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Register No... .5 I 

v/i ./ 

"Presented to 

ycliffe (Allege, 

oronto ; 

By the Baroness Burdett=doutts ? 
ctober, 1386. 










1 Cos. it. 13. 

gl Hcto anb gUttseb Cbhion. 




it Steitarrm of 






THE title-page of this Treatise may sufficiently indicate the 
line of argument I have attempted to pursue. My standard 
of reference throughout has been the memorable precept. 
" Trust ye in the Lord for ever, for in the Lord Jehovah is 
the Rock of Ages." (Isai. xxvi. 4.) That the one Infinite 
God claims our supreme and undivided confidence ; that the 
same confidence is, on the warrant of Scripture, to be reposed 
in the Father, and in the Son, and in the Holy Ghost ; and 
that therefore Father, Son, and Spirit are equally God over 
all, blessed for ever, the Triune Jehovah, in whose name 
alone we trust, on whose arm we rely, and whose majesty we 
alone adore and love : such is the brief outline of a train of 
thought indelibly impressed many years ago on my own mind. 

Local circumstances, to which I allude in my opening 
chapter, induced me lately to commit these thoughts to 
paper. I intended to write only a brief pamphlet. But I 
found that proofs from the written word accumulated upon 
me so rapidly, that I could not duly sketch this most mo 
mentous of subjects in so cursory a way. I therefore suffered 
Scripture as it were to lead me by the hand ; until, by com 
piling and illustrating Bible evidence alone, my little essay 
swelled to nearly its present dimensions. And, when the 

viii PKEFACE. 

rough draught of my manuscript was to some extent com 
pleted, I did not scruple to avail myself of the labours of 
those authors, to which I have from time to time referred, so 
far as my limited leisure permitted me to consult them. I 
especially allude to Dr. Pye Smith s " Scripture Testimony 
to the Messiah : " my readers will find how much I am in 
debted to that truly learned and elaborate work. I would 
also mention a short but valuable treatise, now out of print, 
by the late Mr. Serjeant Sellon ; D wight s Theology, vol. ii. ; 
Wardlaw s Discourses ; Serle s Horae Solitaries ; Lectures at 
Christ Church, Liverpool ; Scholefield s Hints ; Dr. Gordon s 
Supreme Godhead of Christ ; and Jones Catholic Doctrine of 
a Trinity : though to many of these authors I have only been 
able to refer, as isolated passages led me to desire to know 
their judgment on contested interpretations. And here I 
cannot refrain from expressing my grateful obligations to my 
learned and judicious friend, the Rev. John Ayre, who most 
kindly looked through the proof-sheets of the first edition, 
and gave me, on several difficult passages of Scripture, the 
benefit of his extensive reading. With respect to the last- 
mentioned book, " Jones Catholic Doctrine," which contains 
so much in so brief a space, I had not seen it until my 
treatise was almost finished. His system of proof is in some 
respects similar to mine : but even my threefold comparison 
in the last chapter of this work, which resembles his arrange 
ment the nearest, was commenced, before the possession of his 
work enabled me to enrich this, and two or three earlier 
sections likewise, with some most apposite quotations gleaned 
by him from the word of God. I mention this only to show 
that my collection of Scriptural evidence was, in the main, 
independent ; for in such a subject, of all others, claims of 


originality can have no place. Here eminently, nolva TO. 
TU>V <j)i\tai>. But while speaking of other writers, may I be 
permitted to urge any, who do not know them, to study some 
essays " On the Religions of Man and the Religion of God," 
by the late Professor Vinet, of Lausanne ? a Space alone 
prevented my quoting at the close of this book a large portion 
of his admirable remarks on the mysteries of Christianity. 
He is not unjustly called the Chalmers of Switzerland. 

But after all, our appeal must be to One Book. I have 
honestly tried to understand the views of sincere Unitarians ; 
but I can come to no other conclusion, than that, while some 
times freely using the language of Scripture with respect to 
our Lord, they regard him only as a most highly exalted and 
Divinely endowed CREATURE. In a word, to them he is not 
God. And therefore, on their hypothesis, if men trust in 
him for eternal salvation, reposing their entire confidence 
in him, they are trusting in a creature, which is idolatry. 
(Jer. xvii. 5 8.) Whereas if they do not so trust in him, 
they are rejecting the only name under heaven given among 
men whereby we must be saved. (Acts iv. 12.) From this 
disastrous alternative I see no possible escape. 

I rejoice to think, however, they are bound down by no 
definite creed of error. They are, to use their own emphatic 
expression, * a drifting body. Oh that it might please God 
that the movement amongst the American Unitarians might 
spread to our own land ! And whilst they profess to draw 
their faith from the oracles of truth, who can despair of their 

* The work is called " Vital Christianity : " and is translated by an 
American pastor. It is published in a very cheap form, by W. Collias, 
Paternoster Row, London. 


being brought back to the one flock, and the one Shepherd ? 
For "the law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul; 5 
" the entrance of thy words giveth light ; " the sword of the 
Spirit is the word of God." In the humble hope that some 
may be led to search anew, and to believe at last the Scrip 
tures which testify of Jesus, these pages have been written ; 
and utterly disclaiming aU confidence in any other weapons, 
my one prayer is that the Divine Spirit may cast down imagina 
tions and every high thing that exalteth itself against the 
knowledge of God, and may bring into captivity every 
thought to the obedience of Christ. 



CHAPTER I. Introduction. Preparation of heart. Our position before 
God. p. 1 S. 

CHAPTER. II. That Scripture, in the Old and the New Testament alike, 
detaches our ultimate confidence from man the creature, and attaches 
it to God the Creator ; 

by contrasting the sinfulness and feebleness of mortal man with 

the goodness and omnipotence of the Eternal Jehovah : 
by direct prohibition and precept : 
by exhibiting the holy Jealousy of God. p. 9 15. 

CHAPTER III. That Scripture, in the Old and the New Testament alike, 
requires us to repose our ultimate confidence in the Lord Jesus Christ : 
as One who is distinct from the Father : 

as One to whom all the attributes of essential Deity are ascribed : 

as One whose infinite perfections claim supreme trust, adoration, 

and love. p. 1630. 

CHAPTER IV. That Scripture, in the Old and the New Testament alike, 
proves the coequal Deity of Jesus Christ with that of the eternal 
Father ; 

by a comparison of the attributes, the majesty, and the claims of 

the Father and the Sou : 

by the appearances of God to the Old Testament saints : 
by the direct and Divine worship paid to Christ : 
by the conjunction of the Father and the Son in Divine offices : 
by explicit assertions that Christ is Jehovah and God. 

p. 3082. 


CHAPTER V. That Scripture, in the Old and the New Testament alike, 
presents to us the incarnation and the mission of the Saviour, as the 
extremity of condescension in Jehovah, that thereby he might exalt 
us to everlasting life. 

The Scriptural order to be observed in this inquiry . 

The moral and spiritual majesty of the incarnation of Christ. 

The examination of those passages which assert his humanity by 

the light of others which assert his Divinity. 
The derived glory to which he raises believers compared with his 
own essential glories. p. 82 110. 

CHAPTER VI. That Scripture, in the Old and the New Testament alike, 
proves the coequal Godhead of the Holy Spirit with that of the Fa 
ther and of the Son : 

as One who is to be distinguished from the Father and the Son : 
as One to whom such personal properties and actions are assigned 

as prove independent and intelligent personality : 
as One to whom Divine attributes are ascribed and by whom 

Divine offices are exercised : 

as One worshipped in parity with the Father and the Son : 
as One declared to be Jehovah and God. p. 110135. 

CHAPTER VII. That Scripture, in the Old and the New Testament alike, 
assures us that in the trustful knowledge of One God, the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Ghost, is the spiritual life of man now and 
for ever. 

On the mysteries of faith. 

On the revealed evidences of faith. 

On creeds or definitions of faith. 

On the obedience of faith, 

On the full satisfaction of faith. p. 136168. 



A DEEP conviction that many, who refuse to acknow- r n \r. i. 
ledge the Godhead of our Lord Jesus Christ, have 
never duly examined one line of Scriptural argument 
which presents to my own mind the most conclusive 
evidence of this foundation truth, induces me, though 
" in weakness and in fear and in much trembling," to 
ask their patient and prayerful perusal of this Treatise. 
My hesitation arises not from the least doubt of the 
security of the doctrine, but from consciousness how 
unequal I am to do justice to the proofs which establish 
it, from a most affectionate concern for the souls of 
those to whom I write, and from a deep assurance that 
in the rejection or cordial acceptance of this truth are 
bound up the issues of eternal death or eternal life. -"ioim i;" 1; 

I am well aware that many larger and more elaborate 
treatises, written by far abler advocates, are within 
their reach ; but sometimes, an essay written by a 
neighbour will be read with courteous interest when 
volumes of far deeper research are passed by. And 
my lot has been cast where many Unitarians a reside : 
their acts of kindness and benevolence are continually 

* I use the word " Uiiitarians " as the distinctive name they 
have assumed ; but under protest, that it does not fairly set forth 
the points at issue betwixt us, if for no other reason, for this, that 
\ve cleave to the Unity of God as tenaciously as they. 



making themselves felt amongst us ; and proofs are 

multiplied on every side of their own mental culture v 
and of their desire for the moral elevation of the poor. 
Who that delights in things lovely and of good report 
can refrain from loving their excellences? I long 
over them ; and yet my opportunities of intercourse 
are of necessity casual and limited. Hence, if it will 
not seem presumptuous, I know not how better to ac 
count for my present Address than in the language of 

Rom. x. i. S. Paul on behalf of his kinsmen, " Brethren, my 
heart s desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they 
might be saved." 

Another motive weighs with me ; (may I ask the 
reader s forgiveness for any personal allusion ?) but I 
believe few can have passed through years of more 
incessant spiritual conflict than myself, and this long 
after I had embraced the gospel with the affections of 
my soid. Apparent Scriptural contradictions stag 
gered me ; for I found to my cost the Tempter could 

Matt. iv. c. assail us as he assailed our Master, saying, "It is 
written." The battle raged over the whole field of 
revealed truth, though chiefly around the central fact 
of our holy faith, the Divinity of the Son of God. 
The Bible was my only sword, prayer my only resource, 
until, through the infinite mercy of God, those very 
truths around which sceptical doubts had once clustered 
most thickly, became the strongest bulwarks to which, 
when assailed on other points, I used to resort. Since 
that time, in the course of my ministry during the last 
twelve years, I have had many difficulties brought before 
me by Unitarians and others, but scarcely ever a per 
plexity which had not been suggested to my own mind, 
and over which I had not fought oftentimes a painful 
fight. So that at least I can say with Virgil s heroine 
" Xun ignara mali, miseris succurrere disco ; " 



and I can conceive no purer joy on earth than that of 
being permitted to lead some other tempest-tossed spirit 
to that faith, where I have found security and peace. 
Those I address will at least find here no artificial 
fencing, for I am no trained swordsman in this contro 
versy ; but sometimes it has pleased God to overcome 
gigantic error, not by the skilful gladiator clad in the 
panoply of learning, but by a few smooth stones from 
the sling of a shepherd boy. 

And hero, if any earnest student designs to give me 
his attention, I would ask him to pause, and to pour 
out his heart in prayer that he may be guided into all 
truth. Such an inquirer feels with me, that eternal 
life is wrapped up in the knowledge of " the only true 
God," and of "Jesus Christ, whom He hath sent ;" Joim\. ;.;. 
that " God is, and that he is a re warder of them that 
diligently seek him ; " and will therefore feel no HCK *i. <;. 
difficulty in uniting with me in such or such like peti 
tions, every clause of which is taken from Scripture : 

"Almighty God, the God and Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, who inhabitest eternity, who dwellest in EPU. i. :;. 
the high and holy place, but with him also who is of a 
contrite and humble spirit, to revive the spirit of the 
humble, and to revive the heart of the contrite ones, isai. K:;. i.-,. 
grant me to understand the fear of the Lord, and to Prov. \\. -.. 
find the knowledge of God. I cannot by searching Joo xi. :. 
find out Thee unto perfection, the King eternal, im- i Tim. i. IT. 
mortal, invisible. But look down from heaven, and 
behold from the habitation of thy holiness and of thy isai. \\a\. i:> 
glory. Doubtless thou art my Father. Show mercy 
upon me, and be gracious unto me. Search me, EXIKI. xxxui. 
God, and know my heart : try me, and know my i sa. 
thoughts, and see if there be any way of grief in me, s il1 
and lead me in the way everlasting. I plead the 
promise of Jesus, If ye being evil know how to give 



good gifts to your children, how much more shall 

Luke xi. is. your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to them 
that ask him ? Hear me speedily, Lord, hide not 

Psa. cxiiii. 7, io. thy face from me : thy Spirit is good : lead me ; for 
I ask in the name of Jesus, who is able to save to the 
uttermost those that come unto Thee by him, seeing 

Heb. vii. 25. h e ever Kveth to make intercession for them ; and who 
hath said, Whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that 

John xiv. Ki. will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son." 
Oh, solemn and blessed pursuit ! We are seeking 
the Lord. Strip the words, I pray you, of every un 
meaning association, and yield your whole being, un 
derstanding, heart, conscience, will, to the momentous 
inquiry. Let us humble ourselves with the recollec 
tion, " Verily, thou art a God that hidest thyself, O 

isai. xir. ir,. God of Israel, the Saviour/ Let us encourage our 
selves with the quickly succeeding assurance, " I said 
ver. i-j. not unto the seed of Jacob, Seek ye me in vain." Thus, 
though there will, there must be, in the self- revelation 
of Him whose ways are past finding out, mysteries 
beyond the reach and range of our finite capacities, 
all necessary and saving knowledge is promised to the 
humble student ; for the words of the Psalmist have 
lost nothing of their significance by the lapse of time, 
Though the Lord be high, yet hath he respect unto 

Psa.cxxsviii.6. the lowly; but the proud he knoweth afar off;" and 
again, "The Lord is nigh unto them that are of a 
broken heart, and saveth such as be of a contrite 

i sa. xxxiv. is. spirit." 

These words point to a preparation of the heart. I 
ask not then, my friends, that you should inquire first 
of all into the nature of God s mysterious Being, the 
Divinity of Jesus Christ, and the personality of the 
Holy Spirit. There is a prior investigation which de 
mands your earnest heed, and which, pursued with 


CHAP. 1. 

prayerful study of the word of God, will, by his grace, 
awaken and cultivate that disposition of mind which is 
fitted for the after inquiry. Starting from those truths 
you acknowledge, What, I ask, is your relation to God, 
what your position before him as recorded in Scripture ? 
You admit that God is the Supreme Creator, and 
Father, and Governor, and Judge of all men. You 
confess that he is infinitely holy, and just, and good. 
You acknowledge that he is himself perfect love, and 
must of necessity require the perfect love of his crea 
tures for the sake of his own glory and of their hap 
piness. That grand epitome of his righteous code 
of government commends itself to your inmost con 
science, " Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with 
all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all 
thy strength, and with all thy mind ; and thy neigh 
bour as thyself." If you look higher than man to the Luke x. 27 
pure intelligences around the throne of glory, you can 
conceive no other law binding together the perfect 
society of heaven. It is the utterance of the mind of 
the blessed God. But now, looking abroad as a prac 
tical and thoughtful man upon the world as it is, what 
meets your eye ? Selfishness, misery, discord, enmity, 
rebellion ; in one word, sin. Some sights of woe move 
you to compassionate tears, and your heart is wrung 
for the calamities of human kind : some deeds of 
rapine excite in you a righteous indignation, and you 
exclaim, " Such atrocities worthily deserve to be pun 
ished." You are pitiful and you are just. But re 
member your sense of pity and of equity is only a 
faint reflection from that in the bosom of the infinite 
Jehovah. His compassions fail not. His righteous- i^m. in. 22. 
ness is everlasting. He is Father, and Legislator, p sa . C xix. u 
and Judge in one. Sin violates every obligation : it 
wounds the heart of the eternal Father. Listen to 


C BAP. I. 

his pathetic appeal, " Hear, heavens, and give ear, 
O earth : for the Lord hath spoken, I have nourished 
and brought up children, and they have rebelled 
against me." It sets at nought the wise regulations 
of the Lawgiver. He complains, " I gave them my 
statutes, and showed them my judgments, which if a 
man do, he shall even live in them. Notwithstanding 
the children rebelled against me : they walked not in 

Ezek.xx.-u, my statutes, neither kept my judgments to do them." 
It is provoking the judicial condemnation of Him who 
now expostulates, Kiiowest thou not " that the good 
ness of God leadeth thee to repentance ? but after thy 
hardness and impenitent heart treasurest up unto 
thyself wrath against the day of wrath and revelation 
of the righteous judgment of God ; who will render to 

Rom. ii. 4 c. every man according to his deeds." 

To inquire then what is the nature of sin, its cha 
racter, course, and issue, is only the part of a rational, 
intelligent being. But herein, especially, it behoves 
us to lay aside all prejudice and pride, to remember 
how distasteful all revelations of our own corruptions 
must be to the natural heart, and to reflect that the 
plague, the diagnosis of which we would learn, itself 
impairs our perceptive faculties. Here, then, let us 

Miiu.xviii.s, 4. humble ourselves as a little child. Here, as we open 
the sure word of God, let us answer with Samuel of 

i sum. Hi. 9. old, " Speak, Lord ; for thy servant heareth." And 
here, if the probe cut deep, let us be assured, "Faithful 

Prov. xxvii. e. are the wounds of a friend," and loving is the correc 
tion of a Father who smites that he may heal and 

nai. ixi. i. " bind up the broken-hearted." 

This evil of sin is not superficial, but radical. It 
pervades human life from the cradle to the grave : 
" Behold, I was shapen in iniquity ; and in sin did my 
mother conceive me. The thought of foolishness is 


C Hir. I. 

sin. Foolishness is bound in the heart of a child. Prov.m. is. 
The imagination of man s heart is evil from his youth. en. viu. 21. 
The heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately Jer. x\u. 9. 
wicked. From within, out of the heart of men, pro 
ceed evil thoughts .... all these evil tilings come J ar L vii . 

o <j .1 _o. 

from within, and defile the man." 

This evil is not partial, but universal. None have 
escaped from it. " There is not a just man upon ECCI. \\\. 20. 
earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not. There is Rom. in. i. 
none righteous, no, not one. All the world becomes ver. m. 
guilty before God. All have sinned, and come short ver. 2:;. 
of the glory of God." 

Tli is evil is not self- remedial ; but so far as lies in 
man, incurable. " Who can bring u clean thing out of JM--XXX. i.-.. 
an unclean: Not one. How then can man be just J .i.xiv. i. 
with God? or how can he bo clean that is born of a j<>i>xxv. 4. 
woman? Can the Ethiopian change his skin, or the 
leopard his spots? then may ye also do good that are .Tn-.xiii.2n. 
accustomed to do evil." 

This evil is fatal. " In the day that thou catest there- Gt!n . \\. n. 
of dying thou shalt die," was the warning of faithful 
love to Adam, and upon the fall moral and spiritual 
death marched like a pestilence through man s noble 
soid. The land was as the garden of Eden before it, 
and behind it a desolate wilderness. Hence disc-as-/ 
and decay, those symbols of a deeper malady. " And 
sin, when it is finished, bringcth forth death. Death JWMSLIS. 
passes upon all men, for that all have sinned." And to KOU>. v. 12. 
those who die in their sins, tin s death of the body is 
the awful introduction of that second death, of which 
the apostle writes, " Whosoever was not found written KCV. x*. n, 15 
in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire." 

Let iis then return to the question, What is our own 
position by nature before God ? (0 merciful Father, 
teach me who write, and those who read, these lines to 



know ourselves.) Does not that law of perfect love 
condemn us ? does it not bring- us in guilty before 
Him whose eyes are as a flame of fire ? have not we 
rebelled against the majesty of Jehovah ? have we 
not deeply wounded the paternal heart of Him who is 
infinite love ? Alas, we have not escaped this uni 
versal corruption. We are convicts, self- condemned. 
We are sinners. Oh, to realize the true meaning of 
the word ! When a man sins against his fellow, a 
child against his parent, a servant against his master, 
we appreciate the guilt. But who shall estimate the 
ingratitude of sin against God ? All other facts are 
trivial compared with this we are sinners for sin 
uncleansed and unchecked is present defilement and 
final death. 

Such is our position : a humiliating one in truth to 
the awakened conscience : guilty, and therefore crav 
ing pardon ; weak, and therefore casting about for 
help ; in darkness, and therefore crying out for light. 
What must I do to be saved ? Until this is answered, 
every other question is a grand impertinence saved 
from sin, its guilt, its power, its issue ? Lord, to 
whom shall we go ? the cry pierces heaven, and 
reaches the throne of the Eternal. Lord, to whom 
shall we go ? and the response is given in the lively 
01 acles of truth : " There is no God else beside me ; a 
just God and a Saviour ; there is none beside me. 
Look unto me, and be ye saved, all the ends of the 
sai. xiv.2i,2a earth: for I am God, and there is none else." 


AND this brings me to the first great proposition I 
would establish 

That Scripture, in the Old and the New Testament 
alike, detaches our ultimate confidence from man, the 
creature, and attaches it to God, the Creator. 

This is enforced by three parallel lines of truth, (1) 
by contrasting the sinfulness and feebleness of mortal 
man with the goodness and omnipotence of the Eter 
nal Jehovah ; (2) by direct prohibition and precept ; 
(3) by declaration of the awful jealousy of the Creator, 
if any creature usurp his position in our affiance and 
in our regard. 

(1) The most casual glance at the contrast testimony 
of Scripture might convince us that such is the design 
of God. 



TVe are but of yesterday, and know 
nothing, because our days iipon 
earth are a shadow. Jab viii. 9. 


Ye are not able to do that thing which 
is least. Luke xii. 26. 


How much less in them that dwell in 
houses of clay, whose foundation 
is in the dust, which are crushed 
before the moth. Job iv. 19. 


The thoughts of man are vanity 
Psalm xciv. 11. 

B 2 


Thou art from everlasi ing. P\. .\eiii.2. 
All things naked to his eyes.- Ih-b. 

iv. 13. 
lie inhabitcth eternity. Jsai. hii. 15. 


"W ith God all things are possible. 
Matt. xix. 20. 

The heaven of heavens cannot contain 

thee. 1 Kinys viii. -21. 
God is a Spirit. Join iv. 2i. 
The Lord God omnipotent -Rer. xix. 6. 


The counsel of Jehovah standeth for 
ever : the thoughts of his .teart 
to all generations. Psalm xxxiii. 



Scripture Testimony of Man. 

He turneth wise men backward, and 
maketh their knowledge foolish 
Isai. xliv. 25. 


All flesh is grass, and all the goodli- 
ness thereof is as the flower of the 
field. Isai. si. 0. 


There is none righteous, no, not one. 
Rom. \\i. 10. 


The heart is deceitful above all things, 
and desperately wicked : who can 
know it ? Jer. xvii. 9. 

Man looketh on the outward appear 
ance. 1 Sam. xvi. 7. 

A man that shall die. Isai. li. 12. 

In Him we live, and move, and have 
our being. Ads xvii. 28. 

Woe unto him that striveth with his 
Maker ! Shall the clay say to 
him that fashioneth it, What 
inakest thou ? Isai. xiv. 9. 

Scriptttre Testimony to God. 

The immutability of his counsel. licit. 
vi. 17. 


The eternal God. Deut. xxxiii. 27. 
The glory of Jehovah shall endure for 
ever. Psalm civ. 31. 


There is none good but one, that is, 
God. Matt. xix. 17. 

God is light, and in him is no darkness 

at all. 1 John i. 5. 
I the Lord search the heart. Jer. 

xvii. 10. 

But the Lord looketh on the heart. 
1 Sam. xvi. 7- 

Who only hath immortality. 1 Tim. 
vi. 16. 


The father hath life in himself. 
John v. 26. 

I have made the earth, and created man 

upon it. Isai. xlv. 12. 
He fashioneth the hearts (of the sons 
of men) alike. Psalm xxxiii. 15. 


This testimony might be almost indefinitely pro 
longed : the above may suffice. But I would venture 
to draw your attention to three or four passages, where 
the contrast is forced upon our notice by the sacred 
writer himself. 

If, for example, we turn to the prayer of Moses, he 
reposes supreme trust in the Eternal : " Lord, thou 
hast been our dwelling-place in all generations. Before 
the mountains were brought forth, or ever thoii hadst 
formed the earth and the world, even from everlasting 



to everlasting, thou art God;" and contrasts this ira- i-sa. *c. 1,2. 
mutability of the Most High with the brief life of men : 
" They are as a sleep : in the morning they are like 
grass which groweth up. In the morning it flourish- 
eth, and groweth up ; in the evening it is cut down, 
and withereth." b This was the lesson so often and so vere. -1.6. 
painfully taught to Israel of old, by a Father s solemn 
chastisements and forgiving love. From frequent 
expostulations I select one : " Woe to them that go 
down to Egypt for help ; and stay on horses, and trust 
in chariots, because they are many ; and in horsemen, 
because they are very strong ; but they look not unto 
the Holy One of Israel, neither seek the Lord." And i*i>. \x*i. i. 
what is the reason given ? " Xow the Egyptians are 
men, and not God ; and their horses flesh, and not 
Spirit." And what is the urgent entreaty founded vor. s. 
thereon? "Turn ye unto Him from whom the chil 
dren of Israel have deeply revolted." Again, this V,T. e. 
message is sent to captive Zion : "I, even I, am lie 
that comforteth you : who art thou, that thoii 
shouldest be afraid of a man that shall die, and of the 
son of man which shall be made as grass ; and forget - 
test the Lord thy Maker, that hath stretched forth the 
heavens, and laid the foundations of the earth." Ob- isai ;;. i:-, is 
serve, in all these passages, how much stress is laid on 
the creatiA e power of God as proof of his infinite pre 
eminence. The Maker alone is mighty to save. And 
if it be so in temporal deliverances, how much more 
in respect of that eternal salvation which must engross 
the regards of every thoughtful man, seeing that the 
Psalmist says of the rich men of earth, " None of them 

b I would pray the reader to compare the way in which this 
same figure, this parable to all nations, is enlarged upon in Isaiah 
xl. 6 8, and is enforced in the New Testament, 1 Pet. i. 24; 
James i. 10, 11. 


CHAP. n. 

can by any means redeem his brother, nor give to God 

a ransom for him, for the redemption of their eoul is 

psa. xiix. r, s. precious." " But God," as he shortly after cries in 

the rebounding exultation of faith, " God will redeem 

my soul from the power of the grave : for he shall 

ver. is. receive me." 

(2) Furthermore, the prohibitions and precepts are 
direct and express. " Put not your trust in princes, 
nor in the son of man, in whom there is no help. His 
breath goeth forth, he returneth to his earth ; in that 
very day his thoughts perish. Happy is he that hath 
the God of Jacob for his help, whose hope is in the 
Lord his God : which made heaven, and earth, the sea, 

Psa. cxivi. 3-. and all that therein is : which keepeth truth for ever." 
So again, Isaiah, having spoken of the fear of the Lord 
and of the glory of his majesty, says, " Cease ye from 
man, whose breath is in his nostrils : for wherein is he 

isai. ii. 22. to be accounted of ? " I need not multiply passages 
to prove that the explicit commands of Scripture with 
one consentient voice require in the words of S. Peter, 

i Pet. j. 21. that our " faith and hope be in God." 

(3) But nothing can prove this fundamental truth 
more solemnly than the words heard by Moses on 
Sinai, " Thou shalt worship no other god : for the 

Exod.xxxi\.i4. Lord, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God." 
Jealousy, as usually understood, is that peculiar un 
easiness which arises from the fear that another may 
rob us of our due honour or affection. And with 
fallen man towards his fallen fellows this attribute 
of our being, from taking an exaggerated view of 
our own rights and claims, from unduly depreciating 
those of others, and frequently from xmjustly sus 
pecting their innocent conduct, becomes the readiest 
vent for the outflowings of selfishness. And hence 
the ill name of jealousy. But not always even among 



men. Thus we speak of a man, jealous for the fair 
name and best interests of his friend ; as S. Paul 
says of the Corinthians, " I am jealous over you with 
godly jealousy." And thus a man may be justly 2Cor. XL 2. 
jealous of his own reputation, that " good name which 
is rather to be chosen than great riches." In this use PTOV xxii. i. 
it is closely allied to self-respect, and springs from a 
due sense of our own position and powers, of the claims 
which we have upon others, and of those mutual 
obligations, domestic, social, national, which lie upon 
us all. Now, in a sinless world, this estimate would 
be exactly true, and these requirements every moment 
perfectly satisfied. But when sin breaks in, the claims 
of man on man are violated ; and justice of necessity 
conceives a holy anger and a pure indignation at that 
which is unjust and unequal. We see a broken frag 
mentary image of it in man, like the sun struggling 
through mist, and reflected on agitated waters. But 
in God it is without fault, or flaw, or cloud. He has 
an absolutely perfect knowledge of his own supreme 
majesty and goodness : he forms an absolutely perfect 
estimate of the claims that supremacy has on his 
creatures : and he conceives an absolutely perfect 
jealousy when those obligations are set at nought. 

Now, the Lord declares himself to be Self- Existent 
from eternity, Omnipresent, Immutable, Almighty, 
Incomprehensible, Omniscient, the Good One, the 
Holy One, the Creator, Preserver, and Administrator 
of all things in heaven and earth, the Searcher of 
hearts, and the most high Judge of all. These attri 
butes, indeed, would appertain to him as governing a 
world which sin has never defiled, and sorrow never 
darkened, and death never desolated. But when man 
had broken his commands, and trodden the seductive 
paths of disobedience and guilt, the Lord gives a 




Isai. xivi. 4. 

Pent. vi. 4, 5. 
x. 20, 21 ; 


Isai. xlii. 8. 

7er. xvii. 5 S. 

further and deeper revelation of his Divine goodness 
and grace. He reveals himself as the only Being 
who forgives iniquitv, transgression, and sin, as the 
only Refuge for the fugitive, as the only Saviour, 
Deliverer, and Redeemer of his people. 

Further, He claims the supreme dependence, love, 
worship, and service of his creatures. This you would 
not for a moment deny, so that you could without 
scruple subscribe to the language of the church of 
England, " My duty towards God is to believe in him, 
to fear him, and to love him with all my heart, with all 
my mind, with all my soul, and with all my strength ; 
to worship him, to give him thanks, to put my whole 
trust in him ; to call upon him, to honour his holy 
name and his word, and to serve him truly all the 
days of my life." 

But how does He regard it, if any creature usurp 
his rightful prerogatives, and steal away the homage 
of our hearts from Him who says, " I am Jehovah : 
that is my name ; and my glory will I not give to an 
other ?" Let me answer in the language of Scripture: 
" Thus saith the Lord ; Cursed be the man that trust- 
eth in man, and maketh flesh his arm, and whose heart 
departeth from the Lord : for he shall be like the 
heath in the desert, and shall not see when good 
cometh ; but shall inhabit the parched places in the 
wilderness, in a salt land and not inhabited. Blessed 
is the man that trusteth in the Lord, and whose hope 
the Lord is : for he shall be as a tree planted by the 
waters, and that spreadeth out her roots by the river, 
and shall not see when heat cometh ; but her leaf shall 
be green; and shall not be careful in the year of 
drought, neither shall cease from yielding fruit." 

It is impossible in a brief treatise to exhibit the 
strength of this declaration. These verses do not 



stand isolated from the rest of Scripture. They only 
gather up and present to us, in a few words, its con 
current testimony from Genesis to Revelation. (0 
Lord, cleanse Thou the thoughts of our hearts from 
all creature confidence, by the inspiration of thy Holy 
Spirit, that we may perfectly love thee, and worthily 
magnify thy holy name.) For this truth stands on 
the fore-front of the temple of religion : " I am God, 
and there is none else." The dedication stone bears isai. xu-j. a. 
this golden inscription " To the Alone, Supreme, 
Eternal Jehovah." And as you bow low within its 
holy precincts, this is the first and great command 
ment " Thou shalt have none other gods but Me." 
And the response of every faithful worshipper is in 
the spirit of the Levitical adoration " Lord our 
God, blessed be thy glorious name, which is exalted 
above all blessing and praise. Thou, even thou, art 
Lord alone : thou hast made heaven, the heaven of 
heavens, with all their host, the earth, and all things 
that are therein, the seas, and all that is therein, and 
thou preservest them all ; and the host of heaven 
worshippeth thee. Thou art the Lord." Such ador- X.K *. -.-7. 
at ion as is re-echoed in the courts of heavenly glory 
" Thou art worthy, Lord, to receive glory and 
honour and power ; for thou hast created all things, 
and for thy pleasure they are, and were created." jfcv.iv. n. 


CHAP. in. I WOULD proceed then to my second proposition : 

That Scripture, in the Old and New Testament 
alike, requires us to repose our ultimate confidence in 
the Lord Jesus Christ. 

Or in other words, I maintain that Scripture brings 
before us One mysterious Person, the Son of God, the 
Son of man, in wondrous union with the Father, but 
of distinct personality from the Father, to whom all 
the attributes of Deity are ascribed, and who claims 
and receives, without protest, yea, as his just and 
inalienable right, equal trust, adoration, love, and 
service, with him who says, " I am Jehovah, my Name 
is Jealous, and my glory will I not give to another." 

If this be proved, it will appear that the dignity of 
Christ stands at an INFINITE distance above that of 
any created being whatsoever, and is ON A PERFECT 
LEVEL with that of the Increate Father. My whole 
argument indeed challenges the views of Arians as 
well as those of Unitarians. I am the more anxious 
to state tliis explicitly because in a most courteous 
answer which has appeared to the first edition of this 
work, the author says " The chief respect in which 
you make me feel how little insight you have into our 
actual position is that you over and over again state 
or imply that we believe Christ to be a mere man." 
I had, however, guardedly stated in my preface that 

c Gloria Patri, ly the Rev. Dr Sadler. I would take this op 
portunity of expressing my sense of the great urbanity which 
marks this reply ; though the author has not even attempted to 
grapple with my main propositions, nor erected, so far as I am 
aware, any new defences of Unitarianism other than those which 
have been often proved untenable. 


those whose opinions I was controverting regarded 

Christ only as a most highly- exalted and divinely- 
endowed CREATURE : that, in a word, to them he was 
not God. To this I apprehend all Unitarians would 
subscribe. Thus Dr Sadler quotes with approval the 
words, " The Father bears a likeness to the Son whom 
He has created." And a review in " the Enquirer " 
of both works says, " In Dr Sadler s treatise there is, 
we need hardly observe, no attempt to retaliate the 
charge of idolatry, because they worship one whom ice 
regard as a creature." Now it is, in my judgment, of 
little moment what degree of creature- eminence you 
concede to the Lord Jesus, if you deny his Deity : for 
after all, whatever difference exists betwixt the Infinite 
Creator and a finite creature must still in your view 
exist betwixt God and Christ. But at all events, the 
propositions which I have drawn out on the broad 
basis of Scripture combat every view which denies 
srrii is THE HOLY GHOST. 

That the personality of the Father and the Son is 
distinct, and that they are neither to be identified nor 
confounded, is so self-evident a truth, and is so seldom 
denied by those to whom I write, that two or three 
Scripture proofs will abundantly suffice. At his bap 
tism and transfiguration the voice of the Father was 
heard saying of him, " This is my beloved Son, in Matt . \\\. n, 
whom I am well pleased." Jesus addresses his Father m 
in prayer. Jesus says, "It is written in your law, 
that the testimony of two men is true. I am one that 
bear witness of myself, and the Father that sent me 
beareth witness of me : " and further, which is incon- John viii. 17, 


trovertible evidence for the will is the essence of 
personality " I came down from heaven, not to do 
mine own will, but the will of him that sent me." But John vi. ss. 



the tenets of Noetus and Sabellius, who denied this 
truth, are so rarely affirmed by Unitarians, that with 
this brief notice I may at once proceed to bring Scrip 
tural testimony of all Divine attributes being predi 
cated of the Son. 

For is the Father Eternal? Bethlehem was the 
predicted birthplace into our world, of One, " whose 

wicah v. 2. goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting." l! 
The Word who was made flesh and dwelt among us 

joim i. 2, M. "was in the beginning with God : " and himself as- 

joimviii. 58. sumes the incommunicable co-eternal Name, I AM. 
And he, who appeared in vision to John in Patmos, 
like unto the Son of man, declares, " I am Alpha and 
Omega, the beginning and the ending, which is, and 
which was, and which is to come, I am the first and 

Rev. i. s, 11, n, the last. lam he that liveth, and was dead; and. 


cr! eh. ii. s. behold, I am alive for evermore." 

Compare these words, " I am the first and the last," 
which are here beyond contradiction littered by the 
Son of man, with Isai. xliv. 6, or xlviii. 12, where the 
same words are confessedly used by the One Supreme 
God of himself, and you have, in the language of 
D wight, "the strongest assertion that eternity past 
and to come belongs to the Son." 

Is the Father Omnipresent ? Jesus says, " Where 
two or three are gathered together in my name, there 

Mat. xviii.20. am I in the midst of them." " There I am, not there 

d On this passage from Micah Chrysostom observes, when con 
tending with those who would be the first to detect any strained 
interpretation of their own Scriptures QVTOQ ica< rrjv Qior^ra 
KOI rt}v avGpuiTroTTjTa SeiKvvm rip fiiv yap t nrtlv, ai i ^oSot avrov 
air apxw & t lptpwv aiwrof, THN IIPOAIQNION EAHAQ2EN 
Y1TAP3IN, K. T. A. Chrysost. Contr. Jud. Op. (edit. Bened.) i. 561. 
The prophet here proves both the Godhead and the manhood of 
Christ ; for in that he says, "his goings forth are from the begin 
ning, from the days of eternity," he plainly declares his existence 
before all worlds, &c. 



I will be, referring to his Divine presence at all times. 

Two or three of his people (says Scott) may be thus 

met together in ten thousand places all over the earth 

at the same time : this must therefore be allowed to be 

a direct assertion of his omnipresent Deity. Again, 

" Lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the 

world." Is not this a positive declaration that he is Mat. xsvui. 20 

with the apostles and succeeding ministers always 

unto the end of the world. But who can be so in all 

the separate and distinct regions in which they 

preached and do preach, except that Divine Being 

who filleth all things, that Divine Essence which 

occupies all space, that God who is a Spirit." 

Is the Father Immutable 9 " Jesus Christ is the Hcb. xui. s. 
same yesterday, and to-day, and for ever ;" and, " Unto 
the Son he saith, Thou, Lord, art Heb. i. \ i, 


the same, and thy years shall not fail." 

/N the Father Almighty ? Creation demands om- 

* Sellon s Treatise on the Deity of Christ, p. 22. The Uni 
tarian suggestion that tlie end of the world signifies the end of the: 
Jewish age, while it does not disprove the above argument, (for 
such unfailing presence of a mere man with his apostles in their 
wide-spread evangelistic labours was as impossible for forty years 
as for eighteen centuries.) is negatived by the only other instances 
of S. Matthew s use of this phrase >/ awr t\tia TOV alwvoc, ch. xiii. 
39, 40, 49, where it plainly indicates the final day of judgment ; 
and ch. xxiv. 3, where a careful consideration of the two-fold ques 
tion of the disciples, founded on the two-fold declaration ch. xxiii. 
38, 39, and of the two-fold answer it receives, proves that the 
end of the world respects the second advent of Christ in glory. 
The further suggestion that the promise, " Lo, I am with you 
alway," was fulfilled to S. Paul and others by the invisible bodily 
presence of Christ is refuted by S. Peter, who says of him, 
"Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution 
of all things," Acts iii. 21, and by Christ Himself, who says, 
"And now I am no more in the world," John xvii. 11. See 
Dwight on this passage. 



John i. 3. nipotence "All things were made by him." The 
sustentation of all things demands omnipotence 

coi. i. n. " By him all things consist." Universal government 
demands omnipotence "All power is given unto 

Mat. xxviii. is. him in heaven and earth." Co-extensive operation 
with God the Father in a boundless empire demands 
omnipotence ; and Jesus Christ, when explaining his 
words, My Father worketh hitherto and I work, de 
clares, " What things soever He (the Father) doeth, 

johcv. 17 19. these also doeth the Son likewise." And a careful 
comparison of Rev. i. 8, with ver. 13, 17, ch. ii. 8, xxii. 
13, need, as it seems to me, leave no doubt upon our 
minds that the Son of man declares of himself, " I am 
the Almighty." 

Is the Father himself incomprehensible, while com 
prehending all things ? S. Peter said to our Lord 
absolutely, without qualification, and with reference to 
that prerogative of omniscience, heart-knowledge, 

John ai. 17. "Lord, Thou knowest all things." And Christ Jesus 
says of himself, " No man knoAveth the Son but the 
Father ; neither knoweth any man the Father, save the 

Mat.xi.27. Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him." 
In this passage both the omniscience and incompre 
hensibility of Christ are declared by himself. He who 
knows the Father is omniscient ; he who is known 

Dwipiit,_ only by the Father is incomprehensible. Also, he 

johnx. is. says, " As the Father knoweth me, even so know I the 

Ephe. ui. 8, is. Father." The riches of Christ are declared to be un 
searchable. His love passeth knowledge. And, " In him 

coi. is. s. are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge." 
Is the Father infinitely good and holy, so that 

Mat.xix. 17. " there is none good but one, that is, God," and again, 

isam.ii. 2. "there is none holy, as Jehovah?" Jesus says, "I 
am the good Shepherd." And he is called, " The 

Acts iu. i*, etc. Holy One and the Just the one who knew no sin 


CHAP. II f. 

without sin, without spot holy, harmless, undefiled Heb. vu. ze. 
Jesus Christ the righteous, in whom is no sin full 

n j j ,1 UoUn ii. 1, etc. 

oi grace and truth. 

Is the Father the Creator, Preserver, and Governor 
of all things in heaven and earth ? Jesus is the Cre 
ator, for " by him (the Son of his love) were all things 
created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, 
visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or 
dominions, or principalities, or powers : all things Coi. i. ie. 
were created by him and for him." And " without him 
(the Word) was not even one thing made that hath J <*n \. s. 
been made." Jesus Christ is the Preserver : for, " he 
(the Son) upholds all things by the word of his power. Heb. i. s. 
In him was life ; and the life was the light of men John i. 4. 
and because I live (he says), ye shall live also." Jesus johnxiv. 19. 
is the supreme Governor : for " unto the Son he saith, 
Thy throne, God, is for ever and ever. He is over Heb. i. s. 
all, God blessed for ever. He is King of kings, and Rom. L\. s. 
Lord of lords. And his dominion is an everlasting RCV. xu. 10. 
dominion which shall not pass away, and his kingdom 
that which shall not be destroyed." Empire aitL 

Is the Father the Searcher of hearts ? " These 
things saith the Son of God, .... all the churches 
shall know that I am he which searcheth the reins and 
hearts ; " and " He (writes S. John) knew all men, and Rev. a. is-y,. 
needed not that any should testify of man: for he Johu U> * 2:> 
knew what was in man." 

Is the Father the Most High Judge of all ? Jesus 
Christ likewise stands forth as the appointed Judge of 
all men. For it is written, "~VVe must all appear 
before the judgment seat of Christ." And "when the 2 cor. v. 10. 
Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy 
angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of 
his glory : and before him shall be gathered all nations : 
and he shall separate them one from another." Mat - xxv - S1 > 




Here then we have all f the essential attributes of 
Godhead ascribed to Christ ; and this, not in one or 
two obscure passages, but by a general consensus of 
those holy men who spoke as they were moved by the 
Holy Ghost. Many other proof texts of similar cha 
racter, if space permitted, might be brought for 
ward. But these suffice. What do you, who are 
seeking the Lord, learn from them of your relation 
to Jesus Christ ? He stands forth before you, who 
jobviii. 9. are but of yesterday, as himself from everlasting: 
before you, whose life is a vapour, as having life in 
himself : before you, who are tied to a narrow spot of 
earth, as Omnipresent : before you, a mutable man, 
as unchangeably the same : before you, who without 
John x\-. s. him can do nothing, as Almighty : before you, who 
t cor. in. s. are not sufficient to think anything of yourself, as the 
Omniscient One in whom are hid all the treasures of 
wisdom and knowledge : before you, frail and defect 
ive, as the Holy and the Just One without sin : before 
you, a creature of the dust, as your Creator : before 
you, whose goodliness is as the flower of the field, as 
your Preserver : and before you, who confess your 
feebleness in self-government, your short-sightedness 
in self-knowledge, and your reliance on a court of 
iinal appeal, as the Ruler of all things, the Searcher 

Perhaps there is one adjective applied in Scripture to the 
Father, aiid not to the Son, I mean "Invisible." If this be so, the 
reason is manifest from the character he sustains as the medium of 
communication betwixt the Creator and the creatures of his hand, 
" the Image of the Invisible God." We have proved that he is in his 
Divine nature omnipresent and incomprehensible. That now we 
see him not, 1 Pet. i. 8, although always with us, is matter of fact. 
But a careful consideration of Heb. xi. 27, "he endured as seeing 
him that is invisible," leads me to question whether the direct re 
ference there is not to the Word, the Angel of God s presence, 
first seen by Moses at the burning bush, and still visible to the 
eye of faith when he braved the wrath of the king. 


of all hearts, and the Judge of all men. Can it be, 

that, in the presence of such infinite goodness and 
glory, no feelings of adoration arise in your heart ? 
It is not, that he is at an immeasurable distance from 
you, so that what he is and what you are, have no 
intimate connexion. But he made you, sustains you, 
watches you. The offices he fills towards you are those 
of God. And he is so unutterably good and gracious. 
What remains? If you believe this testimony, you 
must confide in him, you must love him, you must adore 
him. No other feelings than those of entire reliance 
and supreme love would at all answer the claims of such 
a one upon you. And they are the Scriptures of truth 
which, by portraying so gracious a Lord, have elicited 
that confidence and warranted that affection, 

But this is not all. Thus far we might argue with 
uiifullen beings, and thus might urge those holy intel 
ligences who left not their first estate, to obey the 
Divine command, " Let all the angels of God worship Heb. i o. 
him." Let us remember our position before God, 
fallen, guilty, strengthless, and, as reasonable beings, 
inquiring- with the deepest anxiety, "What must I do 
to be saved ? " Now it is not too much to say that 
the hopes of all mankind with regard to salvation, 
from the wreck of Paradise lost to the prophetic vision 
of Paradise restored, are fixed on this mysterious Son 
of man. On him, as the seed of the woman who 
should bruise the head of the serpent : as the Lord Gen. m. is. 
whose future advent cheered the saintly Enoch : as jude it. 
the living Redeemer on whom the patriarch Job 
rested his hopes of immortality : as the son of Abra- job *. 23. 
ham, a benefactor-, in whom all the families of the Gen . xxii. is. 
earth should be blessed: as the Shiloh of Jacob s dy- 
ing bed : as the Angel of the burning bush and of the E xi. in. 2; 
fiery pillar : as the Captain who fought for Israel and mul si. 



nerved the arm of her warriors : as the begotten Son 
Psai. ii. 7, and of God, the assessor of his throne, the Priest for ever, 
predicted by the sweet psalmist of Israel : as the 
isai. vu.u; virgin-born Emmanuel, foretold by Isaiah, the Child 
endowed with a name of lustrous Deity, Wonderful, 
Counsellor, the Mighty God, the Father of eternity, 
the Prince of peace : as the Lord our righteousness, 
anticipated by Jeremiah : as the appearance of a man 
on the sapphire throne, seen in vision by Ezekiel : as 
the Messiah announced to Daniel who should be cut 
Dan. is. 24, 26. off but not for himself, and should bring in everlast 
ing righteousness : as the Desire of all nations, of 
Hag. ii. 7. whom Haggai wrote : and as the Sun of righteousness, 
seen from afar by Malachi, who should rise on the 
Mai. iv. 2. benighted world with healing in his wings : on him, 
from age to age, the faith of every believer was fast 
ened, by promise and by prophecy. 

Let me, ere I pass on, select two passages from the 
Old Testament for your careful consideration. That 
same Psalm which proclaims the Divine decree 
" Jehovah hath said unto me, Thou art my Son ; this 
Psaim a. 7. day have I begotten thee," closes thus " Kiss the 
Son, lest he be angry and ye perish from the way, 
when his wrath is kindled but a little. Blessed are 
all they that put their trust in him." Remember the 
solemn denunciation, " Cursed be the man that trust- 
jer. xvii. 5. eth in man, and maketh flesh his arm." Is there not 
food here for the most thoughtful inquiry ? How can 
you reconcile these texts ? I venture to assert, only 
in the gospel of the Son of God. 

Again, if you turn to the fifty-third chapter of 
Isaiah, you find, "All we like sheep have gone astray ; 
isai. uii. c. we have turned every one to his own way." Compre 
hensive words ! embracing the transgressions of six 
thousand years. If the sins of those many generations 



were gathered together, how vast the accumulation, 

how insufferable the load of guilt ! It is done : for 

Scripture continues, " The Lord hath laid on (hath 

made to meet on) him the iniquity of us all." On isai. ini. 6. 

him : on whom ? On the chosen Servant of God in 

whom his soul deliffhteth, but whose visage is marred Isai - "Hi. i ; 

lii. II; 

more than any man ; on one who grows up as a tender 
plant, who is despised and rejected of men, a man of Isai - liu - -> 3 - 
sorrows and acquainted with grief. On him, the sins 
of all were laid. He was wounded for our transgres 
sions. He was bruised for our iniquities. 8 But can 
he sustain the load? Remember how earnest and 
awakened men would hold their breath in. suspense, to 
catch an answer on which an immortality of weal or 
woe depended. Can he endure the burden ? He can : 
he dies in the endurance. His soul is made an offer 
ing for sin. But death is swallowed up in victory. 
He lives. He sees his seed. The pleasure of the Lord 
prospers in his hand. He sees of the travail of his 
soul, and is satisfied our Redeemer, our Mediator, isai. xxv. *. 
our Advocate. I beseech you, my friends, to weigh 
that chapter on your knees. See you not, how the 
confidence of all mankind centres and clusters around 
that spontaneous victim, that dying man, that tri 
umphant Saviour ? The Lord grant that this same 

Nay more It is, not only that he was (ver. 3) acquainted with 
grief, but (ver. 10) the Lord hath put him to grief: not only (ver. 
5) he was bruised for our iniquities, but (ver. 10) it pleased the 
Lord to bruise him -. not only (ver. 12) he bare the sin of many, 
but (ver. 6) the Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all : not 
only (ver. 7) he is brought as a lamb to the slaughter, but (ver. 
10) thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin. If Jesus were only 
a spotless, sinless man, offering no vicarious atonement, how was 
it that a holy and just God we will not say permitted such suf 
ferings to light upon a perfectly innocent being but himself 
caused him to suffer. 


CHAP. lit. 

Scripture wliicli was the message of life to the eunuch 
Actsviii. 32- of Ethiopia, may lead you to believe with all your 
heart in the Divinity of the Son of God. 

But now let us follow the course of history. At 
length the fulness of the time was come, and God sent 
Gai. iv. i. forth his Son. Are not the eyes of all designedly 
pointed to him ? Angels from heaven announce the 
Luke ii. 3-20. glad tidings, Unto you is born a Saviour: simple 
Matt. ii. 11. shepherds salute him ; and eastern wise men worship 
hi in. He grows up, as foretold, a despised Nazarene. 
But, at his baptism, the heavens are opened, the Spirit 
of God descends like a dove upon him, and the voice 
of the Eternal Father proclaims, " This is my beloved 
Matt. in. 17. Sou, in whom I am well pleased." Soon the devil 
Matt. iv. i. assaults him, and angels minister to him, their Lord. 
His herald points him out, " Behold the Lamb of God, 
joimi.2 .i. which taketh away the sin of the world." He speaks 
joim vii. in. as man never spoke. He works wonders of goodness 
joim xv. i. and of grace, such as man never wrought. He intro 
duces a morality of unequalled simplicity and purity 
and worth. He preaches the glad tidings of the king 
dom of heaven. But his own received him not. He 
is betrayed, condemned, and crucified. He dies, the 
i Pet. in. is. Just for the unjust. He lays down his life. He has 
John x. is. power to take it again. He rises. He ascends to the 
Psa. hviii. is. right hand of God. There he receives gifts for men. 
Actsv. :n. He sheds forth his Spirit. He gives repentance and 
Heb. \ii. 2.-,. remission of sins. He ever lives to make intercession 
for us. He is preparing a place in glory for his chil 
dren : and thence he shall shortly come again and take 
John xiv. 13. us unto himself, that where he is there we may be also 
Who, I ask, can believe this simple story of redeem 
ing grace, and not repose their whole confidence in 
this Saviour ? Who can refrain from trusting him 
with supreme reliance ? Who can forbear loving him 



with the most absorbing love ? If Scripture forbade 
these emotions, as being due only to the infinite Fa 
ther, what force we must lay upon ourselves to prevent 
them springing up in the trustful heart ! But does 
Scripture forbid them ? nay, verily. Prophecy, as 
we have seen, foretold that thus it should be, and 
blessed the confidence. And when the Saviour walked 
our fallen world, suppliant sinners worship him, and 
he refuses it not. They put their whole trust in him, 
and he declares it not only suitable but essential. John i x . :;;> 
Upon it hangs eternity. " God so loved the world, 
that he gave his only-begotten Son, that whosoever be- 
lieveth in him should not perish, but have everlasting 
life." But is this trust altogether identical with that joimiu. ID. 
we are required to repose in the Father ? It is one 
and the same. He says, " Believe in God : believe 
also in me." His invitations penetrate the weary johnxiv. i. 
heart : " Come unto me, all ye that labour and are 
heavy laden, and I will give you rest : " and his Matt. xi. :*. 
words fall like dew 011 the parched and thirsty soul : 
"If any man thirst, let him come unto me and drink." 
He insists that " all men should honour the Son, even 
as they honour the Father." He concentrates the af- Joimv. .-;. 
fection and the affiance of his people upon himself as 
the one Mediator. He invites us to offer up our Matt. xi. >:. 
prayers in his prevalent name. And finally, he John xvi. 2.-;, 
assures us, " He gives eternal life " unto his own John x. >*. 
disciples, and " will raise them up at the last day." Joimvi. m. 

And after his ascension to glory, what is the con 
duct and the testimony of his chosen apostles ? In. 
the name of Jesus Christ they do all their mighty 
works. For Jesus Christ s sake they suffer the loss of 
all tilings. They uniformly preach Jesus Christ ; and 
the Holy Spirit seals their message. They know no 
thing among men, but Jesus Christ and him crucified, i cor. 




Yea, I should have to transcribe a great portion of the 
Epistles if I wanted to transfer to these pages all the 
evidence those letters afford, that Scripture requires us 
to repose our supreme reliance on the Lord Jesus 
Christ. The most casual glance might make us 
suspect, that a name which meets our eye every few 
lines was none other than that of the Divine Saviour 
of the world. Why else its perpetual recurrence ? 
A deeper search only confirms this. Take for instance 
the first few verses of the Epistle to the Ephesians : 

" Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, to the 
saints which are at Ephesus, and to the faithful in Christ Jesus : 
Grace be to you, and peace, from God our Father, and from 
the Lord Jesus Christ. 

" Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly 
places in Christ : 

" According as He ha-th chosen us in him before the found 
ation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame 
before him in love : 

" Having predestinated us according to the adoption of 
children, according to the good pleasure of his will, 

" To the praise of the glory of his grace, wherein he hath 
made us accepted in the Beloved : 

" In whom we have redemption through his blood, even the 
forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace." 

The privileges are surpassingly great ; but mark how 
they are all ours IN CHRIST. It is " an apostle of 
Jesus Christ " who writes. The church is described as 
the faithful "in Christ Jesus." The benediction is 
given from God our Father, and co-ordinately " from 
the Lord Jesus Christ." God is praised : it is as 
"the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ." All 
spiritual blessings are ours : they are ours "in Christ." 
"We are chosen : it is " in Him." "We are predesti 
nated unto the adoption of children : it is " by Jesus 



Christ." We are accepted: it is "in the Beloved." 
We have redemption, even the forgiveness of sins : it 
is " in him through his blood." We are indebted to 
Christ for all. We are compelled to look up unto 
him, and say " Lord, my trust is in thee." 

The force of this reasoning will appear more strongly, 
if you attempt to substitute here for the name of Jesus 
that of any man, however exalted and self-devoted, or 
of any creature, however lofty in the scale of creation. 
Make the trial. Read the passage given above, sub 
stituting the name of Michael the archangel, or of 
Moses the legal mediator, or of Stephen who sealed 
his witness with his blood, for that only " name under 
heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved." Acts iv. 12. 
You cannot do it. You stop short. It is an intoler 
able discord. It is blasphemy. For you feel this 
would be reposing in the creature an exhaustive con 
fidence due only to the Infinite Creator, and offering 
to man a supreme gratitude which is the prerogative 
of God our Saviour. 

Such passages might be easily multiplied. I would 
mention the first chapters of the Epistle to the Colos- 
sians, of S. Peter s first Epistle, of S. John s first 
Epistle : I study all, and in all I find Jesus my 
Saviour. Do you admit the cry of the awakened con 
science is " What must I do to be saved ? " You 
must acknowledge that the reply of the New Testa 
ment from end to end, from the angel s message to 
Joseph, " Thou shalt call his name Jesus : for he shall 
save his people from their sins," to the ascription of Na- 1. zi. 
praise recorded by the aged John in Patmos, " Unto 
him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his 
own blood, and hath made us kings and priests unto 
God and his Father " the reply, I say, is plain and 
unhesitating, " Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and 



ctsxvi. si. thou shalt be saved." It is not only that one of il 
limitable goodness and infinite perfections, your Cre 
ator and Preserver, stands before you, a man of limited 
and finite capacities : but he presents himself to you 
fallen, and guilty, and lost, as one who is able and 
willing to raise you from the lowest depths of sin and 
make you members of a royal priesthood, and cause 
you to reign with him among the sons of light for 
ever and for ever. No utterance but one like Mary s 
satisfies his claims : " My spirit hath rejoiced in God 

ufcci.47. my Saviour." The Lord grant unto you and me like 
precious faith, that resting on these exceeding great 

ivt. i. 1,4, and precious promises, an entrance may be ministered 
unto us into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ ! 


CHAP. iv. THE preceding truths will have prepared the way for 
my third proposition : 

That Scripture, in the Old and the New Testament 
alike, proves the co-equal Deity of Jesiis Christ with 
that of the Eternal Father : 

by a comparison of the attributes, the majesty, and 

the claims of the Father and the Son ; 
by the appearances of God to the Old Testament 

saints ; 

by the direct and Divine worship paid to Christ ; 
by the conjunction of the Father and the Son in 

Divine offices ; 

by explicit assertions that Christ is Jehovah and God. 
And here I would ask your further honest application 
of that great principle of heavenly scholarship, "the 



comparing spiritual things with spiritual." For just 
as in algebra, from the combination of two known 
quantities the unknown is found out ; as in trigonome 
try, if out of the six parts of a triangle any three, one 
being a side, are given, the others are discoverable, 
from which simple law have resulted all the triumphs 
of astronomy ; so, in searching the Scriptures, those 
humble students, who prayerfully compare and com 
bine them, shall know " the things that are freely 
given to us of God." l ^ 

(1.) I would first then place side by side the witness 
of Scripture to the attributes, the majesty, and the 
claims of the Father and the Son. Only a selection 
from the abundant materials could of course be made. 
I have exercised a rigid caution in the verses adduced 
in testimony of Christ, setting many aside which I 
fully believe bear witness of him. But, if after candid 
investigation you think one, or more than one, inap 
plicable ti the Messiah, I pray yon draw your pencil 
through Iliose, which may seem to you even ambiguous. 
Sufficient, and more than sufficient, will, I am per 
suaded, remain uncancelled. Some marked with an 
asterisi are discussed or illustrated in other portions 
of this treatise, and will be easily found by a reference 
to the Scripture Index at the close. In some of the 
passages in the left hand column, I believe the primary 
reference to be not to the Father but to the Son ; but 
tnis docs not invalidate the testimony to be derived 
from them, as in every case the witness is said to be 
rf God, or of the Lord Jehovah ; and no one, who de 
nied the Deity of Christ, could maintain, that a single 
passage there adduced designates the Messiah, without 
contradicting himself. I earnestly ask your calm, 
dispassionate collation of these passages : and I pray 
you, whilst you proceed, to suffer the full weight of 




ai. xiii.8. 

these solemn words to rest upon your mind and 
memory, " I am Jehovah that is my name : and my 
glory will I not give to another." 

Scripture Testimony to God the Father, 
or to God absolutely. 


From everlasting to everlasting, thou 

art God. Psalm xc. 2. 
Thy throne is established of old : thou 

art from everlasting. -Psalm xciii. 

I am the first, and I am the last ; and 

besides me there is no God. 

Isai. xliv. 6. 

Do not I fill heaven and earth ? saith 

the Lord. Jer. xxiii. 24. 

The Lord, he it is that doth go before 
thee He will be with thee; he 
will not fail thee. Deut. xxxi. 8. 


1 am Jehovah, I change not. Mai- 
achi iii. 6. 


I am the Almighty God. Gen. xvii. 1. 
Whatsoever the Lord pleased, that did 

Scripture Testimony to Christ. 


Whose goings forth have been from of 
old, from everlasting. Mic. v. 2. 

Unto the Son he saith, Thy throne, 
God, is for ever and ever. 
Heb. i. 8. 

I am the first and the last : I am he 
that liveth and was dead. Rev. i. 
17, 18. 


He that descended is the same also that 
ascended up far above all heavens, 
that he might fill all things. 11 
Eph. iv. 10. 

*Lo, I am with you alwa7, even un 
to the end of the world. Matt. 
xxviii. 20. 


Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, to 
day, and for ever. Heb. liii. 8. 

*I am .... the Almighty. B. i. S. 

Whatsoever things he doeth, these 

b It has been objected that " the filling all things," in Ephesians ir. 10, 
refers not to the occupation of space, but to preeminence of dignity. But wt 
must interpret the words of Jeremiah by the true definition of omnipresence, 
namely, not that God is present in everything, but that all things are present 
to God, and this God present everywhere : as in Newton s well-known words 
respecting the Deity. " Aeteruus est et infinitus, omnipotens et omnisciens ; id 
est, durat ab aeterno in aeternum, et adest ab infinito ad infinitum. Non est 
aeternitas et infinitas, sed aeternus et infinitus ; non est duratio et spatium, 
sed durat et adest, durat semper et adest ubique." Bearing this in mind, 1 
see no meaning to be attached to the words of the prophet regarding Jehovah, 
which you must not also attach to the words of the apostle regarding Christ. 


Scripture Testimony to God the FatJier, 
or to God absolutely. 

he in heaven and in earth. 

Psalm cxxxv. 6. 
Canst thou by searching find out God? 

Job xi. 7. 
As the Father knoweth inc. John x. 


the depth of the riches both of the 

wisdom and knowledge of God ! 

his ways past finding out (uveK- 

iXviaaToi, trackless).-.KoM. xi. 33. 

Thy footsteps (ra I^VT] aov LXX.) 

are not known. Psalm Ixxvii. 19. 


1 am Jehovah thy God, the Holy One 

(6 u yioe //A A .) of Israel. Isai. 

xliii. 3. 
A God of truth and without iniquity. 

Dent, xxxii. 4. 

Iu the beginning God created the 

heavens and the earth. Gen. i. 1. 

I am Jehovah, that maketh all things ; 
that stretcheth forth the heavens 
alone ; that spreadeth abroad the 
earth by myself. Isai. xliv. 21. 

The Lord hath made all things for 
himself. Prov. xvi. -1. 


Thou preservest them all. Neh. ix. 6. 
In him we live. Acts xvii. 28. 


The King of kings, and Lord of lords. 
1 Tim. vi. 15. 

Thy kingdom is an everlasting king 
dom, and thy dominion endureth 
throughout all generations.-P&z. 
cxlv. 13. 


Scripture Testimony to Christ. 

also doeth the Son likewise. 

John v. 19. 

No man knoweth the Son, but the 

Father. Matt. xi. 27. 
Even so know I the Father.-/o/5 x. 15. 

The unsearchable (a 

of Christ. Eph. iii. 8. 

The love of Christ, which pusseth 
knowledge. Eph. iii. 1!). 

Ye denied the Holy One (TOV Hyiov} 
and the Just. Acts iii. 11. 

I am . . . the Truth. John. xiv. (i. 

Without sin. Ileb. i\. 15. 

In the beginning was the Word. All 
things were made by him. John 
i. 1,~3. 

By him were all things created, that 
are in heaven, and that are inearth, 
visible and invisible, whether 
they be thrones, or dominions, or 
principalities, or powers : 

All things were created by him, and 
for him. Col. i. 1G. 

By him all things consist. Col. i. 1 7. 

Because I live, ye shall live also. 
John xiv. 19. 

King of kings, and Lord of lords. 
Rev. xix. 16. 

His dominion is an everlasting domin 
ion .... and his kingdom that 
which shall not be destroyed. 
Dan. vii. 14. 


Scripture Testimony to God the Father, 
or to God absolutely. 


Thou, even thou only, knowest the 
hearts of all the children of men. 
1 Kinffs viii. 39. 


Shall not the Judge of all the earth do 

right ? Gen. xviii. 25. 

His kingdom ruleth over all. Psalm 

ciii. 19. 
The Lord shall be king over all the 

earth : in that day there shall be 

one Lord, and his name one. 

Zecli. xiv. 9. 
Thou, whose name alone is Jehovah, 

art the most high over all the 

earth. Psalm Ixxxiii. 18. 

Upon the wicked he shall rain snares, 
fire and brimstone, and an hor 
rible tempest. Psalm xi. 6. 

Vengeance is mine ; I will repay, saith 
the Lord. Rom. xii. 19. 

The day of wrath and revelation of the 
righteous judgment of God. 
Rom. ii. 5. 


Behold, the Lord God will come with 
strong hand His reward is with 
him. Isai. xl. 10. 

Thou renderest to every man accord 
ing to his work. Psalm Ixii. 12. 


To whom then will ye liken God? 
Isai. xl. 18. 

Thee the only true God (rbv povov d\ri- 

Scripture Testimony to Christ. 


All the churches shall know that I am 
he which searcheth the reins and 
hearts. Rev. ii. 23. 


We must all appear before the judg 
ment seat of Christ. 2 Cor. v. 10. 

He is Lord of all. Acts x. 36. 

*To us there is but one Lord Jesus 
Christ, by whom are all things, 
and we by him. 1 Cor. viii. 6. 

God hath given him a name which is 

above every name. Phil. ii. 9. 
That in all things he might have the 

pre-eminence. Col. i. 18. 

The Lord Jesus shall be revealed from 

heaven with his mighty angels, 

in flaming fire, 
Taking vengeance on them that know 

not God. 2 Thess. i. 7, 8. 
And from the wrath of the Lamb : for 

the great day of his wrath is come ; 

and who shall be able to stand ? 

Rev. vi. 16, 17. 


Behold, I come quickly ; and my re 
ward is with me, 

To give every man according as his 
work shall be. Rec. xxii. 12. 

The image of the invisible God. Col. 

i. 15. 
The express image of his Person. 

Heb. i. 3. 
* .... His Son Jesus Christ. This 



Scripture Testimony to God the Father, 
or to God absolutely. 

Qivbv Qtov), [and Jesus Christ, 
whom thou hast sent.] John 
xvii. 3. 

The Lord thy God : to him shalt 

thou cleave. Dent, x. 20. 
From me is thy fruit found. ttosea 

xiv. 8. 


Strengthen thou me according unto 
thy word. Psalm cxix. 23. 

Lord, .... my hope is in thee. 

Psalm xxxix. 7. 
Blessed is the man that tnistcth in the 

Lord, and whose hope the Lord 

is. Jer. xvii. 7- 


He shall cover thee with his feathers, 
and under his wings shalt thou 
trust. Psa. xci. 4. 

I, even I, am Jehovah ; aud beside me 

there is no Saviour. 
beside me no Saviour 

beside me no Saviour 

beside me no Saviour 

beside me no Saviour 

Scripture Testimony to Chdst. 

(person) is the true God (ovrdc 
tffTiv 6 aXijdtvbs 0eoe) aud eternal 
life. 1 John v. 20. 


Abide in me, and I in you. As the 
branch cannot bear fruit of itself, 
except it abide in the vine ; no 
more can ye, except ye abide in 
me, .... for without me ye can 
do nothing. John xv. -I, 5. 


I can do all things through Christ which 
strengtheneth me. Phil. iv. 13. 


Jesus Christ, which is our hope. 1 
Tim. i. 1. 

Blessed are all they that put their 
trust in Him. Psalm ii. 12. 

Christ in you, the hope of glory. 
Col. i. 27. 


How often would I have gathered thy 
children together, even as a hen 
gathercth her chickens under her 
wings. Matt, xxiii. :>7. 


Jesus : for he shall save his people 
from their sins. Natt. i. 21. 

Christ Jesus came into the world to 
save sinners. 1 Tim. i. 15. 

We believe that through the grace of 
the Lord Jesus Christ we shall be 
saved. Acts xv. 11. 

He became the Author of eternal sal 
vation unto all them that obey 
him. Heb. v. 9. 

He is able to save them to the utter 
most that come unto God by Him. 
Heb. vii. 25. 



Scripture Testimony to God the Father, 
or to God absolutely. 

beside me no Saviour 
beside me no Saviour 

beside me no Saviour. 

Isai. xliii. 11. 

Scripture Testimony to Christ. 

Jesus, which delivered us from the 
wrath to come. 1 T/iess. i. 10. 

Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 
2 Pet. iii. 18. 

Neither is there salvation in any other : 
for there is none other name under 
heaven given among men, whereby 
we must be saved. Acts iv. 12. 

*0ur great God and Saviour Jesus 

Who gave himself for us, 

That He might redeem us from all 
iniquity (iva \vTpuiffrjTai ;/*a aVo 
aj/ojuiaf) Tides ii. 13, 14. 

All flesh shall know that I the Lord am 

thy Saviour, 
And thy Redeemer, 
The mighty one of Jacob. 

Isai. xlix. 26. 
Let Israel hope in Jehovah . . . and 

he shall redeem Israel from all his 

iniquities (<cai avroQ Aurpaicrtrai 

rbv loparjX tic TtaaCiv TIJJV avofjUiSv 

avrov. XJQ .) Psalm cxxx. 7, 8. 

CHAP. iv. As examples of the free and unrestricted way in 
which the word * Saviour is applied indiscriminately 
to the Father and to the Son, I would draw your at 
tention more closely to the context of this and of two 
other passages in the Epistle to Titus. 
1. ... according to the commandment of God our 
Saviour (TOV <rcor?/pos rjfj.u>v 0eo{>) . . . grace, mercy, 
and peace, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus 
Christ our Saviour (Xpioroi; TOV crwrr/pos T/pxoz;). 
Titus i. 3, 4. 

2 adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour (TOV 

crom /pos ij[j.>v eoS) in all things : for the saving (?/ 
<ro>Ti7ptos) grace of God hath appeared to all men 
teaching us ... that we should live . . . looking 
for the glorious appearing of our Great God and 
Saviour Jesus Christ (crcor^pos ?;p.<3i; Irjcrou XpioroS). 
Tit. ii. 1013. 


3. .... The kindness and love towards men of God CHAP - 1V - 
our Saviour (TOV cria-njpos ^//oh- 0eou) . . . through 
the renewing of the Holy Ghost . . . which he 
shed . . . through Jesus Christ our Saviour ( ITJO-OU 
XptoToS TOV a-corTJpo? f][j.>v"). Titus iii. 4 6. 
Even if you refuse to admit the simply grammatical 
construction of ch. ii. 13, can you believe that the 
name Saviour is again and again applied in a lower 
and subordinate sense to the Son to that it bears when 
applied almost in the same breath to the Father ? 

Scripture Testimony to God the Father, 
or to God absolutely. 

WitliThce is the fountain of life: iu thy 
light shall we see light. Psalm 
xxxvi. 9. 


He (Jehovah of hosts) \vill swallow up 
death iu victory. Isai. xxv. 8. 

I will ransom them from the power of 
the grave; I will redeem them 
from death : O death, I will be thy 
plagues ; O grave, I will be thy 
destruction. Hosea xiii. .11. 

Scripture Testimony to Christ. 


In him (the Word) was life ; and the 
life was the light of men. John 
i. 4, 


Our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath 
abolished death. 2 Tint. i. 10. 

That through death he (Jesus) might 
destroy him that had the power 
of death, that is, the devil ; and 
deliver them who through fear of 
death were all their lifetime Mib- 
ject to bondage. llcb. ii. II, 15. 

If I were to ask you to select a passage from the 
Old Testament, which should declare most unequivo 
cally the supreme majesty of God, could you name a 
more distinctive one than the following from Isaiah ? 
Yet illustrate this by other passages of Holy AVrit, 
and see how all this glory appertains likewise to the 
only-begotten of the Father. 


There is no God else beside me ; 
A just God and a Saviour : 
There is none beside me. 

The Word was God. John i. 1. 
Jesus Christ the righteous : he is the 

propitiation for our sins. 1 John 

ii. 1, 2. 



Scripture Testimony to God the Father, 
or to God absolutely. 

Look unto me and be ye saved, 

All the ends of the earth : 

For I am God ; and there is none else. 

I have sworn by myself, the word is 
gone out of my mouth in right 
eousness, and shall not return, 

That unto me every knee shall bow, 
every tongue shall swear. 

Surely, shall one say, In the Lord 

have I righteousness 
And strength : 

Even to him shall men come ; 

And all that are incensed against him 
shall be ashamed. 

In the Lord shall all the seed of Israel 

be justified, 
And shall glory. 

Isaiah xlv. 2125. 

Scripture Testimony to Christ. 

Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh 
away the sin of the world. John 
i. 29. 

Every one which seeth the Son, and 
believeth on him, may have ever 
lasting life. John vi. 40. 

*We shall all stand at the judgment- 
seat of Christ. For it is written, 
As I live, saith the Lord, every 
knee shall bow to me, and every 
tongue shall confess to God. 
Rom. xiv. 10, 11. 

*In the name of Jesus every knee 
should bow, of things in heaven, 
and things in earth, and things 
under the earth. Phil. ii. 10. 

The Branch the Lord our righteous 
ness. Jerem. xxiii. 5, C. 

Without me ye can do nothing. John 
xv. 5. 

I will draw all men unto me. John 
xii. 32. 

The enemies of the cross of Christ : 
whose end is destruction. Phil. 
iii. 18, 19. 

He was raised again for our justifica 
tion. Rom. iv. 25. 

God forbid that I should glory, save in 
cross of our Lord Jesus Christ. 
Gal. vi. 14. 


Or if you were to choose a passage from the New 
Testament the most entirely devoted to the worship 
of the Father, you could not perhaps fix upon a more 
distinctive one than the Lord s prayer ; in which 
Jesus Christ conceals his Personal glory, that as our 
Brother he may lead us up to the throne of grace, and 
ry with us, while by his Spirit he teaches us to cry, 
Abba, Father. Yet illustrate this by other Scriptures, 



and there is no petition which might not be appropri- CHAP. iv. 
utely addressed to the Son. 

Serif tare Testimony to God the Father, 
or to God absolutely. 

Our Father which art in heaven, 

Hallowed be thy name. 
Thy kingdom come. 

Thy will be done in earth, 
As it is in heaven. 

Give us this day our daily bread. 

Forgive us our debts, as we forgive 
our debtors. 

And lead us not into temptation, 
but deliver us from evil : 

For thine is the kingdom, and the 
power, and the glory, for ever. 
Amen. Matt. vi. 913. 

Scripture Testimony to Christ. 

The Sou of man which is in heaven. 

John iii. 13. 
That the name of our Lord Jesus 

Christ may be glorilicd. 2 TAess. 

i. 12. 
The everlasting kingdom of our Lord 

and Saviour Jesus Christ. -2 ./ < . 

i. 11. 
Ye serve the Lord Christ. Cot. iii. 

Jesus Christ is gone into heaven .... 

angels and authorities and powers 

being made subject unto him. 

] Pet. iii. 22. 
He shall feed his flock like a shepherd. 

Ixai. xl. 11. 
Forgiving one another : even as Christ 

forgave you, so also do ye. Col. 

He leadeth them out. My sheep . . . 

follow me. John x. 3, 27. 
Jesus Christ, who gave himself for 

our sins, that he might deliver us 

from this present evil world. 

Gal. i. -1. 

He shall reign for ever. Ecr. xi. 15. 
To Him be glory and dominion for 

ever and ever. Amen. lice. i. 6. 

"Without denying that there is a peculiar propriety 
in the offices sustained by the Father and by the Son 
respectively on our behalf, these parallel passages 
prove, that we may, without any impropriety, in all 
the petitions which Christ has put into o\ir lips, 
honour the Son even as we honour the Father. 



Serif tare Testimony to God the Father, 
or to God absolutely. 


I, even I, am he that blotteth out thy 
transgressions for mine own sake. 
Isai. xliii. 25. 

Forgiving iniquity. Exod. xxxiv. 7- 


Thou hast been .... a refuge from the 
storm, a shadow from the heat. 
Isai. xxv. 4. 

He maketh the storm a calm, so that 
the waves thereof are still. Psa. 
cvii. 29 


I have satiated the weary soul. Jer. 
xxxi. 25. 

1 will pour out my Spirit upon all 

flesh. Joel ii. 28. 
The Lord God, and his Spirit. Isai. 

xlviii. 16. 
The Spirit of your Father. Mat. x. 20. 

This is the love of God, that we keep 

his commandments. 1 John v. 3. 
Thou shalt guide me with thy counsel, 

and afterward receive me to glory. 

Psalr.i Ixxiii. 24. 


If I be a Master, where is my fear ? 
saiththe Lord of hosts. Mal.i. 6. 
Him shalt thou serve. Deut. x. 20. 

Scripture Testimony to Christ. 

The blood of Jesus Christ his Son 

cleanseth us from all sin. 1 John 

i. 7. 
When he had by himself purged our 

sins. Heb. i. 3. 
Sou, thy sins be forgiven thee. Mark 

ii. 5. 

A man shall be .... a covert from the 

tempest, .... as the shadow of a 

great rock iu a weary land. 

Isai. xxxii. 2. 
He arose, and rebuked the winds and 

sea ; and there was a great calm. 

Matt. viii. 26. 


Come unto me, all ye that labour, . . . 
and ye shall find rest to your souls. 
Matt. xi. 28, 29. 

I will send the Comforter unto you. 

John xvi. 7. 

Spirit of Christ. Rom. viii. 9. 
The Spirit of his Son. Gal. iv. 6. 
He hath shed forth this, which ye now 

see and hear. Acts ii. 33. 


If ye love me, keep my command 
ments. John xiv. 15. 

I will receive you unto myself. John 
xiv. 3. 

The glory which thou gavest me I 
have given them. John xvii. 22. 

One is your Master, even Christ. 

Matt, xxiii. 8, 10. 
Ye serve the Lord Christ. Col. iii. 24. 


Scripture Testimony to God the Father, 
or to God alsolntely. 


Thy Maker is thine Husband : the Lord 
of hosts is his name. Isai. liv. 5. 


By the grace of God I am what I am. 
1 Cor. xv. 10. 

The grace of God that bringeth salva 
tion. Titus ii. 11. 

The love of God is shed abroad in our 

hearts. Rom. \. 5. 
Alive unto God (<Jvroc rf> G^p). 

Eoni. vi. 11. 

Them that love God. Rom. viii. -V 

Thy word have I hid iu mine heart. 

Psalm cxix. 11. 
Thou shalt say, Thus saith the Lord 

God. *. ii. 4. 

[as Lawgiver: see context.] 

Give ear, Shepherd of Israel, thou 

that loadest Joseph like a flock. 

Psalm Ixxx. 1. 

I will feed my flock, and 1 will cause 
them to lie down, saith the Lord 
God. Ezek. xxxiv. 15. 

The flock of God. 1 Peter v. 2. 

I will seek that which was lost (rb aVo- 
\a,Aof . ZAX) Ezek. xxxiv. 16. 

Jehovah is my Shepherd ; 
I shall not want. 

Scripture Testimony to Christ. 


He that hath the bride is the Bride 
groom. John iii. 29. 
The Bride, the Lamb s wife. Tfrr. 

xxi. 9. 

Be strong in the grace that is in Christ 

Jesus. 2 Tim. ii. 1- 
Through the grace of the Lord Jesus 

Christ, we shall be saved. Acts 

xv. 11. (quoted above.) 

The love of Christ const raiueth us 

.... that they which live .... 
Should live to him that died for them 

(Zwatv r<p diroQavovri). 2 

14, 15. 
If any man love not the Lord Jesus 

Christ. 1 Cor. xvi. :?:?. 

Let the word of Chri>i dwell in you 

richly. Cut. iii. 16. 
I say unto you. Jfatt. v. -22, -, \ dc. 

[as Lawgiver : sec context. 1 

Our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd 

of the sheep. // //. xiii. ~ 0. 
The chief Shepherd shall appear. 1 

Peter v. i. 
I am the good Shepherd . . . there 

shall be one flock (iroi^i t^, one 

shepherd. John x. 11, \<">. 
My lambs, my sheep. John xxi. 15. 1C. 
The Son of man is come to seek and to 

save that which was lost (TO t mo- 

XuAt c). Luke xix. 10. 
The Shepherd .... of your souls. 

1 Peter ii. 25. 
My sheep shall never perish. Joint 

x. 2S. 



Scripture Testimony to God the Father, 
or to God absolutely. 

Hemakethme to lie down in green pas 
tures : he leadeth me beside the 
still waters. Psalm xxiii. 1, 3. 


Whom Jehovah loveth, he correcteth. 
Prov. iii. 12. 

God will render to them . . . eternal 
life. Rom. ii. 5, 7. 

l- or he hath prepared (tyroi /ian) for 
them a city. Heb. xi. 16. 

[For all people will walk every one in 
the name of his god] and we will 
walk in the name of the Lord our 
God, Iv ot/o/uart Kvpiov Qtov /^wj/. 
LXX. Micah iv. 5. 

Let him trust in the name of the Lord, 
and stay upon his God. Isai. 1. 

Glorify ye .... the name of the Lord 
God of Israel in the isles of the 
sea. Isai. xxiv. 15. 

The name of the Lord is a strong tower. 
Prot. xviii. 10. 

I will greatly rejoice in the Lord, my 
soul shall be joyful in my God : 
for he hath clothed me with the 
garments of salvation. Isai. Ixi. 


That God may be all in all (TO. ituv-a iv 

xitaiv). 1 Cor. xv. 28. 

God and our Father : to whom be glory 

for ever and ever. Amen. Gal. 

i. 4, 5. 

Scripture Testimony tc> Christ. 

The Lamb . . . shall feed them, and 
shall lead them unto living foun 
tains of water. Rev. vii. 17. 

As many as I love, I rebuke and chasten. 
Rev. iii. 19. 


Be thou faithful unto death, and I will 
give thee a crown of life. Rev. 
ii. 10. 

I go to prepare (tToifidaai) a place for 
you. John xiv. 2. 

And whatsoever ye do in word or deed, 
do all in the name of the Lord 
Jesus (iv ovopan Kvpiov lijffot). 
Col. iii. 17. 

And his name through faith in his 
name hath made this man strong. 
Acts iii. 16. 

That the name of our Lord Jesus 
Christ may be glorified in you. 
2 Thess. i. 12. 

In his name shall the Gentiles trust. 
Matt. xii. 21. 


Jesus Christ : whom having not seen, 
ye love ; in whom, though now ye 
see him not, yet believing, ye re 
joice with joy unspeakable and full 
of glory : receiving the end of your 
faith, even the salvation of your 
souls. 1 Peter i. 8, 9. 

Christ, all and in all (TO. Travra cat iv 
vaaiv). Col. iii. 11 

Our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ. 
To him be glory both now and 
for ever. Amen. 2 Pet. iii. 18. 



Let us ponder these passages with prayer. Here 
Scripture asserts, that the Father is eternal, and the 
Son eternal. Now One, who is from everlasting, must 
needs be God. But there are not two Gods. There 
fore the Son is one with God, and is God. 

In like manner Scripture asserts that the Son, 
equally with the Father, is the first and the last ; is 
omnipresent, immutable, almighty ; is incomprehen 
sible, absolutely holy, indefectible ; is the Creator, 
Preserver, and Governor of all things in heaven and 
earth ; is the Searcher of all hearts, the final Judge, 
and the Awarder of everlasting life and death. Now 
One, possessing such properties and fulfilling such 
offices, must needs be God. But there are not two 
Gods. Therefore the Son is one with God, and is God. 

So, likewise, Scripture asserts, that unto the Son, 
equally with the Father, his people are to cleave, in 
him to abide, from him to draw their strength, and on 
him to repose their hope and trust ; that the Son, 
equally with the Father, is the alone Saviour and 
Redeemer of mankind ; that looking up to the Son, 
equally with the Father, sinners are pardoned and 
souls are saved ; that unto the supereminent Father, 
and equally unto the supereminent Son, every knee 
shall bow ; that the Son, equally with the Father, is 
the righteousness and strength and rock, the Shepherd 
and the Master of his people ; forgives sins, calms the 
conscience, gives his holy Spirit, legislates for his 
people on earth, and will receive them to his glory ; 
that the Son, equally with the Father, claims the su 
preme affiance of all, and is to those, who believe in him, 
the Author of unspeakable joy and everlasting salva 
tion. Now One, who is the object of such ultimate 
confidence, homage, and delight, must needs be God. 



But there are not two Gods. Therefore the Son is one 
with God, and is God. 

Or, to put the same truth in another light, if you 
were asked to name the most marked relations, which 
Scripture represents the most high God as bearing 
towards his people, you would answer instinctively 
and without hesitation, those of Creator, Preserver, 
Redeemer, Saviour, Lord, Shepherd, King, Judge, 
and Father. And yet we read of Jesus Christ, as we 
have seen in the above passages, sustaining all these 
offices. Is he not our Creator, when " all things that 
are in heaven and that are in earth " were created by 
him ? Is he not our Preserver, when " by him all 

Coi. i. 16,17. things consist?" Is he not our Redeemer, seeing 
that " Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the 

Gai.iii. is. law, being made a curse for us?" Are not Saviour 
and Lord his distinctive names ? Is he not em- 

i Pet. v. 4. phatically the Chief Shepherd (6 apxt^ot/x?^) ? Is he 
not the Lamb our King, when he is Lord of lords 

KM-, xvii. H. and King of kings ? Is he not our Judge, when "we 

Rom.xiv. 10. shall all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ ? " 
And, lastly, does he not bear the relationship of Father 
to his people, when in them he sees his seed, the 

isai.iiii. io, ii. travail of his soul, and is satisfied; when he calls them 

John xxi. n. children ; and when he will present them at last 
before the throne, saying, " Behold I and the children 

Hcb. ii. is. which God hath given me ? " Just as, if you took 
those passages only which refer to the Father under 
these characters, you might, without further search, 
have concluded that he alone, without the Son, bore 
these offices of love : so, likewise, if you were to take 
those Scriptures only which relate to the Son, you 
might have prematurely inferred, that Jesus Christ 
alone, without the Father, was the Creator, Preserver. 



Redeemer, Saviour, Lord, Shepherd, King, Judge, 
and Parent of his people. 

These Scriptures are amply sufficient to bear the 
weight of this most solemn conclusion, and I migh 
with blessed expectation ask " Dost thou now believe 
in the Son of God ? " But abounding and independent 
evidence remains. 

(2) For the appearances of Jehovah to the Old 
Testament saints, taken in connexion with the asser 
tion to Moses, " Thou canst not see my face : for there 
shall no man see me, and live," and with the parallel Exod.xxxiii. 20, 
declaration of the New Testament, " No man (or no 
one, ovbfis,) hath seen God at any time ; the only-be 
gotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he 
hath declared him," indicate that he, who thus mani- John i. is. 
fested himself, was the Lord Jesus. It is true that in 
John i. 18, the assertion is general, no one ; but in 1 
Tim. vi. 16, " man " is expressed (ov tlbev ovSeis avOpu- 
Trojy, oL>8e Ibfli bvvaTat), " whom no man hath seen, 
nor can see." 

Now Jacob says, " I have seen God face to face, and 
my life is preserved," and this after wrestling all night Gen. xxxii. so. 
long in tangible conflict with One now called a man, Hosca xis. :;, i. 
now the angel, now God, now the Lord God of hosts. 
The elders saw the God of Israel. Unto Moses, the Esod. \\i\. 10. 
Lord spake face to face, as a man speaketh with his Exod.xxxiii.n. 
friend. Joshua conversed with the adorable captain 
of Jehovah s host. Manoah feared, saying 1 , " We shall Jo^s. 15, 

J O cf. Kx. ill. 5. 

surely die, because we have seen God." Isaiah cries, Judges xiii. 22. 

" Woe is me ! for I am undone ; ... for mine eyes have 

seen the King, the Lord of hosts." Of the message 

then recorded, we are expressly told "These things 

said Esaias, when he saw his (Christ s) glory, and 

spake of him." johnxii. 11. 



These are only selected passages. There are many 
others (compare Genesis xviii. 1, 2, with 17 : Gen. 
xxxi. 11, with 13 : Gen. xlviii. 15, with 16 : Exod. 
iii. 2, with 4, 6 : Exod xiii. 21, with xiv. 19 : Judges 
vi. 12, with 14, 22 with 23) in which the one who 
appears under the form of an angel or a man, is, in 
the immediate context, declared to be God, or Jeho 
vah. Who, I ask, was this mysterious being ? the 
Angel, or Sent One : he whom the Lord calls " my 
Kxoii.xxxiii.u.^mojtt? : " the visible similitude of Jehovah: an 
Numbers xn. s. Angel of whom the Lord says, " Beware of him, and 
obey his voice, provoke him not ; for he will not par- xxiii. 20, don your transgressions : for my name is in him ? " 
This one could not be distinctively the Father, for no 
man hath seen him. at any time, or can see him and 
live. But he who appeared is declared to be Jehovah 
and God. Are we not compelled to acknowledge that 
he was the Divine Word, the Son, the brightness of 
his Father s glory, the express image of his person ? 
Therefore the Word is Jehovah God. 

(3) This is further established by the consideration 
that Scripture sanctions prayer to Christ, and com 
mands the highest adoration and worship to be paid 
to him. 

Respect being had to the argument of the preceding- 
section, we may conclude that it was not distinctively 
God the Father, but God the Son with whom Abra- 
Gen. xviii. 23 ham interceded for Sodom and Gomorrah. It was 


God the Son with whom Jacob wrestled in prayer, for 
we are told " he had power with God : yea, he had 
HOSCU xii. ?,, 4. power over the Angel, and prevailed," when he cried, 
" I will not let thee go, except thou bless me." It 
was God the Son, whose benediction he besought for 
his grand-children, when he prayed, " The God which 



fed me all my life long, the Angel which redeemed 

me from all evil, bless the lads." In all these in- ^^m. 13, 
stances, there is direct prayer to Christ. 

Again, it was God the Son, called the Angel of Je 
hovah, whom Moses worshipped at the bush. It was 
God the Son, who appeared as a man, before whom 
Joshua fell on his face and worshipped. It was God Josh. v. is. 

the Son whose fflorv Gideon feared, and to whom he judg. 

i -i it- T Tlie Lord soud 

built the altar which records that living prayer, J eho- peace. 

vah-shalom. It was God the Son, the angel of Jeho 
vah, whose name was Wonderful, who rose in the 
smoke of Manoah s sacrifice. It was God the Son, for j lu i- x ;ii. 17 


" upon the likeness of the throne was the likeness as 
the appearance of a man above upon it," before whom EM-L-. i. -M. 
E/ekiel fell upon his face. In all these instances, we 
have direct worship paid to Christ. 

Further, we read expressly in the Gospels, that the 
Lord Jesus was again and again worshipped, and we 
never find that he refused this adoration. I cannot 
consent for a moment to relinquish this word " wor 
ship " on the demand of some Unitarian writers, 
that it was only such reverent salutation, as was by 
custom offered to those in authority. But at the same 
time this demand requires that we carefully and can 
didly investigate the instances of its occurrence. No 
one denies that the word translated worship (Ttpoo-Kv- 
re w) is often used in classical writers for humble and 
prostrate salutation. But the great question remains, 

Thus Dr. Channiiig writes iu reply to this argument, " It is 
wonderful that this fallacy so often exposed should be still re 
peated. Jesus indeed received worship or homage, but this was 
not as adoration to the infinite God : it was the homage which, 
according to the custom of the age, and of the Eastern world, was 
paid to men invested with great authority, whether in civil or 
religious concerns." Quoted by Dr. Gordon. 



Cn.vr. IV. 

what is its New Testament usage ? I confess I was 
not prepared, when I began my search, for such prepon 
derating proof of its almost universal application to 
Divine homage. The word occurs sixty times, and 
the noun formed from it (irpoa-Kw^T^s) once. The 
references are given below. k From which we arrive at 

k On the use of the word irpoaicvvew 

Worship offered to God. 
Matt. iv. 10, ) Thou shalt worship the 
Luke iv. 8, ) Lord thy God. 
John iv. 20 24, it occurs ten times 
including the noun of the wor 
ship of the Father. 
1 Cor. xiv. 25, he will worship God. 
Rev. iv. 10, ") worship him that liveth 
v. 14, ) for ever and ever. 

vii. 11, 7 

n r ( wc 
XI. 16, ) 

worshipped God. 

xiv. 7, worship him that made 

- xv. 4, worship before thee, O 

- xix. 4, worshipped God that sat 
on the throne. 

xix. 10, 1 , . n -, 
v worship God. 
xxu. 9, J 

Idolatrous worship repudiated. 
worship of Satan. 

Acts vii. 43, worship of figures. 

- x. 25, human worship refused, 
llcv. ix. 20, idolatry. 

- xiii. 4 (twice),"") 

xui.S 12 15, I ^ of thc 

irir U I * 

{.dragon, the beast 
or his image. 

xix. 10, > saintly or angelic wor- 
xxii.8,9, j ship refused. 

in the New Testament : 

Worship offered to Christ. 
Matt. ii. 2, 8, 11, by the magi. 

- viii. 2, by the leper. 

ix. 18, by the ruler. 

xiv. 33, by the disciples after the 

xv. 25, by the woman of Tyre. 

xx. 20, by Salome. 

... -\ by the women and by 

-. > the disciples, after 

xxviu. 17, \ , . ,. 

J his resurrection. 

Luke xxiv. 52, by the disciples as He 


John ix. 38, by the man born blind. 
Heb. i. 6, by all the angels. 
[These are two instances of a distinct 

character :] 
Mark v. 6, by the possessed. 

xv. 19, worship offered in mockery. 
Worship ^lsed intransitively. 

John xii. 20, Greeks came up to wor 
Acts viii. 27, of the eunuch. 

- xxiv. 11, of S.Paul. 
Heb. xi. 21, of Jacob. 

Rev. xi. 1, worshippers in the temple. 

xiv. 9, 11, 
xvi. 2, 
xix. 20, 
xx. 4, 

[There remain two instances in which 

it is used of allowed salutation to 

man :] 
Matt, xviii. 26, by the unmerciful 

Rev. iii. 9, I will make them to come 

and worship before thy feet. 



this result, that there are twenty-two instances in 
which it is used of worship offered to God the Father, 
or absolutely to God ; and five of Divine worship used 
intransitively ; fifteen instances (including two except 
ional cases) of worship to Jesus Christ ; seventeen of 
idolatrous worship condemned, and two only of al 
lowed salutation to man. Of these last two, moreover, 
in one, (Matt, xviii. 26,) the king to whom the worship 
is paid is in his royalty a type of God ; and immedi 
ately after, when the story represents a like transaction 
between fellow-men, the word worshipped is ex- Matt, xviii. >. 
changed for bcsouyht. We are, therefore, virtually 
reduced to one solitary instance ; and taking the New 
Testament for our guide, it would be as unnatural to 
deny, that Divine worship is paid to Christ, as it would 
be just to accuse us of offering only human salutation 
to God, when we profess to icorship him in his house, 
because we have lately addressed one of our civic 
magistrates as "the u-nrx/t />/ "/ the mayor." 

But the proportion of instances only presents a part 
of the evidence. When this same homage, described 
by the same word (-porr/a>rao) was offered to a man or 
angel, where it could possibly be misunderstood, as Actsx. 25, :>;. 
by Cornelius to Peter, or by John to his prophetic Rev. xi*. 10 , 
guide, the action was immediately rebuked, and the 
worship straightway diverted from the creature to the 

Nor is this all : it is not only, that Jesus was wor 
shipped, but the affections and petitions, which accom 
panied that worship, manifest, if not always distinct 
recognition of his true Godhead, at least, such humble 
dependence on his aid, as Divine aid, that if he were 
not God, he must needs have rectified so dangerous an 
approximation to idolatry. The leper not only wor 
shipped him, but besought super-human assistance : 



Matt.viii. . " Lord, if thou wilt, tliou canst make me clean." The 
ruler not only worshipped him, but implored his Di 
vine interference : " My daughter is even now dead : 
but come and lay thy hand upon her, and she shall 

Matt. ix. is. live." l It was after he had manifested his God-like 
power in quelling the storm, that the disciples wor 
shipped him, saying, " Of a truth thou art the Son of 

Matt. xi\-. 33. God." He demanded the implicit confidence of the 

John ix. 35-38. man born blind, ere he received his worship. Natural 
love found utterance in that piercing prayer, when the 
woman of Tyre worshipped him, saying, " Lord, help me." His resurrection power challenged, and com- 

Matt. xxviii. y. polled the adoring worship of the Marys and the 
apostles ; and the glory of the ascension warranted 

Luke xxiv. 52. the homage they paid on Olivet. 

Nor are we confined to the word, worship. What was 
it but trustful prayer, when the disciples in the storm 
fulfilled the Psalmist s description of tempest-tossed 

r-sa.cvii.2s. mariners, who "cry unto the Lord in their trouble," 
by betaking themselves to Jesus : " Lord, save us, we 

Matt. viii. 25. perish." What was it but prayer, when the two blind 
men implored a blessing no human power could be- 

Matt. ix. 27. stow, crying, "Thou Son of David, have mercy on us." 
The reader will easily multiply examples of these sup 
plications from the gospel history. 

Moreover, Jesus Christ inculcated prayer to himself. 
What petition could embrace a more glorious gift, 
than that he would persuade the woman of Samaria 
to offer ? " Thou wouldest have asked of him, and he 

1 The distinction betwixt such petitions and the request to the 
apostles for assistance (as Acts ix. 38) is transparent ; as Jesus in 
his own right, as the Messiah of God, wrought his mighty works ; 
and they, utterly repudiating self-dependence (Acts iii. 12), wrought 
all in the name and by the power of Jesus Christ. 



would have given thee living water, . . . springing up 
into everlasting life." Again, he invites the weary John iv. 10, u. 
and heavy-laden to come to him for rest. How are Matt. xi. us. 
we to come, but by prayer ? So he upbraids the Jews : 
"Ye will not come to me, that ye might have life." John-.-, m. 
How were they to come, but by confiding prayer? 
Yes, confidence in a love, reliance on a power, de 
pendence on a wisdom beyond that of our fellow-men 
and beyond our own this is the soul of prayer, this 
is the essence of worship. But this trust he solicits 
for himself. " Let not your heart be troubled : yc 
believe in God, believe also in me." And so of praise. j im xi\. i. 
You admit the Divine homage to the Father, of the 
angelic song, " Glory to God in the highest : " You 
must also admit the cucharistic tribute rendered, 
though by humbler and human lips, when the multi 
tudes cried, " Hosannah to the Son of David ! Blessed 
is he that cometh in the name of the Lord ; Hosannah 
in the highest." For, when the chief priests and Matt. xxi. :>. 
scribes were sore displeased, instead of rebuking this 
giving of thanks, he says, " I tell you that, if these 
should hold their peace, the stones would immediately mice six. i \ 
cry out. Have ye never read, Out of the mouth of 
babes and sucklings thou hast perfected praise ?" Matt xxi ,,.. 

Again, what was the dying act of the proto-martyr 
Stephen, but the truest adoration of the Son of God ? 
Realize, I pray you, that scene. Stephen, full of the Actsvii.3i-oi>. 
Holy Ghost, looked up stedfastly into heaven and saw 
the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right 
hand of God, and said, " Behold, I see the heavens 
opened, and the Son of man standing on the right 
hand of God." Then they cried out .... and stoned 
Stephen invoking," 1 and saying, " Lord Jesus, receive 

10 I need not remind the reader that the word God is not in the 

D 2 



Ps.i. xxxi. 

Kcclo. xii. 

1 Cor. i. 2. 

Psa. cxlv. IS. 

my spirit." And lie kneeled down and cried with, a 
loud voice, " Lord, lay not this sin to their charge. * 
And when he had said this, he fell asleep. The Holy 
Ghost, who had inspired David s devout affiance "In 
to thine hand I commit my spirit : thou hast redeemed 
me, Lord God of truth " and who had dictated Solo 
mon s declaration, " The spirit shall return unto God 
who gave it" now, in the plenitude of his grace, 
prompted the dying martyr to pray not to God the 
Father alone, nor to the Father through Christ, but 
to pray to Christ, worshipping him with his latest 
breath as very and eternal God. 

Again, S. Paul addresses prayer to God the Father, 
and to the Lord Jesus Christ, without respect to order 
of names : 

Now God himself and our 
Tathcr, and our Lord Jesus 
Christ, direct our way unto you. 
1 Tlicss. iii. 11. 

Now our Lord Jesus Christ 
himself, and God. even our Fa 
ther, .... comfort your hearts. 
2 Thess. ii. 16, 17. 

Here is express and direct supplication, so that we need 
not marvel that this was one distinctive name of 
Christian believers " all that in every place call upon 
(eTriKaAoujueVois) the name of Jesus Christ our Lord." 

The testimony from (e77iKaAe o/xat) here, and gener 
ally translated, call upon, is most convincing, when 
compared with the Septuagint usage of the word : for 
it is the ordinary term for the sacred invocation of 
God ; as, to take one example out of multitudes, " The 
Lord is nigh unto all them that call upon him, to all 
that call upon him in truth." It is employed in the New 
Testament for prayer to God the Father : "If ye call 
on the Father, etc." It describes such spiritual wor 
ship, that, whether offered to the Father or to the Sou, 
salvation is indissolubly connected with it : " Who 
soever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be 



saved." And yet it is, without a shadow of a doubt, Acts 11.21. 
applied to the invocation of the Lord Jesus " all that 
call on thy name," " them which called on this name," Acts is. 14, 21. 
and, (for the context compels us to interpret the fol 
lowing words of Christ,) " the same Lord over all, is 
rich unto all that call upon him." Rom. x. 12. 

When with an unbiassed mind you read, " Arise, 
and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, after calling 
on the name of the Lord," (eTri/caAecrafieros TO ovo^a TOV Acte xxii - 1". 
KV/H OU,) you make no question, that Divine worship is 
here intended. Or when you hear the practical com 
mand, " Follow after righteousness, faith, charity, 
peace, with them that call on the Lord out of a pure 
heart," (fxera rS>v ^TTiKaAoujueytoy TOV Kvpiov CK Kaflapas 2 Tim. a. 22. 
KapSias,) no suspicion troubles your mind, that by these 
are not meant true spiritual worshippers. Let us 
recur to the above-quoted description of the saints, 
" them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus, called saints, 
with all that in every place call upon the name of 
Jesus Christ our Lord, both theirs and ours." ( 
TTCLCTL Tolf e-tKaAov/xez-ots TO orojj.a TOV Kvpiov ?//M<Sf Irjcrov 

XplOTOU V TTCLVTl T077W, dVTU>V Te KOL f)p.U>V.) Is not tills 

explicit ? is not this Divine worship ? are not these 
spiritual worshippers ? You must concede it. And 
ALL SAINTS IN EVERY PLACE are thus worshipping Jesus 
Christ. Consider this I pray you. If you are ap 
pealed to by a friend in serious perplexity for counsel 
and succour, you give yourself up to his necessities. 
Your whole heart is engaged on his behalf. But, if 
another man also in difficulty should chance to come 
at the same hour, you would find it hard to disengage 
your thoughts from the first case, and apply them to 
the second. Now if a third suitor came for your de 
liberate judgment on a decision of the last importance, 
you would almost despair of keeping these varied in- 



terests disentangled and asunder. Suppose, however, 
ten or twenty anxious burdened suppliants were to 
besiege you at once, and all together to call upon you 
for immediate attention, for advice upon the spot, for 
aid at the moment, baffled and bewildered, you would 
retire alone, and confess that such a demand was en 
tirely beyond the powers of man. Now remember 


NAME or JESUS CHRIST." They are bringing before 
him matters of the most stupendous magnitude ; they 
they are pouring into his ear the deepest secrets of 
the human heart ; they are supplicating grace for 
crises of the sorest need ; they are confiding to his 
care the concerns of time and eternity. And what 
follows ? He hears all. He comprehends all. He 
answers all. While receiving the adoration of the 
hosts of glory, he gathers up into his hand the woven 
tissue of the interests of his church militant here on 
earth. The worshippers are ten thousand times ten 
thousand and thousands of thousands. They are 
numbers without number. If a single cry of distress 
were disregarded, or a single note of praise unheard, 
that act of homage would be vain and futile, an offer 
ing to the idle air, an appeal to an incompetent Deity. 
But no prayer is lost. There is no confusion, no en 
tanglement, no weariness, no intermission of regard. 
Himself has invited us to come, and ALL IN EVERY 
PLACE WHO CALL UPON HIS NAME are daily proving 
the truth of his Divine proclamation, " Come unto 
me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will 
watt. si. as. give you rest." 

Before we pass on, let us ponder that declaration of 
S. Paul, with regard to his crucified Lord "God 
hath highly exalted him, and given him a name which 
is above every name, that in the name of Jesus every 



knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in 
earth, and things under the earth ; and that every 
tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the 
glory of God the Father." Regard this fact as you Phu. u. -n. 
will, refine it as you may, spiritualize it to the utmost, 
if Jesus were man only, it would prefigure the uni 
versal exaltation of a creature. The mighty suasion 
of a creature s name, would bring every intelligent 
being to his knees, from the highest archangel to the 
feeblest saint : the name of a creature, would swell 
the tide of celestial adoration, and tremble on the lips 
of the contrite penitent ; and the supremacy of a crea 
ture would overshadow heaven, and earth, and hell. 
Could this tend to the glory of God the Father? 
nay, verily. That name, which is above every name, 
is Christ s, with emphatic propriety, " God, our Sa 

The latest revelation of Scripture confirms this truth, 
beyond contradiction. Is it Divine worship of the Fa 
ther, when S. Peter, having prayed the God of all 
grace to perfect, stablish, strengthen, and settle his 
people, closes his solemn prayer with the equally 
solemn doxology, " To him be glory and dominion, 
forever and ever. Amen." You admit it, you call i Pet. v. n. 
it " adoration to the infinite God." Only be consist 
ent. John, in Patmos, cries, " Unto him that loved 
us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood, and 
hath made us kings and priests unto God and his Fa 
ther ; to him be glory and dominion for ever and ever. 
Amen." The words, both in Greek and English, are KCV. \. .-,, c. 
identical ; the adoration is the same ; and the Beings 
worshipped the God of all grace, and the bleeding ^K^ 
Saviour are One indivisible Jehovah. gpeu&is. 

And when the veil is drawn aside in the celestial 
temple, what is, I pray you, the nature of their wor- 



ship ? Spirit of the living God, engrave this trans 
parent evidence on every doubting heart ! 

" The four living creatures and four-and-twenty elders fell 
Rev. v. 8-14. down before the Lamb, having every one of them harps, and 
golden vials full of odours, which are the prayers of saints. 
And they sang a new song, saying, Thou art worthy to take 
the book, and to open the seals thereof, for thou wast slain, and 
hast redeemed us to God by thy blood, out of every kindred, and 
tongue, and people, and nation; and hast made us unto our God 
kings and priests : and we shall reign on the earth. 

" And I beheld, and I heard the voice of many angels round 
about the throne and the living creatures and the elders, and 
the number of them was ten thousand times ten thousand and 
thousands of thousands ; saying with a loud voice, Worthy is 
the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wis 
dom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and blessing. 

" And every creature which is in heaven, and on the earth, 
and under the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are 
in them, heard I saying, Blessing, and honour, and glory, and 
.power, be unto him that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the 
Lamb for ever and ever. 

" And the four living creatures said, Amen. And the four- 
and-twenty elders fell down and worshipped him that liveth 
for ever and ever." 

This testimony is guarded on every side. You have 
first, the redeemed adoring the Lamb only, with pros 
trate adoration. Then numbers without number of 
the angels adore the Lamb likewise. Then the whole 
universe, in similar adoration, blesses both the eternal 
Father and the Lamb. And, lastly, there is the ex 
pressive echo of praise to the eternal Father alone. 
You cannot say it is not the highest worship, for once 
it is offered to the Eternal alone." You cannot say it 

" Or if, as is the most probable reading, you omit, with Trc- 
gelles, in v. 14, the words, Him that liveth for ever and ever, 
the worship is addressed absolutely to the Deity. It will scarcely 


is offered to the Father alone, for once the Lamb is 

united with the Father. You cannot say it is offered 
to the Father only through the Son, for twice it is 
offered alone to the Lamb that was slain. It is the 
utmost homage heaven can pay. The spirits of the 
just made perfect have no higher tribute to give. The 
angels of light can offer no more exhaustive ascription 
of their devotion. No vision that you could have 
conceived, no language that you could have employed, 
could more distinctly authorize our rendering to Christ 
the highest and the deepest adoration, seraphic love, 
confiding trust, everlasting praise. 

Is it possible that one question more lurks in any 
heart, why the Father only is here spoken of on the 
throne, and why the Lamb being God LS not represented 
" in the seat of God ? " Do the words of the Psalmist 
recur, " The Lord hath prepared his throne in. the 
heavens." " God sitteth upon the throne of his holi-; 
ness." "Thou satest in the throne judging right." 
Let these Scriptures have their full weight. The pos 
sessor of the heavenly throne is God himself. The 
occupant of that throne is the Most High. Be it 
so. Then the last chapter of the Divine Revelation 
supplies the last proof of the one and equal supremacy 
of the Father and the Son, for there, repeated with 
solemn emphasis, we twice find the seat of the Eternal 
described, as THE THRONE OF GOD AND OF THE LAMB. Rev. x\u. 1 4 s. 

I have dwelt the longer on this portion of my argu 
ment, for this is, of itself, sufficient to set the question 
at rest for ever, when we remember that Jesus Christ 
himself, gathering up the testimony of Scripture, says, 
" It is written, thou shalt worship (~poa-Kvin ]<reis) the 

be believed, that those who have refused to admit adoration as ex 
pressed by (irpooKwiu} when applied to Jesus Christ, have ob 
jected that here the self-same word is applied only to the Father, 
i) 3 



Matt. iv. 10. Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve." But 
we have seen that the highest worship and service on 
earth, and in heaven, is rendered to the Son. There 
fore, he is the Lord our God. 

(4) Once more this truth is proved, by the conjunc 
tion of the name of the Lord Jesus with that of our 
heavenly Father, in offices where the association of the 
Creator with his creature, would confound the infinite 
distinction betwixt God and man. 

This evidence, though somewhat of a circumstantial 
and incidental character, is, from the exceeding solemn 
ity of its use in the New Testament, peculiarly con 
clusive. The combination of the name of the Most 
High with one subordiiiately employed in the evident 
AS Exod. xiv. capacity of his servant, is of easy explanation : though 
jiidg. \u. 20. even this is rare in Scripture : but the conjunction of 
the infinite God, with one co-ordinately engaged in 
manifest equality of rank, is utterly inexplicable on 
the Unitarian hypothesis. Examples will most readily 
illustrate my meaning : 

" Go ye, and disciple all nations, baptizing them 
into the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of 
Matt. juviii.w. the Holy Ghost." Is it, for a moment, conceivable, 
that he who sees the end from the beginning, and 
knew that this would be the standard formula of Chris 
tian baptism, would suffer that, in this most solemn 
rite, the name of a creature with a derived being 
should coalesce into his own name, which alone is Je 
hovah, the increate Father ? 

" He that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, 
and I will love him : and will manifest myself unto 

him If a man love me he will keep my words : 

and my Father will love him, and we will come to 
him, and make our abode with him." The love of 



the Father and of the Son is represented as an equal 
privilege, the access of the Father and of his Son to 
the soul of the obedient believer as a common access, 
and the indwelling of the Father and of the Son as a 
combined habitation. What created being could use 
such language ? It warrants the parallel declaration 
of S. John s Epistle, " Truly our fellowship is with the 
Father, and with his Son Jesus Christ," but it obliges i Joimi. s. 
us, at the same time, to confess, that Jesus, in say 
ing God was his Father, made himself equal with 

" This is life eternal, that they might know thee the 
only true God, and Jesus Christ whom thou hast sent." Joim \\u. ~. 
Compare with this " Grace and peace be multiplied 
unto you through the knowledge of God, and of Jesus 
our Lord." If Jesus Christ wore onlv an. angelic or hu- 2 Pet. i. 2. 
man prophet, revealing the Father, is it credible that 
the intimate heart-knowledge of the expositor should 
be put on the same level with the knowledge of God, 
as equally essential to the life of the soul, and equally 
indispensable for the sustenance of that life ? 

Again, I take up the Epistles. The prefaces are 
most suggestive, whether you regard the embassy of 
the writers, or the designation of the church addi essed, 
or the benediction implored. 

As to the commission by virtue of which they acted, 
you find almost every combination employed : 

" Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus 
Christ." xit.i.i. 

" James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus 

Christ." James i. 1. 

" Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ." i Pet. i. i. 

" Simon Peter, a servant and an apostle of Jesus 
Christ." lfttLJ< 

" Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ." Jude u 



Gai. i. i. " Paul, an apostle, ... by Jesus Christ, and God the 

Father, who raised him from the dead." 

Would not this interchangeable variety, if Christ 
were man only, confuse every reverential distinction 
betwixt the Creator and the creature ? Though here 
the difference betwixt the loftiest monarch and his 
lowliest subject sinks into nothing, can you imagine 
an earthly plenipotentiary sent forth, now styling him 
self a servant of the emperor and an ambassador of 
the chancellor ; now a servant of the emperor and 
of the chancellor ; now an ambassador of the chancel 
lor ; now a servant and an ambassador of the chan 
cellor ; now the servant of the chancellor ; now 
an ambassador (sent) by the chancellor and by the 
emperor ? Who would not think that the imperial 
supremacy was greatly compromised by such lan 
guage ? And yet, there the distinction to be observed 
is only between two men of equal nature, though un 
equal rank. But no distinction is drawn in this celes 
tial commission : Is not then the original authority 
equal ? 

The designation of the churches addressed, is also 
perfectly unrestricted : 

" Unto the church of God which is at Corinth, to 

cov. i. 2. them that are sanctified in Christ Jesus." 

"To the saints which are at Ephesus, and to the 

Eph. i. i. faithful in Christ Jesus." 

"To all the saints in Christ Jesus which are at 

j hii.i.i. Philippi." 

" Unto the church of the Thessalonians, which is in 

1 xhess. i. i. G d the Father, and in the Lord Jesus Christ." Also, 

" The church .... in God our Father, and the Lord 

2 Thess. i. i. Jesus Christ." 

It is to these two last descriptions of the Thessalo- 
nian church I would especially direct your attention. 



Was then their spiritual status equally, indiscrimi 
nately consistent in the Father and the Son ? Then 
to that church the Father and the Son were equally 
the Rock of their salvation. 

And to complete the evidence, the benediction be 
sought by the great apostle of the Gentiles is almost 
invariably in these words : 

"Grace be unto you, and peace from God our Father, 
and the Lord Jesus Christ." 

Why this mutual derivation of spiritual blessing 
from the Father and the Son ? Surely, because 
equally in the Father and in the Son have we eternal 

I might also adduce the prayers (quoted p. 52), 
where, without regard to precedence of names, blessings i mess. HI. iu 
are implored from God the Father, and the Lord Jesus 2 Thcss. n. 10, 
Christ himself, as co-equal in their power to grant the 
petition urged. 

But I hasten to that wondrous benediction which 
has dropped, as the gentle dew from heaven, upon the 
church of Christ for eighteen centuries " The grace 
of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the 
communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all. 
Amen." 2 <:,,-. xiu. u. 

Consider, I pray you, in the baptismal and in this 
benedictory formula, the meaning for which those who 
insist on the mere humanity of Jesus Christ con- 

I may mention, in passing, that there is a remarkable addition 
in the apostolic Epistles to Timothy and Titus. All the others that 
bear the name of Paul, begin with Grace and peace ; these have 
a most gracious enlargement, Grace, mercy, and peace. He who 
knew so well a minister s heart, interlined, as it were, his usual 
salutation-prayer, with merry. How precious a word to ministers ! 
And never more precious, than when treating of the awful myste 
ries of the faith. 



tend. The first, as expounded by them, would run 
thus : 

Baptizing them into the name of the Father, and of 

an exalted man, and of a certain influence of the Father. 

The second would be thus interpreted : 

The grace of a creature, and tlw love of the Creator, and 

the communion of creative energy, be with you all. Amen. 

Your reason and conscience alike, refuse to believe 

that this inextricable confusion betwixt God and man, 

between a person and an abstraction, is sanctioned by 

Scripture. And then in 2 Cor. xiii. 14, why this 

notable change of the order observed in Matt, xxviii. 

19, if not to show that " in this Trinity, none is afore 

creed of s. or a ft e r other, none is greater or less than another? " 


These two verses, pondered and prayed over, seem to 
me sufficient to decide the controversy for ever. 

But if further testimony is needed, we have that of 
every creature in heaven, and on the earth, and under 
the earth, and such as are in the sea, and all that are 
in them, who cry without intermission and without 
pause, and therefore without the possibility of any 
distinction, (as between the dulia and latria of the 
Romanists,) being drawn in their adoration " Bless 
ing, and honour, and glory, and power, be unto him 
that sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb for 

Rev. v. is. ever and ever." 

Or, yet stronger proof if that were possible, we read 
of the hundred forty and four thousand, not only harp 
ing with their harps and singing a new song which no 
man could learn, but, as being themselves a living, 
holy, acceptable sacrifice ; a sacrifice, unto whom ? 
unto the Father only ? nay, they are " redeemed from 
among men, the first-fruits unto God, and to the 

Rev. xiv. 4. Lamb." 

And, finally, of the plory of the heavenly Jerusalem, 


CHAP. ]\ r . 

we read, " I saw no temple therein : for the Lord God 
Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it. And 
the city had no need of the sun, neither of the moon, 
to shine in it : for the glory of God did lighten it, and 
the Lamb is the light thereof." 1{cv - ---.-*- 

And when last we catch a glimpse of the throne of 
Divine glory, whence flows the stream of crystal joy 
for ever, it is called, as we have seen, " the throne of 
God, and of the Lamb." Rev - xxii - l ~ s - 

"Why (I press the question on your conscience) this 
co-equal and co-operating glory of the Lamb with the 
omnipotent God ? Could you substitute any created 
man or angel for his excellent Name ? Never. For 
he alone, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, is one with 
God, and is God. The Lord, of his infinite mercy, 
grant that I who write, and they who read these pages, 
may stand with that palm-bearing multitude of the 
redeemed, who have washed their robes, and made 
them white in the blood of Jesus, and who cry aloud 
evermore, " Salvation to our God which sitteth upon 
the throne, and unto the Lamb." Rev. vn. 10. 

(a) It remains that we consider the explicit asser 
tions that Jesus Christ is Jehovah and God. 

These assertions are neither few, nor obscure. But 
I would venture again to remind my readers, that the 
momentous inquiry in which we are engaged is no 
mere intellectual problem, to be grasped by the power 
of human reason, and to be solved by the skill of hu 
man analysis : for " no man can say that Jesus is 
the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost." And I would ask i cor. \ii. . 
them to lift up their hearts with me, that the Spirit of 
truth may guide us into all truth, that he may glorify 
Jesus, and that he may take of the things of Christ, 
and show them unto us. J H" xvi 13 



" The title JEHOVAH is the grand, the peculiar, and 
the incommunicable name of God. It neither is ap 
plied to any created being throughout the Scriptures, 
nor can be applied in reason, for it imports the neces 
sary, independent, and eternal existence of the Most 
High. Of the infinite, self- existent essence implied 
by this name, it is impossible for us to form a full and 
adequate idea ; because we and all other creatures 
have but a finite derivative essence. Our sublimest 
notions of such uncircumscribed existence must fall 
infinitely more short of the truth, than the smallest 
animalcule or atom floating in the air of the vast di 
mensions of universal nature. We could not even 
have conceived anything of the peculiarities which 
this name teaches us of the Almighty, if he had not 
been pleased to reveal himself under it, and to declare 

Se sdiu?iae? e those distinguishing peculiarities to us." 

Now we find certain prophetic declarations in the 
Old Testament regarding Jehovah fulfilled, as ruled 
by the New Testament, in Christ Jesus. This is, per 
haps, the most conclusive evidence that could be ad 
duced an inspired interpretation of an inspired text 
so that, if I may adapt the apostle s words, " by two 
immutable things, in which it is impossible for God to 
lie, we might have a strong consolation, who have fled 

Heb. vi. is. for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us." 

The voice of him that crieth 
in the wilderness, Prepare ye 
the way of Jehovah, make 
straight in the desert a highway 
for our God. Isai. xl. 3. 

This is he that was spoken of 
by the prophet Esaias, saying, 
The voice of one crying in the 
wilderness, Prepare ye the way 
of the Lord. Matt. iii. 3. 

Now John Baptist s voice, without controversy, was 
heard in the wilderness, preparing the way for Christ. 
Therefore, Christ is Jehovah, our God. p 

f So it results from a comparison of Luke i. 76, and Matt. xi. 10, 
that Jesus Christ is the Lord and the Highest. Cf. Jones, p. 4. 



Unto you therefore which 
believe he (Christ) is precious ; 
but ... a stone of stumbling, 
and a rock of offence, even to 
them which stumble at the 
word, being disobedient. \Pet. 
ii. 7, 8. 


Sanctify Jehovah of hosts 
himself; and let him be your 
fear, and let him be your dread. 
And he shall be for a sanctuary ; 
but for a stone of stumbling 
and for a rock of offence to both 
the houses of Israel. Isai. viii. 
13, 14. 

The stone of stumbling, as Isaiah affirms, is " Jehovah 
of hosts himself," but as S. Peter interprets it, (for he 
is referring to what is contained in the Scripture, ver. 
6,) this stone is Christ. Therefore Christ is Jehovah 
of hosts himself 

And again another Scripture 
saith, They shall look on him 
(Christ) whom they pierced. 

Join/ XIX. 37- 

And I (Jehovah, which stretch- 
oth forth the heavens, etc., see ver. 
1) will pour upon the house of 
David, and upon the inhabitants 
of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace 
and of supplication : and they 
shall look upon me whom they 
have pierced. Zech. xii. 10. 

The prophet declares the One who is pierced is Jeho 
vah speaking of himself, but according to S. John s 
inspired interpretation, Christ crucified is here pre 
dicted. Therefore Christ is "Jehovah, which stretch- 
etli forth the heavens, and layeth the foundation of 
the earth, and formeth the spirit of man within him." 

Mine eyes have seen the King, 
Jehovah of hosts. Isai. vi. 5. 

These things said Esaias, when 
he saw his glory, and spake of 
him. John xii. 41. 

The message recorded determines the occasion to be 
the same. Therefore Jesus Christ, of whom the in 
spired apostle is speaking, is Jehovah of hosts, before 
whom the seraphim veiled their faces in lowliest ador 

I (Jehovah) have sworn by 

myself that unto me 

every knee shall bow, every 

We shall all stand before the 
judgment-seat of Christ. Tor it 
is written, As I live, saith the 



tongue shall swear. Isai. xlv. 

Lord, every knee shall bow to 
me, and every tongue shall con 

fess to God. Rom. xiv. 10, 11. 

S. Paul incontrovertibly establishes his assertion, 
that we shall stand at the judgment-seat of Christ, by 
this solemn oath of Jehovah, recorded by Isaiah. 
Therefore, Christ is Jehovah, who says, (ver. 21,) 
" There is no God else beside me ; a just God and a 
Saviour : there is none beside me." 

When we remember the solemn protest of him who 
calls himself the jealous God " I am Jehovah : that 
is my Name : and my glory will I not give to another : " 
and when we reflect on the awful judgments de 
nounced on those who render to the creature the su 
preme worship due to the Creator, the above compari 
son of Scripture with Scripture, wherein the Holy 
Ghost interprets, explains, and applies his own lan 
guage, presents the most irrefragable proof that Jesus 
Christ is the Eternal, Incrcate, Alone, Jehovah of 
hosts, the Highest, the Lord our God. 

And here may be the most convenient place to in 
troduce a few remarks on the witness we derive from 
the word Lord. No doubt it is often used by classi 
cal, and sometimes by the sacred writers, as a human 
appellation. But then the facts remain, that it is the 
word, equivalent to Adonai, which the Jews, through 
their reluctance to pronounce the awful name Jehovah, 
continually employed as its synonym ; that it is the 
word by which Jehovah is uniformly translated by the 
Septuagint, even in Exodus vi. 3 ; and further, that 
standing by itself in the New Testament, it designates 
in multiplied passages the Infinite Father. We must 
look, therefore, broadly to its general use by Christ 
and his apostles. And what is the result ? The word 
occurs 737 times in the New Testament of 




these, in 18 instances it is confessedly applied to man 
or men. In 54 instances it appears in the discourses 
and parables of Christ, where the master, described as 
Lord, represents or typifies the Father or himself : 
and in 665 cases, the vast remainder, it is applied 
indiscriminately to the Eternal Father or to the 
Son. Lists of the first two classes are given be 
low.* 1 Now in these eighteen instances (with scarcely 
an exception) there was not the remotest possibility of 
Divine worship being intended to the person thus 
designated : indeed, in twelve of these cases, the 
word is in the plural. But what of those very 
numerous instances in which it is applied to Jesus 
Christ ? Therein he is described as " Lord of all : " Ai ls * 

of mastr:-- 

q Instances in which the word 
occurs in the discourses and para 
bles of the Gospels, where the lord, 
master, or householder represents or 
typifies God the Father, or God the 
Sou : 

Matthew vi. 21 : x. 21, 25 : xiii. 27 : 
xviii. 25, 20, 27, 31, 32, 31: xx. 
8 : xxi. 30, 10 : xxiv. 15, 16, IS, 
50 : xxv. 1826, ten times. 
Mark xii. 9 : xiii. 35. 
Luke x. 2 : xii. 30 17, sr-ven times : 
xiii. 8: xiv. 21, 22, 23: xvi. 3, 5, 
S : xix. 16, 18, 20, 25 : xx. 13, 15. 
John xiii. 10 : xv. 15, 20. 
I was in some doubt whether to add 

to this list 

Matthew xxv. 11 : Luke xiii. 25 : 
but in these addresses the parable 
seems almost lost in the reality. 

Now it is trifling with this question to assert that the passages adduced in 
the second column, invalidate all the proof to be derived from the hundreds of 
passages in which Jesus Christ is called Lord, and as Lord is believed in, 
served, and worshipped. The servant of a nobleman who addresses him as my 
lord, does not confound his duty to his master and his God. 

Instances in which the word K-ro><; is 

used of man : 

.Matt, xxvii. 03, by the Jews to Pilate. 
Luke xix. 33, of the oic,te/-s of the colt. 
John xii. 21, by the Greeks to Philip. 
Acts xvi. 10, 19, maxfer.1 of the damsel. 

- xvi. 30, by the jailer to Paul and 

- xxv. 20. by Festus, of Aut;-u>iu. 
1 Cor. viii. 5, lords many. 

Gal. iv. 1, of the heir. 
Ephes. vi. 5, 9, 
Col. iii. 22 : iv. 1, 
1 Tim. vi. 15, [Lord] of lords. 
1 Pet. iii. 6, by Sara, of Abraham. 
l\ev. vii. 11, by John to the chirr. 
xvii. 11: xix. 16, [Lord] of lords. 



.vts ix. 17. as the Lord, even Jesus, lie appeared to Saul in. vision : 
as the Lord, S. Paul besought him to remove his 

2 cor. xii. s, 9. thorn in the flesh : he is declared to be the second 

i cor. xv. 47. man, the Lord from heaven: and as the Lord, the 
righteous Judge, he will give a crown of righteoiisiiess 

2 Tim. iv. s. to all them that love his appearing. Now to one thus 
described as Lord, seeing that the name is applied to 
the Father and the Son indiscriminately, so that, in 
many places, the difficulty is very great of knowing 
whether the Eternal Father or the Lord Jesus Christ 
be intended, the risk of ascribing Divine worship 
would be imminent indeed. The collation of two pas 
sages from the Old, with two passages from the New 
Testament, seems to clinch the argument : 

Hear, Israel : the LORD our 
God is one LORD (Kwpioe 6 646^ 
tin&v, K tiptoe dc tart LXX.~) 
Deut. vi. 4. 

And the LORD shall be king 
over all the earth. In that day 
shall there be one LORD, and his 
name One (Kuptoe KOI TO ovo/ia 

There is one Lord (tie 
Uph. iv. 5. 

To us ... there is ... one 
Lord (tie Kvpwg) Jesus Christ, 
by whom are all things, and \ve 
by him. 1 Cor. viii. 6. 
O.VTOV iv LXX.) Zecli. xiv. 9. 

Here the apostle uses the very words, to which the 
Jews clung with such tenacity as establishing the 
fundamental truth of the Unity of God ; and adopting 
the very words of the common version, the Septuagint, 
applies them to Jesus Christ. There appears, therefore, 
in this name of Christ, as used in the Neio Testament, 
explicit declaration that he is the Eternal Jehovah. 

As a link of connexion between the testimony of 
the Old and New Testament to the person of the Mes 
siah, I would now entreat the reader s calm and prayer 
ful consideration of the first two chapters of the Epistle 
to the Hebrews. The writer is proving the pre-eminence 
of Christ over all other prophets, and the essential 



difference betwixt his and the angelic nature. If ex 
orbitant views of his Divine dignity had crept into 
the church, here, at least, we should look for the cor 
rection of error, and for definition of the truth. And 
how then is he described ? 

" God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in Or" in many 

. fragments," 

time past unto the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last -rroXv/ut/pc^, 
days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir cr.icor.xiH.V,, 
of all things, by whom also he made the worlds ; 

"Who being the brightness of his glory, and the express 
image of his person (i/Troorao-twe), and upholding all things by 
the word of his power, when he had by himself purged our 
sins, sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high ; being 
made so much better than the angels, as he hath by inheritance 
obtained a more excellent name than they. 

" For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou 
art my Son, this day have I begotten thee? And again, I 
will be to him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son. And 
again, when ho bringeth in the first-begotten into the world, 
he saith, And let all the angels of God worship him. 

" And of the angels he saith, Who maketh his angels 
spirits, and his ministers a flame of fire. 

" But unto the Son lie saith, Thy throne, O God, is for 
ever and ever : a sceptre of righteousness is the sceptre of thy 
kingdom : Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity ; 
therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of 
gladness above thy fellows. And, Thou, Lord, in the begin 
ning hast laid the foundation of the earth ; and the heavens 
are the works of thine hands : they shall perish ; but thou re- 
mainest ; and they all shall wax old as doth a garment ; and as 
a vesture shalt thou fold them up, and they shall be changed : 
but thou art the same, and thy years shall not fail." r Heb - 1 ~ 13 - 

I would only here again remind you, that we have u 
Divine interpretation of the Divine Scriptures. What- 

The most severe criticism has not really brought one sustained 
objection against the received version. 



ever be your preconceived view of these verses, the 
apostle, writing as he was moved by the Holy Ghost, 
adduces them as proof texts of the glory of Christ. In 
the following chapter, we find this wonderful Saviour 

Het>. ii. 9, 10. made a little lower than the angels, for the suffering 
of death, perfected through suffering, taking part of 

Heb. ii. ii, 17, flesh and blood, in all things made like unto his bre 
thren, having suffered, being tempted : but in these 
verses I have quoted, how transcendent his Majesty ! 
The goodly fellowship of the prophets were his fore 
runners. The innumerable company of angels are 
his worshippers. He is seated on the everlasting 
throne. He is the only-begotten Son of the Father. 
He is addressed as God. He is adored as the im 
mutable, immortal Jehovah. I feel any attempt to 
enforce this evidence may mar its impressive grandeur, 
and I can only pray that the word of God may here 
be quick and powerful, and sharper than any two- 
edged sword, in the hand of the Almighty Spirit of 

I might well close this part of my argument here. 
Scripture declares that our God, whose name alone is 
Jehovah, is One Jehovah, and is jealous of his own 
attributes and of our confidence. In a word, we rest 
on God. At the same time, Scripture declares that all 
these Divine attributes belong to Jesus Christ, who 
claims equal adoration and equal trust, as being him 
self Jehovah, our God and Saviour. Our faith centres 
on Jesus Christ. Christ is all, and in all, to the Chris 
tian. In a word, we rest on Christ. Here is our 
Rock, inexpugnabile saxum. You cannot add to its 
security, for it is impregnable. You cannot increase 
its stability, for it is immovable. You cannot make 
absolute certainty more certain. Nevertheless, many 
express assertions remain. And if I may return to 



my former illustration from trigonometry, in the solu 
tion of a triangle, if a side be measured and two angles 
be observed, nothing can add to the perfect certainty 
with which a mathematician tells you the number of 
degrees in the third angle, and the length of the re 
maining sides. Nothing would increase his assurance. 
His conclusion is demonstrably true. Still, if an in 
dependent observer could tell you the measurement of 
those parts which were the object of algebraic investi 
gation, the fact of their precise coincidence, which of 
course and of necessity appears, is a further proof with 
what security you may always rest on the results of 
mathematical science. I would, then, draw into a 
brief compass some few of these positive declarations. 
They state expressly what other Scriptures prove de 

Let us then humbly weigh that passage, against John i. i-u. 
which sceptical criticism has directed its fiercest at 
tacks, but from which they have all recoiled, and 
which stands impregnable as ever, a rock foundation 
for the faith of the humble believer. 

lu the beginning was the "\Vord, and the Word was with 
God, and the "\\ord was God. The same was in the beginning 
with ( rod. All things were made by him ; and without him was 
not any thing made that was made. In him was life; and the 
Hie was the light of men. And the light shineth in darkness ; 
and the darkness comprehended it not. There was a man sent 
from God, whose name was John. The same came for a wit 
ness, to bear witness of the Light, that all men through him 
might believe. He was not that Light, but was sent to bear 
witness of that Light. That was the true Light, which lighteth 
every man that cometh into the world. He was in the world, 
and the world was made by him, and the world knew him not. 
He came unto his own, and his own received him not. But as 
many as received him, to them gave he power to become the 
sons of God, even to them that believe on his name : which 



were born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the 

will of man, but of God. And the Word was made flesh, and 
dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the 
only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth. ... No 
man hath seen God at any time : the only begotten Son, which 
ver. is. is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him." s 

Hence we learn that the Word was co-eternal with 
God in the beginning, was God, was the Maker of all 
things, was the Fountain of life and light to men, 
dwelt incarnate amongst us, and thus himself, the 
only-begotten Son, declared the Invisible Father. 
That by the Word is designed the Lord Jesus Christ 
is transparent. If anything however could add to our 
assurance of this, it would be the fact of Philo, a Jew of 
Alexandria, contemporary with Christ, but manifestly 
ignorant of his history, describing THE DIVINE WORD, 
as the Son of God, the First Begotten, the Image ol 
God, the Angel, a second God, the instrument of Deity 
in the creation, the High Priest and Mediator, per 
fectly sinless himself, and the fountain of virtue to 
men : and of S. John adopting this self-same name, 
Tin: WORD, as one indicative of the Messiah, and un- 

I earnestly recommend the reader to weigh Dr. Pye Smith s 
lucid exposition of this passage, and pray that the question he 
puts into the lips of the sincere Unitarian may be applied with 
Divine power. " Am I not inwardly sensible that, in my attempts 
to frame an interpretation of this paragraph, which may wear at 
all the semblance of consistency, I am rowing against the stream ; 
I am putting language to the torture ; I am affixing significations 
to words and phrases, which all my efforts can scarcely keep me 
from exclaim ; i g that they could never have been in the con 
templation of the original writer ? Have I not then awakening 
reasons for the suspicion that I have not framed my opinions with 
1hat closr and faithful investigation, which the solemn greatness 
of the case requires ? Am I not bound to review the \vhole sub 
ject in the sight of the all-seeing God, and under the sense of my 
accountableness to him as the author and revcaler of truth ? " 



derstood by those who should read his Gospel. But 
Scripture is its own best interpreter. And this same 
apostle, writing in after years of the advent of Christ, 
says, " He was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood ; 
and his name is called THE WORD OF GOD." Christ Rev. xix. is. 
then is the "Word, Christ is the Creator, Christ is God. 
This introduction to his Gospel was, I doubt not, con 
structed by the inspired apostle to be a bulwark against 
every doubt, and accordingly, for near two thousand 


" as a tower of strength, 
Which stood four-square to every wind that blew," 

it has kept the hearts of innumerable believers in per 
fect peace. 

There is another passage I cannot pass over, though 
space forbids me to enter into it fully. 

"But Jesus answered them. My Father workcth hitherto, 
and I work. Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill him, 
because he not only had broken the sabbath, but said also that 
God was his Father, making himself equal with God. Then 
answered Jesus and said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto 
you, The Son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the 
Father do : for what things soever he doeth, these also doeth 
the Son likewise. For the Father loveth the Son, and showeth 
him all things that himself doeth : and he will show him greater 
works than these, that ye may marvel. For as the Father 
raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth them ; even so the Sou 
quiekeneth whom he will. For the Father judgeth no man, 
but hath committed all judgment unto the Son : that all men 
should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. He 
that honoureth not the Son htmoureth not the Father which 
hath sent him. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth 
ray word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting 
life, and shall not come into condemnation ; but is passed from 
death unto life. Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is 
coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the 



Son of God : and they that hear shall live. For as the Father 
hath life in himself; so hath he given to the Son to have life in 
himself; and hath given him authority to execute judgment 
also, because he is the Son of man. Marvel not at this : for 
the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall 
hear his voice, and shall come forth ; they that have done good, 
unto the resurrection of life ; and they that have done evil, 
unto the resurrection of damnation." John v. 17 29. 

The Jews accused our Lord of making himself equal 
with God, because he said God was his Father. What 
is his reply ? Instead of protesting against their 
construction of his words, which, if only a man, he 
would have done with indignation and abhorrence, he 
proceeded, while acknowledging the subordination of 
his mission as man, to set forth the original and essen 
tial supremacy of his person as God. For if the Son 
ver. ID. docth all things what things soever the Father doeth : 
ver. 21. if the Son quickeneth whom he will : if the dead shall 
ver. -27. hear his voice and live : if he executes judgment on 
the universe : if all men must honour the Son, even as 
ver. 2:-.. they honour the Father : then is he equally Al 
mighty : equally the communicative fountain of life : 
equally God who alone can raise the dead : equally 
the Omniscient who alone can judge an assembled 
world : and equally the centre of universal homage 
and adoration. 

I proceed to the utterance of Thomas, when the per 
mitted touch of his risen Saviour scattered the dark 
John xx. 2=1. clouds of unbelief " My Lord and my God ! " I 
know that it has been alleged that this was an exclama 
tion of surprise, addressed to God the Father ; but I 
can hardly believe any earnest seeker after truth can 
thus be baffled. JSTo one who knows the language of 
the heart, can here misinterpret it. The apostle had 
given up all for Jesus Christ : his Master had been 



seized, and crucified, and buried : and Thomas faith 
was sorely tried. But now his Lord stood before him 
he could doubt no more; and "he answered and 
said," (not without reason is the word answered here 
inserted the words were addressed as an answer to 
One who stood his proven Saviour before him : it was 
the deep response of the heart of Thomas to Christ,) 
" he answered and said, My Lord and my God ! " 

I append other passages with a few brief remarks of 
the most learned and impartial critics : 

Rom. ix. ;~>, " Of whom as concerning the flesh 
Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever." 

* E T ery Greek scholar must admit, that the fair and 
jus 4 construction of the sentence is that which is ge 
nerally received. P. Smith, vol. ii. p. 683. 

Col. ii. 9, "for in him dwelleth all the fulness of 
the Godhead bodily." 

The Godhead, i. e. Deit y, the essential being of God 
bodily, i. c. manifested corporeally in his present 
glorified body. Before his incarnation, it dwelt in 
him as the Aoyos acrapKos, but not (ra>p.a.TLK>s, as now 
that he is the ACT/OS eWapKos. Alford. 

Ephes. v. o, " The kingdom of [him who is] Christ 
and God (cr r?) /SatrtAeta TOV \pia-Tov KO! eoi;)." 

Not only the principle of the rule and the invari 
able practice of the New Testament with respect to 
0eo9, and all other attributives, compel us to acquiesce 
in the identity of Xptoroi; KOL 0eo?, but the same truth 
is evinced by the examination of the Greek fathers 
.... Middleton, quoted by P. Smith, who says, It 
this text had no relation to any controversy, and were 
judged of solely by the common law of Greek construc 
tion, no person would ever have disputed the propriety, 
or rather necessity, of considering the two concluding 
nouns as referring to one and the same object. 

E 2 



Titus ii. 13, " the glorious appearing- of our great 
God and Saviour, Jesus Christ. 

Of. Scholefield s note in his Hints. Middleton 
says, If here the sacred writer did not mean to 
identify the great God and the Saviour, he expressed 
himself in a manner which [could not but] mislead 
his readers. Quoted by P. Smith. 

2 Pet. i. 1, "the righteousness of our God and 
Saviour, Jesus Christ (ev biKaLcxrvvr] rov 0eo{S ij^wv Kal 
cru>Trjpos Irjcrov Xptoroi;) :" for construction compare the 
expression a little below, (ver. 11,) "the everlasting 
kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (rrjv 
alcavLOV /SacriAeicty TOV Kvpuw fjn&v Kal aoiTrjpos I?7<rou 
XpjoroiS)." * 

And, lastly, 1 John v. 20, " We are in him that is 
true, in his Son Jesus Christ. This (person) is the 
true God, and eternal life." 

The circumstance which, in my mind, places the 
matter beyond dispute is, that the same person is 
here most evidently spoken of as " the true God and 
ETERNAL LIFE." It will be granted that a writer is 
the best interpreter of his own phraseology. Observe, 
then, the expression which he uses in the beginning of 
the Epistle. " The life was manifested, and we have 
seen it, and show unto you that ETERNAL LIFE, which 
uoimi. 2. . was with the Father, and was manifested unto us." 
In these words it is admitted that the eternal life is a 
title given to Jesus Christ. Compare, then, the two 
passages. Is not the conclusion of the Epistle a 

If the Unitarians insist that both the Father and the Son are 
intended in these three passages, granting for a moment this were 
possible, then as an aryumenlum ad seipsos, all the force of the 
previous section (4) applies, and we find the conjunction of the 
names God and Christ, where such association would confound 
the distinction betwixt the Creator and his creature. 



clear explanation of its beginning ? Wardlaw s Dis 
courses, p. 59. 

I would only ask you to compare with this, the 
confession of the prophet, " Jehovah is the true God. 
He is the living God." And here we have another j cr . x. in. 
invincible argument that Jesus Christ is Jehovah, 
very and eternal God. 

This treatise does not profess to enter deeply into a 
critical examination of the text of the New Testament; 
but it may be a satisfaction to those whose minds have 
been disturbed by rash assertions of the uncertainty of 
manuscripts and versions, to know, that not one of the 
texts, here relied on, is set aside by that learned and 
eminent man, Dr. Gricsbach." To him Unitarians con 
stantly appeal. Of him Dr. P. Smith writes : " No 
man ever devoted, through a long life, such a perse 
vering assiduity of labour to the critical study of the 
New Testament, and no man lias ever so completely 
united the confidence of all denominations of Christians 
in the sagacity, judgment, and integrity of his critical 
decisions." There are indee.i three texts often con 
tended for, which the authority of this distinguished 
professor precludes my bringing forward as evidence : 
1 John v. 7, he believes to be an interpolation ; in Acts 
xx. 28, he prefers nvpiov to &ov ; and in 1 Timothy iii. 
16, he would substitute os for 0eoV But to these 

u On the doctrine before us, Griesbach says : " So numerous 
and clear are the arguments and the testimonies of Scripture iu 
favour of the true Deity of Christ, that I can hardly imagine how, 
upon the admission of the Divine authority of Scripture, and with 
regard to fair rules of interpretation, this doctrine can by any man 
be called in doubt. Especially the pas-sage, John i. 1 3, is so 
clear, and so superior to all exception, that by no daring efforts 
of either commentators or critics, can it ever be overturned, or be 
snatched out of the hands of the defenders of the truth." Quoted 
by P. Smith, vol. ii. p. 540. 


three texts, that we may not be drawn into needless 
disputations, I have simply forborne to refer. The 
argument does not demand them. It is incontrovert 
ible without them. And therefore the inquirer may 
be certified on the one hand, that if he rejected the 
positive assertions that Christ is God, the great God 
our Saviour, in whom dwelleth all the fulness of the 
Godhead bodily, he would be violating those rules of 
sound common sense which he must apply, to interpret 
every other classical work ; and on the other hand, he 
may be assured, that in resting on these declarations 
he is, so far as the most calm and learned scholars 
can assure him, relying on the very exact meaning of 
the words intended by those who wrote under the in 
spiration of the Holy Ghost. 

And here, I would pause : and pray the reader to 
review the impressive strength of that evidence which 
the word of God has afforded. 

Let us remember how earnestly Scripture detaches 
our iiltimate confidence from any creature, and ex 
clusively claims it for the one Infinite Creator : how 
vivid is the contrast drawn betwixt man and God : 
how direct are the prohibitions against trusting in 
man, how express the precepts to rest on God : and 
moreover how awful is the holy jealousy of the Most 
High, if any one usurp the incommunicable glories of 
his name, or intrude upon the claims of his supremacy : 
so that the first great lesson of spiritual education may 
be summed up in the words " Blessed is the man 
that trusteth in the Lord, and whose hope the Lord is." 

Further let us remember, how confessedly Scripture 
requires us to repose our ultimate confidence in the 
Lord Jesus Christ : setting him before us, as possessed 
of all those incommunicable attributes of Godhead; 
as our Creator, Preserver, and final Judge ; as the 



hope of fallen man, to whom the eye of every believer 
was directed by prophecy before his first advent ; and 
as the great object of religious trust, a trust claimed 
by himself when he came into the world, conceded by 
his followers, and commanded by his inspired apostles : 
so that the second great lesson of spiritual education 
may be summed up in these words "Whosoever be- 
lieveth in the Son of man shall not perish, but have 
eternal life." John us. r.. 

Further let us remember, that comparing spiritual 
things with spiritual, not only does Scripture ascribe 
to Christ all the attributes of essential Deity, and thus, 
seeing there is one God and none else, establish the 
unity and equality of the Son with the Father ; but 
moreover represents the Son as fulfilling towards us 
all those offices of infinite greatness and goodness 
which God only can sustain : that the appearances of 
God Jehovah to the Old Testament saints, combined 
with the declaration Xo man hath seen God at any 
time, are utterly inexplicable on any other hypothesis, 
and are absolutely decisive when the New Testament 
assures us, it was the glory of the Lord Jesus they saw: 
that the direct and Divine worship rendered to and 
received by Christ, in earth and heaven, compels us to 
acknowledge he is the Lord our God : that the name 
of Jesus Christ is united with that of our heavenly 
Father in offices, where the coalition of the Creator 
with his creature would blend and confuse the infinite 
distinction betwixt God and man : that, whereas the 
most sensitive jealousy appears, throughout Scripture, 
of any created being usurping the name of the supreme 
Creator, inspired interpretations of inspired texts as 
sure us that Jesus Christ is the Eternal, Jehovah of 
hosts, the Lord our God : that as Lord, the one Lord, 
he requires obedience and is obeyed, claims trust and 



is trusted, demands adoration and is adored : and that, 
finally, lie is addressed as God and Lord; that he, 
the "Word, is declared to be God, to be with God in 
the beginning, to be the Creator of all ; that he claims 
equal honour ; that he is over all God blessed for ever ; 
that his righteousness is the righteousness, and his 
future advent the appearance of our great God and 
Saviour Jesus Christ ; and that of him S. John de 
clares, " this is the true God and eternal life." 

Let us ponder these things, and reflect how cumu 
lative is this evidence. I earnestly pray that the Di 
vine Spirit may present it with irresistible power to 
every conscience. If, after weighing the solemn de 
clarations of Jehovah, guarding his own inalienable 
glories, we had found the essential attributes of Deity 
assigned in Scripture to Jesus Christ, this would have 
been an unanswerable argument. If, after consider 
ing our miserable condition as lost sinners, we had 
found that, in the matter of eternal salvation, our hopes 
are there directed to Jesus as our Saviour, this would 
have been conclusive evidence, when we remember " I 
am God, and beside me there is no Saviour." If, 
leaving this line of proof, we review the appearances 
of the Lord to the Old Testament saints, this would 
have been a new and interesting series of demonstra 
tions, which would lead us to the same result. If 
again, quitting this, we carefully ponder the Divine 
worship offered to him, and accepted by him, this is 
decisive, when we remember, " Thou shalt worship the 
Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve." If, 
pursuing another path of investigation, we study those 
Scriptures where, in offices of the highest solemnity, 
the name of Jesus Christ is so united with that of our 
heavenly Father, that to accept this as the conjunction 
of the Creator with his creature would confound all 



distinction betwixt God and man, we are again led 
irresistibly to the conclusion, that the Godhead of the 
Father and of the Son is one, the glory equal, and 
the majesty co-eternal. If once more we see how 
prophecies regarding God Jehovah are claimed by the 
New Testament as being fulfilled in Jesxis Christ, here 
is inspired testimony to the supreme Godhead of the 
Messiah. And finally, when we find the awful names 
of God, and Saviour, and Redeemer, and Lord, ascribed 
to him again and again, in a subject where misdirected 
faith were idolatry and death, this again is explicit 
assertion and transparent proof. I say, the evidence 
is cumulative. It is not a long elaborate catena, the 
strength of which is the strength of its weakest link. 
If the reader thinks any text is inapplicable, let him 
dismiss it. This proof rests on hundreds of texts. 
The whole drift of Scripture, from Genesis to Revela 
tion, establishes it. It is interwoven with the very 
texture of the sacred writings. The lines of argument 
are distinct and independent ; and yet, when presented 
in their collective strength, they are so mutually cor 
roborative, that it seems as if we heard the voice again 
from heaven saying, "This is my beloved Son, hear 
ye him : " and when we humbly ask, " Who is he, 
Lord, that I might believe in him ? " and bend a re 
verential ear to catch the import of the answer, it is 
this, " Unto you is born a Saviour, which is Christ the 
Lord, Emmanuel, Wonderful, Counsellor, the mighty 
God, the Father of eternity, the Prince of Peace." 

But cordially to embrace this needs, I know, the con 
vincing power of the Holy Ghost. I feel my helpless 
ness. I give myself to prayer. The altar is built as 
once on Carmel, the trench is made, the wood is piled, 
the sacrifice disposed in order. But it needs the fire 
from heaven. Hear me, O Lord, hear me : glorify 

E 3 



cai. i. 16. thy Son that thy Son also may glorify thec. Reveal 

John vs. 44. thy Son to those who seek thee. Draw them unto him. 

Thou commandedst the light to shine out of darkness : 

shine in their hearts, shine in my heart, to give the 

light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face 

s cor. iv. e. of Jesus Christ. 

Bear with me, my friends, for giving utterance to 
prayers, which have been long pleaded at the throne of 
grace. They have not been offered in vain. And when 
the fire of the Lord falls on any heart, it shall consume 
the sacrifice, and the wood, and the stones, and the dust ; 
and the deep response of that believing soul shall be, 
" My Redeemer, thou art the Lord my Saviour, thou 
art God." 


CEAP - * I PROCEED, therefore, to my fourth proposition : 

That Scripture, in the Old and the New Testament 
alike, presents to tis the incarnation and the mission of the 
Saviour, as the extremity of condescension in Jehorah, 
that thereby he might exalt us to everlasting life. 

(1) The Scriptures already cited prove beyond con 
tradiction the co-equal, co-essential, co-eternal God 
head of the Son. And here we have attained that 
vantage ground from which, I am persuaded, we may 
most safely with the adoring angels stoop down and 
look into the humiliation and the humanity of Jesus 
i ct. i. 12. Christ. 

Let us only follow the pathway along which Scrip 
ture does, as it were, lead us by the hand. Let us ac 
knowledge the infinite perfections of him who is the 
Alone Supreme Jehovah. Let us confess the infinite 



demerit of rebellion against him. Let us admit that 
he has opened to us in his word a way of access, where 
by we, the sinful and the sunken, may be brought 
nigh to him, the absolutely Holy and Good One, who 
is "of purer eyes than to behold evil, and cannot look 
on iniquity." Let us remember that this reconcile- Hub. i. is. 
ment is spoken of as a salvation, to accomplish which 
Omnipotence travels in the greatness of its strength, isai. Kin. i. 
and which Omniscience declares to have been a mystery 
hidden in God from the beginning of the world : arid EI>II. m. ->. 
that to fulfil this work we find a wondrous mission re 
vealed, in which the Lord God and his Spirit send 
forth, and the Eternal I AM is the sent One. Let us I*-" XMII. is. 
then on the sure testimony of Scripture acknowledge, 
1hat all the attributes, the honours, and the rights of 
Jehovah are ascribed to this Sent One, whose name is 
called Jesus, for he shall .save his people from their sh.u. i. 21. 
sins ; who claims himself equality with God as his 
only-begotten Son ; and who is associated with God in 
every supreme office of Deity. And lastly, let us accept 
the simple fact, as recorded in the Bible, of Christ s 
descent from above ; that he, the Word, who in the 
beginning was with God and was God, was made flesh joim \. i, it. 
and dwelt among us ; that he came down from heaven ; .inim a\. in. 
that he proceeded forth and came from God, forsaking Juimviii. 12. 
the glory which he had with the Father before the 
world was ; that being originally (virdp\atv) in the J<>\m \vn. 5. 
form of God, he emptied himself, and took upon him 
the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of I lm. a. , 7. 
men : that by him the universal Creator by him in 
carnate and crucified it pleased the Godhead to re 
concile all things unto himself : that he being the coi. 1. 19, 20. 
brightness of his Father s glory and the express image 
of his person, in the bringing many sons of God to 
glory, forasmuch as the children were partakers of 



flesh and blood, also himself likewise partook of the 
same, that through death he might destroy him that 
had the power of death, that is, the de-sol, and deliver 
fliem who through fear of death were all their life 

Heb.i.sju.10, subject to bondage. 

Now our whole souls are filled with one thought 
the condescension of God. Now we shall not be 
stumbled at passages which speak of the exceeding 
humiliation to which he stooped. As we assign no 
limit to the height of his glory, we shall assign none 
to the depths of his grace. Yea, so far from taking 
offence at the inferiority of the position which he as 
sumed, the very lowliness of his incarnation and the 
very degradation of the death he died, will kindle in 
us a brighter and a more burning gratitude, when we 
remember that though rich it was for our sakes he 

2 Cor. viii. o. became poor ; and that for us, his wayward and wan 
dering sheep, the chief Shepherd offered up himself as 
the Lamb of God, laying down his life of his own ac 
cord, and taking it again to die no more. 

(2) Perhaps to some minds it might have seemed 
more congruous with the Divine Majesty, supposing it 
needful for our salvation that God should humble him 
self at all, that the descent should have been less steep, 
and the humiliation less lowly. They would have 
chosen not some little insignificant planet like earth 
as the scene of his self-abnegation, but some central 
orb of metropolitan grandeur, and would have gathered 
the whole intelligent creation as spectators around the 
splendid arena. They would fain have had him assume 
not the body of our abasement, but haply an angelic 
nature, wherein, as some seraph of surpassing bright 
ness, he should have wrought deeds of miraculous 
beneficence. And chiefly, they would have shunned for 
him the ignominy of the cross, and have selected what 


CHiP. V. 

they deemed some more glorious method of self-sacri 
fice, whereby he should have paid the price of our re 
demption. This they would have called a salvation 
worthy God. But surely, as the heavens are higher 
than the earth, so are the ways of Jehovah higher than 
our ways and his thoughts than our thoughts. His isai. u-. 9. 
work is perfect. Let us remember that whatever of 
material and physical glory we add to the mission of 
Christ, beyond what is needful for the evidence of that 
mission, we subtract from its moral and spiritual glory. 
Between the unapproachable splendours of the God 
head and the various forms of created intelligence 
there is a distance absolutely immeasurable. For 
the increate Jehovah to have assumed the nature of 
the highest archangel would have been an infinite 
descent. Let us thus far confide with child-like confi 
dence, that herein was manifested omniscient love, 
when God chose the world this little world of ours 
to be the theatre of the mighty conflict, and sent his 
only-begotten Son in the likeness of sinful flesh to 
suffer death upon the cross, and to be the propitiation 

n Rom. viii. 3. 

ior our sms. i j,,i m i\ . y, 10. 

" The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us." 
There is a majestic condescension in these few words 
that nothing can equal. He was made man. " By 
himself, by his friends and disciples, by his enemies 
and persecutors, Jesus Christ was spoken of, as a proper 
human, being. His childhood was adorned with filial 
affection, and the discharge of filial duty. His intel- tnke u. 4o-r2. 
lectual powers, like those of other children, were pro 
gressive. In his earliest years, he embraced with 
eagerness the means of improvement. He had large 
experience of human suffering. His lot was one of 
severe labour, poverty, weariness, hunger and thirst. 
He affected no austerity of manners, nor did he enjoin 



it upon his followers. While he mingled in the com 
mon sociability and the innocent festivities of life, he 
sustained a weight of inward anguish which no mortal 
could know. He was a man of sorrows and acquainted 
with grief. He looked forward to the accumulation of 
suffering which he knew would attend his last hours, 
with feelings on the rack of agony, with a heart ex 
ceedingly sorrowful even unto death, but with a meek 
and resigned resolution, a tender and trembling con 
stancy, unspeakably superior in moral grandeur to the 
stern bravery of the proudest hero. In his last hours, 
with a bitterness of soul more excruciating than any 
.bodily sufferings, he cried, "My God, my God, why 
hast thou forsaken me ? " while yet, he promised 
heaven to a penitent fellow- sufferer, and died in an 
act of devotional confidence, triumphing that his work 
was finished. Thus he died, but rose again, that he 
might be the Lord of both the dead and living ; and 
he ascended to his Father and our Father, to his God 
and our God. This was the man Christ Jesus : a man 

Acts ii. 2-2. demonstrated from God by miracles, and prodigies, and 
signs, which God did by him : a man ordained by Gfod, to be the judge of the living and the dead. 

" It is delightful to dwell on the character of this 
unrivalled man : not only because in no other, since 
the foundation of the world, has the intellectual and 
moral perfection of our nature been exhibited, but 
because the contemplation of such excellence refreshes 
and elevates the mind, and encourages to the beneficial 
effort of imitation. He always did the things which 
pleased his heavenly Father. Love, zeal, purity, a 
perfect acquiescence in the Divine will on every occa 
sion, and the most exalted habits of devotion, had their 
full place and exercise in his mind. The most refined 
generosity, but without affectation or display; mild- 


ness, lowliness, tenderness, fidelity, candour, a delicate 
respect for the feelings as well as the rights and in 
terests of others, prudence, discriminating sagacity, the 
soundest wisdom, and the noblest fortitude, shone from 
this Sun of righteousness with a lustre that never was 
impaired." v 

Believe me, we yield to none in the strength of con 
viction with which we hold to the humanity of Jesus 
Christ. " The "Word was made flesh, and dwelt among 
us." "We take our stand fearlessly on this. This un- J 
locks all those texts on which Unitarians are wont to 
insist, asserting the inferiority and subordination of 
the Son of man to the Father. "We do not hide these 
truths. "We do not gloss them over. We do not ex 
plain them away. They are essential to our faith. 
As combined with the revelations of his essential God 
head, they form that inimitable grace which is our 
salvation. The foot of the ladder must rest on earth, 
as the top of it reaches to heaven. , 

If our doctrine is the truth, that there subsist in the 
es-dice <<! One Jehovah, three who are called the Fa 
ther, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, coequal and co- 
eternal ; and that it is the design of the Father, and 
the will of the Son, with the consenting pleasure of 
the Holy Spirit, that the Son, for the recovery of 
fallen man, should empty himself, not of his Godhead, 

* I make no apoiogy for condensing and abstracting the two 
preceding paragraphs from the profound treatise of Dr. Pvc 
Smith, to which I have frequently referred, on " Scripture Testi 
mony to the Messiah" (vol. ii. 33 i 337). Permit me to take 
this opportunity of urging any who need a calm and candid in 
vestigation of this momentous subject, to study his noble apology 
for our faith. Most thankful should I be, if my humble essay 
formed the stepping-stone which should lead any to that truly 
great work. 



which were impossible, but of his glory, and take our 
human nature into mysterious union with his Divine 
nature, so that God and man make one Christ : if this 
is spoken of in Scripture as the extremity of Divine 
condescension, and humiliation, devised and accom 
plished, that hereby guilty men might have a medium 
of access to the Holy Deity, or rather, foregoing ab 
stract terms, that we might have a mediator betwixt 
us and God, one with God by reason of his eternal 
essence, one with us by reason of the humanity he 
deigned to assume : how otherwise could such a rela 
tionship have been expressed than in such or such like 
words " There is one God and one mediator betwixt 
God and man, the man Christ Jesus ; who gave him- 

i Tim. it a, c. self a ransom for all ? " or such a salvation be de 
scribed than "This is life eternal, that they should 
know thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom 

joij. x\ii. s. thou hast sent ? " Looking forward, as the man Christ 
Jesus, to his translation from this world of suffering 
to the glory of his Father s throne, (remember he had 
emptied himself, taken upon him the form of a serv 
ant, humbled himself if these words mean anything, 
they imply a spontaneous descent from the higher to 
the lower,) how otherwise could he describe his return 
from that present estate of afflicted humanity, than in 
such or such like words " If ye loved me, ye would 
rejoice, because I said, I go unto the Father ; for my 

jchu xiv. as. Father is greater than I." Having descended with 
the express design of doing his Father s pleasure, of 
serving a perfect service, of rendering a spotless obedi 
ence to the law, of exhibiting a Divine model of self- 
denial ; how otherwise could he declare his mission 
than in these or similar terms " I came down from 
heaven, not to do mine own will, but the will of him 
that sent me ? " Standing forth, the Author and 



Finisher of the faith (TTJ? Trurreoos) ; the exemplar of that Heb. xu.2. 

faith we are to copy ; AS MAN, working his miracles 

not by "virtue of his Divinity ever inherent in him, but 

by virtue of a perfect faith in the power of the Father ; 

that faith which with us is intermittent and often 

overborne, being with him constant without defect, 

and victorious without defeat ; how otherwise could 

he reveal the secret and entire dependence of his soul 

on God, than in language such as this, " I can of 

mine own self do nothing." " The Father that dwell- 

eth in me, he doeth the works ? " John v. so; 

xiv. 10. 

(3) These passages affirm his proper humanity, and 
his humble mission as a servant. This humanity we 
assert as strongly, this mission we believe as verily as 
yourselves. All that faith requires is to act upon the 
great principle of comparing spiritual things with 
spiritual ; and, wherever we find any assertion of his 
subordination as man, if we can place by its side ti 
parallel assertion of his supremacy as God, faith de 
mands nothing more. Often, the immediate context 
will supply the corrective, and adjust the balance. If 
not, we shall never consult in vain the whole counsel 
of the lively oracles of God. 

Thus in the Old Testament, as man the seed of the 
woman is bruised in his heel : as God he achieves a 
victory surpassing human strength, he bruises the 
serpent s head. Against him as man, we read in the cen m. i.\ 
second Psalm, the kings of the earth set themselves : 
to him as the anointed Son of God, Divine royalty is r sa . \\.->, 7, i 
ascribed and universal trust attracted. As man lie 
appears at the close of the cx th Psalm, like a weary 
traveller, drinking of the wayside brook and revived 
therewith ; but the opening verses describe him as 
the victorious Lord of all on the throne with Jehovah. Psa. . i, 7. 



Isai. ix. 6. 

Isai.xi. 1,4. 

Isai. liii. 3, 6. 

?ch. xii. 10; 
xiii. 7. 

Luke ii. 52. 

If you regard his humanity, Unto us a child is born : 
if you regard his Deity, his name is the Mighty God. 
As David s son, he is the rod out of the stem of Jesse : 
as David s Lord, he shall smite the earth with the rod 
of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he 
slay the wicked. In respect of his manhood, he grows 
up as a tender plant, despised and rejected : in virtue 
of his Godhead, he bears the iniquity of us all, and 
with his stripes we are healed. As man, he is the 
pierced, smitten shepherd : as God, he is Jehovah s 

And when we come to the New Testament, the evi 
dence is yet more abundant. Space forbids to do more 
than place side by side, with a very few remarks, those 
Scriptures which reveal the characteristics of his man 
hood and his Godhead. Those on the left hand will 
record his functionary subordination as man ; those on 
the right his essential supremacy as God : 

I came down from heaven 
riot to do mine own will, but 
the will of him that sent me. 
John vi. 38. 

Pather, I will (Oi\a>.)JoA 
xvii. 24. 

The Son wills (jSouXjjrai) to 
reveal him. Matt. xi. 27. 

His will, therefore, as man, was subjected to that of 
his Father : as God, was ever in perfect harmony with 
his Father s will, but was self- existent, free, efficacious. 

Of that day and hour know- The Father showeth the Son 
cth no man, no, not the angels all things that himself doeth. 
which are in heaven, neither John v. 20. 
the Son, but the Pather. Mark As the Father kuoweth me, 
xiii. 32. even so know I the Father. 

John x. 15. 

Lord, thou knowcst all things. 
John xxi. 17. 

Just as we read, Jesus increased in wisdom, and 
therefore there were subjects unknown to him at twelve 
years of age, which were acquired by him or revealed 



to him afterwards : so in Mark xiii. 32, Jesus is speak 
ing in his human nature. This point was not made 
known to him as man, by the Spirit. And since his 
manhood is spoken of as a condition of his prophetical 
office (Dent, xviii. 15, of thy brethren) he is declaring 
as an ambassador, what lay within his commission, and 
this day and hour he was not empowered, as Prophet, 
to reveal. w The contrast verses sufficiently prove he 

I think we may safely draw here a parallel betwixt the om 
nipotence and omniscience of Christ. We have seen (p. 88, 89) 
that no exception can be taken against his Almighty power as 
God from the words, "I can of mine own self do nothing;" be 
cause, a.t man, he wrought his miracles, not by virtue of his Deity, 
which was ever inherent in him, but by virtue of a pi rf cct faith 
in the power of the Father, through the plenitude of the Holy 
Ghost. Though as God ever and always able to do all things, he, 
of his own Divine will, resolved not to exert this personal omnipo 
tence betwixt his incarnation and his crucifixion. This resolution 
was part of the Kivuaif; spoken of, Phil. ii. 7. Therefore, with re 
spect to the exertion of power, by his spontaneous act of self- 
emptying, "the Son was able to do nothing of himself." His 
might was his Father s might. And the mean of its exertion was 
his own unfaltering faith. "\Ve have an illustrious example of this 
in his thanksgiving prayer, when raising Lazarus from the dead : 
" Father, I thank thec that thou hast heard me. And I knew that 
thou nearest me always," John xi. 41, 42. So with regard to this 
other attribute of Deity, omniscience. No exception against his 
infinite wisdom, as God, can justly be taken from the words, " The 
Son knoweth not that day or hour." At his incarnation, he of 
his own accord resolved not to use, as i.ian, during the days of his 
humiliation, the knowledge which his omniscience as God would 
afford. That resolution again was part of the KIVHJ<H. The wis 
dom he used was the illumination of the Spirit given to him with 
out measure. The means of its acquirement were diligence and 

All human illustrations of this great mystery must fail. Bur 
have we not heard in chivalry of a warrior, in order to meet a par 
tially disabled adversary on equal terms, allowing his own right 
arm to hang unemployed by his side? Have we not heard in 



shared the infinite counsels of his Father, compre 
hended the Incomprehensible, and is himself Om 

diplomacy of an ambassador, with sealed instructions which he is 
only to open at his discretion, conducting a negotiation without 
knowing the mind of the senate he represents, though the means 
of knowing it were ready to his hand in his portfolio. That war 
rior could use his arm, and yet by his own resolution he could not 
use it. That ambassador could break the seals, and yet in the 
best exercise of his judgment he could not do so. The one would 
truthfully declare, " I cannot stretch forth the light hand of my 
power :" and the other, " I do not know the counsels of my state." 
The one fights as if he had no right arm ; and the other negotiates 
as if the will of his country had not been confided to his keeping. 
I offer these illustrations with much diffidence, knowing how far 
short every earthly figure of these heavenly mysteries must fall. 
But if it be possible for finite man in all sincerity to declare, when 
physically able, " I cannot act," and when the means of knowledge 
are his, " 1 do not know ;" how much rather may these things be 
in the mission of the Infinite Son of God. 

There are precipices on the right hand and on the left. Let us 
not go a hair s breadth beyond the declarations of Scripture : but 
at the same time let us accept, with confidence and candour, all 
those declarations. From everlasting to everlasting, before, during, 
and after his humiliation, Jesus Christ was, and is, and is to come, 
the Lord God Omnipotent and Omniscient. " Power belongeth 
unto God," Psa. Ixii. 11. " Wisdom and might are his," Dan. ii. 
20. They are the inalienable attributes of Deity. They could 
never be laid aside. They could never cease to exist in God. 
But we must not confound non-existence and non-exertion. Thus 
the patriarch argues, " Will he plead against me with his great 
power ? No," Job xxiii. 6. Thus the Psalmist records, " He did 
not stir up all his wrath," Psa. Ixxviii. 38. And thus the prophet 
solaces us, " He stayeth his rough wind in the day of the east 
wind," Isai. xxvii. 8. These words indicate that Jehovah did not 
put forth all his almightiness and all his holy indignation. That 
is to say, to use the language of men, that these attributes were 
in part unexcited or unexerted. Omnipotence restraining itself 
is not therefore a view of the actings of Deity unwarranted by 


CHAP. V-. 

I go uuto the Father ; for my 
Father is greater than I. John 
xiv. 28. 

Making himself equal with 
God. John v. 18. With our 
Lord s consequent discourse, ver. 

1929. (See p. 73, 74.) 
Inferiority of rank as man, as mediator, as the 
apostle and servant of his Father having for us 
spontaneously stooped from the throne of his glory 
is asserted in the first quotation : equality of nature as 
to co-operation, self-existence, infinite knowledge, uni 
versal trust, is proved in the second. 

The very texts which most strongly declare the hu 
manity of Jesus, are sufficient, as Coleridge somewhere 
observes, to refute those who from them would deny 

Scripture. Why then should we be stumbled at these expressions 
of the God-man regarding himself? 

Nay, so far from being staggered at these things, the con 
siderations, which they suggest, are of the utmost value when 
we contemplate Jesus, as our example : " Who in the days of 
his flesh oifered up prayers and supplications with strong crying 
and tears to him that was able to save him from death ; who 
was in all points tempted like as we are ; and who in that he 
has suffered being tempted is able lo succour them that arc 
tempted," Heb. ii. IS ; iv. 15 ; v. 7. He put himself as far as 
possible on a level with us ; for "in all things it behoved him to 
be made like unto his brethren," Ileb. ii. 17. We feel all the 
suasive attraction of sympathy. We acknowledge all the power 
of the example of our elder Brother. We may draw from the 
same Fountain from whence the man Christ Jesus drew. The 
way of access througli his blood is open to us. The Spirit is 
willing to strengthen us with might in the inner man. Yea, God 
in Christ is himself our wisdom and our strength. We have all 
the consolations of his perfect humanity; but these truths do not 
minish aught from his perfect Divinity. Nay, they glorify it 
with new beauties, where we see how, in the weakness of human 
flesh but in the might of Divine faith, how, in the gradual de 
velopment of human powers but in the full enlightenment of 
the Divine Spirit, his absolute indefectible goodness, the goodness 
of infinite love, proved him to be the only-begotten of the Father, 
God of God, Light of light, very God of very God. 



his Deity. How could a mere man, without absurd 
presumption, solemnly announce that God the Father 
was greater than he ? How could he be made flesh ? 
How coidd it be a proof of his humility that he was 
made in the likeness of man ? 

This may be the fittest opportunity to say a few 
words on the answer of Christ to the ruler, " "Why 
callest tliou me good ? There is none good but one, 
that is, God ; but if thou wilt enter into life, keep the 
Matt. xix. is, commandments." This young man, coming to Christ 
and exclaiming, " Good teacher, what good thing 
(8iaovca/\e ayaOe, TL ayadov^) shall I do that I may 
have eternal life ? " manifestly only recognised him 
as a human teacher ; as such, called him good ; nay, 
put his own good works on the same level of merit. 
The Lord refused such homage. It was founded on 
false assumptions. Its acceptance would have strength 
ened a yet unhumbled self- righteousness. " Why," he 
asked, " why callest thou me good ? " The stress is 
on the "why." The answer to that why, would 
discover an unsuspected depth of self-ignorance. But 
the Lord proceeded to probe the young man s heart, 
and tried him by the second table of the law wherein 
he rested. The ruler was found wanting. We know 
not his after history ; but thus, at least, one barrier 
was broken down which, unremoved, must have ever 
kept him from confessing his need of an atonement 
for sin, from imploring the advocacy of Jesus Christ 
the righteous, and from trusting in the perfect good 
ness of him, before whom unconsciously then he knelt, 
Jehovah our righteousness. But to resume. 

To sit oil my right hand, and 
on my left, is not mine to give, 
except to those for whom it is 
prepared of my Father. Matt. 
xx. 23. 

To him that overcometh will 
I grant to sit with ine in my 
throne. Bcc. iii. 21. 



The translation given above of our Lord s reply to 
Salome simply omits the words which are not in the 
original/ The promise to the church of Laodicea 
sufficiently proves that, in respect of heavenly digni 
ties, Jesus Christ does as he wills with his own. 


God so loved the world, that 
he gave his only-begotten Son. 
John iii. 16. 

It pleased the Lord to bruise 
him ; he hath put him to grief : 
when thou shalt make his soul 
an offering for sin. Isai. liii. 10. 

Whom God hath raised up, 
having loosed the pains of death. 
Acts ii. 21. 

He (the Father of glory) set 
him at his own right hand in 
the heavenly places, far above 
all principality and power. 
Eph. i. 20, 21. 

Christ also loved the church, 
and gave himself for her. Eph. 
v. 25. 

I lay down my life that I 
might take it again. No one 
(oi dtis) taketh it from me. I 
have power to lay it down, and 
I have power to take it again. 
John x. 17, 18. 

Destroy this temple (his body), 
and in three days I will raise it 
up. John ii. 19. 

He ascended up on high, he 
led captivity captive.- Eph. iv. 8. 

Having spoiled principalities 
and powers, he made a show of 
them openly. Col. ii. 15. 

In these passages you will observe that, on the one 
hand, the death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus 
as man, being subordinate to the Father and at his 
disposal, are said to have taken place at his Father s 
ordination : while on the other hand, as God, Christ 
gives himself, raises himself, ascends in his own might, 
and as the King of glory, the Lord of hosts mighty in 
battle, enters the everlasting doors. 

1 Cf. Scholefield s Hints, and Alford ; and for construction 
a\X clg t lToinarr-at compare precisely similar idiom in the previous 
chapter, ver. 11, u\\ dg Silomt, where it is properly translated 

J Unitarians object to i$ovaia being here translated power/ 
(they would prefer authority, ) but it is so rendered of the 
Father s power, Luke xii. 5 ; Acts i. 7, and (as they would add) 
Jude 25. The previous clause declares the spontaneity of the gift. 



JSneas, Jesus Christ maketh 
thee whole. Acts ix. 34. 

And now, Lord . . . grant . . . 
that signs and wonders may be 
done by the name of thy holy 
child Jesus. Acts iv. 29, 30. 

If the first exalts the Father, the second, as distinctly, 
exalts the Son as the immediate Author of miraculous 

Forgiving one another, even 
as God for Christ s sake hath 
forgiven you. Ep/i. iv. 32. 

Forgiving one another, even 
as Christ forgave you. Col. 
iii. 13. 

Now the Father, now the Son, is referred to as the 
first cause of forgiveness. 

To us (there is but) one God 
the Father, of whom (iK ov) are 
all things, and we unto (c c) 

And one Lord Jesus Christ, 
by whom (Si ov) are all things, 
and we by him. 1 Cor, viii. 6. 

him. 1 Cor. viii. 6. 
On this, Dr. P. Smith says " Lord is not put as a de 
signation secondary and inferior to God. It attributes 
dominion ; and the extent of the dominion must be ac 
cording to the nature of the case in any given instance. 
Is there anything, then, in this case to direct our 
conception? Yes : all things are by him/ or through 
him, as their immediate and efficient Cause. The 
identical phrase is used, which is twice by the same 
writer employed with regard to the Eternal Father 
(Rom. xi. 36 ; Heb. ii. 10) : by whom (OL } ov ra -navTa) 
are all things." To me who believe the reference to be 
to Deut. vi. 4, as stated p. 68, no proof could be 
stronger than this of the Divine Supremacy of the 
Messiah. But at all events, " the Deity of Christ can 
no more be denied because the Father is here called 
the One God, than the dominion of the Father can 
be denied because the Son is called the One Lord. " z 

* There are two other passages to which Unitarians sometimes 
refer, but the deduction they draw from them is, in each case, re 
futed by the context. 



Ye are Christ s ; and Christ 
is God s. 1 Cor. iii. 23. 

The head of Christ is God. 
1 Cor. xi. 3. 

Then cometh the end, when 
he shall have delivered up the 
kingdom to God, even the Fa 
ther; .... 

Then shall the Son also him 
self be subject unto him that 

I am in the Father, and the 
Father in me. John xiv. 10. 

He (the Son) is the head of the 
body, the church. Col. i. IS. 

Of his (Christ s) kingdom there 
shall be no end. Luke i. 33. 

The everlasting kingdom of 
our Lord and Saviour Jesus 
Christ. 2 Pet. i. 11. 

Thy throne, O God, is for ever 
and ever. . . . Thou art the 

CHiP. V. 

(1) " The first-born of all creation " TTP^TOTOKOQ va.or\c, KT KHUQ, 
or "of the whole creation." Col. i. 15. 

But the apostle continues 

"For by him were all things created." 

If you regard the word first-born in its general acceptation 
among Eastern nations, it imports lordship, excellence, dignity ; 
and as such the clause might well have been translated here, "The 
chief of all creation." But if you press for a more exact signifi 
cance, it absolutely resists the interpretation that Christ is himself 
a creation of God, for then it would have been TT^TOKTKJTOQ, first 
created, as Chrysostom observes (see Scott), not Trpwroroeoc, first 
born. The (-roxog) guards this, and the Trpturo-, so far from 
assuming him to be the first creature, declares his pre-existent 
priority to all creation, according to the well-known Greek usage 
of the superlative for the comparative, (see John i. 15, on TrpoJrof 
fnov i)v, for he was before me) ; and the clause might have been 
rendered by that in our version of the Athanasian creed : " Be 
gotten before the worlds." Thus the phrase by itself is an un 
ambiguous testimony to his Deity ; and the succeeding clauses, 
ascribing to him the creation of all, prove him increate ; for, if a 
creature, he made himself, which is absurd. 

(2) The beginning of the creation of God, / px> /- R?i . iii. 14. 
Compare with this, " I am, saith the Lord, the beginning and 

the end" (} dp x ?) nai rb riXo^. Rcc. i. 8 ; xxi. G ; xxii. 13. 

The above comprise all the instances of the use of apx>i in the 
Apocalypse, and sufficiently prove that, as used in chap. iii. 14, it 
regards the pre-existent eternity, the "from everlasting" of the 
Lord, and as such declares him to be the beginning or origin, or 
originator, or precisely as we say, the First Cause of the creation 
of God. 



put all things under him, that 
God may be all in all. 1 Cor. 
xv. 21, 28. 

same. ... Sit on my right hand. 
Heb. i. 8, 12, 13. 

Christ is all and in all. Col. 
iii. 11. 

From these passages, on the one side, we learn that 
Jesus Christ as the second Man, the federal Head of 
his church, in ascending to our God and Father has 
ascended to his God and Father ; and that as our 
surety he does his Father s will ; and that a time will 
come when he will no longer exercise his mediatorial 
office, by pleading the virtue of his blood for penitent 
sinners (seeing that sin and death are for ever abol 
ished) ; but as the representative of us, his blood- 
bought children, (for the memory of his dying love 
shall never fade throughout eternity,) will keep his 
Father s commandments and abide in his love ; and 
that thus for ever and for ever Jehovah shall fill the 
universe with the unclouded effulgence of his everlast 
ing name and essence, LOVE. On the other hand, we 
learn that Christ and his Father are one ; that he has 
a real and undivided supremacy ; that his kingdom 
shall never wax old, his glory never pale, his royalty 
never pass away ; and that for the endless ages of im 
mortality in heaven and earth the manifestation of the 
love of God shall be through him, who is the bright 
ness of his Father s glory, and is seated on the right 
hand of the Majesty on high. 

I append only one couplet more ; for the same prin 
ciple applies to all the passages which have been, or 
can be, brought forward to prove the subordination of 
the Son. 

In the midst of the throne 
and of the four living creatures, 
and in the midst of the elders, 
stood a Lamb as it had been 
slain. Rev. v. 6. 

A pure river of water of life, 
clear as crystal, proceeding out 
of the throne of God and of the 
Lamb. Rev. xxii. 1. 



Do you gather from the first passage that in Christ 
glorified there are ineffaceable traces of Jesus and him 
crucified ? from the last you learn that the perennial 
and transparent stream of felicity the joy of the 
Holy Ghost flows equally and co-ordinately from 
the eternal Father and the eternal Son. 

I have now, I believe, brought forward the principal 
of those passages on which Unitarians rely. Is there 
anything in any one of them, or in all collectively, to 
prevent our reposing supreme confidence in Jesus 
Christ ? do they rebuke our absolute dependence upon 
him ? do they warn us against loving him with every 
affection of our soul ? 

The Scriptures, adduced in the last two chapters, 
brought before us one of such Divine perfections, that, 
if he were not God, not the object of supreme reliance, 
we should at least have needed a caveat every few 
lines Art thou tempted to worship him ? See thou 
do it not. Though the instrument, he is not the 
author of eternal salvation. Though God-like, he is 
not God. Though wearing vice-regal honours, he is 
not king. Be on your guard. Control your feelings. 
Curb your affections. Moderate your admiration. 
Keep your trust in check. He is only a creature after 
all. Beware of idolatry ; and again I say, beware. 
Now I ask, do the passages, affirming his subordination 
as man, contain that caveat or anything like such 
a warning ? or any, even the faintest, intimation of 
the possibility of loving him too much, or trusting in 
him too entirely? You must confess they do not. 
Yea more, as you stoop down and look into these 
mysteries of his humiliation, they touch deeper and 
deeper springs within you, they awaken the finer 
sensibilities of your nature; and when you believe that 
he, who was in the form of God, emptied himself for 

F 2 



you, and took upon him the form of a servant, con 
fidence and affection alike reach a standard that no 
thing can transcend. You trust him, you love him, 
you adore him supremely^ for that exceeding great 
and costly love wherewith he loved you, and gave him- 
Gai. a. 20. self for you. 

And now every generous feeling within you brands 
it as the basest ingratitude to allege these proofs of his 
humanity in disproof of his Deity, to trample on his 
lowliness that you may pluck the diadem from his 
brow, and to find cause in the true sympathy of him 
who was in all points tempted like as we are, and 
touched with the feeling of our infirmities, for denying 
the excellence of that glory which he had with the 
Father before the world was. If a sick and suffering 
prisoner in Newgate, nursed, and tended, and taught, 
by the philanthrophic Howard, had argued, from the 
self-devotion of that noble man spending long hours 
in the loathsome cell, that he could not possess a 
princely mansion, and a fortune of his own ; and even 
if he had reproached that ministering angel, saying, 
" You must surely be a wretched convict like myself," 
we might pity his infatuation and pardon his ingrati 
tude : but can we forgive ourselves, if we deliberately 
select the instances of our Lord s lowest humiliation 
and cast them in his teeth, as proving that he never 
dwelt from eternity in the light that no man can ap 
proach unto, nor inhabited from everlasting that shrine 
of unfathomable delights, the bosom of his Father? 
Let ILS beware, my friends, and remember the solemn 
warning of Jesus, "Whosoever shall fall on this stone 
(himself in prostrate humility) shall be broken ; but 
on whomsoever it shall fall, (himself returning in 
statt. x*i. 44. glory,) it will grind him to powder." 



(4) The "Word was made flesh. Oh wondrous hu 
miliation of the Creator ! But this is not all. " He 
came," and " as many as received him, to them gave he 
power to become the sons of God." Oh wondrous ex- John i. n, n 
altation of us his creatures ! They are two mysteries, 
of which the second is only less marvellous than the 
first. He, the Infinite One, stooped to the extremity 
of woe that he might elevate us to the highest life 
which a created being can enjoy the life of God. 
And this explains another series of truths, which I 
blush for myself and for human nature to confess once 
troubled my peace, and is I know at the present mo 
ment darkening the faith of many : I mean the ex 
alted expressions which Scripture contains of our 
privileges in Christ. 

What argument, UNBELIEF SUGGESTS, can you draw 
from the infinite mutual love of the Father and the 
Son, when Jesus say?, " As the Father loved me, so 
hacc I loced you " /- johnxr.9. 

Or from the infinite knowledge possessed by the Son 
of the Father, when he says, " No one knoweth the 
Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever tlie Son will 
rcceal /tint " ? Matt. . -n. 

Or from the Son being the express image of his 
person, when it is said, " ice arc changed into the $ai>ie 
image from glory to glory " ? 

Or from his Divine nature as the Son of God, when 
" we are joint heirs with him who is tlie first-born among 
many brethren, and are ourselves partakers of a Divine E - TiU - 17 

, ,, 9 2 Pet. i. 4. 

nature ? 

Or from his words, " I and my Father are one," 
when he prays for his people " that they may be one 
even as we are one " ? John xvii - " 

Or from his own mighty miracles, when he promises 



his faithful disciple, " Greater works than these (of 

John liv. 12. mine) s j la ll J le do ?_ 

Or from his session on the eternal throne, when he 
KCV. ui. 21. says, we shall share his throne ? 

Or from his saying, " He that hath seen me hath 
seen the Father," when he also says, He that heareth 
Luke x. is. you heareth me ? 

Or from his assurance, " As the Father knoweth me 
even so know I the Father," when S. Paul says in the 


confidence of faith, " Then shall I know even as also I 
i cor. xiii. 12. am known " ? 

Or from the infinite comprehension implied in the 

words " The Father showeth the Son all things that 

himself doeth," when Jesus says, "All things that I have 

John xv. is. heard of my Father I have made knoiun unto yoti" ? 

Or from the name of Jesus, " The Saviour of the 

world, who shall save his people from their sins," when 

among the Old Testament saints we find there were 
xeh. ix. 27. " saviours, who saved them;" when S. Paul says, "I 

became all things to all men, that I might by all means 
i cor. ix. 22. save some /" and when S. James avers, " He that con- 

vertcth a sinner from the error of his way shall save a 
James v. 20. soul from death" ? 

Or from the express definition, " The Word was 

God," when Christ declares, " He called them gods, 
Johns. 35. unto whom the word of God came" ? 

Or from the solemn affirmation, " In him dwelleth 

all the fulness of the Godhead bodily," when Scripture 

records the prayer, " that ye might be filled even to all 

Eph. iii. 19. the fultlCSS of God " ? 

Oh base unbelief ! Oh hateful suspicion ! If I have 
done wrong in giving consistent expression to thoughts, 
which have been flung as fiery darts against the shield 
of faith, the Lord pardon his servant in this thing. 


CHIP, v 

But the answer is conclusive, and the suggestion un 
answered may rankle in many breasts. I do not now 
insist on the exceeding ingratitude of the return to 
take advantage of the infinite love of Christ and say, 
the believer is advanced to so high a dignity, and is 
admitted to such Divine delights, there can surely be 
no difference betwixt him and the eternal Son of God ; 
but, I ask, what saith the Scripture to this objection 
of the glories of Christ, and of his redeemed, being 
from time to time described in apparently similar 
terms ? 

In the first place, most of the attributes and names 
of Clirist are never predicated of his people : they are 
his own essential prerogatives : they are incommuni 
cable. Then if we take up one by one those passages 
whose force is thought to be neutralized by the cor 
responding privileges of saints, we shall see how, in 
each case, the privilege of the believer is derived from 
Christ, or from the Father through Christ, (the context 
compelling this,) and is limited by the finite capacity 
of the creature ; while 1 the supereminent glory of Christ 
is either underived, eternal, increate, or, if given, is 
expressly given to him in his subordinate character as 
Mediator. And, lastly, no pretension of trust in any 
saint or saints is founded on the privileges conferred 
on him or them in the gospel. 

As to the first point, you may easily verify it for 
yourself, by referring to chapters iii. and iv. Where 
is any saint said to be the only-begotten Son of God, 
the First and the Last, from everlasting, the same yes 
terday, to-day, and for ever, omnipresent, omniscient, 
infinitely good, the Creator and Preserver of all things, 
the chief Shepherd of the flock, the one Master and 
Lord, the Bridegroom of the bride, Jehovah ? Xo where. 
Therefore setting these disputed passages aside for a 




Matt. six. 26. 
Mark is. 23. 

Matt. v. 4S. 

while, even without them the proof remains incontro 

Secondly, let us examine this alleged similarity 
more closely. But to deprecate a hasty conclusion from 
a bare resemblance of words, I would remind you, 
there are a few instances in Scripture in which the 
same phrase denotes a prerogative of the Supreme 
Father, and a privilege of his believing child. Thus 
we find, " "With God all things are possible." And 
again, " All things are possible to him that believeth." 
"Would you, because of the sameness of the terms em 
ployed, deny the omnipotence of God, or ascribe om 
nipotence to the believer ? Again, "Be ye therefore 
perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is per 
fect." Would you, because of the perfection of the 
saint, deny the infinite goodness of the Father; or 
because of the absolute perfection of the Father, ascribe 
illimitable goodness to the saint? Here, indeed, 
" Knowledge is easy unto him that understandeth." 
Let us, however, proceed to examine them : 

The Father loveth the Son, 
and hath given all things unto 
his hands. He that believeth 
on the Son hath everlasting life. 
John iii. 35, 36. 

As the Father hath loved me, 
so have I loved you : continue 
ye in my love. If ye keep my 
commandments, ye shall abide 
in my love. John xv. 9, 10. 

John xv. 5. 

In the first quotation, supreme authority is assigned 
to Christ, as the heir of all things for his church ; 
and the trust of mankind centres on him. In the 
second, he is urging his disciples as defectible beings, 
by the plea of the infinite fulness of his love towards 
them, infinite so far as regarded himself, to abide in 
that love, from which without him they would as 
suredly fall, " for without me," as he had just said, 
" ye can do nothing." 


CHiP. V. 

And he to whomsoever the 
Son will reveal him. Matt. xi. 

All things arc delivered unto 
me of my Father : and no one 
knoweth the Son, but the Father ; 
neither knoweth any one the Fa 
ther, save the Son.-Jlatt. xi. 27. 

The first part is again accompanied by the declaration 
of the Son s unlimited inheritance of all things. The 
second is qualified by the previous assertion that these 
things were revealed to babes, and their finite know 
ledge of the Father is granted through the Son, as the 
efficient cause. 

The express image of his per- Changed into the same image. 

son. Hi-It, i. 3. 

2 Cor. iii. 15. 

Joint heirs with Christ. 

The first clause is extracted from that chapter which 

so illustriously proves the Godhead of Christ. The 

second refers all the transformation to the view " of 

the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ," revealed cor. \\\ c, 

progressively by the Lord, the Spirit. 

Unto which of the angels said | Sous of God. 
he at any time, Thou art my 
Son, this day have I begotten 
thee. 1M. i. 5. 

[The first-bom,] among many 
brethren. lto/,i. viii. 1 1, 17, 20. 

We have here another testimony to Christ, which con 
nects itself with all those passages affirming that in a 
sense peculiar to himself he is the Son of God ; stand 
ing forth as the Son, the only-begotten of the Father, j,,i,,, \. u. 
the Son of his love, his own Son, the Son of the living K<>m. \\\\. :;: 

Matt. xvi. li! 

God, the Son of the Blessed, the Son of the Highest. > : v kxi y ; lil 

Luke i. 32. 

From a cursory glance into the eighth of Romans, we 
see how infinite the difference betwixt that essential 
Sonship, and our privileges, as adopted sons, which 
are only ours in Christ ; and thus it is, as S. Peter 
writes, through the righteousness of our God and Sa 
viour, Jesus Christ, through the knowledge of God and 
r 3 


CH-P. V. 

of Jesus our Lord, that we become partakers of a (not 
2 Pet. i. 4. the) Divine nature. 

I and my Father are one. 
John x. 30. 

That they may be one, even as 
we are one. John xvii. 22. 

On the first, hangs the security of the church uni 
versal, which is safe, whether held in his hand, or, to 
vary the aspect of truth, held in his Father s hand ; 
equally safe, for he and his Father are one in essence, 
power, operation, and will. From the second, we 
learn how intimate is the union of the saints with 
each other, and the Lord ; but, unutterably glorious 
as are the privileges besought by Christ for his people 
in that sublime prayer, they all flow equally from the 
Father, and from himself (v. 3) as the one fountain 
of eternal life. 

The works that I do in my 
Father s name bear witness of 

Greater works than these shall, 
he do. John xiv. 12. 

me. John x. 25. 

In the former, the works are appealed to as proof of 
his right to be the Shepherd of his flock, and the Mes 
siah of Israel. In. the latter, all the miracles, as he 
had just stated, are wrought by faith in him: " he that 
believeth on me, the works that I do shall he do also." 

To the Son he saith, Thy 
throne, God, is for ever and 
ever. Heb. i. 8. 

To him that overcometh will 
I grant to sit with me in my 
throne. Rev. iii. 21. 

It only needs the collation of the verses, to see the 
immeasurable difference betwixt the universal su 
premacy belonging of right to Christ for ever, and 
the favour granted by him to his people of reigning 
with him. 

He that hatn seen me hath He that heareth you heareth 
seen the Father. John xiv. 9. me. Luke x. 16. 

The first explains how knowledge of himself embraces 
knowledge of the Father, and vindicates his claim to 
be " the way, and the truth, and the life." The second 



clothes his messengers with an ambassador s official 
authority, as speaking in loco regis. 

As the Father kuoweth me, 
even so know I the Father. 
John x. 15. 

Then shall I know even as 
also I am known. 1 Cor. xiii. 

The good Shepherd, who is to know thoroughly all 

his sheep, needs omniscience ; this, the first proves. John x. it. 

From the second, we are assured that in heaven our 

knowledge will be not fragmentary as here, but, so far 

an it extends, will resemble Christ s knowledge of us. 

being perfect, symmetrical, unperplcxed. 

The Father showeth the Son 
all things that himself doetli. 
John v. 20. 

All things that I have heard of 
my Father, I have made known 
unto you. John, xv. 15. 

The first is accompanied (see p. 74) with every Divine 
claim. The second is qualified by the quickly suc 
ceeding assurance, " I have yet many things to say 
unto you, but ye cannot bear them now." John xvi. i*. 

Christ, the Saviour of the 
world. JO/^M iv. \-l. 

Jesus, who delivered us from 
the wrath to come. 1 Tin **. 
\. 10. 

Thou travcst thorn saviours, 
who saved them. -\W/. ix. 27. 

lie that converteth a sinner 
. . . . shall save a soul from 
death. Jitnicts v. 20. 

It needs only a glance at the parallel passages, (pages 
35, 36,) to sec how infinite is the difference betwixt 
him who stands forth emphatically the Author of eter 
nal salvation, and those who were deliverers of their 
country from oppression, or were instruments as the 
ministers of Jesus Christ in the salvation of souls. 

He called them gods, to whom 

The "Word was God.. John 

i. 1. 

the word of God came. John 

x. 35. 

In the first, the context compels us to understand 
(Oeo j) God, when applied to the "Word, in the same 
sense as when immediately before and after applied to 
the Father : the Word is essentially God, the Creator 
of all. The second, conceding indeed that there is a 



lower sense in which men were sometimes officially 
called gods, (though the passage adduced marks their 
Psa.ixxxii. e, 7. mortality they shortly die like other men,) contrasts 
with this the Divine Sonship of the Messiah. 

That ye might be filled even 

to all (ti c vdv) the fulness of 
God. Eph. iii. 19. 

In him dwelleth all the ful 
ness of the Godhead bodily. 
Col. ii. 9. 

The first affirms the incarnate Godhead of Christ as 
the One in whom (see next clause, v. 10) we are com 
plete, for he is the head of all principality and power. 
The second (somewhat obscured by the received trans 
lation) imports that we may be filled each in our 
degree and to the utmost bound of our finite capacity, 
even as God is full, with Divine goodness : and this 
again flows from our knowledge of the illimitable love 
of Christ. 

The difficulties, when fairly tried by the context in 
each case, crumble into dust ; and the formidable line 
of objections founded on them melt, like embankments 
of snow, when exposed to the full light of other Scrip 
tures which assert the true Godhead of the Son. 

But now, I ask, do these contrasted truths divert us 
from reposing supreme trust in Jesus Christ ? Do 
they, even so far as this, confuse our confidence, by 
setting up any other as the recipient of equal honour ? 
Because the saints are loved with Divine love, know 
God, are changed into his image, are called his sons, 
are made one with the Father and with Christ, work 
mighty works by his power, are raised to Christ s 
throne, shall hereafter possess a perfect knowledge, are 
made acquainted with the mysteries of gospel grace, 
may even officially be called gods, and, what is afar 
higher privilege, be filled with all Divine goodness, 
is any claim set up on their behalf for trust or wor 
ship ? Gather together all the privileges of Christians 



here set forth ; entwine them into one radiant crown ; 
place that crown, as you are perfectly warranted in 
doing, upon the head of some eminent saint, Peter, or 
Paul, or John, or even of the church catholic, the 
Bride, is there in all these lustrous glories any tempt 
ation held out to confide in absolutely, or supremely to 
love, that saint, or that church ? 

We acknowledge the extremity of abasement to 
which Jesus descended. We believe the summit of 
glory to which he will raise his people. We accept 
the simple declarations of Scripture with regard to 
both these facts. But for a man to take his stand 
alternately on the lowest step of Christ s humiliation, 
and on the highest step of his children s exaltation, 
and thence to deny the Supreme Deity of him who 
stooped so low that he might draw us up so high, 
seems an ingratitude of which our dealings with our 
fellow-men afford no parallel. 

We referred before to the opening of the Epistle to 
the Ephesians Scripture does not contain a more rich see i>. 28. 
exhibition of those things which are ours in Christ. 
Now if S. Paul had closed that chapter by arrogating 
Christ-like honours or Christ-like homage to himself 
and his brethren, there would have been some ground 
for alarm that the dignities of his people were eclipsing 
the supremacy of their Lord. How different is the 
spirit breathed through his glowing prayer ! 

" That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of 
glory, may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and revelation 
in the knowledge of him ; the eyes of your understanding 
being enlightened; that ye may know what is the hope of 
his calling, and what the riches of the glory of his inheritance 
in the saints, and what is the exceeding greatness of his 
power to us-ward who believe, according to the working of 
his mighty power, which he wrought in Christ, when he raised 



him from the dead, and set him at his own right hand in the 
heavenly places, far above all principality, and powei, and 
might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only 
in this world, but also in that which is to come ; and hath put 
all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all 
tilings to the church, which is his body, the fulness of him that 
K P h. i. 17-23. filleth all in all." 

Behold, the Son is on the everlasting throne : and 
we are under his feet. Moved indeed by Divine com 
passion, he once forsook that throne, and came forth 
from the bosom of his Father, that he might gather 
together the children of God which are scattered 
abroad, and present them as one family before the 
presence of his glory with exceeding joy. Is your 
trust weakened in him because of his exceeding hu 
miliation ? or do you think the less of him for the 
glory to which he elevates his people ? Nay, verily : 
gratitude can find no words to express itself when we 
believe on him who, being over all, God blessed for 
ever, partook of our flesh and blood, and now seated 
far above all principality and power, is not ashamed to 
Heb. ii. ii. call us brethren. 


-CHAP. vi. AND now I would state my next proposition, and 
briefly sketch the testimony on which it rests. 

That Scripture, in the Old and the New Testament 
alike, proves the coequal Godhead of the Holy Spirit 
with that of the Father and of the Son. 

May the same Spirit grant us reverence, and hu 
mility, and godly fear in this solemn inquiry. 



The reader will not fail to observe what strong col 
lateral evidence of the possible plurality in unity, and 
therefore of the possible coequal Deity of the Father 
and of the Son, we shall obtain, if another be revealed 
in Scripture ; 

as one who is to be distinguished from the Father 
and the Son ; 

as one to whom such personal properties and actions 
are assigned as prove independent and intelligent 
personality ; 

as one to whom Divine attributes are ascribed, and 
by whom Divine offices are exercised ; 

as one worshipped in parity with the Father and 
the Son ; 

as one declared to be Jehovah and God. 
Here, indeed, we might expect the evidence to be more 
subjective ; for the peculiar office of the Holy Ghost in 
the economy of redemption, is ever represented as the 
quickening and fostering of the hidden life within. It 
is, however, none the less conclusive. If, as we gaze 
on the sun shining in the firmament, we see any faint 
adumbration of the doctrine of the Trinity in the 
fontal orb, the light ever generated, and the heat pro 
ceeding from the sun and its beams three-fold and 
yet one, the sun, its light, and its heat that luminous 
globe, and the radiance ever flowing from it, are both 
evident to the eye ; but the vital warmth is felt, not 
seen, and is only manifested in the life it transfuses 
through creation. The proof of its real existence is 
self- demonst rat in g. 

(1) That the Divine Spirit is to be distinguished 
from the Father and the Son, appears from all those 
passages in Holy Scripture, which reveal to us the 
simultaneous co-operation of three infinite agents. 



Thus when we read, at our Lord s baptism, of the 
voice of the Father, of the human presence of Jesus, 
of the visible descent of the Spirit, for " the heaven 
was opened, and the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily 
shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from 
heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son : in thee 

Lukeiii.21, I am well pleased:" we are compelled to say, that 
the descending Spirit is distinct from, the baptized 
Saviour, and from the approving Father. 

And when Jesus says, " I will pray the Father, and 
he shall give you another Comforter, that he may 

John xiv. iG. abide with you for ever ; " and when, this promise 
being fulfilled on the day of Pentecost, we find that 
the Holy Ghost appeared seated on the disciples as 

Acts ii. s. cloven tongues of fire ; we are constrained to acknow 
ledge that the apparent Spirit is distinct from the me 
diating Saviour, and the Father who decreed the gift. 
And when we read of " the name of the Father, and 

Matt, xxviu. 19. of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost," and again of " the 
grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, 

2 cor. xui. 14. and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit," it is impossible 
to deny the necessary distinction here affirmed. 

And when the saints are described as " elect accord 
ing to the fore-knowledge of God the Father, through 
sanctificatioii of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprin- 

ii et.i.2. kling of the blood of Jesus Christ," Scripture leads us 
to conclude that as the bleeding Saviour is distinct 
from the predestinating Father, so the sanctifying 
Spirit is himself distinct. 

And when the benediction of grace and peace is 
implored from (airo) him which is, and which was, and 
which is to come ; and from (KOL a-no) " the seven 

Rev. i. 4, 5. spirits which are before the throne ; a and from (KCU airo) 

m The phrase is emblematical, but not the less definitive and 
precise when compared with other Scriptures. Indeed, emblems 



Jesus Christ, the faithful witness," we are assured that 
as there is a distinction intended between the eternal 

are a kind of universal language for every age and country. After 
all that has been written on this subject, I feel persuaded that 
the word is here its own plain interpreter. The principal passages 
bearing on this are 

(1) " The Spirit of Jehovah shall rest upon him ; the spirit of wis 
dom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit 
of knowledge aud of the fear of Jehovah, and shall make him of 

quick understanding in the fear of Jehovah." I do not think any i sa i. xi. :, s. 
stress can be laid on the number here, as the Hebrew only enu 
merates six, repeating the last with a preposition (Though the 
Septuagint distinguish seven, -Kviv^a aofyiaq, aw tatus, f3ov\fjc;, 
( (r^vof, yvu xrtuic;, tvfftfitiac, adding as the seventh, irvivpa 
qopov Qioii) but on the multiplicity of perfections designated by 
various names and comprised in one, the Spirit of Jehovah. 

(2) " Upon one stone shall be seven eyes." Zecii. m. n. 
"Those seven ; they are the eyes of Jehovah, which run to and 

fro through the whole earth." The Septuagint translate the zeeh. i\. 10. 
seven in the same clause with the eyes, tVra OVTOI o00a\/zoi ilmr 
ol tTrip\~ov~i t~i Tratrav Tt}v yi}v. 

(3) " Aud from the seven Spirits -which are before his throne." it 

(4) " These things saith lie that hath the seven Spirits of God." it 

(5) " And seven lamps of fire, burning before the throne, which 

are the seven Spirits of God. Rev. i\. 

(6) " In the midst of the throne aud of the four living creatures, 
and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as it had been slain, 
having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of 

God scut forth into all the earth " (o00aX/ioi , i-rrrd o i tlai ra R e \-. \: 
iirru. TOV Qiov irviv^iara ra aTrtaraXfuva tit; iravav Tt)v yijv}. No 
one can fail remarking the designed coincidence betwixt this and 
the Septuagiut version, given above, of Zech. iv. 10. 
Here we learn, 

from (3) and (5) the distinction to be observed between God 
and the seven Spirits for they are said to be before the 
throne. Therefore you could not identify them with the 
Father or the Lamb. 

from (2) and (4) and (6) ike mysterious union betwixt God 
and them for they arc called the eyes of Jehovah; the 
spirits whom the Sou of man hath the eyes of the Lamb. 



Father and the Lord Jesus, so is there likewise betwixt 
them and the seven-fold Spirit of God. 

In this stage of our inquiry it will be enough to 
ask ourselves, In the cases cited above, was the co 
operating Spirit identical with the Father or with the 
Son ? Could you say it was the Father or the Son 
who descended on Christ at his baptism, or on the 
apostles at Pentecost ? Could you assert that we are 
baptized into the name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of one who likewise is the Father, or the Son ? 
Or that grace and peace are besought from the eternal 
Father, and from one who under another name is also 
the Father, and from Jesus Christ ? No one could 
maintain this for a moment. The Holy Ghost, there 
fore, cannot be identified or confounded either with 
the eternal Father, or with his Son Jesus Christ our 

(2) I proceed, then, to consider, that such personal 
properties and actions are ascribed to the Spirit as 
prove independent and intelligent personality. 

But, it is asked, do we not read of the Spirit of God 

from (3) again, that they denote a willing intelligence and 
not an abstract power for to imagine that S. John prays 
to seven abstractions in parity with the Father and the 
Son for grace and peace is inconceivable. 
That they cannot be angels is manifest, for the worshipping of 
Col. ii. is. angels is expressly forbidden. 

Comparing, therefore, the other passages with (1) remember 
ing how Jesus Christ says that the Scripture, " The Spirit of the 
Lukciv.ii. Lord God is upon me" was fulfilled in himself and knowing 
that in the Oriental style the perfection of any quality is ex 
pressed by the number seven, we may fairly conclude this ex 
pression represents to us this heavenly Agent, the Holy Ghost, 
in his own original and infinite perfection, in the consummate wis- 
Pye smith. dom of his operations, and in the gracious munificence of his gifts. 



being poured out, and given in greater or less de 
gree ? If he were a Person, how could he be thus 
effused or divided ? Here we fully admit that the 
terms spirit and holy spirit, do sometimes denote 
not the person, but the operations, the gifts, the in 
fluences of the Holy Ghost : as, for example, when it 
is said, " I will take of the spirit which is upon thee." Numbers xi. 3 
But the question is not whether some passages may 
not be brought forward which denote the operations 
and influences of the Spirit, and therefore do not estab 
lish the point ; but whether besides these there are not 
very numerous portions of Scripture which do posi 
tively and unanswerably establish his personality. 
Just as if I were studying a work on horticulture, 
and because the writer here and there used the term 
sim to denote the influences of the sun, directing 
me to place certain plants in the sun, or that more 
or less sun should be admitted, I were to contend, 
that the author could not believe there was actually 
such a globe of light in the heavens, although in many 
other parts he had spoken in strictly astronomical 
language of our planetary system. You would justly 
assure me, that the occasional recurrence of such fa 
miliar phrases as more or less sun, etc. was no valid 
argument against his conviction of the sun s real ex 
istence, stated elsewhere in the volume plainly and 
positively. 2u>w, we admit, that by the spirit, are 
sometimes intended the gifts and graces of the Spirit. 
These graces may be poured out these gifts dis 
tributed. But " all these worketh that one and the 
self-same Spirit, dividing to every man severally as 
he will." b icorsii.ii. 

b The substance of the above paragraph is taken from a valuable 
sermon of the Rev. J. E. Bates, On the Holy Spirit. 



Now if, altogether apart from this investigation, you 
had been asked to name those qualities which evidence 
personal existence, you would have been quite content 
to answer : Show me that which has mind, and affec 
tion, and will, which can act, and speak, and direct ; 
and that sentient, loving, determining agent, speaker, 
and ruler, must possess personality, or personality can 
not exist. 

But we read in Scripture of 
The mind of the Spirit. " He that searcheth the 
hearts knoweth what is the mind (or intention) of the 
Kom.viii.27. Spirit, because he maketh intercession." 

The infinite comprehension of the Spirit. " The 
i cor. ii. 11. things of God knoweth no one, but the Spirit of God." 
See next section, where this passage is referred to more 
at length. 

The fore-knowledge of the Spirit. " He will show 
Johnxvi. is. you things to come." 

The poiccr of the Spirit. " That ye may abound in 
liom.xv. is. hope through the power of the Holy Ghost." If the 
Spirit were a metonymy for the power of God, this 
would be a most unlikely combination. 

The love of the Spirit. " I beseech you for the love 

Rom. xv. so. of the Spirit" (ot,a rijs dyaTTTjs TOV Ylvev^aros) : a plea 

exactly corresponding with one he had used shortly 

Rom. xu. i. before. " I beseech you, by the mercies of God " (bia 

Tutv olKTip^Siv TOV eoC). 

The self-determining will of the Spirit. " Dividing 
i cor. xii. n. to every man severally as he will." 

We find 

Jle creates and gives life. " The Spirit of God hath 

made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given 

jobxxxui.4. me life." And again, " By the word of the Lord were 

the heavens made ; and all the host of them by the 

rta. xxxifi. G. breath (Spirit) of his mouth." 



He strives with the ungodly. " My Spirit shall not 
always strive with man." 

lie convinces of sin, righteousness, and judgment. John.*. 

He new-creates the soul. " Born of the Spirit." Johnm.5-s. 

He commands and forbids. " The Spirit said to 
Philip, " Go near. The Spirit bade me go with them. Acts v-ui. 20. 
The Holy Ghost said, Separate me Barnabas and Acts x ui. 2. 
Saul. Being forbidden by the Holy Ghost to preach. Acts xvi. c, :. 
The Spirit suffered them not." 

He appoints ministers in the church. "The flock 
over which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers." Acts xx. 2*. 

He inspired the sacred writers. " Holy men spake 
as they were moved by the Holy Ghost." 2 Pet. i. 21. 

He speaketh expressly of events " in the latter times." i Tim. h. i. 

He saith to the churches the messages of the Son of 
man. Rev. a. 7, etc. 

lie performs miracles. " Then the Spirit took me up, 
and I heard behind me a voice The Spirit lifted me Ezek. m. 12. 
up, between the earth and the heaven. The Spirit Ezek. via. s. 
gave them utterance [at Pentecost]. The Spirit of the Actsii. i. 
Lord caught away Philip. Mighty signs and wonders Acts vu;. :;.>. 
(were done) by the power of the Spirit of God." Kom. \v. i. 

He caused the virgin Mary to conceive. Lukei. sr. 

He works in all saints, dispensing divers gifts with 
independent spontaneity of choice. i cor. xii. t- 

Hc regenerates and seals his people, for we are saved 
by his renewing ; and are " sealed unto the day of TH. m. n. 
redemption" by the Holy Spirit of God. Epb. u-. so. 

He intercedes for ^^s in prayers, for he " helpeth our 
infirmities .... and maketh intercession for us." Rom - viii - - 6 - 

He teaches and comforts and guides us into all truth. 
For Christ promises, "The Comforter, which is the 
Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, 
He (e/ceiros) shall teach you all things shall testify j hn *iv. 20. 
of me shall guide you into all truth shall glorify 



John xvi. is, me and shall take of mine, and show it unto you." 

He can be vexed and grieved. " They returned and 

isai. ixiii. 10. A^exed his Holy Spirit." " Grieve not the Holy Spirit 

Knh. iv. 30. of God." 

He is designated by the use of masculine pronouns, 

though the noun itself, Spirit, is neuter. " When he, 

the Spirit (fKtivos, TO ITyeS/ia) of truth, is come, he will 

joim xvi. is. guide you," and so continually in this context, where 

it might be rendered " That person the Spirit." Thus, 

likewise : " That Holy Spirit of promise, who (6 s) is 

EI.U. i. u. the earnest of our inheritance." 

He testifies with personal tvitnesscs. " He shall 
joim xv. 20, 27. testify (/zapTDp?/(rei), and ye also testify (/zaprvpeire)." 
" We are his witnesses of these things ; and so is 
Acts v. 32. also the Holy Ghost." 

He approves with personal counsellors. " It seemed 
Acts x\. 28. good to the Holy Ghost, and to us." 

He invites iritli personal messengers. " The Spirit 
Rev. xxu. n. and the bride say, Come." 

He is personalty present in a sense in which Jesus is 
personally absent. " It is expedient for you that I go 
away ; for if I go not away, the Comforter will not 

John xvi. 7. COmC Unto } OU. 

He can be personally blasphemed (as Christ may be 
personally blasphemed), but only upon peril of eternal 
condemnation. " Whosoever speaketh a word against 
the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him ; but whosoever 
speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be for 
given him, neither in this world, neither in the world 

Matt. xii. 32. to COme." 

Gai. iv.e. He cries in our hearts, " Abba, Father." 

He repeats the beatitude pronounced on those icho 
sleep in Jesus. " Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may 

Rev. xiv. rest from their labours." 

Surely, from a calm and comprehensive study of this 



testimony, we must conclude that if these qualities 
and actions do not prove personality, there are none, 
however explicit and exact, which can do so. Unita 
rians are wont to speak of the Spirit, as an effusion or 
emanation separate from God, or an influence or power 
exercised by God. Can you speak of the mind of an 
effusion ? of an emanation, knowing the depths of 
him from whom it distils ? of an influence, or power, 
or aught impersonal, revealing future events ; pos 
sessing a power, and love, and will of its own ; cre 
ating, striving, convincing, recreating ; enjoining, 
prohibiting, commissioning ; inspiring, speaking ex 
pressly, addressing the church ; performing miracles, 
transporting, giving utterance ; energizing, regenerat 
ing, scaling ; interceding, teaching, comforting, guid 
ing ; being vexed and grieved ; testifying, approving, 
inviting ; being present as a personal Comforter who 
mav be personally blasphemed, crving in us until he cr. iv. c ; 

" i T, i . i Horn. viii. 1.". 

teaches us to cry, Abba, rather, and repeating on earth 
the heaven-sent benediction on departed saints ? If in 
some few instances you might thus personify an influ 
ence, most of those adduced, taken singly, resist such 
an interpretation ; and taken collectively, would, if 
thus understood, confuse all the laws of language, and 
thus derange the first principles of truth. 

It is not easy to translate into our own tongue the 
proof we obtain from a study of the original here. But 
suppose in a volume of history you met with the fol 
lowing passage : The prince having left this province 
thought good that his Majesty s power shoidd occupy 
his room : as for this power, he knew the secret coun 
sels of the king ; he had an independent will ; he 
strove with the ill-affected, and was grieved and vexed 
with the obstinacy of some, while others he convinced 
of their infatuation, and was enabled to train as good 


citi/ens ; lie consoled the well-disposed ; lie issued 
commands and restrictions at his own pleasure ; he 
appointed subordinate officers ; he spoke expressly of 
the certain issue of some incipient plots ; he accom 
plished prodigies of benevolence : indeed such was the 
authority of this power, that whoever wilfully insidted 
him was by the king s command imprisoned for life ; 
while on the other hand, he was accustomed to repeat 
assurances, which came direct from court, of the favour 
awarded there to faithful subjects. Would you, could 
you doubt for a moment whether or not this power 
was a personal intelligent agent ? And if, a few 
pages further on in the book, you read, And thus his 
Majesty s power was extended and his dominion con 
solidated, would you because of the repetition of the 
tcrmpoiccr, or his Majesty s power, confuse the latter 
abstraction with the former person would you gainsay 
your previous unhesitating conclusion, that the power 
left in that province was a living person ? It is impos 
sible. You would say, honest language, though capable 
of metaphor, is incapable of such delusive impersona 
tions. So likewise the witness of Scripture, which we 
have heard, is unequivocal that the Holy Spirit is a liv 
ing Agent working with consciousness, will, and love. 

(3) Now to this agent Divine attributes are ascribed, 
and by him Divine offices are exercised towards us. 

He is eternal. " Christ through the eternal (alaviov] 
Hei>. ix. 14. Spirit offered himself." This is the same word which 
is used of the self- existence from everlasting to ever- 
Rom. xvi. 26. lasting of Jehovah. 

He is omnipresent. " "Whither shall I go from thy 

Spirit ? Or whither shall I flee from thy presence ? 

Psa. cxxjux. If I ascend up into heaven, thou art there." Having 

proved his distinct personality, this establishes his om- 



nipresence : which truth is indeed self-evident, from 
the simultaneous work he is carrying on in ten thou 
sand thousand hearts throughout the universe. 

He is omniscient. For he alone, with the infinite 
Son, comprehends the incomprehensible Jehovah. 
" God hath revealed them to us by his Spirit : for 
the Spirit searcheth all things, even the deep things of 
God. For what man knoweth the things of man, 
save the spirit of man which is in him ? Even so, the 
things of God kuoweth no one but the Spirit of God." icm-. n. \>\ \\. 
The word search, as used in Scripture, docs not neces 
sarily imply that successive acquisition of knowledge 
which belongs to a finite being, for Jehovah says, " I, 
the Lord, search the heart." And that the Spirit Jer.sviLio. 
here is not a mere quality of Divine nature, as con 
sciousness is of the human mind, appears from the 
first clause, " God hath revealed them to us by his 
Spirit," which clearly implies a personal distinction ; 
for it could not be said that a man makes anything 
known to others by his consciousness. p. Smith. 

TT j* 7 -7 s j. -i Ti Appendix II. 

He is prescient ana unveils futurity. " It was re 
vealed unto him (Simeon) by the Holy Ghost that he 
should not see dcatli before he had seen the Lord s Luke \\. -i<;. 
Christ." " He will show you things to come." And Joimxvi. r. 
S. John "was in the Spirit" when he was enabled to ne\-. i. io ; 
cast his eye across the chart of providence. 

He is absolutely free and independent. " The wind 
bloweth where it listeth so is every one that is born joim m. s. 
of the Spirit." Dividing as he willeth. " Where the i cor. xii. 11. 
Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty." 2Cor. m. 17. 

He is infinitely good and Jioly. "Thou gavest thy 
good Spirit to instruct them." " Thv Spirit is good." <*. 20. 

J " Psa. cxliii. 10. 

He is called in the Old Testament emphatically, the 

Holy Spirit of God. He is repeatedly styled by our f^; ^j io> 

Lord, the Holy Spirit. And this is his distinctive Luke xi. is. 


CHAP. Vf. 

designation by the apostles throughout the New Test 
ament. He is likewise called " the Spirit of truth, and 
etc." the Spirit of holiness," as the fountain of verity and 

Jolmxiv. 17. 

Rom. i. -i. goodness. 

He is the Almighty Creator of all things. Here it 
may suffice to quote one passage which may well set 
the question at rest for ever. " Who hath measured 
the waters in the hollow of his hand, and meted out 
heaven with a span, and comprehended the dust of the 
earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains in 
scales, and the hills in a balance ? Who hath directed 
the Spirit of the Lord, or being his counsellor hath 
taught him ? With whom took he counsel, and who 

isai. xi. 12 14. instructed him?" No words could express more 
plainly an intelligent Creator, inferior to none, whose 
wisdom was his own, whose counsel was underived, 
whose omnipotence was inherent. What reflex light 
this casts on the simple declaration of Genesis, " The 

Gwi.i.2. Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters." 

In his hands are the issues of life and death. " The 

job xxxiii. 4. Spirit of God hath made me. Thou sendest forth thy 

Psa. civ. so. Spirit : they are created. The grass withereth, the 
flower fadeth : because the Spirit of the Lord bloweth 

isai. si. 7. upon it : surely the people is grass." 

And then, as to the life of. God within us, he is the 
author and finisher of it. He begets and quickens the 

John ni. 6. soul, once dead in trespasses and sins. He teaches us 

Rom. viii. EG. to pray. He dwells in us, as in his temple. He pro- 

1 Cor. iii. 16. J J . L L 

fiai. v. 22, 23. duces his own celestial fruits. He sheds abroad the 
love of God in our hearts. He seals us unto the day 

Epii. iv. :;o. of redemption. He works in us, educates us, comforts 
us, leads us, and bears witness with our spirit that we 

Bom. viii. o are the children of God. He carries on the work of 
sanctification, changes us into the Divine image from 

2 c\.r. iii. is. glory to glory. And by him, as the One who quick- 



cned Christ our Head, will God quicken our mortal i Pet. ui. is. 
bodies at the last day. Rm. via. n. 

Now I venture to ask, as I asked respecting the 
testimony of Jesus, who can believe these explicit de 
clarations of the character and work of the Holy Spirit, 
and not repose their whole confidence in him resting 
on him with supreme reliance, and loving him with 
entire devotion ? Consider, he is eternal, everywhere 
present, infinite in wisdom, prescient, absolutely just, 
and is perfect in goodness and grace and truth ! Con 
sider, further, so close and necessary is our relationship 
to him, that he is the Almighty Creator of that world 
in which we live ; that he gives us every breath we 
draw, and that he suspends that breath when we die. 
Consider, the whole work of the spiritual life within 
us, from its earliest germ to its latest development, is 
his operation. What frail and finite creature, like 
man, believing this testimony, could, in the presence 
of such an One, refuse to render him adoring trust 
and love ? If Scripture forbade these emotions, as due 
only to Deity, we should be rent in twain. But does 
Scripture forbid them ? Nay, verily. You cannot 
find the faintest hint against depending on the Holy 
Spirit too absolutely. There is no jealousy of his 
claims. The most humble submission to his education 
is ever enforced; any violation of reverent regard istph. iv. so. 
deprecated with a plaintive earnestness of expostula- i Th.->s. \-. 19. 
tion ; and wilful blasphemy against him is fenced with 
the most awful warning in the whole word of God. 
Such is the efficacy of his personal presence, that it is 
represented as compensating the personal absence of 
Jesus. Every affectionate and trustful desire is 
awakened in you ; for in the comfort he imparts, as 
explained by Christ, is comprised the communication 
of every Divine blessing. The claims of no benefactor 

G 2 



can transcend those of him who gives us life and light, 

emancipating us from the thraldom of sin, and bring 
ing us into the freedom of love. Only believe these 
Scriptures, and you must, perforce, trust and love this 
Divine Spirit supremely. This homage belongs to God 
alone, whose name is Jealous, who will not give his 
glory to another. Therefore we conclude and confess 
that the Holy Ghost is one with God, and is himself 
God, himself Jehovah. 

(4) This is further established by the fact that the 
Spirit of God is revealed in Scripture as the object of 
religious worship in parity with the Father and the 

The sixth chapter of Isaiah compared with John xii. 
41, has already proved to us that God manifested him 
self to the prophet by the express image of his person, 
his only begotten Son. The voice which spoke is dis- 

isai. vi. s. tiiictly said to be the voice of Jehovah. But the mes 
sage then sent is again recorded by S. Paul, and is 
prefaced with this remarkable introduction : " Well 

Acts xxviii. 25. spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet." The 
glory of Jehovah of hosts was then revealed by Jesus 
Christ, and the voice of Jehovah was the utterance of 
the Holy Ghost. Now we decipher the true signifi 
cance of the threefold adoration of the veiled seraphim, 

isai. vi. s; "Holy, holy, holy, Lord of hosts," and dimly appre- 
ver.s. hend why it was asked, "~VVho will go for us? " The 
angels of light, therefore, worship the Holy Spirit with 
the Father and the Son. 

I would mention in passing, without laying stress 
upon it, the impressive vision of Ezekiel, in the valley 
of dry bones, in which he is commanded to address 
the wind (irvev^a LXX.), " Prophesy unto the wind, 
prophesy, Son of man, and say to the wind, Thus saith 




the Lord God ; Come from the four winds, breath, 

and breathe upon these slain, that they may live." The Ezek. xxxvii.9. 

wind is evidently typical of the Spirit, for it is said in 

the interpretation of the "vision, " I will put my Spirit 

in you, and ye shall live : " and to my own mind the vcr. u. 

proclamation to the wind is typical of prayer to the 

Spirit for his energizing power in quickening dead compare chp. 

souls to the life of God. with :;?. 

The baptismal formulary, however, affords an unam 
biguous testimony. For baptism is a solemn act of 
worship, denoting entire consecration to him in whose 
name we are baptized. It is the stipulation (e-epwr^a, i ret. . 21. 
Greek legal term) of a good conscience toward God. 
I^ow the existence of a stipulation implies the presence, 
or in some way the knowledge and acceptance, of the 
person to whom the engagement is made. It supposes 
then, in this case, the presence or cognizance of the 
Son and the Spirit equally with that of the Father. Pye Smith. 
Here again we have, by our Lord s express command, 
adoring homage paid to the Holy Ghost in union with 
the Father and himself, at this sacred profession of 
every Christian s faith. 

I would also ask you to compare 

O come, let us worship and 
bow down : let us kneel before 
the Lord our Maker. For lie is 
the Lord our God ; and we are 
the people of his pasture, and 
the sheep of his hand. To-day, 
if ye will hear his voice, harden 
not your hearts, as in the provo 
cation, and as in the day of 
temptation in the wilderness: 
when your fathers tempted me, 
proved me, and saw my works. 
Psa. xcv. 69. 

Wherefore, as the Holy Ghost 
saith, To-day, if ye will hear his 
voice, harden not your hearts, 
as in the provocation, in the day 
of temptation in the wilderness, 
when your fathers tempted me. 
Heb. iii. 79. 

They vexed his Holy Spirit. 
Istti. Ixiii. 10. 

Your fathers resisted the Holy 
Ghost. Ads vii. 51. 

[The context in the last two 
shows it refers to the provoca 
tion in the wilderness.] 



We may fairly conclude that the One whom the 
psalmist calls upon us to worship is the same One 
whom, he says, the Israelites provoked. This One the 
parallel passages assure us was eminently the Eternal 
Spirit. I say eminently, for I do not think these and 
other like Scriptures warrant us in excluding thoughts 
of the Father and the Son. While establishing the 
personal Godhead of the Spirit, we must not forget his 
essential unity with the Father and the Son. To those 
who believe this, every simple command worship 
God embraces the worship of the Holy Spirit ; but 
in the above it was eminently the Spirit. The Spirit 
was the One of the sacred Trinity most prominently 
tempted and grieved by the Israelites, and therefore 
the One most prominently to be supplicated. 

c Since the above was written I have found the following 
passages in the Life of Thomas Scott the commentator, which 
present in a condensed form the arguments for the truth which 

1 am here endeavouring to advocate. 

" The form of blessing, into the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost, seems to me to recognise God our 
Saviour as Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. In this view, when 
God is addressed without personal distinction, I consider the ad 
dress as made to the God of salvation; and the Holy Spirit in 
cluded whether prayer or praise be offered. The trishagion or 
threefold ascription of holiness to Jehovah both in the Old and 
New Testament, seems an act of worship to the Holy Spirit to 
gether with the Father and the Son. The form of blessing ap 
pointed by Moses, in this view, implies a prayer to the Holy 
Spirit, Numb. vi. 24 27 ; as does the apostolical benediction, 

2 Cor. xiii. 14. I have no hesitation in my mind as to the express 
act of adoration, in Rev. i. 4, being offered personally to the Holy 
Spirit, according to the emblematical language of that book. . . . 
If, then, we be fully convinced that the Holy Spirit is God, and 
that all Divine perfections and operations, together with every 
personal property, are ascribed to him, there can be no doubt but 
he is the object of Divine adoration. Where God is addressed 



Pray ye, therefore, the Lord of 
the harvest that he will thrust 
forth labourers into his harvest. 
Malt. ix. 38. 

The Holy Ghost said, Separate 
me Barnabas and Saul for the 
work. ... So they, being sent 
forth by the Holy Ghost. Acts 

xiii. 24. 

Here Christ himself enjoins prayer to him, who sends 
forth ministers. That this is one special office of the 
Holy Ghost, we learn from the Acts ; and we have, 
therefore, Christ s warrant for praying to the Spirit. 

Again, bearing in mind that " the love of God is 
shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost," this Rom. v. r,. 
being his peculiar office, I pray you to ponder the 
following prayers : 

" The Lord make you to increase and abound in love 
one toward another, and toward all men, even as we do 
toward you : to the end lie may establish your hearts 
unblamable in holiness before God, even our Father, 
at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ." 1 Thess. 
iii. 12, 13. 

" The Lord direct your hearts into the love of God, 
and into the patient waiting for Christ." 2 Thess. 
iii. 5. 

In both these supplications we have the Father and 
Christ named besides the One to whom the prayer is 
addressed ; may we not be assured that this One is 
especially the blessed Spirit of love ? 

The Book of Revelation seals the testimony. For, 
as we have seen, the bestowal of grace and peace is 
implored equally from the eternal Father, and from the 
seven Spirits which are before his throne, and from 
Jesus Christ. This is direct supplication. And lastly, Rev. i. 4, 5. 

without distinction of persons, the Holy Spirit is virtually ad 
dressed : all that dependence, gratitude, love, and honour, which 
are required as due to our God, are required towards the Holy 
Spirit ; nnd therefore worship and adoring praise and prayer can- 
iiot be improper." Life of Scott, p. 338, 339. 



we have in the fourth and fifth chapters a view, 
couched in symbolic but most expressive language, of 
the celestial worship. A throne is set in heaven. It 
is then a question of absorbing interest who is the 
adorable Being, who there concentrates around himself 
this homage of saints and angels. So singular and 
sublime a revelation must needs draw the closest re 
gards of every reverent mind ; for though " the secret 
things belong to the Lord our God," the "things which 

Deut. Mix. 29. are revealed belong to us and to our children." Is 
then the unity of the One there worshipped so simple 
an unity as to preclude any plurality subsisting there 
in ? The throne was set in heaven, and One sat on 
the throne. But is this One alone in infinite solitari 
ness ? The Lord enable us to keep our foot as we 
draw near to his unutterable glory. What saith the 
Scripture ? The voice of the Son of man was only 
now silent. " I overcame, and am set down with my 

Rev.ui.2i. Father in his throne." (An evident distinction is here 
drawn betwixt the throne of Christ, which his people 
were admitted to share, and the throne of the Father, 
the supreme glories of which the Son alone partakes.) 
And in strict accordance with this we find, " Lo, in 
the midst of the throne d stood a Lamb as it 

KCV. v. e. had been slain : " and the universal worship of heaven 

d If any object that, in chap. iv. 6, it is said, "the living crea 
tures were in the midst of the throne, and round about the throne," 
I believe the answer is given in the parallel vision of Ezekiel i. 5, 
22, 26, where the throne is on the firmament, and the firmament 
rests oni lie i > (.1 the living creatures; so that to one ap 
proaching the throne they would seem to be around it, though 
their bodies were under or " in the midst " of it as a support. 
Barnes. That they did not occupy the throne and receive adora 
tion is plain ; for (chap. v. 6) the Lamb appears in the midst of 
the living creatures, as well as in the midst of the elders ; and 
ver. 8, they, with the elders, fall down before him. 


is addressed equally " to him that sat on the throne 

and unto the Lamb for ever." But is this all ? Have 
we now reached the limit of that revealed ? I think 
not. The question must press on every reflective stu 
dent, what position do the " seven Spirits of God " 
hold amid this tide of celestial adoration ? Are they 
among the worshippers, or are they worshipped ? In 
the benediction of the first chapter they mysteriously 
intervene betwixt the Father and the Son, as one of 
the blessed Three who are the fountain of grace and 
peace. In the third chapter the Son of man describes 
himself as having the seven Spirits of God. In the 
fourth chapter they appear as seven lamps of fire 
burning befoi e the throne. But what when next we 
read of them ? " In the midst of the throne, and of 
the four living- creatures, and in the midst of the elders, 
stood a Lamb as it had been slain, e having seven horns n ev . \-. 6. 
and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God 
sent forth into all the earth." This implies their 
closest union with the Lamb ; therefore, when he, to 
gether with the eternal Father, received that wondrous 
universal homage, the sevenfold Spirit of God must 
have received it with him. How beautiful now ap 
pears the harmony with the opening benedictory 
prayer ; and how appropriate now the threefold 
cherubic adoration, "Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Al- 

If one passing mention only had been made of them, as of the 
seven horns, we might have said these shadowed forth perfect 
knowledge, as those perfect power : but the repeated and varied 
way, in which they are introduced, prevents our resting in this ab 
stract interpretation; and hence the conjunction of the seven 
horns in this verse seems equivalent to such expressions as " Jesus 
returned in the power of the Spirit (the same personal Spirit who 
had descended on him at his baptism, and led him into the wilder- T ukc iv J4 
ness) into Galilee:" or, "God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with Luke Hi . 22 
the Holy Ghost and with power." Acts x! ss. 




Rev.iv. s, mighty, which was, and is, and is to come." The 

here only and ... , .. , . ... . . . 

in isaiah vi. s. vision is symbolic, but it symbolizes truth ; and it is 
most suggestive of the highest adoration being re 
ceived on the eternal throne by the Father, and by 
the Son, and by the Holy Ghost. 

Divine worship is, therefore, on the authority of 
Scripture, rendered to the Spirit. I admit that in 
some of the cases the evidence is rather circumstantial 
than direct. But this we should have a priori ex 
pected ; for in the economy of redemption it is the 
office of the Holy Ghost to kindle in us " the spirit of 
zechxii. io. grace and of supplications," to intercede for us and 
Bom. viii. 15, with us, and to enable us, in the spirit of adoption, to 
pray as Jesus taught his disciples, " Our Father which 
art in heaven." 

(5) Finally, the comparison of Scripture with Scrip 
ture demonstrates that the Divine Spirit f is JehovaK 

Cf. Serle and and God. 

And the Lord said, My Spirit 
shall not always strive with man. 
Gen. vi. 3. 

The long-suffering of God 
waited in the days of Noah. 
1 Pet. iii. 20. 

It was then the forbearance of God the Spirit with 
which thev before the flood contended. 

They vexed his Holy Spirit. . . 
Where is he that put his Holy 
Spirit within him ? . . . that led 
them through the deep. . . . The 
Spirit of Jehovah caused him 

Jehovah said to Moses, How 
long will this people provoke 
me ? Numb. xiv. 11. 

Jehovah alone did lead him. 
Deut. xxxii. 12 

to rest. Isai. Ixiii. 10 14. i 

Compare also the parallel passages (p. 125). Here we 
learn that the One provoked was the Holy Spirit, and 
was Jehovah. Therefore the Spirit is Jehovah. 

f This appellative is not modern. Thrice, at least, is the He 
brew Spirit of God rendered by the LXX. Uvtv^a Otlov. ExoA. 
xxxi. 3 ; Job xxvii. 3 ; xxxiii. 4. 



The God of Israel said, the 
Rock of Israel spake to me. 2 
Sam. xxiii. 3. 

P. VI. 

The Spirit of the Lord spake 
by me ; and his word was in my 
tongue. 2 Sam. xxiii. 2. 

Therefore, unless you admit that there were three, or 
at least two, Divine speakers who inspired David, the 
Spirit of Jehovah is the God and the Rock of Israel. 

Well spake the Holy Ghost 
by Esaias the prophet. Acts 
xxviii. 25. 

Holy men of God spake as 
they were moved by the Holy 
Ghost. 2 Pet. i. 21. 

The Lord God of Israel 

spake by the month of his holy 
prophets, which have been since 
the world began.-7^e i. 68-70. 

All Scripture is given by in 
spiration of God. 2 Tim. iii. 

The Spirit, therefore, is God, yea, the Lord God of 
Israel. I append a few other passages, (selected from 
many,) the conclusion from which is similarly self- 

That which is bora of the 
Spirit (TO yiyivvrjufvov tK TOV 
nvtvparoc). Jo/t/i iii. G. 

Christ wrought by me, through 
mighty signs and wonders by the 
power of the Holy Ghost. lioni. 
xv. 19. 

The Comforter (6 HapaicXqroc) 
which is the Holy Ghost. John 
xiv. 20. 

"Walking . . in the comfort of 
the Holy Ghost. Ads ix. 31. 

Why hath Satan iiilcd thine 
heart to lie to the Holy Ghost ? 
Acts v. 3. 

How is it that ye have agreed 
to tempt the Spirit of the Lord ? 
Acts v. 9. 

Your body is the temple of the 
Holy Ghost. 1 Cor. vi. 19. 

The Spirit of God dwelleth in 
you. 1 Cur. iii. 16. 

These passages might be greatly multiplied; but 
from this comparison, observing the way in which the 

That which is born of God 
(TO yiytvvrmi.vov tK Toil Qiov.) 
1 John v. 4. 

Jehovah, . . . the Lord of 
lords . . . the God of gods, . . . 
alone docth great wonders. 
Psa. cxxxvi. 1 4. 

I, even I, am he that com- 
forteth (6 TrapaKaXwv Z.Y.V.) 
you. I sat. li. 12. 

The God of all comfort, who 
comforteth us. 2 Cor. i. 3, 4. 

Thou hast not lied unto men, 
but unto God. Acts v. 4. 

Thou shalt not tempt the Lord 
thy God. Matt. iv. 7. 

Ye are the temple of the living 
God ; as God hath said, I will 
dwell in them. 2 Cor. vi. 16. 



names and offices of God and of the Holy Spirit are 
interchanged, we conclude that this same Eternal 
Spirit is Jehovah, the God of Israel, the Lord God, the 
Lord of lords, the God of gods, the living God, the 
Divine Being who quickens and comforts in one 
word, he is God. s Once more, S. Paul affirms, " We 
are changed into the same image, AS BY THE LORD 
2 Cor. ill. is. THE SPIRIT " (KdOairep a~b Kvpiov 7rvfvp.aTO^. The 
Greek should, doubtless, be thus rendered : for con 
struction, compare Gal. i. 3 (a-rrb 0eou mirpo s). He 
thus places the word LORD, which he had used, ver. 
16, to designate Jehovah, in direct and immediate ap 
position with SPIRIT. The whole context, which so 
beautifully illustrates the threefold work of the Holy 
Trinity in the believer s soul, proves, at the same 
time, that the Holy Ghost is one with the Father 
and the Son, very and Eternal God. 

If any object that he is said to be sent by the Father 
and the Son, and that this mission implies inferiority, 
we answer that, even among men, the being sent is by 
no means always a mark of subordination. The mem 
bers of a senate consult together relative to some nego- 

e I might here add two remarks : 

(1) The Godhead of Christ being proved, the very fact of the 
Holy Spirit anointing this infinite Saviour for all the work of re 
demption proves his own Divine infinitude ; for who but God 
could empower God ? 

(2) As in the Old Testament we find Christ as the Angel of 
God s presence saying, " I am the God of thy father, I will send 

Kxod. Ui. 2, 6, thee ; " thus claiming supreme authority ; and as from thence we 
may securely infer the Deity of this glorious leader ; so in the New 
Testament, when we find the Spirit said to Peter, " Arise, go, for 

Acts x. 19, 20. I have sent them," thus, in his own right, setting aside the ceremo 
nial law, we may safely argue, This is a Divine person, who, in the 
absence of the Son of God, according to his promise, acts in his 
place and governs his church. 



tiation, in executing which great wisdom, judgment, 
and experience are required. It is resolved to send 
one of their number. Is it any mark of inferiority to 
be selected, and sent on such a service ? And the 
mission of the Comforter is spoken of regarding the 
office he has undertaken in the economy of grace the 
work of sanctifying the elect people of God a work 
which none less than God can effect, and the glorious 
accomplishment of which will redound to his praise 
through the countless ages of eternity. Bates. 

If, again, any ask why the ambiguity inseparable 
from the name Spirit of God, when compared with the 
phrase spirit of a man an ambiguity which, unless ex 
plained, would have tended to conceal his personality 
was permitted ? I would suggest that his name is 
no arbitrary choice ; that it is the only one which 
would reveal to us the distinctive character of this 
holy Being, as the name the Son could alone describe 
the Eternal "Word ; and that the very similarity of de 
signation may be needful to express his fellowship with 
us, his spiritual in-dwelling, and the high communion 
carried on, while the Spirit itself bears witness with 
our spirit that we are the children of God. This R 0m . \\\\. IB. 
similarity testifies to us our union with the Divine 
Comforter who renews us, as our common humanity 
testifies our union with the Divine Saviour who re 
deemed us. 

And if once more it is asked why he is not more 
prominently set forth in Scripture as the object of 
adoration, besides the answer given above, there seems 
in this, if I may venture so to express myself, a prin 
ciple of Divine equipoise in the parts sustained in our 
salvation, by the co-equal and co-eternal Three. The 
love of the Father, loving us so that he gave his Son 
to redeem and his Spirit to sanctify us, shines pre- 


HAf. VI. 

eminent : it bathes the sacred page with light, and 
commands our homage, and compels our love. The 
grace of the Lord Jesus, for us incarnate, for us cruci 
fied, for us interceding, absorbs every thought, and 
attracts every affection : and a large portion of Scrip 
ture is taken up with sotting forth the eternal Godhead 
of Emmanuel, and requiring us to regard him with 
equal love and with equal confidence. Once more, a 
third is revealed, the Divine Comforter : the glories of 
his Person are beyond doubt affirmed, but they are 
only rarely disclosed in full view ; his worship is en 
joined, but it is comparatively withdrawn from ob 
servation : when, however, we look into the subjective 
work carried on by him, there is an amplitude and 
plenitude of evidence from Holy Writ, which entirely 
compensates any seclusion of his visible majesty. The 
variety of his Divine operations in us as far exceeds in 
glory, as the brightness of his presence is concealed. 
The ministration of the Spirit is as mighty, as his voice 
is mysteriously still. 

But here, even when we would feel our way with the 
utmost reverence, how soon are we beyond our depth ! 
the waters are risen, waters to swim in, a river that 
zek. xivii. 5. cann ot be passed over. Thanks be to God, the neces 
sary truth is clear as the light : that the Holy Spirit 
is distinct from the Father and the Son ; that such 
personal properties are assigned to him as demonstrate 
intelligent personality; that all Divine attributes, 
such as self- existence from eternity, omnipresence, 
infinite wisdom and foreknowledge, absolute freedom 
and goodness, creative providential and spiritual power 
attributes any one of which would prove his God 
head are assigned to him ; that he is associated in 
Divine offices with the Father and the Son ; that he 
with them is worshipped and glorified; that he is 



Jehovah and God : these things are written, as with 
a sun-beam, in the Scriptures of truth. 

But here I would remind myself and my readers 
that no evidence, however conclusive, can insure a 
saving belief in the Divinity of the Holy Ghost. The 
understanding may be convinced, while the heart may 
rebel. For the Lord Jesus says to his disciples, " I 
will pray the Father, and he shall give you another 
Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever ; even 
the Spirit of truth ; whom the world cannot receive, 
because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him." And Joimxiv. ic, 
the apostle Paul, while in conscious integrity he de 
clares, "We speak the things freely given to us of 
God, "not in the words which man s wisdom tcacheth, 
but which the Holy Ghost teacheth ; comparing spirit 
ual tilings with spiritual," seems to chasten his hopes icor. a. 12, in. 
with the humbling recollection, " the natural man 
receivcth not the things of the Spirit of God, . . . neither 
can lie know them, because they are spiritually dis- 
corned." And therefore rather, seeing we have a 
High Priest who is touched with the feeling of our 
infirmities, let us kneel together at the throne of grace, 
and plead in prayer his own royal promise, " If ye, 
then, being evil, know how to give good gifts unto your 
children, how much more shall your heavenly Father 
give the Holy Spirit to them that ask him ! " that we Luke xi. is. 
all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of 
the Lord, may be changed into the same image from 
glory to glory, a? by the Lord the Spirit. 


CHAP. vii. AND now I must seek to draw this treatise, which has 
extended far beyond the limits I designed, to a conclu 
sion. I would therefore state my last proposition in 
these words : 

That Scripture, in the Old and the Neio Testament 
alike, assures us that in the trustful knowledge of One 
God, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, is 
the spiritual life of man now and for ever. 

The Lord grant that we may continue to bring to 
the study of his word, that humble spirit which prays 

Jobxxxiv.32. " That which I see not teach thou me." 

(1) To one who receives with meekness the en 
grafted word which is able to save our souls, the Scrip 
tures already adduced prove beyond contradiction that 
as the Father is God, so is Jesus Christ God, and so 
the Holy Spirit is God. This truth, however, must be 
combined with another, which is revealed with equal 
clearness and enforced with equal solemnity : " I am 
Jehovah, and there is none else, there is no God beside 

isai. xiv. 5. me." The combination of these truths establishes the 
doctrine of the Holy Trinity, for these Three must 
together subsist in one infinite Divine essence, called 
Jehovah or God ; and as this essence must be indi 
visible, each of them must possess not a part or portion 
of it, but the whole fulness or perfection of the essen 
tial Godhead forming, in an unity of nature, One 
Eternal Jehovah, and therefore revealed by a plural 
noun h as the Jehovah Elohim, which comprehends 

h The reader will observe throughout this treatise, that I have 
given no prominence to the argument derivable from the plural 
form of Elohim, and to the yet more suggestive language used by 



these Three ; but with this solemn qualification, that 
the Jehovah Elohim is in truth but one Jehovah, a 4 

Adapted from 

Triune God, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. 

p. 40, 47. 

God, " Let us make man in our image, after our likeness," aud Gen. i. 26. 
again, "Who will go for us?" But I should be doing injustice isai. vi. ?. 
to my own convictions if I did not state, that I believed this lan 
guage was intended to foster when kindled, aud to awaken when 
dormant, the persuasion that there subsisted a plurality in the 
essential unity of Jehovah. Thus far, I think, the following ex 
tracts from Dr. P. Smith s essay abundantly bear me out : 

" The most usual appellation of the Deity in the original Scrip 
tures of the Old Testament is Elohim, which is constantly trans 
lated "God;" but it is the regular plural of Eloa/i, which also 
occurs, though much less frequently than in the plural form, and 
is always translated in the same manner. 

" This plural appellative is generally put in agreement witli 
singular verbs, pronouns, aud adjectives, as in Gen. i. 1, Eloliim 
created ; creacit Dii ; les Dieux erect. This is the ordinary con 
struction through the whole Hebrew Bible. 

"But sometimes the apposition is made with verbs, pronouns, 
and adjectives, in the plural number likewise, and sometimes sin 
gulars and plurals are put together in the same agreement: as 
Gen. xx. 13, God (plural) caused me to wander cayari me fece- 
ri .nt Dii ; leu Dieit.r in ont fait t garer. Deut. v. 26, heard the 
voice of the living God (plural) audivit vocera Deorum Vicen- 
titiiii ; DCS Dieux vicaiis, etc. 

"To these may be added the similar expressions, though with 
out the word Elohim : 

Psa. cxlix. 2, Israel shall rejoice in his Maker (plural) in Cre- 
aforibus suis ; de ses Crateurs. 

Isai. liv. 5, For thy Creator (plural) is thy husband (plural). 

Eccles. xii. 1, Remember thy Creator (plural). 

" The fact which principally requires our attention, is the con 
stant use of Elohim, to designate the one and only God. It is not 
a little remarkable that, in the sacred books of a people who were 
separated from all other nations for this express object, viz. that they 
should bear a public and continual protest against polytheism the 
ordinary name and style of the only living aud true God should 
be in a plural form. Did some strange and insuperable necessity 
lie in the way ? "\Yas the language so poor that it could furnish 



This supreme mystery must transcend all the powers 
of human thought ; and the question nrnst recur again 
and again, "What saith the Scripture ? Our imagina 
tions must be counted as the small dust of the balance. 
Thus, do you conceive that the very names the Fa 
ther, the Son imply a certain point in duration beyond 
which the Father inhabited eternity alone ? Your 
conception cannot countervail the assertion of Scrip 
ture, that the goings-forth of the Saviour have been 
from everlasting ; or the words of Christ himself, 
adopting the formula which declares the Divine self- 
existence from eternity to eternity, " I am the first 
and the last." 

The illustration, before adduced, of the sun, its 
beams of light, and its vital heat, may offer some faint 
resemblance of this great mystery : for the beams of 
light are generated by the central orb ; and yet the 
sun could not have existed, so far as we know, for a 
moment without emitting its radiance, nor the radi 
ance have existed without diffusing 1 its warmth : so 

no other term ? Or, if so, could not the wisdom of inspiration 
have suggested a new appellative, and for ever abolish the hazard 
ous word ? None of these reasons existed. The language was 
rich and copious. Besides that glorious and fearful name, Je 
hovah, the appropriated and unique style of the true God, there 
was the sinyular form Eloali of the very word in question. 

" Hear, () Israel, Jehovah, our Elohim, one Jehovah ? This 
sentence was proclaimed as a kind of oracular effatum, a solemn 
and authoritative principle to the Israelites. Had it been intended 
to assert such a unity in the Divine nature, as is absolutely soli 
tary, and exclusive of every modification of plurality, would not, 
the expression of necessity have been this, Hear, O Israel, Je 
hovah, our Elohim, one Eloah? But as the words actually 
stand, they appear to be in the most definite and expressive man 
ner designed to convey the idea, that, not withstanding a real 
plurality intimated in the form Elohim, Jehovah is still ONE." 



that " one is not before another, but only in order and 
relation to one another." But no creature can ade- Bcverujge on 

Art. I. 

quately image forth the Creator, who asks " To whom 
then will ye liken God ? or what likeness will ye com 
pare unto him ? " Isai - * 1S - 

Again, do you imagine that the name of him who 
is alone Jehovah, cannot comprehend a Trinity in 
Unity ? Your imagination is as nothing in contra 
diction of the words of Christ revealing the one Di 
vine name, as " the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost." Do you asseverate 
the impossibility of three subsistences in one eternal 
essence ? Remember, I pray you, the words, " Canst 
thou find out the Almighty unto perfection ? " What Job \\. - 
do we know of the essence of created things ? The 
pure white light seems indissolubly one ; an unscien 
tific man would, without hesitation, pronounce it uni 
form, and would utterly deny any plurality subsisting 
in its transparent simplicity. The colours of the 
rainbow seem evidently manifold ; and the same man 
might refuse to credit their unity. Science stoops to 
analyse light ; and we are told that 

The prismatic spectrum consists in reality of three spectra of 
nearly equal length, each of uniform colour, superposed one 
upon another ; and that the colours, which the actual spectrum 
exhibits, arise from the mixture of the uniform colours of these 
three spectra superposed. The colours of these three elementary 
spectra, according to Sir David Brewster, are red, yellow, and 
blue. lie shows that by a combination of these three, not only 
all the colours exhibited in the prismatic spectrum may be re 
produced, but their combination also produces white light. Tie 
contends, therefore, that the white light of the sun consists, not L ar( i nc ,.- s 
of seven, but of three constituent lights. " S v", ,. 7$. 

The unlearned man then, in his incredulity, would 
Lave denied an established fact. The unity of that pure 



white light was not so simple as he affirmed. More 
constituents than one subsist in its ethereal essence. 
But has science now fathomed the mysteries of light ? 
So far from it, we read 

Light is now proved to consist in the waves of a subtle and 
elastic ether, which pervades all space and serves to communicate 
every impulse, from one part of the universe to another, with a 
speed almost inconceivable. ... In this luminous ether, matter 
seems to emulate the subtlety of thought. Invisible, and yet the 
only means by wliich all things are made visible ; impalpable, 
and yet nourishing all material objects into life and beauty ; so 
elastic, that when touched at one point, swift glances of light 
tremble through the universe; and still so subtle that the celestial 
bodies traverse its depths freely, and even the most vaporous 
comet scarcely exhibits a sensible retardation in its course : 
there is something in the very nature of this medium which seems 
to baffle the powers of human science, and to say to the pride of 
human intellect, Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further ; and 
here shall thy proud waves be stayed. Here, indeed, the most 
brilliant and profound analysts have continually to guess their 
way when they would trace out a few of the simplest laws result 
ing from the existence of such an ether, and unfold their appli 
cation to the various phenomena of reflected and refracted light. 
It is a great deep of mystery. Science grows dizzy on its verge 
when it strives to explore the nature of this subtle, immense, 
^Treasures imponderable ocean, which bathes all worlds in light, and itself 
Pi^ao-ioc. remains, by its own nature, invisible for ever. 

Is such the modest confession of truth after all the 
triumphs of human wisdom ? Is man only wading, 
with tremulous footstep, into the shallow waters of that 
unfathomable sea called into existence by the fiat of 
God, when he said, " Let there be light, and there was 
light ? " Are we so soon out of our depth in seeking 
to understand one of his works ? How much rather 
may we expect to be humbled as we meditate, and to 
be baffled if we think we can comprehend, the glorious 



Creator himself? Is light a mystery? How much 
rather he who dwells in the light that no man can ap 
proach unto ! We know him only as he reveals himself. 

This self-revelation involves a yet greater self-con- 
coalment. There will be the manifestation of God in 
the voluntary condescension of his love : and there 
will be the necessary seclusion within the clouds of his 
unapproachable glory. When a finite being seeks to 
understand anything of the Infinite, it must always 
be so. There will be the fragment of truth which the 
student has made and is making his own, and the 
illimitable expanse beneath, above, and beyond him. 
Thus in the field of nature we read, " The works of 
the Lord are great, sought out of all them that hove 
pleasure therein." Here is our knowledge. But " No Psa. i. . 
man," says Solomon, "can find out the work that God 
maketh from the beginning to the end." There is Eede*. in. u 
the limit of our knowledge. We are invited to con 
sider his heavens, to trace his footprints, and to regard 
the operations of his hands. And yet after all, " Lo I 
these are parts of his ways ; how faint a whisper is 
heard of him ! the thunder of his power who can un 
derstand?" So, in the majestic course of his patient Job-wi. i*. 
providence we adoringly acknowledge, " Just and true 
are thy ways, thou King of saints : " and yet we must Rev. *v. ;,. 
confess, " Thy way is in the sea, and thy path in the 
great waters, and thy footsteps are not known." r.s>. ixx\- . n 

Humble students are treading an upland path. 
Their horizon widens every step they take. The 
angels of light, standing on a higher eminence, stv 
further than they. Still there must be a boundary 
line which limits angelic intuition : and whatever lies 
beyond that line must be a mystery to them, or, if 
made known to them, made known by revelation. 
We rebuke the want of modesty in the unlearned 



peasant who argues from his ignorance against the 
declarations of science : surely those blessed spirits 
would rebuke us, if we, through preconceived notions 
of our own, refused to credit the simple revelations of 
God regarding his own mysterious Being. 

He reveals himself by his names, his attributes, and 
his acts. And, therefore, if, combined with assertions 
that God is one, we find three revealed in Scripture 
to whom the same names, attributes, and acts are as 
cribed, the same so far as a personal distinction allows ; 
if we look vainly for any fourth Divine one, or any 
intimation of more than three ; if we connect with this 
the intimate and necessary union affirmed to exist be 
twixt the Father, and the Son, and the Spirit, as when 
the Lord Jesus says, " I and my Father are one," and 
when S. Paul says, " The Spirit searches the depths of 
God ; " if, then, we find that every Christian is bap 
tized into one Name, the Name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, we are led swiftly 
and irresistibly up to the doctrine (call it by what name 
you will) of the Trinity in Unity. 

(2) Hence, at the risk of apparent repetition, I shall 
bring together again some few Bible testimonies to the 
Godhead of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost ; 
combining them in one view; and adding a further 
declaration from Scripture of our sole dependence on 
the alone Jehovah ; so that you may see at a glance, 
that we are compelled by the Christian verity, to 
acknowledge the glory of the eternal Trinity, and in the 
Trinity power of the Divine Majesty to worship the Unity. 



The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost are eternal 
1 . I am the first, and I am the last. Isai. xliv. 6. 
The everlasting (aiow ou) God. Rom. xvi. 26. 



2. I am the first and the last. Rev. i. 17. Whose 

goings forth have been from of old, from ever 
lasting (077 apxys e ijp.epu>i al&vos LXX.) 
Micah v. 2. 

3. The eternal (alwvtov) Spirit. Heb. ix. 14. 

The One Eternal is our trust. The eternal God is 
thy refuge, and underneath are the everlasting arms. 
Deut. xxxiii. 27. 


The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost created all 

1. One God, the Father, of whom arc all thing s. 

1 Cor. viii. 0. The Lord ... it is he that hath 
made us. Psal. c. 3. 

2. All tilings were made by him (the Word), etc. 

John i. 3. P>y him were all things created, etc. 
Col. i. 10. 

3. Who hath measured, etc. who liatli directed the 

Spirit of the Lord - Isai. xl. 13. The Spirit of 
God hath made me. Job xxxiii. 4. 
The One Almighty is our trust. Commit the keep 
ing of their souls to him, as unto a faithful Creator. 
-1 Pet. iv. 19. 


The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost arc omi" - 

1. Do not I fill heaven and earth ? saith the Lord. 

Jer. xxiii. 24. 

2. Lo, I am with you alway. Matt, xxviii. 20. 

3. Whither shall I go from thy Spirit ? Psa. 

cxxxix. 7. 

The One omnipresent God is our trust. He is not 
far from every one of us ; for in him we live, and move, 
and have our being. Acts xvii. 27, 28. 




The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost are incom 
prehensible and omniscient. 

1. No one knoweth the Father, save the Son. Matt. 

xi. 27. Known unto God are all his works, etc. 
Acts xv. 18. 

2. No one knoweth the Son, save the Father. Matt. 

xi. 27. Lord, thou knowest all things. John 
xxi. 17. 

3. Who being his counsellor hath taught him ? 
Isai. xl. 13. The Spirit searcheth all things. 
1 Cor. ii. 10. 

We worship the One all-seeing God. All things are 
naked and opened unto the eyes of him with whom we 
have to do. Heb. iv. 13. 


The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost are true, 
holy, and good. 

1. He that sent me is true. John vii. 28. Holy 

(ayte) Father. Righteous (Sucate) Father. 
John xvii. 11, 25. The Lord is good. Psalm 
xxxiv. 8. 

2. I am .... the truth. John xiv. 6. The holy 

One and the just (TOV aywv KOC rov biKaiov). 
Acts iii. 14. The good Shepherd. John x. 11. 

3. The Spirit is truth. 1 John v. 6. The Spirit, 
the holy One. John xiv. 26. Thy Spirit is 
good. Psalm cxliii. 10. 

We adore the One Lord of infinite goodness. Who 
shall not fear thee, 0, Lord, and glorify thy name ? for 
thou only art holy. Rev. xv. 4. 


The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost have each a 
self-regulating will. 

1. Him that worketh all things after the counsel of 



his own will (rrji> ftov\r]v TOV 0eA.7/fiaros). Eph. 
i. 11. 

2. The Son wills (/SovA^Tai) to reveal him. Matt. 

xi. 27. Father, I will (0&o>). John xvii. 24. 

3. Dividing to every one severally as he wills (/3ou- 

Aercu). 1 Cor. xii. 11. 

We rest on the icill of him who alone is Jehovah. 
The will of the Lord be done. Acts xxi. 14. 


The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost are the 
fountain of life. 

With thee is the fountain of life. Psa. xxxvi. 9. 
God hath quickened us. Eph. ii. 4, 5. 

2. In him (the Word) was life. John i. 4. The 
Son quickeneth Avhoni he will. John v. 21. 

3. The Spirit is life. Rom. viii. 10. Born of the 

Spirit. John iii. 8. 

We depend on one life-g icing God. Love the Lord 
thy God, . . . cleave unto him, . . . for he is thy life. 
Deut. xxx. 20. 


The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost strengthen, 
comfort, and sanctify us. 

1. Thou strengthciiedst me with strength in my 

soul. Psa. cxxxviii. 3. I will comfort you. 
Isai. Ixvi. 13. Sanctified by God the Father. 
Jude 1. 

2. I can do all things through Christ which strength- 

eneth me. Phil. iv. 13. If any consolation in 
Christ. Phil. ii. 1. Sanctified in Christ Jesus. 
-1 Cor. i. 2. 

3. Strengthened with might by his Spirit in the 
inner man. Ephes. iii. 16. The Comforter, the 
Holy Ghost. John xiv. 26. Being sanctified 
by the Holy Ghost. Rom. xv. 16. 



We trust in One God for spiritual power. My God, 
my strength, in whom I will trust. Psa. xviii. 2. 


The Father, the Son, and the Holt/ Ghost fill the soul 
with Divine lore. 

1. Every one that loveth him that begat. 1 John 
v. 1. If any man love the world, the love of 
the Father is not in him. 1 John ii. 15. 

2. The love of Christ constraineth us. 2 Cor. v. 

14. If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ. 
-1 Cor. xvi. 22. 

3. I beseech you for the love of the Spirit. Horn, 
xv. 30. Your love in the Spirit. Col. i. 8. 

The love of the One living and true God characterizes 
the saint. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all 
thy heart. Deut. vi. 5. 


The Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost gave the 
Divine law. 

1. The law of the Lord is perfect. Psa. xix. 7. The 
word of our God. Isai. xl. 8. Thus saith the 
Lord God. Ezek. ii. 4. 

2. The law of Christ, Gal. vi. 2. The word of 

Christ. Col. iii. 16. These things saith the 
Son of God. Rev. ii. 18. 

3. The law of the Spirit of life. Rom. viii. 2. Holy 
men of God spake as they were moved by the 
Holy Ghost, 2 Pet, i. 21. The Holy Ghost 
said. Acts xiii. 2. 

The word of One Legislator is the believer s rule. 
There is one Lawgiver who is able to save. James 
iv. 12. 


The Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost dwell in the 
hearts of believers. 


Cnxr. VII. 

1. I will dwell in them. 2 Cor. vi. 16. God is in 

you of a truth. 1 Cor. xiv. 25. Our fellowship 
is with the Father. 1 John i. 3. 

2. Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith. Eph. 
iii. 17. Christ in you, the hope of glory. Col. 
i. 27. Our fellowship .... with his Son Jesus 
Christ. 1 John i. 3. 

3. The Spirit dwelleth with you, and shall be in you. 

John xiv. 17. The communion of the Holy 
Ghost. 2 Cor. xiii. 14. 

The contrite heart receives One Divine guest. Thus 
saith the high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, 
I dwell with him that is of a contrite and humble 
heart. Isai. Ivii. 15. 


The Father, the Son, and the Hohj Ghost are, each by 
himself, the supreme Jehovah and God. 

1. I am Jehovah thy God. Ex. xx. 2. Thou, 

Lord, art most High for evermore. Psa. xcii. 8. 

2. Jehovah our God. Isai. xl. 3, with Matt. iii. 3. 

(See p. 6477.) The Highest. Luke i. 76, 
with Matt. xi. 10. 

3. Jehovah God. Ezck. viii. 1, 3. (See p. 130 

132.) The Highest. Luke i. 35. 
TJic One supreme Lord God is our God for ever and 
ever. Jehovah, our Elohim, One Jehovah. Deut. vi. 4. 

From this brief comparison, which might be elabo 
rated at far greater length, (if the reader asks for 
further proof of any statement, I earnestly entreat him 
to refer back to the more detailed exposition,) Scrip 
ture assures us that the Father, the Son, and the Holy 
Ghost, have the same Divine attributes, concur with a 
mind and will and heart, personally independent but 
unitedly harmonious, in the same Divine acts, and are 



cf. Jones. addressed by the same Divine names. And further, wo 
learn that our trust is not dispersed or confused by this 
co-equal Godhead of the Sacred Three : but that (a 
way of access being opened in the gospel through the 
revelation of the Father in Christ by the Spirit) we 
rest on, we worship, and we love One God. Thus, 
these Three are One : or, in the language of the first 
Article of the Church of England 

" There is but One living and true God, everlasting ; 
without body, parts, or passions ; of infinite power, 
wisdom, and goodness ; the Maker and Preserver of 
all things, both visible and invisible. And in Unity 
of this Godhead, there be Three persons of one sub 
stance, power, and eternity ; the Father, the Son, and 
the Holy Ghost," 

(3) Are you tempted to say, such a brief article 
as this enunciated by Christ himself, and recorded by 
the apostles, would have settled every controversy for 
ever : why, oh why, was it not contained in Scripture ? 
Haply, Elihu might quell the rising suspicion. " Behold, 
in this thou art not just : I will answer thee, that 
God is greater than man. Why dost thou strive 
against him ? for he giveth not account of any of his 
matters. For God speaketh once, yea twice, but man 

job xxxiii. 12 perceiveth it not." But it is by no means certain that 
such an article would have settled every doubt. It 
would have been handed down from age to age : many 
manuscripts must needs be collated : possibly some 
obscure variation might be discovered. But even if 
the text were as impregnable as the opening of S. 
John s Gospel, I doubt whether it would have con 
vinced such minds as remain unconvinced of the God 
head of Christ, after weighing those transparent de- 

Eph. u. s. clarations. Saving faith is the gift of God. Granting, 
hoAvever, that it had materially shortened the path by 



which, sincere inquirers attain the true faith, (for Scrip 
ture assures us that none, who heartily seek the Lord, 
stop short of Jesus Christ,) what would have been its 
effect on the church at large ? Permit me here to 
quote some admirable remarks from " Cautions for the 

There is another reason against the providing in Scripture of 
a regular systematic statement of Christian doctrines. Sup 
posing such a summary of gospel truths had been drawn up, 
and could have been contrived with such exquisite skill as to be 
sufficient and well adapted for all, of every age and country, 
what would have been the probable result? It would have 
commanded the unhesitating assent of all Christians, who would, 
with deep veneration, have stored up the very words of it in 
their memory, without any need of laboriously searching the rest 
of the Scriptures, to ascertain its agreement with them ; which 
is what we do (at least, are evidently called on to do) with a 
human exposition of ihe faith : and the absence of this labour, 
together with the tranquil security as to the correctness of their 
belief, which would have been thus generated, would have ended 
in a careless and contented apathy. There would have been . . . 
no call for vigilant attention in the investigation of truth none 
of that effort of mind which is now requisite, in comparing one 
passage with another, and collecting instruction from the scat 
tered, oblique, and incidental references to various doctrines in 
the existing Scriptures ; and in consequence none of that excite 
ment of the best feelings, and that improvement of the heart, 
which are the natural and, doubtless, the designed result of an 
humble, diligent, and sincere study of the Christian Scriptures. 

lu fact all study, properly so called, of the rest of Scripture 
all lively interest in its perusal would have nearly been super 
seded by such an inspired compendium of doctrine ; to which 
alone, as by far the most convenient for that pin-pose, habitual 
reference woidd have been made in any question that might 
arise. Both would have been regarded indeed as of Divine 
authority ; but the compendium as the fused and purified metal ; 



the other as the mine containing the crude ore. And the com 
pendium itself being not, like the existing Scriptures, that front 
idiich the faith is to be learned, but the very tldng to lie learned, 
would have come to be regarded by most with an indolent, un 
thinking veneration, which would have exercised little or no 
influence on the character. Their orthodoxy would have been 
as it were petrified ; like the bodies of those animals we read of 
incnisted in the ice of the polar regions firm fixed, indeed, 
and preserved unchangeable ; but cold, motionless, lifeless. It 
is only when our energies are roused, and our faculties exercised, 
and our attention kept awake by an ardent pursuit of truth, and 
anxious watchfulness against error when, in short, we feel our 
selves to be doing something towards acquiring, or retaining, or 
improving our knowledge it is then only that that knowledge 
makes the requisite practical impression on the heart and on 
the conduct. 

To the church, then, has her all-wise Founder left the office 
of teaching to the Scriptures, that of proving the Christian 
doctrine : to the Scriptures, he has left the delineation of Chris 
tian principles to each church, the application of those 
principles, in their symbols or articles of religion in their 
forms of worship and in their ecclesiastical regulations. pp. 
443, 444. 

How beautiful is the analogy here between the word 
of God and the natural creation. Had we been told 
that the earth was to be so arranged that eight hun 
dred millions of human beings could live thereon, 
should we not, in thought, have done away with the 
vast unproductive forests, the superfluous mountains, 
the exorbitant ocean, and have divided it into so 
many plots for agriculture, like the veriest pauper 
field? This was not God s way. The woods, and 
hills, and seas minister to the clouds, and the clouds 
drop fatness on the fertile field and the luxurious 
plain ; and thus he opens his hand and supplies all 
things living with plenteousness. So is it with the 



Scriptures of truth. We should, perhaps, have ex 
pected definitions, and articles, and formularies, and 
canons, and creeds. This was not God s method. 
There is the incident of touching simplicity, the 
solemn majesty of law, the flame of patriotic zeal, the 
heart-experience which speaks to our heart, the grand 
est poetry, the most magnificent songs of praise, the 
rapid changes on the prophetic harp, the inimitable 
story of redeeming love, the calm deductions of logical 
.argument, the echo of angelic joy, the unbarring of 
the gates of glory, and the reflexion of the light of 
eternity. And yet, amid all these manifold combina 
tions, the simple rule of our faith in the One living 
and true God Father, Son, and Spirit, the source of 
creation, redemption, and saiictification, is marked 
out with a precision that he who runs may read. 

But, do you ask, is it needful for every believer to 
pass through such a long process of proof as even this 
little treatise sets forth ? Assuredly not. The Bible 
is eminently the poor man s book. These things are 
hidden from the wise and prudent, and revealed unto 
babes. And to surli a child-like mind a very few M.itt.^i ; 25; 

<J XVIll. ". 

simple truths generally carry conviction, and with 
conviction life and peace. " I am God, and beside me 
there is no Saviour." " Behold the Lamb of God, which 
taketh away the sin of the world." " I will send the 
Comforter to you." His Father, his Redeemer, his 
Sanctifier, are equally indispensable to him : and he 
knows that he was baptized into the name of the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost. He needs no 
more. "Without any laboured syllogisms, he believes 
these Three are One. The truth finds him. He does 
not expect to fathom the mystery ; but his whole heart 
embraces that which satisfies his whole necessity. 
If, however, doubts and suspicions assail these first 



principles when implanted, or keep back an inquirer 
from believing them, then the word of God, reverently 
consulted, affords a complete answer to every, what I 
may call, rational objection. The armoury supplies a 
weapon for every encounter. We are ready to give 

i Pet. ui. is. every man a reason of the hope that is in us. There 
fore, if held back by these doubts from faith in Christ, 
you must give yourself, heart and soul, to this mo 
mentous inquiry ; you must shake off that deadly in 
difference which would leave this question undecided ; 
you must watch and pray ; and then be assured the 
promise shall never fail. " I know the thoughts that 
I think toward you, saith the Lord, thoughts of peace 
and not of evil, to give you an expected end. Then 
shall ye call upon me, and ye shall go and pray unto 
me, and I will hearken unto you ; and ye shall seek 
me, and find me, when ye shall search for me with all 

Jer. xxix. ii your heart." 

Mortal life, stretching forth into immortality, is to 
each man like a precious cabinet stored with priceless 
jewels. But the cabinet is locked, and to those without 
Christ the key is wanting. The gospel is that key. 
It is proffered to all. How many, alas, carelessly 
thrust it aside ! But some, you may think with a 
modest caution, refuse to make the trial, lest haply 
they should hamper the lock, until they have been 
assured by a careful sifting of documents, by a com 
paring of outlines of the hidden wards with the key, 
and by other infallible proofs, that the key in question 
was the one made and designed for the cabinet. This 
investigation they pursue with untiring assiduity, until, 
satisfied of the credibility of the evidence adduced, 
they try the bolt with a trembling hand ; it yields to 
the touch and the cabinet is their own : they are rich 
for ever. Many others, however, have more trustful- 



ness, and less fearfulness. They feel their poverty ; 
they believe the offer is to be relied on ; they know 
that many of their neighbours have found it so ; and 
without further delay they also try the lock : it yields, 
and the cabinet is theirs. You can never argue them 
out of their persuasion that the key they hold in their 
hands is the key of the cabinet. No other unlocks it ; 
and this does. That is enough for them. They may 
not have so intelligent a knowledge of the way in 
which that elaborate key turns back one secret spring 
after another : that knowledge, whenever acquired, 
belongs to the patient pains-taking investigator : but 
both alike possess the jewels. 

So is it with the gospel of Jesus Christ : it exactly 
ills the intricate wards of the human heart. It un 
locks the inestimable treasures of human life. lie that 
uses it is rich indeed; rich towards God; rich for 
eternity. Whether he has been led to liiith in Christ 
through long and painful inquiries, as may be the 
case especially with those who have much time for 
thought and keen intellectual powers ; or whether 
with a more confiding alacrity, which is the experi 
ence of most Christians, (for "God hath chosen ihe 
poor of this world rich in faith,") he has obeyed the Jium.- H. : 
gospel at once, the life-giving efficacy is the same. 
"As many as received him, to them gave he power to 
become the sons of God." The question is one of obe- John ;. ,2. 
dience or of disobedience. " The mystery [of the gos 
pel of Jesus Christ] is now according to the command 
ment of the everlasting God made known, to all nations, 

for THE OBEDIENCE OF FAITH." Obedience IS life ; R m. xvi. 25, 

" He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life : " 
and disobedience is death ; for the same Scripture con 
tinues, "He that believeth not the Son shall not see 
life ; but the wrath of God abideth on him." joim 

n 3 


CHAP. Vn. 

(4) Do you say, Is not a trustful knowledge of God 
the Father sufficient ? Scripture answers, There is no 
true knowledge of God the Father, except in God the 
Son : for Jesus Christ says, " I am the way, the truth, 
and the life ; no man cometh unto the Father, but by 

joim xiv. c. me." And S. John writes, " Whosoever denieth the 

jjohnii. 23. Son, the same hath not the Father." And again, 
"Whosoever transgresseth, and abideth not in the 
doctrine of Christ, hath not God. He that abideth in 
the doctrine of Christ, he hath both the Father and 
John 9. the Son." Now Scripture has proved to us the co- 
essential Godhead of the Son with the Father : and, if 
once the Holy Spirit convince you of this, you will be 
the first to ask, what can denial of the Son be, if to 
deny his Godhead be not this negation ? With your 
keen sense of honour, you will then be the first to 
acknowledge that such denial destroys the glory of his 
person ; tears the crown from his brow ; empties the 
atonement of its virtue ; and, however undcsignedly, 
charges the church of Christ with idolatry, and the 
word of God with equivocation and untruthfulness. 
For he who denies the Deity of our Lord " belie veth 

i John v. 10. not the record that God hath given of his Son." There 
are indeed many, who professedly believing the Di 
vinity of the Son of God, by their works deny him : 
theirs, perhaps, is an aggravated guilt : but those 
who professedly disbelieve his Divinity, seeing that 
such unbelief extracts all saving efficacy from his 
work, are rejecting the only "name under heaven 

Acts iv. 12. given among men, whereby we must be saved." 

Further do you say, God is love, and will not visit 
with eternal condemnation the creatures of his hand ? 
My friends, you are making to yourselves a God -of 
your own imagination, a God of mercy and compassion 
only, but without holy jealousy and righteousness. 



Such a one is not the God of creation, or of provi 
dence, or of the Bible. He is not the God of creation, 
for even there, amid the abounding evidence of his 
goodness, there are things which tell of his severity ; 
there is not only the sunshine, and the summer, and 
the dew, and the calm, but also the terrible darkness, 
and the wintry blast, and the storm, and the volcano. 
Such a one is not the God of permissive providence : 
for there is not only the happy home, and prattling 
childhood, and the mart of peaceful merchandise, and 
the honourable senate, but also the chamber of suf 
fering, and the creeping infirmities of age, and the 
wail of oppression, and the battle-field strewn with 
corpses. Xor is such a one the God of the Bible : 
God is love indeed but love embraces all his attri 
butes, not mercy only, but righteousness likewise : 
" for love is strong as death : jealousy is hard as the 
grave : the coals thereof are coals of fire, which hath a 
most vehement flame." Oh, surelv not in vain was sun- \m. >;. 

* Sec margin. 

the cry of the gospel herald, " Flee from the wrath to 
come." Xot in vain the warning of Jesus Christ, " If - AI:i - > " 
ye believe not that I am In , ye shall die in your sins." Jim \iii.2. 
Xot in vain the awakening question of >S. Peter, 
" AVhat shall the end be of them that obey not the 
gospel of God ? " i Pet. iv. 17. 

It is so often asserted that the inflexible righteous 
ness manifested under the old dispensation, as in the 
deluge, in the destruction of the cities of the plain, in 
the plagues on Egypt, or in the chastisements on 
Israel, has been modified by the " milder genius of the 
gospel" though they who make the assertion forget, see xvii. 
that these cases are adduced as examples in the Xew Rom. iT. i:. 
Testament, that I bring before you in the note below 1 1 Cor x - --" 

1 Testimony under the new covenant to the righteous severity of God. 
ilatt. iii. 7 12, John Baptist \varns to flee from the wrath to come. 



some portion of the witness of the New Testament to 
the immutable justice of God. I fully grant you that 

Matt. v. 26 29, Jesus speaks of the eternal prison, and of the 
unholy being cast into bell. 

vii. 13, of the broad way leading to destruction ; and ver. 

23, of the hour when he will say, Depart from me. 
[These last are taken from the sermon on the mount, in 
which the Fatherly character of God shines as a golden 
thread interwoven throughout.] 

viii. 12, the children of the kingdom cast out into outer 


x. 15, more tolerable for Sodom in the day of judgment ; 

and ver. 28, " Fear him which is able to destroy both 
soul and body in hell." 
[This last in closest connexion with filial trust towards God.] 

xi. 20 24, the woes on Choraziu. 

xii. 32, the unpardonable sin. 

xiii. 41, 42, 49, 50, the judgment of the wicked. 

xviii. 6 9, the end of those who cause offences. 

xxi. 44, the stone falling on the disobedient. 

xxii. 13, the guest expelled into outer darkness. 

xxiii. the woes on the Pharisees. 

- xxiv. the foretold destruction of Jerusalem, typical of the 

last judgment. 

xxv. 12, the foolish virgins disowned ; ver. 30, the unprofit 

able servant cast out ; ver. 41, the sentence upon those 
on the left hand "Depart from me, ye cursed, into 
everlasting fire, prepared for the devil and his angels." 

Mark xvi. 1C, after the resurrection, the same inflexible law 
" He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved ; but 
he that believeth not shall be damned." 

Luke xii. 46, the unfaithful servant s end. 

xiii. 28, a scene of future remorse sketched, which the 

prescient Christ only could sketch. 

xvi. 22, 23, " the rich man also died and was buried ; and in 

hell he lifted up his eyes, being in torments." 

xvii. 26 30, the deluge and the destruction of Sodom, 

types of the end of the wicked at the second Advent. 
John iii. 18, the unbeliever condemned already ; and ver. 30, "the 
wrath of God abideth on him." 



now God is withholding his judgments : it is the day 
of grace, it is the time of love, the goodness of God 

John v. 29, the resurrection of damnation. 

viii. 24, ye shall die in your sins. 
Acts iii. 23, the disobedient soul destroyed. 

v. 1 11, the judgment on Ananias and Sapphira. 

xiii. 40, 41, see the peroration of S. Paul s sermon at Ant inch : 

xxviii. 25 27, and of his address to the Jews. 

Horn. i. IS, the wrath of God revealed against all ungodliness. 

ii. 4 11, wrath treasured up against the day of wrath ; 

indignation and wrath, tribulation and anguish, rendered 
to every evil doer. 

vi. 23, the wages of sin is death. 

xii. 11), " Vengeance is mine ; I will repay, saith the Lord." 

1 Cor. iii. 17. it any man, etc., him shall God destroy. 

vi. !), the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God." 
xvi. 22, " If any man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him 
be Anathema Maranatha." 

2 Cor. ii. 1C, to them that perish we arc the savour of death unto 

iv. 3, the gospel hid in them that are lost. 

Gal. i. S, the solemn anathema on those who pervert the gospel, 
vi. S, he that sowcth to his llcsh .... reaping corruption. 

Kph. ii. 3, we were children of wrath. 

Phil. iii. IS, 19, " 1 tell you, even weeping, that they are the ene 
mies of the cross of Christ : whose end is destruction." 

2 Thess. i. 7 9, the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven " in 
tlaming tire, taking vengeance on them that know not 
God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord .lesus 
Christ; who shall be punished with an everlasting de 
struction . . . ." 

ii. 12, "that they all might be damned who believed not the 


Hcb. ii. 3, "How shall we escape, if we neglect so great salvation ?" 
x. 27 31, " a certain fearful looking for of judgment and liery 

indignation, which shall devour the adversaries 

It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God." 
xii. 2 J, " for our God is a consuming fire." 

James ii. 10, "Whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend 
in one point, he is guilty of all." 



leadeth us to repentance : but the season is limited, 
i,uke xiii. 25. and " when once the master of the house is risen up, 
and hath shut to the door," then the last hour of pardon 
ing mercy will have passed away, and he whose name 
is love declares, " Then shall they call upon me, but I 
will not answer; ye shall seek me early, but ye shall 
Prov. i. as. not find me." But if Jesus wept, when foretelling 
the judgments on Jerusalem, well may the heart of a 
poor pardoned sinner bleed, to gather such cumulative 
proof of his holy indignation. So terrible is the evi 
dence that, like Moses at Sinai, " I exceedingly fear 
Htb.xii. 21. and quake." If it were only one isolated passage, 
you might urge it was figurative language : but here 

1 Pet. ii. 8, [Jesus Christ] "a stone of stumbling, and a rock of 
offence, even to them which stumble at the word, being 
disobedient : whereunto also they were appointed." 

1 Pet. iv. 17, 18, " what shall the end be of them that obey not the 

gospel of God ? . . . . where shall the ungodly and the 
sinner appear ? " 

2 Pet. ii. 1 7, " to whom the mist of darkness is reserved for ever." 

iii. 7, the day of judgment and perdition of ungodly men. 
1 John v. 19, the whole world lieth in wickedness. 

Jude 14, 15, the Lord cometh .... to execute judgment. 
Rev. vi. 16, hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the 
throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb. 

xix. 3, her smoke rose up for ever and ever. 

15, " and out of his mouth goeth forth a sharp sword, that 

with it he should smite the nations ; and he shall rule 
them with a rod of iron, and he treadeth the wine-press 
of the fierceness and wrath of Almighty God." 

xx. 15, " and whosoever was not found written in the book 

of life was cast into the lake of fire." 

xxi. 8, " but the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, 

and murderers, and whoremongers, and idolaters, and all 
liars, shall have their part in the lake which burneth with 
fire and brimstone : which is the second death . . . . " 

xxii. 11, "he that is unjust, let him be unjust still ; and he 

that is filthy, let him be filthy still." 



it is written in history, prophecy, sermon, epistle, 
vision, all alike proving that our God is a consuming 
fire, and that of the enemies of the cross the end is 
destruction. I repeat, you may conceive a God of 
compassion only, and fall down and worship him, but 
such a one is not the righteous Judge of all the 
earth : and you may beautify the name of the Father, 
whom you adore, with every trait of benevolence, and 
tenderness, and grace ; but it is not the name of the 
one living and true God, for that is the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. 

God forbid that I should write with anything of 
bitterness or pride. I feel far too deeply for that. 
You will not accuse me of it. Shipwrecked in one 
common fall with us, you have adopted principles of 
your own, and staked vour immortality of weal or woe 
upon them. "We have embarked upon that wo know 
to be the only true life-boat : and with all the impor 
tunity of affection, those kindlings of common hu 
manity which bind xis together, we cry to you 
I Yiends, that raft of your own construction cannot 
survive the tempest. Come with us. Yet there is 
room. Yet there is time. Our life-boat cannot sink. 
Our pilot knows the port. 

Let us recur to our position before God, as sketched 
from Scripture in the opening of this treatise. The 
Bible represented us as guilty, strengthless, and in 
darkness. Whatever moral excellences may adorn 
us in the sight of man ; philanthropy, generosity, 
tenderness, integrity still the penetrating law, the 
law of perfect love, reveals innumerable violations of 
our nearest and noblest duties. "We are sinners ; and 
as sinners, exposed to all this righteous wrath in the 
day of wrath. 

Once realize this, and our false peace is broken up 



for ever. Our earthly gaiety is gone. Life, without 
our Father s sinile, is not worth the living. It is to 
flit through a mazy labyrinth of pain and pleasure, to 
foster affections which must wither to their roots, and 
to cherish hopes which must expire one by one. The 
irrepressible question rises again to our lips, What 
must I do to be saved ? Where shall we find a hiding- 
place ? " The name of the Lord is a strong tower : 

iw. xviu. 10. the righteous runneth into it, and is safe." What is 
his name ? the same that Moses heard in the cleft of 
the rock " The LORD, The LORD God, merciful and 
gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness 
and truth, keeping mercy for thousands, forgiving 
iniquity and transgression and sin, and that will by 110 
means clear the guilty ; visiting the iniquity of the 
fathers upon the children, and upon the children s 
children, unto the third and to the fourth genera- 

xoi xxxiv. tion." 

6, 7. 

How then can he clear us, the guilty ? For " we 
are all as an unclean thing, and all our righteousnesses 
are as filthy rags ; and we all do fade as a leaf ; and 
sai. ixiv. e. our iniquities, like the wind, have taken us away." 

May the Lord of his sovereign mercy impress his 
own reply on my heart and on yours, by the power of 
the Holy Ghost : 

Now we know that what things soever the law saith, it 
saith to them who are under the law ; that every mouth may be 
stopped, and all the world may become guilty before God. There 
fore by the deeds of the law there shall be no flesh justified in 
his sight ; for by the law is the knowledge of sin. 

But now the righteousness of God without the law is mani 
fested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets ; even the 
righteousness of God, which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all 
and upon all them that believe : for there is no difference ; 

For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God; 


.CHIP. vn. 

being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that 
is in Christ Jesus : 

Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith 
in his blood, to declare his righteousness for the remission of 
sins that are past, through the forbearance of God ; to declare, I 
say, at this time, his righteousness : that he might be just, and 
the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus. Rom. iii. 19 26. 

How blessed, how Divine a salvation ! Another has 
offered an atoning sacrifice for our sins ; another im 
parts his righteousness to all who believe. The claims 
of the law are satisfied ; for a Victim of infinite worth 
has satisfied them. Emmanuel, God with us, is surety Rom. \. >-,. 
for us. Christ died for the ungodly, the Just for the i p c t. ui. i*. 
unjust, that he might bring us to God. " It is the blood 
which, maketh an atonement for the soul:" not the i. e \. xui. n. 
blood of bulls and of goats, but the blood of Jesus IM.. .\. 4. 
Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin. And now uohni. 7. 
God in Christ reconciles the world unto himself, not 
imputing their trespasses unto them. And we are 
ambassadors for Christ ; as though God did beseech you 
by us, we pray you in Christ s stead be ye reconciled 
to God ; for he hath made him who knew no sin to be 
sin for us, that we might be made the righteousness of 
God in him. unexampled love ! The Father sent 2001-. v.;y-2i. 
the Son to be the Saviour of the world. God the Fa- i joimiv. u. 
ther loving us with everlasting love : God the Son 
incarnate, crucified, risen, glorified, interceding. Here 
" Mercy and truth are met together ; righteousness 
and peace have kissed each other." i^i. ixxxv. ic. 

But once more : " Jesus says, No one can come unto 
me except the Father which hath sent me draw him." joim\i. . 
And yet again : " No one cometh unto the Father, but 
by me." It is a circle of light and love.. We go j hn xiv. <;. 
round about it. How are we to enter it ? Jesus 
answers, " When the Comforter is come, whom I will 


.:HAP. VII. 

joim xv. 26. send unto you from the Father, he shall testify of me. 

... he will guide you unto all truth. ... he shall re-,u. ceive of mine, and shall show it unto you." Here is 

the power of entrance. That which is born of the 

Spirit is spirit. 

Oh blessed new-born soul ! washed in the blood of 
Christ, clothed in his spotless goodness, drawn by his 
quickening Spirit, it is brought to the footstool of the 
throne of paternal love. It lives. It loves. All the 
affections gush forth from a well of water springing 
up into everlasting life. The Trinity in Unity is no 
longer an abstract doctrine alone, but it interpene 
trates our spiritual being. The Father and the Son 
have come unto us, and in the communion of the 

see John xiv. Spirit make their abode with us: and thus dwelling 
in love we dwell in God, for GOD is LOVE. 

(5) God is love. Many, from these words alone, 
have argued the necessity of a co- eternal and a co 
equal plurality in unity, as a deduction from that 
absolute perfection of the Divine nature which re 
quires every possible excellence : co-eternal ; for love 
implies, at least, that there be One who loves, and One 
who being loved reciprocates that love ; and, therefore, 
if the Son were not from everlasting (as the Father 
himself), the first and the last, the beginning and the 
ending ; then before the creation of our world, or of 
any worlds, through the receding cycles of a past 
eternity, they have contended that " the Divine mind 
woxdd have stood in an immense solitariness," without 
reciprocity of affection, and without communion of 
intellectual enjoyment : and co-equal ; for love in its 
perfection requires similarity and indeed equality of 
nature, (as God records of Adam in Paradise, " there 
&en. ii. 20. was not found an help meet for him,") and, therefore, 



whatever you take away from either the one who 
loves or the one who is loved, however you disparage 
either in comparison of the other, you so far destroy 
the propriety and completeness of the definition " God 
is Love." k 

k See Alford s sermons on Divine Love : and P. Smith s Testi 
mony., Appendix III., from which some of the clauses in above 
paragraph are taken. 

The following beautiful extracts from a German treatise, by 
Sartorius, have been translated and sent me by a friend. 

" That which is asserted in theological compendiums with ab 
stract and often negative precision of the Being and attributes of 
God, is gathered together in a living, comprehensive, and fertile 
idea in that great dictum of the apostle, GOD is LOVE. This say 
ing of the Holy Spirit comes from the depths of the Godhead. It 
is the Divine axiom beyond which we cannot fathom, and from 
which all flows ; the first principle of our science, as well as the 
basis of our life. The first article of our creed expresses this : 
God the Father is equal to God is love. 

[He then contrasts the true opposites / and tho>i, with the false 
opposites of some modern philosophy, /and not /.] 

"Love presupposes consciousness personality: in the true 
sense we cannot love a thing ; only persons can love or truly be 
loved. In the higher Divine sense, love is the unity or union of 
two distinct personalities. And this in the highest sense the 
Triune God is, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit of Love. 

God is love : whatever we may say of God s spiritual, 

infinite, eternal Being ; of his all-might and all-wisdom ; of his 
holiness, justice, and truth ; of his glory and blessedness ; is it 
not all gathered up in the idea of absolute love ? How little is 
said in asserting that God is a Spirit, if his mere negative imma 
teriality and invisibility are meant : or when thinking and willing 
are ascribed to him, without any character to determine the 
quality of this thinking and willing. Love is spirit, is light, and 
life ; is conscious, personal life, not merely subjectively absorbed 
in itself, but expanding, and manifesting, and objectively com 
municating itself ; filling all with itself, and gathering all unto it 
self. Infinite and eternal are mere negative abstractions, if they 



But leaving this most profound mystery, and taking 
with you those living truths which are necessary to 
our salvation, I pray you now to return to the study 
of the sacred volume. You will look vainly for any 
formal creed ; but what is infinitely more valuable to 
the earnest student and the docile believer, you will 
find the threefold and yet united work of the ever 
blessed God, Father, Son, and Spirit, on our be 

If we ask, Whence came I, and to whom do I be 
long ? the Bible answers we are the creatures of God 
the Father, of whom are all things ; of God the Son, 
by whom all things were made ; of God the Spirit, 
who gave us life : of these Three who are One in 
essence, and who in unity of counsel determined, " Let 
Gen. i. 2c. us ma k e man in our image." 

If, feeling our low and lost estate, we cry What 
must I do to be saved ? Jesus answers, " Ye must be 
born again. That which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 
For God so loved the world that he gave his only- 

are not contemplated as filled with love, whose nature it is to have 
no limits, and never to fail. 

" Holiness, what is it but holy love, which only wills the holy 
and the good (the God-like), and abhors the evil (ungodly), be 
cause it brings ruin ? And righteousness, what is it but the order, 
the law of love, and its execution ? God is love, not only as Cre 
ator and Preserver of the world, but in himself, from eternity, 
eternal love in person, and surely in more than One Person ; for 
love consists in the unity of [at least] two persons. The subject 
of love is not conceivable without the object, nor personal love 
without a persona] object ; without which it would be but self- 
seeking. The / must have a Thou ; the eternal / an eternal 
Thou ; eternal love an eternal object." 

I give the above fragments for their intrinsic worth, without 
pledging myself to all the sentiments of an essay which I have 
not read. 


begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should 

O * 

not perish, but have eternal life." 

If now craving that new birth we begin to long for 
that Spirit with indescribable desire, our Lord assures 
us, " I will pray the Father ; and he shall give you an 
other Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever." John xiir - 18 - 

If we ask how this, so great a salvation, was accom 
plished, the apostle replies, " Christ, through the 
Eternal Spirit, offered himself, without spot, to God ; " 
and thus " his blood purges our conscience from dead 
works to serve the living and true God." H - >b - >* * 

If we draw nigh to that great High Priest, crying, 
Lord, save me or I perish ; He answers, " The Spirit 
of the Lord God is upon me ; because the Lord hath 
anointed me to preach good tidings unto the meek ; 
he hath sent me to bind up the broken-hearted, to 
proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of 
the prison to them that are bound ; to proclaim the 
acceptable year of the Lord." Isai - Lxi - >> - 

If we turn to the pages of the gospel histories, and 
humbly ask for some manifestation of this stupendous 
mystery, we read " Jesus being baptized, and pray 
ing, the heaven was opened, and the Holy Ghost de 
scended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and 
a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my 
beloved Son : in thee I am well pleased." Luke HI. : 1,22. 

If, as we ponder the threefold benediction pro 
nounced on the worshipping Israelites, "The Lord 
bless thee and keep thee : the Lord make his face shine 
upon thee, and be gracious unto thee : the Lord lift up 
his countenance upon thee, and give thee peace : " and 
observe how this threefold blessing mysteriously co 
alesced in one covenant name, for it is added, " They 
shall put my name upon the children of Israel, and I will 
bless them : " if, pondering these things, we cry, Bless NU ,L <> > ss ~ 



me, even me also, O my Father ; we shall hear a still 
small voice saying to us, The blessings of that name 
into which you were baptized be yours in deed and in 
truth, and in the power of spiritual life, " the name of 
the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 

If, emboldened, we would now interpret this more 
plainly, the doctrine drops as the rain, and distils as 
the dew, in the benediction of the new covenant. 
" The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of 
God, and the communion of the Holy Spirit, be with 

2 cur. xiii. i4. you. Amen." 

We betake ourselves to prayer ; how easy the new 
and living way : " Through Jesus we have access by 

Ejih. si. is. one Spirit unto the Father." And while kneeling at 
the throne of grace how deep the fellowship : " The 
Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we 
are the children of God : and if children, then heirs ; 

Rom. via. 16, heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ." 

If we are ever tempted to draw back from the hope 
of the gospel, how awful does the provocation of the 
Triune Jehovah appear when Scripture, warning us of 
the wrath to come, demands " Of how much sorer 
punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, 
who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath 
counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was 
sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto 
the Spirit of grace ? For we know him that hath said, 
Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense, 
saith the Lord." 

"We are stablished in the faith : but we long to see 
this great mystery -in living connexion with the com 
munion of saints, with the better covenant of promise, 
and with all the framework of human society : this 
too is vouchsafed : for we read, " There is one body, 
and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope 


CHAP. vir. 

your calling ; one Lord, one faith, one baptism, one 
God and Father of all, who is above all, and through 
all, and in you all." Eph.iv.4-e. 

Now we see that all things are ours, who are " elect 
according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, 
through saiictification of the Spirit, unto obedience 
and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ;" for i Pet. 12. 
what, in the confidence of faith we ask, shall separate 
us from the love of God, who " hath from the begin 
ning chosen us to salvation through sanctification of 
the Spirit and belief of the truth, .... to the obtain 
ing of the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ ? " - ess - " ls - 

This assurance of faith is no idle self-confidence, for 
we hear the apostle s earnest entreaty : " But ye, 
beloved, building up yourselves on your most holy 
faith, praying in the Holy Ghost, keep yourselves in 
the love of God, looking for the mercy of our Lord 
Jesus Christ unto eternal life." Jade 20, 21. 

And is now the need of our soul irrepressible for 
suitable language in which to express the adoring 
gratitude of our hearts, let us fall low on our faces 
with the veiled seraphim, and cry, " Holy, holy, holy, 
is the Lord of hosts. Holy, holy, holy, Lord God isai. \-i. 2, s. 
Almighty, which was, and is, and is to come." Rev. iv. s. 

Yes, the pure white light which fills the firmament 
of heaven, and imbues the clouds with brightness, and 
paints the inimitable beauty of every colour which de 
lights us, is only a faint emblem of that glorious name 
the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the 
Holy Ghost which alone can penetrate the depths of 
the human heart ; which alone irradiates the mysteries 
of time and the darkness of the shadow of death ; and Ezek. i. M. 
which has spanned the throne of the Eternal with the 
emerald rainbow of everlasting peace Bev - iT - ^ 



And here I must close. At the beginning of this 
essay I ventured to allude to past personal conflicts. 
My faith was sorely tried ; and I often thought, as 
many others have done, that Satan exhausted his 
quiver on my battered shield. But unutterably pain 
ful as those days of struggle were to me, I should 
number them among the most golden of my life, if 
they taught me to remove one obstacle from the path 
of those who are feeling after Jesus, my Saviour and 
my God. I was at times constrained to cry in bitter 
ness of soul, " All thy billows are gone over me," 
though an unseen hand kept me clinging to him who 
was my life, like the limpet to the rock, buffeted by 
every wave of the fretting sea. But gladly shall I 
have suffered the tempest, if God may enable me 
thereby to stretch forth a helping hand to those who 
are sinking in the deep waters, until their feet are 
planted on the Rock of Ages. Then shall we shortly 
stand together in his presence, where is fulness of joy, 
and cast our crowns before him on whose head are 
many crowns, and sing the everlasting song, " Unto 
him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his 
own blood, and hath made us kings and priests unto 
God and his Father, to him be glory and dominion for 
ever and ever." The Lord, of his infinite mercy, 
grant this by the power of the Holy Ghost, for Jesus 
Christ s sake. Amen and Amen. 



To have tabulated all the verses quoted in the Essay would have made this Index 
far too voluminous. I have therefore only noted those passages more particularly 
discussed or illustrated. These however will, I hope, with the full summary of the 
argument giveu in the table of Contents, afford a sufficient clue to the rest. 

Genesis i. 1 

iii. 15 

vi. 3 

xxxii. 30 
Exodus xxxiii. 20 

xxxiv. 0, 7 


Leviticus xvii. 11 
^Numbers vi. 23 27 
xi. 17 ... 
Deut. vi. 4, 5 

- xxx. 20 ... 

xxxiii. ~27 ... 
Judges vi. -2L 

2 Samuel xxiii. - 
Nehemiah ix. 5 7 


Job xxxiii. 12 11 
Psalm ii. 2 12 ... 

xviii. 2 

xlix. 7, S, ]5 

xc. 1G ... 

xcv. ( J ... 

ex. 1 7 ... 

cxxxvi. 1 i 

cxxxix. 7 ... 
Isaiah i. 2 

vi. 5 


vii. 11 

Elobim created ... 

Let us make 

The seed of the woman 

My Spirit 

I have seen God face to face 

Thou canst not sec my face ... 

The name of the Lord 

Whose name is Jealous 

It is the blood ... 

The Lord bless tluv 

Take of the Spirit .., 

Jehovah our Elohim OS, (note) 

He is thy life 

The Eternal God thy refuge ... 

Jehovah Shalom 

The Spirit of the Lord 

Saviours who saved them 
He giveth not account 

My God my strength 
None can redeem, etc. 
Thou hast been our dwelling 
Let us worship, etc. 

Jehovah alone doeth great wonders 
Go from thy Spirit 
I have nourished 
Mine eves have seen 

(note) 137 
... 137, 16 A 

... -2:\, V.i 








138, 11G, 147 





... 15,33 

... 102, 107 


... 24, Sl 








... 45, 65 

124, (note) 137 




A stone of stumbling 

The Spirit of Jehovah 

He will swallow up death 

Men and not God 

A man shall be a covert 

Prepare yc the way of Jehovah 

Who hath directed the Spirit 

My glory will I not 

A God that hidest thyself 

I said not, Seek me in vain ... 

The Lord God and his Spirit sent 
I, even I, etc. 

Thy Maker is thy husband ... 
The high and lofty One 
The Spirit of the Lord on me 
They vexed his Holy Spirit ... 
Cursed be the man, etc. 
The Lord our righteousness .. 

Isaiah viii. 13, 14 
- ix. 6 

xi. 2 4 ... 

xxv. 8 

xxxi. 1 6 

xxxii. 2 

xl. 3 

- 12, 14 ... 

xlii. 8 

xlv. 15 ... 

19 ... 
- 2125 
xlviii. 16 ... 

li. 1215 ... 
liii. 112 ... 

liv. 5 

Ivii. 15 
Ixi. 1 

Ixiii. 1014 
Jeremiah xvii. 5 -3 
xxiii. G ... 
Ezekiel i. 26 28 
xx. 11, 12 My statutes 

xxxvii. 9 14 Come, breath ... 
Daniel ix. 24 26 Messiah 

Hosea xii. 3, 4 ... Power with God 
Micah v. 2 ... I rom everlasting 

Haggai ii. 7 ... The desire of all nations 

Zech. iii. 9, and iv. 10 Seven eyes 

He whom they pierced 

My fellow 

One Lord 

The Sun of righteousness 

Prepare ye the way 

It is written 

Thou shalt worship 

xii. 10 
- xiii. 7 

xiv. 9 
Malachi iv. 2 
Matthew iii. 3 

iv. 6 

-10 .. 
v. 26, 29 
-48 .. 
vi. 913 
vii. 13, 23 

viii. 2 

Be perfect even as 
The Lord s prayer 

Lord, if thou wilt 


... 24, 90 
90, (note) 113 

... 122, 143 




... 8, 38, 66 

me ... 83 


24, 25, 90, 95 

41, (note) 137 


(note) 114, 165 

... 14, 78 

... 24, 38 

24, 47, 168 



... 45,46 

18, 32, 143 


(note) 113 


(note) 156 

... 38, 39 





Matthew viii. 25 ... Lord, save us ... ... ... 50 

ix. 18 ... Come and lay thy hand ... ... 50 

xi. 27 ... He to whom the Son ... 20,101,105 

xii. 32 ... Speaketh against the Holy Ghost ... 118 

xiv. 33 ... Of a truth thou art ... ... 50 

xv. 25 ... Lord, help me ... ... ... 50 

xviii. 20 ... Where two or three ... ... 19 

26 ... And worshipped him ... ... 49 

xix. 16, .17 None good but One ... ... 20, 94 

20 ... With God all things possible ... 104 

xx. 23 ... Not mine to give except ... ... 94 

- xxi. 9 ... Hosanua in the highest ... ... 51 

44 ... Whosoever shall fall ... ... 100 

xxii. 37, 39 Thou shalt love ... ... 5 

xxviii. 19, 20 Go ye and disciple (note) 19, 58, 112, 143 

Mark ix. 23 ... All tilings possible ... ... 104 

- xiii. 32 ... Neither the Son ... 90, (note) 91 93 
Luke ii. 40 52 ... Childhood of Jesus ... ... 85,90 

iii. 21, 22 ... The heaven was opened, etc. ... 112, 1G5 

- x. 1C ... lie that heareth you ... ...102,100 

John i. 1 LS ... ... ... 18,20,37,71,72,107 

ii. 19 ... 1 will raise it up ... ... 95 

iii. 6 10 ... Yc must be born again ... -27, 95, 165 

-36 ... Jle that belicveth ... ... 153 

iv. 10 ... Thou wouldst have asked ... ... 51 

v. 17 29 ... ... 20,74,93,107 

30 ... I can of myself do nothing ... 89, (note) 91 93 

vi. 38 ... Not my own will ... 17,88,90 
viii. 17 ... The testimony of two ... ... 17 

58 ... Before Abraham was 1 am ... ... 18 

x. 14, 15 ... The good Shepherd ... 20,41,90 

-17 ... No one laketh it ... ... 95 

30 ... I and my Father arc One ... ... 106 

-35 ... He called them gods ... ...102,107 

xii. 41 ... Saw his glory and spake ... ... 45, 65 

xiv. 1 ... Believe in God, believe in rne ... 27 

- 6 ... I am the way ... ... ... 154,161 

- 10 ... My Father doeth the works ... ... 89 

- 9 ... He that hath seen me ... ... 106 

- 10 ... The Father in me ... ... 97 

12 . Greater works than these ...102,106 



John xiv. 16 

- 21, 23 ... 

_ , 28 

xv. 9 

. ^5 

xvi. 13 

xvii. 3 


- 24 
xix. 37 
xxi. 17 

xx. 28 
Acts ii. 3 

. 24 

v. 3, 9 

vii. 5560 ... 
ix. 14, 21 ... 

x. 19, 20 ... 

25,26 ... 


xiii. 2 4 
xvi. 31 

xvii. 27, 28 ... 

xxi. 14 

xxviii. 25 
Romans i. 7, etc. ... 

ii. 4-6 ... 
iii. 1926 

viii. 16 

- 17 ... 

ix. 5 

xiv. 1012 

xv. 16 ... 

30 ... 
xvi. 25, 26 

1 Corinthians i. 2 
j 2 

ii. 13 ... 



I will pray the Father ... ... 165 

We will come, etc. ... ... 58 

My Father is greater than I ... 88, 93 

So have I loved you ... ... 101, 104 

All made known to you ... ... 102, 107 

He the Spirit ... ... ... 118 

To know thee and Jesus Christ 3, 35, 88 

That they may be one . . . 101, 106 

Father, I will ... 90 

Him whom they pierced . .. 65 

Lord, thou knowest all things 20, 90, 144 

My Lord and my God ... ... 74 

Cloven tongues of fire ... ... 112 

Whom God raised up ... ... 95 

Lie to the Holy Ghost ... ... 131 

Stephen s martyrdom ... ... 51 

All that call on thy name ... ... 53 

Jesus Christ maketh thee whole ... 96 

The Spirit said, Arise, go ... (note) 132 

Stand up, I myself ... ... 49 

Lord of all ... ... ... 34, 67 

Holy Ghost and with power (note) 129 

The Holy Ghost said, Separate ... 127 

Believe in the Lord Jesus ... -.. 30 

He is not far ... ... ... 143 

The will of the Lord ... ... 145 

Well spake the Holy Ghost ... ... 124, 131 

Grace and peace from ... ... 61 

Wrath in the day of wrath ... 6, (note) 157 


The Spirit with our spirit ... ... 133, 166 

Firstborn among many brethren ... 101, 105 

Who is over all God blessed ... 75 

We shall all stand ... ... 38, 66 

Sanctified by the Holy Ghost ... 145 

The love of the Spirit ... ... 116 

The obedience of faith ... ... 153 

All that call upon the name of Jesus ... 52 54 

Sanctified in Christ Jesus ... ... 145 

Nothing but Jesus Christ ... ... 27 

The Spirit searcheth ... ... 116 



1 Corinthians ii. 12, 13 Comparing spiritual things ... 

iii. 23 

viii. 6 

xi. 3 
xii. 11 
xiii. 12 
xv. 2128 

2 Corinthians iii. 18 
iii. 18 

xiii. 14 
Galatians i. 1 
Ephcsians i. 1 7 

i. 1723 ... 

ii. 18 

iii. S, 19 ... 



Philippians ii. 9 11 
Colossians i. 15 

i. 16 IS ... 
ii. 9 
iii. 11 
IThcss. i. 1 

iii. 11 ... 
-13 ... 
SThess. i. 7 9 ... 
ii. 13, 14 
- 16, 17 

iii. 5 

1 Timothy ii. 5, 6 
Titus i. iii. 

- ii. 1013 ... 
Hebrews i. 112 

iv. 13 

v. 9 

ix. U ... 

xii. 2 

Christ is God s ... 

One Lord 

The head of Christ is God 

All these worketh 

Know even as I am known 

Then cometh the end 

By the Lord, the Spirit 

The same image ... 

The grace of the Lord Jesus 

Paul, an apostle ... 

Through him access 

Unsearchable riches, etc. 

All the fulness of God 

One Lord 

He led captivity captive 

The kingdom of Christ and God 

Christ gave himself 

In the name of Jesus 

The llrst-born of all creation 

By him were all 

In him dwellcth ... 

Christ is all and in all 

Christ forgave you 

The Church in God, etc. 

Now God himself ... 

The Lord make you 

Taking vengeance 

God hath chosen, etc. 

Now our Lord Jesus 

The Lord direct 

One God and One Mediator ... 

God our Saviour, Christ our Saviour 

Appearing of our great God ... 

Him with whom we have to do 
The author of eternal salvation 
The eternal Spirit 
Author and finisher of the faith 


... 31, 135 

... 68, 96 



... 102, 107 



... 101, 105 

01, 11-2, 1GG 



... J3, 111) 

... 20, 33 

... 105, 108 

... 68, 167 




... 38, 55 

(note) 97 

19, 20, 3:J, !J7 

... 75, 10S 

... -12, ( JS 





... 31, 157 





... 36, 37 

... 3G, 76 

19, 69,98 



... 120, 165 




James iv. 12 ... One lawgiver ... ... ... 146 

v. 20 ... Save a soul ... ... ...102,107 

1 Peter i. 2 ... Elect according to ... ...112,167 

8,9 ... Ye, rejoice with joy unspeakable ... 42 
ii. 7, 8 ... A stone of stumbling ... ... 65 

iv. 17 ... AVhat shall the end be ... ... 155 

-19 ... To him a faithful Creator ... ... 143 

2 Peter i. 1 ... The righteousness of our God, etc. ... 76 

4 ... Partakers of a Divine nature ...101,106 
11 ... The everlasting kingdom ... ... 97 

iii. IS ... Doxology to Christ ... ... 42,55 

1 John i. 3 ... Truly our fellowship ... ... 59 

iv. 816 Jjod is love ... ... 163, (note) 164 

v. 10 ... Belie veth not the record ... ... 154 

-20 ... This is the true God ... ... 35,76 

2 John 9 ... Whosoever transgresseth ... ... 154 

Judel ... Sanctified by God the Father ... 145 

-20,21 ... Ye, beloved, building ... ... 167 

Rev. i. 4 ... Seven spirits ... ... ... 112 

5,6 ... Unto him that loved us ... ... 55 

-8 ... I am the Almighty ... ... 20 

- 8 IS ... The first and the last, etc. ... IS, 32, 143 

- ii. 23 ... I am he who searcheth ... ... 21, 34 

- iii. 14 ... The beginning of the creation of God (note) 97 

-21 ... Will I grant to sit ... 94,102,106 

- iv. 6 ... Living creatures in the midst of the throne (note) 128 
-8 ... Holy, holy, holy ... ... 130 

- v. 6 ... Seven Spirits ... ... 98, (note) 112, 128 

8 14 ... The worship of heaven ... ... 56, 62 

- xiv. 4 ... First-fruits unto God and to the Lamb ... 62 

- xv. 4 ... Thou only art holy ... ... 144 

- xix. 16 ... King of kings and Lord of lords ... 33 

- xxi. 22, 23 ... The Lord God and the Lamb ... 63 

xxii. 1 ... A pure river ... ... ... 98 

- ] 3 ... The throne of God and of the Lamb ... 57,63 

-8 ... I fell down to worship ... ... 48 






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