Feb. 19 in a New 
York supermarket contained 
four times the permissible con- 
centration of Sr.-90. 

Maximum levels for radiation 
workers have been changed from 
time to time. In the period be- 
tween 1928 and 1957, the levels 
for external radiation reaching 
the human body were changed 
four times. Each time they were 
reduced. The maximum level 
permitted today is only one- 
twentieth that thought safe 30 
years ago. As a general rule, 


Technocracy Digest 

population at large should be fix- 
ed at 0.01 (one hundreth) micro- 
curie. In view of the longer 
residence of Sr.-90 in the bones 
of children and the heightened 
effects of radiation on the rapid- 
ly-growing and active cells of 
children's bodies, I would ven- 
ture the opinion that the maxi- 
mum burdens for children should 
be further reduced by a factor of 
about three. This brings us to 
about 0.003 microcuries in the 
body of a child as the maximum 
permitted amount. 

Let us see if these recommend- 
ations are reasonable. Recent 
work on the effect of Sr.-90 in 
dogs showed that, three years 
after administration of one mic- 
rocurie of Sr.-90, cancers of the 
bone developed. In a dog weigh- 
ing 22 pounds, the Sr.-90 retained 
in the skeleton would be of the 
order of 0.01-0.1 (one-hundredth 
to one-tenth) microcurie. Now 
22 pounds is slightly less than the 
weight of the average one-year- 
old child. Should we allow a 
child to absorb an amount of 
Sr.-90 which we know would 
cause bone cancer in a dog of the 
same size? 

In May, 1958, Dr. J. L. Kulp 
and colleagues, of Columbia Uni- 

the more we know about the ef- 
fects of radiation, the more dan- 
gerous we find it to be — and the 
lower we fix the limits of expos- 
ure to which we care to expose 

So it is with Sr.-90. The Swed- 
ish scientists, previously referred 
to, point out that the one micro- 
curie of Sr.-90 at present allowed 
by the International Commission 
as the maximum body burden 
will, in 10 years, deliver about 
1,000 r (V is approximately the 
same as the roentgen, the unit 
used by X-ray workers) to some 
of the 'hot spots' within bone. 
Fifty r was sufficient to increase 
significantly the incidence of leu- 
kemia among Japanese survivors 
of the Hiroshima atom bomb, 
1000 r was about the same dose 
absorbed by the Austrian miners 
of Joachimsthal over a 17-year 
period, the average time requir- 
ed for appearance of the fatal 
lung cancers which used to kill 
three-quarters of them. 

The Swedish scientists, on the 
basis of their experiments, sug- 
gested that the permissible body 
burden be reduced 10 times — 
to 0.1 microcurie Sr.-90. This 
would indicate that the maximum 
permissible burden for the adult 

May, 1960 


versity, published the most com- 
prehensive study of Sr.-90 in 
man to date. Many of my fig- 
ures have been taken from this 
valuable study. On the basis of 
the known pattern of Sr.-90 fall- 
out and of its uptake in human 
bone, they predict that by 1966 
one per cent of young children 
will be found to have a skeletal 
concentration as high as 20 stron- 
tium units. The average will be 
four strontium units. 

Now, the average one-year-old 
infant weighs 23 pounds, of which 
about 3V2 ounces is calcium. One 
per cent of these children will 
thus have, according to calcula- 
tions which are easy to make on 
the basis of Dr. Kulp's prediction, 
0.002 microcuries in their skele- 
tons, and probably a significant 
fraction of one per cent will have 
attained or exceeded our sug- 
gested maximum permissible 
burden of 0.003 microcuries! 'A 
significant fraction of one per 
cent/ translated into numbers of 
the world's children, would prob- 
ably be measured in the hundreds 
of thousands or millions. Let 
me emphasize that Dr. Kulp's 
calculations were based on the 
assumption that no more nuclear 
explosions would occur! 

Despite the facts which I have 
mentioned, the American Na- 
tional Committee on Radiological 
Protection recently doubled the 
maximum permissible body bur- 
den! I cannot find words to de- 
scribe this action. I shall confine 
myself to quoting Dr. Linus Paul- 
ing, one of the greatest living 
chemists. "The predicted chance 
of death by leukemia caused by 
strontium-90 for a person who 
receives the newly-recommended 
maximum permissible amount 
early in life is one per thousand.' 

Dr. Pauling might be wrong. 
But who will say he might not 
be right? And if he is, I leave 
my readers to calculate how 
many children would die of this 
disease were they to acquire the 
newly recommended 'safe' dose. 

I have presented the facts in 
this article which indicate that 
informed people of the world 
should be alarmed about the Sr.- 
90 fallout situation as it is today 
and as it will develop from tests 
already carried out. About this 
we can do nothing. But we must 
try to exert pressure by every 
means within our grasp to in- 
sure that no further poisoning of 
our soil and bodies takes place. 
— Dr. J. Gordin Kaplan. 


Technocracy Digest 

Jets and Jobs 

This reprint from The Nation magazine was written by Clive 
Jenkins, author of 'Power at the Top' in which he studies national- 
ization critically. The present article is the result of his study of 
West Coast aircraft and missile industries. 

^^NE of the most surprising at- 
^^ titudes of American trade- 
union policy-makers is their re- 
luctance to face the consequences 
of disarmament. This is coupled 
with their distaste for the lan- 
guage of disengagement. 

During a recent visit to the 
United States, I kept trying to 
find out how much of labor think- 
ing in this area was politically 
based — and to what extent eco- 
nomic factors were at work. For 
the economic side effects of world 
tension are objects of high visi- 
bility in America. To a European 
trade-union official, they are 
prominent in the attitudes of 
ordinary workers busy with 
weapons production. 

In Britain, engineering workers 
in the armament industries have 
traditionally said they preferred 
to work on peaceful production. 
I found a similar, if more cynical, 
attitude in California workers; 
perhaps they were franker there. 
A discussion with California 

machinists about 'peace breaking 
out' and its effects on employ- 
ment in the aircraft, missiles and 
aerospace industries brought this 
comment: 'We don't care if the 
rockets drop off. Who wants to be 
a missile tramp? We have a say- 
ing: If they're operational, they're 
obsolete. Then we get laid off . . .' 
The International Association 
of Machinists and the United Auto 
Workers in Los Angeles want to 
stay in business, but they know 
that this is unlikely, for any one 
of the three major aircraft manu- 
facturers has the capability of 
providing enough civil jet-air- 
craft to fill the needs of the 
Western world. Each new jet can 
do the work of five planes of the 
generation it replaces. 'Everyone 
is in trouble', a senior plant man- 
ager told me in a quite resigned 
and dispassionate way. 'Douglas 
is probably in most difficulty. 
They have $300 million of their 
own money in the DC-8 project 
and are lagging badly behind Boe- 

May, 1960 


ing. The airlines have finished 
their first round of buying and 
seeing which type gains public 
acceptability. In the meantime, 
the companies have to sweat it 

This, of course, is not the worst 
feature of the current crisis. 
Overshadowing all the competi- 
tion is the fear that relaxation of 
international tensions will cause 
an 'end-it-tomorrow' slash in mis- 
sile procurement. At the Douglas 
Long Beach plant, it was admit- 
ted, 'It could knock the props 
from under us.' 

This is a key consideration for 
policy-makers and workers in 
both the United States and Brit- 
ain. Can Western governments 
afford to negotiate seriously on 
Khrushchev's offer to 'liquidate 
all military establishments'? Or 
must they immediately dismiss it 
in private because of its lethal 
impact on unplanned societies? 
Aviation industries now lie close 
to the heart of national economic 
activity in the West. This is par- 
ticularly true of the United States, 
the lynch-pin arms shop of the 
North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- 
tion. An I.A.M. international rep- 
resentative estimated to me that 
an absolute majority of all Amer- 

ican engineering manpower now 
works on aircraft, missiles, aero- 
space programs or the control 
systems associated with them. He 
was deeply pessimistic about the 
future of the work force: 'They 
will have to go. The industry is 
over-expanded for peaceful pur- 
poses. That is, if we ever decide 
times are peaceful again. At the 
moment, the production program 
is divided, 55% on missiles and 
45% on aircraft — mostly military. 
Inside eighteen months, I figure 
that missiles will account fbr 
65% percent, and they just aren't 
peaceful.' So what happens to the 
economy if world political rela- 
tions continue to improve? 

The 1961 U.S. budget allocates 
$46 billion for military hardware 
and services. Much of this goes 
for aircraft and rockets at a unit 
cost which soars from year to 
year. At the Paris Air Show, a 
Douglas RB-66B Destroyer twin- 
jet reconnaissance bomber had a 
tiny plate mounted in the cockpit 
for the attention of the pilot. It 
said: 'This aircraft cost us $2,440,- 
918.00. Please Handle with Care.' 
One wonders what admonition is 
stenciled along the sides of the 
obsolete, air-breathing, subsonic 
Snark missiles in Maine. Recently 


Technocracy Digest 

operational and three years too 
late, this one wing has cost $740 
million. Nowhere near ready for 
the stencil-painters are the 'sharp 
ends' of the Nike-Zeus anti-mis- 
sile-missile system. This gets $300 
million a year, but needs a whop- 
ping total of $13.5 billion to see 
whether it really is capable of 
being made operational. 

U.S. spending suffers from the 
same problems as Britain's. The 
lobbying of manufacturers and 
politicians is powerful enough to 
generate an over-all blanket ef- 
fectiveness on military expendi- 
tures. As a result, money con- 
tinues to be allocated to outdated 
designs aimed at countering 
manned fighters and bombers, 
when everyone knows that a nu- 
clear assault would, obviously, be 
waged and won by a first wave 
of irrecallable and unstoppable 
ballistic weapons. The dislocation 
that would be caused by slicing 
out the old-fashioned, though 
juicy, orders is clearly unaccept- 
able. However, the taxpayer may 
generate some pressures of his 
own against the current score of 
seventy-seven different types of 
missile-weapons systems that he 
has financed without getting a 
decently placed bang for his buck. 

The glaring faults in U.S. De- 
fense Department procurement 
are mirrored wrongways-through- 
the-telescope in Britain. Two 
years ago, the Conservative De- 
fense Minister announced a 'real- 
istic' armament policy, concen- 
trating on a diversified rocket 
armory. He said catgorically that 
the last manned aircraft was 
a-building and there would be no 
more. His policy proved plastic 
under the heat and pressure gen- 
erated by the aircraft makers and 
their freshly hired ex-generals 
and admirals. A new 'strike' air- 
craft is to be built, and anti-air- 
craft missiles are installed and 
replaced with newer models in a 
steady rhythm around Britain's 
coast — to counter an airborne 
aggressor who will sportingly 
fly an elderly machine. 

The guided fatuities of military 
purchasing are now common 
knowledge inside the American 
and British industries: the lobby- 
ists are naturally concerned about 
what to do when the news spreads. 

Any cut in U.S. defense budget- 
ing will fall chiefly upon the 
dramatically expensive aviation 
items. This will primarily affect 
a large group of highly paid 
workers, mainly in California, but 

May, 1960 


will not be confined to them. The 
American market needs at least 
$15 billion extra spending power 
each year to keep employment 
at its present level and to absorb 
the million new entrants into the 
labor market. Can it provide this 
and also fill the hole left by, say, 
a fast cut of $10 or $15 billion? 

One way might be to sell more 
commercial jet-lines overseas. 
Boeing, Convair, Lockheed and 
Douglas are well equipped to do 
this at the moment, for they will 
have a massive backlog of mili- 
tary orders to supply the neces- 
sary funds. The money is vital 
for development, for trade-in of 
unsellable piston-engined types, 
and for the extension of long- 
term financing to capital-starved 
airline operators. But this is a 
passing advantage; the basis is not 
stable enough to weather a mod- 
erately successful Summit con- 
ference. In Douglas Aircraft's 
1958 fiscal year, combat vehicles 
and missiles accounted for 78.7% 
of total sales, while only 21.3% 
was devoted to civil enterprises. 
Douglas executives are markedly 
concerned about this situation. 
So are the unions: 'Between this 
and Landrum-Griffin and auto- 
mation we'll drop another 200,000 

members eventually in the Mach- 

I have already warned the 
white-collar technicians in my 
own union of the plans projected 
by the sales-organization engi- 
neers of North American Avia- 
tion, Inc. to decide who will carry 
the 100 million passengers on the 
scheduled services of the seventy- 
four Western nations each year. 
The objective is to establish on 
a world-wide basis American 
pure- jets and turbo- jets as the 
primary instruments on the in- 
ternational airlanes. But this will 
not be so easy to accomplish. 

Until a few months ago, the 
British industry (apart from cer- 
tain types of jet-engine) would 
have been a sitting duck. Em 
ploying the best-manipulated and 
brassiest lobby in Europe, it had 
obtained government money for 
research, proto-type building, de- 
velopment, and then orders from 
the armed services or the nation- 
alized airlines (British Overseas 
and British European Airways). 
This resulted in only one world- 
selling type: the turbo-prop Vis- 
count, of which over 450 were 
made. But the replacement 'Van- 
guard' has only twenty on order 
from foreign customers and seems 


Technocracy Digest 

doomed, like the rest of the de- 
signs, to a perfunctory and expen- 
sive production run. The plain 
truth is that there have been too 
many companies: talent was 
spread too thinly, and any man- 
agement, since it never gambled 
with its own money, could try to 
hit the jackpot. But as the indus- 
try became dependent in an ab- 
solute way upon public money, 
the government found it easier to 
effect amalgamations looking to 
the creation of two giant units 
which could compete more effec- 
tively on the international mar- 

Following the Conservative vic- 
tory in the October, 1959, elec- 
tions, Duncan Sandys (son-in-law 
of Winston Churchill) was shift- 
ed sideways from Minister of De- 
fense to the newly minted job of 
Minister of Aviation, where he 
controls the aircraft and missiles 
industry and also the publicly 
owned air-transport undertak- 
ings. He had a mandate for am- 
algamation, and a powerful weap- 
on to cement old rivals: 'No mar- 
riage — no money.' 

Within the last two months, 
two groupings have emerged. 
English Electric and Vickers are 
talking about! combining their 

aviation interests, while the huge 
Hawker Siddeley concern (hav- 
ing absorbed two other companies 
in 1959) is now about to take over 
the Comet-building De Havilland 
group. Most of the other units 
are either associated with the 
new giants or obviously will be 
unable to avoid being whipped 
into position. 

The tempting bait is govern- 
ment backing for a fabulously 
expensive supersonic airliner pro- 
gram 'to get Britain back into the 
world market seriously.' Renew- 
ed British competition, backed by 
state funds, may not of itself 
worry American companies (Boe- 
ing alone — 1959 sales $1,600 mil- 
lion — tops the value of the com- 
bined gross output of the British 
firms). The Americans foresee 
sharp conflicts with the resurgent 
manufacturers of the European 
Common Market, who are out to 
challenge the rest of the world. 

The successful Caravelle jet, 
flown by Air France, is from the 
state-owned French assembly 
lines, and its later versions may 
be purchased by the airlines of 
the six-nation Common Market 
who have formed an 'Air Union' 
and are developing maintenance 
and traffic-handling facilities. It 

May, 1960 


seems reasonable to assume that 
their Paris - based Equipment 
Committee will eventually urge 
purchase of an airliner built in 
the market area, probably by a 
Franco-German consortium. The 
effect of such a decision upon the 
traditional suppliers in California 
would be formidable; and at least 
one engine-maker, General Elec- 
tric, is buying a Caravelle for al- 
most $2 million to fit with G.E. 
engines to prove that they are 
just as good as those built for the 
plane by Rolls Royce. 

Other American companies are 
either forming partnerships with 
former antagonists inside the 
Common Market boundaries, or 
registering their own subsidiary 
companies there. This could mean 
a shift in the location of the work 
force from the continental United 
States to Europe, with American 
personnel replaced by lower-paid 
French and German engineers. 
This prospect has still not entire- 
ly registered with the unionized 
production men on the West 
Coast, to whom the Common Mar- 
ket concept has seemed far away 
indeed. When I talked with one 
aviation local in Southern Cali- 
fornia, the president interrupted 
me to say: 'Hell, we ought to fix 

this thing before it goes too far. 
We'll be left with just a bunch 
of white-collar brain-trusters out 
here, and you can bet your life 
they won't be organized.' He may 
very well be correct. There are 
no signs that the international 
leadership of the unions in this 
sector has projected the future 
at all, or even hinted at the pos- 
sibility of a devastating cut in the 
employment capacity of the arti- 
ficially stimulated aircraft cor- 

While many labor leaders still 
seem unable to jerk out of their 
frozen cold- war posture, the man- 
agerial braintrusters are starting 
to run rings around them. Chiet 
among the re-locators is Lockheed 
Aircraft, now a heavy investor 
in Aeronautica Macchi S. A. ot 
Italy, which will produce a Lock- 
heed-designed light utility air- 
craft. Soon Lockheed expects the 
Indian government to decide to 
produce a Lockheed turbo-prop 
transport under license. At the 
same time, it has persuaded the 
Japanese government spectacu- 
larly to reverse a series of de- 
cisions approving production of 
the Grumman F11F-1F intercept- 
or in favor of the Lockheed F- 
104C (cost: $1,200,000 each). The 


Technocracy Digest 

first F-104C will not emerge from 
the Japanese plants until the end 
of 1962, and the production run 
will not be complete until the end 
of 1965 — just around the time 
when the whole series will be 
blatantly obsolescent. 

But, useless or not, they might 
have been built in U.S. shops. 

United Aircraft has gone one 
better: it has bought a 10.9% in- 
terest in the nationalized French 
SNECMA organization, which 
builds airframes and engines. 
SNECMA will make Pratt and 
Whitney engines under a nine- 
year license, and have a United 
Aircraft man on its state-control- 
led board of directors. 

This loss of work extends into 
the missile-manufacturing field, 
too. France is demanding her own 
IRBM, besides the Raytheon 
U.S. Army Hawk ground-to-air 
missile system which she is al- 
ready making in partnership with 
West Germany, Belgium, Italy 
and Holland. It seems that the 
U. S. Secretary o f Defense, 
Thomas Gates, is trying to head 
this off by promising 'full assist- 
ance' to an integrated NATO pro- 
gram for a 'European IRBM.' 
This may not satisfy de Gaulle. 
For the French have had an or- 

ganization called SEREB for over 
two years. This is conducting re- 
search and development on sev- 
eral types of ballistic vehicles to 
perfect their very own SSBS 
(solsol ballistique strategique) for 
deployment in numbers by 1967. 
SEREB is connected with a major 
Franco-German effort at St. 
Louis on the Swiss border), 
which carries out basic rocket 

This, in turn, will hammer 
down employment in the U.S. 
missiles factories — even if the 
cold war continues. 

Little of this seems to be ap- 
preciated by American labor lead- 
ers, perhaps because they have 
become so adjusted to the clim- 
ate of the cold war that they can- 
not envisage arms manufacturing 
at a much reduced level. Yet the 
recent cancellation of the B170 
bomber program may be a straw 
in the wind. However, there is 
still major reliance upon the feel- 
ing that the radical technologies 
always under development in 
aviation's search for ever higher 
performance, are so important to 
general industrial progress that 
any administration will provide 
funds to buttress weakened com- 
pany structures. 

May, 1960 


The argument seems to be dan- 
gerously illusory, even though 
Dr. D. V. Holmes of Douglas 
Aircraft recently told the Instit- 
ute of Aeronautical Science that 
at least 14 million man-hours 
would be needed for the develop- 
ment of a supersonic jet trans- 
port, and the program cost could 
run as high as $2 billion. He said 
straightforwardly that military 
assistance, or some other form oi 
government subsidy, is a prere- 
quisite for the project. But even 
state suport for such a scheme 
could not reverse the trend to- 
wards a smaller work force. In 
Britain, the unions have accepted 
that the industry will be reduced 
to a 'normal,' though subsidized, 
condition, and are urging govern- 
ment planning of alternative work 
in the stricken towns. To this 
end, they are pressing the gov- 
ernment to set up with them and 
the managements a Joint Advis- 
ory Council to be chaired by the 
Minister of Aviation. The purpose 

would be to plan and control the 
rate of job loss, which has total- 
ed 25,000 in the last two years. 

The geographical concentration 
of the American plants seems to 
cry out for such measures there, 
too, to prevent chronically under- 
employed areas from emerging. 
Will the unions involved be ap- 
prehensive about such political 
action? Certainly many of the 
leaders seem opposed to it, but 
the rank-and-file strikes me as 
curiously uninhibited on this 
count: their lack of political soph- 
istication inclines them towards 
the action which will be most ef- 
fective — even it it has not been 
tried before. But it is still dis- 
turbing to hear so many labor 
opinion-formers talking as if the 
world clock had permanently 
stopped at 1951, and thinking that 
this exempted them from dealing 
with the challenges represented 
by disarmament coupled with 

— Clive Jenkins. 

* CINCINNATI, OHIO— American Indians' bones more than 2,500 years old 
will be studied for effects of radiation exposure, it was announced recently. The 
study will be conducted by staff members here of the Robert A. Taft Sanitary 
Engineering Center of the United States Public Health Service. 

The bones of these Indian adults were taken from burial sites in Mesa Verde 
National Park and were made available by the National Park Service. Scientists 
do not expect to find strontium-90 because this is a by-product of nuclear weapons 
testing. However, the analysis will serve to verify today's strontium-90 measure- 
ment technique. Radium, the other substance to be measured, may be found be- 
cause that element occurs naturally. — New York Times. 


Technocracy Digest 

foam Core' Housing 

Research has produced the new type house described below. Its many 
featured^ innovations and new products indicate what can be done 
in housing when science is given a chance. Even better construction 
is possible. 

W NEW milestone in the search 
■*^for more modern methods of 
home building, which will lead 
to better homes at lower cost to 
both builder and home buyer, 
was reached recently with the 
completion of the two-storey 
NAHB research house in last 
Lansing, Mich. A cooperative 
venture of the National Associa- 
tion of Home Builders Research 
Institute and the residential 
building curriculum of Michigan 
State University, this new home 
was designed and developed by 
the NAHB Research Institute. 

The house features many in- 
novations and new products. One 
of these innovations is the ex- 
tensive! use made of stressed- 
skin modular panels similar to 
those used in the 1958 NAHB 
research house in South Bend, 

The panels feature a foam core 
made of Dylite expandable poly- 

Reprinted from 

Christian Science Monitor 

styrene, a product of the Kop- 
pers Company of Detroit. The 
foam core is molded between in- 
terior and exterior structural 
building materials, forming a 
durable, attractive, and light- 
weight 'sandwich.' 

This Dylite core is moldable 
to almost every known facing 
material, which gives the archi- 
tect enough latitude to permit a 
wide range in the variation of 
room individuality, and to give 
distinction to even the modest 
budget home. 

From the standpoint of load- 
bearing capacity, the exceptional 
strength of these panels exceeds 
the standards established by the 
Housing and Home Finance 
Agency for load-bearing walls 
of conventional construction. 
Their lightness also permits ease 
and speed of handling which will 
appreciably reduce construction 
labor costs. 

Effectiveness of the insulating 
qualities of the foam core in 

May, 1960 


these panels has been proved 
through its use as an insulating 
medium for modern refrigerators 
and freezers. In the panels this 
solid foam core offers a closed- 
cell type of insulation that will 
not sag or pack with the passing 
of time, nor be affected by mois- 

One important saving made 
possible to owners of new homes 
built with these new modular 
panels is the substantial reduc- 
tion in utility costs. This is 
brought about by the excellent 
insulation value provided by the 
foam core in these panels. 

The latest NAHB research 
house, which is the fourth in a 
series of NAHB research proj- 
ects, contains 2,100 square feet 
of living area plus garage, ter- 
race, and service patio. 

The first floor has a large liv- 
ing room with dining area, a 
family room with breakfast nook, 
kitchen, utility room, and half 
bath. On the second floor are two 
bathrooms and four bedrooms, 
one of which is designed for use, 
also, as a playroom. 

A two-storey high, foam-core 
panel wall was erected at the 
rear against the banked contour 
of the lot so that only the second 

storey of the house has a rear 
exposure, with the lower half of 
the rear wall serving as a retain- 
ing wall. Foamed-core panels 
with plywood skins were used 
for the wall and roof areas. To 
provide a long-lasting and stable 
coating, aluminum foil was lam- 
inated to the plywood skins 

In the living room area one- 
quarter-inch plywood underlay- 
ment was laid in mastic over 
these floor panels and eighth- 
inch-thicl$ stabilized hardwood 
flooring strips laid over this. 

In the entry way and half bath 
on the first floor, new ceramic 
mosaic tile units were installed. 
These units were composed of 
one-inch-square ceramic tiles em- 
bedded in a vinyl backing to 
form the over-all nine-inch- 
square block, which included the 
tile joints. 

Structural window units com- 
bining fixed glass and insulated 
louvre ventilation were used 
throughout in the construction 
of this house. Window and door 
frames were prefabricated and 
assembled with the wall panels. 
They consisted of fixed insulated 
glass units with jalousie ventilat- 
ing units below. In the west ele- 


Technocracy Digest 

vation, heat-absorbing glass units 
were installed in two upstairs 
rooms, with fixed, vertical lou- 
vers at the sides of the windows. 

Tough new plastic coatings 
were used in prefinishing the 
surfaces of the exterior wall and 
roof panels. Brick-finish, foam- 
core, load-bearing wall panels, 
two storeys high, were used for 
added effect on the right front 
section of the house. 

All-plastic hot and cold v/ater 
plumbing lines and sewer and 
waste lines, ac weil as a new 
type of individual sewerage unit 
and effluent field, were featured 
in the construction of this house. 
In addition, the plumbing core 
wall was fabricated complete 
with framing and pipe in the 

plumber's shop and trucked to 
the job site for erection with the 
structural panels. 

Heating and air conditioning 
are provided by a gas fired fur- 
nace by means of a duct system 
incorporated in the floor struc- 
ture between the first and sec- 
ond floors. 

A surface mounted electric 
distribution system designed for 
future increased energy require- 
ments is another feature of this 
new house. This was done by 
installing a hollow extruded 
plastic base molding which al- 
lows for additional wire capacity 
as and when it becomes neces- 
sary at a future date. This also 
provides additional space for 
telephone wiring. 

* BONN, GERMANY— Conservation officials have deployed an army of 15,000,- 
000 red ants in the woods outside Mannheim in a new kind of campaign to protect 
West German forests against vermin which cause millions of dollars worth of damage 
to the forests. 

Prof. Karl Goesswald, the country's foremost authority on ants, has been ap- 
pointed scientific adviser to a special agency formed to deal with forest conservation. 
As part of the campaign, huge colonies of ants are being shifted from areas where 
they are numerous to those where they are scarce. The red wood ant is ideally 
suited for the assigned task. A single nest needs a daily catch of about 100,000 
insects or larvae to subsist and, besides, its fecundity is such that new ant colonies 
can be bred quickly. Once the vermin have gained the upper hand, it is too late 
to put the ants to work; so Professor Goesswald thinks that ants' nests should be 
settled every 165 feet or so throughout the country's wood areas. — New York Times. 

May, 1960 


Sew Process Waterproofs Cotton 

ANEW water-repellency treat- 
ment for cotton, developed 
by United States Department of 
Agriculture chemists, produces 
an unusual fabric finish that 
keeps water out but lets air 
through. This finish would be 
particularly desirable for rain- 
wear because it allows air circu- 
lation through the fabric. 

Instead of coating the fabric 
and thus sealing off the tiny open 
spaces in the weave, as some 
waterproof finishes do, the chemi- 
cals in the new finish penetrate 
the fibers and make them so 
water-repellent that the fabric 
turns off rain. 

In tests on cotton, the chemical 
used in the new treatment was 
shown to leave the pores open 
and to work as well as those now 
in common use. The treatment 

proved effective on cotton broad- 
cloth and other light-weight cot- 
ton fabrics, as well as on heavier 
materials used in rainwear. 

Even cheesecloth, after treat- 
ment, was found to hold water 
on its surface for several months 
without either allowing it to pass 
through the openings in the fab- 
ric or to wet the threads. The 
chemical also has been tried suc- 
cessfully on wool and other fib- 

The chemical is an alloy of two 
silicon compounds. Silicons are 
commonly used by the textile in- 
dustry as fabric-softeners. In 
addition to adding water repel- 
lency, the compound improves 
the fabrics resistance to tearing, 
and to the wear caused by creas- 
ing and folding. 

-jAr NEW YORK — The present boom in the construction of motels may spell 
danger for the individual motel operator- This was pointed out in a special report 
issued by Brener & Lewis, a real estate brokerage firm which specializes in the sale 
of hotels and motels. 

According to the firm: 'Motels have achieved such success in the postwar 
period that they have attracted the attention of the major hotel chains. Hilton, 
Knott, Sheraton, and the Hotel Corporation of America have all entered the motel 
field in a big way. These chains have important pluses, such as nationally known 
names, top financing, major promotional programs, and top-flight reservation 
systems which route a traveler from one chain motel to another. 

'With the growth of other motel chains, such as Howard Johnson and Holiday 
Inn, the individually operated motel may be in severe trouble in coming years/ the 
report said. — Christian Science Monitor. 


Technocracy Digest 




it Technocracy is the only North Am- 
erican social movement with a North 
American program which has become 
widespread on this Continent. It has 
no affiliation with any other organiza- 
tion, group or association either in North 
America or elsewhere. 

it The basic unit of Technocracy is the 
chartered Section consisting of a min- 
imum of 50 members and running up to 
several hundred. 

it It is not a commercial organization 
or a political party; it has no financial 
subsidy or endowment and has no debts. 
Technocracy is supported entirely by the 
dues and donations of its own members. 
The widespread membership activities 
of Technocracy are performed volun- 
tarily; no royalties, commissions or bon- 
uses are paid, and only a small full-time 
staff receives subsistence allowances. The 
annual dues are $9.00 which are paid by 
the member to his local Section. 

it Members wear the chromium and 
vermilion insignia of Technocracy — the 
Monad, an ancient generic symbol signi- 
fying balance. 


it There are units and members of 
Technocracy in almost every State in the 
U.S. and in all Provinces in Canada, and 
in addition there are members in Pan- 
ama, Puerto Rico and in numerous other 
places with the Armed Forces. 

it Members of Technocracy are glad 
to travel many miles to discuss Tech- 
nocracy's Program with any interested 
people and Continental Headquarters 
will be pleased to inform any one of the 
location of the nearest Technocracy unit. 


it Technocracy originated in the winter 
of 1918-1919 when Howard Scott formed 
a group of scientists, engineers and econ- 
omists that become known in 1920 as 
The Technical Alliance — a research or- 
ganization. In 1933 it was incorporated 
under the laws of the State of New York 
as a non-profit, non-political, non-sec- 
tarian membership organization. In 1934, 
Howard Scott, Director-in-Chief, made 
his first Continental lecture tour which 
laid the foundations of the present 
nation - wide membership organization. 
Since 1934 Technocracy has grown stead- 
ily without any spectacular spurts, re- 
vivals, collapses or rebirths. This is in 
spite of the fact that the press has gen- 
erally 'held the lid' on Technocracy, 
until early in 1942 when it made the 
tremendous 'discovery' that Technocracy 
had been reborn suddenly full-fledged 
with all its members, headquarters, etc., 
in full swing. 


it Technocracy was built in North 
America by North Americans. It is com- 
posed of North American citizens in all 
walks of life. Technocracy's membership 
is a composite of all the occupations, 
economic levels, races and religions which 
make up this Continent. Membership 
is open only to North American citizens. 
Aliens and politicians are not eligible, 
(By politicians is meant those holding 
elective political office or active office 
in any political party.) 

it Doctor, lawyer, storekeeper, farmer 
mechanic, teacher, _ preacher or house 
wife — as long as you are a patriotic 
North American — you are welcome in