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Adventure on the Han River, An, D. L. Gifford. 
Almanac, The Korean 
Arrest, an Important 
- Assassination of the Queen of Korea, 

Bird Bridge, The X. 

Bird Bridge again. The 

Bride, The Korean Mrs. M. B. Jones, 

Buddhist Chants and Processions, 

Buddhist Rosary, The Classic of the, E.B.Landis,M.D. 
Butchers of Korea, The 

Chess, Korean W. H. Wilkinson. Esq. 

Cholera in Korea, Asiatic 

Cholera in Seoul, O. R. Avison, M. D. 

Chirstians, Obstacles Encountered by Korean 
Communication, An Interesting 
Compass, First Historical Reference to the Mariner's 
t Confucianism in Korea, 

Currency N. 

Disaster, The “ Edgar “ 

Dolmens and other Antiquities of Korea, 

H. N. 

Filial Piety, Ode on 
Folk, Lore 

Food Stuffs of Korea, 

Foreign Fruit Culture in Korea, 

General Sherman, Fate of the, 

Gouan System of Language Study. The 
Guilds and Other Associations. Korean. 

Han River, An Adventure on the 
✓History. Korean 

- Home Affairs, Downfall ot Minister of 
" Independence of Korea 

* Industrial Exhibition and Improvement, Korean 

J. S. Gale. 
Allen, M. D. 

Gen. W McE. Dye. 
J. S. Gale, 

W L.Swallen. 
D L. Gifford. 
D. L. Gifford. 
J. S.Gale. 

329 - 

68 . 

* 99 - 



354 - 

49 - 


23 - 

88 . 


339 - 

* 45 - 


2 39 - 


* 57 - 

444 . 

3 * 7 - 



4 66. 

. 4 *- 






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"'Justice. Courts of 199 

Katakana, A Korean W. H. W. 215 

" King’s Oath at The Ancestral Temple, 76 

y Ki Tza, The Founder of Korean Civilization 

H. G. Appenzellcr 81 

Korea, A Souvenir of H. H. F. 247 

Korea. The Real 345 

Korean Bride The Mrs M. B Jones. 49 

Korean Chess, W. H. Wilkinson Esq. 88 

Korean Christians, Obstacles Encountered by 145 - 

Korean Civilization, Ki Tza, the Founder of 

H. G. Appenzeller. 81 

Korean Doctor and Hb Methods, The J. B. Busteed, M. D. 188 
Korean Guilds and other Associations, D. L. Gifford. 41 

-Korean History, J. S. Gale. 321 

Korean Katakana, A W. H. W. 215 

Korean Homes, 426 

- Korean Official Gazette, 275 

“^Korean Prople, Origin of, H B. Hulbert. 219. 255 

Korean Pony, The J. S. Gale 176 

Korean Proverbs, 3*4 

"Korean Reforms, H. B. Hulbert. 1 

'Korean Repository for 1896 475 

-Korean Rip Van Winkle. The, H. N. Allen,M. D. 334 
Korean Sounds, Romanization of, W. M. Baird. 161 

Legend of the Hasty Death Gate, S A. Moffet. 414 

Legends ofChong Dong and Vicinity, H. N. Allen. M. D. 103 
Literature, A Few Words on J. S. Gale. 423 

„ Me Kenzie, Rev. W. M. J.—A Memoir G. H. Jones. 295 
Medicine in Korea 159 

Meteorological Report.—February 152 

Methodist Mission, Annual Meeting of 355 . 

^^Missions in Korea, Statistics of the Protestant, 

C. C. Vinton M. D. 382 

'ion Work, The Relation of the Wives ot Mission- 
iries to, Mrs. W M. Baird 416 

Mrs, E. D. Appenzeller. 421 

.tuary—W. J. Hall, M D. 3 

_>des on Life, J S. Gale. 288 

* Official Gazette, The Korean 275. 311. 438 480 

~ Korean People, H. B Hulbert 219.255. 

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Places of interest in Korea. Mrs D. L. Gifford 281. 

Places of Interest in Seoul. H. N. Allen M. D. 127, 180 209. 
Polygamy and the Church. W. L. Swallen 289. 

Ports, Prospects of More Open F. H. Morsel 249. 

Postal System of Korea 320. 359. 400. 

Presbyterian Mission (North). Annual Meeting of the 441. 
- Progress, Continued 265. 

Pyeng Yang, The Battle of 350. 

'Railroad in Korea, The First 156. 

"Reforms, Korean. H. B. Hulbert 1. 

Review of the year, Missionary— 

Meth. Epis. Mission. W. B. Scranton, M. D. 15. 

Presbyterian Mission, C. C. Vinton M. D. 19. 

Rise of the Yangban, The H. B. Hulbert. 471. 

Romanization of Korean Sounds, W. M. Baird. 161. 

Romanization Again. H. B. Hulbert. 299. 

Romanization, Mr Baird on 233. 

Scriptures, The Translation of the 195. 

Seoul, Places of Interest in, H. N. Allen. M. D. 127. 180. 209. 

[ Shelter, The 376. 

Slavery and Feudalism in Korea, C. C. Vinton. M. D. 366. 

Souvenir of Korea, A H. H. F. 247. 

Spiders 198. 

Statistics of the Protestant Churches in Korea 

C. C. Vinton. M. D. 382. 

Tartar Languages, Relationship of the, J. Edkins, D. D. 405. 
Tiger, A I Ik Seup 140. 

Tor.g Guk T'ong Gam, The Beza, 379. 

Tong Hak Prayer, The 61. 

Tong Hak, The W. M. M. Junkin. 56. 

Tong Hak, Seven Months Among the 201. 

. - Visit to Her Majesty the Queen, My Frist 

Mrs A. E. Bunker 373. 

Wayside Idols, Alexandis Poleax. 143. 

Whang Hai Do, A, Trip into J. H. Wells M D. 307. 

Where th: Han Bends, Alexandis Poleax, 241. 

Wise Fool, The H. N. Allen. M. D. 334. 

Wolung Do F. H. Morsel. 412. 

Youths’ Primer, Historical Resume of G. H. Jones 134. 
Youths’ Primer, The, G. H. Jones 96. 

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- A Retrospect 1895. 29. 29 

Asiatic Cholera in Korea, 274 

» - Assassination of the Queen of Korea. 386 

Blazing Indignation. 476 

Christian Literature for the East. 478 

— * Continued, Progress 295 

Decennial Anniversary of Protestant Missions 394 

- ‘ Great Changes in the Korean Government 111 

" Home Affairs, Downfall of Minister of 268. 

v ' Independence of Korea 194 

- 'Japanese Residents in Korea 310 

- Korean Industrial Exhibition and Improvement 232 

Korean Names 426 

Mr Baird on, Romanization 233 

"She hath done what she could". 392 

The Bird Bridge Again 334 

* " The "Emperor of Korea” 455 

* ~ The Fate of the Queen 431 

The Korean Almanac 68 

'The Official Gazette 27s. 3n. 438. 480 

- -The Real Korea 345 

. --The Treaty of Peace 235 

Translation of the Scriptures 195 


Pages 39, 78, 120, 153, 197, 235, 277, 316, 359, 396, 440, 481. 

- Corea the Land of the Morning Calm. 230 

Korean Grammatical Forms 74 

Notes on Korea 271 

Religious Tract Society, Annual Report of Korean 75 

The Gospels of Matthew and John S. A. Moffett 361 

Protestant Missions, Decennial Anniversary of 394 

Proverbs, Korean Bcza. 314 

Pyeng Yang, A Visit to the Battle Field of. Graham Lee 10 

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T -V I*, jt . 



No. 1 . 



JANUARY, 1895 . 








H. B. Hulbert. 


Rev. Graham Lee. 


W. B. Scranton m. d. 

C. C. Vinton, u. D, 


E. B. Landis, M. r>. 






A RETROSPECT — 1894 . 



Price per annum, $ 3 . 00 . 

Per copy, 30 c. 

Published at 




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J\AJtTTT-A.:R/5r, 1895. 


I We find in history a law of compensation, not a merely 

[ monetary compensation but a payment in kind. The Goths 
paid Rome back in kind. Asia Minor gave to Greece the Hel- 
I lenic race and was repaid by the most perfect of all heathen 
civilizations. England gave to America some of her very lxjst 
H and today is reaping her reward in the largest market for her 
p. manufactures and her greatest food supply. 

A thousand years ago a series of civilizing agencies found 
• their way from the mainland of Asia eastward to Korea and 
through, her to Japan. Not the least among these agencies was 
the Buddhist religion, for it gave Japan a unifying influence 
which made possible her subsequent power. A thousand year* 
have elapsed and still the law of compensation has remained 
TL unverified in her case. 

It is not my intention to broach the question as to the 
rff 1 merits of the war now in progress, but to ask whether there are 
/nc#* n MV signs of a real determination on the part of the Japan- 
j® ese to meet their obligations to Korea and pay the debt contract- 
*j?d so many centuries ago. 

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t- . 

I *fi i * * . i * • i * : * i in . - »* i • *. a* «i * m * * . aj * 

v« T i.« . .. .*» i*X 2 ~n r * 

m » :'m f . jTir>t '.ur . 1 .:*.: *i< **n '* . .,*• urrr^ .~. f r 

:,* a** rv?.,*f ' ..* <r,K- • .*—/ I ir» 

/ * i i*.<i ' *• rrm-fl *.u: .u-r .4 i .* .,u‘ » v 

■ni.-r ,*i* yiiT.r.tiia af a... V. *t -wul r^tornis - 

fr. *!.! hn w** . to r-ni^m >t ".ian iqii J *7 antin'* m t*: 
po?:»%•.<! arjrirwra* In th« ir.-.a'j ;t # to’.;* * w dn: 
*.»•;I* pr-ii-t^ui ana.vn7 in rC *va tui menace to 

r.v.r’,v< of Japan, to,* ia. : -ijicer-i j rr m^rel/ 

•*. vu an tovrior ‘I r..a*to-i vrr .\:t.e If ocuj is a- 

•:' vtna toor-vj^h clearerr »-l E ,r»an r>.'/.Vs. 

th":ri aro sorae *>f *i>r :r la taese 

* ' • r . ^ 

, /. i . 'il»/., 

If-neeforwird the year from i\: eziiULhsnent of the dy- 
uatly >t to ft the date on all ojp:uil documents zzzihat the Adxj’- 
<!/in and without. 

'J he a greements with China shall be al::r: l ait I mzicsicrz 
flenijoifentt/iry shall be sent to the various prwirz. 

/,« might he exacted, the resolution* i* _'in It z*^z' .’: 
.JiMully ;. complete independence on the ]*ut <*f K-.r^a. Ir 
, innot he denied that Korea lias held un ate :a •'. u | r «;:;ue 
i he worid for the last decade, Wing rec- juiu-d t v * .. .. 
|,o\v< !'« hh a sovereign state and by others as a vassal. 

Which of these two views is the proper one is not <.i Jr • -.. 
v in,:,, to discuss but merely to indicate the fact that, l.y : j,:« 
declaration, 1, “' <'<>**ncil of State propose t-» assort compivie 
ii,dc|H'iidetn’i! lor Korea. 

»|*| ; ,. ii !S t of these s.-ems uncalled for until we remcmler 

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that from the very oarliest times victorious peoples in eastern 
Asia have hastened to impose their calendar upon conquored 
states. Korean history informs us that when the Mongols tool; 
Korea they forthwith compelled the people to adopt the Mon¬ 
gol calendar. When the Mandchous took Korea some throe 
centuries ago the same thing took place. So this resolution to 
use a purely Korean date is a characteristically Asiatic way of 
assorting independence. 

The distinction betivecn patrician and plebeian rank shall bt 
done away and men shall be selected for office according to ability, 
without distinction of birth. 

This is distinctly Utopian but it is a bold thrust at the 
very throat of the beast that is throttling Korea. 

Whatever mistakes the Japanese may or may not have 
made they have diagnosed the Korean disease most accurately. 

The whole trouble lies in those words Nyangban and Sang- 
Hvm. It ie not that a distinction between upper and lower clas¬ 
ses is had hut because there is no possibility of working down. 
We Westerners talk about working up but in Korea the great 
trouble is that a man of the upper class, however desparate 
mav he his circumstances, cannot throw off his coat and start 
in at the foot of the ladder. Any Korean can work his way 
up if he has brains and money. There are many men of high 
position who began most humbly. No, it is when the man of 
good blood has to tighten his belt 41 to the sharp belly-pinch,” 
as Kippling has it, that caste distinctions make trouble. Ho 
immediately looks about for a relative upon whose bounty he 
may live without forfeiting his claim to the name of gentleman 
by having to engage in common labor. There can be but one 
result. As many men of low birth succeed by hook or crook 
in reaching the estate of Xyang-ban while none ever descend 


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7a c koceas BEPOtrrovr. 

from (hat social height, it follows that the ratio between the 
low class, or the producers and the high class, or the con¬ 
sumer*, constantly changes, to the detriment of the laboring 
class. The producer* hare to yield np to the official class, year 
by year, an erer increasing proportion of their earnings. The 
army of parasites about every government office constantly in- 
creates in size until the limit of endurance is reaced and the 
ruling party is totally estranged from the masses. This may 
show bow deep a furrow is being plowed by this one resolution. 
It asserts the right of any mao, however high his birth, to 
engage in any honest trade or occupation without forfeiting his 
claims to the name gentleman. Now this is a splendid princi¬ 
ple Lnt there is one difficulty in the way. It is public senti¬ 
ment that decides whether a man shall be called a gentleman 
and be treated as such. No law is of the least force in the mat¬ 
ter. This resolution is not so mnch a law as a statement 
of opinion dcsigoed to give direction to public opinion and 
gradually work it up to a point where the enunciation of sueh 
a principle will bo unnecessary. 

The taw which renders the family and connections af a crint - 
iftal liable to punishment sludl be totally abrogated. The offender 
only sludl be punished. 

It is evident that there was no preliminary planning in 
regard to the arrangement of these resolutions for among the 
first five we find resolutions regarding the calendar, foreign 
relations, official caste and the penal codo. 

Both time and strength would Lave l«cn saved »* a care¬ 
ful plan hud been worked out beforehand and the resolutions 
had been discussed according to some definite system, it seems 
that there were some ideas that were crowding for utterance* 
and were pushed forward at the start regardless of plan or 
method. This by no means invalidates the usefulness of tho 

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resolutions but on tho other hand is a hopeful sign as showing 
that on a me of the most fundamental points there was prac¬ 
tical unanimity. 

This fifth resolution is a very long step toward an en¬ 
lightened government and unlike some of the resolutions it can 
l>e supported by the arm of the law. It is practical. It is 
manifest that the law which included a man’s family in the 
guilt of his crime was intended as a strong deterrent, for a man 
could not but take this into account before attempting an un¬ 
lawful deed eveu if he were sure of escaping himself. Such a law 
was a confession on the part of the government of its inability 
to capture the offender. If this law is abrogated, therefore, 
its abrogation must be followed by some efficient plan for the 
detection of crime and the capture of the criminal. If the 
police of the country are unable to track down the criminal in 
a large majority of cases, it is evident that there is po strong 
deterrent to crime and the latter state of that country will t>e 
worse than the first 

Early marriages are strictly forbidden. A man must be twen¬ 
ty years old and a woman sixteen before they marry. 

We have here a resolution that is benificent in every way 
and which can be opposed on no reasonable grounds. 

Child marriage in Korea is not the curse that it is in 
India because in Korea the age is usually greater and the laws 
which bind the child widow are not so oneious. At the same 
time it is a relic of barbarism and is the cause of untold suf¬ 
fering. It often happens that the girl is taken to the house of 
her betrothed years before the wedding takes place and her 
position there is practically that of a slave to her future 
mother-in-law. This resolution then will have a most salutary 
effect upon the Korean home life. 

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6 the Korea:; KEm-.rronY. 

Widows of high or low (slate shall be per milted to merry as 
they please. 

This resolution is tho complement of the preceding one and 
intended to liberate woman from the last and greatest disa¬ 
bility under which she suffers. It is true that among the mid¬ 
dle and lower classes women have been allowed a certain degree 
of liberty in this direction but no widow has ever been married 
with all the rites and honors of a first marriage. It is to be 
doubted whether this resolution will be accepted by the people 
ut largo and acted upon for many a year to come. Especially 
is this true of women of tho higher class. It is to be feared 
that tho women themsolvcs, tho very ones whom this resolution 
is intended specially to benefit will provo the greatest ob¬ 
stacle to its general adoption. This is one of the things that 
mu8tcome by slow degrees. Public sentiment must bo educat¬ 
ed up to it. 

The law authorising the keeping of official or Private male or 
f emale slaves shall be abolished and it shall be forbidden to buy ot 
sell any person. 

This is the Korean emancipation proclamation. Slavery 
has existed in Korea from time immemorial but in a mild form 
and unattended by many of the horrors which it lues bred in 
some more enlightened countries. Its worst feature has l»eon 
the law by which the wives and daughters of offenders can be 
seized and made slaves, subject to every caprice of their masters. 

To select men for office by literary examinations is the law of 
the country , but it is difficult to test ability by literary essays alone. 
The throne is to be memorialised to alter the method of si lection and 
adopt other rules on the subject, 

If there is any innovation that will break up the old 
foundations more than any other it is this. To lie sure tho Ko¬ 
reans all knew that it was a farce and that tb'“ \mu who could 

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pay most- handsomely or who had the car of one of the in¬ 
fluential officials would be sure to draw the prize, and yet there 
still remained the old time honored custom of going up to the 
capital and trying for a prize and as the unexpected does some¬ 
times happen, chanco might favor them. Korean tradition and 
folklore are full of stories about the examinations, and the doing 
away with them will eliminate a most fundamental factor from 
Korean life of to-day. It will be like taking from the Swiss 
his alpine horn, from the Englishman his Christmas, from the 
Spaniard his bull-fight, from the Italian his carnival,’from the 
Turk his Mecca. 

It is important to note the resolutions bearing on finance 
for this is practically the leading question in all countries. In 
these resolutions the matter of finance is touched upon in several 
places but without any logical order. The plan for spending 
the money is put before the plan for raising it, but if the re¬ 
solutions on the subject be arranged in proper order the plan 
will stand as follows. 

A circular is to be issued calling for a statement of the true 
amount and designation of all Royal taxes leviable on farm lands, 
rice lands, dikes, ditches and timber belonging to each domain, de¬ 
partment and cantonment. A tabulated statement shall be drawn 
up shou’ing what has been expended out of the income received by 
each department, the balance in hand, the amount due but not re¬ 
ceived as well as an inventory of office furniture. A circular shall 
be issued calling for a statement of the total amount of expendi¬ 
ture in tlx provinces, whether the regular official expenditure or 
pay for soldiers. Rates and taxes of all kinds in each province 
and the contributions to the palace, whether of rice, millet, bean... 
cotton cloth or grass cloth are all to be pail in money. 11 inks 
are to be established for the issue <ff current coin to the people to 
furnish them with capital for ra 'mg in rice and grain. The con- 

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\ ci sion of tut taxes into money is to be further deliberated on. 

This is well and good so far as it goes, but there is a deal 
of moaning hidden in the last clauso. 

The carrying out of this law will enable the treasury de¬ 
partment to know where it stands. There has bceu a lament¬ 
able lack of book keeping in tho Korean government during 
the last few centuries. A clear outline of receipts and expendi¬ 
tures will be tho death blow to a large body of hangers-on who 
have been acoustomcd to toko care of tho surplus. The govern¬ 
ment must know where tho money goes to — every dollar of it. 
Then and only then will Korea bo on a safe financial footing. 
It is not that Korea is poor; she is not. She is comparatively 
well off, but the prevailing custom in regard to the disbursement 
of funds would wreck the British government or the United 
States government in a year. If one half the taxes paid by the 
tux-payors of Korea ever reached the treasury and all officials 
were definitely salaried Korea would bo the most solvent go¬ 
vernment in the East. 

The question arises, in regard to the al>ove resolution, as to 
tho meaniug of tho statement that banks are to lie established 
for the issue of ourreut coin to the people. What do tho peo¬ 
ple give in return for it? Is the government intending to buy 
the rice and grain to the extent of the taxes and then take tho 
money lmck as payment for taxes? If so tin* difference be¬ 
tween that method and the present one will bo that the govern¬ 
ment rather than the people will have the work of transporting 
the lie j to the capital. We do not understand that banks are 
made to furnish capital for people to trade with uni we doubt 
whctlnr such a bank would pay any dividends esjiecially in 
K<.rea; but there iB evidently a desire to get out of the present 
difficulties and therefore even this suggestion is hailed «»* an 
iudicutmu of a determination to work out the problem iu 

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soma way. But as I hare intimated, there is a good deal behind 
that final clausa. We trust that the time is not for distant when 
the Korean government will be on a sound financial footing 
and when the enlightened policy shadowed forth in these and 
all the other resolutions, which we have not space to discuss in 
detail, shall bear their legitimate fruit in a contented peasan¬ 
try an upright officiary and an intelligent and industrious mid¬ 
dle class. 

Finally we hope and believe that theso resolutions will 
reach their culmination in a clause declaring Freedom ol Bc- 
ligion fo. the Korean people. 

Homer B. Ilulbert. 

Note. Allow me to say that the Council of State have not finished their 
deliberations and it is therefore impossible as yet to review the resolutions 
as a whole. I have therefore selected from those already agreed upon such 
as seem most imp* rtant. 

It is hardly necessary to say that as yet few of these have been put in 
operation. The Chinese calendar has been discarded. The whole scheeme 
of the ofticary has been reorganized. The new coin has been put into 
circulation. The wearing of long sleeves by the Nyang-ban class has been 
discontinued. A police torce has been organized and a law requiring the 
name of each inmate of each house to Lc posted on the fiont door lias Icen 

The more rad cal reforms aic still held in abeyance but upon the com¬ 
pletion ol the Ccui.cil s work and its ratification by His Majesty they will 
doubtless be put in opcr.iticn as rapidly as the still unset! cd ton itaon ol 
the country will permit 


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On tlie first <<f last October, in company with the Into 
1 >r i lit 1 1 and llev. S. A. Moffett, I left S-eoiil 1« »r Pyeng Yang. 
\Y.- wished to find out what had become of our Christians, 
and how they had passed the time during the late stirring 
eveids. The city was in the hands of the Japanese, ami the 
f soldiers were flying toward China as fast as their legs 
could carry them. Armed with passports from the Japanese 
Minister we sot out upon our journey. This time, 1 tried the 
experiment of touring in Korea on a bicycle, and found it t 
great success. Travelling in the Land of the Morning Calm 
at the best, is hard and disagreeable, and if there is anything 
by which one can make the journey less tedious it behooves 
him to make use of it. 

It is my experience that spinning along on a good 
u wheel” is a deal more interesting, aud much less tiresome, 
than sitting all day, Korean fashion, perched on top of a 
pony ioad, with your feet dangling over on each side of your 
horse's neck. Wo reached Pyeng Yang Saturday ftemoon, and 
crossed the river on a pontoon bridge of Korean Ixaits, built 
''j the Chinese, who in their hurry to depart forgot to de¬ 
stroy it. The fust few da\s we spent in viewing the battle field 
anl tr ily it was a sight to one unused to scenes of war. That 
we n ay have some idea of this battle, which in the future, will 
be looked back upon as a crisis in the history of thus.; nations of 
the far East, let us ] ns lit in general the plan of the attack. 
Pyeng Yang is a walled city, and it is n est a hi irably situated 
for purposes of defense. In front runs the Ta dong river, too 
wide and dee]) to l>e cn ss.ri in the face of a di-tcru ined foe. To 
the north, inside the city wall, is a hill some hundreds of fo-t 
high which cornu amis the surrounding country for miles. Mo 
enemy could take Pyeng Yang until its defenders bad boon 
i .riven out cl this key pcL-iticn. 

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The Chinese array had been in Pyeng Yang some forty days, 
and had had ample time to entrench themselves most strong¬ 
ly in and about the city ; but entrenchments, be they never so 
strong, are of little use unless manned by brave men. I do not 
sav that the Chinese soldiers, who tried to hold Pyeng Yang, 
are cowards, but I must say from what I saw that in most of 
the positions given up by the Chinese, there was little, evidence 
of hard fighting. The Chinese seemed to expect the main at¬ 
tack from across the river in their front, and here they were 
well prepared, but the Japanese did not see fit to give battle ac¬ 
cording as the Chinese had planned for it. For two days the 
Japanese kept up a cannon demonstration from across the river 
in front, and wliile the attention of the Chinese was turned that 
way, two divisions of the Japanese army marched around to 
the rear of the city and got in readiness to attack at a given 
time. On the morning of Sept. 15th. all was in readiness and 
verv early a combined attack was begun from three sides. Tko 
Chinese were driven out of position after position, and before 
night the Japanese were in posession of all the outer works. 
The Chinese still held the high hill at the north, and on this 
hung their fate. This was the key of the whole position and 
once taken, the battle of Pveng Yang was over. Sometime 
during the evening of the 15th. the Japanese made a grand 
charge, and up the steep sides of this hill they went in the very 
teeth of the Chinese rifles. It was a brave charge and was made 
with such rigor that the hill was carried with a rush. 

After this there was nothing left but retreat for the Chines?, 
and little chance of this, for the Japanese were on every side of 
the city. On the night of the 15th. in the darkness and rain, 
the Chinese army, demoralized by the defeat of the day, and 
dreading capture by -their foes, left the city. Their leaving was 
not a retreat; it was a flight. Out of the South Gate they went 
tramping each other down in the mad rush. Once outside the 
wall they seem to have scattered to the hills like sheep, every 
man for himself. For miles about the city the country is strewn 
with pieces of Chinese clotliing tlrrown away on this event¬ 
ful night. 

Such was the poor defense of Pyeng Yang by the Chinese 
army. Were we, who saw that battle field, asked why the 
Chinese made such a poor stand against a foe that from time 
immemorial they have despised as unworthy of their prowess wo 
v.uuld not haiJ put to find the reason- 

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Among other things thrown away by these fleeing Chines.?, 
were great numbers of fans and paper umbrellas. It is almost 
l>ey< nd the comprehension of a Westerner that n soldier should 
carry as part of his equipment a fan to c<x)l lib heated brow, 
and a paper umbrella to shield his devoted head. The Chincrn 
were aimed with good guns, as the Krupp cannon, and modem 
rilh s among the trophies of war testify, but they were a!s > 
loaded down with a lot of trumpery which was worse than 
useless in time of battle. As a trophy of this battlo field I pick¬ 
ed up a large two-handed sword, which had a blade about two 
feet long, and a handle about four. It was clumsy and awk¬ 
ward, and alsolutely useless as a weapon in these days of the 
magazine rifle and Gatling gun. AI90 scattered about I saw 
many bamboo pikes with lough iron tips which were in per¬ 
fect keeping with the big sword. Such things showed that 
the Chinese array was several hundred years behind the times. 
Is it any wonder that an army, unpatriotic, poorly drilled, 
and badly equipped, could make no stand against an opposing 
force smaller in number but patriotic to a man, drilled almost 
to perfection, and armed with the best of modern implement# 
of warfare? 

Some of the sights to ho seen on this battle field were hor¬ 
rible in the extreme. The dead that fell near the city, had 
mostly been covered, but those killed some distance away were 
lying all unburied. In one place 1 counted over twenty bod¬ 
ies literally piled one on top of another lying just as they 
had been shot down. In another place where a body of Man¬ 
churian cavalry ran into an ambush of Japanese infantry the 
carnage was frightful. Sovoral hundred men and horses ly¬ 
ing as they had fallen, made a swath of bodies nearly a quar¬ 
ter of a mile long, und several yards wido. It was three 
weeks after the battle, and the bodies were all there unmolest¬ 
ed even by the dogs. One can imagine wlmt must have been 
the sights and smells about the place. These Matichus were 
said to have been charging a force of Japanese infantry hut all 

tho evidence of the field leads me to think that they wero 


simply trying to get away, und happened on this ambu-h 
One fact that especially leads me to think so was the condi¬ 
tion of a gun found near one of these dead cavaliy men It 
was a Winchester carbine of the magazine sort, and it had 
eight shells in the magazine and none in the ham!, and \vh..t 

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is more, tlie lever used for ejecting tlie old shell and throwing in 
a new one was locked. Surely a soldier with his gun in such 
!i condition was not making a charge. Had he been fighting 
instead of running away, his gun barrel would have held eith¬ 
er a loaded or exploded shell, and the lever would have been 
unlocked ready for quick service. Another fact that leads (•• 
the same conclusion, was the finding of two large lumps of 
crude opium, which must have weighed seven or eight pounds. 
Would any cavalrv man, going into a charge, have loaded 
himself down with such a burden? The man who carried this 
was evidently doing bis best to save himself and his opium. 

Some ot these sights were not only horrible but sad an 
well. In an empty Korean house I 6aw the body of one poor 
Chinese soldier. He bad been wounded, and bad crawled into 
this house to die. By his head was standing his water bottle, 
showing that the poor fellow had probably lived some home 
before death brought relief to his sufferings. 

Before going to Fyeng Yang we had heard about tin 
mines which the Chinese had laid, which mines as the repoit 
wont, had been exploded after the Japanese entered the city, 
doing great dainago. As with most rumors this one lmd a 
basis of truth for we saw the mines. One day, while follow¬ 
ing along one of the Chinese entrenchments, out south-east of 
the city, we carne across the remains of an electric battery. It 
had been smashed to pieces, and the broken cells were scat¬ 
tered all about. What had it been used for was the question. 
Looking about we saw the ends of five electric wires which led 
out across the embankment, and then underground. They 
had not been laid deeply and were easy to follow. With keen¬ 
ly aroused interest we struck off across the fields eagerly fol¬ 
lowing up this electric trail. For a quarter of a mile it led ua 
and then suddenly our search was rewarded and we found what 
we had not expected to see, the terrible (?) mines planted by 
the Chinese. These five wires ran to five shells, three of whicn 
were planted some fifty feet apart, while about one hundred 
and fifty feet distant were planted two more the same distance 
apart, ill had been exploded, and each one made a wbol * 
about six feet deep and ten feet across. These were the tei- 
lible mines of which we had heard. It is difficult to under¬ 
stand what those who planted these shells had in mind. Had 
the Japanese army taken a position on top of these miues and 

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TtTE icons AN r 


waited for them to be exploded, a few men might have been 
hurt, but otherwise the chances of doing much execution were 
slight. Then too the mines were laid in a field of standing 
corn, which would have made it very difficult fur the man in 
charge of the battery to know just when an advancing euemy 
was in position to bo blown up. The shells had all been ex¬ 
ploded, but thoro is no evidence of the enemy having been in 
their vicinity. The Japanese made their attack in another 
place. The man in charge may have touched the in «»fi’ just 
before bolting, or what is more likely, the Japanese set them 
off after winning the victory. 

Some of the Korean stories about the battle are interest¬ 
ing not only for the vivid imagination they show, hut also be¬ 
cause they bring out most clearly the deep seated hatred of 
anything Japanese, and the ingrained, inherited regard for 
anything belonging to China. One of these will siifiiee t > il¬ 
lustrate both these traits as well as the Korean imagination. 
It is told by the Koreans that General Mali, one of the Chin¬ 
ese generals became disgusted at the way his soldiers fought, 
and just at this juncture, being wounded in the ankle, he be¬ 
came very angry. Marching to his quarters In* donned his ar¬ 
mor and grasping a cannon in his hand, he sallied forth single- 
handed against the Japanese army, and by hb own unaided ef¬ 
forts killed two hundred Japanese soldiers. 

The poor Koreans of l’yeng Yang have had a hard time. 
Although not responsible for the war, yet they have had to en¬ 
dure its attendant evils. Many have lost their all hut this h«R 
been nothing more than just punis'uncnt for the dreadful lives 
of sin they have lived. Let us hope that Pyeng Yang, made 
thoughtful by her fiery trial, will lie more ready in the future to 
’.tear of that way of salvation which alone can save man from 
his sin.s. 

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It is ro.isona.b e to ask of an army how far it has gone into 
the enemy’s country, and easy for a merchant to sum up his 
status. The successes and failures, obstacles and encourage^ 
ents of each of these would be largely of a material nature. 

Not so with Missions. 

On the threshold we must recognize that our results arc 
not material an*, enumerable even though our agencies are 
material and expensive. It would be as unreasonable to demand 
of a Mission the results of its labors as to demand it of a ray 
of light which in past ages lit other scones and warmed plants 
and life that are now furnishing fuel, generating force and con¬ 
tinuing impulse further than thought can follow. 

Missions are ripples and waves that carry forces to shores 
we have not yet touched, and awaken echoes that conn.: J ^ 
silenced through an eternity to como. Missions are making 
epochs and are agencies even in “making known the wisdom of 
God unto principalities and powers in heavenly places.” Mis¬ 
sions are seed sowings and their harvest is not according to the 
calendar but according to the end of the age. 

To as varied an audience as that of the Repository the 
summary of our past year’s work becomes specially difficult be¬ 
cause of the varied interests of its readers. 

Our mission life begau by the purpose of our Board at 
home in 1G83; or by the first appointments to this field in 1884. 

Our material forces may be summed up today as follows:- 
For the Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
eight married men. For the woman’s Foreign missionary 
sociecy (by its charter a distinct organization) seven ladie6; 
the two making, then, fifteen units of work, though some of 
these units are well reinforced above the others. 

This number of workers is distributed, one family each, in 
•7!:Linulpo, Wonsan and I’ycng Yang; the remainder being in 

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tho Capital, f/coul, where our institutions are all located. 

Iu Seoul wo have a high school for boys, a “home” for 
girls, a department for adult women, two hospitals, one for 
men and one for women, and we have general medical work in 
Wonsan and Pyeng Yang. We have also in Seoul a publish¬ 
ing house and a book depository. 

At Seoul five male missionaries are at work as follows; two 
in medical work, two in school, one in the press. Four of these 
five have pastorates and two are engaged in translating the Holy 
Scriptures into Korean, and one in Seoul and one in Chemulpo 
have work on the Tract committee also. In other wordB this 
means that eight men are engaged in work that might well oc¬ 
cupy the time of sixteen. 

The accessions during the past year have not increased our 
actual roll although a goodly number have been added. Theso 
have however only cancelled losses which had not until this year 
been noted in our records. 

We have direct Christian work, preaching, in eight different 
places. The hard times of two years past have forced us to re¬ 
treat from one point far distant in order to attend to work closer 
at hand, and many other points which we might easily reach 
and to some of which we have boen specially invited, wo have 
been unable to attempt, from lack of force, and not least in 
consequence of the war which during 1894 has so unsettled tho 

To fully appreciate the task in hand one should not look 
alone at the agencies at work, but the task to be effectod. At 
the lowest estimate of population given of which I am aware, 
Korea is set down as having 10,518,937 inhabitants. Were these 
to be divided equally among our fifteen unit workers the rcRpon- 
sil ility of 930,000 seuls would fall to each. The area of Korea 
in square miles is given at 84 244. Were thus to le divided a- 
mong our fifteen workeis, to avoid any undue encroachments up¬ 
on each other’s fields, or to indicate the amount of muscular activ¬ 
ity each must put forth, an area of 5C00 square miles would re¬ 
sult to each ; or a population and area equal to that of the State of 
Connecticut in America would lie the diocese of each with no 
clergy to reinforce him and the difficulty of an, as yet, untamed 
language. No railroads, no hotels nor roads suitable for wheel¬ 
ing even, exist, and thus a glimpse at t^c size of the work aiul 
at some of the difficulties can be afforded. 

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D’stance must be measured by oiu‘ modi s of conveyance 
no 1 miles. To cross the country of Korea from Chemulfo to 
Wonsan by Ibis country's methods, a distance of two hundred 
miles, requires as much time as to journey from New Yoik to 
San Francisco. 

Chemulpo leads our list this past year in the fin suit i J 
self support, the ecoi o nical aim of first importance. They have 
felt a need and have stood to it bravely. In consequence we 
have the first native protestant chapel in Korea, paid for out of 
native contributions. It is about twelve by twenty feet, with 
straw thatched roof and mud walls and flcois, and costs nearly 
sixty Mexican dollars. To most observers it would be a building 
of no interest but for the worshippers it says “I will show you 
my faith by my works.” 

Tyeng Yang has l)een a storm center this past year. They 
tried to drive Dr. Ih.ll from his place by insults and stoning, by 
arresting and beating his servants and putting them in the stocks 
and threatening their lives for the testimony of Jesus. Last of 
till that “Sodom” in Korea and n.cst inhospitable of all its towns 
has met the vengeance of Heaven for its wickedness and inhu¬ 

The Chinese army entered it a city of some 80,0C0 inhal i- 
ttsnts and left it diminished to a few hundreds whose lives were 
all that they possessed in the world. 

Through all this our few Christians remained firm, and at 
the Mission home ; kept the Sabbath, prayed together, and re¬ 
ceived no other harm than hard work and difficult living. On the 
capture of the city by the Japanese, two Jap anese Christians 
were glad to find such a home and united their prayers together 
with the Koreans, with one heart to our God, though in lan¬ 
guage mutually unintelligible. This Church is growing up in the 
fire. They showed their faith not by contributing money but by 
not running. Their hope was an anchor. 

Immediately after the great battle there Dr. Hall returned 
to his post to encourage his Hock. Three men were baptized by 
him at this time, but he returned home stricken with a fever that 
cost him his life. We are thus called upon to mourn the first 
less by death to the working force of our Mission. Dr. Hall’s un¬ 
tiring patience won him the hearts of all. It will not lx* an easy 
task that Dr. Hall has set for his successor in Pyeng Y r ang — 
the life of self sacrifice he lived there. No missionaries in Korea 

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13 t:ii: Korean repository. 

have I con called upm to endure, before this, the hardships that 
have fallen to brothcis Hall and Moffett this past year in Pyeng 

The lead of the arr.ies has brought death and dismay into 
thousands of homes in Korea, Japan and China duiing this year 
past and it still further threatens not tl.o peace of these count¬ 
ries alone, but that of the whole world. 

The lead of the Mission press has teen speaking words of 
everlasting peace and security and has but tegun its career 
with the issuance during the past year of f>2.l85 volumes in Ko¬ 
rean, or 1,801,440 pages; and “Thine arrows are sharp in the 
heart of the King’s enemies whereby the people fall under Thee.” 

In our Schools some one hundred and eighty pupils of both 
Rexes arc l>cing trained that they may be tetter Koreans. In 
different places and in different cases the studies vary. Thcs-* 
range through the native tongue and the Chinese to our common 
Knglish branches, history, chemistry and philosophy. The pupils 
have already received new ideas and thoughts wnich no political 
upheaval can shake out out of them, and which effectually chan¬ 
ges the texture of their minds even down to the youngest among 
t hem. Though this can never he calculated it has as surely 
changed the course of this country toward rcasou and purity and 
right, as nails in a compass box will influence the course of 
a ship. 

The hospitals give great lessons to those who have eyes to 
s that the world needs a Greater Physician to deliver it from 
i:s liondage to corruption and groaning; for whereas earthly skill 
docs succeed for a few years there is but one who can cure lep¬ 
rosy and raise from the dead. 

Our medical work is carried on in Seoul, WOnsan and 
Pyeng Yang. Upwards of twelve thousand patients are adminis¬ 
tered to yearly and the receipts have reached os high os § Ill00. 

What can I say for the daily ministration of God’s word 
and the sendees from w r eek to week but in the words of the pro¬ 
mise. “He that gorth forth and weepeth bearing precious seed 
shall doubtless come again with rejoicing bringing lib sheaves 
with him.” The blessing of God has already given seed to the 
sower and bread to the eater. 

There is no department of our work where the teaching of 
God’s word and the explanation of God’s love for an 1 grace to 
man is not emphasized. In the school this is done by daily pray- 

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ers and reading of the Bible, and special religious instruction in 
the hosptials. Christain teaching is emphasized by daily ser¬ 
vices for all who come. In this way dally audiences are had 
which constantly change. On Sundays our regular audience 
would average five hundred. There is also an average of nearly 
live hundred women monthly, not included in the numbers, at 
the woman’s hospital. 

I know there are some of the readers of the Repository to 
whom this method of broad-cast sowing will seem irrational. 
The defense is based on the command that we are to sow beside 
all waters, and that we are not judges of who will hear. More¬ 
over the fact remains that though many do not seem to benefit 
by the grace of the gospel thus offered to them, yet many in after 
days do return to one Christian worker and another and acknowl¬ 
edge that the Holy Spirit first began His work in their heart! 
from the day they heard by just such agencies as these. 

W. B. Scranton, 


The earliest Protestant converts from among the Korean 
people were four men baptized in 1876 by Rev. J. W. Mac In¬ 
tyre of the Scotch Presbyterian Mission in Manchuria. The first 
Protestant Missionary work carried on upon Korean soil was that 
of the Presbyterian Church north in America, whose pioneer, Dr. 
H. N. Allen, took up his residence in Seoul in September, 1884. 
In 1891 a station was opened at Fusan, in 1892 at Wonsan, 
and in 1893 at Pyeng Yang. 

At present the Mission force cons'sts of eight ordained men, 
all but one of whom are married, three married physicians, one 
lay worker and his wife, and three single ladies—in all twenty 
six adults. These workers occupy themselves in work classified 
under the several heads of Evangelistic, Medical, Educational, 
Translation, and Work for Women. 

Stated preaching services are held each Sabbath in six 
places in Seoul and one or more in each of the other stations 
All church members however are united in one church organiza¬ 
tion. the common garner of this and other Presbyterian Missions 
in Korea. In the Council which stands sponsor to this church 

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are also joined the missionaries of the Presbyterian Church South 
in America and of the Victorian Presbyterian Mission, and its 
session is a representative one. The nativo membership roll com* 
prises 184 names, 53 received during the past year. Care is taken 
that none are received until clear evidence has been obtained of 
their fitness and perseverance. Thus 72 names are held as pres¬ 
ent upon the roll of applicants and are under instruction, for 
a period of months, or years, by some one appointed by the ses¬ 

Evangelistic work means far more than Sabbath preaching. 
It includes doily conversation with enquirers, visits, periodical or 
occasional, to villages where believers or their friends have open¬ 
ed a welcome to the foreign teacher; at times long journeys and 
days or weeks of residence in promising centre;; the gathering 
an audience by the wayside or riverside or in the market; tlx* 
frequenting of sarongs and other places where men gather. All 
these and other means the members of the Mission employ on 
occasion to disseminate Gospel truth, and by them yearly come 
i:i contact with thousands of listeners. Especially has the itiner¬ 
ant method been followed during the past decade, and Christ 
so preached along all the main lives of travel, north, cast, and 
south. This work has so taken root at certain important cen¬ 
tres that Christian communities have sprung up and native evan¬ 
gelists have been located to care for them. This is the case at 
Eui ju and Kou-syong in the north and at Chang-yon in Whang 
Jlai province. In scattered villages, too, along the main road in¬ 
dividual converts are found, whose sole instruction has come from 
some missionary accustomed to visit them on an occasional trips 
along that route. 

The little church so laboriously gathered may safely ne set 
alongside those of like size and standing in the home land. Some 
of its members are feeble and halting, but many are true and 
stanch in the faith they profess, and not a few have l>een severe¬ 
ly tested in the furnace of persecution. Old I’nik, the Eui jn 
evangelist, was the first Korean baptized by Mr. Mac Intyro, and 
had. borne a two years imprisonment, with many stripes, Indore 
his death last year, rather than renounce his faith. jflok of An 
fcun, Chan of the Seoul vicinity, the Kims of Wonsan, have all 
endured bitter ostracism by family clan and village commune, 
llan of Pyeng Yang stood faithful to his trust in the face of 
Chinese and Jajan re soldiers until driven to fly for his very 

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life. And he and other of the Pyeng Yang Christians have gon* 
to the farthest limit of suffering and of faithfulness when govern¬ 
or and populace combined to exterminate the foreign belief. 
Men like these are of the seed of the martyrs and may well defy 
the jitics of those who class all native converts as “rice Christ¬ 

Medical work it was that first opened Korea to the influence 
of the foreign missionary and it is doubtless true that medical 
work has been the agent most active in keeping it open. For 
almost ten years the Presbyterian Mission through its several 
physicians has furnished a medical staff to the Goverment Hos¬ 
pital in Seoul. This institution, well known throughout the coun¬ 
try and advertised in the Court Gazette, attracts daily numbers 
of all classes and from the most remote districts as well as those 
within easy reach. An unexampled opportunity is thus afforded 
of spreading Gospel influences to every quarter. A hostile offi¬ 
cialism has hitherto interfered, hut a new agreement, by which 
the Mission assumes sole control, promises henceforth for better 
results, both professional and spiritual. 

Almost since the opening of a station at Fusan a physician 
and a dispensary have been maintained there. At Seoul two male 
and one lady physicians reside, and a number of dispensaries 
either have been or are at once to be opened there. These are 
all centres of evangelization, holding the dispensing subservient 
to the preaching arm. 

Educational work has never been extensively undertaken 
by this Mission. Early in its history orphan children presented 
themselves whom to fail in caring for was to abandon them tc 
cruelty and vice. Thus an orphange for either sex arose and 
each developed later into a boarding and day school. It is only 
Anthin a year that any large number of scholars has been receiv¬ 
ed. The error was made at first of teaching them in English, 
but it has been rectified, and now some forty boys and some 
twenty girls study the scriptures daily in their own tongue. The 
schools are doing good work. Both have already sent out ear¬ 
nest Christian Avorkers and others are in preparation. The in¬ 
fluence of these school in forming character promises to be wide¬ 

As on other fields, the c.dl for Christian literature leads 
many into translation work. This Mission is doing its share in 
the preparation of the Scriptures and of tracts upon religious sub- 

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hie koi;i:an ni::xFno:.v. 

jects. It takes its pail also in their dissemination by colportngo. 
through bookstores, and by friendly gift. 

A round half of the language helps available to the student 
of Korean are the product of Presbyterian erudition. These com¬ 
prise Underwood's “Introduction to the Korean Spoken lan¬ 
guage," the same author’s “Concise Dictionary,” Gale s “Korean 
Grammatical Forms," and a comprehensive dictionary about t< 
be published by Mr. Gale. 

Work for women, in their homes, through meetings, and 
at the home of the missionary, occupies much time on the pari 
of many ladies in the Mission. The three single ladies are all 
connected with the girls' school and their time for work among 
women has been limited, so that this department of work liar- 
fallen largely to married ladies, who have not been remiss in 
carrying it on. As its result some women aro received to tlx 
Church at nearly every communion and there are some live oi 
more wholly Christian families upon the roll. 

The reports presented at the Annual Meeting just held have 
been encouraging in almost every particular and have shown re¬ 
cent marked progress. The missionaries feel greatly encourag¬ 
ed, and join with renewed prayer and renewed faith to press on¬ 
ward in the opportunities of the ensuing year. 

C. C. Vinton, m. d. 

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The Classic of the Rosary, of which the following is a 
translation, is in chart form and is put on the walls of many 
of the Buddhist temples in Korea. It was in this way that I 
obtained a copy while visiting a temple, by seeing it on the 
walls. The date and authorship I do not know, but it is evi- 
dentlv very old, as it contains many Chinese characters that 
are now practically obsolete. The copy in my possession was 
printed from blocks cut at Pong Eui Sa (The Temple of the 
Receiving of Benefits) located at Kwang Chyou. The expense 
incurred in cutting these blocks was paid by a virgin by the 
name of Pak, who wished to obtain for herself and parents an 
abuudanco of merit. I may add that the cutting of blocks 
and the distribution of copies of the Buddhist classics was for¬ 
merly a favorite method in vogue among Koreans of obtaining 
merit or blessings but I am afraid it has now practically died 

First, we have the Rosary classic itself, of which the fol¬ 
lowing is a translation. 


•- Concerning the rosary the classics say; In ancient times 
there lived a king whose name was Paruri. He spoke to Bud¬ 
dha and said , ‘‘My kingdom is small and for several years has 
been ravaged by pestilence. Grain is scarce, the people are wea¬ 
ry and I am never at ease. r lhe treasury of the law is deep and 
wide. 1 have not had the ability to cultivate my conduct, but 

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1 now wish to understand the law, even to its minutest part. 

Buddha said; “Ah, what a great king! If you wish all 
your doubts and perplexities to be destroyed, string up suit¬ 
ably one hundred and eight beads. Keep them continually with 
you and with your heart and mind reverently chant Hail Bud¬ 
dha! Hail Dharma! Hail Sanglia! Then slowly take the 
beads one by one until by degrees you will have counted ten 
and twenty. After you have beeu able to count twenty myr¬ 
iads you will be tranquil, not disturbed in cither mind or body, 
and there will be complete destruction of all the evil desires 
of your heait. At the end of time when you descend (die) t<> 
be born in Yamn 0 , if you are able to recite the rosary one 
hundred mvriad times vou will avoid the one hundred and eight 
places (i. e. attain Nirvana) and will attain to the great fruit 
of Everlasting Bliss.” 

The king said, U I will receive this law." 

According to the classics the number of beads is ono hun¬ 
dred and eight but each dillcrs from the other. There are 
twelve divisions. One of the beads is for Sakya Muni Buddha; 
two of them are for Bodhisattvas; six are for the Paramitas; 
eight are for the Guardians; thirty-three are for the Heavens; 
twenty-eight are for birds and beasts (the constellations); fivo 
are for the kings of the Heavens; two are for localities on tho 
mrth; eighteen are for the avoidance of tho Hells; Two are 
lor benefactors and one is for those who carry the rosary with 
them. In one of the Poems it is said; 

“In chanting Buddha the virtues are many in number.” 

“In neglect of this chanting the faults are like the Ever- 

* Yama here means Yama Dcvaloka the Heaven of good time, 
f As many in number as the sands of the desert, 
t The desires arc compared to a net which entangles men in its 


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lasting desert. ° The Honourable one of this world (Buddha) 
lias a mouth and words of gold; and releases one from the 
meshes of the wide net. f" Now you can calculate that on re- 
peating the rosarv once you will obtain tenfold virtue. If the 
heads are of lotus seeds vmi will obtain blcsssings a thousand 
fold. If the heads are of pure crystal you will obtain blessing* 
ten thousand fold. But if the heads are made from the Bodhi 
tree (Ficus Religiosa) even if you only grasp the Rosary the 
blessings that you obtain will be incalculable. The Chyei 
Syek Classic says, “When you begin chanting the Rosary re¬ 
peat Om Akcho Svaha + twenty-one times. When you string 
the beads, after each one repeat Om Maui Padrni Hum § twen¬ 
ty one times ami after you have finished, repeat Om Vairochana 
Svaha j| twenty one times. Then recito the following poetry. 
The Rosarv which I tako includes the world of Buddha 
Of Emptiness making a cord and putting all thereon. 

The Peaceful Sana where nonexistence is 
In the Nest being seen and delivered by Aviita. 

When you lay by the rosary say u Oh; the thousand myr¬ 
iad miles of emptiness, the place which is in the midst of the 
tens of hundred myriads of emptinesses, eternal desert where 
the true Buddha exists. There is eternal Existence with Tran¬ 
quil Pence. 

If the small rosary is used every day in the four positions 
or slates, (going forth and remaining at home, sitting or lying 
down) the user will seethe Land of Bliss in his own heart. 
Amita will be his Guardian and protector, and in whatever 

* ( b/i — Hail! Akchobya — a fabulous Iluddha who was contempor- 
ary ui;h s >kya Muni. 

f Si-it ha —an expression wliicb means “May the race be perpetuated!” 

+ Hail thou jewel in the Lotus! 

£ Sec second Not’.'above. 1 'airccJiana is the personification of essentia] 
Loci In and absolute purity. 

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country he goes he will find a homo. This is the Rosary Clas¬ 
sic of which Buddha speaks. 


The number of beads on the rosary of Korean Buddhists 
is 110 instead of the orthodox number 108. This is becauso 
the two large beads, the one at the head containing a sravas- 
tika and the one in the middle also a large one, are not usually 
counted. Each of these beads is dedicated to a deity. In using 
the Roeary the devotee repeats the Hail and simply holds each 
bead until he has counted a certain number. The Korean and 
Sanscrit names of these beads with the English translation is 
as follows. 

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With some trepidation the present management ventures 
to begin again the monthly publication of The Korean* Re¬ 
pository. The need of a magazine or paper, dealing cxclus- 
' vely with Korean affairs, has been felt for some time, and this 
is especially true at present. We modestly believe we are pos¬ 
sessed of an ordinary capacity for blundering, and if the tripod, 
.•is we try to mount it, should prove unsteady at first we ask the 
kind indulgence of our readers. 

The aim, scope and general make-up of The Repository 
will be along the same general lines as its predecessor, and wo 
repeat what was published then; namely — 

“It is not our intention to publish a news-paper in the or¬ 
dinary sense of the word, but we hope to give a full and reli¬ 
able record of current events in the Peninsula. Our pages 
are open to all who have aught of general or special interest 
to communicate,” 

Special attention will be given to missionary news, work 
and methods. 

We are pro-Korean in our views and the Korea of today 
just as she is in all her manifold phases will receive especial at¬ 
tention, while tire history of the past with its answers to pres¬ 
ent enigmas and its hints at the future will not be ignored. We 
feel free to investigate matteis ns we find them, and we take 
Ibis opportunity to invite students of the language, history, re¬ 
ligion and customs of the country to do the same and let us have 
the result of their labors. Controversy in its objectionable feat¬ 
ures must necessarily be cxclu i•* l but criticism and comment on 
all topics discussed in cur pages are invited. 

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The year opened in gloom. There waa a feeling of un¬ 
easiness prevalent on all sides. In political matters, things 
were going from bad to worse and a crisis was felt to be inev¬ 
itable, if not at hand. The exportation of rice and other grains 
from Chemulpo and Wonsan, was strictly prohibited, and the 
law was enforced. The complaints of the Japanese merchants 
were loud and persistent. The embargo was taken off inFebru- 
ary and trade immediately improved. The Japanese Minis¬ 
ter, Mr. Oisbi, returned to Japan June 1st 1893 and Mr. Otori 
took his place. It was a significant fact that though Minister 
Plenipotentiary to the Court at Peking, he made Seoul his 

The Crown Prince attained his majority on the 14th. ol 
March, and for a week the couit and courtiers gave them¬ 
selves over to rejoicings. It was reported that. 4000 large 
tables of dainties were prepared and that 800 head of cattle 
were killed for the feast. 

Hardly had the dancing-girls from Pyeng Yang and other 
parts of the country returned to their abodes, when they were 
again called to the capital, for the leader in the emmte of 
1884, Kim Ok Kiun, had been foully assassinated by Hong 
Chong Ou in a Japanese hotel in Shanghai. 

The corpse was brought in a Chinese man-of-war to 
Chemulpo, thence taken to Yang Ilwa Chin and there muti¬ 
lated according to the u ancient customs," the protests of the 
several foreign diplomats being disregarded. The different 
parts of the mutilated body were sent through the eight prov¬ 
inces as a terrible warning to all “traitors.” It was in honor 
of this barbarity that the faction in power had dancing and 
feasting. The assassin was in high favor in the capital and of¬ 
fice and honors were bestowed upon him. Japan, however, was 
not pleased and was inclined to raise some delicate inter-na¬ 
tional questions in connection with the murder and mutilation 

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no ti::: Ivor .can uuMfUTonT. 

of n nnn wliorn ehe had sheltered and supported for nearly 
ten years. 

The Ton" Halts, or “ Disciples of Oriental Learning” be¬ 
gan their teaching in Korea in 1859; their leader was killed In 
I8G3 and since then, that organization, while nominally a relig¬ 
ious cult, has gathered to itself large numbers of the disaffect¬ 
ed who tinder cover of this name propagate seditious principles. 

In the beginning of May they led in the ievolt in the 
south. The high-handed robbery of unscrupulous officials, 
sent from Seoul to rule the country, drove the people t*> 
desperation and their protest found expression through tho 
Tong llaks. When offices began to be sold in the catpital and 
the term of the incumbent gradually shortened it ecame ev¬ 
ident that the hand of oppression would be felt more than 
ever. Official rapacity lias been known to extort as many' 
as seven bags of rice out of every ten. Not only would 
i he original price paid for the office have to be secured, but 
future wants had to be provided for. When the greed of the 
itffioial went beyond a somewhat indefinite yet well recogniz¬ 
ed line, a “riot” broke out, the harpy was offered a free ride 
in the culprit’s chair to a neighboring district, or recalled to 
Seoul and 14 banished.” These 14 riots " became more frequent 
and the “banishments” likewise increased, but the same kind 
of ipfluence that secured the office at the beginning was ordin¬ 
arily proof against the execution of the law after the sent¬ 
ence was pronounced. Euraged and outraged, driven to the 
verge of desperation, forgetting their repulse and defeat in 
1893, these followers of 44 Oriental Learning ” made another 
attempt to rid themselves of their oppressors. They made a 
ringing appeal to the country in May of which we give a free 

“The five relations of man in this world are sacred. 
When king and courtier are harmonious, father and son lov¬ 
ing, blessings follow and the kingdom will be established for¬ 
ever. Our sovorign is a dutiful son, a wise, just and benevol¬ 
ent ruler, but this cannot lie said of his courtiers. In ancient 
times, faithfulness and bravery were distinguishing virtues, 
but tiie courtiers of to-day are degenerated. They close the 
ears and eyes of the King so that he^ neither hears the appals 
<>f his people nor sees their true condition. When an attempt 
is made to get the trnth to the king, the act is branded us 

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A retrospect — 1894 


traitorous and the man as a malefactor. Incompetency marks 
the men in Seoul, and ability to extort money, those in the 
country. Great discontent prevails among the people, proper¬ 
ty is insecure and life itself is becoming a burden and undesir¬ 
able. The bonds that ought to exist between king and peo¬ 
ple, father and son, matster and slave are being loosvind. 

u Thc ancients say, 11 Where ceremony, modesty, virtue, 
and righteousness are wanting, the kingdom cannot stand." 
Our country’s condition now is worse than it ever has been be¬ 
fore. Ministers of State, Governors and Magistrates are in— 
different to our welfare, their only concern is to fill their cof¬ 
fers at our expense. Civil service examinations, once the glorv 
of o ir people, have become a place of barter; the debt of the 
country remains unpaid; these men are conceited, pleasure - 
loving, adulterous, without fear; and the people of the eight 
provinces are sacrificed to their lust and greed. The officials 
in Seoul have their residences and rice-fields in the country to 
which they propose to flee in time of war and thus desert their 
king (this was literally fulfilled). Can we endure these things 
much longer? Are the people to be ground down and de¬ 
stroyed? Is there no help for us ? V/e are despised, wt are 
oppressed, we are forsaken, but we still remain loyal subjects 
of our gracious king. We are fed by him, clothed by hi.n, 
and we cannot sit down idly and see the government disgraced 
and ruined. We, the people of the whole realm, have deter¬ 
mined to resist unto death the corruption and oppression o» 
the officials aud to support with zeal and courage the State 
Let not the cry of “ traitor ” and “ war ” disturb you, attend 
to your business and be prepared to respond to this appeal 
when the time comes." 

This cry from the people reached the royal oars On the 
23 of May, His Majesty in a speech from the throne expressed 
great solicitude and assured the people in the discontented 
districts that as far as their demands to he relieved from op¬ 
pression were found to he just, relief would he given them. 

There was an outburst of royal wrath against the ringlead¬ 
ers of the Tong Haks who had committed overt acts against the 
government sis well as against officials guilty of more flagrant 
oppression. In this way the strain between the Government 
and the people was somewhat relieved and the blunders that 
followed might have been avoided had the King been left 

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Tin; r.on kan i;i:rusiTonv. 

alone, or had he been belter supported. Japan was wide awake ; 
China through her Representative showed great concern; the 
Ming ]>arty desired aid from Chinn, hut no troops could be 
despatched until asked for by the King. The rabble in the 
, South had increased; 1000 or more royal troops were ordered 
to the seat of war. This in the heginning of June. The 
King was urged to call on China tor help; he hesitated: Chun 
Chon, the Capital of the Chulla province fell into the hands 
of the insurgents, and then, upon further pressure, the Icing 
/consented to invoke China’s assistance. The response was most 
prompt, and 3Gv>0 troops under Gen. Yi were despatched to A-S'aii 
which tartune his headquarters. When China had detern mod 
___ to send troop to Korea, she gave notice (.June 7) of her inten¬ 
tion to Japan. This in accordance with the Tientsin (rente of 
ISSo. On the very same day, da) an gave notice to C!i:v 
t hat she t<x> would despatch trooj s to Korea. Minister ( Ht ri 
was in .Japan at the time, but be promptly returned to 1 is ji si 
_ in Seoul with a marine guard of (>00 men, landing in Chcmu!) o 
the same day that the Chinese trooj s disembarked at A-San 
/The marines were soon replaced by regular soldiers and loth 
Seoul and Chemulpo wen* occupied. 

On the 14th. of July, Japan gave notice to China that the 
despatch of more troops to Korea would be regarded as a hos¬ 
tile act. 

It is well to note hero that when the Japanese troop ap¬ 
peared in the roadstead of Chemulpo, the Korean Government 
t hen invoked the aid of the other Treaty 1 W eis to list' their good 
offices to procure the withdrawal of both Chinese and .Japanese 
troops, stating that the rebellion in the south had been suppress¬ 
ed. This appeal to the Treaty Powers was made under a clause 
in the various Treaties, providing “that in cast* of differences aris¬ 
ing K'tween Korea and a third Power, the Treaty Powers if re¬ 
quested to do bo would exert their good offices to bring about an 
a 11 .itail >lo ftrmi l gemen t. ” 

The representatives of the several Treaty Poweis promptly 
complied with this request and sent a communication to the 
Chinese and Japanese Legations lvspvetively, suggi sting tie 
simultaneous withdrawal of the tveoj s fiom both countries. '1 h * 
Chines-'representative agreed to withdraw, while the .Japam s > 
Minister arswcml that further cows)oiidenee with the I t>•; < 
Government would he necessary. On July *20, a demand \\; . 

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made on the Korean Government to command the Chinese troops 
to leave the country, intimating that if no favorable response, 
agreeing to comply with this demand, were given within two 
days, decisive measures would be taken. The King of Korea 
was embarrassed by the situation. He had invited the Chinese 
troops to come to his country and unable to comply with this 
demand of the Japanese Representative, again urged upon the 
two coan tries the immediate and simultaneous withdrawal of 
their troops. Diplomacy had exhausted her strength and Oed ^ 

On July 23, Japan took the “decisive measures” as she had " 
tin—'.tend she would. At five in the morning her troops march¬ 
ed to the Royal Palace, and the citizens of the Capital seeing this 
raised the war cry. The troops marched on, an entrance was 
effected through the West Gate of the Palace, when the other 
gates were promptly opened from within. To the rear of the 
Palace, in an open field usd for holding civil service examinations, 
an entrance also was made by the Japanese. A8 they were com¬ 
ing down the bill, towards the north gate of the Palace proper, 
they encountered the braves iro n Pyeng Yang. It was here that 
most of the real fighting took place. For a few minutes the fir¬ 
ing was vigorous and the men were wanning up to their work. 
The King, however, seeing the futility of resistance, ordered the 
filing to cease and surrendered. Minister Otori was not present 
at the talcing of the Palace, but went there during the morning. 
The city was promptly occupied hv the Japanese and the gates 
carefully guarded. In the afternoon the barracks, in the eastern 
part cf the Capital, also surrendered without rcs'stance. The 
casualties of the day were seven Koreans killed (six at the Palace 
and one at the barracks) and about twenty wounded. The ex¬ 
citement among the people was very great, high and low sought 
the friendly protection of foreign roofs and the supposed security 
of the country. 

On the collapse of the Ming partv, the Tai Won Kun was / 
asked by the King to come to the Palace. He did so and took 
the helm. Events now developed rapidly. Seoul was securely 
guarded. Major General Osliima with 3300 men marched south " 
to meet the Chinese at A-San. We have space to give but the 
hare record of the chief events that followed. 

July 2d, naval atTfiir off the Island of Phung Do. The - 
transport Konshin flying the British flag, with 1,100 Chinese 
troops on board sunk by the Nanizva Kan, Captain Togo Hei- 

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bachiro commanding; the Tsaochiang and crew captured; the 
Kwangyi ran ashore, fired by her crew and abandoned. 

July 2D, battle of A-San and dispersion of the Chinese 

f^etween July 25 and 30, Korea gave notice of the ren¬ 
unciation of the Conventions between Cluna and here. If, it being 
understood that by this act she denied all claims to suzerainty 
asserted by China in these Conventions. With this act the Dra¬ 
gon flag weut down in Korea. 

Aug. 1, the King announces his intention to inaugurate cer¬ 
tain reforms in his government. 

War declared by Japan against China, and by China a- 
gainst Japan. 

Aug. 4 Chinese troops occupy and fortify Pyeng Yang. 
Large reinforcements from Japan and troops moving northward. 
One division landed at Wonsan and marched westward tower Is 
Pyeng Yang. 

Aug. 28, an alliance against China was formed between Ja¬ 
pan and Korea. 

The great battle at Pyeng Yang was fought Sept. 15th. 
The Chinese army, about 23,000 strong, was well intrenched 
in the city. The Japanese army, 17 500 strong, made the attack 
from four sides, and drove back the Cliinese with great slaughter. 
During the night, the Chinese fled, panic stricken, and on the 
16th. the victorious Japanese army entered the city. The loss 
on the Chinese side was about 2000 men, of whom 513 were 
taken prisoners; the Japanese less, 516. With the fall of this 
stronghold and the flight of Chin* sj troo} s northward and Im> 
yond the Yalu, ended the war in Korea between the land fora s. 

On Sept. 17, the great naval engagement off the mouth of 
the Yalu, between the Japanese squadron, consisting of twelve 
ships, under the command of Vice-Admiral Ito and the Peiyang 
Squadron, consisting of fourteen ships and six torpedo-boats un¬ 
der the command of Admiral Ting, took place. The battle lasted 
for alxmt four and a half hours. The Chinese lost four ships, 
the King-yuen, Chin-yucn, the Yang-wci, and Chonyung. The 
loss, as given in the Japan Mail Supplement of Dec. 1.94, was, on 
the Japanese side, 78 killed, and 160 wounded; on the Chinese 
side, 700 killed and 252 wounded. 

Turning from the war to Seoul, the Reforms promised by 
Uis Majesty, wore intrusted to a High Conunissiou of seventeen. 

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The deliberations of this body are not completed and the results 
are not yet fully realized. One of the first visible results of the 
doings of this commission was seen in the prompt disappearance/ 
of the conventional long sleeve, and the appearance of the Ko¬ 
rean policeman in foreign made uniform. His apologetic ain 
may have been due to the misfit of his uniform as much as to 
the novelty of his position. The new coins, silver and copper! 
were put into circulation. This coin is a great improvement ovei 
the copper cash and is already meeting with general acceptance 
in the capital. The greatest “reform,” is taking place in the of-\ 
fices. Here the grinding is fast, fine, remorseless. It is estimated 
that over 17,000 persons, male and female, have bad their names 
struck from the pay-roll. This number includes many attendants 
at the palace, eunuchs, ladies in waiting or “ Secretaries” at the 
different offices to say nothing of gate keepers, chair-bearers 
torcb-bearors and 60 forth. 

Oct. '20 His Excellency, Count Inouye arrived in Seoul and 
relieved Minister Otori. 

During the fall, the depredations and lawlessnesse of the 
Tong Haks became very general throughout the southern pro¬ 
vinces and extending as far north as the Whang Hai and Kang 
Won provinces. Magistracies were attacked, burned, and looted. 
For awhile it seemed as though the Tong Haks would sweep 
every thing Ixffore them. Korean troops were sent to the 
n fee ted districts, but the Tong Haks had the happy faculty of 
“disappearing” at will only to “appear” at some other place. In 
December, after the resignation from office of the Tai Won Kun, 
the Government, supported by a few companies of Japanese sol¬ 
diers. made a more determined effort to suppress thes? lawless 
bands. A number of engagements are reported to have taken 
place, particularly in the province of Chung Chong and at this 
writing (Jan. 1. flo) their power is broken and the force of law is 
again felt and will be recognized. 

On D 'c. 17 the following representative Cabinet was ap¬ 
pointed by the king. 

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Prime Minister 

Kim Hong Chip 

Vice Prime Minister 

Yu Kil Chun 

"mkA ® 

Minister of Home Dep’t 

Pak Yung Ho 


». Law „ 

So Kuang Pom 

% m 


„ War „ 

Clio Heui Yon 


„ Public Works 

Shin Kei Son 



„ Agriculture and Commerce 

Um Sei Yung 


„ Finance 

0 Yun Chung 



„ Foreign Affairs 

Kim Yun Sik 


„ Education 

Pak Chung Yiuig 



,, Household 

Yi Chai Myen 


„ Home Dep’t 

Yi Chung Ila 


„ Foreign Affairs 

Yi Wan Y r ong 


,, Finance 

An Kveng Su 



„ Education 

Ko Yung Ileui 


„ Law 

Cluing Kyung Won 



„ Army 

Kwon Chai Ilyoi'g 



„ Public Works 

Kim Ka Chin 


„ Agriculture and Commerce 

Yi Chai Yon 



„ Household 

Kin Chong ITan 

Inspector of Police 

Y’un Ung Yol 


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The late William J. Hall, m. d. 

A traveller as he pushes his journey into the night is guided by the 
presence of a light held by a hand unseen; he enjoys its companion¬ 
ship and cheer as he moves on with sure foot-steps. Scarcely does he 
realize its value till suddenly it disappears and the traveller is left amaz¬ 
ed at the depth of darkness around. So we feel in the death of our be¬ 
loved brother Dr. Hall,—a holy life, shining brightly; truly, a guide has 
suddenly left our side and we are brought to know how great a place he 
had filled in our lives. Memory now fondly traces the character we 
loved. He was best known as a friend. He was as unchangeable as 
the oak. Familiarity never lessened the strength of the inwrought 
fibre of his friendship. Close association, that so often makes friends 
careless and indifferent, only bound him a more devoted worshipper at its 

In boyhood he would part with his school friends at night only to wait 
with impatience for the next morning’s greeting, not alone for self satis¬ 
faction but with studied plans for their happiness. 

Friendship he ever craved. A cool heart was his greatest grief and a 
sign for its immediate conquest. Many the flower, he unseen, dropped 
by love's hand on other's pathway. They came drifting over one like 
sifted flakes by breezes scattered from some near bloom-laden hedge. 

He was a man of mighty faith. Though scrutinizing evil, and realizing 
obstacles, their import unable to fathom by reason, and though in view Of 
but a i»rain of leavening right, he by an unconquerable faith waited for 
rights' fulfillment In danger and storms, or in safety and peace, within 
his soul ever reigned a great calm. 

A man of fine executive ability, born to lead, with that rare gift for 
directing affairs and leaving others to feel that they were doing it all, 
holding in view the work of those around him with definite plans for its 
extension, yet never imposing his views upon others unless called forth by 
counsel or compelled by duty, Ever deserving and winning favor, yet 
earnestly shunning notoriety. 

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Strar.gers met and respected him. ao romances loved him. inr.matc 
a—or ate, revered the noble grandeur of h:> character. In ;ha: character he 
tho m. ned the deepest found the most previous gems. 

fie stepped from us so l.ghtly that we scarcely knew he was gerx until we 
reached for a grasp of his warm hand and listened in vain (<jt his familiar 
V",' e, or gazed upon the held of his recent Libor in the north, halloaed by 
h'^ suffering and great sacrifice. It was a precious gift he made to 
Pyeng Yang. Without a murmur but with rejoic : r.g his life was given. Like 
OConrell he labored for the freedom of men, and though a nation has not 
bov.ed v efore his name in gratitude for broken shackles. individuals have. 
He set in nonon Liberty’s wave in the hearts of some, that shall roll on till 
multitudes join the fkxxl and this nation shall count him one of her bene- 
fa to,-. 

On the lingering rays of his setting sun v.c behold a pattern for a holy 

” H;s life was gentle and the elements so mixed in him that nature could 
stand up and say to all the world ‘This was a man.’*’ 

W. A. Noble. 

The mortality in Seoul during November and December was very great. 
Nov. 14. Mr. Julius Domkc, Secretary of the German Consulate aged 37 

Nov. 24. W. J. Hall M. D. of the Methodist Episcopal Mission, aged 35. 
Nov. 21, Ivan Kameieff, sailor. Russian legation Guard. 

Nov. 30. George G. infant son of Rev. and Mrs. W. M. Junkin of the Mis¬ 
sion of the Presbyterian Church South. 

Dec. 9. Sergeant Henry Ellis R. M. L I. of H. Ik M. Consulate Guard. 

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The first snow fell on the night of the 16th. of Dec. 


In Pyeng Yang only one house in a hundred is occupied. 


The Japanese are surveying for a railroad between Seoul and Chemul- 


The Tai Won Kun after holding office nearly four months resigned and 


General Dye and Col. Nienstead are drilling the Royal Guards in the 
Palace grounds. 


Seoul is to have a bi-lingual daily under the joint editorship of a Korean 
and a Japanese. 


Booths are to be removed from the streets of the Capital. We approve. 
Now for the gutters. 


Gen. C. R. Greathouse has been appointed Adviser to the departments 
of Foreign Affairs and of Law. 


The drought, with the exception of one shower, lasted from Aug. 31st 
to the middle of December. 


The Sunday Sheet, or Calendar published by the Korean Religious 
Tract Society is on the market. 

In one afternoon two Nimrods flushed twelve pheasants within a mile 
and a half from the eUy wall, 

The Rev. H. G. Underwood, n. D. was elected Chairman of the Annual 
Meeting of the Prcsbvterian Mission. 


Dec. 10. The Court Gazette announced the pardon of those engaged in 
the riot of 1884. “My king excused me,” the Korean put it. 


K. Matsui, Secretary of the Japanese Legation for the past four years, 
left Seoul on Dec. 19, and his place has been filled Mr. JL HiokL 

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The Albion Date Block for 1895. published at the English Church Mir- 
sion Press, is out The matter and form are good and we extend congratu¬ 
lations to the publisher. 


We venture the prediction that for some time to come the average Ko¬ 
rean will mistake the cutting off of his top-knot and donning secondhand 
foreign clothes for "civiliiation." 


Arrived at Chemulpo Nov. 26 per str. Higo Marti, Rev. E. C. Pauling to 
establish a Mission in Korea under the auspices of Rev. Dr. A. J. Gordon’s 
(Baptist) Church of Boston. 


Wc wish it distinctly understood that we cannot be held responsible for 
the spelling of Korean proper names. Wc invite discussion of this subject 
and hope some standard may be reached. 


To Mr. W. D. Townsend is due the credit of being the first to introduce 
the horse and dray into Korea. He has two carts in use in connection with 
his rice dean ng establishment. 


We learn that probably the following steamers will be kept running be¬ 
tween Kobe and Korean ports by the Nippon Yuscn Kaisha; viz. the Higo % 
Toy os hima , Chow CJurw /•>/, Velox ami hoy ft fan. 


The Japanese population of Chemulpo, Korea, at the end of October 
last is reported to have been 1,701 males and 1,076 females, occupying 453 


At the public meeting of the Korean Religious Society held Oct. 21st. 
nearly four hundred dollars were contributed by the people of Seoul. The 
Korean Christians give over 55000 cash as their first offering. Well done! 


Mr. R. T. Turley, agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society visited 
Seoul in December and reopened the Society’s Depot at Ton On Mod 

( ® * n Chong No. The publications of this Society may be 

purchased there. 


His Majesty, the King, during hb n ent illness was attended by Dr. O* 
R. Avison, the court physician. The < i'» < n, also, was attended by Mrs. H* 
G. Underwood, m. d. and Her Majesty j«u mtrd her with a handsome sed¬ 
an chair which she herself had been < 1. turned to use. 


Dec. 1st. Telegraphic communication for the use of the general public 
▼-as t--:<? ncd between Chemulpo and Nagasaki. Thanks are due the Ja- 
V Inary authorities for their courtesy in forwarding messages gratis 
•v t and out of Korea during the interruption ot ordinary telegraphic 

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Residents in the interior and outports 
can depend on getting the whole of their 
requirements QUICKLY foncarded 
carefully packed and at equally low 
prices as if imported from home. A 
specialty is made of obtaining ail 
goods not in stock and attending to 

telegraphic address, 

Whymark, Kobe. 

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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY is a monthly maga¬ 
zine of forty pages devoted to Korean affairs. It will be 
published lxitween the fifth and tenth of each month and will 
be delivered to subscripts in Korea, Japan and China for $3.00 
per annum and to all other countries in the postal union for $2. 
00 gold or its equivalent. These rates include postage if paid in 
advance, otherwise it will be extra. 

The agents for China and Japan are 
Messrs Kelly & Walsh, ld. 

Advertisement Rates. 

Full page for one year — — — $18.00 

Half.. „ - - - 10.00 

Quarter „ „ „ — — - 6.00 

Full page for half „ - - - 10.00 

Half „ „ „ — - - 6.00 

Quarter „ „ „ — — — 4.00 

Full „ three months — — — 6,00 

Half „ „ „ -— — — 4.00 

Quarter „ „ — — — 2.50 

All communications should be addressed to 


Seoul, Korea,. 

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Galls again in company with thesi friends. And as twenty stal¬ 
wart pu syangs begin to bare their their brawny arms, the debt¬ 
or comes to the conclusion that he believes he can raise the 
money after all. hut they nave more ligiti nate modes of help¬ 
fulness. Like other guilds they help each other in the case of 
special e u rgencies, such as a death or wedding in the family. 

( >n two occasions I have seen great gatherings of the pu syangs. 
They had large tents erected, and I rememlter that some of 
their number wore white straw hats with a couple of cotton balls 
in the ban l. These were said to lie low men in the order. 

These various guilds, as wo ‘nave seen, have characteristics 
in which they differ, combined with features that are similar. 
One of the family traits is the custom, of mutual help with money 
or goads upon certain special occasions. This is also the charac¬ 
teristic of certain varieties of another Korean association, known 
as the kyci ; * and indeed it is so netimes spoken of as the “ kyei 
principle." The kyci is a prominent feature in Korean socnl 
life. There are many varieties of kyei's, associated for all kinds 
of puqxises, some g<xxl, some bad. There are kyei's of which 
the Koreans themselves disapprove theoretically, as being organ¬ 
ized for gambling purposes, lotteries in other words. Again there 
are perfectly ligitimat; kyei's, which are insurance companies, 
or mutual lxuv'fit associations, or money loaning syndicates. Un¬ 
der the hea l of lotteries there may lie classed a number of kinds 
of kyei’s, the chak pak kyei + limited in the number of those who 
engage, and with only one prize: the paik in kyei,*, with a hun¬ 
dred chances: the c/iyon in kyei% with a thousand chances. Then 
there is one which the Koreans say has been copied after the 
foreign lottery, the man in kyei, ] where tickets are sold in un¬ 
limited number. ' This is probably true, for we have seen the 
tickets of the Manilla Lottery exposed for sale in the Chinese 
stores, instructing them in the ways of Western Civilization. It 
is to the credit of the Korean Government that it frowns severe¬ 
ly upon these gambling kyei's , and suppresses them wherever it 
is possible. 

We come now to the mutual aid ’"societies, insurance com¬ 
panies. and loan associations. There is a form of kyei which, con- 
si lering the customs that govern it, would appear to be legiti- 

* Hi : <J *!H1 II ntoj-rt] 

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mate, the san tong kyei * A certain number of men belong to 
it; and they have a fortnightly or monthly casting of the lot. 
When a man has drawn the prize, he can not try again until 
every other member has had his turn in drawing the prize. But 
whether eligible or not for the drawing, he must keep up his reg¬ 
ular periodical payments to the manager of the kyei. In some 
such kycis I am told the amount of the sum drawn goes up 
month by month till a certain limit is reached, when it drops a- 
gain to the oiiginal amount. We were surprised one Sunday in 
going to church to see the house-lxjy of one of our missionary 
friends standing with a fantastic tissue-paper head-gear on his 
head, and a native lantern in his hand, in a group of similarly 
furnished men, outside a house where a funeral was to 1* held. 
He had to. He lxdonged to a yon pan kyei , t whose members 
are pledged to carry lanterns at the funeral, and furnish some 
stipulated article, as the grass-cloth with which to wrap the re¬ 
mains, when one of their number dies. Then there is the syang 
po kyei, t which pays the entire expense of the funeral when 
death invades the home of one of its members. These insurance 
kycis are known by a number of names. Again ther' is the 
\pu chyo kyci § whose inembcis are assessed, when there is a wed¬ 
ding in the family, or a young son puts up his hair in a top-knot, 
and assumes the garb of man-huxl. Then there is the// 0 « syang 
kyei j| which helps at both weddings and funerals. These in¬ 
surance and mutual aid associations are conducted on the assess¬ 
ment plan. 

Koreans also associate themselves together in kyei s for the 
purpose of loaning money. There is the syei chydn kyei*{ com¬ 
posed of peoprle who loan their money and divide the interest at 
the New Year’s season in order to lighten the heavy burden of 
expense which custom connects with that festival season. A 1- 
other heavy item of expense in Korean families is the prepara¬ 
tion of their winter supply of certain articles of food, made n 
the fall. Among their other preparations many families salt 
down a large quantity of shrimps at this season of the year. 
Hence it comes about that there is a paik ha kyei** whose mem¬ 
bers each spend their portion of the accrued interest on their 
united loan, in buying their winter supply of shrimps. 

* #*->11 : 


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i! ** *]*|-h1 

li M] 

Original from 




It is a matter of course that every Korean scholar wants to 
attend the royal examinations once in a while. But for the poor 
country scholar, attending the koaga is expensive, for, added to 
the cost of the examination paper, ink, &c. t is the item of hotel 
bills on the way. So these scholars form a koa kyei, * loan their 
money and in the course of tune divide the accrued interest be¬ 
tween them, and find themselves to be in a position to attend 
the koaga in Seoul. 

The Koreans are very fond of going out of the city upon 
picnics in the spring when the azaleas and other flowers are in 
bloom. So festive but impecunious people sometimes form a 
hoa ryu kyei, t loan their money, and use the interest in go¬ 
ing out upon such excursions when the flowers are in their 
glory. Men who are fond of archery have their sya kyei. * Four 
or five archers meet, and contribute a small sum each to form a 
prize, which is then given to the man most skillful with his bow. 
Or two sets of archers meet for a friendly contest, and the rich 
men and poor men among them according to their several abili¬ 
ty, contribute a purse, out of which they provide a feast and 
dancing girls to entertain them. Money is loaned by the kyei s 
at what we would consider very high rates of interest. Yearly 
loans are sometimes made, but more often money is loaned on 
10 months’ time. In these 10 months’ loans; if a man’s credit 
is very good, he can borrow perhaps at 20%. More often the 
rate charged is 30, 40 or 5(t per cent. Thus 1000 cash in the 
course of 10 months brings in an interest amounting to 200 
cash, or more. Often the return payments are made during the 
10 months at the rate of one tenth of principal and interest each 
month. Kyei's like the san tong kyei have each a manager, 
who is expected upon the occasions when they meet, once or 
twice a month, to furnish the members with wine or a meal. I 
once saw such a meeting in the country, and witnessed the 
casting of lots, when their names written on white nuts about 
the size of a hickory nut were drawn one by one from a gourd 

We sometimes think that in the home-land we have organ¬ 
izations for almost every thing under the sun. But I am not 
sure whether Korean life with all its different associations is not 
about as complex as ours. The business world is certainly or- 

**N~ ‘SMM1 

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g mb/; 1 to an extent we are not acquainted with in western 
lands. True there are Trades Unions in each alike, but in Korea 
nearly all the merchants in the land are bound together in their 
powerful guil Is, that are practically Trades’ Unions in the mer¬ 
cantile worl 1. And it is worthy of note that one feature charac¬ 
terizes all these associations, whether merchant guilds, traces’ 
unions, the semi-political p i llars’ guilds, or the legitimate kind 
of kyei's, and that is the trait of mutual helpfulness in time of 

Daniel Ij Gifford 

Note. Te- following is the ac mirit. mentioned alxivo. that 
u‘;t-> writum l.y Ihieut. Ion ilk, des’ribing his oxperienc' with the 
ftt syauffa. 

- It was nightfall when we started to return. The n agis 
t rate, wIk was an officer of the pusyang, brought his seal into use, 
and rail'd out thirty of the Indy to light us down the mountains. 
Where tiles'- men came fro i or how they were call'd I did not 
understand, f" r w»‘ were anparmtly in an uninhahitat'd, wild, 
mountain district. They apfxared quickly, great, rough moun¬ 
tain men. each wearing the fu syang hat. We iles-mded the 
worst ravine in a long, weird, winding proe-ssion, the :■ oiintains 
and our |>; weirdly illuminat'd by the pine torches ot the 
ayntig men, who uttered shrill v-verln-rating cries continually to 
indie it.- (lie road or each others whciv-alxiuts. Suddenly we 
e i ■ upon a little pavilion in the darkest part of the first gorge : 
h r s . c two hundred more fu syang men were ass-m Med by 
a wild stream in the light of many bonfires and torencs. On the 
call of the magistrate they had prepar'd a feast for us here at 
midnight, in the mountains. Nero the magistrate told :: e he 
had lx-en asked by the late Minister to the b nited Stat's, Min 
Yong Ik, to suddenly rail on the pu syang men of the ^ong To 
district for services, to show me the usefulness and fidelity of the 
Ixxlv; and he hod selected this place, the middle of the ' oun- 
tains, and time, the n iddlc of the night. I need not say that 
the experience was wonderful and impressive.” 

D. L. G. 

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Original from 



FEBRUARY, 1895. 


If you were to stroll down the street lending from the West 
Gate to the center of the city of S*-oul, and with obs rvant eve 
should note the contents of the sho[~ placed here and there a- 
long the way. you would notice at first a i c W of 'ioi.eraI 
shops. And in these wide oven to :..e \ou would 

see an assortment of eoods probably somethi?." lihc t:.;s a few 
articles of food, tine cut tobacco. matcue^. b ?ir or;. ? • • \,rvj:.y 
colored pockets that look like tobe"' re ; a f'w v 

books. It is r::*y-eahie that in t > -: : *).- . • o; .7 a 
limited ranee •>: is to V* v- e. r ' • / i ‘ 

as you near Kir : • :ow.-r o: •/. ch v . ... v • - :<• rr,v> 

more > d. : to - t: - o: *. or* - , 

must co ir>: ie Ii. hv-v* s . :s a * -v ? . . > e;. - ..v; 

of ^»is. a.? *r*" -?r. r s . >e r - : h ■ \\ 

several i;f r- : - :-k v-* e.~, . • "v-e 

are in- v -•:= : : . • r ;• - 

little jvr.-Tui «-• ~- h : - - , \ 
on ly V v : - : ■ 

ferec: ;* 

ti' - • . v>: 

i>h«>r JTU- • ■'■'ir- 

ioos n» j ■-''■* of* 

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Original from 




goods are handled each by a separate guild. There are guilds for 
N cotton goods, for colored goods, for grass cloth, the gauzy summer 
goods, plain silks and figured silks. Then there are guilds for 
cotton, dyes, paper, hats, head-bands, rice, crockery, cabinets, 
iron utensils and brass ware. These are some of the principal 
trades of which the guilds have a monopoly. These guilds not 
only regulate their trade, but are mutually helpful in certain 
emergencies. For example, in case that one of their number 
dies, they give financial aid to his family. Each guild has a head 
called the yong ui .* and he with his servants is to be constantly 
found for the transaction of business at the guild head-quartere. 
Should a man desire to enter into business in one of these mon¬ 
opolized trades, he must make application to the head of the 
guild. Should he prove acceptable, lie must pay an entrance 
fe<> to the guild of say $20.00. The head of the guild then fur¬ 
nishes hrfn with a certificate of membership, duly made out and 
stamped with the seal of the guild, and the guild inemlwrs 
come around and offer him their congratulations. He can then 
rent his stall or room, and open up his wares whenever he likes. 
But suppose a man without asking leave of the guild, should 
undertake to open a shop for the s Ue of silk or rice, what would 
happen? All would go well for a time: then one day his guild 
certificate would be called for. None being produced, a tempest¬ 
uous time would ensue, the probable end of which would be 
that the guild would confiscate the contents of the shop. At all 
events, in a day or two there would l)e one less merchant in the 
silk tnde. However, in this connection a curious custom should 
1*' mentioned. From the 25th. day of the last month of the 
Korean year, that is, during the last five days of the old year, 
and through the first five days of the new, Korean custom 
allows anyone whatever to sell any kind of goods he pleases. 
W hy it should be so I cannot tell, only such is the ti ne honored 
custom. This is the reason why the displays of shining bras* ware 
are to be seen in all their glory upon the streets around Chong 
No at the New Year’s season : while at any other time you must 
hunt for the n among the shops, should you desire to s ie the 
i handsome ware. While the guilds can cope successfully with 
I intruders of their own people, they are powerless in the eonpe- 
| tion with the Chinese and Japanese merchants. 

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Members of guilds are required to pay a monthly tax to the 
bead of their guild. The government is accustomed to collect 
taxes from the guild; but applies directly to the head of the 
guild for payment. The patriotism of the guilds was shown up¬ 
on the occasion of the burial of the dowager Queen, when each 
guild added a large and beautiful silken banner to the gorgeous 
pageantry of the funeral. 

Superior to either the guilds or their chiefs, is an official ap¬ 
pointed by the government to rule over the merchants. He 
may be termed the Magistrate of the Market, known in Korean 
as the P'ycng si dui chu* He holds the rank of pan sa A The of¬ 
fice where he sits as magistrate is called the p'yong si so.\ Here he 
settles disputes l>etween merchants, and acts as a judge in mat¬ 
ters partainiug to commercial law. Kot unlike the merchant 
guilds are the artisan guilds, what we would called at home 
“ trades unions.” But they are spoken of by a different name; 
for instance the carpenters’ guild or union would be known as 
the ° room of the carpenters,” the mok su patig.% There are 
“pangs’of the carpentere, the masons, the tilers, the chair-coolies, 
tbe rice-coolies, &c. 

We come now to a form of guild, which, on account of its 
peculiar features, is deserving of a separate treatment. This is 
the peddlar’s guild known as the pu syang hoi. || These need to 
be distinguished from the po syang s 1 who are also merchants, 
who travel 'from market to market in the country, but w’ho in 
their organization are simply the ordinary guild adapted to the 
conditions for selling g« ods in the country. The pH syang or 
peddlara’ guild, which we are now to consider, is a very large 
and powerful guild. In the country villages shops are rarely 
found, but the buying and selling of merchandise is done upon 
special market days. The country has been districted among 
conveniently placed market towns in groups of five each, so that 
once in five days each of these towns has its market-day. And 
peddlara, for the most part belonging to the pu syang guild, 
keep travelling around these five' day circuits, carrying their 
stock of goods, one upon his shoulders, another on an ox, 
and still another on pony-back. But the peculiarity in the pu 



1 ** 5 1 

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syang guild consists in their connection with the government. In 
a tr-ily feudal s -: s * an t .< ir services at the disp<6al of the gov¬ 
ern:: '•>:* Xn* ui.e office. hut the higher officials of any govem- 
t i Ai'.ce. f -! at li-» '.ty to cail in thepusyangs for special serv- 
j,-. < L d* r vo>rx repaired, these roving pu syangs can be 

• :vh• of. I>**» s the king d-sire to \Tsit the ancestral grav«s, 
ii: t any t r-j a rations which the occasion n-quins. such for 
i’ -’-.iic as ti:•• ::-t king reidy the city struts and country nods, 
t;.e pu syangs servi<"s are employed. Or in the country, is a 
s:--eii! • s.;ort r-piind for the guest of the magistrate, trie serv- 
ie.-sof tee pu syangs are <a!l--d into requisition. Mr. Gilmore’s 

fro :, its < hip ita.1 narrates how Lieut. Foulk. w’nen 
!. •.v ti :i*:ac •• of the A'-erican Inegation, had once a pleasing 
e-; - n \ee. whi!- travelling in the country. <>t the courtesies of 
t< • • pn syangs, acting for Lint in the cajacity of a night escort. 
E-' • . are they iiahle to military service, should the govern - 

: .••:■* ! tve i to call an army into the field, in addition to the 

* r • ; c in t‘ ; , 1 .rracks. So that although Korea has no “ mer- 
c •: t :: arm**,” she may le said to have a merchant soldiery. 

Ai ■*’:> r curious feature Ls that among the great depart* 
i: < i.t.a! offin s of the government, such as the foreign office, the 
home office, and the war office, there is a pu syang office, known 
as the hyei syang kuk .* for whose head-quarters a large 
house is provided in the center of the city. And further, 
one of the greatest nobles in the country is the to pan su , 1 
or li< sident of this office. In other words, he is the head 
of the Pu syang Guild. Then the pu syangs are sub-divided 
according to magistracies, having what we would term a county 
organization, and there is a chief who is the head of all the 
pu syangs in a given magistracy. Men who are not peddlars 
frequently join the pu syang guild. A former gate-man of ours, 
arid in oui neighborhood a piaperer and one of the coolies are 
said to lielong to the pu syang guild. The popularity of the 
guild is due chiefly to its size and power. Not that they have 
any direct authority, but they are clannish in helping one an¬ 
other. For example, a pu syang desires to collect a debt; but 
his debtor declines to pay. Does he put his note in the hands 
of a collection agency as we would at home ? No, he mentions 
the matter to a few of his pu syang friends. In the evening he 

* 1 ^ 

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Original from 



The life of a nation is but an expanded expression of the 
life lived by each individual member of that nation. The 
true life of each individual finds its best and most genuine 
expression in its home life, and home life always centres around 
the wife and mother. Any estimate of a peoplecondition 
which fails to give proper weight to the treatment it accords 
its women is therefore necessarily imperfect. It is our purpose 
in what follows to exhibit the ordinary experiences of a Ko¬ 
rean woman from the time she enters womanhood by mar¬ 

The wedding festivities are over and the bride is on the 
way to her new home. While she is being borne there slow¬ 
ly on the shoulders of sturdy Koreans or, it may be, on the back 
of a sturdier ox, should she be a country bride, let us precede 
her and take a peep into the homo in which she is to spend her 
life A8 the wife of a wealthy Korean of rank, her home in 
Soul will be large and pretentious. Instead of an alley three 
feet wide, one six feet wide leads up to the front gate. Just 
inside of this gate we find a court-yard on two sides of which 
extend the -fej- Hang Nang or apartments occupied by the 

servants and hangers-on of the house. In the middle of this 
court-yard is a large well with washing stones about it and 
the principal drain of the establishment running close by. Be¬ 
yond this lies another court-yard bounded on the farther end 
bv the house itself. This house is quadrangular in shape en¬ 
closing an open court. Its chief constituents are mud, stone, 
tile and wood. There is no glass in the windows, its place 
being taken by paper. Iustead of carpets there are straw mats 
and in the place of chairs, nothing; —we sit on the floor. The 
rooms facing the front court are the apartments of her hus¬ 
band. From these she is excluded, for here he receives his 
friends and transacts his business which is chiefly smoking a 
long pipe and gossiping with his neighbors. Beyond these, on 

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Original from 


.>') Tilt kokf;an i;r:rosiTOH y. 

tip lortlp-r j<I• of Up <juad riiriir m* and iamnp the encm*~d 
at*- Ipt aparl tin art fumy;. r J ii<- two skips <»! tL— 

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• *1 tip ii‘«n i*iiuld Jxj linh ii«>iis*• tm- di-linrt h*ns of 

:• ^• rr j . *»• <i room, m’: my-ruuru und pat ioi np- unknon ti W v 
: •»::.* may nnsn*r all tip's' pipp-ie*-- f | iipp* is always a kit- 

• :.m fi'Mir u! v. iii n je t ii. i»ir* <^ar:ii and the nulls un- 

;• d nni'J. ( d i:p ii»*ij in**ns.k Up*p ar* f**u\ the principal 

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p • ' ■: <*a ii n iii'ii up I! i • * y c-« *t j hit n i T ii tl r 

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f-ailry sjMlToWS SIM visitants fl ofn til'* I/P*at ntlt^id-' v>"l !d. Tip'll* 
I'p 1 tin* jiipHjhn leal dements of tin* inonil in which the I\or»*an 
woman is f«>irn*d. Amid these sle* ; r rown up to maturity and 

't'd r 'i 4 ~4" W** 

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old age, and they must have an influence upon her mental and 
moral character. 

When the bride comes to her new home she does not find it 
empty, neither does she become mistress of it. She is received 
by her mother-in-law and now becomes a member of her hus¬ 
band’s family and his clan, losing all connection with her 
father’s family and his clan. Being a mere child in must 
cases she is treated as such and is expected to wait upon the 
mother-in-law and do her bidding. If there are servants in 
the home she is relieved from the household duties, hut in the 
middle and lower classes servants are not found in many of the 
homes and the bride comes in to do her full share of the work. 
She must arise early in the morning both in winter and sum¬ 
mer, build the fire under the rice kettles regardless of the 
smoke and ashes which fill her eyes, and prepare breakfast for 
the family. After all the other members have finished eating 
she sits down and eats her breakfast alone. Yet strange as it 
may seem she is relieved from the pleasant task of doing the 
family washing, by her mother-in-law, being prohibited by 
her youth from going out to the springs on the hillside when, 
washing is usually done. In the evening she goes through the 
same ordeal of preparing the the evening meal, tor the Koreans 

eat but two meals a day. After the day's work she goes to 

• *■ • 

her room and until the wee hours of morning is busy with her 
needle, mending stockings, making new garments or, to the rat- 
a-tat of her ironing sticks, polishing her husband's lu st coat. 

The love and sympathy which a young wife of Christian 
countries finds in the companionship of her husband is unknown 
in Korea. Instead of spending his evenings with her in pleas¬ 
ant conversation of the things which transpire in the outside 
world, or in reading to her while she sews, the husband spends liis 
time with his friends and she 8«*es little of him and knows less 
ot his life. This treatment of his wife is forced upon the hus- 
hand. Were he to show any affection for her or prefer her 
company to that oi* his friends, they would make his life miser¬ 
able by ridicule. The bride also has her nun-companionable 
obligations. According to custom she must not speak to hei 
husband for the first few days after their marriage. The Ko¬ 
reans tell ot one case where the wife did not speak to her 
husband for eight months. Perhaps he was away from home 
but the Korean did not mention that fact. 

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Original from 



. vornan ?< Mnv- 

.rood; it* r • 
~v-~- n-’.iw ami 
t * h>* mi t 

- •• 7 - .riva; ^'i 

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seems very barren. She is shut off from the broadening in¬ 
fluences which contact with the outside world and intercourse 
with friends would give her. We would expect to find them 
discontented and unhappy, but on the other hand they certain¬ 
ly appear conteuted and even happy. A Korean woman’s pride 
is her children and as a family grows up about her and her 
cares increase, her happiness also increases. The appearance 
of the first tooth, the first attempts to walk and the babbling 
words of baby give the Korean mother as much pleasure as it 
does the foreign mother. She takes great delight in decking her 
children in gay colored garments and providing some luxury 
for them on the new year and other holidays. She attains 
a new dignity. Where she was before known as Mr. So and So's 
Taing-Noi , “house,” she becomes the mother of such a child. 
The name may be the most unpoetical one imaginable as “The 
mother of spotted dog,” “The mother of the rook” “The moth¬ 
er of the mud turtle, the monkey, the pig” etc.; but be it what 
it may there is always “the mother” attached to it which is 
sweet to her. These little toddlers become her inseparable 
companions. Visit her at any time of the day and you will 
find her with one strapped to her back or lying snugly in her 
arm, or sprawling on the floor beside her. As the babes grow 
up her troubles begin and from what one may learn on ac¬ 
quaintance with the boys of Korea, human nature, is certain¬ 
ly the same the world over. They tear their clothes, soil their 
faces, quarrel and get into all sorts of mischief. They involve 
their mother in disputes with her neighbors and mother-like 
she always thinks her boy is ail right while the neighbor’s boy 
is the greatest rascal on earth. 

By and by the old folks in the home go the way of all flesh, 
and the husband and wife, who have occupied a secondary place 
become the heads of the family group. The daughters, just at 
the age when they could be most useful, marry and leave the 
parental roof, and the sons bring their wives into the home and 
the wife now occupies the enviable position of mother-in-law. 
As she grows older she gains greater respect and consideration 
from her children, for the Koreans have great reverence for old 
age Indeed the last days of a woman’s life in Korea seem 
to be her best days. She is free from all responsibility and 
duties and is well cared for by her children. This reverence 
of Koreans for old age whether in man or woman is worthy of 

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note anil may well teach the boastful West a lesson. No mat¬ 
ter of that station in life, a younger person would not ventuie 
to subject her to any rudeness. While she may not cotninund 
yet her wishes are law, at least to her posterity. Etiquette 
demands both resjtectfill language aad attitude in her presence- 
This reverence for the aged produces practical results. In walk¬ 
ing through the streets we meet on every band well dressed 
old people, showing evidence of care and affection. The great¬ 
est sin a Korean can commit is Poul-hyo, lack of filial 

piety. This is the one unpardonable sin of the Korean code. 

I h ive attempted to describe the life of an ordinary Ko¬ 
rean woman of the middle class. Of the high class women 1 
can say very little. But their lot must be an unhappy one. 
In the first place the law of seclusion is more binding upon 
them than upon their more humble sisters. We are told of one 
case wIuto a woman had not Imhui outside of her compound 
since she had entered it as a bride thirty years previous. Then 
the knowledge of the existence of one or more concubines must 
rob her life of al! happiness, for although us wife she occupies 
the first place in the home yet in the uifections of her husband 
she is only secondary. 

Our review of Korean woman would he incomplete did 
wo ignore a new force which has been introduced among them. 
Christianity has come with its proclamation of release to wo¬ 
man-kind and already the first fruits of Korea's redeemed wo¬ 
men may he seen. Our girls' schools are the beginning of this 
great work which shall go on until woman shall reach her God- 
given sphere. These schools are object lessons to the Koreans, 
proving to thorn that Ilnur girls areas capable and worthy 
of intellectual training as the hoys and that education does 
not unfit them to become g >od wives and mothers. They cer¬ 
tainly make better companions for their husbands. They have 
studied about the different countries and peoples and of the 
wonderful things of nature, and can converse with their hus¬ 
bands upon other topics beside those of a domestic nature. 

Some <>f the happy marriages from our Christian schools 
prove that it* we christianize the soul and educate the mind, 
the result will he happy homes. In one of these homes, where 
both husband and wife are Christians from our schools we saw 
them studying the Scriptures together; in another homo the 
wife was teaching her husband, while in both there was love 

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and happiness. These homes are great powers fur good and 
are living testimonies to the heathen populace about them of 
the power of Christianity to lift up and ennoble the life in the 

What to do for the wives and mothers of to-day is a prob¬ 
lem which confronts us. We cannot educate them, although 
in many cases they may learn to read. Hut we can give them 
Christianity which works such marvelous changes in the hearts 
and lives of men. As husband and wife become Christians a 
change is soon visible in the home. The old fetiches which 
they have worshipped all their lives are torn down and a fami¬ 
ly altar established around which they worship the one true 
God. Among our Christian families we notice that where for¬ 
merly the husband ate alone, lie now has his wife cat at the 
same table and out of tbe same dishes with him. We have 
also seen the husband and wife coming to church together. I 
have made inquiries of the women at Chemulpo as to the 
change in their family life. u We don’t quarrel any more at our 
house and I think mv husband loves me since we have become 
Christians” says one woman. u My husband is a very different 
man now and he treats me min-h bettor than he formerly did” 
is the testimony of another woman. 1 know the same has been 
true in other homes'. 

To me there seems but one wav in which to reach the 
women of Korea and that is to visit them in their homes, meet 
them as their friends and not as superiors and to win their 
love and confidence. To show an interest in the things that 
interest them, listen to their stories of sorrow and hardships 
and sympathize with them accomplishes more good than many 
a sermon. An especial dibit should be made to reach the 
wives and families of our professing Christians. Christianity 
which confines itself to the chapel and is not shown in the 
homes is not worth much. But Christianity will make itself 
manifest in the home and this will open the homes to us. 

Maigaret Benge 1 Junes. 

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In conversation with a Japanese friend not long ago, I 
remarked that the Tong Haks were the occasion of the Chin¬ 
ese Japanese war. He showed a good appreciation of the word 
by replying. “Yes, the relations of China and Japan had be¬ 
come petroleum, and the Tong Hak was the match.” Beiug 
then the occasioning cause of this great war, it may not prove 
uninteresting to make more inquiry concerning its history.^ 

The Tong Hak originated at Kyeng Chu in the province 
of Kyeng Sang in 1859. Kyeng Chu is a walled town forty 
five miles north of Fusan. Its founder, Choi Chei Ou, ° 
was a scholar and claims to have had the following experience. 
Huving been for some years a witness of the progress made by 
the Roman Catholic church, he began to think doeply as to 
whether it was the true religion. “Since they have come so 
far and spent so much money in its propagation, it ought to be 
true; and yet if true why are its followers now being killed 
by the government as criminals ?” As he brooded thus from 
day to day, he fell sick. Though he used much medicine, he 
became no better and finally was at the point of death. One 
morning just as the sun’s rays began to peep over the eastern 
hills, ho fell into a kind of trance and there ap|>eared unto him 
some Riipernatnral being. 

He called his name —“Choi Chei Ou-a!” 


“Knowest not who speaketh unto thee?” 

“Nay, who art thou?” 

“I am God; f worship me and thou shalt have power 
over the people.” 

Choi then asked him concerning the question nearest his 
heart —“Is the Roman Catholic the true religion?” 

The answer was —“No, the word and the time are the 
same, but the thought and spirit are different from the true.” 

I shall not attempt to interpret the above. With this 

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God departed. Choi, seeing a pen close by, grasped it and there 
came out in circular form upon the paper these words: “Since 
from aforetime we have worshipped Thee, Lord of Heaven, ac¬ 
cording to thy good will, do Thou always bestow upon us 
to know and not forget all things (concerning Thee); and since 
thine unspeakable thoughts have come to us, do Thou abund¬ 
antly for us according to our desire.” Choi then picked up the 
scroll, burnt it, poured the ashes into a bowl of water and 
drank it. Immediately he aro9e and his sickness was entirely 

Choi felt himself called to found a new religion. He 
thereupon proceeded to make the Tong Hak Bible, which is 
called Sung Kyeng Tai Chun • or “Great Sacred Writings.” 
He took from Confucianism the book of the five relations, from 
Buddhism the law for heart cleansing, from Taoism the law 
of cleansing the body from moral as well as from natural filth. 
So one of the names used for this book is made by combining 
the names of the three religious You Poul Sun Sam lo. f The 
influence of Romanism may be seen in the term for God in the 
prayer, Chun Chti% being the one chosen. Romanism is also, 
indirectly at least, responsible for the name they called it, 
Tong Hak or Eastern Learning in contradistinction to So Hak 
(Romanism) or Western Learning. This taken in connection 
with the fact of its being a combination of the true Oriental 
religions easily accounts for the name. 

Beginning in the province of Kyeng Sang, the Tong Hak 
religion spread over into Choitng Chong and Ohulla. It in¬ 
creased in numbers until 1865 when a persecution broke out 
against the Roman Catholics. Choi was apprehended, accus¬ 
ed of being a Romanist, and was beheaded at Tai Ku, the 
capital of Kyeng Sang, by order of the Government, and the 
religion was thus put under ban. 

The Tong Haks are monotheists. They reject the Bud¬ 
dhistic belief of the transmigration of souls, and do not use 
images in worship. Their rites are few and simple. When 
members are to be initiated, a master of ceremonies calls the 
candidates before him. Two candles are lit, fish, bread and 
sweet wine are placed before them. Then they repeat twenty 

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four limes in concert tin* Tons Hale prayer, “Si Chun Chu' &c- 
Bowing lx:fore the candles completes the ceremony, when they 
rise and partake of the banquet—the expenses of which are 
paid by the newly initiated. They claim that they do not sacri¬ 
fice, making a distinction between the words Chci Sa c and Jr hi 
Sutttf. (• They worship as follows: (Yinent, red clay and one 
smooth stone are taken and ari altar is made. Upon this a 
bowl of pure wafer is placed and at night the worshipper 
bows before, this with forehead on the Hoot praying the 1 ‘ Si 
Chun <Jhii " Arc. When his prayers are over, he drinks the 
water, calling it the cup of divine favor. 

It is stated that when the founder was miraculously cured, 
that he wrote a number of mystic signs upon slips of paper, 
which, when given to any sick Tong llak, produced instant 
recovery. I have, in my possession a copy of a paper taken 
from the body of a Tong llak recently slain in the province of 
Cloning Chong. The signs are utterly unintelligible, looking 
much like a child’s first attempt at drawing spiders. The 
first roads: If you carry this, hundreds of devils* cannot over¬ 
come you.” The second makes the body weapon proof. It 
is said that one of the Tong Haws approached the Korean 
soldiers flourishing one of these papers. At first they were 
overcome by his daring and were afraid to fire. Finally a 
brave, more bold than the rest, ventured a shot, killed the 
Tong llak and dispelled-the enchantment. The third gave a 
prosperous journey Arc; This su|>erstition is practiced in Chi¬ 
na: and I am informed that Japanese magicians profess to 
heal by means of tint same mystic characters. The Tong 
JIak doubtless adopted it from China. We are told by out¬ 
siders of other miraculous powers belonging to them. It was 
the custom of the founder to ride upon a cloud. To jump over 
a house, or from one hill to another was a common practice. 
A house so commanded bv a Tong Hak suddenly disappeared. 
If an enemy suddenly appeared in the same room with a Tong 
Hak, the. latter mysteriously vanished. Perhaps there is a 
modicum of truth in the last statement. This too may lie a 
Chinese custom. An empty purse obeyed the command of the 
magician and became full. These so-called miracles remind 
one of the apocryphal gospels and serve in common with other 

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earthly systems to show the infinite desparity between the 
true miracles of our Divine Lord and all the attempts of fee¬ 
ble man. 

Confucianism and Taoism have nothing to say about the 
future life, and as the Tong Hak refuse the degrading doctrine 
of the Buddhist, their teaching is concerned solely with this 
present world. They know nothing of the great scripture 
truth of the immortality of the soul; and hence, in common 
with all other Koreans when asked—“If a man die shall be 
he live again?” they answer—“Who can know?” which is their 
strongest expression for—“ It cannot ha known.” 

So far I have treated the Tong Hak purely as a religious 
body, taking some liberty perhaps with the word “ relig¬ 
ious.” Such they were until a few yearn ago. But there exist¬ 
ed along side, perhaps antedating it a few years, a st ate of op¬ 
pression of the people by the officials which was becoming more 
and more intolerable. Every spring for several yearn there has 
licen the rumbling of revolution in the interior. The people 
were looking somewhere, anywhere for assistance. Some went 
to the Boman Catholics; the majority, to the Tong Haks. They 
had a common cause against those in authority. The Tong Hak 
leader had been l >e headed and their religion prohibited. Thus 
there was a large ingathering of those who were Tong 
Hak in name only. Had the Tong Hak remained a re¬ 
ligious body with principles in harmony with good govern¬ 
ment, it would have had a right to exist. Every man has a 
right to his l>elief, and the right to worship God according to the 
dictates of his own conscience. But the political element soon 
dominated the religious and they became a Ixxly of revolutionists. 

In the Spring of ’93, fifty Tong Haks came up to Seoul and 
spread a complaint lxdore the Palace gate, on a table, over which 
was thrown a red cloth. They asked that their leader, the mar¬ 
tyred Choi Chai U, lie declared innocent, that he be given a cer¬ 
tain rank anil that they l>e allowed to erect a monument in his 
memory. Further, that the ban he taken off their religion, and 
that they lie allowed equal privileges with the Homan Catholics. 
If this was not granted they would drive all foreigners from the 
country. The King replied that he would give the matter serious 
consideration, and requested that they would cease to obstruct 
the thoroughfare in front of His Majesty’s gate. This was fol¬ 
lowed by the arrest of a few Tong Haks in the district from 

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which the fifty came. Their 'petition was not granted. 

In the following Spring the long expected uprising came. 
At first everything was swept before them. The Korean soldiery 
were unable to check their forces. Governors, magistrates and 
other officers were deposed in summary order, many meeting 
swift justice for past misdeeds. The Tong Hak gained over the 
people in the following manner. A man clothed as a high of¬ 
ficial was sent to a village. He carried the royal seal of auth¬ 
ority, pyeng pou* a reed given by the King to his messengers. 
This reed is broken, one half remaining in the Palace and the 
other being carried by the official. This intimated that there 
was royalty among the Tong Haks. This officer summoned 
the villagers before him and asked who were Tong Haks. The 
unwilling were then politely urged to join until the majority 
came over. These then were sent against the halting minority. 
If they failed, the officer summoned the stubborn one before him. 
lie would not so much as see his face but the victim was made 
to kneel on the ground outside the officer’s door and was told to 
join at once or take the consequences—death. 

At first they were all victorious but since the Japanese took 
the field against them they have gradually been driven into 
corners and their leaders have been killed. 

Coming through the little west gab;, on Jan. 22nd., I was 
shocked to notice the head of “Kim” the leader and wonder¬ 
worker among the Tong Haks, with the heads of three other 
leaders tied together by the hair and hung upon poles in the 
middle of street, intended doubtless as a warning to other offenders. 
It is, however, a most barbarous and unjustifiable custom which 
canont lie too Rlrongly condemned. Let us hope that the head 
of Kim, the Tong Hak, will lx; the last sign of a custom that doen 
not sarve the purpose for which it was intended but only serves 
to demoralize the people and accustom them to scenes of blood. 

** 9 + 

William M. Junkm. 


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Several summers ago I noticed some Korean children 
energetically chasing a solitary and sorry looking magpie- 
throwing stones and sticks at it most venomously, and altogether 
showing a finding of hostility against it, entirely out of keeping 
with the peaceful relations which usually subsist between Korean 
juveniles and this very common and tame and, I may say, half 
domesticated bird. Ujxm inquiring the reason for this unsi'omly 
and uncommon conduct, I was told that this was a had and lazy 
magpie, which had stayed at home when it ought to have been 
up in the sky helping to build the Ril'd Bridge. 

My curiosity was aroused and I made inquiry and learned 
that a legend of a Bird Bridge was widely disseminated among 
Koreans. But there were many different versions of the story — 
all however agreed that on the 7th. day of the 7th. n oon in 
each year all the magpies were wont to fly up into the starry 
realms and there build a bird bridge across the milky-way. I 
was further informed that I might watch and would find that 
the magpies were absent from home on that day. I may say 
here that on the succeeding year, I did l<x>k out lor mag] ies hut 
saw none until late in the afternoon when one came sailing by. 
I called the attention of the Koreans, who had given ire a version 
of the legend, to this bird by way of refutation of the truth of 
his story but he coolly answered that no doubt it had completed 
its task and just returned. This opens up a wide field for 
speculation and I earnestly urge all my readers to carefully note 
and record and report in the interest of scientific research the 
movements of magpies on the day named. 

Emm among the various versions of this legend I select the 
following, not only as being the most probable but also as 
accounting for some unexplained phenomena which have 
enduml to the present time. 

'rim G»xl of the stars who, as the story g<x’s, rules grand, 
supreme and absolute in the starry kingdom, lmd a daughter— 

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an only child—beautiful beyond the wildest dream of fancy, 
accomplished and pood as she was beautiful. 

She was greatly beloved by her august father and her 
benign influence was felt throughout his realm; the planets with 
their circling satelites moved smoothly in their appointed orbits; 
the suns preserved their systems and pursued their courses 
without hitch or clash and even the erratic comets rushed along 
without once getting off the track and gently wagged their tails 
in respectful salute when passing in her presence. 

In the angry moods of the old Star God when he filled the 
vast regions of his domain with the terrific thunder of his angry 
words and the flash of his lightning bolts and scared even the 
stars, making them blink and twinkle and quiver in fear, she 
alone could sooth hi n and turn away his wrath. 

In due time a suitor for the hand of this star-eyed Goddess 
appeared ill the person of a young prince of the royal blood, who 
wooed and soon won the gentle heart of the simple maiden. I 
have not the space to dwell much on the wedding but will say 
that the resources of the firmament were well-nigh exhausted to 
make this the star occasion of the season; at night all the constel¬ 
lations were brilliantly illuminated; the Auroras Porcalis as well as 
Australis, were turned up to their fullest capacity and put under 
the greatest pressure and the abys nal space, from north to south, 
glowed with a ruddy light of surpassing splendor. Myriads of 
meteors were shot off and this accounts for the shooting stars 
still to be seen. The festivities were closed with music—all the 
stars sang together, joining in a grand choms of joy and gladness. 

But the honey-moon had scarcely waned l>efore the young 
prince developed propensities most undesireable— I will not 
say he was inherently bad but only that he was giddy and like 
many sons-in-law in these latter days, improvident and banked 
too much on the unlimited wealth and supposed generosity of his 

And just here this story takes on so many human aspects 
that if we did not know it was true, we w 7 ould suspect that it 
originated in the brain of some mortal and w T as founded on 
terrestrial experience. 

It is said that the Prince joined Circles and Literary’ Unions 
and after a while several social clubs, all these involved monthly 
dues and other expenses and charmed him away from the do¬ 
mestic hearth. He began to stay out late at nights and left his 

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of worthless husbands are, undertook the task but made the us¬ 
ual mistake of first confiding her troubles in the strictest confi¬ 
dence to her mother—of course, before the dawn of the next day 
the old gentleman was in possession of all the facts with the 
customary mother-in-lawish comments and addenda. The Ko¬ 
reans trace the enmity between mothers-in-law and sons-in-law 
to this incident but I can scarcely believe that feuds so bitter 
and universal can have come from a matter so trivial. 

To say the Star King wras mad does not express it. He 
fairly glowed with ire. But finally the tears and pleadings of 
the daughter prevailed and a peace was patched up, it being 
agreed that if the prince would mend his ways, his majesty 
would furnish funds to liquidate his debts, upon the express un¬ 
derstanding however, that the advance should be repaid in full 
on a certain day. Being of a financial turn of mind, I inquired 
as to the amount of this advance; the figures as given in Korean 
cash were appalling, but when reduced to a silver basis were 
alxmt £37.75. 

This was duly paid but still the prince was not at peace, 
lie knew that inexorable time would surely bring the pay day 
but did not know where he could-gct the necessary $37.75. 

A Prince cannot work, neither can he spin; stock gambling, 
charitably called speculation in these modem days, was the only 
resource left and into this he plunged with the desperation of 

Unfortunately a grand canal scheme to tap the milky- 
way and conduct the lacteal fluid to nurture distant stars was 
at this time foisted upon the public and he invested heavily, but 
the bubble buret, the promoters, news-papers, statesmen and oth¬ 
er gentry of that ilk, got all the money and the Prince and other 
investors got left, so to speak. 

If there was a stock-board on any of the stare you may be 
certain the Prince was there, picking up sure points but assuredly 
dropping his scanty cash. 

As time wore on, his schemes to catch the nimble penny 
grew even wilder and more visionary. He took to chasing the 
rain-bow to get the pots of gold which every body knows hang 
at each end, pursuing that grand arch of colore all over the skies 
only to find it a chimera, ever fleeting, receding, shifting and fad¬ 
ing out of view. 

Space forbids following further the futile efforts 

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loving spouse in solitude and tears. If n< 
certainly was one of the earliest devotees o'" 
"bacarat, and it was rumored that once wh 
as hanker, a gallant son of Mars was cau< 
much scandal was caused thereby. Ho 
and opera and found, as many poor moi 
society of Theatrical and Operatic Sta i 
sitating dinners and wines aud dianioi 
and gifts. 

The Comet races facinated him, a 
ant at the race meetings where tl>< 
whizzing around the track. II< 
organized a comet stable of his o 
comets like the young blood h<- 
coffers of the book-makers. < 

—Hennessy’s famous “three 
survival of the favorite tip] 
cd bar-rooms, and I am 
knew the side entrance 
stars in the kingdom. 

He went on spre< 
of speech) “ painted I 
aon hues of some of I 
permanency of his < 
the job. 

But why fo’ 
less high-flyer 
candle at botl 
his wife was 
the Jews e 
most usn 
the mai’ 
other i 
of V 



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•■*- l their various plans and were about to giv- 
a young and daring genius — the Edison of 
d the novel expedient of what might be call- 
ug bird bridge”; to be composed entirely of 
lan was adopted and when the 7th. day of the 
again all the magpies of the world flew up into 
and putting their beads together formed a broad 
ok to bank across the milky-way, thus spanning 
ream of flowing and glowing light with one mag- 
arch, without abutment or a pier, but supported 
•ir flapping wings—and thus furnishing a way for 
> join his devoted wife. And tliis has been done on 
c each year foi countless ages and will be done so 

gpies endure. 

Korean rainy season embraces the 7th. moon and it 
is on the 7th. day — if in the morning, the natives say 
drops are the teare of gladness shed by the Boyal cou- 
n meeting—if in the afternoon they are the tears of sadness 
i >arting. If there is thunder it is the rumbling of the carts 
Prince’s train; the flat heads of the magpies of the present 
re evolutionary results of the desire and attempts of the 
for generations to form a flat floor for the bridge. This is 
moulting season and when bare-head magpies are seen, the 
cans explain the fact by saying the feathers have been worn 
by the Prince and his retinue in passing. 

I trust that with all this confirmatory evidence no one will 
ost doubts on this story of the Pil’d-bridge; many a myth, cur- 
ently believed, has less foundation than the bald-bead of a 
moulting magpie. 

The moral of this story is ; never borrow $ 37.75 from your 


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* i 



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China, and dates the year as the 504th of the Tai Chosen dy¬ 
nasty. Tai means great, and in Chinese Asia always indicates 
a sovereign power. These incidental changes point to the mighty 
events which have shaken the political world of Asia since last 
June. This year Eul-mi will consist of thirteen months, being- 
a leap-year, and 383 days, lasting from dan. 26th. 1895 to Feb. 
14th. 1896. Each of the thirteen months is known technically 
as “small,” or “large” as it may contain twenty-nine or thirty 
days. The lea}) or intercalary month is called Tun-zvol and is 
introduced inzo the year once in three or twice in five years to 
correct the difference between lunar and solar time. The 
months are exact with the moon and the same word in the 
language indicates both. The phases of the moom are carefully 
noted, and the following are the Korean words for them. Sang- 
hydn* 1st. quarter: Pan-ivol t 2nd. quarter; H<x-hy'6n \ 3rd. 
quarter; Mang-wol § full moon. 

The months. Each of these months is introduced by a 
dissertation of a practical and poetical character, of which the 
following is a free translation. 

First Moon —large (i. e. 30 days) Jan. 26 to Feb. 24 inclu¬ 
sive. During the moon the virtue of heaven will center itself in 
the south which will thus l)ecome a most fortunate locality to car¬ 
ry on one’s affaris. The east wind will melt the ice, bugs and in¬ 
sects will be resuscitated, and the fish in the rivers will so jump 
with joy they will bump their backs against the ice. The otter 
will offer its usual sacrifice of a fish to the supernatural powers; 
geese will appear flying north, and grass and trees once more 
put forth foliage. 

Second Moon=small (i. e. 29 days) Feb. 29 to Mar. 25. 
The peach tree will put forth its lreautiful flowers, and the oriole 
sing once more. The falcon will transform itself into a wild 
pigeon, tire swallows come forth from their mysterious hiding 
place and thunder and lightning shake the heavens. 

Third Moon = large. Mar. 26 —April 24. The O-dong 
tree will bud and the fieldrats change into To birds. We shall 
have our first rain-bows and water chestnuts; The cooing wild 
pigeon will jerk its feathers and the Tai-seung bird appear in the 

Fourth Moon=small. April 25 —May 23. Behold the cry 


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common people of Korea; a stiange mixture of folklore and fable, 
tradition and practice, prognostication and meteorological dogma. 
In the references to the blooming of the flowers and the flight 
of the birds we have both poetry and prophecy; in the sacrifices 
of beasts and birds of prey and the transformations of animals 
we have fable and myth, while buried beneath oriental turns of 
expression and idiom lies the Korean’s store of astronomincal 
knowledge, superstition and taboo. Much of the almanac is given 
lip to the Shammanite superstitions of the people. The ex¬ 
istence and i nmanence of supernatural Ixdngs corresponding to 
the old Greek idea of the demon is an article of firm belief to the 
ordinary Korean. These beings are intimately associated with 
the life of each individual and control fate and fortune. One of 
the most prominent ideas in connection with these superstitions 
is the idea of luck. Lucky days, lucky hours and lucky mo¬ 
ments; lucky quarters, lucky combinations, lucky omens: luck 
or ill luck in everything. The almanac makes an extensive effort 
to keep track of this luck. As a sort of frontispiece there is a 
chart of tire five quarters, east, west, north, south and center, 
which gives the location of the demons and the direction under 
taboo. It has been noticedthat on some days it is next to impos¬ 
sible to get some Koreans to do certain work or go on a journey. 
The secret of this lies in what follows. The most vicious of the 
talxx)s cento re around the movements of the great chief of the 
demons, Tai Chang Kun, who yearly holds bis court in some 
one quarter of the heavens, which thus becomes sacred to him 
for the year. This year he will set up his throne in the east, and 
the superstitious Korean will, as far as possible, avoid that sec¬ 
tion. He will not change his residence to a house to the east 
of his present abode, nor marry a bride who lives to the east of 
him. Journeys to the east will, by the credulous, be restricted to 
lucky days of which the calendar provides a generous supply, 
and any dish broken or disaster incurred in that section will be 
laid to one side until a lucky day, to be repaired. 

In this connection another feature which resembles a taboo 
is that known as the Sang mun or death’s door which is in the 
west. This is sacred to the dead. Dying Koreans will at the 
moment of death have their heads laid to the west that the spirit 
which is said to leave the body through the head may be able to 
make a bee-line into eternity. These two examples will serve 
to illustrate the taboo feature of the almanac. There are, accord* 

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* • ♦ • * • ' t * • jT 

.' « ^ vj • • — * *•- -i 

. t /. . . . , •« # t t f '' f . s% \ * > \ • * •• . i ' - T -’«*X 

• ' ' / ' / V v ■' v /.V V, . / v *. ■ . • • 

f * / , . • < j v, '» •(, i /t * . c - r \ * - - : : .• t 

r * ' /* / f/ , *'/ *»•.. : - *'r 

/ •'' » '•' " '// / •* /. *''*t*,; ' •**. h', 4 f i,r ?; Hr, *•» r : . o{ 

- I '-t-'rfr' t *'!" f *i f t) f ) tihiy *;»/ r*'/ ' t Tfj-r kixj>i. 

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For physicians and apothecaries la the heal in" art in Ko¬ 
rea one of the chief things is not to anger the Chnk din sin — 
the guardian body spirit. Each living being has one of these 
spirits who changes his residence daily from one part of the 
body to another, and should any attempt be made to remedy a 
part of the body on the day in which he is residii g there it is 
sure to result in increased affliction A s his round through the 
body is a monthly one, and he returns on the same day in each 
month to the same member of the body, one table does lui the 
thirteen months of the year under review, We reproduce it as 
follows, the numerals indicating the d ty of the month. 1. Big 
toes; 2. Outside ankles; 3. Inside upper leg; 4. Thigh; 5 Hips; 

6. Balms; 7. Inside ankles; 8 Lower arm; 9.- ; 10 Back 

bone; 11. Bridge of n< se ; 12. Hoots of front hair. 13. leeth. 
14. Stomach. 15. Whole body. 16. Chest. 17. I’ulse. 18. In-, 
side lowet leg. 19. Foot. 20. Inside ankle. 21. Little finger 
22. Outside ankle. 23. Foot. 24. Wrist. 25. Heel. 26. (Jhest. 
27. Knee. 28. — . 29. Knee and calf. 3d. ILel. 

Holidays. The alntanuc provides in all about thirteen of 
these which are rather of the nature of anniversaries 
than legal holidays. They are varied in significance and 
run the gamut of human experience from the sob mu day of 
sacrifice to days for swinging in the trees and for dyeing the 
firger nails red. Many of them have myths and legends, one 
of which is most interestingly described by “X” in the present 
numlier of the Repository. This 7th. day of the 7th moon and 
others of the same character are rather of the nature of sport¬ 
ive anniversaries than legal holidays authorized by the Govern¬ 
ment. The legal holidays we understand are four days at the 
New Year, His Majesty’s birthday, and certain anniversaries iu 
connection with the achievement of independence of China. 
Half Saturdays and Sundays, we are told, are to be observed 
as legal holidays and public offices will be closed on those days 
as in Christian lauds. 

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'1 lie object of this department will be primarily to notice 
books and articles on Korea which may appear from time to 
time. We shall endeavor to make it complete as a bibliogra¬ 
phy of Korea by giving mention to alt English works 01 Ko¬ 
rean topics which we see or of which we receive notice. In this 
work the co-operation of all interested is invited. A not * to 
the’editor concerning some work or article which may attract 
a readei’s notice will he gratefully received. 

Koiiean Grammaticu, Fortius, by Rcv. Jas. S. Calc, Aw. 
Presbyterian Mission, North. Crcnvn So. pp. 2414 . The Trilingual 
Press, Soul, 1894 . 

The enterprising publishers of this interesting work have 
laid a copy on our table. It is devoted to a study of the chief 
verlial forms of the language, with a chapter on the noun and the 
adverb. The work represents two years of investigation along 
grammatical lines, and is published under the auspices of the 
Mission of which Mr. Galo is a member. 

'1 he volume is composed ot 1 wo parts, the first being the 
Grammatical discussion and occupying pp. 1 — 512. The second 
part is a collection of 101*8 Korean .sentences with the English 
translation attached In the grammatical pirt Mr' Gale has ap¬ 
proached the language from the native side aiming to supple¬ 
ment rather than supersede the works in English already exist¬ 
ing. lie has made a c<dbction of the most important tonus of 
the chi- t \. rbs and in a concise nmntui ntt'inpts to elucidate 
their moaning and illustrate their use. We have all along felt 
that tlii‘- was the only way to deal with Korean Grao-uiar and 
that 10 rv attempt wbich approaches the language fV«.m a for¬ 
eign v point and essays t > fit :t ever the dry bones of a for¬ 
eign • iim itieal system is doomed to failure. We congratu¬ 
late M i- i«ale upon being the first to adopt this naturalistie nr th- 

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u(I in treating the Korean language and trust his example may 
have a due influence ou all future grammarians. 

We regard the columnar arrangement of Mr Gale's pages 
as rather an element of weakness than otherwise and think that 
it is capable o f improvement at this point. Columns always 
suggest figures and tables of statistics, and grammar at the 
very best is dry enough without having this feature added. 
Paragraphs would utilize the fine page of the Grammatical 
Forms even better than the columns. We also think that Mr. 
Gale might in some future edition enter upon a more extensive 
elaboration of the forms. 

Of the Korean sentences which foim the second part of 
Mr Gale’s work we cannot speak too highly. They are genuine 
Korean sentences, not English sentences translated into Korean. 
No matter how well the latter may be done, they are English 
rather than native thought, and though in outward form correct, 
will lack the life and swing of a genuine Korean sentence. 
Mr. Gale says of them, u l'he sentences at the close have been 
chosen to ° c * introduce students to Korean custom and super¬ 
stition, something necessary it seems me for a correct under¬ 
standing of the people. " This wo heartily endorse. 

Mr. Gale’s l>ook is not for beginners, but every student 
of the language should possess a copy and give it a prominent 
place in his work shop. 

The first Annual Report of the Korean Religious Iract Society 
is before us, a neat pamphlet of eight pages. The Society was 
organized June 25, 1890 with the Rev. F. Ohlinger, President. 
He served until he left Korea in the Fall of 1893 when the 
present incumbent was elected by tho Board of Trustees The 
annual duos are two dollars and life membership twenty. 
The Board of Trustees has sixteen members with an Executive 
and an Examining Committee. 

The Society published during the year eight different tracts 
and leaflets amounting to 22,000 volumes and over 890,'KX) dou¬ 
ble pages, this at a cost of $1088. If the editors of The Repos¬ 
itory were not so closely connected with this Society, we might 
avail ourselves of this opportunity to write hearty words of com¬ 
mendation of the work already done and undertaken by this 

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The following is a translation of the King's Oath taken at ;he Anccs- 
tralTe ;»p!e on the 12th diy of the 12th. Moon—Jan. 7th 1S95. The 
next day a pro lam ition was made staing the adoption of the new 
laws and commanding all loyal subjects to give the King their hearty sup¬ 
port. I his is a most important step and we therefore publish the vow 
and the proposed reforms in their entirety. 

"We declare publicly to all the Imperial Ancestors that We, your humble 
descendant, have received and guarded the mighty heri age of Our Ances¬ 
tors for 'hi ty one years, reverencing and fearing Heaven; and though We 
have encountered many troubles, the heritage has not been lost. How dare 
We your humble descendant, even to hope that Wc are acceptable to the 
heart of H javen? V erily, it is because Our Ancestors have gra< iously look¬ 
ed upon us and ai led us. Our illustrious Ancestor * was the first to lay 
broad the fou dation of ur Royal house, and for five hundred and three 
years has bestowed favor upon us his descendants 

• Hut now in our g ncration the times are greatly changed and the 
spirit of the times is more liberal. A n ighboring Power and the unani¬ 
mous judgement of all our officers unite in affirming that only as an in¬ 
dependent ruler can We make our country strong. 

* Ho.v can We your humble descendant, having received the spirit 
of the times fiom Heaven, refuse to conform and thus fail to preserve the 
heritage bestowed by Our Ancest rs? Shall we not put forth strength and 
restore all th ngs and thus add lustre t > the merit of Our Ancestor? 

From this time forth We wi 1 no longer lean upon anot er state but 
will lay bioad 1I.0 dcs iny of the nation, restore prosperity build up the 
happiness of Our pc pie and thus secure Our independence Thinking 
deep y on t esc things let tl ere I e no falling back into the old ways no 
inditii rene no daliianc , but ca’mly follow th** I road designs of Our An 
cestor. watching and observing sublunary conditions, reforming our in¬ 
ternal administration and straightening out accumulated abuses. 

1 or-lore. We, Your humble descendant, do now take the fourteen 
great I a-a and sw i»r in the presence of the Spirits of Our Ancestors in 
Heaven announce that, relying on the merits bestowed by Our Alices- 

* ^ £ «) 

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tors, we will bring these to a successful issue, nor will We dare to retract 
Our word. Bright Spirits, descend and behold! 

1. All thought of dependence on China shall be put away so that 
the heritage of independence may be secured. 

2. An ordinance for the Royal House shall be established in order 
that the line of succession and rank in the Royal Family may be clearly 
kno>\ n. 

3. His Majesty shall attend in person the Great Hall for the inspec¬ 
tion of busii.e s and having inquired personally of each Minister shall de¬ 
cide matters of state. The Queen and members of the Royal Family 
shall not be all n\ed to interfere. 

4. Matters pertaining to the Roval Household must be kept separate 
from the affairs of the Government and the two must not be confounded. 

5 The duties and powers of the Cainet and of the several Ministers 
shall be clearly defiied. 

6 Taxes to be paid by the people must be regulated by law, illegal 
additions to the list are forbidden and such excesses may not be collected. 

7. The assess ent collection and disbursement of taxes shall be en¬ 
trusted to ihe Finance Department. 

8. Ihe expenses of tne Royal H >useh >ld shall be reduced first, so 
that this exampL may become a law to ihe various Minister- and Local 

9. An Annual Budget of expenditures for th • Royal Household and 
the various De artments shal. be made in order to secure the management 
of the revenue. 

10. The laws controlling Local Officials mu t be speedily revised in 
order to discriminate between t e functions of the Local Officials. 

11. Intelligent >oung men from the country shall be ent to foreign 
countries to study. 

12. To secure a military sy stem, the instruction of military officers and 
a mode of enlistment shall be dec ded upon. 

13. Civil law and criminal law must be clearly defined and rigidly ad¬ 
hered to; to protect life and propeity i prisonment and fines in excess of 
the law are pro ibited. 

14 Men shall be employed without regard to their 01 gin; in seeking 
for scholars the Capital and the country alike, shall be searched ; this in 
order to make broad the way for ability,” 

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I hr ~k .ting parties at the palace 
o *j Jan. 17 and 21 were largely at¬ 
tended by the foreign residents of 
the Capital. The ice on the pond 
wai n good condition and the feel¬ 
ing was general that hearty thanks 
sc c due to Their Majesties for th* 
/ra ;oh invitati m. The summ r- 
!louse 01 the island was warmed 
and a light collation was served. 

Jan 31st Mrs M. F.Scranton and 
Mr*. Under.vood had a private audi¬ 
ence with Her Majesty the Queen. 

Feb. 4th Bishop Ninde was rc- 
< cived in audience by His Majesty, 
the King. The Bishop had alre idy 
gone to Chemulpo but returned to 
Sdul when he learned that His Ma¬ 
jesty had expresse 1 a desire to see 
him. He was accompmi d by I)r. 
W. B. Scranton and Rev. H. G. Un- 
derw od, D. D. and by his two sons. 

The entertainment in the rooms of 
the Soul Union on the evening of 
Jan. 22. by the U. S. Legation Mar¬ 
ine Guard was largely attended and 
was pronounced a sue e->s. Among 
th * Koreans present we noticed His 
Royal Highness, Prince Yi Hoa and 
Major Yi of the Rosal palace police 
l< cu:. 

Tiie Presbyterian Mission at its re¬ 

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cent se-MOn assigned work as to!, 
lows. H. G. Underwood and I) I. 
Gifford — literary and evangelist^ 
work; C C. Y'inton. m. l>. dis¬ 
pensary work in ScojI and medical 
itinerating; O. R. Avison m . d . —Gov¬ 
ernment Hospital; S. F. Moore — 
evangelistic work; F. S. Miller—Su- 
pcrintendency of bo\s school; Mio¬ 
ses Doty and Strong—Girls School. 
Mrs. Underwood, Mrs Gifiord. Mrs 
Miller. Mrs. Avison and Miss Arbu- 
ckle *ork among wf>men. At Fusan 
\V. M. Baird, preaching, it ncrar ng 
in Kiun^Sang province, Bible * las-, 
opening new station at Ool San. Dr. 
Irwin. medical work in Fusan an i 
in the vicinity Mrs. Baird and Mr^ 
Irw in, work among women and chil¬ 
dren. At Wonsan. J S. Gale litcra 
ry Work preaching, itinerating and 
day school. W. L. Swallen, preach¬ 
ing and itinerating. Mrs. Gale and 
Mrv Swallen, work among women 
At Pyeng Yang, S. A Moffett itin¬ 
erating, pleaching, work at Eui |n 
Kou Si>ng, and day school. G. I cc. 
preaching and itinerating. Mrs. Lee. 
work among women. 

The . ppo-nlments of the Metho¬ 
dist Episcopal Mission are W. Ii 
Scranton m. d. — Superintendent 
pastor of the Sang Dong Cluuge, 

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medical work in the hospita 1 and 
charge of work in Kong Ju and Su 
Won. H. G. Appenzeiler- President 
ofPaiChai School and principal 
»>f theTheologi al department, Pas¬ 
tor of the Chong Dong Charge 
and girls school and in charge of 
work at Chong No; VV. A. Noble— 
principal of academic de; artmen 
of Pai Chai School and pastor of 
Aogi charge; G. H. Jones—pastor 
of the Chemulpo charge and Kang 
Wha circuit; J. B. Pusteed M. D, 
Medical work in hospital; W. B. 
McGill M. D. Medical work in 
Wonsan; H B. Hulbert—Manager 
Press and pastor Baldwin chapel. 

For the Woman's I ore*gn Mission 
Society the appointments w ere. 
Mrs.M F Scrant- n Miss Kothweil- 
er and Miss ! I arris—Ev ngelistic 
work; Miss Paine and Miss Frey— 
The girls School; Mbs Dr Cutler 
and Miss Lewis — woman's woik. 
Mrs. Jones -— won an s wo<k in 

Jan, 22nd. we passed the place 
outside the VWst g:te where the 
heads of the two Tong Hnk leaders 
were exposed. The whole number 
exhibited was four but we saw only 
two. The men were executed in 
the Chulla Province and m ly the 
heads were brought for « \hib tion 
and degradation to Soul. They 
were hurg by tlr* ban i side a 
tripod and about three fee f-om the 

ground. AfeMhis revoltinc v 

cle it was refreshing to read in the 
Court Gazette, the next day. that 
beheading and other barbarous 
Modes of puni hment had been 

The Guilds in the capital, dur¬ 
ing the io ak disturb ncc last 
Fall, made voluntary contr butions 
to the war fund. The hat and clo i 
guilds each gave 1.000.000 cash or 
<400. The paper guild 50G x> 
c; sh or £200. '1 he grass cloth 

guild 250.000 cash or >100 an l 
ether guilds contiibuted sm.Jler 

The island of Quelpaert is said to 
produce no Jess th *n five varieties 
of oranges ranging from the size of 
a walnut to that of fire pomcloes. 
One vaiiety is called the bottle or¬ 
ange irom its t ncied r semblance 
to the gourd-noble. 

There is at Chemulpo a fleet of 
about 55 sampans. This fleet s un¬ 
der the supervision of an "admiral" 
appoint d by the local authorities 
(native) and who is known as the 
Pai-sop The boats have to 

report to him . 11 proposed trips, and 
he looks after the r interests. He is 
responsible to the local authorities 
for the good behavior of the crews 
of the various sampans and each 
boat pays him ^co cash a month. 

Jan. 29 was the coldest day of 
the month. The thermometer reg- 

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istered 3 below zero. On the nights 
of eb. 1st and 2nd. it went down to 
5 below, and during the 2nd did 
not get more than ten above. This 
is the coldest weather on record in 
the Cap tal. 

The Week of Prayer was observ¬ 
ed by the m.ssionaries in the Cap* 
ita 1. 

Bishop Ninde presided at the io:h 
annual meeting of the M ihodist 
Episcopal Mi sion. He preached 
;wicc to the foreigners The^p 
expressed hiinsdl much pleased 
with Seoul and with Missions in 
K orca. 

At the meeting of the Methodist 
Mission for the reception of fraternal 
delegates the lion. J. M. B. Sill, 
U. S. Minister, made a ringing ad¬ 
dress on the need for chu ch union 
especially in Mission fields 

We welcome to Chong ! -ong the 
Japanese firms of H. Sawa a&Co. 
H. Kameya & Co. and Tsuji & Co. 

The Ch mese lorcc de patched t > 
A-San was 3000 a d not 00 as in 
some c pies of the Jan. number of 
the Repository. (p. a) The error 
was discovered ut not until a part 
<f the edition had been print' d. 

Mrs Bishop, alte an absence of 
some six months ion tte ul trav 
idling exten ively in Siberia and 
Manchuria arrive ( here Jan. 7, the 
guest of Consul General W.C Hillier. 
During her stay she was favored 

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with several private audiences bv 
Her Majesty. 

We le rn from the Japanese pa¬ 
pers that the Korean language is 
taught in some of their higher 
sc 00Is. 

W c .are indebted to Mr F.H. Mor¬ 
sel for the following weather repoit 
from Chemulpo for the month of 

Wi h the exception of a few dull 
days the weather was fine, clear and 
frosty and the atmospheric w ave was 
but little disturbed. Only once did 
the pressure r* at ha maximum form 
ing a s ight crescent, while the low 
pressure foil >w ing formed bu* a 
shallow de| ression wh ch indicated 
a far-away passing storm, whose 
locus passed to ihe South and West 
The wind varied from N. toS. E. 
round by h. and again to the N. 
round by W. Its force wa* moderate. 

H)d ogra phiral phenomena were 
but slight. In all. there waso 20" of 
snow in 12 hour*. The direction of 
wind was N. W. by W. prevailing 
with .1 mean lor* c of 14.5 miles per 

Mein barometric | ressme 30. 41K 
,, temper; tore in air 23. 9 Fhr. 
Highest 420 

H M at night 39.2 

Lowest , in day 21.3 

.. ar night 5.9 

Ten perature of dew point 16.3 
Humidity .r.70 

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Shanghai, China. 

fi. jiioq y *1 
4 a M 
«l °J 3 -«-f $ aj 

■3 -M S i * •*' 

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« ** -q <& *m #. £ 
a' t[?M Hf4 f 



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m2313 STOaima. 


52 Main Street Yokohama Japan. 

Export packere. 

Insurances EiL-c ted, 

Forwarding Agents 

Missionaries’ Agents, 

Custom house Brokers, 

I’assufgeTS met on Steamers 

Boarding accommodation secured, 
Duties advanced on Imports. 
Telegraphic Address , STAX/LAND, YOKOHAMA. 

*9 *1 # 

Korean Grammatical Forms 


JAS. s. GALE, b. a. 

This l>ook, just published, deals with Korean verbal 
endings and connectives, the part of the language found 
to be specially perplexing. Accompanying are 1000 senten¬ 
ces illustrative of these as well as of native custom and 

For sale at TILE TRILINGUAL PRESS, Seoul. 

pp. vi and 249, 


t Cloth $3.00 
\ Paper 2.50 

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mrn&s 3T?ama'j) mv* 

offers good accommodation to visitors. 






Established 1864. 



Special attention is given to the Provision k Household 
Store Department, which comprises a fine assortment of 

all stores, groceru s and preserves necessary for the house¬ 



T erm s Cash. 




Common Use and a Manual ok Grammatical Forms. 

By * 

J_A_IEvO±j£3 SCOTT, ZMC..A.. 





vol. ir. 

No. 3. 



MARCH, 1895 




Rev. H. G. Appenzeller. 
\Y. H. "Wilkinson, Esq. 


Rev. Geo. Heber Jones 




Great Changes in the Korean Government. 


An Interesting Communication. 


Price per annum, $3.00. 

Per copy, 30 c. 


Published at 


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Eesidents in the interior and outports 
can depend on getting the whole of their 
requirements QUICKLY forwarded 
carefully packed and at equally low 
prices as if imported from home. A 
specialty is made of obtaining all 
goods not in stock and attending to 


Why mark, Kobe. 

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MARCH , 1895. 

KI TZA: * 

The Founder of Korean Civilization. 

The original name of Korea, so says the native chronicler, 
was Tong Pang t the Eastern Country. Korean history, or per¬ 
haps more correctly, legend begins with Dan Koutt * a divine 
person who came from the spirit world and was found at the 
foot of a tree, according to some traditions, in the Great White 
Mountain § and by others in Myo Hyang San || in the province 
of Pycng An. The people by common consent, took this divine 
being and made him their King. He reigned in Pyeng Yang for 
1048 years. So we are informed in the “History of Korea for 
the Young.” He' taught the people to bind up their hair in the 
present top-knot fashion and his land he called C/ioson, U Morn¬ 
ing Freshness and not Morning Calm. Having reigned his 
allotted time he entered a mountain and assumed his former 
spirit nature. 

We can take space to give only one more of the several ac¬ 
counts of the origin of Dan Koun, which is as follows: A spirit 
came from heaven and lighted upon The Great White Moun¬ 
tain that stands sentinel on the north side of the magistracy of 
Yeng Pyeng **. Hue met a she bear under an altar, and she ask¬ 
ed to V»e. transformed into a person. This was done and she be¬ 
came a woman. From this union a son was born and was call¬ 
ed Dan Koun —a Prince from under the Altar. This lieing 

i ** ^ 

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; m- • c i-i 

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mi: kokean repository. 


reigned Recording to souk' authorities 1048 years, according to 
ofluax 1017. At what a^e lu* was prurlaimed king, whether at 
his hirth or sivir years later, we an* not itllor.iual. One writer 
Hong Mon Chong* making a comment on the length of Dan 
Komi’s rei-n says that 11 ion at that time lived to a much greater 
age than now and mo.ntions /\wg Clio, t who live I for 800 years 
and Kimng Seng Cha \ who reached tin* venerable age of 1200 
\ears— 2d I vears non* than Methuselah. 

On the depart ure of Dan Kouu, Ki Ibaowwo. from China as 
King of C h'oson. I !e is the founder of t.he present social order and 
civilization and therefore worthy of study. Wo notice Ki Jba 
in his own country. The last Kmperor of the Chow dynasty is 
notorious in history for extravagance and brutality. Jo/ Kni § 
a woman of great beam tv but eorrupt heart enamored the Mm 
peror. lor their own an use ■ ent In* erected pillars of brass and 
chained cm iuals to them. Then a lire was kindled under them 
and the efforts of the poor wretches climbing the smooth pillars 
greatly amused Antonv and »Men pat-ra of eastern Asia, la! I\ui 
would not, s nile and the ruler was ji lore coneerue l to win a 
smile from his favorite [man to relieve the sufferings of his people 
A pond was made,filled with liquor, the co no on people were 
assemble l, and at. a given signal every one was ordered to help 
himself. The mad rush for the pond appealed to the ludicrous in 
the paramour, she laughed heariilv and 1 Pe Iverdvr was pleased. 

There W*re three men Mi 7 bn lb Kon 1 Ki 7b r ** hon¬ 
orable and upright who looked w it h a.kir n u| on t ho evtra valance 
and lieentiousness of the Kmp<mr and his <\»nrt. The first one 
suggested to tin* Kmperor toat 1 1 is present, ] oliey was ruinous, 
hut the advice while good was neither wanted nor toiDwed. Mi 
1bo therefore went into voluntary exile. The seeond one labor¬ 
ed with the Kmperor lor three du\s, when, asthes’on runs, 

1 ! is Majesty expressed the wish to S *:* W; let her t hi* Irartof a 
good man had s'Weii orifices. TD* hint was pro • ptlv taken and 
Pi Kim's heart was brought info the royal pres no* lor inspec¬ 
tion. f Mh(* last one’s ('Oorts to “leibrinT t.he \va.\sot tin* sov< r- 
eign wen* eipnllv ursurecssfiil. h«* pla\ed the par!. ot 1 a hi an 

siM a\%" 

' ws. » 

: % ■' **l ti it I - 

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El T Z A. 


by doing tlie work of a slave. This course so enraged the tyrant 
that Ki Tza was imprisoned. 

While these attempts were made to prevent the downfall of 
the Emperor. Moo Wang, the leader of the revolt “met the tyr¬ 
ant, on the plains of Mull and in the great battle that ensued, 
the army of Chow Sin was defeated.” Like a weak man, the 
EmjHiror withdrew to his palaces, arrayed himself in costliest 
robes, ordered the buildings to be burned and he himself finish¬ 
ed in the Ha nes. 

Moo Wang, successful in his revolt, and hearing of the pat¬ 
riots n and wisdom of Ki Tza, offered him an honorable fic¬ 
tion under the new government. Ki Tza looked upon Moo 
Wang as an usurper and refused office or promotion at his hand. 
In the L3th. of his reign Moo Wang went to the home of the 
sag*'. It is well known the two were not on intimate or even 
pleasant terms' but as Ki Tza had “the secret of good govern¬ 
ment” the Emperor was anxious to become possessed of it if 
possible, and he therefore set aside Court etiquette, called upon 
his subject and received from him the famous Nine Great Laws * 
It is said the sage in addressing the Emjioror used the lowest 
language, but this as perhaps the visit itself may well be receiv¬ 
ed with suspicion. 

Space will not allow the discussion of these Nine Great 
Laws. We are concerned with Ki Tza in Korea, Defusing 
office under Moo Wang, he was permitted to found an indepen¬ 
dent kingdom to the east and beyond the reputed sacred waters 
ot the Yellow Sea. 

Ki Tza’s name was C ha So 1W Ki is not properly a part 
of his name, hut a title corresponding probably to Duke and 
was conferred on him by the Emperor. 

At the age of fifty with five thousand followers he came to 
(.'boson. The date usually given is 1122 B. C. the beginning 
of the ('’how dynasty, hut if the Emperor’s visit to the sage in 
the thirteenth year of his reign is time, then 1100 B. C. would he 
the correct date. Guided or at least influenced, by the reigning 
constellation, he sailed lip the Tatong river and founded his 
capital <'ii the large plain south of, hut adjoining the wall, of the 
present city of l’vong Yang. Here he laid out a city on a large 
scale. The main street ran parallel with tie river and is used 


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to this day. The outlines of other streets are still marked, cross* 
.ng each other at right angles, thus showing a regularity un¬ 
known in any city of Korea to-day—one or two straight streets 
in a city not being sufficient to disprove tlx* correctness of this 

Among the followers of Ki Tza were repivsontatives from 
all classes; doctors, scholar's, mechanics, tradesmen, diviners and 
magicians, lie also brought with him the J’ook of Odes, the 
Hook of History and the Hook upon Kites and Music of the 

Confucius said it was “well to live among the Nine babav- 
ous races.” Ki Tza and his ml heron ts found the people to whom 
they came destitute of manners, morals and religion. The grass 
from the hillsides and valleys was used for raiment; the forests 
and streams supplied their kxxl: they slept in the open air in 
the summer and burrowed holes in the earth in the winter. The 
new ruler, although ignorant of the speech and custon s of the 
barbarians, set bin.self vigorously to the task of improving their 
condition. The land was cleared, the people were taught to till 
the soil, and willow trees were planted. This may account for 
the large number oi willows even now on the site of the city he 
founded, as well as at other towns and villages throughout the 
country. The sage instituted eight laws that men might know 
their duties towards then selves and towards others. 8.0 zeal¬ 
ously were these laws followed that the doors were left o}>en at 
night aud licentiousness in the cities was unknown. These eight 
laws may he summarized as followos: 

1. Agriculture. The original said, “Men to work in the 
field,” hut this prerogative lias to a large extent lieen relegated 
to the women. Two women and one man iu the fields may fre¬ 
quently he seen by the traveller. 

2 . Weaving l>v the women— no disposition on the part of 
the men to usurp woman s position in this respect. 

3. Confiscation of the property of thieves. 

4. Capital punishment of murderers. 

5. Chung Chun Pop * so called from the character for well f . 
According to this law “lands were divided into allotments, cor¬ 
responding to the nine divisions formed by the four cross lines 
of the character, and the outlying plots were cultivated by ditier- 

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K I T Z A . 


ent families for their own use, while the central division was 
tilled for the State by the joint labor of all.” (i) 

d. Unostentatiousness. 

7. Marriage. 

8 . Slavery. If men liecome robljers they shall l>e reduced to 
slavery ; if women they shall be reduced to the state of female 
slaves. It may be interesting to remark here that by the pay¬ 
ment of a ransom of 500,000 cash slaves could be liberated, 
though they retain the disgrace attached to serfdom and are 
disqualified from becoming the husbands of suitable wives or the 
wives of suitable husbands. 

The civilization introduced by Ki Tza was based on the 
Chinese Odes, History, Ceremonies and Music. The change 
wrought upon the natives was marvellous, so much so that they 
were taken note of by their neighbors. They became famous 
for kindness and civility. Travellers did not disturb the citizens, 
nor “pick up valuable objects dropped in the road.” “Men and 
women take different roads when walking and have evidently 
l>een under the excellent instruction of the benevolent and vir¬ 
tuous.” Of the eight laws, the one relating to the division of 
land was repealed about 8(>0 years after the death of Ki Tza. 
The others are more or less felt to the present day. 

The Koreans with whom I have talked on the subject rest 
the fame of the sage on the Nine Great Laws on Social and 
Political Economy. It is true the laws instituted and the civil¬ 
ization he founded in Korea are spoken of highly and appreciat¬ 
ed, hut these are not found in the Chinese Classics and cannot 
rank with what has a place there. 

Forty generations of kings followed him and the throne 
he erected stood for 929 years. The last of the dynasty fled in¬ 
continently on the invasion of Wei Man. He came down the 
Ta Tong river, skirted the coast until he reached a place of safe¬ 
ty in what is now the Chung Chong province and became the 
king of Ma Han. 

Of the end of Ki Tza little is known and that is very un¬ 
satisfactory. He lived to l^e 93 years old. Whether be returned 
to China and died there or came back to the kingdom be had 
founded and died here is uncertain. A virtuous man, an upright 
ruler, be is believed to have gone to heaven, but like the greater 
law-giver in Israel, the place where bis body lies is not known. 

(i) Carles. l ife in Korea p. 170. 

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i r v: * - Y - v.-: * : ::. d * !. a * ; - ■ • ,-Ptnce t<> 

• - r : • • • V>'^ H-m 4 i.. .* : v. s thrown 

- !•- iVrel :• t .* s:•nit of the 

r ” * * > - • ; : 

I* ■ / * d • !j t* v.’.i i \ • • -• i of tlx* six- 

t' • ’ ’ ' ‘ ill iV *?.t of t .* I v. as kn»ke]*« 

' :f I’ - - - ;*!-*' ii. I i»v • . 4! - : r * i a is. At tin* 

' :•* ; : • Z Y i M! hiV. S'pt'-pd-r. : *• i .*kk<>s stone l!:«*t 

v. p . - * :Z on. 

\' \ M «,* * < i'jwn:*»r of * • IV Min Yung dun, 

n pa : • •• . phem frw imps* t si •ii il tax. of 340 

cr. . » .?• : .• •>; '- lit- w - i-vi-i u: on ew-ry i.m;s» in tho pro¬ 
ve I • t have r : .- «. ; * - r • *t !;»••> * at hand. Int the 

k'V . Z'rf * r : •; a 1 .d t: " 1 :t \ . »-nt - W ti:e hit* 1 • St ill Ulld 


T >• r •; ; r " ■f 

v- ■ d t h« t»* !iv.**1 in m e of our :; i-sior, lints i 

Km- tr: t.M* i. ]fe v. t- t:41. l'i/v. * asv-goir.e » r rot L'oi'ig—at 

1» 1 -r tr» W'li ,. aid \« f Wa- ;t!w:i\s d 1 * ^ d Well. 1 helV WHS 

;m: i?:'-m h-tv.'m. i.> ‘Vailing’ an*! liw i:a*d.-of living, 

1 it as I c i i tii -1 for • *- i.-al: a <l<>/mi \*-ars <♦ ivenncilr these 
i ii.^ liiii'-p j '-' s iv • : 11 - i I lt ivo it in*. Tim i: ;«sionarv in 
rhar^T'* of the f .* ai:d a!wa\s fniiml ti:« arcli»*r 

an attentive l*-*m.«-rr-* t "trith. t)n»* day c»n rxan.ining the 
h«Mts », tlv n i--ioi • r> oi#red w’.:at !«x»k(nl like a cl« s t d(H)i* and 
i Mixiia* !iis siii’i n-e v. i.m »a; found m shrine t t rie. I rnni a 

Korean I leana-d the utla-r side of ti,«* story. ! he avelx i’ 

w.-::t to 1'vei!^ Y;m z wiieti tJovernnr Min went down, dust 
\v* it p sitjofi he held IS not stated, it u aV have 1 ♦ *11 t«) 
l:is K\eellene\'fl ] i]c or to earn his raid. W hie in JAtlig 
N *rz. Ki d za s^rave was r#-paired tu:d he either t<<» k one ol the 
d ’S’:!! 1 lex 1 port rails of the sa^* or had a new one n ade. \\ hen 
the iiowrnor rotnrned to tin* ( aj ital to take* up new honors and 
ivsi o»-i’hiti* s. the aieher ea'n* with him. hut work was 
^o:e. He however brought the jortiait of Ki T/a. n ailagral to 
^'e» i» the hut above mentioned, ereeted this shnix*. and<* 
a res» ,h nl le and surely a ver\ ease living 1 >y ottering prayers 
to t ee l e::T der of the (’ivilization of Korea. 

\\ is Ki Tza a n'al eharaetm* (>r does his reputed visit to 
Kee a h *e? z to the legendary ]’ri<xl ? It is hard to tell, dheie 
I'n •• **v* • t ,»t is n;\sti'rioiis al out 11 u' story and the little we 
know ihef.t him makes us want to know more. Koreans, I 

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K I T Z A . 


think, 1 relieve in his existence. They point confidently to his 
well and grave in Pyeng Vang as at least occular cadence. The 
more thoughtful go further and hold that Chinese civilization 
was introduced into Korea at that time because of the change in 
the laws and habits of the aborigines. We also know that under 
favorable conditions agriculture, morality and the moral founda¬ 
tion of a state must spread to surrounding countries. The 
natural inference therefore is that the first “Chinese invasion” of 
thu Eastern country was under Ki Tza and his five thousand 
followers. The second was under Wei Man at the end of the 
dynasty nine hundred years later. 

II. G . A p p e n z e 11 e r. 

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Korean Chess Chang AH* is admittedly a variant of 
Chinese*, yet, as will be seen, there are some important 
differences 1 tetween the two games. The design of the 
I ward, (hut not its shape") in the same, save that in Ko¬ 
rea the tiles are earned across the “river", which is in fact 
ignored. The men again have the same names as in China 
and except that the King is placed in the centre of his camp, 
and that the Horse and Elephant are interchangeable, occupy 
the same jwsition at starting. Hut their powers and privileges 
it. most cases differ largely. A Korean chessboard and men ar¬ 
ranged for a game apjiear upon the next page (the illustration is 
taken from a Korean facsimile) 

It will he noticed that the Iward is not square but oblong 
the width 1 wing greater than the breadth,. All Korean chess¬ 
boards have this shape the object in view lieing »o facilitate the 
moving of pieces when they have reached the opponent's end of 
the board. It may Lk* remarked in passing that Korean chess¬ 
boards all seem to be of domestic manufacture, as they are not 
sold in any shops, -*ven at the Capital. The men can lie pir- 
cliascd—though they are usually made to order, enclosed in a 
net strengly resembling an onion bag. 

Another feature in which the Korean game will be seen to 
differ outwardly from the Chinese, is the shajie of the men and 
the circumstance that the hieroglyphics on one side are inscribed 
in the “grass character” or running hand. Korean chessmen are 
not circular as in China, but octagonal, and they vary in size 
according to their value, the King (General) lieing the largest, 
the Chariot. Klephunt, Horse and Cannon of medium size, and 
the Pawns (soldiers) and Counsellors the smallest. The hier¬ 
oglyphs on one side are usually coloured red. on the other gre m, 
the diaughtsmen, for such they in appearance are, lx*ing all of 
the same wood and undyed. 

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Iii describing the powers of the pieces it will be convenient 
to give each its corresponding Western name the />'o, a piece we 
unfortunately lack —l>eing styled a Cannon. The Korean names 
are as follows 

1 — * Cluing “(.-reneral” — the King more usually styled 
Kung l’alace. 

2 —t C/i’a “Chariot” — the Rook. 

3 —* Po “Cannon.” 

' 1% '£ ’ 4l ' ,r ^5 *1 : in t; it 

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4 - * Pyeng or Choi “ Kootsoldier" — the Pawn 
5—t Sa “Counsallor” — the Queen. 

6 — 1 Sang “Elephant”— the Kishop 

7 —§ Ma “Hor83” — the Knight. 

The moves of thos' pieces follow two general laws the ex 
istence of which make Korean Chess a more finished or mort' 
logical game than Chinese. The 1 ii'st is that tin? pieces invaria 
bly take as they move , the second, that, within their limitations 
they move along any marked line. In Chinese chess the P'o 
moves like a Kook, but takes only when a piece intervenes; the 
Korean Cannon moves and takes in the same way. as shall pre¬ 
sently l>e explained. On the Chinese lx>ard the files Ixdweun the 
5th and 6th ranks are not marked, in order the letter to indicate 
the “river” after the crossing of which the Pawns acquire in 
creased powers; yet for pur|>us 8 of play they exist The diag¬ 
onal lilies joining the corners of the General’s “Camp” may lx?— 
though they seldom if ever are —omitted from a Chinese ehoss- 
I card : hut neither they, nor the Kiver files must Ik* left out on 
the Korean. For as lias l>een said, wherever a line is marked u 
Korean piece can, within its limitations move clung it. Thus 
the Chariot which has precisely the same jxnvers as our Rook 
may move from one corner of the “camp” to the centre or if so 
desired, to the corner diagonally opposite. Ixieaus? thos3 points 
are connected by a marked line. For the sau e reason the can 
non if on one such corner may, when the centre is occupied, hop 
over to the opposite corner along the line of the diagonal. A 
similar train of reasoning has made identical the movements of 
the two Conns?llors and the General. 

The General or King , as he shall he called, may from his 
original pc sit ion at the centre, move on to any one of the nine 
l>oints in his Camp, hut he can never leave bis Camp. Within 
it he moves only one step at a time, and that only along marked 
lines. Tim- if the King were at 5a lie could move thence to 51 
( the centre) 6a or 4a, hut he could not move lo 4h or 6l> lte 
cause them is no line connecting 5a with these last two points. 

As in the Chinese game the* Kings check one another across 
the hoard, if they are on the same file with no piece intervening. 
Korean Che ss leans here, as in other games, towards the losing 

it"i * s u.)<»■ 5 °f 

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side. If one of the players lias an overpowering advantage, the 
other is allowed, should opportunity occur, to check his oppon¬ 
ents King with his own. Tims, il lied has King on 6i, 1'awns 
on 3d and 2d, while Green lias King on 5a. Rook < n 7a, Pawn 
on 7d Bed is allowed to play King 6i to 5i (Check). When 
< 1mm moves his King to 4a ov 6a, (his only alteniative) Bed 
again checks with his King making the game a draw. It should 
however Im> ol served that the act of checking the opponent's 
King with one’s own is in itself, a confession of inferiority, and 
deprives the player of any chance of winning the gan e,~ he can 
at most draw it. The same penalty attaches to the checking 
oi the opponent's King by a piece which that Kini* could cap¬ 
ture vers it, not on an open file of his rival’s. Tims:* 

Bed: King on 4;, Knight on 3c I’own on 4h 
Green : King on 5a Book on li Bishop on Ij 

If it is Bed’s turn to play lie mates by J’awn to 5b— for if 
the King n oves to 6a he is equally under check by the Tawn, 
since the points 5!> and 6a are connected by a marked line. If 
it is Green s turn he can only play Book li to 5i, a draw not a 

A player cannot force a draw by checking his opponent's 
King with his own, even though the alternative is to be mated, 
if he has the greater strength in men. lor Kxatnple*- 

Bed: King on 6i, Queen on 5j, Bishop on 5i, Knight 
on 3e, Pawn on 4c. 

Green: King on 5a. Bood on Ig. Cannon on If, Knight 
on 3g, Pawn on 3f. 

Red would mate by Pawn to 5h, but if it is Green’s turn 
he may not play King 5a to 6a, check and draw, l^ecause the 
value of his pieces is superior to that of Bed’s — a Book and a 
'annon being worth more than a Queen and a Bishop. 

The King on a losing si*l<* is allowed yet another privilege. 
If he is the only piece on Ire side, and if his moving would 
greatly endanger him. he is allowed, as tin* equivalent of a n ovr 
to turn over and re:i ain in his original position. Tims (the fin¬ 
ish of an actual game played in the B'ritish Legation garden at 

Bed: King on 5i, Queen on 4i, Pawn on 5c, Knight 
on 3c. 

Green . King on 41 >. 

Green's onlv n ove King 4h to 4a, would he followed bv 

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TH»: KiMIKAS’ UK 1*061 TORY. 

■ 1 ~j 

Red: Pawn .3e to .31/, mate, Green therefore lx-ing called on to 
{•lav, simply turned over his king. The game then pnxx* *dt*vl. 

Red. Green. 

Kt. 41 to 5f, K. 4b to 4a. 

Kt. 5f to H 1. K. 4a to 4h. 

Pawn 3c to 5b, man*. 

Instead of playing K. 4b to 4a in reply to move of the Pe l 
Knight, Green might again have reversed the King — for ther- 
is no limit to this exercise. 

The Counsellors or Queens move in all rrsnects like tin* 
King and are equally confined to the nine joints of the Camp. 
They cannot give cheek, however, across the l*>ar 1. They are 
more j/owerful than the Chinese shill y which can only (x:cupv the 
live points on the diagonal. 

The Chariots or liooks have exact I v the ) navel's of our « wn 
Castles or tin* Chinese chu % except that, as has U*en said, they 
can also move along the marked diagonals of either their own. 
or the enemy's Camp. 

The Jlors s ( Knights) have precisely the move of tint Chin¬ 
es*. ma y which is also that of tiie Western Knight, with one 
important limitation. The Korean and the Chinese nia always 
moves first one step along a tile or a rank, and then a step 
diagonally. If there he a piece, whether of his own side or the 
enemy’s, at the ellx>w, so to speak, of his leaf, he cannot move. 
Thus in the example given above, t.he Red Knight, on 3c could 
not move to 5b or 5.1, l/oeause of the Pawn on 4c. had the 
Pawn lx**n on 4!) or 41 the Knight would not he estopped. It 
will 1)0 seen that it is, owing to this rule, possible to cover check 
from a Korean Knight. 

The Elephant or Bishcp, n ovesone step along a rank or a tile, 
then two diagonally. It differs from the jamol or Camel of Tam¬ 
erlane's Chess, in that the latter moves first one step diagonally 
and then two straight wise, and has, which the S'ang has not, 
the privilege of vaulting; for tie* Korean Klephant must have 
a clear course fro n start to finish, like, the Chinese h suing. 
Unlike the hsiang (whose move is that of Tamerlane’s pil or the 
original Pishop, the fil .— less their power of vaulting) the Sang 
is not confined to its own side nf the Iliver, but ma \ move freely 
all over the PhniiyI. 

At starting the Korean Pisliop must stand on one of the 
two points lx.‘tween the Rook and the <>ueen. the Knight being 

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D 3 

placed on the other; but on which ]x:>int, depends ujxui tlu* 
whim of the plaver. Perhaps it would he simpler to say that 
at the co nineiicement of the game the men being arranged as 
in Chinese Chess (except that the Kings are on 5h, not 5a, and 
5i not 5j either player may lie tore moving — but not afterwards 
— interchange Knight and Pishop at one or Kith sides of hi? 
liiu*. If one player so interchanges, it is generally considered 
advisable for the other to do the same, but he is under no obliga¬ 
tion in the matter. 

The Soldiers [Pawns) differ from those of China in that 
they have from the first the move which the Chinese ping 
only gets after crossing the River. A Korean Pawn moves one 
step sideways or forwards ,hut never backwards or diagonally. 
When he reaches his tenth rank (the enemy’s first) he does 
not change his condition, but remains a Pawn, restricted to a 
sidelong movement up and down that rank. For this reason 
a Pawn is not often advanced to the last line, is indeed sel¬ 
dom carried beyond the. eight rank, his strongest position. 
We have seen that in common with the dook, the Ki ng and 
the Queen, the Pawn can travel along the diagonals of the 

The Cannon differs from the pao of China, in that it 
moves as it takes, and that another Cannon can neither form a 
screen for it, nor be taken by it. fie* Korean p'ao moves 
in a straight line, horizontally or perpendicularly, but only 
when some piece, (not itself a Cannon) intervenes. Thus in 
the example given above, the Cannon on If can move to lli, 
li or lj over the Hook on lg, or to 4f, or 81 over the Pawn on 
of If it moves to lj it would give check t<» the enemy’s King 
mi (>j, because the Queen on 5j intervening forms a screen; 

I>ut as the men are placed at the commenc an nt of the game 
the Cannon on 2c cannot take the Knight on 2j, because 
the other Cannon on 2h does not act as a screen. \Jth< >u gh 
this is the case an intervening Cannon is not altogether ignor¬ 
ed. For instance if Red had had a Cannon on 4a when (ireen 
checked by Cannon If to lj, he could have replied by Cannon 
4a to 4j, interposing, when the (ireen Cannon on lj would 
practically bear on nothing hut tin* empty poin sit to la. 
'1'his restriction of the power of the Cannon makes it inferior 
to the Chinese ppo and its movements more cumbrous. In all 
other respects the Korean game i.^ a distinct advance on the 

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-lr-n a^urv to 
uri<i pi>- 

* *k* whnr- 

'Z'.TtlZ t«* thr 

i r*t ChzniSi 

* <>r j»rol»- 
••- r •tiritry 

i «i Ti^whiit 


:? “St* svm- 
• c nsi<Jcr- 
v via! fact. 

' #- - 

- n ^ • 

» — • 

' * « - .. r 

" . '• • 

" r 

• * * ‘ - 

- A 

i * r r •* 

> ' - 



ft • # ^ s V ' ^ # 

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t-~ - 


/ * 



K : 7u • 

/ / » 



<■ • 0 



;■ *. - * 

^ % a ^ • 

* 4 

Y - 

r / / 

r / V 


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f . 


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r , * r 

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/ / ’ • 



r ** v t 

V ; ' » 

. f r 


i: H • \~ 

’♦ '/ 4 •■ 

r j 

i: i-1.. 4- 

JO J' i / 

•' /' f> 


1* CM r . iv 

• : f: 

♦«. f ,‘ 


. I* 2- to Se 

I / t ■>•, 


II f» i t«. i*j 

i' ft 7, 

t/, 'r/ 


. «’ 2- t ik'-s 

14 1C l, 

•'# 1 r. 


. <,' To 7r 

if/ <; m, 

Up 11 

i r> 

P 8** to 7e 

i'; o '5J, 

'\\i (* f,» r\ i 


. K f>l. to 5n 

• it-r plum, 

— • ▼ith thr 

v * i * Pawn 

- \\u*r>4*ri8 to 
* n^r *h«*rt 

'«"* 71 r H^p^i - 

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Original from 





17. C 3b to 3i 

18. P 7? takes P7f 

19. 0 3i to 3a (check) 

20. R lb to la 

21. R la takes K12a 

22. R 2 1 takes B 3a (ch) 

23. Kt 5b takes B6d 
24 R 6f takes P6d 

25. R 6d takas Kt6c: 

26. R 6c to 8c 

27. R 8e to 8a (ch) 

28. B 9g to 7d (ch) 

29 R 3a takes Q4i (ch) 
39. R 8a takes Q6a (mate) 


17. P 7e to 7f 
better to 6e 

18. C 2g to 2c 

19. Q 4i to 4b 

20. K t 4b to 2a 

21. B 5d takes 03a 

22 Q 4I> to 4a 

23 P 7d takes R.t 6d 

24. 0 7c takes Kt7h 

25. Q 6a to 5b 

26. C 7h to 7b 

27. Q 5b to 6a 

28. K 5a to 5 b 
only move. 

29. K 5b takes R4a 

“Check” in Korean is chang general i. e. “King,” and 
mate is cheutso “fail.” 

W. H. Wilkinson. 

Since the above article was in type a paper of the writer's on the same 
>ubj *ct has appeared in the /’’ll Mall Budget (of Dec. 27. 1894.) In tin- 
otherwise excellent illustration there given, the names of the ma and s a, tg 
have in each case been reversed by the printer. This opportunity is there¬ 
fore taken to correct an error which by future chess authors will be either 
copi-d or denounced 

W. H. W 

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The io>i£ Mong Stung St up cr Youths Prini-r . * - 'u. 

’him*** classic nI Koiean anthnrship which is pur ir A • 

<d «*\ ♦ r v Korean seho d-boy to torni the basis *>: ; ^ - 

' i' iori I arn not able to state definitely the name ami fiat 
nothm, hui it Kars internal evidence of having l**r'. vr ~ 
s am Mine during the reign of the Ming dynasty of Gb:r: . >. 
\*V^ Ib28. It is written in excellent style and for th - • *- * 
t it* \oung pupils, the grammatical endings were intr**: . ' 

hit*/ it by N»ng l Wain, Korea’s greatest sitvant ot tin- 1# 
entery and reputed founder ot tin* great Noron politic** 

As may he seen from the tiaiislatioti herewith the 1 rz~- 
oom i.v of an introduction, followed by live chapters, 

• * o «*t* * 1 to one of the live moral Precepts; then * 

■ ; ' ' 1 11 j w | Siniinieiy, and the final chapter which is a resum- 
n :< iv 1 b* w*.ik of translation lias kept as close t«• tin* or:_r- 
< ••• as j /.-oiili*. ami all supplied words have been italicize*. 
'•*’ > b.ivr nisi# been added which may prove of interest. \ 

Jd o * i j.- a | « il. i t key to Korean thought and character. 
- i tin sob'i.o.. .* is well worth memorizing hy those who h- S: 
b i »*• aid to » and «x tended relations with the Koreans. It 
•" 1 • ‘ t* ui.datji.n i/i tin* Korean religious and social economies, 
(1 ’ d is d*/;jin.ih and epigrams are axiomatic to the ordinary K<>- 
/ <■. 11 . 


Am.d 0 ' a hi, earth and the myriad tilings man is the 
'•><. and man is noble because lie has the Five Precepts, 
km M> m nis said: "1 litre should ht between lather and son re- 
‘ ,lj ' usojp: i. < V\ i i” if King and noble et iqiiette; between liusliand 
,n d vvij. d 1 1 j. no e (|); between senim* and junior precedence; 
b ,, i** | eo In* fid and Iriond faith. And if ignorant of these the 
man is not lm limn the beasts uml birds. ’ Therefore the father 
must hoe and tin* son be tili il, tl,e King correct and the noble 
b'i'dj i l*e husband peaceful and the w ifr docile, the elder con- 
nb iale and (In* youngei obedient, liieml Indp trieml to he good 
olid man may be called a man.” 

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Between Father and Son Relationship. 

The relationship which should exist between 
father and son is heaven born. lie gives him birth 
and nourishes him; he loves and teaches him; he re¬ 
ceives from past generations and binds to or pisses on 
to his son. The son is filial and nourishes his father’s old age. 
Therefore he is taught through right precepts not to present 
iniquity to hisfothers sight and to exhort his parent with mild 
tones. When this shall be done universiilly crime will cease in 
provinces, domains, prefectures-and villages. Verily the father 
may not own the son as his son, nor the son recognise the 
father as his lather, yet if this should be the case how shall 
the world stand? In the universe there is nothing that is not 
not-lower (3) than the parent. Though the father does not 
love it is not permitted the son to refuse him reverence. In 
ancient times, when the great Syoon’s (4) father was savage 
and his mother bigoted and she purposed to kill him, Syoon-i 
by his surpassing filial piety caused them to change little by 
little, reproaching not their wickedness. This is the height of 
filial piety. And so (Jonfucius said: “The five punishmeuts are 
attached to three thousand kinds of crimes, but among all these 
crimes there is not one so great as that of being unfilial.” 

Between Kino and Noble Etiquette. 

The King and noble are separated like heaven 
and earth. Ther* is high and noble, low and base. 
The high and noble use the low and base and the 
low and base serve the high and noble;—this has been the 
universal method lwth now and through all antiquity. The 
King is chief, whose fame is spread abroad, and whose it is to 
command. The noble acknowledges this chieftain-ship, exem¬ 
plifies virtue, and shuts out iniquity At the time of gather¬ 
ing into position, whether of King as King , or of noble as noble 
each has his order or proprieties. Associates in office should be 
harmonious and have mutual respect. This leads to the high-, 
est administration. Verily when the King is not able to walk 
in a Kingly way and the noble does not adorn his position, 
then neither family nor country is properly governed. Yet he 
who says the King has not done well will be treated as an ene¬ 
my In ancient time* when Sang Chu (5) was savagely savage Pi 

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gan-i (G)rebuked him and died. In this he did all a loval no- 
ide could do Therefore Confucius said. ,l v noble b chief serv¬ 
ice to his Kin” is loyalty.” 


Man and wife mean the union of two numes or families. They 
give being to the populace and are the source of a myriad bless¬ 
ings. To marry there should be a discussion of the maniage with 
the (to- between, (7l and presentation of wedding presents after 
which the parents will meet. Then the Difference becomes thick. 
(8) But wl en von seek a wife seek not one of yotir own name, a 
member of your ou n clan , and build your house so that seclusion 
of the wifcshaH be possible. A man should live in the outer 
apartments and not concern himself about the inside of the house; 
a woman should live within and say nothing concerning outside 

By governin': well yourself raise tip order and propriety. 
Bear in mind that complacency lead* to the right any. The 
husband must manifest dignity and the wile docility ere the. 
house will be well governed Should the husband be incom¬ 
petent to govern alone, not able to follow his way; and the 
wife encourage him in his incompetence departing from righte¬ 
ousness by not mtv ng,— the Three hollowing Ways (9) will 
he obscured and though there he the Seven Reasons (10) for 
divorce, through which the husband may find relief his house will 
be annihilated by his personal incompetence. 

A man honors hums- If by controlling his wife and a wo¬ 
man honors herself by assisting her husband. Through these 
the outside [husband] wil I be contented, the inside [wife] do¬ 
cile and the parents of the husbami delighted. In ancient t'mes 
Kak-kyol-i went to w<«d his fields ai d his wile broi ght his 
food to him. Wh n they met they treated each other as guests. 
This is the proper way for husband and wife. Cha-sa said 
‘‘The doctrine of the superior man is that the husband and wife 
are the beginning and eud of humanity.” 

Between Senior and Junior Precedence. 

Seniority and minority are due to a heavenly de¬ 
cree An elder brother is such through elder-brother li¬ 
nes®, and the younger brother through younger-hrotherli- 

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ness, and each has his order in precedence. For all peo¬ 
ple related to each other in Prefectures or villages are either 
senior or junior and they should not be disorderly in conduct. 
Slowly to walk after him who is the elder i6 said to be rever¬ 
ent, — to hasten quickly in front of the elder is said to be ir¬ 
reverent If a man’s age is twice your own treat him as your fath¬ 
er; if ten years your senior as an elder brother, and if five y * irs 
older than yourself lean on his shoulder. When the elder loves the 
younger, and the younger reverences the elder manifesting no 
contempt, for him , and the elder refrains from superciliousness 
lozvards theyouug, then the way of man is straight. And as men 
do treat each other in this wav how ranch more should an elder 
and younger brother, born of the same breath, of the same bone 
and flesh and most closely related, properly regtrd each other; 
not holding the anger or harboring the murmuring which des¬ 
troys heaven's decrees? In ancient times Sa-ma-kivan^i was 
famous above all others for his regard for his elder hrotuer Path- 
kwangi He treated him its thought he were his exalted father, 
he nourished him as though he were a child. The proprieties be¬ 
tween a younger and elder brother are eveo thus. Mencius said: 

“A child knows well the love his parents bear him, but 
when lie reaches manhood’s state he knows not the reverence he 
should render his elders.” 

Between friend and friend Faith. 

A friend belongs to the same order of being as yourself. 
Then* are three classes of friends who are profitable and three 
cl tsses who are unprofitable. A straightforward friend, a sin¬ 
cere friend and a friend who has heard much (12) are profitable; 
A deceitful friend, a time-serving :iieml, ami a flatterer — 
these are injurious friends. The genuine friend is one who is 
virtuous. From the Son of Heaven (13)evnn the humblest 
peasant, to he a friend and properly discharge the obligations 
of friendship one must be |>erfeet. 1 he true friend is tie who 
mends (14) in friendship. In choosing a friend select one who 
is sup *r or to yourself* good and worthy of confidence, en- 
thusiasti e. in disposition, who speaks right things ami loyally 
points you t» the right way. It he is not so, ceas a from association 
wih him In mupiaintaiue made during an idle hour thue will 
possibly h a lack of proper cutting and finishing. (15) Rc mem¬ 
ber tie iv m iv u;>e between friends sadness and anger caused by 

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♦ ' 2 * 

. ~ir. r 


Ul v 

'4- r 'V ~ ws?i 11 


*i r~ 

/ ' ' 


* ••■■*, t; \ t. : * * ', 7 *: 

' - »• •• • *t t« ». * !'!;nmr. A’ ,-:i 

’ * • • «*. ' V .'*n ' u t .».r * 

- - «• - f ' "*>• ’ v — ’ .11 

•• 1 ■ n. • •*. • V'~a A • .!*■»;z \ i»*v ire 

•» • ♦ ' ' 4 A ' ' / iii»* • '• r iC 

r ' n'<* t...; t. .*• :• ai i .r- 

' ■•••-• ' '»• ' *v;: ir^ vi'a t.v: • > ; * »<i 

- • » « v.. nv.»*r u trv. v .•* r 

/ / l 4 ' ** . * ;v» *r A -r. " k .<.* y i; v •;« ' . 

• ■■. • *-r r;V'T» 7 ,n -I** n-.t r- >* * *;r 

**-• * '«• . fc -r r.*' : *:.•*? •;* rr.-r.\ - . t 

/r • 1; '• ','• * / / tn (o y&vr fj’ntr. 

f / r o , * A r r , r *;» y *rr j : u‘ /: r. - a;♦; 

aw ? /' ■' 7 •- r * r, wr - 0 , //, # * hut *r". 1 - • ! y co- 

tfi'i < • i f* y \ »r 'I *' y Iovp your •siNr a:.** '.0; .ftr» o: 

•/'i f # Mo oo> f*'r»rrp- fr y■•* r par fits hut follow that *hieh is 

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pleasing to your eyes and ears—this is to murder your parents. 
If you are brutal and fond of fighting, — this causes danger to 
your parents. How sad! 

1 f you wish to see a man and whether he is honest or dis¬ 
honest., you must see whether he is filial or unfilial. In all this 
you must act without fear and with the utmost care. (21) 

How can one go beyond filial piety in irirtue? If a man is 
able to lie filial, he goes on to the proper relation between King 
and noble, husband and wife, senior aud junior, friend and 
lriend. For to be filial is to be great and filial piety is not too 
high tor or difficult for attainment. 

He who has learned that he has not produced himself should 
certainly he classed with the cultured aud refined. The pro¬ 
prieties of a cultured man are not different from this. He who 
wishes to know clearly the past and present of history and to un¬ 
derstand clearly the art of governing will have this in his heart 
seeking thus properly to conduct himself and the strength of 
culture will be his. 

This has betn complied for use that all may properly un¬ 
derstand the proprieties of history, which is to the left. (22) 


1. Difference. This word indicates separation of the 
respective spheres of man and woman — a dogma most firmly 
held to in Korea 

2. Relationship. Signifies more than simply a blood tie 
and includes the idea of decreed and covenanted responsibility 
and obligation. 

3. A peculiar native idiom. 

4. Syoon .• B. C. 2317 —2208 The successor ofthe Chinese 
Emperor Vao and the last of the illustrious Five Rulers of an¬ 

5. Sang Chu.X The last Monarch of the Shang dynasty 
whose evil comses wrought his own and hisdynasty’s destruct¬ 
ion B C. 1122. Ki-ja appears in history in connection with 
hie reign. 

6. Pi-Gan.% One of the famous trio of statesmen (the 
other two being Ki ja and Mei ja) who vainly strove to turn 

t jjjjtt ; jtT «| -ji 

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When Tah Cho, the founder of the present Dynasty, came 
on his travels from Ham Kyung Do he paused near a beautiful 
well that stood in a clump of willow trees near what is now 
the British Consulate, in Seoul. At the well he saw a full- 
grown and beautiful girl drawing water. He asked her for a 
drink, and she piomptly drew him a gourd full of the spark¬ 
ling water; hut, before giving it him, she plucked a handful of 
the leaves from the willow trees and plunged them into the 
howl of water. The stranger drank hut was so bothered by the 
leaves that in stopping continually to blow them back from 
his mouth be was compelled to drink veiy slowly. At last, 
however, having quenched his thirst with considerable trouble 
he looked up angrily and said; 

u What do you mean? I, a 6tranger, ask yon civilly for a 
drink of water and you fill the howl with rubbish. Why are 
you so rude to a trav> Her?” 

U I did that for your own good” she replied. U I saw that 
you were tired and over-heated and I knew that if you hastily 
gulped down a quantity of cold water while in that condition 
it would make you ill and might cause your death. There¬ 
fore I put in the clean leaves fiom the willow trees to com¬ 
pel you to he moderate and drink slowly. 1 surely meant no 

Tab Clio was charmed with her manners and the wisdom 
she displayed. He asked and learned her name, finding that 
she was the daughter of honorable but poor parents. 

When Tali • ho had succeeded in making himself ruler 
and had moved the capital from Song Do to its present site, 
he took this girl to lie his wile, and respected her. He was 
much aided by her superior wisdom and she ltecame very power¬ 
ful in the reconstructed government. They lived happily to¬ 
gether and when his wife wus seized with a mortal sicknecs 
the King w'as well-nigh inconsolable. Before dying, she asked 
a favor of her lord. She said that when her spirit had depart¬ 
ed, he must make a beautiful banner in the form of a kite 

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1 . 1 ' 

TUJ 15 : 4 

. v n^r ' 

v- n- ' — r - 

^ r? — i” V 

. * r ■ i 

* . . * lit 


r OTA* 


« . * ' j. • • 

:» »- w i - r.- 

. WA • • ' 

-. r w ^ ^ 

* - ■ * ■ • . i . * '< w -' ' , . e> . • ‘ • * _T"..» . H 

,*• / • i »jr .* • « - 

' 1* J - V\ s x \ . J \ - ;* -U1.1 : - * •“ * - 

•- if* <x . ». a t «* * T • ♦ • IT * ■ i * i' m \* i". * I . vt ■ . 

- <i' .a' v • I •- t!' T ; .»■ T j w*r. »*• * ’Hi * ** :• 

L; J •:*: -J ! !j- | *«: t ; * > r i li Ua .1 ^ • - -T': “ t - Hi. i' • ^ tAT 

• tf ! 

'J in- •itilM.fti^. ln\ ♦? !i i\ Mtr ai i :T ivh . i.jru" « * i 

uu i i 111 f I h. at 1.4> t I'UI MladnO t ; i * k .: j !.• 7 fr- I* *TI 

*itin>m li« Ihm of tii* w.ui- win *r. \v>p i*-inir * :•!-- 

ili'/Uiri l|i« ( I ii**r II a- 1 11 tT til*- *■ i iri’ • , * * --*• 

jiatl^d 14 » lllh M a “S’ iff a UP:l!LL 

.auv* Jn'i Ftiv♦ • r«1 1 <>111< 1 Ur in >vt* i. i nrui'»*f*«; it; ».;■:♦• m .nur 
a.^ Urlnie, and Uurv Ii*t w|n j rr Mi** uiutfr <; 

t:nlill time. and lurtimi, In hiiii* 1 a nriutuni tvmi»r \ w ij* ' 

Ural* tlicit tin* viKiim.K to ii mil’ll! in Ux** tin* surr-: n-T* 
U^dlltllul ‘Hid krr|> lit*! 1*« >1111 ».i 11V A it- • -h* til It a <1 rtMZ1 

it lUvilili la Hi vvat:*! U«* lt*d lit'ar In-i I" s 1 1 1 1 i_r laa/v l til* ^ 

lu* s.nntiit*d l»v tin h«hiii> 1 «>t tiit* ri|Miini£r water 

■ Liii alMifltai ]»rl*>t‘l»> nielli Untie lh III- n'-.iini; stream Alit. 
ii'Vcil v>l tlit'ii di>t u>t'.-. f I i*.i 1 v^ a* * • ‘in and * i; rn 

waoiv tla ImtilK'r lull, niil^ui* I In- :i *rtli zz.i\ - 

v u . ar,\ tin intemuMit luudt. tin pnpuiur njormsr*r r ^ r 

ij. ;Lic■ sti earn ‘ wiitiT ltd thi-'M^ti tur ^muuds. 

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The many visitors to the monastery furnish company 
for the Queen, while the waters of the stream, taken in the 
form of a bath, are very efficacious in curing certain diseases, 
which afflict the people. 

When Chong Nong, the grave, stood here in Chong Dong, 
the usual rice field that adjoins a burial site, was laid out 
over what is now Cabinet Street, which accounts for the 
usually moibt and swampy cm diti »n of that important 

Myung Nay Kung—a royal granary lor centuries past — 
was elevated to the position of a royal palace by the fact that 
after the .Japanese invasion the King stopped at this place for 
shelter while the palace was being repaired. Wherever a King 
passes a night the building that affords him shelter is thereafter 
painted and designated a palace. 

Thh Mulberry Palace 

Kong Miu An, 680 years ago, when there was no city on 
the present site of Seoul, selected the ground now occupied by 
the Mulberry Palace for a future Palace. It was then simply a 
vacant spot in the Han yang prefecture. 

When Tab Clio, later on, was coming to this section intending 
to locate the Capital of lus new Kingdom here, with his priest 
and helper Moo Ah, they shipped at Wang Sim Ni, ten miles 
distant, aud intended to choose that spot, but, when considering 
the u atter, they suddenly saw a huge stone tablet rise out of the 
ground liefore them bearing an inscription informing them that 
this place was not the right spot, but that they were to proceed 
ten H further The tablet then disappeared as it came. Tali 
Cbo promptly set out for the spot designated, which proved to 
lie the ground now occupied by the Mulberry Palace. Chung 
Tali Chang, the adviser of Tab Clio urged him to build under 
the North Mountain, and gave such good reasons for so doing 
that Tali Clio decided to erect his palace where the New Palace 
now stands. Moo Ah however persisted in urging the former 
site and prophesied that if the Palace w as built there a serious 
calamity would occur in 200 years. His advice was not heeded. 
The palace was built on the Northern site and the prophesy was 
fulfilled in the Japanese invasion three hundred years ago. 

When Mun Chong liecan.e King about 270 years ago, re¬ 
membering ti e history of the neglected Palace site along the 

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’ i j 

• • • j! \ "*n 

• • I i »« "N * *71 

j * • * * *i i Mil n 

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himself King, went to live at the Mulberry Palace where he 
actually reigned three days, after which the royal troops defeat¬ 
ed his followers and he was executed. 


Something over 300 years ago, a Korean ginseng merch¬ 
ant named Hong Mo>, made a journey to Nanking with a lot 
of ginseng The journey was uneventful, aid lie found on 
his arrval at the Chinese Capital that ginseng was in good 
demand. Iu fact the supply was so low that he was able to 
sell at a price five times as great as the cost. Having transact¬ 
ed his business quite to his satisfaction, he called in an old go- 
between and asked her if she had on her list any particularl y 
beautiful and gifted maidens of a marriagable condition. The 
hag informed him that she had one that especially answered 
the description: in fact she gave such a lively account of the 
girl that Hong decided he must see her and, making a prelim¬ 
inary contract, he arranged to have the girl brought to his 
shipping place that night. 

When in the dead of night the old woman brought 
the young girl to the merchant’s quarters, the latter was 
so impressed by her genteel appearance ai d deportment 
that he felt quite ill at ease in her presence. Noticing that 
she was very sad and that soon she begau to sob bitterly, be 
motioned the old woman aside and quin* respectfully asked 
the girl the cause of her sorrow. 

“1 am an orphan” replied the girl u my father, a noble¬ 
man, has been dead tor some time, and :ny moiher died a feu- 
days ago. I have no brothers or sisters. The property of my 
family was mostly exhausted in the obsequies of my father. 

I have no money to pay the pressing debts and to bury my 
poor mother. I have no one to look to for assistance and it is 
for this reason that I offered myself to the go-between, imping 
to get in this way the necessary funds to bury my mother.” 

Hong, being a particularly kind hearted man, was much 
impressed with this tale and with the degree of filial piety 
displayed by the young lady, for she was a lady in every sense 
of the wind. Hs was lost in thought for some time, and aftei 
asking several more questions he decided upon a very bold 
course of proceed lire. , 

“I appreciate your action” he said. W I am not worthy of 

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you, and it would be a sad thine to take you away to a distant 
land at this time I will help yon, but not increase your grief. 
I am rich from a lucky sale of ginseng, and you shall have 
this money for your needs. You will be my sister and I wilt 
l)e your elder brother.” 

Suiting the fiction to the word, Hong went to his apart¬ 
ments and bringing his money, he gave it to the newly found 
sister whose gratitude w is t**» strong for expression in words. 
She took the money and buried her mother, paid otf the family 
debts and resumed her position as the daughter of a high and 
noble family. 

Hong returned to Korea a po«*r man. Friends who had 
advanced sums of money to him before his departure, finding 
their money gone, deserted him. and did him all the injury 
they could; so much so in fact, that he was o unfilled to leave 
Seoul and go to the Southern Provinces, where knowing no 
trade and having no friends, he finally fell to the lowest 
station —that oi Ktth Sah * a sort of travelling musicim for the 
class of dancing girls called Sah Tong, + who wander about t ie 
country and pick up a precarious living by giving |>erfor nances. 
They are not allowed to enter the capital. 

Years passed in this manner and Hong's condition did not 
i nprove; lie re uaincl a Kuh Sah. 

While Hong was thus suffering for his generous action to 
a friendless !wdy, his adopted sister had found friends and favor. 
She had become the wife of a distant relative who was soon 
raised to the position of Prime Minister. In her prosperity she 
did not forget the friend to who n she owed her goo.I fortune. 
Knowing no lx?tter way of returning the Itorrowed money and 
not wishing to lxr a tax upon her husband, she set alxxit weav¬ 
ing satin, an art which was quite familar to her. She prepared 
•i large roo n and with her attendants spent all her sjwre ti lie 
weaving this fine fabric. Into every piece of the goods she wove 
the characters — Olden Grace Satin. *. Finally her Imsliand. 
noting her tired look, demanded why she. the wife of a high otti 
rial, should do such work and keep at it so constantly as to ini- 
[ air her health and sjxiil her g<x>d lcx>ks. She then told hi n the 
whole story. He was surprised and felt very grateful to his 
mtlier-iu-iaw by adoption, and wished to meet and reward 

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him, lor Suk Sang Sak loved his wife and was moreover a noble 
minded man. 

With the permission of his Emperor the. minster thereupon 
sent a letter to the Court of Korea asking that the man Hong Moo 
l>e sent to China . f but no sucli man was to lie found in Korea 
Months passed and no reply coming a more urgent request was 
sent to the Korean court, whereupon a procla nation was issued 
ordering all the governors and lesser magistrates to search dili¬ 
gently and find this man who was wanted at the Chiuesc conrt 
Placards were put up all over the country and one of 
these met the eye of Hong as he went about in his lowly posi¬ 
tion. He at once went to the Governor and explained that his 
name was Hong Moo 

‘‘It may be” said the Governor “but you are not the kind 
of a man that is wanted in this ease. The Hong Moo referred 
to is wank'd by the Emperor ot China and eonnot be a mere 
Kuh Sah. Out of my presence you no/nV’ 

“ But, ” protested Hong, u t was once a prosperous merch¬ 
ant and on one of my trips to Nanking l gave all my fortune 
to aid a noble family in distress. It is not improbable that the 
Emperor has heard of this and wishes to reward me for it.” 

The Governor listened, asked question!; and finally, not 
unwilling to he the instrument in finding this much sought 
for man, decided to send him on to Seoul, where his story met 
with even greater favor and he was sent over the border to 
China with a suitable following of soldiers and attendants 

The Minister’s wife being informed of his departure from 
Korea, went out t«» meet him on the route, hearing with 
her the 100 pieces of satin with the honorific characters woven 
into the material. She also gave him other costly presents as 
did her husband, while the Emperor hearing of the case had a 
b-tter sent to Korea urging the appointment of Hong Moo to 
a lucrative position. This was done ami the King. Sun Clio 
Tai Wang,* also gave him a fine house, which he named Ko 
Uhn Tuhn Kohl -- “The Place of the Olden Grace Satin.” 
The district was called Me Torg, “Beautiful Village”. 

Tt is further related that through the intervention of Hong 
Moo, the Pri ne Minister pursuaded the Emperor of China to 
tend assistance to Korea in their war with Japan, upon the 

* ^ ^ 

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el< so of which t'no toinplo Saing Sa Tang was huilt inside tlu* 
South Gato hack of the mint, to the two Chinese generals who 
le<l the allied trtxtps againstthe Japanese ; and in this tom ylo 
enclosure a smaller temple was erected in which were placed 
tin; portraits of the I > rim« Minister, Suk Sanc S-ili, and hi< 
wife, the adopnd lister of Hone Moo. tl it' founder of th< v pres- 
ent missionary headquarters. Konj* l>an£ I\cdil. in {’•'* beautiful 
v.ila^e, Me Toil^. 

H. X Alien. 

'Hie “MulU'rry htlare” is the J§f ^ ^ n. a 
Hate, and has received this name from foreigners 
spacious inclusure h;is H»en planted with mulltern 
laudable attempt to encourage serieultlire a i,one the ] 

v \\ ♦ ‘St 

I >ecause its 
tre< s. in t h<» 
ws»ple. Ki>. 

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1 Wow we give a fall translation of the twenty articles of 
refor.u proposed by Japan to the Korean Government. In 
them we have embodied the policy Japan intends to pursue in 
Korea. We may state in the beginning that the Koreans did 
not seek the advice of her neighbor and her solicitude for the 
welfare of Korea seems to others entirely gratuitous. Without 
stopping to discuss further this question, a short review of the 
work done thus far may not be amiss. 

The Council of State during its brief existence in the fall 
of 1894, passed a numlier of resolutions which received royal 
endorse nentand then became laws. Some of these were review¬ 
ed in the January number of The Repository. 

His Excellency Count Inouye arrived in Korea in October. 

He at once studied the situation here and the results are found in 
the recommendations before us. On the 20th. of November 
these were presented to His Majesty, the King. On the 17th. 
of December the new Cabinet was appointed, and two of the 
most important portfolios were presented to two of the most 
progressive men in the Kingdom, On the 7th. of January His 
Majesty visited the Temple and in the presence of His Ances¬ 
tors announced his purpose to inaugurate certain radical changes 
in his government 

The policy therefore is accepted and the King and Ministry — 
arc pledged to it. This changes Korea from an absolute to a 
limited or constitutional monarchy. This change is so radical 
and so far reaching that it calls for more than a passing notice. 

The difficulties in the way were very great. We can give 
only a brief account of what had to lie overcome. The general 
opinion among loth Koreans and foreigners is that the King is 
one of the most urbane and gracious sovereigns that ever sat on 
the throne of Chosen. His progressive spirit is shown in the 

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various Iri-ati<+i t*‘ <*on<:!ud« j d with foreign Powers fie rove 
n'y/Aiti the lu-crasity of certain radical changes in his government 
md put forth <‘(forts at different tin <** to introduce them W* 

• nay instance the attempt to organize the army. the establisn- 
nent of 11 in Koval College and of the Mint. The Koval College 
rajx'dally, was l**gun under auspicious cinumstanr/s and rwiv- 
< d his cordial suppjrt and j**rsonal attention. 

Put tin* conservative spirit was too strong. Tlie royal ad¬ 
visers were mostly from the powerful Min family. 1'he Tai 
Wfiii Koun, a man of unquestioned ability and of ardent patriot¬ 
ism. though not holding office, retained a strong hold upon tin* 
people, while the officials stood in wholesome awe of him. 
Them was division, to put it very mildly, in the councils and 
for the last several years it was apparent the sliip of state was* 
drifting on to tin* r<x:ks. 'l lle most obtuse could not fail to 
that it was only a n utter of time when radical chimera would 
Iiave to lx* made or the end would have to come. 

Immediately on the occupation of Seoul by Japanese troops* 
in July of last year, the Tai Won Koun was called to the Pal- 
;ice and made adviser to the King, though he was not given 
executive | ower as ive stated in our Retrospect. The world 
was greatly surprised at this recall and time has shown that it 
was a mistake. 

Ilis sympathies were with the Chinese in the north and 
not with the Japanese at his door, 'flic Tong HakR were em 
Imldened liecause the arm of the law was paralyzed. The Japanese 
claim to have found substantial evidence of treasonable (to them 
of course) communications with the Chinese wdiile in Pyeng 
Yang and with giving unwarranhxl encouragement to the Tong 
links in the south Whether liotween those two millstones it 
wttH hop'd to grind the Japanese out of Korea is beyond our 
ken. No blame, however, can reasonably be attached to the 
Koreans, for their non support of the Japanese in the early fall 
«*f last year, for Japan had not made gixxl her chain: of right to 
nterlere in Komar affairs and tlie outcome of the war just be¬ 
gun mild not U* known. 

Under these circumstances it must have Ixxni e\*ident to 
vSint Inouye that so long as the Tai Won Koun retained his 
*.vshk*p as adviser to the King, little sul stantial progress would 
'.*■ possible His consent to the radical changes demanded In 
'-i•« mild U' obtained and by a process into the details 

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of which we need not enter his resignation was obtained and he 
was retired to private life. 

There was a time, so Korean rumor had it, and we have 
heard it confirmed since, when the position of the Queen by the 
side of the King was by no means secure. While the Tong 
Haks were burning towns and murdering innocent people in 
the south, plot and counter plot, conspiracy and counter-conspir¬ 
acy were formed by the miserable clique whose sole ambition 
was to get to the top by pulling their opponents down or by 
stabbing them in the dark. 

Under the inspiration of these dark doings the first article 
blazes forth, bums away the pious or other rubbish, which intri¬ 
guing courtiers had placed around the King, and puts into his 
bands tbe reins of government. “His Majesty should control 
the Government, approve and decide.” The second article might 
at first glance, seems to be in conflict with this, for it takes away, 
tbe al)solute power therein granted. It is not that, but it makes 
the king himself responsible to observe the laws of the country. 
This is something new in Korea, it is true, but it will strengthen 
the throne. 

The third article does not attempt to unravel the Gordian 
knot. It cuts it in two and sends one half into retirement where 
it properly belongs. Louis the XIV is no longer the State in 
Korea. Hereafter less will be heard of the Koyal Family and 
more of the State. The people will, have as warm an interest in 
the Koyal Family as ever, but their chief concern henceforth will 
he with the State. 

The fourth article establishes the line of succession and wipes 
out a prolific source of Court intrigue. 

Strange things are possible in Korea, hence article nine 
found a place in these recommendations. Had the laws of Ki 
Tza been observed this one would be unnecessary. For nearly 
ten years we have seen the approach of the “General” heralded 
through the streets with cries, “ a-chu-ru , a-cku-ru If a man’s 
greatness is in proportion to the number of gates he is able to 
erect between himself and the street or to the number of eight 
by eight rooms he can make his visitor pass through before 
reaching the host, then this article has no place in these re¬ 

The Police, like the Army, were largely in the hands of 
influential persons whose commands they obeyed. As in some 

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American cities, the Korean Policemen were not always above 
reproach and “reform” here is opportune. 

Articles twelve and thirteen as well an the sixth deal with 
tho greatest of ahuses ill Korea Bribery was looked ujxm as a 
sort of olliciil prerogative and the people exacted it We once 
heard a coolie on tiie hand in Cue imlpo 8iv that if he had 
enough money he could go to S-oul and secure office. The 
governorship of the best province in the king do n sold for 
100,000 dollars and s i.alter pl:v -r for 10.000. term for 
the former is only four years aud that of a magistracy two or 
three and yet we hive been told reputedly that an offi¬ 
cial who is not rich at the end ef one terra did not make the 
most of his opportunity. The local official or magistrate is ex¬ 
pected to provide a specified numlier of soldiers to keep the 
peace in his district The soldiers are enrolled aud help form the 
famous “army on paper’*/ the tax is levied, collected and finds 
its way to the capacious coffers of the officials. Wh«*n emergen¬ 
cies arise, coolies from the highways and hedges are hustled in to 
swell the ranks of “the army” This power is transferred under 
article thirteen to the central government where it belongs 

The Council of State was composed of men inexperienced 
in political matters and yet they were expected to legislate for 
Departments of which they had no practical knowledge. The 
seven teen lli article reverses the order and has all measures ori¬ 
ginate in the several departments. Korean statesmen have not 
had tlie training requisite fora deliberative assembly and the 
powers reposed in this Council were found too great. The time 
will probably come when the ideas the framer of the first Coun¬ 
cil had will he feasible, hut not at present, and will not be un¬ 
til the general standard of education in Korea is much higher 
than it is now. 

The enforcement of these articles honest ly and vigorously 
will mark an epoch in the history of Korea. Mistakes will be 
made, opposition must be expected, but the changes herein 
suggested are the natural outgrowth of the spirit of the times. 

Twehtv Artici is of Kefobm 

Presented to the Korean Government by His Excellency, 
Count luouye. 

In order that the Independence of Korea may he firmly 

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H 5 

established and the country freed from the vassalage of < 'h»- 
na, the following articles of reform are of prime importance. 

I. Political power should emanate from one source. 

His Majesty should control the Government and in person 
approve and decide all orders and regulations. Put if there be any 
who either directly or indirectly hold equal authority with him. 
there will l>e division in the councils; how can conscientious offi¬ 
cers under such conditions execute ihe laws ? The lack of cen¬ 
tralization gives rise to all sorts of irregularities. In tin’s country 
there seem to have been several kings thus lar, a defect which 
calls for immediate attention. The Tai Won Koun is neither 
King nor Minister, therefore he has no authority to interfere eith¬ 
er in the pro notion or degradation of officers. The same is true 
of Her Malesty. the Queen. 

II. With the personal attention to the affairs of the gov¬ 
ernment on the part of His Majesty, there devolves upon him 
however the necessity of a strict observance of the laws of the 

These laws and regulations are to be determined and pub¬ 
lished hereafter. After full consultation with the Ministers of 
the several Departments, His Majesty renders the final decision. 
Promotions to office and disc issals from svre may only he 
made in conforn ity with these laws. In ordpr that the common 
people and officials may respect the laws to lie enacted. His Ma¬ 
jesty may not wilfully violate any of them, and the affairs of the 
country shall lie adminstered within the laws. 

III. The Separation of the Royal Household from the Af¬ 
fairs of the Government. 

Tt has been the custom in Korea for the Poyal Family to 
have absolute control ol the life and property of the people. 
Therefore in the n ind of both King and people there is no State 
or Power above or beyond the persons of the Poyal Family. To 
this source u ay be traced the identification of State affaiis with 
those of the Koyal Family. Courtieis and eunuchs must not tie 
allowed to interfere in Government affairs. The irregularities 
of the past came from the confusion of ideas above mentioned. 
The affaire of the Royal Family should be entrusted entirely to 
the Household Department, whose officers must not interfere 
with the affairs of the Government. And His Majesty in seek¬ 
ing counsel should limit himself to the Departments specially 

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me znnMAH wbpositokt 

n r. 

'V T .' v (,r jxr\i7JMr>r. »r .u vai Household. 

; **' men \a *i.i> prosperity »t me Royal Family *nd mat 
t *'.♦> v.»;rrr f vp .nr^r- # irmer.«ier.t, :t :s .mnortaiit that t 

*.•/.lanmj *:■»• tormer snotiid ie ^aiPTrulv framed, and en- 

?’< . tv v>r | 

; ie f' wm >f -he Garm*t and nr.e Departments should 

;-e lefi fieri 

'. i I' tvafion c.nuld mder tile Ti.anac^uenr of the 
iv^rrt it Knance inrj .aws rr-jniaGiM ::ie same Should ne :nai!e. 
V ; * tv .litqiit#* it these *aws. :i. i natter iraier wnar nretens^. 

q! rit]|/i .evted 

Thus 1 far -.ere have aeen -teven >r eicn r Places with power 
fi» >■* f .,u on heairiea *he ! v>arri of [ # nance and toe monev so 
'v.lliovd na« :w*n disbursed jv: Parties concerned without 

re' den?,./ ar.v account m *:-;e Board. Tn addition ro this Sizar^ 
fVn/w /'/>rr inr j \fyer%\r ,Vu Kjun evv inti «:ril»*:t special taxes 
r»v issume * jrders ^ucn LrreCTiarmes .lave nse to tne confusion 
foliovme rr.e iirc*ticr ip of me affairs of tne Rovai Funilv with 
♦.ho** ,f r,,e f/ovcrr-nent and the consequent irresponsibility in 
the mar^aecmenf; of the finances The unlawful taxes ini posed at 
will r»y M.#-. ma^t.rates must he stopped. The richt of the pe*^- 
f\<- to pr ov-rt.e must. i>e fteid sacred and ta iatu n should l*e made 
uj/,r, defined laws 

Vff The W.ual Budget should he carefully prepared 

V,< jvmdifcures should be limited to the income. The an- 
reial ine/,* t ,e should he estimated in advance. thus Laying the ha* 
fi*<* for a sound financial polio* The expenditures for the Royal 
Household and for the several r^partnents should he clearly 
defined Offir ials and attendants not neeleii shi>ulil he pm npt- 
ly dw riWP d 

Vfff f.W,r^ar:i7^tion of the Armv 

T>,e Army should \+ under the control ni His Majesty and not 
!/• *uh;ect, to ha many Generals as it is now. The Antsy is neces¬ 
sary fo pro/Tve the of the country, therefore, a certain 

f-ortion of the annual income should he set aside for its use To 
make the Army effrrirve, the officers must he trained in military 
taef.i/ q hut to enlarge the Army without first providing for it in 
the MudfM 7/ould W* niinous A Navy is not necessary until 
the Army j* throughly nrf'fl ni/erl. 

f X I kifucitjri^ ari/l empty show should lie doneaway with. 

In order fo maintain the uselrjss show of the Royal Family 

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and of the several Departments, much money is wasted. The 
purchase of useless and expensive articles, and the opening of 
doubtful enterprises, without any thought of ability to continue 
and complete the same should be discontinued. The Royal House- 
lead the way in the matter of economy. 

X. Ti»e Codification of Criminal Laws. 

Both criminal and civil laws need codification, but this is so 
great an undertaking that it cannot be done in a day. The first 
thing therefore is to correct the ancient criminal code by intro¬ 
ducing such foreign laws as are adapted to the national needs. 
Offenders should be punished according to such laws and even 
the King himself may not indict punishment outside of these 
laws. Hitherto magistrates and influential families have exercis¬ 
ed the power to imprison and punish the people at will, but 
this is wrong and should not be allowed. Great care should be 
taken to secure judges of fearlessness, ability and impartiality. 

XI. The Unification of the Police. 

Police are important to the judicial and executive admin¬ 
istration of the country. Its most important function is to 
protect life and pioperty. Besides the proper authority, no 
nue however influential, should be allowed to use the police in 
any way whatever. 

XII. Disciplinary Regulations for the several Depart¬ 
ments should be established and vigorously enforced. 

Officials should be faithful and conscientious in the dis¬ 
charge of all their duties. Bribery and favoritism are the 
source of confusiou aud trouble. A comfortable support should 
be provided for the officers in order to insure their faithfulness 
in their work. The sale of offices should not be tolerated. The 
reformation of the local official system and the reorganization 
of the system of taxation are both of vital importance. 

XIII. The Limitation of the Powers of the Local Author¬ 
ities and the enlargement of the Powers of the Central Gov¬ 

It has been the custom for the local authorities to have 
control of the military and the judicial powers within their dis¬ 
tricts. They have been allowed to levy illegal taxes in excess 
of those to be transmitted to the Central Government. This 
came from the practice of selling offices, As local officials ob¬ 
tained their positions at great cost they were obliged to resort 
to extortion to make good their outlay. These excessive pow- 

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ers committed to them having liceu shamefully abused should 
lie transfeired to the Central Government. 

XIV. haws for the Promotion, Dismissal and Degradation 
of officers should be made so as to secure the strictest impart¬ 

XV. Rivalry, suspicion and in'rignes should not be toler¬ 
ated and feelings of f ictional resentment should not lie cherished. 

XVI. A sj iccial Department for Public Works, not neces¬ 
sary now, ought to be entrusted to the t ep utment of Agricul¬ 
ture or some other. 

XVII lie-statement of the Powers of tin* Council 01 State. 

The Powers of this Council iiecamc too great, hence laws 
and regulations he the Government should originate in the sev- 
i Departments and be submitted to the Council before they 

ent to His Majesty for approval. This Council shall not 

> power to originate any measure. 

XVII 1 . ICxperts should be employed by the several Do- 
emonts as advisers. 

XIX. Young men of ability and students should lie sent 
to Foreign Countries in order to inviwtigate and to study 

XX. For the purpose of securing the independence of Ko¬ 
rea the above Articles of R< form and National Policy should 
be presented at the shrine of the Ancestral Temple and In* pub¬ 
lished for the benefit of the people. 

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An Interesting Communication. 

To the Editor of The Korean Repository: — 

I was much pleased, when in 8011 I to have placed in 
tuy hand the current number of your valuable magazine. I 
was impressed with its scholarly tone, literary finish and the 
superior quality of its matter. It treats of questions which 
have a timely interest and especially relate to the country 
w hich is just now attracting such wide attention All Christ¬ 
endom is riveting its gaze upon Etstern Asia. The fate of 
empires hangs on the issue of the war now raging. Complica¬ 
tions may arise which will precipitate a much dreaded conflict 
in Euro]>e. The whole world holds its breath in painful sns- 
jiense. <'ompared with her gigantic neighbors Korea is but a 
small country, yet she is hy no means insignificant The con¬ 
ditions here started the conflict which has grown to such vast 
proportions There has been awakened a general desire to 
know more of Korea's ancient and unique civilization and to 
become more familiar with that peninsular people who, while 
sprung front the same Mongolic stock, have racial traits which 
greatly distinguish them from their insular and continental 
neighbors. And the knowledge gained will repay the the most 
pains-taking study. The stay of a brief month has awakened 
in my own mind an interest in Korea which I am sure will 
not lessen but increase when the great sea reaches shall have 
separated me forever from her shores I shall devour with 
an eager appetite all information that may clarify and deejwn, 
or quite possibly correct, my own fugitive impressions. 

On my own behalf therefore as well as in the name of 
the reading public I welcome a publication which will con¬ 
cern itself with questions of current and local interest and 
which is sure to be edited with enterprise, discriminating care 
and strict fidelity to truth. An acute critic has said that the 
Americtn journalist is the better news gatherer but the Eng¬ 
lish editor the better commentator on the news. Our friends 
of The Repository will not tantalize us with “news” which 
the uezt day’s wind may scatter like chaff, but will satisfy 
our cravings with certified facts and well digested inferences 
and opinions. This worthy periodical will always prove a 
welcome visitor to my study table as I trust a generous pal- 
rouage will warrant its continued publication 

Chemulpo, Feb. Iltb. 1895 W. X. Ninde. 

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52 Main Street, Yokohama, Japan. 

Export Packer, 

Insurances Effected, 

Shipping and Forwarding Agent, 

Missionaries’ Agent, 

Custom House Broker, 

Duties advanced on Imports. 
Telegraphic Address , staniland, Yokohama. 

On Mar. 7 th the King gave a feast to the Korean and Japanese sold¬ 
iers who had returned from the Soath, whither they went to fight the Tong 
Haks. The men formed in line at the Southern camp and showed keen 
appreciation of His Majesty’s hospitality. We have it from Korean 
sources that the soldiers die 1 effective work in slaughtering the Tong Haks. 
Two decisive battles were fought, besides a number of skirmishes, one at 
the river flowing by Kong Chu, the capital of Chung Chong and the other at 
Chun Chu, the capital of the Chulla province To give romance to the story 
it is said 1h.1t twenty Chinamen, anxious to gain glory for their country, 
eagerly sought the front ranks in the att ick at Kong Chu—a place we have 
no doubt the Korean soldiers were ready to give them At the battle near 
Chun Chu the bodies were collected in two large mounds, waiting for the 
opening of spring to be buried. 

It is noticiable that Koreans when speaking of the Japanese have 
changed from the opprobrious term IVai in ' Dwarfs" which was used al¬ 
most exclusively last summer, very often wiih the addition Nam —rude fel¬ 
low— to Il-in gentlemen, from Japan. Is this a straw? 

We hope some of some of our readers will contribute an article on the 
spelling of Korean names. It is true we have not been reminded as yet 
that in the same edition of the Repository the word Seoul was spelled three 
different ways Who will lead off? 

A Korean from Seoul who has been in foreign employ for some years 
visited Chemulpo recently and on his return reported that thriving place 
"Already civilued. They talk business and don’t take ime to even say 
'how do you do’We have not heard how Fusan and Wonsan are pro¬ 

The Peking Pass Gate, Yung Un Moun—Gate of Welcome and Bles- 

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ii. aim* i sh^yy. 

LARGE S x OC K O t? 

Electrical Gear 



BELLPUSHES, in button and 
pear s .ape. (a large assortment) 

C £LLS complete, also the differ* 
ent parts separate. 

CALL BELLS (as per illustra¬ 
tion) di f ■ - on f . sizes. 


gle and double, different qualit¬ 
ies suitable for in and out-door 

INDIC.i'lORS, with 6, 9 and 12 
numbers. (Smaller sizes can be 
made to order.) 

RIES for fixing and repairing bells 

&C. &C.V&C. 

The realm of Korea at present consists of eight provinces divided into 
three hundred and sixty-two prefectures. It is reported that the Ministry 
have decided to redistribute the land into seventy prefectures or Countie* 
over each of which shall be a Prefect or Governor, a Criminal Judge and 
a R egistrar. This redistribution is a most excellent step, fo it effects a 
large reduction in the number of provincial official establishment* to be 
maintained and at the same time apportions their support among a much 
iaiger populace than formerly. 

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manias aa®* 

offers good accommodation to visitors. 





Established 1804. 



Special attention is given to the Provision Sc Household 
Store Department, which comprises a fine assortment of 

all stores, groceries and preserves necessary for the house¬ 


Terms Cash. 

-----—--—- f —---- 



Being a Vocabulary of Korean Colloquial Words ik 

Common Use - - - - Price $2.50 

A Manual of Grammatical Eorms. - „ n 




OL. II. 


No. 4. 



APRIL, 1895. 









Rev. Jas. S. Gale. 



Dr. H. N. Allen. 


of the YpUTH Primer. Rev. G. H. Jones. 

A TIGER. I Ik Seup. 

“WAYSIDE IDOLS.” Alexandis Poleax. 




Price per annum, $3.00. 

j-W j 

Published at 


Per copy 30 c. 

02 ) 7183 * 

THE KOREAN REPOSITORY is a monthly maga¬ 
zine of forty pages devoted to Korean affairs. It will be 
published between the fifth and tenth of each month and will 
be delivered to subscribers in Korea, Japan and China for $3.00 
per annum and to all other countries in the postal union for $2. 
00 gold or its equivalent. These rates include postage if paid in 
advance, otherwise it will be extra. 

The agents for China and Jappn ara 
Messrs Kelly a Walsh, ld. 

Advertisement Rates. 

Full page for one year — — — $18.00 

Half „ „ „ „ — — — 10.00 

Quarter „ „ „ — — — 6.00 

Full page for half „ — — — 10.00 

Half „ „ „ „ — - - 6.00 

Quarter „ „ „ — — — 4.00 
Full „ three months — — — 6,00 

Half „ „ „ — — — 4.00 

Quarter „ „ — — — 2.50 

All communications should be addressed to 


Seoul, Korea. 

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52 Main Street, Yokohama, Japan. 

Export Packer, 

Insurances Effected, 

Shipping and Forwarding Agent, 

Missionaries’ Agent, 

Custom House' Broker, 

Duties advanced on Imports. 
Telegraphic Address, staniland, Yokohama. 

Okuriki, Sawada & Co. 


(Opposite the former Chinese Telegraph Office.) 

Prices low. Satisfaction guaranteed. 

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AP RIL, 1895 . 


That pondrous weighted iron bar, 

I’ll spin out thiu, in threads so far 
To reach the sun, and fasten on, 

And tie him in, before he’s gone; 

That parents who are growing gray, 

May not get old another day. 

Ti.inslated from a hook of National Odes, by Rev. Jas. S Gale. ‘ 

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(1) Frosty morn and cold winds blowing, 

Clanging by arc wild goese going. 

u ls it to the Sosmdriver? 

Or the Tongchung toll me whither? 

Through the midnight hours this crying 
Is so trying!” 

(2) Thunder clothed he did apjnar, 

Chained me like the lightning air, 

Came as comes the summer rain. 

Melted like the cloud again, 

Now in mists from tears and crying, 

I am left forsaken, dying. 

(3) That rook luavcd up on yonder shore, 

I’ll chisel out, and cut, and score, 

And mark the hair, and make the horns. 

And put on feet and nil the turns 
Required for a cow. 

And then my love if you go’way 
I’ll saddle up my bovine gray 

And follow you somehow. 

Rev. Jus. 8. Gale. 

As far as we know n > one has yet attempted to give to the English 
speaking world specimeis ol K > versification. It is with special 
pleasure therefore we welc >me these contributions to our pages. Ed. 

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Every night be ore going V bed, the monks form in line and marching 
around in a circle in front of the image of Gautama to tl e right, chant the 

In the mountain hall i on a still pure night in quietness 
taking one’s seat, 

Still and silent, empty and void, by degrees the source 
will be known. 

Ou what account does the West wind blow shaking the 
grnv*s and plains? 

A single sound 2 like the wild goose’s scream reaches the 
endless Heavens! 

Who says that Karma does not exist he says what he 
knows is false. 

The body of Dlmrma is clear and pure but wide and 
boundary less. 

In a thousand rivers there must be water, in a thousand 
rivers there is a moon 3 

For a myriad Li there a r e no clouds 4- for a myriad Li the 
Heavens extend. 

On the Griddore Peak 5 where flowers are grasped and 
occult changts are known 

(It the floating wood is not met in time then how can the 
tortoise see?) 6 

If Eum Kuang7 had not regarded this truth and laugh¬ 
ed but a little while 

The pure clear wind 8 which is limitless to whom could it 
be intrusted ? 

In the midst ol the hill of complete intelligence one tree9 
along sprung forth. 

The flowers 9 blossomed and opened up ere Heaven and 
Earth were divided. 

They were not azure, nor yet were they white, nor yet 
were they said to be black. 

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fi. A larpc tortoise which lives in the c en and which only at the end of 
a thorsand \ ears catches a plimpse of the world and then only if it chances 
to meet a piece of flratinp wood with a 1 ole in it thronph which it can 
insert it‘s head. If it doe-* not meet wit’* this piece of wood the opportunity 
is apain lost lor a thousand years. ’I his is a figurative expression rclatinp 
to the fortunate chance of Buddha 1 eng hern in this world. 

7. P\el Hr of Kasvapa. 

8. The pure clc r wind of the * < ctrine of Buddha which was intru t- 
cd to Kas\apn after 1 uddha attained N'rvann. 

q. The blossoms and tree here refer to the Buddhist faith wh:ch was 
supposed to exist before this world. 

ic. Buddha, The Dharma, The Sanpha 

ii. One of the seven worthies of the bamboo prove and who was fam- 
ous as a musician. Meyers Chinese Re ders* Manual. 

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The Marble Pagoda: * or Stone Pagoda. 

Near the center of Seoul, one may s?3 projecting above the 
low house tops, a re narkable piece of stone work in the shape 
of a pago 1 1 . As tins is the most ancient, as well as the most 
notable architectural work in this city of wool and clav, 
so nothing regarding its history and description may not be 

One native written account states that a monarch of the 
middle period of the Korai dynasty, Chung Soo Yang, was mar¬ 
ried to the daughter (an only child), of Sai Cho, one of the rulers 
of the Mongolian Yuen orWon, Dynasty, which overthrew the 
Sung Dynasty about 1269 a. d. and ruled over China till 1363 
A. D. This Sai is said to have sent this pagoda as a pre¬ 
sent to his daughter. 

It is however listinotly stated that the Chinese monarch 
who sent tin pagoda was a devout Buddhist, certainly the work 
is Buddhistic entirely, and that he sent it by sea from his capital 
at Nanking. This would sen to indicate that it was during 
the Snug rather than the Won Dynasty that the incident oc¬ 
curred. For the southern Sungs had their capital at Nanking: 
they were notable for their patronage of arts and letters, and 
such a work of art would more likely bo produced during their 
reign than during that of the wild Mongols. 

However, the pagoda ca ne, by water, fro n Nanking dur¬ 
ing the middle of the Korai Dynasty which lasted from 912 a. 
D. to 1392 A. u. with the capital at Songdo. The pagoda may 
therefore he considered to he 700 yens old. At that tine the 
valley now occupied by the city of Seoul was well wooded and 
watered bv the stre v n which, iinding its source amid the barren 
peaks to the northwest, idows through the center of the valley 
to join the Han river above the ridges of Na n San. 


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The proximity of this lxwitiful valley to the great river, 
tlms giving but a short land carriage ior the blinks of stone, 
doubtless had much to do with the 1 selection of this spot by the 
geo*cancers of that day. Tho locality, however, had Ion" been 
famed for its fortuitous combination of natural features 

The carved blocks were erect'd in this valley and enclosed 
in a great temple: roads were laid out leading to it, and a bridge 
of stone was built over the stream whore the Supio tarfy now 
stands A "ate of ornamental design was built at the end of 
this bridge nearest the temple. 

When all was co npleted it is said that the donor—the 
Imperial father of the (<)ueen —made a visit to Korei to sv» the 
work he had caused to he execute 1 and expressed liinsdf as 
greatly pleased with it. 

rt is said that a later king repaired and l>cauti!ied' te n- 
ple, at which place he was a devout and frequent, visitor Ixhng 
n devot'd Huddist. It is also stated that the priests at this par¬ 
ticular n onastery became very corrupt, and were very often in¬ 
sulting to ladies of rank who went there for worship, of who n 
there were nninheis, as the turtle that supports a tablet near by, 
was reputed‘to have especial power in the granting of male off¬ 

When the second Clu sen ]>\nasty was founded by Tai do 
504 years ago, he banished all prrsts from the capital, or rather 
it is distinctly statxxl that this was done bv ('hung Chong his 
successor, the second king of CIk sm. This king had a very wise 
and In nest Prime Minister. Clio Gluing Am, who did not favor 
buddhism and hated priests. He is said to haw used the cor¬ 
rupt practices of the priests at this Monastery as an argument 
against their whole order, with such effect that all priests were 
banished from the city and could only return upon pain of death, 
lie had this Monastery building } idled down leaving the beau¬ 
tiful white pagixla glistening in tho sun. 

During the Japanese invasion ,‘iOO years ago, it is said that, 
the invaders decided to carry this lower off to Japan and act¬ 
ually lowered three of the stork s and the top. binding it txx> 
heavy to move however they tried to d< stroy it by building a 
huge fire about it. It was not iirinml u ateriallv: some corners 
were knocked off and the stone was discolored as may l>o seen 
today, but it is all there, the three up]>er stories and the top 
stand on the ground near the base. 1 louses have encroached 

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upon this excellent piece of workn arsl ip so that only its upper 
portion is seen from the streets. The entrance to the tiny en¬ 
closure where it stands, is through a straw thatched cottage with 
doors unusually low. The court where it stands can rot he 
much over 16 by 20 ft., while tl e tablet on the turtle’s tack whi ;h 
was once a part of the original ten pie, is row off in an adjoin¬ 
ing court by itself, separated by the erection of horses be¬ 

The material of tl e Fagcda is white irarble, given, a 
soft creamy color by smoke and age. There are thirteen stor¬ 
ies in all exclusive of the cap. It rests on four flat stones 6 feet 
square and 2 feet tl ick w l ich n ust he on a firm foundation as 
they remain in place after these seven centuries. 

The form of the base and of the first six stories is that of 
a right angled twenty sided figure, such t.s would f I 

be made by placing a small square upon a large I j 

one and then cutting out the border like this. | 1 1 

Above the sixth the ren aining seven stories are I j 

regular squares. I I 

It is built in true pagoda style each super- | | 

imposed story being reduced in size in regular order, 'lhere is 
a marked change naturally where the square stciies begin. 
Each little story has its gallery and is sum ounted with a roof, 
with sharply upturned comois and graceful curves. 

The three lower stories are not n ere tl an a foot high each, 
as with the intern ediate layeis the tier of three is only Fix feet 
high. The ornamentation is profuse. The fillet which edges the 
layer stone between, 1 elow and above each of these first three 
stones is done in a leaf pattern. ‘1 he flat surfaces of the first 
story proper are done in dragons and tigeis. The second is a 
processional arrangen cut of 1i man figurcs on foot and on horse 
hack. The third is n ore elaborate, having ten p led f gurcs in 
groves of trees also fgurcs of teachers sitting and lecturirg. 
Each of these stories has a different design. 

The fourth, fifth and sixth stones are quite elat orate, and 
the tallest ot the whole thirteen. Also these stones have at each 
comer a round shaft or roll standing out in relief and carved w ith 
the dragon design. Ti e roofs tco are highly ornamental present¬ 
ing four p oinf s or gable ends, and six angles curved upward; the 
proportions are so geed and the details so well executed that the 
whole seen s very harmonious. 

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The sixth story and highest of these three main ones is sur¬ 
mounted by a double roof. 

The faces of the huge stones forming the fourth story which 
is the tallest of all (about two feet) have has relief figures illus¬ 
trating the life of Buddha. 

The fifth and sixth stones which are lower in inlivilual 
height have a continuation of the same figures on a s nailer scale. 

This arrangement is continued in the same manner on the 
four surfaces of the seventh square storv, while the others — 
eighth to thirteenth inclusive, have simply the sitting figure of 
Buddha in bas-relief, five on each surface of the eighth story and 
three on each of the others. 

The cap is a roof shaped stone carved with gables and eaves 
in graceful lines. 

The roof is valleyed and the proportions are well sustained. 
The eave line of the roofs on the four sides of this cap is 3 feet 
6 inches while the base of the pagoda proper is 12 feet each way 
from north to south and east to west through the main surfaces. 
This rests ujmn the four 7 foot square tlat stones. The face of 
each of the four main surfaces at the base is 6 feet 6 inches. 
The overhang of the eaves of the cap stone does not look at all 
out of proportion, but the whole arrangement on the contrary is 
so admirably proportioned as to be very pleasing in its entirety 
and quite as much so in detail. 

On each of the four main fronts of the three larger stories 
4,5, and 6, there is a little tablet cut like the rest out of the same 
block, but seeming to hang down from the elg. of the roof as 
if attached at its top and has? and sloping backward at the lot- 
tom. These tablets have characters cut upon them. The only 
ones I could trace accurately were those on the lower tablet 
facing south they were • Sam Say Puhl Whang or three gener¬ 
ations Buddhistic society. 

There are no other characters to be seen but on the tablet 
on the turtle’s back near by there are many small dim char¬ 

This turtle and tablet monument is of different material 
and workmanship. It is said to have been erected by a later 
Korai king who repaired the temple, Iwing like most of the suc¬ 
cession of Wang the founder of Korai, an ardent Buddhist. 

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All this work is done upon blocks of stone, the large lower 
stories are made up of eight blocks each; the smaller square 
stories alone are of one piece. The joining of the large blocks 
below is very accurate. The galleries are ol one piece, so are 
the roofs. To cut out the slope of the roof, the tiles,the raft¬ 
ers and their intervening spaces: the small supports of the gal¬ 
leries and all the details that would enter into the true counter¬ 
feit of an actual building, n ust have been a great task. It is 
well done and even after seven centuries it remains a little gem 
tliat ought to be preserved and appreciated, in a land where 
there is so little in the way of permanent architecture. 


Owing to the baneful influence of the fiie-god (volcano?) 
in the Kuan Hak San ° South of Seoul and one in the Sara 
Kak San to the Noitli, the South Gate of the city as well as 
the Palace under the North mountains have suffered almost 
complete destruction tInto different times by fire. Such a cal¬ 
amity was to l>e expected, for these important places lay right 
in the line of the fire god’s puth from one station to the other. 
It being exceedingly difficult *»nd other wise objectionable to 
move these structures out of this fiie track, the trouble was 
overcome by a clever expedient. f J he two immense stone an¬ 
imals were erected in the street in front of the Palace Gate, 
with their fierce angry faces pointed toward the South- the 
quai ter from which the fire was supposed to come. The pre¬ 
sence of these great and ttrrihly fierce looking images has been 
ample protection for the Palace, while the fiie god lias been 
diverted from his course over the South Gate by building a 
pond in front of it which is kept filled with water— the thing 
•f all otheis that the fire god most abhors. 


When Tai Jo, the founder of the present dynasty, was 
having excavations made tor building the East Gate of Seoul, 
a hell was found. This was hung over tlie Palace Gate where 
it still hangs. Tai Jo decided to reproduce this hell upon a 

° t#.£ 

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larger scili: ami gave orders to all the governors ami magis¬ 
trates toe til “ct the necess u v tn**td. While this collection was 
mule in the An Hyc district of the Kyeng Sing province, 
the collector called at a house when he saw an old woman 
with a three y Mr old hoy strapped to h *r hick. The hog 
said she hail no metal, hut the mm might take her hoy, nr 
more properly, ‘“Shall l give you the hoy?” signifying con¬ 
sent by her tone. The mm went on hut told of the strange 
incident ari l it eventually bee line known in SjouI. 

The m ital h-iug collected, crucibles male, and the mould 
prepared, the h'll w is cast, but on cooling, it cracked. The 
process was repeated and the hell cracked again. This hap|H.*n- 
ed several times and Tai Jo fin illy offered agtvit reward to 
any one who would solve the ditfi uilfy. One of the workmen 
agreed t> d>i so, and relating the incident of the old woman 
and the child, he Slid that tin hdl would continue to crack, 
until the offer of the old woman should lie accepted, as she 
was doubtless a witch. The King sent for the child, the metal 
was united, the child was thrown into the moulten miss and 
the hell cist; this time the process was a complete sue coss. 

The hell was s*t up in the center ot the city, where the 
broad street fr>m the South 'rat* nnets the miin broad street 
leading from the East to the West 'late. When the Palace 
hell rings in the evening this great bell follows and th**n the 
city gates arc all closed lor the night 

The name of tin boll is “In Jung” * “Mm decides,” 
meaning that the m ui on hearing it-* tones decide t» go to bed. 
As all know, they did desert the streets after the ringing of 
this bell and then it was that the women could g> about in 
freedom; all men when found up mi the streets being considered 
thieves. Recently (his custom is falling into disuse however. 

The deep rich tones of this large hell as they roll across 
th- ijuiet city seem to say with long drawn cadence—“Ah Mey 
la," the “la” being especially prolonged. This means “moth¬ 
er’s fault” and is the cry of the child who was dropped into 
tat molten metal to secure the proper c ist.of the hell This bull 
> • ry plain, the only ornamentation on the outside consists 
'• m* simple rings and some ch traders giving the names 
'k ' - tfi itis and chief artisms who cist the bell, there is a 

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dragon shap'd casting upon the apex, through which passes an 
iron, which in turn is I jolted upon large iron staples which 
p;iss over heavy timbers and support the l*;il a foot above the 

The bell d >es not swing, it is rung by being struck with 
hard wood logs suspended near the base upon chains attached 
to high wooden supports. 

The bell is, roughly, 8 feet in diameter at the base, 10 
feet in height exclusive of the dragon casting at the top and 
the heavy hangings. The house which holds it is about 16 
by 24 feet ground measure and 12 feet from the ground to 
the eaves. It is inclosed with palings, has a tilo roof and 
some ornamentation in colors. 

The small building to the east of the bell tower is in no 
way connected with the latter. It is a little temple or shrine 
to Kwan Won fang the God of War and was erected at this 
commercial center by the merchant guilds some fifteen years 
ago, when the worship of Kwan Won was given a new im¬ 
petus by the .advent of his n ,w famous priestess, and by the 
building of the beautiful little Poong Myo, or temple to the 
God of War near the North East Gate. 

H. N. Allen. 

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or the Youth’s Primer. 

The Historical Resume of the Youth’s Primer, which is 
presented herewith, n ay he said to lx 1 , in outline the sum of the 
historical knowledge known to the ordinary educated Korean. 
It is still almost too early to tell where, both in Chinese and Ko¬ 
rean history, fable ends and history logins. It is noticeable that 
tbeir first heroes wore sages; inventors of things uselul to man, 
such as letters, the plow, the practice of medicine, the boat and 
the wagon; and great reformers and administers. The great gen¬ 
eral s and mighty warriors appear to be the heroes and produc¬ 
tions of a later time. 

The dates which I have supplied have been taken from 
“The Chinese Reader’s Manual” by W. F. Mayers, an invilu- 
able work. The matter of chronology is a most important one. 
Aside from certain fundamental difficulties which hos'd the ques¬ 
tion of chronology universally, the lal ois of sinologues have 
largely settled the qu< stion for Korea, for Korean historians when 
they give a date usually give the corresponding Chinese date. 
And for comparative tables with western chronology we are 
indebted to the labors of Mayers, Gilt s and other sinologues. 

In this Historical Resume tl ere is a fine field for annota¬ 
tion and comment. I made an attempt to prepare notes which 
would lie useful to the reader, in indicating who the individuals 
are who are mentioned here, hut found thm my annotations 
would far exceed in hulk the original text, so .T .onioned the pro¬ 
ject for the time. Where the text is obscure :m explanation has 
been introduced parenthetically into the text 1 f\.*n thought of 
adding the Chinese original of the terns, hm his would have 
necessitated the printing of a portion of i. < -t of the lines of 
characters in the Trimer. So the history is l r ■ n ns it is, and I 
shall feel happy if this deficiency in my woi k s'>.->il lead any 0113 
to examine the original, for it is worths < t ] • i m d. 

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(a) Universal History. 

First, Tai Keuk was created from which developed the Two 
Principles. Out of the Two Principles came the Five Elements, 
evolving out of each other because of the zvorking of Wisdom. 
Men aud things in large number were originated and among 
them were the Sages who inherited the views and thought of 
heaven and originated the doctrine of Tai Keuk. These Sages 
were T'ien-whang-si, Ti whang si, In-whang-si, Yu so-si, and 
Shu-in-si. They are known as the “Most Ancient” and existing 
before the art of writing was invented, we know little concerning 
them. Poll heui si invented the Eight Symbols, and letters and 
books which were substituted for the string records of the time. 
[Before letters were invented the records were kept and mes¬ 
sages exchanged by means of knotted strings, the number and 
arrangement of the knots corresponding to understood ideas ] 
t hil long si was the originator of the plow aud of the practice 
of medicine. Whang cliay si was the maker of implements of 
warfare, of the first boat and wagon, the Almanac, and the 
science of numbers and of music. These three are known as 
the Three Emperors and their times were a golden age when 
Government administered itself. 

Sio-ho, Tyong uk, Chav-kok, Chay-yo, and Chay-syoon are 
1 nown as the Five Rulers. By the help of the statesmen Ko, Ki, 
Chile and Sol the Rulers Yo (Yao) and Syoon so reigned that 
tl eir fame shim s brightest among a hundred Kings. Confucius 
perfected the Classics and transmitted to posterity the doctrines 
of Tang and U. [That is the doctrine so illustriously adorned 
by Tang, i. e. the Emperor Yo (Yao! and U, i. e. the Emperor 
Syoon] Ha u, Sang Kang and Chu-mun wang mu-wang; these 
are known as the Three Princes and they reigned, one for 400 
years^yne for GOO years and the third for 800 years. They are 
faminKas the Three Dynasties and will never repeat themselves. 
Yi-Yun and Pu-yol of the Sang dynasty and Duke Chu and 
Duke So of the Chu dynasty were the fa nous statesmen of their 
times. Duke Chu established rites,music, laws and customs and 
was illustrious for the perfection of his svstem. In the decline 
of the Chu dynasty five chieftains enrolled the fiefs under their 
own banners, and obtaining ol«olute jxswer strengthened the 
Royal House. These five were Duke Chei whang, Duke Chin- 

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mun, Duke Song-Yong, DukeChin-n ok and Prince Clio chang. 
These made a covenant among themselves and took a great 
oath they would never break their covenant. Confucius being 
a Heaven Rent Sage travelled throughout the known world, but it 
would not accept his doctrine. He compiled the Pools of Toe- 
try, the Took of History and reformed rites and music, hie 
compiled the Took of Changes and wrote the Spring and Au¬ 
tumn Annals, thus giving to the future what he had inherited 
from the former Sages. His chief disciples were An-ja and 
Cheung-ja who compiled the Analects. The followers of Cheung- 
ja, wrote the Great Learning. 

There were a number of Principalities at this time their 
names being "No, We, Chin, Chong, Cho, Chai, Yon, O, Chei, 
Song, Chin, Ch’o and Chiu. These thought only of war from 
which they never rested, which has led to their title, ‘'the War¬ 
ring Nations.” From them arose to supremity the following 
Principalities, Ch’o, Yon, Chei, Han, We, and Clio. 

Cha-sa was the grandson of Confucius and was l oni about 
this time. He wrote the Doctrine of the Mean and his disciple's 
disciple was Mencius. Mencius preached the royal doctrines in 
Chei and Tang, but gained no followers. So he wrote the Ma- 
ing-ja (Mencius) a work of seven volumes, hut agitation, heresy 
and prosperity filled the earth and none followed our doctrine. 

We now arrive at the tin e of the Kn pi Tor Chin si. who 
swallowed up the two thus. He destroyed flic Six Trinei] nli- 
tics and the’law of fief. He burnt the looks of Poetry and His¬ 
tory. He killed all scholars burying n any of thorn alive. Tv 
this he was bin self destroyed after two generations. 

Han Ko-jo arose from the literati and became Emperor his 
dynasty lasting four hundred yeais. In the tin e of the Han 
Emperor Myong-chay (A. D. 58-76) buddhism fust came from 
So-yiik *, tempting the world and deceiving the jopulaee. Tn 
the decline of the Han dynasty three royal fan i!i< s arose viz. 
Cli’ok Han, O, and We, resembling the feet of a caldron. Chav 
Kariang, grasping truth as a staff aided Han and died an id his 

The Chin dynasty uniting the country existed for over one 
hundred years. The Five Savages unsettled affairs and the 
families of Song, Chay, Tang and Chi divided the land north 


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and south, hut Hu united it and reigned thirty years. 

Tong Ko-'o and Tai Chong, when the agitation of the times 
was greatest changed the Boyal House and their dynasty lasted 
three hundred years. In the decline of Tang the Hu-Yang, 
Hu-Tang. Hu-Chin, Hu Han and Hu-Chu known as the Five 
Younger J ’rothers arose in the n orning, but by evening lost 
their power, thus inaugurating in augurating a great war. 

When Hong T’ai jo first founded his family, the Five Stars 
were in the constellation Astride and in the localities Yom, Kak, 
Kwan and Win many virtuous m en were raised up. Among these 
were Chu-dongi, Chong-’no, Chongi, Ha-ma-kwan„ Chang-chai, 
Hoong and Chu-heui. who followed each other and by adorning 
the truth performed that assigned to them. Yet their plans were 
rejected and they then selves were unsuccessful 

Chu-ja compiled the sayings of the several houses. He was 
a Comn entator on the Five Classics and the Four Writings and 
his merit among scholars is great. Still the life of the Song dy¬ 
nasty was not lengthened. Koran, Mong go, Yo and Keu.n 
fought and its end having arrived Mun Chon Hang arose to its 
aid and loy ally le st l is life in a prison in Ton. 

The Parharian Won, overthrew Hong, united the country 
under his own sway, and for one hundred years was, among all 
prosperous barbarians, the n cst prosperous known to history. 
Put heaven refused defiled virtue. A “great luminary” (Tai 
Ming) arose in the heavens, virtuous, and was successful through 
virtue. May he last forever. 

The religion of the Triple Anchorage and the Five Precepts 
will last as long as heaven and earth stand. [The Triple An¬ 
chorage is variously explained to mean (1) the Monarch ; (2) the 
Teacher; (3) the Parent. It is also said to mean (1) myself; (2) 
my mothers’s clan; (3) my wife’s clan.] Previous to the Three 
Dy nasties, holy emperois, illustrious kings, and virtuous minis¬ 
ters read and adorned the truth; the days of good administration 
were many and agitated lands were few. But alter the Three 
Dynasties foolish princes, darkened kings and agitating officials 
who were sons of traitors apestatized lrom the truth, and the 
days of unrest were many, and the days of administration tew. 
Py this we may leam that the adn inistration or agitation of a 
people, the peace or endangering of the world, the victory or 
destruction of government, all depend on the adorning or ignor¬ 
ing of the Precepts of Humanity. Shall we not take wan ing. 

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{b) Korean History. 

In our Eastern Land there was originally neither king nor 
elder. A supernatural being appearing on T'ai Paik-san beneath 
a Tan tree, the people set him up as their king, and he reigned 
contemporaneous with To (Tao Chinese Emperor B. C, 2356- 
2255). He named the country Cho son. This was Dan Koun. 

The Emperor Mu of the Chu dynasty gave Cho son as a 
fief to the Viscount of Ki (Ki-ja) who came to the country and 
taught the people rites and virtue and established the doctrine of 
the Eight Fundamentals. He was virtuous and illustrious. 

We-man, the Tonite, at war with No Kwang (King of 
Yon) fled to Cho sbn and deceiving KiChun, overthrew him and 
captured the city of Wang-Kon (Pyong Yang). In the time of 
U-ko grandson of We-man the Han Emperor Mu-choy (B. C. 
140-86) overthrew and destroyed this family The land was 
then div.ded into Four Domains which were given the names of 
Ang-Nang, Im-Tun, Hyftn-do and Kon-pon. The Emperor So- 
chay (B. 0. 86- 73) reduced these to Two Provinces, as follows: 
Pyong-Na (Kon-pon?) and Hyon-do became P'ydng ju and 
Ang-Nang and Im-Tun became Tong pu. Ki-Chun, Awing be¬ 
fore We-man sailed over the sea to the south and settled at 
Keum-ma-kun. He thus liecame the founder of the Principality 
of Ma-Han. At one ti tie a large numlxir of refugees from Chin 
arrived in the Principality and were given an allotment of land 
in the east. From these arose Chin-Han. As to PyOn Han 
nothing is certainly known as to its founder, its generations and 
and its times, These are the Three Principalities. 

The founder of Shilla wan Hyok-ko-sei, who established 
the seat of his government in Chin-Han and took the name of 
Pak. The founder of K<>-ku -rib was Chu-Meig who estab¬ 
lished himself in Chol-pon. (Probably Song-chon in Pyong- 
an do). He called himself the son of Ko-shin and took the 
name of Ko. The founder of Paik-chay was On-jo who 
established himself first at Ha-nam, calling himself Pu-yb?. 
These three nations each held a portion of the land and 
fought and strove to conquer each other. Finally Tang Ko- 
jo overthrew both Paik-chay and Ko-ku-rib, and dividing the 
land established provincial administrations under Yu In-Won 
and Sol In-Koni. Paik-chay lasted 678 years; Ko-ku-rib 705 
years. In the last days of Shilla, Kung-ydi seceded from Shi 11a, 

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at Puk-Kyong (now chdl-wdn) and called his territories Tai- 
Pong. Kydri Hdn also seceded at Wan San (now (Chdn-ju) and 
called himself the L iter Paik-Chay. Shi 1 la was thus destroyed, 
having been ruled successively by the three families Pak, Sok 
and Kim. It existed as a nation 992 years. 

The Chiefs of T’ai Pong elected Yo-jo (Wang-Kdn) to the 
Throne and he named his dynasty K<»-n6. They suppressed 
and destroyed all insurgent Chiefs and uniting the territories 
of the Three Principalities under Yo-jo y set up their Capital 
at the Pine Peaks (now Song-do). In the decline of Ko-rio 
Kong Mini died without issue; the pseudo-King Shin-u was 
dark, wicked and proud; Kong-yang was incompetent to rule 
and the end was certain, the dynasty having lasted 475 years. 
Then the divine Decree fell on the True Monarch (the Found¬ 
er of the present dynasty). 

The founder of the Ming dynasty changed our name and 
gave us the dynastic title of Cho-sdn. The Capital of the 
country was established at Han Yang. Sages and sons of 
the supernatural have adorned each generation, illustrious and 
noble, even unto the present time. May they continue forever. 
Although we are but bluff in the ocean, and our land of very 
small area, our rites, music and laws, our hats and costumes, 
our literature and manufactures all are like the Enlightened 
civilization (China). Out upper classes adorn the humanities, 
and their beneficence is great to the lowly Our good customs 
are all from China and the men of that country call Choson 
the Little China. Is not this due to the civilization introduc¬ 
ed by Ki-ja? So, little ones you must bear these things in 
mind and strive to rise. 

G. H. Jones. 

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I toll this true story as a warning to foreigners with their 
inordinate love for striped tiger skins, and to foreign ladies who 
dure to sleep all unconscious of the awful possibilities spread 
out as mits on the floor of their bed room. 

A magistrate was on his way from Seoul to a country dis¬ 
trict over which he had just been appointed. It w is distant 
from the capital some days journey, and led through the moun¬ 
tains of Kang Wun To. One evening, delayed on the way, and 
unable to reach the regular post house, he turn ed in with his 
party to a little straw thatched hut that stood near th<* mad. 
There were no occupants, and the magistrate happening into 
the nearest room sat down. At one corner was a niche in the 
wall, where he saw a tiger skin folded up, and layed away. 
Without cillingauy of his servants he unrolled it; ami found 
it to have been a huge Chik Pum y or striped tiger As such 
skins are rare, and highly piized, and as it would h ive been 
undignified for one |MSsessing the rank of a country official to 
inquire into the ownurliip of so small an article, he quietly roll¬ 
ed up the skin and packed it away in one of his pony bundles. 

Not long after there was the sound of tripping footsteps 
heard out before the window. A white hau l pushed back 
the slide and in stepped a miideu of surpassing beauty. She 
started at seeing the room occupied, and asked in a queenly 
way who this was, and why he had come h«re. Then she 
sat down and began crying bitterly. He said lie was such 
and such a ra igistrate bound for his district in the country, 
that the darkness and strange road compelled him to take 
shelter in this room, and asked why she was eying so. Slid 
she “rather, mother and I lived here until first one and 
then the other was carried off and eaten by the tigers and 
I am left.” The magistrate who was more than pleased with 
her appearance said “You can’t live here alon-*, I have plenty 
if you'll only be my wife, why come with me.” She gave 

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her consent, and they were mirried, and us time passed away 
she bore two sons, bright boys, and the magistrate sat back 
in his cushions and smoked —the happiest man alive. 

And yet he had one anxiety, his wife, whom he loved 
dearly, had always a troubled look, that detracted from her 
beauty and told of some hidden grief that she had not shar- 
ed with him. He asked again and again how she, having 
two such boys and such a home could be unhappy. This 
was all to no purpose. Then he tried to think of ways to 
amuse her, and among other things reminded her of the 
night when they had first met. Says he, “you remember the 
room where you found me?” “Yes/” “Well" lie continued, 
“before you came in I saw a tiger skin folded up in a corner 
aud I wrapped it away in one of my pony packs and I have 
never thought of it till this moment.” “I’d like to see it” 
said she brightening up He had it brought and unrolled 
before her, the two boys wrapped in interest standing by. 
Suddenly she tossed the skin over her head and stood trans¬ 
formed into a huge striped tiger, who turned savagely up¬ 
on the boys, tore them to pieces, and left the marks of their 
blood al* mt the official rtom. The magistrate ami servants 
only escaped by locking themselves into an inner closet. 
The roars of the creature broke the stillness of the night, 
then died away, and were lost in the mountains. 

I Ik. Seup. 

The following concerning the terrible man-eater of Korea 
has been furnished us by Mr. Gale of Wonsan. 

November 1894. 

A son of Mr. Kang Wonsan aged 12 was coming ho ne 
fro i a neighbor s house so ne yards distant, when he was 
caught by a tiger and carried off. His skull and feet were 
found next day on a bill back of the French missionary Pere 
Bret's compound. 

January 1895. 

A halfwitted lad who used to co ne about tagging carried 
off and devoured. 

February 1895. 

In Tukwan District at 113 villag 3 of Sootari a boy 14 
years old was r ’.turning from school when a tiger caught bi n. 
The villagers saw it but failed to regcue the lad or take the 

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Two men in Anp'yun ten miles distant killed by tigers. 

A party of five went after a tiger that had carried off 
a dog. One hunter had shot him in the foot and so they 
traced him by the blood. They came to a place where the track 
failed and while searching al>out, the tiger sprang from behind 
a rock and killed the chief huntsman. The rest of the party 
succeeded in despatching the tiger. 

March. 4th. 1895. 

A tiger appeared about six o’clock in the evening in the 
village of Choong chung ka a mile from Wonsan and caught 
a five year old child that was out following its father. Several 
Japanese soldiers tracked it next day but the animal made 
its escape to the hills. 

Tigers have been seen by foreigners prowling about the 
foreign compounds. 

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The Chang-Scung is the rudely carved log, resembling the 
image of a man which attracts notice along the public high¬ 
ways of the realm. There are several of them on the road be¬ 
tween Soul and Chemulpo where they serve the purpose of 
mile-posts. They consist of a log some eight feet long, with 
the top cut to represent the tan-gon or official cap. Under¬ 
neath this is the face with the eyes and lips dug into the flat¬ 
tened surface and the nose nailed on in its place. The neck is 
not marked aud the arms and hands are strips nailed to the 
sides. Altogether it is an uncouth looking figure. On iuquiry I 
found t.hey were not objects of worship, but simply mile—or 
ri-]>o8ts, one being stationed every five ri (about two miles) to 
mark the distance. In answer to my question as to why such 
a form was chosen it was related that in former times a certain 
noblemau by the name of Chang was guilty of treason and to 
forever pillory him in the public eye it was decreed that these 
rude images of him should be set upon the public highways, 
to exhibit his shame and at the same time do something useful 
by indicating the distance, which is written down his chest 
and stomach in Chinese characters. 

While travelling to the south of Soul along the Kong-ju, 
Chon-ju turn-pike l found a number of villages which had 
groups of these Chang-stung at the entrance aud exit to each 
village. There were also a number of rude imitations of ducks 
transfixed on the top of polos and stuck into the ground along 
side the images These groups of images I was told were the 
Sou-sari whose duty it was to scare away any evil spirits jour¬ 
neying along the road into the village These sou-sari are 
somewhat common, both to the north and south of Soul 
though many a village has discarded them. I found a group 
at the little village on Roze Island opposite Chemulpo and 
greatly amused the villagers by offering to buy the whole 
outfit for firewood. Sacrifice tc the Sou-sari is offered in the 
Spring and Autumn, the first being known as the sacrifice to 
Heaven and the second the sacrifice to Earth. Why this 
distinction in the sacrifices aud also the meaning of the ducks 

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on tups of the pules, 1 cun find no creditable explanation. Pos¬ 
sibly some of the renders of the Repository will know. I sur¬ 
mise that, the ducks are the faniiliarR and messengers of the 
Sou-sari and that the sacrifices to Heaven and Eaith offered to 
him are to induce him to ward off all evil from those two quar¬ 

I am convinced that in these two — the Sousari and the 
Ch njr-sei ng we have u most intonating instance of religious 
decay, or shall I call it customary decay P-the decay of an 
ancient custom; that is I have not. been able to find any cor¬ 
roboration of the story of the origin of the Changscung in an 
instance of treason, while it seems quite evident that it is but 
a re-adaptation of the6’o« jar*, after many of the |>eople had 
lost faith in its supernatural character. The Sou-sari originat¬ 
ed during the time of the Chow dynasty (China B. C. 1122-206) 
and is spoken of asa Chu-yei “cer-nmny of Glut” ltearly found 
its way into Korea and formed a part of a widespread mater¬ 
ialistic idolatry which once ptevailed here. It appears to 
be a fact now that the Korean people have given up this 
image-worship to a great extent. Buddhism ( which as under¬ 
stood by the common people is simply image-worship ) has 
lost its hold on them. The wny-side shrines which formerly 
contained idols have fallen into decay or been filled with fet¬ 
iches or pictures. The lower people have retrograded if I may 
use the word to shammanite superstitions; while the educated 
el asses, influenced to a certain extent by this course of the com¬ 
mon held, have yet rather turned to the none cultured tenets 
which center around Ancestral Worship. 

In this general wreckage of image idolatry the Sou-san 
has managed to struggle ashore, mid shorn of his supernatural 
character, in spiteof the reverence of Borne of the country jieopl© 
finds himself stationed hy the roadside, not to fiighten demons 
but inform men. 

Alcxandis Poleax 

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Tin* Korean of today is, like every other human being, 
largely the product of education and experience. What they 
are taught, and what they see and feel among men, that crystal- 
ize& into human character, becomes incarnate and is an in¬ 
dex to themselves. Korea possesses a national organization 
ami civilization peculiarly its own and which are the develop¬ 
ment of three thousand years of history. Its religious, politi¬ 
cal, social and industrial economies form a homogeneous whole 
which is the mold in which the mental and moral character of 
its people have been shaped. This chaiacter-mold, if we nmy 
so term it, has in a special sense had the field entirely to itself 
in shaping the Korean; no inter-relation with other civiliza¬ 
tions and national economies, have until within a short time, 
served to modify its torce, so that Koreans are peculiarly the 
product of their own national character producing forces. 

To understand the Korean Christian we must bear in 
mind that he is first of all a Korean, the product of the 6ame 
forces which have produced every other member of his nation. 
These forces must be known before we can appreciate and esti¬ 
mate him at his true value. A detailed account of these forc¬ 
es is beyond our powers at this time, but a short review of 
them will serve our purpose 

First of all are the forces which have shaped the Korean’s 
religious and moral views. Chief among these is that sys¬ 
tem of ancestor worship which is the State religion and which 
has the Confucian Code as its ethics. The hold which this 
possesses on a Korean can baldly he overestimated,—a hold 
which cannot be loosened without shaking the very founda- 
tions of his mental and moral being. The State religion, it 
enjoys all the sanctions which such an alliance can give it. 
But more than this it, has its roots in the most sacred soil of 
human life—the family, and entwines itself about the tender- 
est of human relations—that of parent and child. This sys¬ 
tem with its admirable, and, from a human standpoint, its ex¬ 
haustive discussion of human relationships forms the basis of 

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whose nightly gambols are the subject of many a ghost story—to 
Tai Chang Kun y Lord of this spirit world and whose throne fills a 
quarter of the heavens. A number of these are household gods 
and have taken up their residence in the gateway, the store¬ 
rooms, and the living-rooms, in the walls and the ceiling and be¬ 
hind the house. 1 lore they are represented by fetiches,— a bundle 
of straw, a paper of rice, a gourd, an old pot or a cast off shoe hung 
in a conspicuous place to stand fora supernatural conception. 

About these spirits there has grown up a system of ob¬ 
servances, ceremonies and festivals, which coming round both 
periodically and occasionally form quite an event in the routine 
of Korean life. Offerings are made and rites observed at 
such times which entail an amount of expense and credulity 
against which many a Korean rebels. Upon the country people 
this system has a great hold. More than once we have been 
asked to destroy fetiches rotten with age, by those who desired 
to break with them, because they were afraid to touch them 
themselves. There is many and many a Korean in straighten¬ 
ed circumstances today who has been reduced from affluence to 
poverty by the expenses entailed by Miammanistic observances 
to save the life of a beloved parent or child. 

We believe we do no violence to truth in holding that 
these are the chief forces in producing the religious phases of 
Korean character. The first (ancestor worship) ignores the 
divine side of religion and reduces it to a series ot regulations to 
govern the relations of man with man. This system enshrines 
filial piety as the chief duty of man and thus not only appeals 
to one of the most sacred sentiments of the human heart,— 
the love i f father and mother,—but also so preempts his mind 
that the announcement that there is an obligation on man that 
is superior even to filial piety, a virtue which embraces it, as 
the greater holds the less,—this comes to him as a shock. To 
admit it strikes him at first as treason to the living parent 
and to the memory of the dead ancestry which is his glory 
and the glory of a thousand other men, who form clan 
and to whom he is bound by the ties of kinship and coven¬ 
ant. Truly he is anchored here and his anchors are caught in 
the bottom of the anchorage. The appeal to the supernatural 
and spiritual meets with no response. The little knowledge of 
these he has obtained, comes through a system where they are 
reduced to a brutish level and rendered hideous rather than 

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time is a peculiar tiling to hold, hut that birth does not mcapaci- 
tat3 one from earning his living by the sweat of his brow, does 
violence to a leading Korean social canon - that of caste distinc¬ 
tion. Precedence founded on birth and distinction based on 
station, are rules absolutely necessary to the well being of native 
society; and yet among the Christians, the native finds that this 
in theory at least is cried down as heresy. They Ixdiold men of 
varied fortune and birth associating together on the plane of 
perfect equality; they learn that this surrender of personal 
claims to consideration, is due not to a disciplinary provision, 
but to the natural growth of the Christian life; they even sm 
men of humble origin attending to duties in the church, which 
place them alxive those of nobler birth ; and this anomaly they 
learn is due to the fact that preference should lie bas 'd on 
merit. Intrinsically it is a very r nail point, and yet to tne Ko¬ 
rean who is contemplating a profession of Christianity, the pros¬ 
pect that he will regard as brethren men who u he once despised, 
is a matter for consideration It is most destructive of pride. 
He is liable to he led to consider it from a false standpoint, re- 
ga ding this brotherhood of all as his own personal degrada¬ 
tion to the level of »he lowest, rather than as the elevation of 
those whose only social misfortune is their humble birth. 

This leads us to another consideration which grows out ol 
the industrial conditions which prevail in Korea, as in other 
non-christian countries. The Korean is taught by his own 
holidays the principle of a distinction in days, but of the 
sanctity of one day in seven he knows absolutely nothing. He 
has never been in the habit of observing it; and aside from 
the littlo handful of Christians nobody else does. If a mer¬ 
chant, he sees in it as far us it concerns himself a possible dim¬ 
inution in profits, and an advantage to competitors through 
his own closed doors. If a laborer it mean? complications with 
his heathen employer who is often a man who has no use 1 ! for 
one trouhied with religious scruples, and this moans the jeo¬ 
pardy of the pitiful wage for which he works. This is a real 
difficulty. The Christian pastor has no more right, to abrogate tbe 
fourth commandment, than he lias to abrogate the sixth, seventh 
or eight command icent. l ie mav interpret it as liberally a sscrip- 
ture offers warrant for, butcan afford no plenary indulgence to 
ignore it. And f.lms another test is found to try the Korean’s mo¬ 
tives and the strength of his resolution to become a Christian. 

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Out of con.lili ms such as these come the converts to 
Christianity in Korea. Kach of these circumstances would seem 
almost a sufficient test in itself of any man’s sincerity, but united 
their force cannot but result in weeding out impostors and back¬ 
sliders. It should not lee forgotten however that they are not 
always felt in their entirety, and the force they exercise on dif¬ 
ferent men varies, but sooner or later they work to prove the 
constancy of these who are genuine, and the shame of those 
who are insincere. 

Brought through such a crucible as this the Korean chris- 
tian is truly an admirable man. There is a sturdiness to his 
convictions, a simplicity to his faith, a strength of purpose and a 
courage in the midst of seemingly insurmountable obstacles which 
have often won our admiration. One of the earlier Christians 
recently died and at a little memorial service it was toll how he 
took his stand alone in a large town and sturdily lived and 
preached Christ. On the crowded market place he would stand 
and offer Christian books to those who gathered there, though 
often he was lieaten, insulted and made the butt of ridicule. 
Yet he held on. Nobody ever knew of it. It did uot trans¬ 
pire until after his death, when his constancy and unwavering 
devotion to Christ was witness**! to by some of his persecutors. 
One of the meu who spoke at the meeting, and who is now a 
Christian, had broken his friendship with the dead hero, and 
left him with hot words of scorn and detestation because he 
persisted in his profession of Christ. 

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The weather throughout Feb. was noted for its great and 
marked changes. The snow fall was much greater than in any 
year since 1886, when meteorological observations were com¬ 

Rain fall 0.11” in 11 hours and snow fall tin liquid) 2.20” 
at different times in 57 x / 2 hours. 

There were three high atmospheric pressures, the max. 
30.55; the min. 29.65. A gale of some note on the 1st. and 2nd. 
and a snow storm on the 15th. lasting 6 hrs. Pressure for the 
month was 30.19; the wind, although undergoing much changes 
in its directions was W. by N. with an average force of 18 m. 
per hour. 

Highest maximum (by day) 64.°0. 

Lowest maximum 20.°0. 

Highest minimum (by night) 37.°4. 

Lowest minimum — l.°3. Fah. 

This low minimum was observed on two successive nights. 
Only once, in 1883 4 was as low a temperature observed when 
it tell one night to 21.0 C. or 5.°8 Fah. lielow zero. 

The following table on the fall of snow in liquid may lx? of 
interest ; February 1887, 0.01”; 1888,0.71”: 1839,0.35”; 1890, 
0 07”; 1891, 0.51”; 1892, 1.60”; 1893, 0.27"; 1894, 0.05”; 
1895, 2.20”. 

Report for March. The weather was remarkable, the wind 
at times, obtained a full gale; snow fell frequently and only near 
the end was there rain fall; the temperature at night, with the 
exception of a few days kept below freezing-joint. Snow fell 
35 lirs., 0 85” in liquid: 36 hrs. rainfall, 0 75”. The atmospheric 
pressure kept, wry high. There was one low jiressure 29.75 
and the max. 30.57 mean for the month 3U 34. Average tem¬ 
perature 30 Fah. mean max. temperature 66.° and mean min. 
18.°5. Westerly winds prevailed with an average force of 31 
miles per hour. 

T\ IT. Morsel. 

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These are days when the course of events in the East shifts 
bo rapidly from place to place, that a list of the various ports 
and great centers will prove useful. The following list giving 
the English, Chinese and Korean names of various places has 
been prepared and is here given to the readers of the Re 

Amoy HH *1-3 Kirin HU 

Canton jg’/H Kiukia °e -T-Tf 

chefoo j jgjg *11 K,ushiu AfH ^ 3 - 

f Kobe )»>' Alt 

Chemulpo fZ}\\ fltf Kumumoto 

Chinkiang # 4 Kyoto ^ ^ ^ 

Chungking 4-8 iErl! Mo *' 1 F 1 ! H it S? 

Chusan t^UJ 4# Moukden f j§ ^ 'j \ 

Foochow Jflia'i'H 'T^r^rf ^ > 

Formosa *r| tjJ; Nagasaki ^ 

Fujiyama ^ JlUj Nagoya £(!jM 

nr 5c. At -2- 

Fusan -f# Newchwang f -T*^ l 

Goto Islands t ^ % ’ 


Hakodate ^fg Nikko Bit ^4 

Hakone ^ Ningpo *A *} 

Hankow i! n o.«k« ■%$%. 

Hiroshima Otaru 

Hoihow f®n *1^ Pakhoi im 4(-«i 

Hung Kong =§S!g Peking »,'« 

Hyogo ^ JL Port Arthur $*llj{ D 

Ichang gg-SH# 

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Port Hamilton 

Pyong Yang 

Sendai filjg ^ «?| 

Shanghai ^f"$j 


Singapore fringe 

Soul fikjjfc *l>g 


Tainan £$ *1 # 

Taku ^ciS 

Tamsui f&/JC 


Tokyo * « 4 ^ 

Tsushima §iWith 





Wenchow SW -feS- 

Wonsan 7 CLli «*' 

Wuhu Jf -j; 


Vladivostok jSgsK 


Names of Korean Provinces: The following is a list of the literary 
terms in common use. compiled from the Koun fio or Official Gazette. 


M3 " \ 


it* ..M4b4^ 

#M 1 •• XtU*B« 41 fB 5 

.. HB * 4 / 9*1 



Cliung Ch'eng do. 

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^ a f 5 l Chulla do. 

’ll Kyeng Sang do. 

vida thu Kang Won do. 

Ham Kyeng do. 

Hwang Hai do. 

¥$a ^ ^ s. Pying An do. __ 

~“ W. H. W. 

March 13 at Chemulpo a daughter was botn to the Rev. G. H. and 
Mrs. Jones. 

R. Willis. Secretary H. B. M's Consulate and N. Rospopoff Secretary 
to the Russi.m Legation are the latest arrivals in official circles in Seoul, 
Mr. P. dc Kehrberg, the retiring Secretary expects to leave soon. 

Mannes from the U. S. S. Detroit relieved the Legation guard from tho 
Charleston on Mar. 25/rhe Russian Legation guprd likewise left on Mar. 
28. The latter were seven months with us. 

Mr. Hulbert, our manager, is on a business trip to Shanghai and the 
delay in the issue of this number of the Repository is due to his absence. 

We thank our friends for their cordial support. We need more con¬ 
tributors and hope this general invitation will set our literary friends to 

The revised edition o f the popular tract, M Convcrsatons with a Temple 
peeper” is in the hands of the binder and may be obtained at the several 
book depositor es in a few days. 

The word for the Capital is already spelled in three different wa\s, 
Seoul, Soul, and Soul and now < ur Japanese friends c< pie along and add 
still another—Sole. \\ e are reminded of the remark a visitor made when 
this subject was discussed in the Repository t! ree years ago. ‘ The for¬ 
eigners in the Capital are trying to fii<d the coirect pronunciation of the 
name of rheir city and the population of Korea.'* We are as much in the 
mists on these two points as ever. 

The street leading from the Now West Gate to “Furniture Street” is 
an important thoroughfare. His Excellency, the Mayor of the city visited 
it on the 3d instand has ordered it widened and cleared of projecting 

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Cheung Nam Po in the magistracy of Sam Hwa at Pyeng Yang a dis¬ 
tance of 160 li or about 55 miles. A depot has been built at the base ol 
a hill outside of and to the right of the South gate in what is 
called the Choung Syeng (between the walls). This is not a steam 
railroad as the cars are drawn by coolies. Rumor says t»at Cheung 
Nam is to be opened as the port this summer, and that the city of 
Pyeng Yang is also t > be opened as Seoul is. 

The Japanese yen has become the currency in use here being 
used freely in almost all commercial transactions. It is now taken 
in exchang. for the Korean coins at the rate of 410 to the dol¬ 
lar. The paper \en suffers a further depr ciation owing to the great 
quantity of it which has come in from We Ju and the north, as 
well as to the fact that Koreans while satisfied to hoard silver are 
distrustful of th»- paper. The paper \en is rated at 310. 

Ice in the Ta Tong and Po Tong rivers here measured 20 in, 
and up to Marah 19th the river was crossed on the ice. On 
the 14th of Mar, there was a cold wave and considerable snow fell. 
The Po Tong river which flows into the Ta Tong just below Pyeng 
Yang broke up on Mar. 6th. 

The expected return of K reans to the city this spring has not yet 
been realized. The empty houses with neither d ors nor windows still 
stand gaping-hardly more than one house in ten being occupied 

The regularly laid out streets of the ancient capital of Ki-Ja 
have been greatly altered by the Chinese fortifications built on this 
site. In many places the forts had been thrown up across the streets 
while diagonal road; across the fields connecting fort with fort have 
be n made. The ancient symmetry has been greatly marred, but 
enough jet remains to keep alive the historic interest in this an¬ 
cient site of Korea’s most ancient capital. 

The foil wing communication gives a glimpse of what Korean girls 
in our schools are capable of doing: 

Contrary to the custom of most "spreads" held in schools in the home 
land, was one recently given by some of ti e older girls of the Ewa Haktang 
to whit h the teachers were invited. Great was their surprise upon enter¬ 
ing the room to find it lighted by candl s prettily arranged all about and a 
large red lantern suspended over the centre of the table. The w alls had 

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L r i 

- T. 

•.cm?r xml every thing presented a 
f * _otr Tread with a white cloth and 

— •- t soup, meat, kimtchi , dates, 
r. " -re* it :read with honey to dip it in 
:► Tour from which the bread 

trr- -w- triads. 

t— Tii * r e truly the guests of their 
— - t-.-k Tieasing manner. 

- ’ s a school for l> ys in \\ on 
i. s :e first missionary who has 
t :t- -t'-ains until next June. 

: - — .tment of the fin ncial 

- • t. is elsew! ere. In the coun- 

-■ .. ne associations that are semi- 
re --.-.*nces societies known 
ti - :ttt t :ompanies have suspend- 
^ ^ 'c outcome of the war ” is 

-t..c >cr;th leading to Su-won 
-;-ht. Although in a rich, 
-r- > •rn-rdess stripped of every- 
^ :•? -;V day of the first moon, 

i wn upon the village in 
^ The peopie tied to 

^ D. L. (i. 

.s« in. University of Pennsul- 
. •> - 'V. n a w rk on Korean 
t*_ .vries the subscribiion 52 
j-ane'e and Chinese ar- 
-? ie . jrtmcm of Anthrop< lo- 
. ;r ..-r Oxford first pointed 
- _ > ot the race** of man- 

* r! 6th. Rev. and Mrs. 
an 1 Miss Dr. Whit- 
es^c*uenan Mission. 


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The Chemulpo Municipal Council are constructing a fine road along 
the shore in front of the Custom House Go-downs. This road is next to 
the water, 15 meters wide and is being metalled to a depth of about two 
feet. The spur of the hill on which stands the English Consulate, is cut 
down at th- point from which the pier runs out, and blasting operations 
are carried on to accomplish this. 

The Municipal Council deserves commendation for its efforts to main¬ 
tain good roads. 

From Sorrai in the Whang Hai province under date of Van h 28th. 
ue received the following interesting items: “Our meetings are well attend¬ 
ed the Sahbatn is observed, rooo >ang (abou fifty silver yen) is handed in 
by the people for a new church It will be thatched for the present. Fin¬ 
ished two months hence where devils received homage. 

“The Tong Haks gave us a rest for one and a half months, but last 
week the city of Chang Yun was set on fire and partly burned. Two days 
ago a battle was fought between the magistrates soldiers and the To n g 
Haks; 3 soldiers and 32 Tong Haks were killed. Several were wounded- 
Among the killed were three Tong Hak leaders who threatened to kill us 

The Big Bell in the center of the city will hereafter be rung at no< n 
each day. It was rung the first time on the twelfth of this month. The 
people will approve of this use to be n ade of the Bell. 

Tiger bones are esteemeed of considerable value by Koreans for their 
medicinal qualities. They are espe< ially good lor lack of courage or re¬ 
solution, for which weaknesses they are regarded as a specific. For use the 
bones are boiled and the soup fed to the patient. 

Licorice root is a favorite reme ly in Korea. Some is found in Ham 
Kyong province, but the native supply is far below the demand. Large 
quantities of it are imported from China. 

Of all the aberrations of native pharmacy the poultice is certainly one 
of the most curious. Every thing is utilized for this purpose. I was once 
ca led to see a boy who wa-. suffering from an abscess, and found a poultice 
on it of so foul a nature, one would have thought human nature would 
have revolted from applying it. Only recently a young man called on a 
friend of mine for some gun-powder with which to make a plaster for a 
sore on his hand 

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-* » - : r 

- -mi rv;mr;r- «• tuf rt‘ ! 

: - *:;• 1 *m n itt!i* Tic!l» s 

*- : rr -? - u~rrt fir tut satu^ 

— rrr;L”*, 

r*r ?r'\\ ’.uutrt :kj;i 

ki .» irr -jnn sjjrums 
tif. u*^* uiu 

•. v .ttj: -*.* ?? 
• . " . »*r t ■ r - *: 

v n . '.t. r* 

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r?. *: • ■ *f 

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ri ni i t.rr?v_'i i»t- ai::i ul 

*1%' l rrrrut a;—set. i*t*n 
. tin shut ’nr’wrrt; 

• :;um. ""lie v::Ti ”tr;*> 

;• t 4 ». ¥-£«•■•• :t T rr.t 

::«rr t** - **: :'trr t: trie 

4' UU' 

X 4' • 

*'v • 

» > • V-» 

v. tt.:: ■ rv-jir utmiriititi: ir 

t : v* / *<i tr r>.m uc 

n^r es ;. v:u; :is 2 »:sni »• Tue ’*’> 
r i ::i:i n : t 

v :n*i ^itr* arr tnr: :*rT- 

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3aa?a3 a a a j j 

LARGE ^i’OCK < i 

Electrical G i a r 

C O M i' R I B I N Q 

BELLI?USHES, in button and 
pear shape, (a large assortment) 

CELLS complete, also the differ* 
ent parts separate. 

CALL BELLS (as per illustra¬ 
tion) different sizes. 

gle and double, different qualit¬ 
ies suitable for in and out-dcor 

INDICATORS, with 6, 9 and 12 

numbers. (Smaller sizes can be 
made to order.) 

RIES for fixing aud repairing bells 
Sec. Sec. Sec. 

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UosiJouts t:i the interior and outports 
ean depend on irct:iiiir the whole of their 
foments. Q1' R' K L Y for warded 
care lid !> packed and at equally low 
:.'r ,\vs is if imported from home. A 
n|vo;»!i\ is made of obtaining all 
r vp>oJs n v >f; t;v slock and attending to 

VOIMU!! xvion.s. 

i v -r \r:no address. 

AVhvmark, Kobe* 

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Eaiasaa 373\5?aaD &<&3. 


offers good accommodation to visitors. 





Established 181)1 


Special attention is given to the Provision A Household 
Store Department, which co upm;* a tine assntment of 

all stons, procerus and preserves necessary for the house- 
hol. 1. 


T c r in s 0 a s h . 



J’kino a VooAnri.AKY of Korfan Colloquial Words is 

Common Usk - - - - Price $2 50 

A Manual of Uwi:»is. - ,, „ 






Original from 




MAY, 1895. 



Rev. W. M. Baird. 

THE KOREAN TONY. Rev. Jas. S. Gale. 


Dr. H. N. Allen. 


* • 

J. B. Busteed, m. d. 


The Independence of Korea. 

The Translation' of the Scriptures. 


Price per annum, $3.00. Per copy, 30 c. 






I VI. 






Residents in the interior and outports 
can depend on getting the whoL of their 
requirements QUICKLY forwarded 
carefully packed and at equally low 
prices as if imported from home. A 
specialty is made of obtaining all 
goods not m stock and attending to 


Whvmark, Kobe* 

4 / 1 

Original from 


T. WEEKS & Co 


Telegraphic address "Wkeks, Shanghai.’’ 

Sole a«r<'nts in Shanghai for 
The Celebrated “K” hoots A S iocs. 

Tnc Singer Saving Machines. 

E. C. Hurt & Co. New York. 

Brown’s S itin Boot Polish. 

Dr. Jaeger’s Woolen Clothing. 

Automatic Knitting Machine. 

The Cellular Clothing Co. 




Baker and Compradore. 

Fresh Supplies by every Mail Boat. The most reduced 
prices quoted. GckhIs vviu'ii ordered from the interior or 
elsewhere will be carefully packed. 1’ticking free of charges. 

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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY is a monthly maga¬ 
zine of forty pages devoted to Korean affaire. It will be 
published between the fifth and tenth of each month and will 
be delivered to subscribers in Korea, Japan and China for §3.00 
per annum and to all other countries in the postal union for §2. 
00 gold or its equivalent. These rac< s include postage if paid in 
advance,“otherwise it will be extra. 

The agents for China and Japan are 
Messrs Kelly & Walsh, ld 

Advertisement Rates. 

Full page for one year — — — $18.00 

Half „ „ „ „ - - - 10.00 

Quarter „ „ „ — — — 6.00 

Full page for half „ - - - 10.00 

Half „ „ „ „ - - - 6.00 

Quarter ,, „ ,, — — — 4.00 
Full ,, three months — — — 6,00 

Half „ „ „ - — — 4.00 

Quarter „ „ — — — 2.50 

All communications should be addressed to 


Seoul, Korea. 


Published Every Morning, Sundays and Holidays excepted. 


(Payable in Advance) 

One Moniii ... M.oo One Year ... sio.oo 

Postage Free throughout Japan and Korea. 

THE DAILY ADVERTISER has a larger circulation than 
any other daily paper published in the English language in Jap¬ 
an, and is therefore without a rival as an advertising medium. 
Rates on application to the undersigned. 


jYibva wnwix amvnuiift. 

Consisting of front 24 to 32 pp., 
Published Every Saturday Morning 


(Payable in A Ivanov) 

Six Months ... S3.00 One Year ... £5 00 

Postage Free Throughout Japan and Korea. 


FOE 1 


List of Firms, etc., in Japan, Korea and Wladivostock; Japan¬ 
ese Government Departments; The Peerage of Japan; 


Alphabetical List of Foreign Residents in Japan, Korea and 
Wladivostock, and an 

Appendix of Useful Information, 

With Lithographed Plan of Yokohama. 

Publishers and Proprietors, 

No. 49 , Yokohama, Japan. 

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MAY, 1895. 


The ai senee of a uniform system of rom irrigation of Ko¬ 
rean sounds and the crying need for such a system must lie ap¬ 
parent to every reader. Had some fairly good system been used, 
the names of well known Koreans and of Korean cities would not 
have been so variously lristransliterated as to give in some cases 
thoroughly wrong sounds to our friends acrtss the s.'a. One 
does not have to search far in order to add to each of the follow¬ 
ing lists of mistransliterations which the users have apparently 
written with the idea that they were representing to English 
readers certain Korean sounds: Seoul, Soul; Ilpyong Yang, 
I’hong Yang, Ping Yang, Ping An: (iensan, .livmsuaii, Onesan. 
Wonsan; Huron, Aid iu; l’or.san, Pusan: .1 insen: Chemulpo. 

Of cotuse the student should gd the sound values of Korean 
characters Irom a living teacher, hut for veadeis outside Korea 
ro nauization is the only sill stitute for the living teacher. A 
uniform system based on proper rules would he more or less use¬ 
ful for several classes of veadeis. 

(I) At ho i:<* it would l>o received with gratitude by all care¬ 
ful readers of books and papers containing references to Korea. 
Kven the Korean Imjesitory basin tin', past been known to 
spell the same word in several different wavs in the same issue, 
[•can i rapine the reader’s chagrin at finding the name of the 
sa i (‘city spelled in three or four different ways. Perhaps lie 
bla i es his map for not having showe red upon each city as many 
namrs as the lively ianev oi tlie newspaper correspondents lias 
given it. More than one public and private appeal has been 
n ade to us that we reach some eonm on standard of romaniz- 
iug Konun words in order that the outside world might know 
what we were writing about. 

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(2) S(iil. ills nf eeoernphv. philology, >rians, triends 
of missions, n akers of books and ma] s would all In* ai led in their 
several \va\s by a system which realU exchaiierd Korean 
Rounds for Kurdish letters. ( f how much • 'renter value would U» 
Dr. Griffis’ hook, the “I h r ; it Nation.” if it. were not defaced l»v 

such transliterations as Ki IV- /e for •^1 % \ K ijii). riun -4 lor 
(V<"n<f), j.miy siu for 4Hru Voiie si k j). Si ia’hiu tor 

(SiiM^joo). Urir.;m for •§:# (Oolsan). and n any others. 

(d) Imr Travel-us, visitors, and leridrius in Komn who 
have not flic incliration to study tie* lan^u a:;.* thoroughly a 
phras * hook in Tnelish letters aerordiiiu' to so at* approved 
method of tratislii* )-ition would be lound u-» tuL 

(4) Those b< : niit'4 tic* thorough s'udv of Korean also 

need a reliable svsm : of ro:nani/.ation. All ajree that the liv¬ 
ing teacher is prefer ible to the print 1 j a^\ hut in spite of 
warning the fa'M nains n any rs have ^ >tt**n a 

vicious pronunciation of 1\ *r. an fro :i i vicious s^ste n of tr ans¬ 
literation sue^' , sted to them by a t * * \ t b N»k. The learner !■ * *s- 
sarilv assoei'ites new and ur. nown Koran sijns wiMi j-ivv.iun- 
ly known Knj^lish sounds letters. If the first association 
happens to 1 h * wrong it is only lab* >ri. ■ \<\y era lic it *1 Iron 
speech after manv annoyin.: * >tak< s I ».r lack of a letter 
many us * tiie tu*sL wrong >\s*e . of tranche-ration whim falls 
into their hands and as a result • ispp-l.ounee manv ehm>s of 
words all 11 ha rest of their lives Ti. s • fams prove the necessity 
of the right s\ste:n of r*» eaui/a’i if it <* iu U- {bund. if for no 
other mas >n at Fast in order to sum lint v, imm s\ste rs. 

(5) It may he a none the p.w-i ih i s of rhe future that we 
shall have the Korean serintnP s n* ai i.-vd. 'bids has lieeti 
done in both dajan and Gib a in it- of the Kana in the 
former e< luntrv. 

I i view of tlie a »ove needs t ;•* iiTill* of a eo*nn or: system 
of romani/ation is apparent. 1 ut i *-tore a >\s: * :> can U* f und 
whi-h will meet all of tin-* n»-**ds t. ue* or :*ur f -reign intluenees 
must lx> eliu inat*»d. Sin***' I am wire -T !"i* Hughs .1 readers I 
make ju> apology for advocating an 1/ 1 ratmr a da 

ticse, (dtiiu so. Trench, Dutch or am ■ * a r s\sm:n nt trims 
mti* >n 

(l) The first foreign <acV.i that s:;g_- <:■ d in ti.** works 
{he French fathers. As a Fn ncli s\>*•. in i: mav i-e sarisfae- 

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torv, especially for Frenchmen in Korea who can fin 1 out from 
natives what are meant by such peculiar combination - ’ of letters 
as llpyeng Vain;, Syeotil, Svong Koang Sa. Umhata \.hieh are 
given as the equivalents of sounds host conveyed to English 
readers by the si^ns P’yung Yang, Huool, S«'*ng Kwbng Sa and 
i nhiila. Such a system can no more 1 >e called an English 
system than a word for word transfer of Korean words into 
French could he called an English translation. 

(2) The second perverting influence conies from systems of 
transliteration used by foreigners studying Chinese and Japanese, 

I lowever good such systems ira\ .* for the study of Chinese or 
Japan -so they are too arbitrary and inelastic to tit well on the 
independent genius of the Korean language. Foreigners who 
have previously studied Chinese or Japanese often speak Ko¬ 
rean with a brogue because they try to cram the new .Korean 
sounds into the gnxwcs of the transliterating system suggested 
to them by their (Tines ' or Japanese text books. Wo need 
not look farther than Foss or Griffis to see that we do not 
want, — an invasion of Korea by « iiher the Chines ■ ' or danants * 

• i 


(3) A third source of wrong transliteration is the national , 
provincial and personal peculiarities f speech which each student 
brings with hi n, e. g. trie aln nst universal national tendency of 
so i e of our friends to say a for ii as “mal” for nail, and of 
others to say “t rim oun” for unn <x>n, Ac. When to these is 

added fanciful associate>ris such as “dock” lor*?}, toejock-nom * 
for " p'ggy" f « 1 then chaos reigns supreme. 

To make romanizaiion uniform it should l>e based upon 
some mil's I suggest. 

liiile I. It should Ivan English Korean system of roman¬ 
izaiion . Any of the a! ove mentioned warping influences which 
would prevent Fnglisli readers from recognizing Kcrean sounds 
sh<»uld 1 »e avoided. 

liulo IT. Sounds not letters should be Romanized . Silent 
lei tors of roars* have no apology for being carried over bodily to 
puzzle the readers of another language who do not know that 
they art' silent letters which by euphonic laws have different 
sounds in different places should be represented by their equiva¬ 
lent sound values. It is true that a more transfer of letters is a 
transliteration, but such a mere transfer is worm than useless 

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for the purpcs' of convening sounds. 11is one of the weak¬ 
nesses of any system, 1 >ut much non* so of that entire lark of 
system which merely transfers letters l>v unvanin^ sii^ns o. ^ r . 
“ Chycn la to" for (hi ill lii ] )o, “ malt " for u iiri. “ Ka he it so " for 
kaeesso, “ cpnai" for utinii, Ac. lhuy, of what us-' is such a 
system except to make beginners mispronounce the lan^uivue V 
Kule III. Rounviization must be based on the ordinary not 
the exceptional sounds of the letters. Korean letters may have 

many exceptional sounds (as a in all for ^) which, according 
to 1 bile II, should be represent h 1 in English equivalent letters 
when they occur, hut ear ‘ oust he taken 1< s f . tin s *e\oej tions are 
mistaken for the rule English letters likewise have exceptional 
sounds, which are verv apt to lx; i n pro perl v us \\ instead ol the 
ordinary sounds as eiven by t!ie standard lexicographers. I’oth 

on and u have been wrongly us'd to represent "T*. tlie regular 
sound of which can only be properly represented in English by 
the; regular sound of oo. 

A peculiar method referred to above of reo <' tibering sounds 
by accidental association with previously known sounds has 
been used by so ne, but it often breo : es a d an £ Tons snare both 
to the user of it and to others wh‘*n the original sound associa¬ 
tion '*s forgotten. Fro n this hybrid source we get mutilated 
for i s passed fro n one generation of begMumrs to another, e g. 

%i pinyv" for 31*1, "Sick fohwiie" for “ hatter ’ for 

't c h "Cheep" for . "tie it up" for ^1 "Known" for 
If this plan is to ho ns-.l, co i!(>, <f('ntIo:ii(*n, lot ns iro t.ho wholo 

Iongtli of Mn^lish l>:id sprl’inp and writ • Who for <$■, Dough for 
Psalm pack for ^ . Sen* for it, \e. lean imagine the 

eager philologist returning richly laden fro u a. a : 011 ^ the 
letters and note books of those who us % this method enabled hy 
his discoveries to venture the <>; inion that tin* Korean is a hin¬ 
dered langunge to tlu; Egyptian. 1 *atngenian, Greek nr English. 

lluk' IV. Romanizatton should be by definite unvarying 
signs. Precision is al s dutelv necessary, and in order to preci¬ 
sion a standard syste n of diacritical marks should be us si. 
Othorwis * rou'.animation is a lying mockery precising n ueh 
and ^ivim; little. Without n arks to poor ruler, who o 
the transliteration is suppos'd to ail, is left. in hopeless con¬ 
fusion and usually ends hy pronouncing the words wrone. To 

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t nms'.iterato °f" simply bv a would bo as inexact as to translate 

g (horse) by tlie word quadruped. There are many kinds of 
quadrupeds and several sounds of the letter a which are easily 
ilistinouisued fro n eae'.i other by their appropriate diacritical 
marks. One man not incorrectly but infelicitously transliterates 

^ by o (same as fi) His neioldn'r copies his system but drops 
the diacritical marks As a result wo hear him savin*' "Gup" 

and “ ehopsi” instead of chop and chopsi ( 3 Hr 

A\ hat system s mil be alopted? A standard system, of 
coiiiw, known to all the various (‘lasses for who n a translitera¬ 
tion is meant to he an ai l. So ne of our friends advocate the 
arhitrarv us? of t ie long and short signs lor all tlie Korean 
vowels independently ot the way thosu signs are used in tlie best 

dictionaries. They would re] resent °|“a and a, °i u and ft, °] 
i and i, Ac. If written in tlie unmoon text as an aid to its pro- 
jhu* pronoimei.ition such a plan might have its i nportant uses, 
1 >ut to an intelligent English reader long a is a in fate, long u is 
u in tube and long i is i in pine. It would puzzle our friends 

to find many and °ls which are pronounced as Eng¬ 

lish readers would pronounce a, u and i The advocates of this 
svstem si nply make a n<uv s4 of diacritical marks for ro nan- 
izing Korean and then blandly ask the reading public, who are 
unfortunately li i bed to the diacritical syste ns of the best lex- 
icograpliers. to undvTShind this babel of s muds. 

Is it not alsurd to object, to the a bullion of the lexico¬ 
grapher's system of marks by swing that it is not generally un¬ 
derstood, or that it would require too much labor to acquire it? 
Certainly the tested syste n of the dictionaries is as well known 
or ;is easily acquired ns any artificial svsto n which lias been or 
n ay l>e constructed. Since it is not a question of some s\ste;n, 
but of a good system or a had srste m let us have the best — the 
long tried\ standard system of Webster s dictionary. 

Ktile V. Whenever possible soundi should be represented 
by corresponding letters and not by se we other co nhination of 
letters.which happen in a few English words to have the same 

sounds. should be Wunsan not ()n<^s> 11 \^ nor “Won- 

sin. M JViti One and Hon happen to be pronounced \\ fin, 

but the letters of one nev ^r would suggest, the led us of to a 
person unfamiliar with the word, besides being open to the 

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objection that it n ight l>o pronounvd On o win. Since it lias 
no diacritical marks to sliow how inis anonmlous word is pro¬ 
nounced. AVcro romanized by One the word should ho 

written thus, =()ne (pronoui e >d Uiin). 

Much aid is given to a pro] or minimization and pronoun- 
ciation of Korean vowels by observing their method of formation. 
Vowels and diphthongs ar. all formed on the basis of a per¬ 
pendicular ( j ) or a horizontal ( —) stroke or by various 
combinations of the perpendicular with the horizontal. The 
elemental slro l f> s are first uS“d to make the simple vowels, but 
alter the simple elemental strokes have all been used once there 
are still tlnee or four simple vowels yet to be written. They are 
formed by adding the ] erfiendicular stroke to previously made 
vowels of the sounds of which they am independent. These 
hitherto so called diphthongs are really simple vowels complex 
only in their method of writing. The vowel system will best 
apjjeal to the eye in the following table. 


Single Stroke 

C 1- t>) = i. 

! 2-»(•=». 


Single Stroke 

of the two. 

Stroke added to 
2, 3, 5 and 7. 

r 4— _5L=eu. 

•! s-_S-=«. 

^ 6 —=oo. 

7- £ =ii. 

f 8— 

!)-*)| =a. 

'j 10-J] =., 

{ n-6|=s. 

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Combination of ^ 

horizontal with per- <J 12. -") =eui — ? 


pendicular stroke. ' 


Group with 


Group with w. 

12— ya-y 

with (2) 

18 — wa— w with (2) 





„ (3) 

19-^H-wa— „ (8) 


„ (5) 

20-34 — wu— „ „ (3) 

16- 7 f* — yoo—, 

, .. (G) 

21-$1 -wi- „ „ (1) 

17 — <>*|-ya- 

„ „ (9) 

22- - — wa— „ „ (9) 

23— 3-) _ w i (long)-,, (1) 

Tt will l)e ol served that 1, 2, and 3 are based on the 
perpendicular stroke ; 4, 5, and 6 on the horizontal stroke (—): 
and 7 is simply a dot i. e. their intersection. From these two 
simple elemental strokes no more letters can be constructed with¬ 
out doubling. The remaining simple vowels 8, 9, 10 and 11 are 
therefore made by adding the basal perpendicular element to 2, 
3, 5 and 7. 

The compound letters fall naturally into two groups, one 
formed by prefixing y and the other by prefixing w to simple 
vowels. These may for convenience be called diphthongs, but 
as Webster shows, initial y and w are not vowels but conson¬ 
ants, therefore they are not true diphthongs, but are simply the 
union of a consonant with a vowel in writing. The sound of y, 
which only proceeds the letters numbered 2,3,5.6 and 9 is writ¬ 
ten by the simple addition of a single stroke. The sound of w 
like that of y only occurs initial preceeding the vowel sounds of 
2, S, 3, 1 and 9. The economical inventor of unmoon rather 

than invent a separate sign for w, used ^ and S~ the signs of 
the kindred sound bo and o to represent w. Probably like some 
foreign writers and most Korean language teachers be taught 
that the consonant w was the same sound as oo. Webster 
proves tins theory to be wrong. A perfect alphabet would have 

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had a separate sign for \v. Deceived by the defective method 
of writing, many have failed to see the analogy between 

and and and t|J which are only ii. ii, and a 

proceeded respectively by y and w. 

Since we have no corresponding sounds in English, N< s 4. 
10, 12, and 23 are very difficult to Romanize. In Nis 4 and 
12 Rule I is broken by borrowing the French method of trai s- 
literation. No. 23 very seldom occurs and d<xs not differ 
enough from No. 21 to require a separate transliteration. No 10 
is most probably a simple vowel, simple and independent in 
sound but written after the analogy of Nes 8. 9 and 11 — i. e. 
by adding the basal perpendicular element to the simple vowel 
No. 5. Nos. 18 to 23 are all unions of w with a, a, ii, i and a. 

but No. 10 is not a sound union. = 'i does not enter into its 
pronounciation. Like Nes. 8. 9 and 11 it is the sign of a new 
and independent vowel sound. Nos.10 and 21 show clearly the 
difference between the simple vowels from S to 11 and the so 
called diphthongs from 18 to 23. No. 10 is a si nple sound com¬ 
pound in writing only by the addition of the basal per| endicular 

elemental stroke ( |) which the Koreans call £| • In No. 21 
on the other hand the sound of i is as clearly discernible as the 
sound of it, a, u, and a iri Nes. 18 to 22. The i*‘ip*ndicular 

elemental stroke (named lias no sound of its own but is 
merely used as au element in the forn ation °| —i, — it, ^1 

—ii, 2 —it, — a, —it, —a. , and the groiijs 

with y and w. The difficulty which foreigners have in pronounc¬ 
ing No. 10 is due partly to tlx* fact that they do not usually 
recognize that it is a sin pie vowel and partly Ix'cause we have 
no such sound in English, ti cannot therefore be correctly 
ro.nanized, but for convenience I s'igg<Rtji as a tentative run- 
ani/.ation. It can lx* best pronounced by ]iuttii*g tlie vocal 
organs into a position to say way and then making a sound like 
clos 'd a. The a, suggests the closed character of tlx* sound. Tlx* 
vocal organs n be kept aln < st <*1< sod until the end of the 
sound in order to avoid making ti e oj on sound of a as in wav. 
Think w (in order to get the vocal organs into a c*l< s *d ] < sit ion), 
say ii keeping the organs nearly clowxl to tlx* end of the sound. 
If you do tin's under the tuition of 1 alf a dozen Koreai s the 

lesult will be a fair apioximation to the sound of .&] • 

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The following system of romanization, with a few excep¬ 
tions which are mentioned, seems to me to fulfill the conditions 
given in the previous discussion. 


1 — °| — i in machine as in ”^j c |*—kiptii (to mend) 

—i „ pin as in ^ —chip, c f—kiptii (to be deep). 

2— —a „ father as in if 0 )' •?] — kamagui. (crow) 

—a „ bang as in •JWI —Kim Subangi. 

3— ^ —u „ up as in ^ — pup. 

— u „ purr as in ^—put, o]X — muo. 

The second sound is longer than the first and does not as 
in English, necessarily preceed the sound of r. Both sounds 

are found in —kunnukao. 

—a as in fate as in c |’ —magitii. 

4— French eu. There is no English equivalent. 

— i as in ■3--M —chiksi and in —ponchik. 

5 — S-—o in note as in sorn and Vj — tongna (neigh¬ 
borhood), S~ ^ — onal and .s-i-m — onura (frequently 
mispronounced Onal and onura). 

— 5 in Song (nearly as —Sungdo, ^ — Tongna 

— a nearly as in fate as in °| —magi. 

G— ^ —00 in mOOn as in *^ — ir.<J5n. It is entirely wrong to 

represent this sound by ou. ^ never has the sound of on in 
house which is the regular English sound of ou. Ou in you is 
an exceptional sound in English. It is still worse to represent 

^ by u since ^ probably never has any of the English sound 
of u except the occasional sound of u (oo in pull) 

—coin wool as in !§■ —p’OTtl. 

7 — ® — ii as in — gaj'i. 

-a as in t>) o| _ is ai. 

— a almost silent. In closed, unaccented syllables this 
vowel has little more sound than the silent e in bugle. Several 
of the other vowels have in similar situations no appreciable 



wiikIm and tin-, therefore indistinguishable from each other. In 
a l.mnsliUiralion these should have no diacritical marks and 
idimild !*• jtulm/./-d to show that they are silent. To show that 

5 in a word of two syllables it should lie written sarom not 
►dirt m. 

^ — »i in hat as in jL 2| — kagbri 

1 his sound should not lie represented by at for two reasons; 
(l)itis not a diphthong in sound and should therefore he re¬ 
present/*! as the simple vowel which it is, (2) ai in English 

rarely perhaps never has the sound of 

— a in fate as in —kasin. 

— e „ met ,, „ — ktigesso. 

10 —£■)—a (V). This letter cannot Ik 1 exactly represented to 
English readers. It is neither oi nor \va. See remarks above. 

1 — a in hat as in - cluik. Same as 8. 

12 —£J 


French eui, or at times almost wi or i. 


*3— — ya in yard as in ^ —yang. 

-ya „ yam >agi. 

14— ^ —yu as in l\° x — kan.vun, ^ — piung (a bottle) 

— ail Kg. 

— ytiin "|" c l — n.yunhadii, ^ — pyiing (sickness). 

l"i—— yu ai d \b as 6 and >> alove with y prefixed. 

16 —-ji*— vcTj or as od or *73 witti y prefixed. 

17——_\a .. \0 as a cr v wit:: y prefixed. 

13——wa .. wa iii wait as in —Kwasll. 

1 ‘J — Sty — wa as in wi aek (minus h) as in S\i ^ —warn. 

20 — -£| — ,vu (as ., i Id Se».:eh Wuliie) as in —kwanwiin. 

—w u as in ^ wuunlukla. 

21— — w,;-e wu). Alter ° and ^ this sound often 

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I incomes si’n ply i as in ^—piniang (ompU roo;: ), ^r| ^4 

1f c > —miwfduida. 

22 — $)—wii in wane as in tt!!— wan. 

23 — ifl — wi (or yooi). This character is a waif which may 
belong at times under the group with v. hut usually under 
the group with w. It is of very infrequent occurrence. Since 

y is always silent after and ^. after which letters No. 23 

is almost always found, its usual sound is wi as in No. 31. 

In the above table Nos. 2, 3, 5, 13, 14, and 15 show 

plainly the modifying influence which has in changing cor 
tain proceeding vowel s.mnls- The vowels ii, ii, 6, ya, yu, 
and \o are frequently transformed into a. «, u, \a, yd, yd when 
followed either direct, or with certain consonants intervening, 

by . Thus — duk becomes ^ °) — dftgi, ^ —pup be¬ 
comes '3»1 —pahi, -5f —m.ok 1 iron i: es VI — magi or al¬ 
ii. < st magi, — mfiktit Ih'Coiuos in the causative 

— migitii, — j bulk becomes — paulii. In these 

oasts the sounds are so changed as to he pronounced as if they 

were written ^| & |, °], ^=j °1, Ac. The same changes 

are ol s -rved in the words ^ °1 ~ p«ny;igi. ^ °1 c } ,— 
yagita, °] —yogi, ^ — kongi. In the now vowels thus 

evolved both the sounds of °|\ SI- and and the sound of 

°) have either entirely disappeared or been so far modified that 
their shadowy ghosts are incapable of any other romanization 
except a, ii and a. Since sounds, not letters are to be represented 

it makes little difference whether a word is spelled ^ °] or 
D ) so long as both woius have the same sound and may 

he Ixst represented by niigita. The observed fact that & ] 
sometimes has a modifying influence on a proceeding vowel 
sound doubtless led the inventor of /inmoon to represent the 

sounds of a, <(, and d in most cases by , $1, and •&) 
even when they were original sounds and not modifications, as 

in , *§|, I , "^1 -4" > Ac. 

Other modifications of the vowels occur, and y is silent 

alter A, C. "C as in = s« sting, 3 2 t£= 

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ChuUado. The rules for these euphonic changes nnist be learned 
elsewhere, hut when they occur sounds not letters are to lx; 

The consonants also undergo euphonic changes but in 
general they may be represented thus. 

Initial or Final. 


G — tn — ng before -7 
^ — n. 1, y or silent. 

2-lor n. 


— s, sh or t when final. 
C — t (not used as a finalV 

— Cll. 

(when final). 

— also a silent aid in the 
formation of vowels 

Medial {single). 


2— r (when between two 

« -b. 

— s or z ('.’) 
c -d. 

Z-\ - 


—h or s. 

5 _k ' 



>7or v7 -^ - - 

s — 

cC .'I —.I — 

5?.-1 9-i - 

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The reduplicated consonants are not easily represented in 
English. For the practical purposes of pronunciation we may 
say that the original sound is hardened and intensified. But 
as this hardening cannot bo represented to the eye we can do 
no better than romanize by the letters g, b, s, d, j. Initial 

u. is often eileut especially before *>!■ «|. A- 7T- 

When followed by & ], A , * 7 i* cr becomes ch as in 

c | — chi, — chu, S.—cho, -rf* — choo. The sound (and 
the kindred sound of y) is thus seen to have its own way a- 
mong the consonants as well as among the vowels. Medial con¬ 
sonants when single are mostly hard. Initial soft consonants 
are hurdened by reduplication while medial consonants, which 
are usually hard because medial, are by reduplication hard¬ 
ened aud intensified beyond the power of the English al¬ 
phabet to express. 

In order to romanize accurately, the euphonic laws for 
consonants must be known, otherwise there will be constantly 

occurring such mistakes as nuknukhata for '4'4t c \= 
nung-nukhada, paprnuknanta for = papmiiugnan- 

tii, upna for <3*1 =umna, yakmool for o-T-t — yangmool, 

wat-nanya for —wanuanya. 

There are a number of fleetiug sounds in Korean not 
even caught by their own writing which we cannot hope to 
romauize accurately. Neither is it claimed that any table of 
romanization will exactly represent Korean sounds. This is 
especially true of the consonants. For all practical purposes 
both of romanization and of pronunciation the al>ove table 
is suggested, but it is with the knowledge that a Korean rare¬ 
ly makes exactly the sounds of p or b, t or d, ch or j, k oi g, 
1 or r, but sounds oscillating between those definite limits 
This class of English sounds are very sharp and exact thus 
differing from Korean souuds which are nasal and blunt o 
is also a much more nasal sound than our ttg In spite of 
these acknowledged deficiencies the bulk of Korean sounds 
may be romanized. A little attention to the few English 
words which can be written by means of the unmoon charac¬ 
ter will show that the system suggested above will convey Ko¬ 
rean sounds fairly well to English readers. I cannot say as much 

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for uny other system which has come to mv attention. Notice tlio followin'’ English words cannot be transliterated in¬ 
to Korean by any characters except those suggested below and 

that the transliteration is : n harmony with the above system 
Cup- '3, done (dun)— Q, hut — pup — XJ , pun— 
hat—$| or cat (kat > —"U, pan— Xi ^ tack (tak)— ^, ham — 

, cake (kakj — . name (naiu) — , day (da) —#^|, tame 

tain—, diitne— ''pi, —bout (I>r*t) — goat (got)-- 

hoot— yj-, palm (pain)— XJ\ tool— moon— soon — 
-£*, kate (kat;-10’ «ate- $. Ukc-^, jake (jak)- ^,j.»- 

*3*. Before showing this pat:- to jour teacher pioinumce the 
above Kn<;li<h words to him t » >ee Imw he will write them. 
Hr \v r i 1 ] j»r -i-;ihly writ** *ii* m-->t ut them ns they are written 
above. -\ft**r he h is written • u-:ri h** in iy not pronounce them 
• ■\artly as we pronounce :h? Kv.:!i'h wo d f»r which they 


L hut 

in m<*>t 

I'* > 


• i i 11 • r 

e r,c* 

* w i i I 

he owin*; to the 

fact t 

:.i ii lie 

* do**s n< t 



r t- 

• u’ve th-* vowels their 


* r >ii« 


i. g. 


■u.-h i 

:i- v 

‘ r;:< s 

the word cake hy 

the C 

h iri-.'tr 

•rs y-t 




* 1 : : 

it * 

y pr 

•nounce it as kek 

l»«*c*ail'»- he 

f I . ♦ Si f. t 

kr.ow \y 

h • 

•1 T 

he tw» st'Uinls ot to 



r K r 


1 ; ■' 

t. * * 

s’ 5 s* 1 


a sy 

't»*rxi ot* di icritical 


s til is 

•i; trinity . 

’ i 


-.1 a 

s we i\ 

ivoi-I it in Kn^lHi. 

ftl'S- »>r h > 

m . i 

: .r wh 

h t 

ae Korean Iinjua^e will 

>(*t‘ n fc • > r . < 

the imv r: 

»* - 

- t tii 

* ill 

«ve «• 

r a. v otia r system 

of in 



4 • ^ 

; • 


v F 

h»reiiti So::t»cl. lhit 

t hw s* 


weal:!: *-1 

fV ; 


S. • 1^*1 

a : 


is well shown hy 



with -fit: 

K r 

t . t:. 


w E::Si> 

h W« r«ls ]*rnh;il>|> 

ii"t »' 

twenty. C fc 

! - 



- y 

written hy the K*»r»an 




• : . t r 


,1 tm 

* at majority u( 


> -v 

■ % c 

. wn 

h a.;-. 


• y r 

• fv> r.t* vl to Fng- 

ii>h : 

V . [• P 5 . 

k tv-' :L ' 

: jh 

a 1 

>• V 

*• i 

”i.e s unds of the 

I .< ■ r* i 

< » “ . V 

r E 

. " l V 

vl * 

': : V 

«\ r. 

y riie K- re tn syl- 


v L : 



' l V 

v : 

.V 4 

f ii 

t:. *1 marks the 

m - r i • i 

L s • • “ 

L, r . - 

* - 

• i 

r • 


' :i rw. 

fiirlv re]>ns-nteil. 

t r 

li .r; : 

•: K , 

k: . T* r - ■ . m 

* * 

\ . 


1. k-I: 

: .Vs.:iao|»sin\u ; 


/ ; ^ 

- .X 

• i , . ■ ir«“ chi- 

t: s- y \ ^ .. . j' ‘^ri^a 

^ v «. It k. v > . . • „ ’ ‘ i ' lit* I I ^ ‘ * «» ti* l tC li 1 ^ 

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<Wri chareul sahayuch6»5psimyu; oflriga sihurna teulchi miilga 
haopeigo, taman ohrireul akhan«lesu kcnhaopsosu. Narawa 
kwunsawayunggwaogl abujiga yungwuni issaminlita, amen 

I am aware that we all hear Korean sounds somewhat dif¬ 
ferently and I invite reply to set me right where 1 am wrong 
in this article. If possible let us reach some common standing 
ground. The present chaos in the spelling of Korean names 
affords us an opportunity to leave the old relics bequeathed to 
us by the generation of sightseers and other adventurers and 
unite upon some common scientific system of romanization 
I call upon my fellow strugglers in this Korean slough to do 
one of two things, either to adopt the system suggested above 
or to propose a better one. 

Ah a starter I suggest the following way of spelling some 
frequently used Korean words. 


— Ky/ing-gi Do. — SuOol. 

— ChSjong-chV/ng Do* — Kdng-j<5<V 

— Chwl-la Do. 

— Ky/Ing-sang Do. 
THIS -Kang-wan Do. 
£ — Hwang-ha Do. 

— P l y«ug-an Do. 
S. - Hang-gyring Do. 

— Chun-jfiD. 

pH-?* — Ta-gOO- (m Ta-koft.) 



< j-P 4 yung-yaug. 

— llam-heung. 


— Cham<JOlp‘o. 

— PtfOsan. 

— Wunsiin. 

Should the diacritical marks lie objected to, let the lazy 
people omit them, but let us at least spell the names of the 
best known Korean places in such a way that the reader who 
follows the best lexicographers will not be compelled to pro- 
nouuce them wrong. 

W. M. Baird. 

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Till'; KOItKAN l'O.NY. 

A m»* oi(/ Him •‘iMi»hiri'B that Ihivm crowd my path, the one 
Ill'll line lui'l Him iiiohI luffu«*ii«r«« on my iiorsonal character is the 
Isoi' h ii |>>hi y ll wmmM lie impossible to Miooutit the varied 
i**|i»*i|i'iii'■« Hiiongh wlilfli 1 111 hai led ini'. Instead of lifting 
ni)i linnd, n il pointing tn m< tmu null'll professor or eminent 
ills I ii** | ms Him master spirit of my life, I stand a safe distance 
oil, Mit'l poloi In I lie Korean pony, and say “lie has brought 
nett" onl d| nn> |lian all the others foinhincd.” 

In Ills "Dinpany I have been surprised at theamountof 
i oiei nltali d demon I have found in my heart. Again, as he 
lies nili led me snlel\ along the dizz est edge, l could have turn¬ 
ed u»i|iel, and tak« n him on my back. 

M\ usual ponv has been not one of your well groomed 
Mi» dr Hie palace stables, hut along-haired, hide-bound 
ehi«*t, toi iihnh ioiiv wb'd" heart goes out in pity “Weak 
i ivmils', \Oil s«v “how "IM It would In* tor it to expire," but 
Mi.o a loilee\p, H. », e ot u* company von change your mind, 
ten v o ms h.-e's ore with the vitilityot t'oiked 
... o. ui',;., » .1 ('■»(,>!:*• <ht pi. ww ition ho . U- through 

> \ >., h -. i m. V'.ove tVi,.i> hue t.s chi "a • t • treat 

o\ o o' II \ *v ) wo an > tew C ' o’* l:\i t ' 

V ' x V, N v s s K *\ ' ; . **\ \ , A !‘. *,\ V- ’- - - C • ■ •* - A * *iri V 

*•%••• I < 

K s > . ‘ v A \ ' x ^ - . ’ T; .' O X 

.... i v . s * x .. .. _ a •- i r n 

• \ \ • v ' x \ X s:v * • >> t . J * * . J?/'. 

. . s • ■ ' v ; • '-V :* : :: \r* 

\ \ . S '* ’ V N \; V ». 

v V * \ * * . ’ 

1 •• \ 



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along the four main roads of Korea. They keep this up nntil 
they develop ring-bone, spavin, rawback, windgals and heaves 
Then they are bought by a Korean living near the “New Gate,” 
and are used specially to carry foreigners for the remainder of 
their mortal existence. The fact that the creature is danger¬ 
ously ill* and the risk so much the greater, accounts for the 
double charge made to all foreigners by the man at the u New 

But to return to the subject. The Korean horse figures 
in literary and scientific ways as well. He is the animal of 
the twenty fifth constellation, and appears specially as the 
symbolical creature of the seventh Korean hour (11 a. m. to 
1 |>. in.) This doubtless refers to the fact that he eats his 
Chock at that time, though 11 to 2 p. m. would have been a 
more correct division. We road that his compass point is 
South. Probably the inventor of the Horary table was on his 
way North at the time, and finding that his pony naturally 
gravitated the other way marked it South. His poetical name 
is tonchang (Honest Sheep). While the noun here is well 
ohos*u, the adjective is purely fictitious, as we say “Honest 
1 "jin.” 

In size, when alongside of a western horse, ho looks like 
a ten years old boy accompanying his grandfather. 

His gait is a peculiar pitter-patter, and rides very nicely, 
until he reaches the raw-backed spavin age when he stumbles 
every few paces calling forth remarks fr »m the foreigner. The 
so called Chinese ponies are all rough, awkward creatures. A 
pack on one of them heaves up and down like an old fash¬ 
ioned walking-beam; while a Korean pony in good condition 
glides along like a Palace Pullman. For a journey over such 
toads as we have, a small Korean horse, astri lo of which Don 
Quixote’s feet would drag along the ground, will use up a 
large Chinese pony in less that three days as 1 have found in 
more than one case by actual experiment. 

Their sure-footedness is a marvel. If you have been 
fortunate enough to es;a‘pe the man at the “New Gate,” and 
have really secured a good ponv, then give him his way 
overall the danger of ice and precipice that you may chance 
to pass. Sit perfectly co d on your pack, for the danger is 
less when trusting to him than to your own feet How my 
heart has risen to the occasion and taken up its quartern in my 

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• 1 

. / ^ 

^ s 

i : » 

•*s *\J *.&w 

f : 4 

*», -« 

.'y * *J it „ 

« * •_ 

Ivx v- 

rrj*-. j' t rj^r-r 

* i . 

. v 1 

J bv. ** 

* 5 

* V* I 

•’ v K • 

v t 

f ’ .* 4 ' • 

f : 

^ t r '4 - 

1 r 

•j 4 j- r: 

^ / '^r # v i ;> vr «: 

^ # 

. # iJ 

... *■ • 

r* i Z'—' 

- * fc * 

*- J* • 

■ii* •• r. 

■»► * • •,• « *. 

,» * I * *. # 


• %. • K" 

Li «fr 

•.. c : t : -i , * . 

, r- * I « 1 ' H-* * * J * ~ 

' * *» -. Lr ^ a. L" ■ * 

-•■1 . .lt*.: **- h«r v 

•■’.tv f,> * v # j v.*r . v *> * - r K •?«"*-• . • L.u*\ 

# * • 

I. * *»Vtfj*r :.-/* # i t»i'r> 'j •_•..«■ k > i r .. C 1 > 

.J<-i> f:z<-j r t,;.'* *r I. 

H *■ <ii-:*. i* ck-jjh a:< 1 t'. z. -* or .*. OLvc :* 

•* i'-ri a- . r -T ;titdr»-<J .*• J*ri *•• V-: :» ' J - a V ■ 

■ f vra'-i. T:.~ - 0 .* r -:t l< ». ur>vi * a**-r i* t>?rT •:— •. 

'J Si*- i ’>’S l- * »'. J u-^k oi ;• '•■% •*• o_*. -r *■ v ? : 

ji*Vjr<r t/y Cij v.r- i.-r<iij i: th- loi* ■ * a *r vrr. : »**•' 
H<; na* *••»■'. *:'-r it ;r-5.*rr-r.i‘.:>. a:* : «.'j *: -r r-* 4 * • .- 

I f/i.v ':i‘j t*-a*:.T !•.'•> .^fj fii* •-y*-*- j. - j* -Hr » !*-<t 

it i cl oil .-’*■*'ki i. l~a *■. 

*1 i*'r 1 that t;.»- "..iVr :» a mv* . •»r ->l Ir-iv**. it •*• - 
‘•'Ttait, a* t/y tjj«r a'r.-y'l it i.'it in. ..'-i CT!*'V*>*> .«r** ?1 iy >: :t t "t*- 
tj /f;* 4 t.4t ar>^ uv*-r a*i *«j f i ii d : aN: r» of tnes^ !*• *r.> • 'tj .t.? 

I Iwl r mafoo :i t*- I’n-Ui .rk- 

f#ri h Im ^ t«» t L r * t in!«» 

,ui<l on th" w.iy. Tt<*• I w;t<; h !••: ^ 

4"h-ct#*l cn'/itijr**, thit r^| tf iir*^l thr*-• hours t<» tVt* i 
On o($*n ooaMori [ oiit to hurry th" up, an»! fonmi 

it «y«^d-<?p in it*» trough havir*^ a'. rx*r.i ^ » d 
tiui", f J*ho iurj-k^- jHT liapf^diru; by siw tiie tivlnkle in tin* 
* t’yt*n ami <>»nclu«l* cl that th*r ivxpoo lia«l sqmvz*o *’ his 
Irmn^liat« !y a ni'**t i.itenMin^ r**n%vrs.\ti«»n t«w»k ] !-ux-, 
that rapidly thr«»ti^h th" various sta^s of tlm first 

thr«<‘art#of a tra^' dy, and Udi ld tlu- iuvi-k«a A |>er wild with 
rapj, tliu vtapoo mcanwhili- curry it.*; liis pony. 4 *To ]H*rdi* 
lion M says hr u you and your l^ ans/’ With that in a hurst of 
frriKiu in-nzy, thu itiri-kt*ep« r wiz**«l tin* brimming trough «d 
choo1c % poi.^d it in tin* air as a Sc<>trhnmn would iiis cal»er, 
and let fly at th<* vtapoo . With all the centrifugal lorco of a 

projectile tlu* trough 1 the p ny'« linck, and nhot l>y tin* 

vtapoo. The water taking tin* centripetal route showered 

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<lo\vn over the head and shoulders of the inn-keeper, the beans 
gliding gently down his neck. 

People speak of a “horse-laugh,” but a pony’s smile is 
something that in watery richness of expression surpasses 
every thing. That dejected looking pony smiled, and we re¬ 
sumed our journey. 

They never allow the pony to drink cold water It is 
“sure death” they say; neither do they allow him to lie down 
at night, but keep him strung up to a pole overhead by ropes, 
so that the creature is perfectly helpless, and all the cocks of 
the village warm their feet on his back, anti crow into him 
the dt lights of Pandemonium. 

The work of feeding ponies seem® endless to one un¬ 
initiated. For a seven o’clock start in the morning, you hear 
them up at half past one slopping, dishing, crunching, jang¬ 
ling. “ Wearying the life out of the miserable ponies ” I said 
t<> myself when I first heard it. 1 begged and implored, but 
it was all in vain for when a Korean pony and native combine 
in some pet scheme it is as useless to remonstrate as it would 
lie “to pick a quarrel wi' a stone wa’.” 

Bv wav of poetic justice, I love to see the pony shod, see 
him pinioned teeth and nail, bound head, feet and tail, in one 
hard knot, lying on his back under the spreading chestnut- 
tree, with the village smithy putting tacks into him that 
brings tears to his eyes lint seasons like this are all to short 
to square up with him for the sins of his every day existence. 

To conclude by way of illustration. I was on a journey 
t hrough the South and had reached the city of Tagoo, the cap¬ 
ital of Kyung Sang Province. 'There my pony took sick, and 
not being able to find any for hire, I asked one of the mayor of 
the city. The morning I was to leave he sent me round a per¬ 
fect whirlwind of a pony. This wa« number one of a courier 
service which necessitated changing horses every five miles. 

In the fourteen or fifteen animals that I enjoyed for the 
next three days I had a:» excellent demonstration of the merits 
and defects of the Korean pony. As mentioned, the first horse 
was a great success, the next one also was in good condition 
and fairly well proportioned. On mounting, however, L fouud 
he 1 ad a peculiar gait, a limp that defied all my efforts to 
I ••cate, it seemed in fact to possess his entire being, a jerking 
that left one’s inmost Soul in shreds. The inconvenience of 

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m then he refused to put his feet squarely on the ground, Mr. Vi 

and the two pony-boys straining themselves to the most to 
hold him erect. 

The lastone that I felt particularly incensed against was 
a ragged looking beast that was troubled with a weakness in 
its foe-quarters. It went down on its nose without the slight¬ 
est provocation, all the time however, its hinder parts keeping 
perfectly erect, if its strength could have been divided a lit¬ 
tle fore and aft it might have made a passable pony, but us it 
was no forelegs at all would have been the only honest turn¬ 
out. The creature hobbled along, kept me in a state of con¬ 
stant suspense, played on ray hopes and fears most cruelly, 
^ and at last in utter collapse, pitched me clean over its head to 

the total destruction of my personal appearance, 

Jas. S. Gale. 

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(1) Ancestral Tablet Temples** 

(2) I'he Confucian Temple.f 

(3) Kyung Mob Kung.J 

(4) 'I’he Temple of Heaven.§ 

(5) Youk Sang Kung.|| 

(6) Temples to the God of war.^j 

Royal Anckrtkal Temples. 


Chief among the Royal Temples or Tablet Houses in 
Seoul are those of the Kings of the present dynasty. The 
Loyal Tablets are kept at Chong Myo, the temple near the 
Tong Kwan Palace. The broad street leading to this temple 
opens off the main street of the city east of the avenue lead¬ 
ing to the main gate ot the above named Palace It is to this 
Temple that His Majesty usually goes when a kuh tong, a Royal 
ptocession, takes place There are tablets of twenty-eight kings 
in this Temple, being all those of the present dynasty. 

The buildings, walls and everything about tbe enclosure 
are in excellent repair. The ground is broken and beautifully 
wooded. Stone walks lead to every spot royalty is expected 
to visit, and flowers and shrubs add eolor and fragiance to 
the attractive retieat. These grounds are of course not open to 
visi tors. 

T he temple Yung Hei Chung, mar the Japanese Settle¬ 
ment. holds the poitraitsof six Kings of the present dynasty, 
who were especially noted for bravery and success in war. 'I hey 
are Tai Cho, S y Cho , Snug Chong , Sook Chong, Noon Chong 
and Yung Chong, 'flair tablets aie with the other nionaichs 
at the • hong Myo. 

c TS i g-Hlf I' WtWM 

+ ± 9 - § ttfS IT SSXiHi 

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Concerning the founding of this temple Yung 11 • ■ i ('hung, 
it is said that tin* place was selected l.y geomaticers as a most 
propitious spot upon which to build a dwelling, as a son horn 
at this particular location would one day bcc-une King It 
was for this reason that the spot was chosen for this honorary 
temple, as it is always considered to i e good policy to tofestail 
fate and prevent the uprising of new claimants or aspirants 
for the Throne. Moreover the. prophecy is amply satisfied and 
its prediction prevented in its fulfillment by the erection of 
this temple to royalty. 


In the Silla Dynasty during the; reign of Soong Toll Kong 
at Songdo, the officer sent to China with the annual tribute 
brought hack with him a picture of Confucius, which stimulat¬ 
ed the study of the works of the great teacher. During the 
reign of Chung Yul the last of the Silla kings, there lived a 
great scholar, one An-you , who was aho a man of wealth and 
influence. He. greatly deplored the absence of the Confucian 
classics in his country, as the common people were unable to 
acquaint themselves with the instiuction contained in th'-ir 
teachings. An you therefore consulted with the king, and a 
messenger was sent to China to bring hack a good supply of 
the works of Confucius and Mencius as well as ancient pict¬ 
ures of these distinguished Sages. 

In the meantime An-you , with his own money built a 
temple or Academy for the reception of the hooks and relics, 
and for the entertainment of the teachers and scholars who 
should he selected for instruction. The valley now occupied 
by the city of Seoul was chosen us the most favorable site for 
this institution, and the Confucian Temple was erected near 
what is now the North East Gate of the Capital. It adjoins 
the Tong Kwan Tai Kwal or Eastern Palace, being just out¬ 
side of the north eastern wall of this, at present, unoccupied 
residence of Royalty 

An-you gave one hundred slaves for the service of this 
temple or Academy of the Classics, and two hundred pupils 
were allowed to he present at one time. They were furnished 
with fo<*d and shelter, and were selected from the unofficial 
class, who hud passed their first or preliminary Quaggi* or 
competitive examination for government office. For some time 
this temple has been neglected. 

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* . , • ' # 

■;ilK : f.X.'l.K < /• r. 7.x. 

' of « 

- - 

f r- 

#* »*'♦*, if. 


. - *•*>- 

.> -i -T-m- 

l ■ If 

' ll / o 

/ < 

i r u i*v i< 


► m 

/ r - * *. 

: r s’rnpiv 

H ft Hitt 

r n 

», t 


'» • f« r rri of 



• rm G 1 '!*-*! 

hy tnn 

>r»f y 


to f \i< 

* ► * *•" . v hi' 


; i. (_, v * i • ■ i : 

T :* This 

h/itfif ►t ; 


ft </r(t 

,v" hf pif.** 


'*-* r our tf;r 

A’^r^rn w»!| 

of II,o ' 


1 fniy 

I/O <;o- i Jy »•* 


Ml th*' «;iV 

to t »' 

plf" 11 

r ,ro i # 

' ti 

Mi of 

iIm north- 


* t mountain. 

I> v 

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the city wall, and standing out abruptly at a great height, 
with a precipice-like descent in front. 

His Majesty goes to this “Temple of Heaven” to pray 
to the God of Nature and make offerings in the interest of 
agriculture, as well as to offer thanksgiving for bounteous 


Near the west gate of the Quagga or examination grounds 
there is a temple which often elicits enquiry as to its history. 
It is called Youk Sang Koong and holds the tablet of the King 
1 ung Chung . whose mother it is said was a concubine, and 
therefore she and her brother did not receive the homage her 
son thought due to them. While King he gave her a high title, 
.•'reeled this temple to her memory and bestowed upon her 
brother the highest rank. 


During the period of the Three States, when China under the 
TIan dynasty was divided into three principalities (alxmt A. D. 
‘200) there lived a mighty warrior named Kwan Won Jang. He 
was so strong and courageous, that lie was called the Tiger 
General. He had the almond eyes of a bird, and the eye-brows 
of a silk wor His face was as red as a date and ended in a 
long three horned heard His horse was named the Hod Hah- 
' it. ’*• 'oal s' u was as fleet as a rabbit. His sword was called 
i'lue Pwgon. 

The Han Kmperor You Hun Tuk, was very fond of Kwan 
Won Jang, and another great man named Yek Tuk. In fact 
when they were all young men together they had taken the 
oath of brothorlwxxl in the Peach Orchard. This intimate 
friendship continued after one of the number had become an 
Kmperor, and together they devised a plan to put down the 
relxds and restore peace and prosperity to the country. The 
temper of Kwan was especially mild They had each spent 
much tin e studying the Confucian Ixjoks and righteousness was 
their i- otto. 

Cho Jo one of the rival rulers however succeeded in captur¬ 
ing Kwan Won Jang, and two of the wives of the Kmperor 
You Hun Tuk. Cho hated Kwtui for his upright life and desir- 
<xl in some wav to catch him in a fault. He therefore imprison¬ 
ed him in a room with the two captive wives of his Emperor, 

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and loft them there all night under a secret watch. Kwan kept 
liis light burning all night and stood guard over tin* wo >:en, 
never sleeping during the night. This so i npressed Clio .To that 
lie treated hi n very kindly thereafter, desiring in that way to 
ge.t on friendly terms with him. One day Clio .In requested 
Kwan to go out and do battle against some eneu i *s, who were 
of the party of Kwan’s friends, l ie could not refuse after the 
kindness he had received during his captivity, but went out and 
slew two Generals. For this cri i:e lie was punished later on 
by never rising to the position of Emperor, as did the other 
members oi their little brotherhood who liecame the founders 
of a dynasty in Korea. 

Poisoned arrows had no effect on Kwan. On one occasion 
he played chess while an attendant, cut out a poisoned arrow 
that had entered his llesh. He finally left Oho Jo and returned 
to bis own Knijieror for whom he did much lighting. Clio Jo 
attempted to take You Him Tuk captive and came very near 
succeeding. You ordered Kwan to go out and s >i/e Cho Jo , but 
Kwan only feigned attack and let Cho escape, l ie was however 
killed himself by a General ruv cd You who afterwards been ne 
crazy, insulted his ruler, and died a terrible deat being killed 
by the spirit of Kwan, which causal the blood to gusli from 
every opening in his body. 

Kwall’s fame increased and during the Sung Dynasty he 
was given the honorarv title of Ko m ^Prince) an 1 later lie was 
promoted to the title Wang (Kinc) because h<> had purified the 
waters of a lake j oisoned by an evil sj irit. In the reign of Sing Jung 
of the Ming Dynasty, when the Japanese invah’d Korea, Kwan 
Won Jang appeared to the Emperor one night in a dream and 
asked him why he did not send to Korea and relieve his brother. 
The Emperor replied that he hal no trusty generals to send in 
charge of troops. Then Kwan r *co imend-'d three men as gen¬ 
erals, viz. Ye Uh Song , Ye UhPak and Ye Uh Mah. They c:a *.e 
to Korea and fought hut were not victorious for Rome time,— 
not in fact until Kwan Won Jang came hi i.self. lie asked for 
the Em juror’s seal, and was seen as a great wind sweeping over 
the lxmler into Korea. One night his spirit arose out of the 
ground at a spot outside the South (Tate of Seoul and passing 
over tiie city slew and drove out the enemy, and then reentered 
the ground outside the East Gate. At eace of thes > places line 
temples were erected to the memory of the God of V\ ar, wit.i 

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models of his horse and groom at the gate, and an allegorical fresco 
in a grated corridor describing the chief scenes in the life of Kvvau. 

The new temple to the God of War, inside the North East 
Gate, owes its origin to a woman still living, Chee Lyteng Koon. 
She was a widow the niece of Ye Cha Wha , a middle class man 
who w as a noted scholar. She was able to read Chinese well 
and was very proficient in emmun. She had a vision in which 
Kwan Won Jang appeared to her and calling her his daughter, 
instructed her in regard to his worship. She prospered and 
obtained many followers and in consequence of the renewed in¬ 
terest in the God of War thus induced, the fine new temple 
Poong Myo was built in the valley above the North East Gate. 

Kwan Won Jang has four temples at Seoul, Iresides some 
little shrines. These temples are Nam Kwan Wang Myo, Tong 
Kwan Wang Myo, Pouk Kwan Wang Myo and the little temple 
next to the l>ell tower at Chong No, which was erected by the 
guilds at the time of the building of the Pouk Myo. In speak- t 
ing of these temples the name Kwan Won is omitted for brevity 
and they are spoken of as Nam A/yo, Tong Myo and Pouk Myo. 

The three large temples are much alike, having the same 
frescots, and arrangement oi 1 uildings. At Poong Myo. the im¬ 
age ol the god sits on a canopied throne, guarded on either side 
by two fierce looking statues of warriois. His face is dark red 
and he has the long forked beard ascribed to him. Before him 
on the platfomi are incense burners, candles and foieign clocks. 
The walls are covered with scrolls of ancient pictures protected 
by fine silk gauze. There are several lesser shrines in the same 
room, many tablets and some cases of books. In the outer 
room in front of the god, stand incense burners, bionze lanterns 
and the great sword of Kwan Won, which taxes a strong man 
to lift. The building is new and in excellent condition. It is 
not so large as the South Temple, but it is in a beautiful little 
sequestered valley in a corner of the city w ith no houses in view, 
and approached by a road winding along a babbling brook un¬ 
der a row of ] oplais 

A lieautiful tablet with a carved ornamental stone canopy 
of great size was being erected outside the front gate of Pouk 
Myo, when the events of last July stopped the work. It lies 
t! ere in its al i cst completed condition, unmounted. 

H. N. Allen. 

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no king ami these men held high rank and had great influence 
over the people. 

When til'st introduced there were twelve classes of medicine 
some of which were intended for the king alone, others for the 
high officials and yangbam , while still others were to l>e prescrib¬ 
ed for the lower classes and those who could only pay a little. 
The early history of medicine however is very vague and comes 
hut from tradition. The regular Korean doctor has made a 
study of medicine for years, having originally learned from his 
father or from one high up in the profession and known to have 
great skill in curing disease. As for books there is a famous 
classic in medicine in nineteen volumes written by Yi Yun in 
the eighteenth century. Whang Hai Am has also written a 
work on therapeutics which is a compilation published alout 
18(19. Toth these books are in con n on use hut the teaching is 
principally oral. The same qualities which characterize a suc¬ 
cessful physician at home must lie found in a good doctor here. 
He must have keen perceptive (acuities and must understand 
what lie is treating. Of course there are a great number of 
irregulars in the city and these are looked down upon by 
those higher in the profession with almost the same feeling as in 
the home land. 

Tne Korean doctors do not see n to have as many special¬ 
ties as foreigners. There are doctors who make a specialty of 
children’s diseases and others who make a s j-ecialty of acu¬ 

In examining the puls' the Korean doctor feels the artery 
at the wrist and at the foot: very commonly in the latter where 
the anterior tibial forms the dorsalis pedis artery. In men the 
pulse of the left side is examine!, in women the pulse of the 
right. In obtaining the frequency of the pulse the doctor counts 
the number of lieats to his three resj nations. The artery is 
felt with three lingers , at first with one finger resting upon the 
artery the two fingers using no pressure, he notices the tone of 
the vessel and the force in the artery. Then he compresses the 
artery firmly with the finger nearest the heart and with the 
remaining two, notices whether or not there is pulsation after 

Treatment of fractures.- In the treatment of fractures the 
regular doctor uses willow from which the hark is carefully 
peeled. The wixxl is used when green. If it be a fracture of 

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practiced the art of puncturing holes in painful joints for n any 
veal's. In the majority of cases I might say tlie Korean doctor 
does injury instead oi good though I have seen cases which have 
heen benefitted by this method of treatment 

There are several sizes of needles, and as it, is introduced 
the doctor uses a sort of twisting motion Tn he:i iphlegia which 
is fairly common he punctures the unaffected side as follows 
First at a point the thickness of two fingers below the external 
tuliorosity of the tibia alxnit half an inch with the smallest 
needle, second, the length of three and one-half index fingers 
from a point at the heel, the calf of the leg is punctured with 
the needles. This process is continued every seven days until 
relieved With the needle puncturing, internal medicine is also 
given. The Korean believes that the blood has ceased to flow 
in the paralyzed limb because of the impairment of function and 
therefore if he punctures the well limb he increases the blood 
flow and forces it into the withered one. Other reasons they 
have none. If a man has a limb perhaps defoimed from 
rheumatism or other causes, the tendons at the knee joint are 
punctured with a small needle also a point at the thigh over 
the sartr.rious muscle and also at the three lower sacral ver¬ 
tebrae. In strong men this is repeated every day for seven days; 
in weaker patients, every other day. On asking a Korean why 
this was done he told me he thought it was because the ten¬ 
dons at the knee punt and in tl e thigh must be connected and 
that they could be traced back probably to the bones which 
protruded at the back and must be attached there. 

Another method of treatment in vogue here is the moxa 
It is called silk, Ii is very frequently used in chronic indiges¬ 
tion, a point on the abdomen the thickness of three fingers 
from the umbilicus being burned. The nmxa is made of 
leaves powdered finely and compressed. There are two ways of 
applying the moxa one to apply directly to the skin, the other 
placed inside of a portion of a gourd which has been cut in 
two and used as an inverted cup. 'J he moxa is attached to 
the top of this inverted cup, lighted and the gourd applied to 
the body and held in position by the hand. The Koreans 
claim that great tilings can he accomplished by means of the 
moxa. Here is a story told me by a friend who assures me of its 
verity, having seen it with his own eyes. A man who had been 
in the water three hour- and apparently dead was hi ought, very 


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a pow»*r from it hIi:- h tin* patient swallows. Here ***«• have 
tli** original uw* of jnglu . in 

The doctor m>tk»s several distinctions in tr-ating dys- 
|M-1i; — for instance then- in a peculiar kind of inditr«->ti«»n« at 
least to tin? Korean stomach, caus'd hy rating bean cakes, and 
lor this complaint tin- patient must shallow a decoction of 
turnip t*r may vary if hy a dose of broom-corn seed. 

In acute dyspepsia with cold extremities and a tendency 
to syncope, tli«; patient in rubbed train the trunk outward. 

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after which at a point, between the root of the index finger 
and thumb the skin is punctured about a quarter of an inch 
with the smallest needle. The lingers and toes are likewise 
punctured just under the nail. In males the leftside is done 
first while in females the right is operated on first. For in¬ 
ternal treatment a d< se of salt water is said to give a great 
(leal of relief. Perhaps this may be no mote or less than the 
symptoms of lumbrieoide.s and the dose of salt water acts ac¬ 
cording to the well known law. 

The Koiean druggist has by far the greatest sale of what 
is called Po dun or tonics, lbr the Korean from lack of active 
exercise is frequently attacked with a spell of general malaise 
and 1\els the need of a tonic. Preeminent among the tonics are 
the young horns of deer which command an enormous price 
and are sought for even as far as China. The bones of the 
tiger are also prized. The bones of the forward limbs only 
arc used; they are ground into a powder and eaten. 

Ginseng is known all over the East as a good tonic but as 
it is very expensive only a few can indulge in it. 

Ointments used in the treament of eczema are interesting. 

(a) A powder made from branches of the quai mok tree, 
of the mulberry tree, the date, the willow and the peach, is 
made into a paste with honey and applied. 

(I/) A. powder made of the following:—ground mica, 
disintegrated rock, licorice root, willow, orange peel, bark of 
the mulberry tree, cinnabar, lir gum, root of the pine tree, 
four or five spiders, centipedes, the whole ground into a Hue 
powder made, into a paste with honey and applied. 

A cure is also claimed for Asiatic cholera by puncturing 
the region of the second lumbar vertebrae with the needle and 
taking internally a mixture of quince fruit and chloride of 

These methods of treatment art? the same which have 
keen in vogue, for centuries but the time is near at hand when 
purely native medicine will be confined to a few drug shops 
and the more enlightened, seeing the advantage of foreign 
medicine, will adapt it to their country better than we have 
done or perhaps ever will do. 

J. B. Busteed. 

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thk i am;i j kndknvk of kouea 

The ir 1* 1 «-|h* n( 1 1 -1j* •* of Komi is at I i>t pmdainirl in sueti 
a Wav to leave m» do.iht in tin* mind of ii m' public 
lias tiiumplied anil aFo 11 • r j»«>1 i.• y \ itii Koma. For it' wc 
read her actions sine.* 1 > 70 rnmvTly, dap»u has purs::** 1 a 
steady coiirsr with n ferener tIvuva, \W an* not n-nomol 
now with Ipt inolivts rmt, pn > |, u' *»r ultri r; vm care i j« • t 

whether the i ndrpeinhno* <1 K*P a is i! 11»*i i ■ Cb a> an « !h*et il;il 

harrier to Kussiu, «»r to ho livd ,is an .m t Ct f»»r t h- '••nii:n' , r- ial 
spirit of tin* Inland Empire. We now prop! ! ii** fit tuat da- 
pans policy towards Kop*a Ins hiunipisd and th it Ivm-m is to 
tala* her plac* aiimm; tin* sov* rci^n nail ns <»f tin* woild. 

Ihr policy inaugurated with Kona in tin* t v it > oi* I 87 d 
r< (’o^ni/rd tin* independence «d this eunitrv l»y inijar'a- 
tion di ni< cl tin* sii/.-rainly of China. For in-.oiy tw » <1 , ad<-> > 
with a la*ni» appi-i-riat ion of all that was inv.-lvd, thm policy 
was steadily pursued. d in* Korean^ uvir to hr won ov.*r hy 
kindness and Jnih ii' v ; tin* Chin* so to hr ms.sled. Ii their 
*;rip on tin* Little INniiMila cannot hr I■ •• is*• n•• I, »*v, rv ciiort 

must Im* inadr to Grp it from m*tthiL r tighter. Tw.rr, in 1 8 S 2 

and ISS 4 , were t lie*s** mi p- i !rd t i r. 11 rat. t Hiin a k-om'Ii- 
« d ln*r hand only to mf. a lii nn*r rri p Japanwas patient, p-iuif- 
trd nearly tin* whole of tin* iudmnuify imp md in IsSf), imd 
eveiy exertion to extend h<r trad** ano snii^nt to conciliate tin* 

The insurrection in tin* smith of Korea in IS:) 4 , ive 
China a fresh oppoi t unit v to Haunt her claims to su:; nanit v 
into tin* fare of dapau. This was promptly ai.d vinoromiy 
l ere n led, China sought to rnloic* her claims and dapau i. l i th¬ 
in I to ln r policy resisted. The appeal was to arum China 
lost. On the 128 ill. of .. 1141mt ]*! 0 , Korea formed an offensive 
alliance with Japan against China. day the Ihumui 
fla" went down in Iv-n a and with it hina’s ns. uni d sii/.-a- 

Korea is independent. I>11! she i.. i l* u • r.Mil of the dums 
and responsihilit ies of this independence. Him must have a 

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toucher, a guide, a reformer. Japan lias taken her hand. >he 
did not wait to he 'invited. The country must follow. The 
country will follow. 


The publication, under the auspices of the Permanent Ex¬ 
ecutive Bible Commit tee, of the gospel of Matthew to be fol¬ 
lowed immediately by the Acts of the Apostles and soon by 
the other three gospels, is an event of importance and one that 
calls lbr more than a passing note. It is not onr purpose now 
to comment on th» j m 1 its or demerits of this new version. We 
hope those of our readers specially interested in Christian 
work in Korea will examine those books with great care and 
let us have the benefit of their study. 

Our aim is to give u short account of the history of Bible 
translation into the Korean vernacular up to the present time. 

The work of translating the Kcriptues naturally engaged 
the attention of the missionaries at an varlv period of their 
labors. At a meeting of all the missionaries then in the field, 
held in Seoul Feb 1887 it was ‘‘agreed that those present 
should form themselves into a Committee foi the purpose ot 
translating or supervising the translation of the Bihie into the 
Korean language.” 

Several years before the arrival of missionaries in the 
country, the Kt-v John R iss of Mukden and the Rev. Mr. 
McIntyre of Newchwang, meet inn many Koreans as followers 
of the annual Embassy to China, passing through the former 
city, not only organized them into a church, hut undertook 
the stupendous work and actually had the whole New Testa¬ 
ment translated into Korean. About the same time, the Rev. 
11 Loomis, availing himself of the presence of Koreans in 
Yokohama, had a translation of the gospels of Mark and Luke 
made, though only the former was published 

The missionaries in the capital gladly availed themselves 
of the of these zealous friends. The Permanent Bible 
Committee at one time was discussing the advisability of re¬ 
vising the translation made by Mr. Ross (for its must earnest 
supporters readily admitted the delects in spelling, provincial¬ 
isms and press-work) but finally decided not to do so. We 
thought so at the time and have seen no reason since to change 

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our opinion, that the Committee made a serious mistake’. The 
portions of this version which were re vised, Luke, John and 
Unmans, and reprinted have been found useful and were ex¬ 
tensively circulated. The translation of Mark's gospel made 
by the American Bible Society lias also been reprinted ami is 
still used 

On the 11 th. of June 1S!)0, the Permanent Bible Com¬ 
mittee ‘‘appointed a committee of two to prepare within two 
years from date a tentative edition of the whole New Testa¬ 
ment ” The ifev. II. G. Underwood and Dr. \V. 15. Scranton 
were assigned this important work upon which they en¬ 
tered with great enthusiasm But be foie they were able to 
accomplish much, though long enough to lind out they could 
not translate, the whole New Testament, in tin* time allotted, 
both were obliged to return to the United States on account ot 
sickness in their families. 

In h\*b. of 18D1 Dr Scranton resigned and Dr. Under¬ 
wood the following April, Hev II. G. Append Her and Rev. 
ilas S (bale were appointed to the work Tin* Ibimcr made a 
translation of the gospels of Matthew and Mark, the latter of 
the Acts of the. Apostles and of the gospel ot John. On dan. 
20,1832, kw a small edition of thirty copies of this 'uMltew 
(we copy from the prefatory note) for the use of the Revising 
Committee and for those students ot the Korean language 
who are interessed in securing the best possible translation " 
was printed. 

This copy was taken up by the Revising Committee, a 
committee charged to u revise the names and terms introduced 
so as to make the translation uniform in these lesperts.” In 
the spring of 1803 the Translating Committee was enlarged in 
numbers as well as in the scope of its work, taking to itself 
the somewhat high sounding title oi u Board of Ollicial Trans¬ 
lators." The Bov. Dr. II. G. I nderwoml, (Jhairm in, Kev. H. 
G. Appenzeller, Rev. J. S. (bile, Dr. \Y. B. Scranton and Le v. 
M. N. Tiollope were elected on the Board. This Beard has 
entire charge of the work of translation, so that the necessity 
for a Revising Committee, provided for under the first con¬ 
stitution, was done away with The Board again took up the 
work (U novo and made a caudal examination of the translation 
of Matthew's gospel. The version as thus revised was re¬ 
turned to the original translator and a new copy was made by 

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him basod on tho criticisms arid suggestions of his brethren. 
Had the*v been sufficient time to place this new copy before 
the Board it would have received a second and thorough ex¬ 
amination. Upon the final action of t-h** Board, the transla¬ 
tion would have* hern sent to tin* Permanent Executive Com¬ 
mit tee as the Tentative Edition. The present edition did not 
receive this final revision, as the Committee feeling the neces¬ 
sity ior supplying the missionaries and Korean Christians 
with such translations of the Scriptures as were available, 
asked permission of the Board to print the gospels and Acts 
at once. This request was granted and we have the first of 
the five hooks before us This action of the Permanent Com¬ 
mittee does not however interfere in the least degree with 
the regular work of tin* Board of Translators. It will with¬ 
out doubt at once take up these hooks and prepare them 
for the tentative edition. 


The Royal College is to have another teacher Mr. T. E. Hallifax. ad¬ 
ded to its present force. 

A private school spe. i dly for tlie higher clashes is among the recent 
enterprises. English, French and Japanese are taught and the school is to 
he self-supporting. 

On the 2 ist, of April J17 }oung Korean students left Chemulpo for Ja¬ 
pan sent out by the government. 

Lectures on Korean History are given every week to the -tudents of 
the Pai Chai College. We mc.rion this because the studv of the history 
of their ««\vn country up to within a few months has received little or no en¬ 
couragement by Koreans. 

Mr. C H. Kang, a Local Preacher in the Methodist Episcopal Church 
<lied on April i;. His death is a great loss to the Mission. 

On the 16 h. of Aptil a. cornier left Seoul with an important letter to a 
foreigner in Chemulpo. It h not known at what h ur he started, but he 
delivered the letter at noon, rested a half hour or so, and then started back 
for Seoul where he arrived that same evening at seven o’clock, having 
made the round trip a distance of at least fifty miles in fourteen hours. 

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tiik Koni:.\s uki’dsitouy. 

The Korean is sending relief to the provinces in the Smith 
that suffered most from the ravages of lie Ion4 Haks. In ad btic»n to re 
milting the tixe and speed donati ms mu le lust fall an l winter, ahoui 
s >0,000 yen have he n ap; ropriated for this purpose. l* ivc ihou^aiul b.ig-* 
of nre were recently sent to Ouclpart who e thcic is a famine. 

‘ The sur*eymg <> the raihva. t ack hrt seen -'.ronl and I* 115.111 bavin 
been finished s me mo labourers will :or 11 \ he d •spatched t ere to con¬ 
struct the line.”—The Jttfhin UWZ'/y How about the line between 

Seoul and ( heinulp d 

I rom the same authority v ' e learn that ‘‘the brewers in Niiga'a irrh-vd 
to send out w/y to K «rea and to the occupied districts in ( kina. I his is 
not (me uiraging. dotal abstinence- is not .1 virtue for which l.orcans arc 
noted a d we have already a superabundance nt int«>\ii:ants. l>nt the 
cigarette and the beer barrel are the nc ompaninv.i ts of civilization. 

The Christian Literary Union at its regular meeting last month had 
the pleasure of listening to a in- st inteic'dng ami in trtictive address 011 
“spiders” by the lion |. M. !’». till 

I he meeting he’d n the i<)th The Minister be -an bv ‘ iiying. 

* \Yi bin the pas: twenty fom hours we have beard that steps have I ecu 
taken which giv e hope uf \ ea< c hetw e<n Jgj an am; Glnna.*’ This announce¬ 
ment was greeted with hearty applm^e. Altei spe.ikmg ot the spider, be; 
structure, and metho 1 <f woik, be tol l the audience of a spider vvhicb he 
iound m this country and be spoke subsra: fialh as fallows: 

“Pei haps the most noteworthy spider in th s h c.dty is a very large and 
brilliantly « olon d one which i am unable at the present time to name. 
As she sits in her web her fori: and hind feet stretch over a distance ol four 
inches. Her mate r, non h smaller, o a mng, 111 the same attitude a dis¬ 
tance « f pe. haps . inrihs Her pre ailing color is a greeni h yc low 
aiat at matmitv her spinnerets a it* coliuvd a brdliant red and the same 
color ap; ears c n>pii uouslv, on each side of the abdomen. The stoking 
thing about this ere..ture is the hi illiant gold color <t the snare spun by 
hi. Her web is a modified orb-web. The « cntei from wl.ieb t e 
mg lines proceed is near ti.e top o! the structure, whwli ft- guentU more 
than two feet in length bv one and a halt in breadth. Her . ethorl ot 
v inning is in some respec's pec 11 hat and her manipulation of the thread 
in the process ;s most interesting. It can le easily observe d bv am one 
because die < leatnrc is so large and her legs so long that every m vem .nt 

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made in the spinning is easily seen and understood. All spi ers which 
build the orb-web, after the radiating lines are set, weave a spiral scaflold 
thread from which they build the ’rue and permament spiral, w th its thick 
set globules of shining viscid matter. Except this one they all, so far ns I 
have observed, tear away and destroy ; lie scalioki thread as fast as the per¬ 
manent spiral is completed. This one leaves it in the pern anent structure 
with a distinct empty space on each side of it. I he final sj iral lines un¬ 
close together not separated by more than one eighth of an inch and the 
‘caffold spiral with the clear space in each side intervening between 
groups ot permanent threads, makes the latter appear like ;■ c erie> of stabs 
of music. This spider is closely al'ied to Epcira Kiparia of Hentz which 
is common in America l lit is peculiar in the habits mentioned above. 

An important arrest. The e\entof the month in Seoul was the 
arrest and lmpiisonment of Piii.ce Vi Chun Yong repbew of t! c King and 
gtandson tf tl e Tai Won Koun. The arrest was made on April 19‘ the 
charges being conspiracy against the king ai d implications in the assassina-. 
tion of K m Hak Ou t a prominent member cl the Rad cal or Reform party 
Prince Yi is 23 )ears df age. The anest was a shock to those in official 
circles but there was little excitement among the people in consquence. 
Even tl e grief of the Tai Won Koun made little impression on the pop¬ 
ulace. He left his residence i t once and took up his lodgings near the 
place where his grandson was detained; when his meals were brought to- 
him, he sent half in to the )oung man. He implored the authorities to itm 
pi is* n h;m and 1 dense* the grandson, but all witl cu: a\a 1. T h». govern¬ 
ment wou'd not listen and the people refused to icspond. A year a;.o an 
arrest of this kind and sun lat demonstrations by the Tai Won Koun 
would either have met with a response that would ha e accomplished the 
release of the pr-soner or . riot would have ensued. Surely the unexpect¬ 
ed again has happened. 

A new code of laws w as framed last month and there arc or w ill be 
six courts ot justice. 

1 The Special Court. 

2 The Supreme Court. 

3. T he Circuit Court. 

4. Tne Court fur tne Capital —Han Song Poo. 

3. T he Court lor Treaty Ports. 

6. Loca> Courts throughout the prov inces. 

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The Special Court can he convened only by the king at the recom¬ 
mendation of the Minister of Justice. This Court has been organized for 
t e purpose of trying “the Tai Won Koun's grandson”—by which name 
the young man is known among his own people. It is composed of a Chid 
Justice, two of the higher members Iran the Department of Justice, two 
members from the Council or senate <mc judge from the Han Sang 
Court and two procurators. 

The ^ourt has been holding seciet sessions. On May bth. the 1‘rmcc 
was found guilty ol ti e crimes charged The penalty of the law fur such 
offences is death, but the lull penalty will not be meted out in this case 
T he Tai Won Koun’s connections in this conspiracy and ass issinution 
were such that he will henceforth be kept tinder close surveillance and bis 
liberty will be much circumscribed. 

We welcome Mr. Ikurd’s thoughtlul article on the romanization of Ko¬ 
rean Sounds. The discussion is opened and we shall be happy to hear 
from others. 

"After many days,” live hundred years, Buddhist priests arc permitted 
to enter the g. t s of the Capital . Rumor says they purpose ern ;ing a 
large temple cm the site where the pagoda, described in our last 
number, now stands 

1 he (unitary number of the Repository is exhausted, but as a large 
part is stereotyped \n: shall have mure printed and shall be able to supply 
our subscribers 

'I he foreign re sidents in Chong Dong and vicinity promise themselves 
the pleasure of at least one good street. On the iStli. nil they met in mass 
meeting, passed a series of res Unions with great harmony and unanimity, 
voted to tax themselves, which they refeirod to a committee of live gentle¬ 
men to do for them. The same < omimtlcc was authorized to I uild the 
road. Work wai began on the 2^lh. 

The action of t:.e Chong Dung residents has stirred up others and 
more sire ts are t> he pul into pas able shape. Our J ipanese friends 
especially arc not to be outdone, ncvcit elcss Caong D*mg is one all ad. 

H. B. Hulbeit, of the Trilingual Press spent a oil'll m Shanghai 
superintending the making of type casting machinery and i . 'ti res fui three 
si/cs of Korean type ; \iz. "Ming,” ' two line diamond ” and "-mall pica. ’ 
He also secured a considerable stock of stationery for the <:< of 
foreign residents in SjouJ. 

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BELLPUSHES, ill button and 
pear shape, (a large assoivnent) 

CELLS complete, also the differ¬ 
ent parts separate. 

CALL BELLS (as per illustra- 

' tion) different sizes. 

gle and double, different qualit¬ 
ies suitable for in and out door 
] urpcscs. 

) INDICATORS, with 6, 9 and 12 
muni eis. (Smaller sizes can Ire 
made to order.) 

all necessary sund¬ 
ries for fixing and repairing bells 


Ok f HI KI, Sawapa & to. 


inmfiiie the former Chinese Telegraph Offi 

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C A s 11 


41 •- m FRONT Si KKFT 

We are retailing exporters of General Family 
Stores Send for our free, I I I paged ILLUS -1 
TUATEP Catalogue and our Export Circular. 
Why not buy your goods in America? We can 
supply you. One order to our house secures al¬ 
most everythh g you need, at minimum ship¬ 
ping exp ?nse. Fresh g >ols. (treat variety, ]lea- 
son able prices. Expert packing. Correspond 
with ns. Questions answered. 

H ft T'airv p.T k’-'d_ 

h-rtesy Solid and Pickled 

r°i.i. CALTFDl 

lor die Finest. send for I 

Prices (o 


Our stock is not 
confined to 


hut it embraces 

everything you 

need, or nearly 

ev erything, our 
published list 

M's about. 







Kstebiisbed 1SC4 



Special attention is given to the Provision Sc Household 
Store Department, wluch comprises a fine assortment of 

all stores, groceries arid preserves necessary for the bouse- 


Terms Cash. 




A Manual of Grammatical Forms. 


Common Usk 





5 ? 

,Vol. II. 

No. <V 








JUNE, 181)5. 




Dr. H. N. Allen 


W. H. Wilkinson, Esq. 


H. B. Halbert, a. m. 


Korean Industrial Exhibition 
Mr. Baird on Roman ization. 
The Treaty of Peace. 




fl *• 

Price per annum, $ 

1HE T/L 

T. WEEKS & Co. 


Telegraphic address "Wiii t s Shanghai.’* 

Sole agents in Shanghai for 
Tiie CGe!ir.ited “K” boots & Shoes. 

The Singer Sawing Machines. 

E. Burt it Co. New York. 

Crown's S itin Boot Polish. 

Dr. Janger's Woolen Clothing. 

Automatic Knitting Machine 
'[’lie Cellular Clothing Co. 




Baker and Compradore 

Fresh Supplies by every Mail Boat. The most reduced 
prices quoted. Goods when ordered from the interior or 
eknvVvo will lie carefully packed. Packing free of ch**-- 

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Kesidents in the interior and outports 
can depend on getting the whole of their 
requirements QUICKLY forwarded 
carefully packed and at equally low 
prices as if imported from home. A 
specialty is made of obtaining all 
.roods not in stock and attending to 


w hvmark, Kobe 
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Published Every Morning, Sundays and Holidays excepted. 


(Payable in Advance) • 

One. Month ... #1.00 One Year ... $10.00 

Postage Free throughout Japan and Korea. 

THE DAILY ADVERTISER has a larger circulation than 
any other daily paper published in the English language in Jap¬ 
an, and is therefore without a rival as an advertising medium. 
Rates on application to the undersigned. 


wsnw awHmrau 

Consisting of from 24 to 32 pp., 
Published Every Saturday Morning. 

(I'avable in Advance) 

Six Months ... S 3.00 One Year ... S 5.00 

Postage Free Throughout Japan and Korea. 


FOR 18 ( Jo, 


1 .Ft of Firms, etc., in Japan, Korea and YYladivostock; Japan 
> ese Government Departments; The Peerage of Japan; 


Alphabetical List of Foreign Residents in Japan, Korea and. 
WladivoAock, and an 

Appendix of Useful Information, 

With Lithographed Plan of Yokohama. 


Publishers and Proprietors, 

No. 49 , Yokohama, Japan. 

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THE] KOREAN i?ErOSITOEY IB a monthly map 
sdne of forty pages devoted to Korean affairs. It will I- 
published lietween the fifth and tenth of each month and vi. 
Ix£delivered to sul'scriborsjn Korea, Japan and China for Sd.O 
per annum and£to all other countries in th.e postal union for 
00 gold or its equivalent. These rates include postage if pail it 
advance, otherwise it will !>e extra. 

The agents for China and Japan are 
Messrs Kelly & Walsh, ld. 

Advertisement Kates. 
Full page for one year — — 

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Quarter „ „ „ — — 

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Quarter „ „ „ — — 

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Half ,, >, ,, ■ 









Quarter „ „ — — — 2.50 

All communications should l>e addressed to 


Seoul, Korea. 


JTTHSTIE, 1 895 . 


It has lieen my rare privilege during the past few months 
to reside in one of the rebel districts of Korea and witness the 
working of the Tong Halt relxdlion from the start to about th» 
finish. The usual time for the Tong Hak uprising has been in 
the spring just lie fore the barley crop ripens and the oppression 
of the officials pinches the most, but the past summer’s troubles 
pushed nearly every thing Korean out of its normal position, 
oven the Tong Hak periodical uprising. Early in October last. 
1 arrived in the north west of the Whang Hai province to find 
every thing quiet, the only fear being that the Japanese soldiers 
would make a sweep upon them in the west. Several times 
the Japanese war ships were anchored off the coast to the great 
consternation of the natives who were in readiness at a mo¬ 
ment’s notice cither night or day to make for the mountains 
They had heard the Japanese soldiers w T ere a great improvement 
on the Chinese in their treatment of the Koreans but such :i 
story was not to be believed. 

I noticed on 1113' arrival that many of my former acquaint 
ances w'ho only a few months before invited me to their villages 
now carefully shunned me. No person wished to be identified 
with the foreigner. Several friends warned me of my danger 
as the Tong Haks were getting very numerous and were al¬ 
ready threatening to kill the “Westerner” and all the “Western 
doctrine” folk (Christians). At first it did not give me any con 
oem nor did I wish to show that I even heard the report. 

In the meantime the magistrates and governor seemed to 
he utterly unfitted for their responsibility. The people had 
heard about a change in the management of public affairs : for 
a ti ne it brought no benefit to the n, but it prove 1 to he for tin- 

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The rapacious underlings seemed to he let loose upon the 
people and oppressed at will. The old system of squeezing was 
run to seed. 

"When once it was heard that the Japanese had crossed 
the Yalu River, the Koreans took it for granted that they would 
l)e able to treat with these officials as there would be no out side 

Late in October on a visit to one of the neighbouring vil¬ 
lages as my custom was, what was my surprise to meet with a 
few score of thes; cotton clad braves aJl heading for the Capital 
of the province. They were not a very formidable looking lot. 
their only armor being" a little bag slung over their shoulder 
containing ten days rations of rice and the ordinary brass spoon. 
Every body was surprised to find so large a number had joined 
them from their own villages, so quietly did they do their work 
of propagation. They alleged that the governor had received 
orders from Seoul to put them all to death and that he purposed 
to carry out the order. 

The real purpose, in my opinion, of this demonstration, was 
to find out their strength and get them accustomed to travel¬ 
ling as well as meet the leaders. Some distance outside the 
city the servants of the terrorized Governor met the n. They 
said they had been loyal to the king and honored their parents 
and wished to know why they were ordered to l>e killed. He 
replied that they had done very wrong in thus mustering, but 
if they quietly returned to their farms and did not repeat the 
offence all would Ik; well,— if not they all would be put to death. 

On their return to their homes, it was reported that any 
one who spoke any thing against the Tong Hak must have his 
top knot cut off. Fabulous reports were given of their num¬ 
bers in other place.s 

They then after trying in vain to get the people in a body 
fo join their ranks, started for the different magistracies. 
Magistrates were seized, hooks burned, guns, ammunition, 
spears, and banners plundered. 

To the ordinary Korean such power so quickly acquired 
s'etned to substantiate their reports of magical power. Little 
I ersuasion or threatening was now' needed to swell the ranks. 

Thousands joined in a day, several who attended our meeting 
in the morning were on the warpath in the evening. Great 
wire the promises and bright the prospects of the initiated. 

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They struck a very effective chord in the Korean’s heart. 

No sickness would enter the house; crops would never 
fail; debts would not be paid nor taxes; in the battle the bul¬ 
lets of the enemy would lie changed to water. Indeed the 
magical power of the leaders was limitless. It gave an’op- 
portunity also to pay off an old score with an enemy. 

The leaders were on horse back with floating banners and 
rattling of drums and cymbals. The horses, guns, swords, and 
spears of the people were seized and made to do service. 

At this juncture a band of several hundred came from a 
distance to carry out the threat made a month before regarding 
us. Our villagers warned us in time the night Indore They 
lead already plundered considerable on their way. I retired to 
rest fully expecting to be put to death the next day. To escape 
was impossible. It was useless to bide in another village for 
i be Tong Haks were everywhere. To escape by road was out 
of the question as the roads were watehol anl travelled night 
and day. The boats were also seized. 

Every person's movements were watched, especially the 
"foreigner’s.” A man who left our room on his way home with a 
New Testament in his hand was seized and hound fast and had it 
not been for the interference of friends he would have fared badly. 
< hie of our leading Christians had made some hitter enemies 
among them by ridiculing their talk about magical power such 
as when after eating these letteis they took to shaking and 
jumping about. He would gladly have recalled some of his 
words if he could, seeing the turn affairs had taken. The Tong 
Haks slept that night two miles away. Two of our friends 
started out into the dark to see an acquaintance who had be¬ 
come a leader among them. On into the morning they con¬ 
vened concerning the Word of God and its deeper meaning. 
I he rebel thanked him for his instruction promising to use 
his influence in protecting the foreigner and the few Christians, 
writing a letter to the several other leaders in the same strain. 
It had the desired effect, as far as we were concerned and on 
tiie next day they passed by in hundreds levying as much rice 
as they wished on every village or healthy person. On that 
round they fell in with and killed ten Japanese merchants 
who were detained by head winds on tln-ir way to Pymg Yang. 
About the same time seven JapatKne-ship wrecked merchants 
were also shot, speared and mutilated and their property 

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plundered. Two or three Buddhist priests were also dispatch¬ 
ed being suspected of being spies sent by Japanese to find 
the bodies of the dead or where they had been buried. Clocks 
and watches belonging to the murdered Jupanese were brought 
to me to explain their use and set them agoing. Having oaee 
thus come to un understanding with a few ol the leaders we 
at length became on friendly terms with them all or nearly 
so and when hundreds of them would be passing, the leaders 
would be sure to call and have a chut while their followers 
were made to remain without in the distance thro respect for 
us. Some time in January was the fiist meeting of the Tong 
Haks in that province with the Japan* se soldiers. There were 
thousands of them mustered, most of them believing in the 
magical power of their leaders and marching boldly to meet 
their foe. Thero were only a couple of dozen of Japanese 
soldiers in the Capital, but when their bulMs began to take 
effect, the rebels, disappointed, fled. It is said that when they 
saw their comrades fall they cried out to the leader in chief 
to use his magic. He replied that though he had now repeat¬ 
ed those letters for ten years yet he knew of no better trick 
under such circumstances than to run. Not. one of the Japan¬ 
ese was wounded, while several scores *>f the Tong Haks 
were left on the field. Previous to this they had entered into 
the Capital, seized the Governor and after much heating and 
threatening compelled him to ite duly initiated and to study 
the mysteries. Thus we had for some time a Tong Hak Gov¬ 
ernor in our province. The Governor's son who spoke Japan¬ 
ese secured the services of some Jupanese men from Chemulpo 
to keep the rebels out of the Capital. For a while Koreans also 
dressed in black ho that those out side the city walls took them 
to be all Japanese mid dared not come near After this the 
whole movement began to fizzle as the leaders lost their in¬ 
fluence over their men. Little bands with a lender of their 
own would go about, plundering and squeezing ut will. The 
poor kept on the road continually just because the wealthy 
must supply them with rice. Several rich persons who escu]*d 
from I yeng Yang in the Summer were stripped of nearly all 
they had left. Many also who escaped to the islands some 
months before, were followed there and met the same fate. 
The explanation always given was that these were ptepnra- 
for war. It became a year of plenty for the poor, while 

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wealth and rank formerly worshiped by the Korean now be¬ 
came a misfortune. Again they began the propagation of 
the mysteries, but this time with more violent means. They 
felt their cause was not going in the end to succeed and order 
would be restored some day, so that if all the people joined there 
would be a better chance of all being pardoned. All sorts of 
stories were circulated by the leaders to revive their drooping 
spirits. Tbme steam boat loads of Japanese heads were landed 
near Pyeng Vang and all put together made a large mountain. 
The Chinese were already in possession of Pyeng Yang and 
marching south. Strange red coated soldiers had landed in 
Chemulpo and were driving out the Japanese. Also the long 
propbecied “South Korean” had risen up and soldiers were pour¬ 
ing in from the south to give deliverance to the nation. 

Piglit near our village a Korean interpreter or two having 
come ashore from a Japanese boat to make some inquiries were 
seized by the rebels and killed. Next day a little Japanese gun- 
lx>at came quite near, tired a cannon lrall into a Korean boat 
supposing these were the guilty parties; fortunately no one was 
killed. But all the villagers, men women and children, made 
for the mountain or neighbouring villages and when a few 
Japanese landed the consternation was complete. I at once 
became exceedingly popular in the vicinity as they in agined 
V might l>e of some service in preventing the Japanese enter¬ 
ing their village. ^oiuti little time before this the villager's 
assembled and requested ns to allow them to erect a Chris¬ 
tian dag l>efore my door. All shades of ltelief, relrel and 
loyal, Christian and devil worshiper, joined heartily in erecting 
the pole. The dag was white with a red St George’6 cross 
across the middle. They all assembled and as we ran up the 
dag we joined in singing in Korean “All hail the power of Jesus' 
name.” Dav after day since, that emblem of purity and suf¬ 
fering for the sake of ot hers waves in the breeze and can be 
seen for miles around by the villager's, preaching in terms easily 

Alrout the last of January order was restored in llai .Ju, 
the capital, and for some distance oft, as the Japanese soldiers 
had again Anew Governor and Magistrate were sent. 
The magistrate on his arrival at Chong Yun was immediately 
seized by the Tong flaks and carried oft to the house of a chief. 
They suspected him. of being in longue with tiro Japanese soldiers. 

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;t r. &. 

. .'fjr 

_ : * 4... % Lr> :* 

' - v. , ." r «.:i ti 

«. - . - ; «-?r r t 

:*« r - -r>-r v*-n- :i Vw :>.« tS'fw .-• T- 'tttr flak* 

f'-'r nj' rr a*/*#- .»-r.r* v /.*-♦- ^vr 1 - w-jv * 

♦ V' -***-♦ '< t* tl r: i rji^rtn^. It wi* 111« 

•t*-r. x.. .r ,:;»/ i *.. xr- r* Sr*- *.rf rhrnr ■j’ln- rtat tin* vil- 

r- - n+ A'A.i*. m*t # ; - «* :*:>r* I*-ft t*> *-irrv away tin u 

4 > f •- .*/• v» ar»v n-sHa\ *r\f» ^vi-ml 

:> 4 rhaf At. rfj# T»«v/ Hi.<- !• !' tk*y w * rv <U«i ivm! Iiv tin 
rVi' ial- a:nl h v ^Ui» r »*r !af» r all t»- fpfit t*» ilratli. 

V/rtin r|.**v kv:»fi to riso-tMr from alt * v* r tfi** provirav ;uimrur tin 
in tIn* norrli. Tlii- firm- it rh« nion* viVimi**, tin 
juilr.. f It*- < .yfri fn* Iv poor wirfi n*» family itin- uln» w» n* mi tin 
Aar j/Sif 1 1 . Tfn*w lia<l littI/- to kr-** am I ruth#*r #-»:oynl \\an<lm- 
ir,/ ultput livin'/ mi tin* rin* of oth/*rx N\ h«*n all wa.^ in niulino^ 
tlii-v rinnlr* a -uoop M|K/ii tin* i*itio- wlnn* wrn* ^tatimu^l. 

rarri^l off \% lint flnv roiiM firnl and biinml tin* Im>uh->. In tin 
/ iiv of*( han/ Vnn alow* ylKiiit l<K) liou*^ w**n* luirnvtl imUului/ 
flu* rna/i-rnoy . 

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< >f n hum 1 wlicii trouble anise the brave volunteers escaped. 
They Imd n<>t enlisted to light. Again the Capital, Ilai Chu, was 
in danger and tli<" inhabitants were in greatest consternation. jTlie 
< iovernor almost frantic w ith alarm was compelled to seek assist¬ 
ance, wheiever available. A tow Japanese soldiers ingratiated 
themselves intn the lieaiis of the jMople of Hai Chu by appearing 
just at tin- right moment as their deliven^. The Tong Haks fled 
without making a stand at all. They had come to have revenge 
on the (iovernor who oppressed them, not to fight with Japanese 
soldiers. As late as April the Kang Wha soldiers appeared upon 
the scene. 11 icy came it was said to destroy all the Tong Haks 
or in fact to make a clean sweep of all Whang Hai province. 
The 'Pong Haks, local volunteers and police took much, but the 
Kang W ha hemes left nothing—so report had it. The rel)eLs 
when I left May 1 st. were pretty much scattered and hiding, but 
tin* Whang Ilai chief Im had a little following and was fleeing 
lxdoiv bis pursuers. Quite near our village in one of the moun¬ 
tains several scon* of the worst of the relxdsand their leaders built 
a bouse and wen* living on the spoils they had taken months be- 
Ibre. That den was raided and they scattered leaving several of 
their <*oiuimles dead ujhui the hills. In a little skirmish at the 
magistracy thirty or more rel>el> wciv killed. These bodies were 
Idt a ghastly spectacle iinburied, the final tor foxes and crows. 
File Indies of the beheaded were hung for days outside the main 
gate of the magistracy as a warning to others. In April police¬ 
men and soldiers went nlwaif in hands of 20 or JO supposed to be 
searching fi>r rebles, but really squeezing money from the villages. 
The leaders of little hands though already pardoned were tin* 
prineijMtl victims. Many were the lvliels who came stating they 
wished to l>e Christians, hut whose mil object was to secure the 
supposed protection of the foreigner. The magistrate had heard 
1 was receiving into the church such men but 1 soon disabused 
bis mind of such an erroneous notice. 

Two questions may lx* axked in connection with the Tong 
Hak troubles. 

1 . What w as the Ob’cct ? The people are getting some ideas 
of liberty J»v contact with the foreigner and his religion and thev 
purpose* no longer to submit to the misrule of rapacious ottieials 
and their liin*liugs. They were desirous too of helping Providence 
in the fulfilment of the old prophecy that the present Dynasty 
was to exist for only 500 years, alrnidy completed, It was really 

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Kvuiig Poll K ling. 

The* palace at present occupied — Kyuug Poll Kung - was 
the first to he built on the present site of Seoul. It was built 
by Tai Clio at the beginning of the present Dynasty. It was 
destroyed during the Japanese invasion 300 years ago and was 
rebuilt by Sun Cho, to lie again burned by the Chinese. After 
this it remained as it w'as for nearly 200 years to be rebuilt 
during the reign of the present monarch, by his father, who 
was then acting as Regent during his son’s minority. It is more 
beautiful now than before. 

It is said that during the rebuilding of this palace by the 
Regent priesls were for the time being allowed within tin- 
city walls that they might aid in the work, and thereby ban 
a tale. 

Traditiou says that prior to the selection of the sou of 
the Tai Won Koun for the throne, his father took him to 
a Buddhist temple outside the East Gate where a fortune 
telling priest predicted that the boy would one day become a 
very great man. When this prophecy was fulfilled in the 
crowning of the son as King, the father was greatly impressed 
with the wisdom of the priest and had long talks with him 

He asked him much concerning the best plans for govern¬ 
ing the country, and among other things the priest urged tin- 
rebuilding of the Kyuug Poll Kung — the oiigiual palace of the 
dvuastv. A difficulty arose from the fact that there were rn> 
existing plans of the palace. But the priest agreed to super¬ 
intend the work providing that priests were allowed to enter 
the city. This was agreed upon and the work was put through 
to completion. It is further said that this priest disappeared 
at the time of the French invasion. He had gone to prevent 
the landing of the foreigners and was never seen again being 
said to have gone on board one of the French war vessels, where 

Note. The Mulberry Palace was described in this series in tlic 
March number of The Re;>o,itory. 

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lie was detained. It is further stated however that he had 
with him a noted buddhistic seal which gave him power »*.* 
roll hack the water of the sea and to transport himself from 
place to place through the air. This being the case his deten¬ 
tion on board a vessel would bi a very difficult matter. 

The piiest’s name is given usMahn Yin, which also mean 
ten thousand men,and one of his most urgent recommendations 
was that the ltegent could only make himself absolutely safe 
by the killing of ten thousand men. After his departure the 
Regent regretted his escape as he decided that the prophecy re¬ 
ferred to tin* man himself whose name was u tcn thousand men ” 
or Malm Yin, rather than to individuals to that number. 

This palace is an enclosure of about 100 acres with an¬ 
other enclosure at the back which runs far up the sides of the 
North Mountain at the foot of which the palace grounds arc 
laid out. This outside enclosure is used for holding the com¬ 
petitive examinations. It is hilly and broken, while th<* 
|«ila.v enclosure proper is quite level. 

Entering at the great South Gate of the Palace, in front 
of which there is a raised terrace with a stone balustrade on 
cither side and stone images guarding the approach, and pass¬ 
ing across a large open compound where soldiers are driller/, 
a second gate gives entrance to a smaller enclosure surrounded 
by rows of houses and crossed by a stream, the banks of 
which are walled in hv masonry. Some of the stone blocks 
upon the hanks of this stream near the stone bridge that spans 
it are carved to resemble animals aliout to spring upon other 
stone images ot water animals in the bed of the stream below. 

A third gate gives entrance to the stone paved court wlie-e in 
stands the great Audience Hall—a very fine buildii g indeed 
and a marvel of architecture considering the materials used. 
The massive tile roof is a tremendous weight and is supported 
upon large mast-like timbers standing on a raised stone terrace. 
The arrangement of rafters and eave supports is very intricate, 
and to prevent soiling of the paint l>y birds, tho whole eaves 
are shut in by groat wire gauze curtains of native manufac¬ 
ture, that look like the well of some gigantic spider This 
building is encircled by a well executed stone balustrade in¬ 
dicating a high degree of skill on the part of Koiean stone 
workers. In front of the Hall, below the terrace on which it 
stands, there are rows of little stone posts, each marked with 

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characters indicating a certain rank in the Korean service. At 
those posts officials bow to His Majesty after being appointed 
to office. A little to the west of this Audience Hall, stands a 
building which is quite unique and perhaps the most lieautifnl 
edifice in Korea, it is the Summer Pavillion, and has given 
a name to the whole Palace, which is usually called by 
foreigners the Summer Palace. This pivilliou stands in a large 
lotus pond. The pond is inclosed by masonry, has little is¬ 
lands studding its surface on which grow quaintly twisted 
pines. The surface of the water at the proper season is one mass 
of lot is leaves and flowers almost tempting one to try to 
walk upon the floor-like expanse of great green leaves. Near 
the eastern side of the pond and reached by two stone 
bridges, a large stone terrace rises al>ove the water, inclosed by 
a balustrade of stone carved to represent sheaves of wheat- or 
lotus flowers. From this stone platform rise forty single 
stone pillars 8 or 10 feet high, and sloping from a base 
of 2 feet square to a top of a third less perhaps. These pil¬ 
lars support a banquet hall, with a tile roof that in its majes¬ 
tic sweep of graceful curves never fails to impress visitors. 
This upjier story is a most delightful place on a hot summer 
evening. Formerly banquets were occasionally given here, 
and with the coo! b'ack stone sides of the northern and west¬ 
ern hills, and the fresh green of the south mountain in full 
view, the electric lights which came on later with the dancing 
girls and banquet proper, made a very pretty scene. 

Back of the Audience Hall a mass of buildings compose 
the r<*yal residences. But the best houses aro farther 
north at the Kick of a little lake, upon the water of which 
foreigners have occasionally been allowed to go and skate in 
the winter. A large foreign building has recently been com¬ 
pleted near this collection of houst-a but it is not occupied. 

There are a great many buildings in the palace enclosure, 
occupied by the regular attendants and giving residence to 
some 3000 individuals. The inclosing walls are thick and 
high and th6 gates are good specimens of Korean masonry. 

Tong Kwan Tub Kwall. 

The Palace near the East Gate was formerly two separate 
establishments. One of these, Chang Tuk, was built by Chung 
Chong the son of the founder of this Dynasty. The other, 

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Chan}' Kyung, was built by the 10th. King, Sung Chong, in 
honor of his mother anti of the wife of his elder brother who 
made it their residence. The 19th. King, Sook Chon", united 
these two into one palace, and named the great front gate 
Ton Wha (the union of virtues/. He afterwards occupied 
this as his royal residence. 

By nature this Tong Kwan Palace is a more beautiful 
place than the Kyung Poh Kuug. The ground is quite brok¬ 
en, well watered ami heavily wooded. It is a most delightful 
place, and the paths that wind in and out among the hills, 
along the banks of babbling brooks and ovei quaint bridges 
usually end in somi artistically placed puvillion from which 
one gets a delightful view uumarred by any glimpse of the 



Some of the lmildings at this Palace are very interesting 
but do not call for especial mention. It is tin* natural beauty 
of the place that makes it particularly interesting. 

The front gate of this palace is all pierced with bullet 
holes—souvenirs of the eineute of 1884, when 14) Japanese 
troops behind the gate were attacked by 3000 Chinese soldiers 
with some Koreans. They were not dislodged. 

l'yul Kung. 

alace’ as its name implies It was 
built to celebrate the marriage of the present Crown Prince, 
theceiemory taking place within its walls. It stands in An 
Dong and is passed in going to the Foreign Office, or to the 
residence of (General Dye. it never fails to attract attention 
because of its bright, colors in a city where no color is seen up- 
i ii tin-bouses except where they belong to, or are connected 
with rovaltv. This building was commenced Id vears ago. 

Nam Pyul Kung. 

This place is usually styled a palace, though there is 
nothing very palatial about it. It is inside the high storio 
wall which obstructs the road on the way from Chong Dong to 
(’bin Koo Kai, near the South Gate Street. It is in this en¬ 
closure that the special ambassadors from China have been 
entertained and where His Majesty was obliged to go and call 
upon them in token of the so-called vassalage. 

Like most Kcreun places of note, this 1ms its history. 

This is a u Special P 

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which briefly is as follows. It was built as a residence for 
the sun-in-law of the 2nd. King of this Dynasty—Chung Chong. 
'This son-in-law was very greatly loved by his royal parents 
who would believe no ill of him and whose kindness and trust 
be basely abused. His residence became a den of wickedness. 
He had a tower built where he kept a watch and any handsome 
looking closed chair that he espied was seized and its female 
occupant brought to him. He was hated by the respectable 
classes and was finally seized in an irregular manner by two 
officers of the Department of Justice, and on being taken to 
prison he was at once put to death before he might be releas¬ 
ed by order of the King. The latter was very much angered and 
grieved when in the morning he learned this intelligence, and 
ordered the death of these two men, but such an overwhelming 
mass of memorials went in at once from all officials, represent¬ 
ing clearly the crimes of the man and begging clemency lor 
the iwo officers, that they were released and the property of 
the dead man was confiscated. 

Moh Hah Kwan. 

In connection with Nam Pyul Kung, the “Gate of Receiv¬ 
ing Grace” might properly be mentioned. It stood till recent- 
i v on the plain west of the city on the way to the Peking Pass. 
His Majesty was in the habit of meeting the ambassadors 
from China at this place. This plain was originally a drill 
ground and the pavillioo that now stands there is at times used 
for this purpose though originally the drill pavillion stood on 
the east side where ruins of the foundations mav still he seen. 

Now tint Korean independence has l>een declared, Moh 
Hah Kwan has been taken down. Hong Chai Won, the large 
enclosure of buildings beyond the Peking Pass on the east side 
of the road, is the place when the Chinese envoys waited and 
rested after their long journey from Peking, while the neces¬ 
sary preparations for their reception were being made inside 
< he city. 

In the Suburbs 

In the near vicinity of Seoul there are places more inter¬ 
esting perhaps to foreigners than are these within the city’s 

I refer to Pouk Han the King’s m aintain fortress to the 

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north of the city, with its rugged peaks of jugged or dom<*l 
rock ; its crystal spring in a great, cave near the top of ;i lofty 
spur, from which with a good glai-s one can seo the shipping at 
the distant port of Chemulpo, while the Han 'diver se^nrs t<> 
lay like a baud of silk carelesly thrown down upon the plain, 
that with occasional mountains here and there, stretches ofl 
to the sea—the sea itself seeming very near on a clear day. 

Then there is the fortress of Nam Han, a little further 
removed, but a place that well repays the seven hours' ride 
necessary to roach it This wall enclosed mountain fastness is 
more tamed by the hand of man than is the wild Peuk I Ian. 
Each Iras its attractions however. 

Near to Seoul ure many beautiful park like reserves of 
many acres, usually a whole valley with no residence build¬ 
ing in sight. These ate the grove reserves of members of the 
Koyal Family. Trees are not only not cut down, but are set 
out plentifully, all underbrush and grass is kept nicely trim¬ 
med. A of water always flows through the grounds, 
and a beautiful stretch of clean sod surrounds the grave itself, 
which is a huge mound with cut stone tablets and images ot 
animals around the grave proper upon its top. Altogether 
these places form delightful little parks, usually easily reach¬ 
ed over good brid le paths, which make the suburbs of Seoul — 
away from the habitations—a charming place. 

H. N. Allen. 


In Mr. Gale’s recently published “Korean Graunnatical 
Forms,” pp.-2-60, appear at intervals certain hieroglyphics which 
will lie strange to the student of Chinese and of which no ex¬ 
planation is given either in that work or in the writings of other 
authorities on Korean script. For example, on page 2, in tins 

margin alongside the inflection tv*| <=■}, is printed the 

character (if it may so described! and on page 50, opposite 
the character (The latter, more by token, 

would l>e lletter written ^). The explanation of these mys¬ 
terious forms seems to be that they are the survivals of a system 
of writing which though it has only attained to a limited one in 
Korea, has prevailed for eleven centuries in Japan under the 
name of kata kana or ‘side symbols.’ These last, as is well 
known, are in reality portions of Chinese characters, which char¬ 
acters had been borrowed by the Japanese to represent certain 
sounds. Thus in the Japanese syllabary, the first three kata 

kana svmliols i, P ro, ha are portions respectively of 

t he complete hieroglyphs ^ read in mordern Chinese as 

/."/«, po, but in Japanese as i, ro, ha. In the same way the 
Koreans formed a syllabic (kana) C from the fuller character 

* which they real, like the letter tit, similarly Iro n (jj* was 

formed n ko , from |§\. F oa . and so on. The Chinese sound 
did not in every case determine their choice of a hieroglyph for 
dissection. Sometimes they were guided by what was in effect 

the Korean translation of the hieroglyph. Thus JR, in Korea- 
Chinese is ml pi (the modern Chines', sound is fe't ) but it has 
the meaning of ‘ to fly,’ which in colloquial is nalta. When, then, 

JR was cut down to ^ to form a syllabic, the sound fitted to 

it was not pi, but na . In the sane say, nt , lurnished v . 
but the latter was read lui f because the meaning of the parent 
chare ter is 4 to do/ kata. 

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A list is apjxMided of Korean kana, if we may lx: allowed t*> 
call them so. The Koreans style them “t’o” a colloquial pmnouncia- 

lion of * readings.' It will lx* remarked as worthy of notice, 
that several of the parent characters were also made use of by 
the .Japanese in forming their syllahics, and that in some eases, 
the sounds and furies are identical, as for example 

Y i from 

9ta „ # 

to which may lx? added X from R. read in Japanese nu and 
in Korean no, or sometimes ro. 

As regards the use made nowadays in Korea of these syl¬ 
lables, it would appear that they are confined to marking (chief¬ 
ly in text Ixioks such as the Chinese Classics) the particles or 
inflections required hy the Korean student to distinguish the* div¬ 
isions of a ]X'i i(xl. For example in the well known extract from 
Mencius (I. 1. 8): 

















t i 







“IIow if they who ran hut fifty paces were to jeer at those 
who ran a hundred?” He replied, “that could not lx*; they 
only did not run the whole hundred; they ran the same.” The 
passage—which will 1x3 seen to need some expansion to make it 
intelligible in English —is in effect punctuated hy the Korean syl¬ 
lahics, so that it is read aloud as ; I o-sip po ro so paik po chunk 
ha ye hani itko'l Oal pul ka hani. cliik pul paik jx> i enchycng. 
si yek chu ya i ni i ia. The interjected syllahics are printed in 

italics. Ro X always follows a phrase introduced by i ^ , lm- 
ui is little more than a pause or stop, it ko c? is the honori¬ 
fic from of the note of interrogation, enchyeng ^ t ^, means 

* only,’ i ni i ta is the polite form terminating a reply. 

Now it will ho noticed that these syllahics do not really 
combine to form one single character as the u.nnntn and that 

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it would be legitimate therefore when introducing them into an 
English sentence to print them horizontally, as for example 

\ tr \ ^ Mr. Gale’s method therefore, of uniting them in¬ 
to hieroglyphs would seem to be, to that extent, inexact. The 
fault may be however (pace qvestra) with his publishers, whose 
press does not claim to be more than trilingual. Perhaps it would 
not be altogether just to Mr. Gale’s labours to note, in passing, 

that with the the exception of v ^ (his Ko. 70) none of the 
particles introduced into the above passage are explained in 
4 Korean Grammatical Forms.’ 




eunmun. sound. T’o. 

OR T’O. 






























































teun, ten 




7 ^ 






on, n 


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218 Til k kohrax kkimsitoiiy. 


1 o. 


Si uind. 

I O. 


, sound. 

r l”o. cummin. 






il t ri 


















o!i< hil; 



t *o 










onl, 1 



k f o 



1 o 












































To these must be added the many syllables which are only 

like the Japanese ~J~ chi. from ,= F’. re lue *d copies of the original 
Korean Scripts, and their influence on those of .Japan. 

W. II. W. 

Tt may l>e observed that in certain elementary text b<x>ks, 
where clearness is more particulary required, the appear in their 
uncontracted form. Such for example, is the case with the 

{ long ntong ion-senp) or Youth’s 1 Timer, in which 
most of the characters in the second list find a place ns inflec¬ 
tion or particles. 

The two lists do not pretend to he exhaustive, n<>r is the 
present note other than provisional. It will have served i'.s end 
if it can provoke enquiry into the interesting subject of Korean 
scripts, and their influence on thus ; of Japan. 

W. II. \V. 

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The data to be used in the discussion of the origin of any 
race or people are largely inferential. It is not mainly written 
history that gives us our materials excepting as we can read be¬ 
tween the lines, but it is to archaeology, philology, craniology, 
numismatics and the like that we must look for our more par¬ 
ticular data. Folklore oftentimes affords better material for 
such a study than written history for whereas the latter is writ¬ 
ten by an individual and cannot but be prejudiced the former is 
the BjxintaneouB product of a race or nation and connot by any 
possibility deceive us. 

I therefore lay emphasis upon the natural as contradistin¬ 
guished from the artificial sources of information. The artificial 
sources include all written histories, monumental inscriptions, 
proclamations, letters and all other direct statements made by 
men. The natural sources include myths, legends, traditions, 
monuments (independent of their inscriptions) archaeological 
remains, language, dross, music, physiognomy, food, games and 
all other things which by comparison can give us circumstantial 
evidence—in other words, inferences. 

This lining granted it is evident that until both the history, 
the folk lore, the monuments, the language and all these sources 
have been exhausted the final word on such a subject as the 
origin of a race cannot be spoken. Furthermore it is evident 
that, satisfactory results can l>e attained only by the combined 
effort of many students interesting themselves as specialists in 
the different lines of investigation above indicated. Those who 
travel largely in the country should make note of monuments 
and their inscriptions; residents in the provinces should note 
dialectic variations; physicians should note peculiarities of physi¬ 
ognomy or craniology and thus in time a mass of material will 
L* collected from which accurate deductions can he drawn. It 
is thus evi lent that what follows is hut a skimming of the sur¬ 
face. an arrow shot at random into the air, whose only aim is to 
excite discussion and arouse an interest that shall result in a 
closer study of the facts lying about us. 

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* The first ray whieli pierces the darkness of Korean an- 
1 iq’iity is the legend of the Tan Gunt. A l>ear was transformed 
into a woman who, lieing pregnant hy a divine lx'ing. brought 
forth a child who in later years was found seated under a tree, 
mi Tu Pak San*, hy the people of the nine wild trilxis then in¬ 
habiting northern Korea. These nine trilx's were Kyon i§ U-i 
Pang-i! Hyun-i** l 5 ak-i 't IJoang-i~ Chdk-i §§ P’nng i 
Yang-ilfif. There is nothing to show that these wild trilies dif- 
fered in any essential respect from the other northren tribes, 
'I’hey were presumably a branch of the great Turanian family 
which spread over northern Asia, eastward to the Pacific and 
westward as far as Lapland if not further. 

These were the people whom Ki .Ta *** found when he 
arrived in R C. J122. 

The great changes which ho effected obliterated many of 
those peculiarities by which, hud they survived, wc might have 
gained a clue to their origin. At that time they were more than 
half savages, l.ving largely hy the chase, practically houseless in 
summer, and in winter living in caves or roughly covered holes 
in the ground. Until more facts are brought to light we must 
conclude that they were of northern origin. This would seem 
the more probable since the slight description we have of them 
corresponds c-lnsely with the description of other tribes which, 
later, swept down from beyond “Old white Head,’ 1 Pak Tu 
San,ttt and ravaged the borders of Kokuryd £J. 

* In rumanixing I shall use the well known continental sounds of 
the unaccented vowels. I shall u^e a for short a as in fat % d for short o as in 
hot, o for o as in Konig, l for short i as in hit e for short c as in met . e 
as in iesumk % n for short u as in run. 

" 23 - 


The present Tu \ j\k San is in the 
province of Kiung Sang but the old 
one was in I J ’y ll ng An province and 
is now called IIyang San. 

5-0 “I 

ii ° °1 T!£ 

•• 13 °] 

it S] •>! 

• ^"1 
58 ^o| 

lift °l 
ii <2 °l 

*** *i1 % 


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The whole period from 11*22 n. r. to alxmt 100 B. c. is 
passed over with the single remark that during that time forty 
one sovereigns sat upon the throne of Cboson. This helps to 
identify the date of Ki da. for the end of the dynasty Ix-ing ap¬ 
proximately known as having occurred alxmt IOC) n forty 
generations would alxmt cover the interval of 1022 years. 

At this point the whole scene shifts to the southern part of 
the peninsula when Ki dun* the last of the ancient Chosen 
dynasty lied southward before the treacherous We Man. + 

The events which led up to this flight are soon stated. The 
former Plan dynasty assumed the reins of government in China 
about a century lx-fore Christ. The general whom the Han ein- 
jxror placed over the kingdom of Yon* proving treacherous, an 
army was suit against him and he was obliged to Hy northward 
where he found a place of safety among the wild jxxiple of the 
Hyung-No § trilie. Another of the Yon princes, We Man by 
name, tied eastward to the borders of Chosen, the Am-nok|| river. 
Ki dun gave him asylum and constituted him the guardian of 
the nort’uren lxirder. We Man lietraved this trust by marching 
on P’veng Yang.*f the capital, ostensibly to protect the king from 
an imaginary Chinese army. Ki dun discovered the treachery 
just in time to escape with a few followers by boat on the Ta 
Tong** river which Hows near the wall of P’yeng Yang. 

lie fared away southward to found a Kingdom and landed 
in what is now the province of Chul-latt and settled at Keum 
Ma I\ol£ “the place of the golden horse,” now known as Ik 
San. §§ 

The only interest we have in this account centers in the 
people whom Ki Jun found in Southren Korea. 

We have no evidence that Ki dun even knew of the exis¬ 
tence of these peoples. The earli ir history of Korea is utterly sil¬ 
ent as to them and neither tradition, legend nor myth make any 

♦ =$? 

(now included in 

Manchuria) ft 

§ -f'in. 


§8 *4-a 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY to them. Ancient Ciioson never reached further south 
than the Han river and probably not as far as that, and we 
shall see that there is evidence that no communication had exist¬ 
ed between that kingdom and the people of the south. 

All that history tells us alxxit these people can be summed 
np in a few words but the inferences are striking. We are told 
that. (1) They undeistood agriculture, and the use of cotton 
and ilax. (*2) They had no walled towns. (3) They lived in 
seventy six settlements or communities each entirely independ¬ 
ent of the others. (4) A sort cf patriarchal government pre¬ 
vailed among them (5) '1 he size of the communities vari¬ 
ed from five hundred to ten thousand houses, aggregating a 
him 1 red thousand houses- (*>) The houses were made of sods 
with the door in the roof. (7) The men used silk for cloth¬ 
ing but neither silk, gold nor silver were highly valued. (S) 
Heads were in great demand and were fastened to the hair and 
strung alxmt the face and ears. ( l J) The men were fierce and 
brave and were notorious for their habit of shouting at the top 
of thfir voi .< s. (10) They were very skillful in the use of the 
spear and the bow, and they wore straw sandals. (114 Tne 
names of the different community s are givt n. 

This is literally all that is told us in the native histories anil 
on th*‘se joints there is j erfect agreement. The Tong Guk 1 ring 
Gam* one of the greatest of Korean histories gives the above ac¬ 
count and likewise the Tong Sa Kang Yo + which is a resume 
of the five great histories, viz. TongSaCh’an Yo, J Ui Ye Ch’am 
Nok.§ Tong Sa Hue Gang,|| Tong Guk Tong Gam,* and Tong 
Sa Ho Y11,t in which an* summed uj) almost all that histories have 
to say. 

[>'t us examine some of the most obvious inferences from the 
foregoing account. 

In the first place the very fact that those people were so care¬ 
fully descrilied is a strong indication that they were utter strang¬ 
ers to Ki Jim and his followers who found their dwellings, their 
dress, their government and their habits so radically different 
from what they had been accustomed to. If those people had 

i -f-421 u- 


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TilK OliKilN OF Tin: KOUF.AN PHni'I.K, 

Ihvii any thing like the wild trilies of tin* north with which Ki 
dun was doubtless more or le-ss familiar they would have oxeitid 
little interest and would not have scoured such a minute descrip¬ 
tion on the page of history. 

Second, if there had lxvn any intercourse lietwoen Cho*"»u 
and the South it can scanvly he imagined that they should not 
have learned the value of gold if not ibr its own sake at least lor 
its exchange value. 

Third, their use of I tends differentiates them in a marked 
manner from the |>cople of the north. The use of heads as of tat¬ 
tooing, is confined almost exclusively to tropical countries where 
they servo in the place of clothing. (>no of the strongest arguments 
other than linguistic for the southern origin of the .Japanese is the 
prevalence of the habit of tattooing far how could it have originated 
in the north where it would Ito quite useless as ornamentation and 
quite insufficient as clothing? There are strong reasons for lieliev- 
that southern Koreans tatooed hut the severity of the climate has 
caused the habit to die out. However, at the present day a vestige 
of the habit remains in the custom of drawing under the skin of 
the wrist a silk coni dip|*d in a coloring fluid. 

I have a southern Korean in my employ who has this mark. 
It may lie objected that Hamel and his fellow captives may have 
taught it but it is very improbable that a custom introduced by 
foreigners like that would take root in a country the severity of 
w hose climate takes away the main motive for such ornamentation. 

Fourth, the form of government prevailing in the South was 
a cause of remark to the fugitive Chosoneso. No centralization, 
no great chiefs, but on the other hand isolated communities, each 
a political integer and most remarkable of all an utter absence of 
fenced towns. These facts all demanded attention from Ki Jim 
and his companions. 

The seventy-six communities wore divided into three great 
groups eralleel the Sam Han* “Three kingdoms,” ealled respectivev 
ly Ma Han, f Chin Han, J Pvon Han. § Ma Han was probably the 
largest and comprised approximately the northern part of Chfd-la 
province and the whole of Ch’ung Chong province. Pvon Han 
occupied the southern part of both Chul-la anel Kyung Sang pro- 




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vinces While Chiii Han occupied the northern part of Kyfing 
and perhaps a little of Kang Uon. 

Some have supposed that Chin Han was so named liecausc 
of the refugees from the Chin* rule in China who settled 111 *' a '^' 
i ni Korea but a comparison of the characters will show that it is 
not so for separate characters are 1. The use of thene three 
names does not necessarily infer any political union of the numer¬ 
ous communities under these three heads for we air* not told of 
any such union, while on the other hand we arc told that the com¬ 
munities were indejxnideiit of each other. This nominal throe 
Ibid division probably arose from some difference in origin an¬ 
tedating their arrival on the shores of Korea. 

It is extremely fortunate that the names of these commun¬ 
ities have been preserved to us for they will afford us valuable 
material for ethnological study. I jet us briefly examine these 
Haim's which arc here given lor the first time, so far as 1 mu ;J " 
ware, to the English reading public. 

The group called Ma I Ian comprised fifty-four of these Com¬ 
munities named reflectively; 

Mo Ro 

Sa Ro 

.10 „ 

Mang X«» 

Ch‘op No 

m „ 

Man No 

W „ 

Ku Ro 

V 1 ) » 

Ko Ri 

3. e) 

•Ja Ri 


Pi Ri 



zrr » 

Ch‘o Ri 



11 Li 

a Si 


Pul Li 


% .. 

Mo Ro Ri Ri 

IVok Pi Ri 

^ w)e) 

m n r . • 

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Y6 Ra Bi Ri 
Kaiu Ha Bi Ri 
(.11*0 San Do Bi Ri 
Xa Bi Ri 
Jom Xi Bi 
Pi mi 

Song No Pul^Sa 
Pul Sa Pun Sa 
So Sok Sak 
Ta Sok Sak 
Sin Bun Ko 
Ko l*o 
Uol Ji 
Pak Je 
Uon Ji 
So Ui Kon 
Ko Uon 
Ku Ha 
Kani Ha 
Kam Ha 
Uon Y'ang 
Mo Su 
Sang Oc 

U Hyu Mo T‘ak 
Ko T*an Ja 
Xo Nani 
Sin Hcun 
Mun Ch‘ini 
A Rim 
Ku Sa O Jo 
U Ban 

eil «| e) 

THI a ! 8| 

i-as."! a! 

o) »|e| 




„ „ 







3.4 r 

3. tf*|- 


K^cTT » 

fit EH 



X „ „ 




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mi; ico:jka\ km;* 

.» it ntv. 

Sin Si I >n 

ko Hap 



[ in So Ball 


Sin l T n Sin 

II kail 

I’til Hi 



Kon Ma 

Cli‘i Hi 



11 Ifou 


( lia Hi Mo Ho 

Yoin No 



I lu» following is the li st oftlii 1 IVoii Hun comimimtirs. 

I’yon-jin-iiii-ri-mi-iloiijr tg a] Z) a ] ig. 

\an- 1 ni-n- 1 ni- 4 l 01 iH 

$f(: M jjft y ] i 

I’yon-iin-ki^jii-iiiMloiijj 5l^l a |-§- 




■ffhi run 


if-hi J»]0K 



it-m m 








1 Von-j i i i-ko-sy 11 n-si 




t — ^ 9 * 








>a o -}-i 

-i rj&gst 




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Original from 






#31 Si 












The following 

is a list of the Chin Han communities. 





'Uoj « 


$33 - 



JiTJ » 









A?s « 




K o-ry Ong-ka-y a 


* ^„ 


A ” ” 


Mill ■> 


✓J\ » » 

Y 0 n-chii li-ya i lg-sn 11 





( lia-san-jln-ji 






Mvong-hoal-san-ko-va ^ >*V 3L 6 |* 


A mere glance; 

at those lists will show 

that there is some an- 

•Wiving cause for the three general divisions of IN [a-lmn and Chin- 

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TIIK KoliKAN I:i:i*0-1T< >1! Y. 

linn for we find striking | icon liari ties in the combinationsof the 
letters that form the several names:— 





In Ma-han we find seven liana's endin'; in 3. which suvonl- 
ing to Korean cii|>li<>nie laws is variously pronounced r.>, no 
or lo. We find some of these also in lVon-han but none in 

In Ma-han we find fiairteen names ending in 2.) variously 
ronianized as ri or//. Of these iourtivn, five mix* in pin. 
Neither of the other groups have these endings. 

In IVon-linn we find un entirely different amingement — in- 
stead of uniform suffixes we find uniform prefixes. We find 
ten names liegimiing with l'vdn-jui wliieli is ]>cenliur to this 

We find in IVon-linn likewise three with the uni<|Ue suflix 
mi-don tr. 

In Chin-hail again we find nine ending in Ka*■. and five in 

Kii-ya which are found in neither of the other groups. 

It seems hardly iicix'ssnrv to say thnt these can not he mere 
eo.neidenit's. In each group we find at least one considerable set 
of endings entirely lacking in either of the others These endings 
mean something. As the -coin of our Lincoln and the -cluster 
of our Manchester art 1 the remnants of the Latin Colonia and 
(iislnt so here tin* ro, the vti-dong, the pyon jin , the lan ami the 
l\i-ya have generic meanings and we hero have one of the lxsi 
possible clues to the origin of those* people. 

It appears therefore that while there was no such thing as a 
Ma-han government or u Pydii han government or a Chin-linn 
government the three mum's are not arbitrary but represent real 
lines of damarkntion between these three groups of communities, 
liius of dcmnrkation which find their cause in the previous history 
oft how* jieople. 

One or two inferences from these names may not Ik* out of 

We know that since the remotest times the Chinese wlier- 
ev< r spoken and in whatever dialect is monosyllabic and therefore* 
t Ium* names stretching out sometimes to six syllables would strong¬ 
ly indicate that the people weix* not of Chinese origin its hits some¬ 
where I icon intimated. Even in the north where the Korean race 
has lioon supjxised to have originated we can find no such poly- 

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Tin: OKICIX OF TIIK K'TKAN IT. >1*1.!:. 

>vllnl>i,* nanus as these. It is seldom that tin* Manrhou. Mongol 
<>r Tartar nanus of' plans even'd two syllable. On the other 
hand wo find in Japan and in the Polynesian inlands a common 
ns* of such polysyllabic words. 

These rarlv ]H‘opl(‘ haw left u> no literary remains. There 

are no monuments, in inscription?-nothing to help u- rxn’ptiiu*: 

tradition and lanjjnuu^r. It follows that the main argument in 
regard to the* origin of these jieoplr must Ik* a philological one hut 
a> spat- * in larking hciv it must Ik* reserved for a saxaul pap t, 

II. II. I lulhert. 

.Yo/r. In order to avoid apparent inconsistency in the matter of 
ronuini/ation I would say that all nanus of plans and pn>ple 
suv *riven sis Koreans prniiotiiHv thorn. For instsuuv instead of 
Tsi’t lor the Chinese dynasty of that name I have written thin 
a< that is the eonnnon Korean pronunciation of the word, hut 
as the Chinese ehametei usually :ienmi]>aiiios the term there need 

Ik* no confusion. I would also call attention to the eharsieter 
which is pronounced hv Koreans in three ways; as d, sis u or as 
o (umlaut). 

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A new 1 ouk cn Korea has come under our notice. It is— 

"Corea the Land of the Morning Calm’ by Henry Savage 
Lamlnr. We cannot but remark that the word Corea is. or should 
l>e t o! sole te and that Korea is the spelling adopted by the treaty 
lowers and by nearly all others who are in touch with Korean 
matteis. In the second place the title, a borrowed one, perpetuate 
the blunder made by Mr Lowell of translating Clio-Son by the 
“Land of the Morning Calm” The character means “radiance” 
and the idea of calmness does not necessarily enter into the 
delinition This character also has the n caning of freshness but to 
the Korean Cho Son means “Morning Radiance.” 

It is evident that Korea worked strongly on the imagination 
of the young artist, for in almost every thing he descries, the 
peculiarites and singularities of things Korean are magnified to 
several times their actual proportions. He came in cold weather 
and finding little evidences of cultivation between Chemulpo and 
Seoul he says that there are fields only right about tire hamlets 
which is a very misleading statement. In speaking of the small size 
of Korean horses he says they have the habit of bending down 
until the rider’s feet touch the ground and then backing out from 
under him. Son e years of rather intimate acquaintance with the 
Korean horse gives us warrant for saying that here again the 
young man’s imagination has outrun his judgement for neither 
he nor any other traveller in Korea has seen this trick play ed by 
a Korean pony for the simple reason that it would be a physical 
impossibility. It hardly pays to make a book spicy in this way. 
The author should have spent his time in ascertaining facts rather 
than in imaginative excursions like this. In speaking of the cold 
in Korea he says, though he never was more than a few miles 
north of Seoul,— “There is an average of sixty degrees of frost.” 
Putting the freezing point at 32° Fahr. we here find that in 
winter there in an ax'trage of 28° below zero. The truth is that 
the thermometer has never registered 28° below zero once in the 
memory of the oldest resident of Seoul. He tells us that in summer 
the extrrnes of heat and cold in a single day are verv great and 
that on a summer’s day you may be in torrid heat one i oi rent, and 
in the next you may be in a snow’ storm. This is rather strong to 

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•2.’, I 

l*.- denominate.! exaggeration. The climate of Stool in approxi¬ 
mately tVa* - of Philadelphia and there are prohahly no greater e\- 
trt'iiies of heat and cold than in that city. 

He Rays, in speaking of the people, that “you will find all 
••ver the Kingdom men as black as Africans.” Strange that none 
of us have overseen one. We who live hcreseldoin see one as 
dark an an American Indian while they average about like the 
Spaniard in complexion. We can excuse an artist for mistakes in 
many things hut he should have some eye for ‘‘color." 

According to him Koreans wear white hats tied with white 
riblMiis under the chin. Our friend was here while the people 
were in mourning for the Queen Dowager and he failed to learn 
that Korean hats are commonly black and only black. 

In speaking of women going out on the street at night he 
-ays—“Few however avail themselves of the privilege for nntor- 
tunately there are in Korea many tigers and leopards which, 
disregarding the early closing of the city gap's, climb with great 
rase the high wall and take nightly peregrinations over the town 
eating up all the dogs they find in their way and < ecasional ly human 
beingB ” The italics are ours. Never within the knowledge of any 
foreigner in Seoul has a tiger been known to enter tin; city. A 
leopard was shot years ago inside the wall but his only depreda¬ 
tions were on geese and other poultry. Imagine a tiger climbing 
twenty five feet of sheer wall. This is a “Jack and the bean 
stalk” story utterly without foundation even in rumor. 

He hears women beating with their “laundering'’ sticks and 
Rays they are washing the clothes, evidently having failed to 
ask an explanation of this unique custom. He even ventures 
to take up questions of home life in Korea and says that the 
mother is practically a nobody in the household. If our callow 
artist could for an hour assume the position of a Korean daugh¬ 
ter ir.-law he would think that the mother of the family is 
practically everybody. 

He tells us that as he sat sketching one day outside the 
gate he he was surrounded by an interested auditorium. There is 
one good thing about this otherwise ridiculous work and that is 
a sketch of some Korean faces. They are clearly superior to 
anything of the kind we have seen unless it he possibly some 
faces in Opperts “Forbidden I<and’’ The pen is said to he 
mightier than the sword hut in this case the brush is much might¬ 
ier than either. H. 13. H. 

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disaster a y rac ical nature a\ ill constantly «xvuv and le put to a 
tost. An industrial exhibition "ill sane to show how lav success 
lias resulted and encourage to great- r efforts and mor* extensive 


The timely and exhaustive article of Mr. Baird in our May 
issue 1 , dealing with the question of romar.ization. has attracted 
widespread attention among students of the Korean language. 
With keen and trenchant criticism he has expos'd the follies ot 
the past and sounds a call to reform. The wide divert-nee of 
treatment of this subject which has prevailed in the past assures 
a most interesting debate. We welcome if and as far as the 
space and aim of the Repository will permit, will g'a by ai l it 
the elucidation of the matter. Those proposing to di-mss the 
matter however must l>ear in mind that tiie one object of discus- 
sion is to secure a settlement of the question njx>n a basts whirl; 
commands the a-sent of a majority. Criticism which is wholly 
destructive is therefore ruled out of coiut. 

It is out of the question to enter upon a full and complet* 
review of the question, but the following ol s*rvati »t s app*ar to 
lx' pertinent. The question is; how can the symlxils iit the Eng¬ 
lish Alphak't Iv male to convey to tin* * unfamiliar with tlx* Iv>- 
roan language, the Korean s amds. it B-ing furth"r srinulut-i 
that the system to lie prop* *1 is primarily intend si for hnglisti- 
men and Americans. Tiie issu•* is t her'fore e!'* ir cut and well 
defined, and a great step is taken towards a s-ttleuent. Mr 
Baird further prop s s that the sine qua non i~ a sys*“m of un¬ 
varying signs, and this he would s-cure by a s-.s’-an of diacritical 
marks reinforcing our English alnhaVt. “ Precision is absolute¬ 
ly necessary and in order to pre-irion, a standard svs‘" m of dia¬ 
critical marks should lx* r.S'l.” baini'-ss must conce it that Mr 
Baird's system admirably illustrates this principle. By s > ue bO 
signs male by the help of diacritical marks familiar to those in 
the habit of using Webster's Dieti-mary, lie finds lie can represent 
must of the moliiiciri *:is of the Korun s.mdxils of sound. 

It is at this point that the d‘*ba*o will turn, whether so stat¬ 
ed or not. Bet this general principle, namely that alisolute ac¬ 
curacy is the sine qua non, 1 >o granted and Mr. Baird’s system or 
one resembling it must lie the result. But we find that this 
principle has never, so far as our information goes, obtained 

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among nations using alphabetic tables of symbols. There is no 
alphabet so far os we know that follows and seeks to represent 
all the aberratioi sof the colloquial. Whatever may 1«: the case in 
syllabaries, so far as an alphabet is concerned absolute accuracy 
as to the sound value seen s to have been deemed to lie outside 
the possibility s of a practicable table of symbols. Dubious though 
it may seem at, first, practicability rather than precision has been 
the chief principle upon which tables of symbols have lx?en con¬ 
stmeted to represent sounds, — j vacticability with a degree of ac¬ 

On the score of practicability some considerable reduction in 
the number of symbols proposed by Mr. J-’aird appears neces¬ 
sary. b'rom 11 it* example afforded by various alphalnds—such as 
English, Greek, German and Korean—al out 25 symbols appear 
to he the proper number. The need is a portable system, one 
that the mind can carry without difficulty, and with the hope of 
early reaching in ils use a fair degree of skill. For this purj < s > 
to exceed to any extent the number 25 means a system cumlier- 
some and eventually impracticable. This difficulty is further 
emphasized by the fact that diacritical marks to which the in¬ 
crease in Mr. b’aird’s system is due are not in general use among 
us in our everyday writing, and neither mind nor hand is clover 
in their use, nor is the eye familiar w ith the sight of them. And 
second the infrequency of our use of romanization would calls'* 
a eumlM'isomo system to slip from mind, thus precluding all 
j ossihility of com tort in using it. 

h’vom these observations it would up] ear to us highly de¬ 
sirable, and, we might add, necessary to a settlement that the 
symbols l<e as few as j ossible, with the following general laws or 

(2') Medial consonants as a rule to he hardened. 

(2) A diacritical mark to he us d only in the case of ^ 
where it appears to be a neci ssitv. 

(3) Kupbonie changes to be lelt t<> private judgement. 

(4) 'l be separate syllables composing a Word to be bv- 

(5) V of compound vowels t<> be dropped in syllables the 
initial of which is A or % i r n <kliiicat.iou« ol saint;. 

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The Treaty of Peace signed at Shimonoseki April 17 by tb*‘ 
Chinese ami Japanese Plenipotentiaries is an interesting docu¬ 
ment. The Peking and Tientsin Times of May 18, in a supple¬ 
ment gives in fall the papers that passed between them. We 
reproduce the discussion on the independence of Korea. 

japan’s first draft. 

Article /. China recognizes definitively the full and com 
plete independence and autonomy of Korea, and in consequence 
the payment of tribute and the performance of ceremonies and 
formalities by Korea to China in derogation of such independence 
and autonomy, shall wholly ceam for the future — April rst. 

china’s reply. 

The Chinese Government some months ago indicated its 
willingness to recognize the full and complete independence and 
guarantee the complete neutrality of Korea, and is ready to insert 
such a stipulation in the Treaty; but in due reciprocity, such 
stipulation should likewise be made by Japan. Hence the Article 
will require to Ire modified in this respect. 

On April fith. the Chinese Plenipotentiary is ashed to form¬ 
ulate his reply. 

china’s counter draft. 

Article I. China and Japan recognize definitely the full 
and complete independence and autonomy and guarantee the 
complete neutrality of Korea, and it is agreed that the inter¬ 
ference by either in the internal affairs of Korea in derogation of 
such autonomy or the performance of e rnemonies and formalities 
by Korea inconsistent with such independence, shall wholly ceas 1 
for the future. Aprilg. 

japan’s reply. 

Article /. The Japanese Pleni|x>tentiarios find it necessary 
to adhere to this Article as originally presented to the Chinese 
Plenipotentiary. April io. 


The banquet given on theGthinst. by the Ministers of State 
to the. diplo natic crops and foreign residents of Seoul was the 
largest and most brilliant entertainment ever given in the Cap¬ 
ital. The occasion was the public declaration of the independ¬ 
ence of Korea. The public offieas and government schools were 
dosed. The extensive and beautiful grounds of the Eastern 

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Palace wore given by 11 is Majesty for the occasion. The day 
was perfect. The guests assembled at two o'clock in the large 
two story pavilion. lien' they were received by the Minister of 
Public Works, Kim Ka Chin, the Prime Minister, Pak Chung 
Vang and the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Kim Yun Sik. The 
Hags of the Treaty Powers were floating in the air; greetings 
and congratulations wore hearty on all sides; the coin) any stroll¬ 
ed through the grounds and across the beautiful artificial 
laker, the royal guards in their new uniforms attracted attention. 
An elaborate* banquet was prepared to which ample justice was 
done. The Koval String Hand rendered some choice music, 
which we fear our ears were not the only ones unable to ap¬ 
preciate; dar.ccis executed graceful Movements; the Ministeis of 
State and the Diplomatic crops drank to the health of His Ma¬ 
jesty, the King and all united in good wishes for long life and 
prosperity for the Sovereign State of Korea. 

On the luh. of May the peopie. by order of the govern¬ 
ment doffed white, the symbol of purity, received we suppose 
from China, for black the symlol of-•? 

Wo fr inkly confess our inahijt,- to n*»pr *ci ite this legislation 
in dress especially on the color lire. We s *e reasons why the 
police man should have leather shoes instead of straw sandals or 
woo len clogs; toe doubD breasted brass buttoned coat of raw 
blue properiv supplants the disrepiCahle blouse; the sword at 
his side* inspires confident and r spvt, taking away the liang- 
dog air so notice iMc last fall and winter; the steeple bat. oven, 
has a legiti ii:it * light, tho not from an a 's hetic shind point, to 
remain, for the top knot, the glorv of Ivor * m manhood has not 
been remove 1. Put why should tie official, scholar, butcher, 
baker an l c tndl s ink maker b • <v rnn'dD 1 to ehang * the color of 
1 is coat to suit the whin of the g>v*rmn»nt? We were in¬ 
formed that a Dw arres's of delinq iai'.s were made by over- 
yealon* ) eilir»*men. 

We wish it distinctly uuderstoenl we an* not aiming in these* 
pages to note the \\< r.derhil filings that do not take pln<*c in Korea 
(our space* is limited) nor to give currency to tin* rumors and 
canards afloat. Wen* this our purple wc should have told <>ur 
readers in our last issue* why the mi I road scheme l>etwern ('lieinul- 
| m » and Ssml fid 1 to the* ground; that o:i the* D11 1 . of Mav 20000 
Uussian soldiers landed at Wonsan and that in consequence there 
was great exeitement not to say suppm^ed joy in the* Palace. In 

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this number wc .should give an account of the ovations and lectures 
mi civilization and kindred subjects a Korean with the aid of a 
foreigner was going to deliver in Chong No on May 25 to 27th.; 
we should give much space to the simple fact that the Prime 
Minister, Kim Hong Chip resigned on May 27 and on June 1st. 
the Minister of Education, Pak Chung Yang, was appointed in 
his place. We will say the plot to assassinate Count Inouve, dis¬ 
cussed at length in the editorial columns of a recent number of 
die Japan Mail, was unknown to us, and members of the Japanese 
J.legation had not beard of the plot until they saw it in print. 

Prince Yi Chyun Yong convicted on the charge of treason 
was sentenced to ten year’s banishment on the island of Kyo Dong. 
He left the city on May l(i. This island has a population of 
several thousand, but the prince* is closely confind to the small 
one room hut built, we understand, for his especial accommodation. 

The people of Pyeng Yang an* still looking for the return of 
the Chinese* bruves to their city and this keeps some from coining 
hack from the country whither they fled last summer. The Go¬ 
vernment has given public notice that peace between the warring 
••ountries has lieen proclaimed, but the jioople insist they received 
that bit of news from the Japanese and that it cannot lit* relied 

Count Inouve left Seoul for Japan on leave of absence the 
7th. inst. 

liirths. In Wonsan, May 13 the wife of Kcv. \\\ L. Swal- 
len, of a son. 

In Soul, June 4, the wifi; of’Pr. C. C. Vinton, of a son. 

In Pusan, June—the wife of Dr. C. II. Irvin of a son. 

Arrivals. On June 3rd. J. Hunter Wells M.l). from Portland 
Oregon to unite with the Presbyterian Mission North. 

Can it true? A Korean from the Whang Hai province ar¬ 
rived in Seoul, just as we were making up tin* final forms, with 
the strange storv that a Tong flak leader in that province when 
captured recently was charged with and confessed the murder of a 
foreigner. The deed was done three years ago. The Kcv. F. S. 
Miller has been requested by the foreign representatives here to 
visit the place of the alleg'd murder and make a thorough in¬ 
vestigation. The result will lie awaited with much interest. 


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£ V 


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* '• ** 

tr r - 

’ “ - -V pr- - 


• -~est* 

r: W ?o* i \ 

’ 1 * <n. - — . 

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^ * up, —' 

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■* swell to 5 
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^ttred Ctzr ■ 
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the nnc- 
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Vfc *- *1 So/ fi . 

^ erf 
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"The Korean News*' May 15th says that ‘the foreign missionaries at 
Soul are much alarmed at the revocation of the edicts forbidding Buddhist 
priests to enter the Capital. Assisted by Japan, Buddhism, the missionaries 
fear, will now make great progress and temples and pagodas spring up 
everywhere.*’ The report of this “alarm” is news to us We had not met any 
evidence of it. Viewing the action ef the Korean Government in revoking 
(he prohibitive edicts as presaging a purpose 10 refuse ihc use of the powers 
of government to suppress or interfere with the right of private judgement 
in the matter nf religion the general feeling as far as we know is anything 
hut alarm. 

The prospectus of Korean Games, a work by Stewart Culin Director 
of the Museum of Archaeo ogv and Palaeontology of the University of 
Pennsylvania, with a commentary by Frank Hamilton Cushing, Ethnolog¬ 
ist Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, has reached Korea. A 
copy of the same has been furnished us by W.H. Wilkinson Esq. H. B. M’s 
Vice-Consul at Chemulpo who contributes to the work. From this prospec¬ 
tus we learn that the work will consist of a volume of 200 pages limited * 

loan edition of 550 numbered copies, price 55.00 gold a volume. 

I)i. Landis kindly furnishes us with the following note, evidently the 
hrst historical reference to the Mariner's Compass. ‘ In the journal of Su ^ 

King who was sent as ambassador to Korea in 1 122 A. I)., it is stated that 
he left Ningpo and preceded by sea to Korea He describes the compass 
as a floating needle which was used to steer by on dark nights and cloudy 
days. Usually the course was guided by the stars, but when they were invis¬ 
ible recourse was had to the compass.” 

The Rev. V. Honda D. 1 ). of Tokio \ isited Seoul on his return from 
Manchuria. On the 29th ult. he delivered in the Pai Chui College chapel to 
a large audence of Koreans, an instructive address on his experiences as 
chaplain while with the Second Army. 

May 30th 1895 being Decoration Day, the anniversary was observed in 
a fitting manner at Chemulpo. The observance of the day was initiated by 
Capt. New of the U. S S. Detroit who larded a body of 50 men and mar¬ 
ched to the Foreign cemetery. There the j. raxes of all Anreiicans had been 
already decoiated with ever greens arc! potted plants by the men of the 
Detroit. Arrived at the Cemetery the nun were drawn up in platoon and 
the Captain introduced 1 lis Excellent y the American Minist« r Resident wl o 
offered praxcr anti addressed a few appr priate remarks to the company. 

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Hf i’ll 



'1 he first Japanese war-vessel to appear in Chemulpo h il < r sin< e Jul\ 
1894 is the Tsukubti A'///, which arrived May 24th. The Isukutn is noted 
for her connection with the Sidney incident at Kobe, and the* capture ol th<- 
) iksan. 

The first Chinese war-vessel to appear in a Korean port since the a* tivr 
operations of the war called them elsewhere was the gunboat Chrn-Fai. 
which dropped anchor off Chemulpo May :5th. From herCommnnder Nang 
I n-hsiao we learn that she brought over from Chefoo 32 members of the 
ship-wrecked crew of a Korean junk. This junk belonged to Chei-ju (Quel- 
part) and foundered somewhere on the coist of China, three persons losing 
their lives in the disaster. The C/ftti-J-ni aho brought over Mr, Min Hong 
Chcil, special messenger to present His Majesty’s congratulations to the Em- 
press Dowager of China on her 61st. birthday; Mr. Yi Sung-su Korean Con¬ 
sul at Tientsin; and Mr Vi Vu-jia Secretary. 

Dt'Pathires . Sunday Afiv 26th. jSqj, Jrotn Chevtu!fo\ Mr Luhrs < or. 
rccted with E. Me>er & Co. Messrs Chinda, Consul and Eitaki / 7 /«r Con¬ 
sul for Japan at Chemulpo. 

It is possible that His Royal Highness Prince Wc Wha may fora short 
time visit America. 

The preliminary steps for the organization of n national postal and tci- 
Icgraph system for Korea are being taken by the government. 

Mr H. V. dos Remedios has accepted a post in the Department for 
Foreign Affairs. 

Mr. and Mrs. t arl \Vo!tcr arrived in Chem Ipo on May loth. 

In the Nam Yang magistracy a wall may be seen encircling like a 
chaplet t e brow of one of its steepest mountains. Last year w hen the Tong 
Haks w'ere threatening an invasion of this province, the men of three v»i 
Pges in Nam Yang spent the month of Aug, and Sept, in con trncting this 
wall. Weapons they had none. Hut < r. the mountain peak were many loose 
stones and they declared it their intention in case the 'Long Haks came, to 
flee with theirfamilies to this mountain fort and there they hoped with vol 
leys of stones to be able to repel the invaders so long as the top ol the 
mountain held out. D. L. G. 

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3QBWI& & a<s» 


Electrical Gear 



j in button ami 
pear shape, (a large assortment) 

CELLS complete, also the differ¬ 
ent parts separate. 

CALL BELLS (as per illustra¬ 
tion) different sizes. 

gle and double, different qualit¬ 
ies suitable for in and out-door 

INDICATORS, with 6. 9 and 12 

numbers. (Sn aller sizes can lie 

. made to order.) 

RIES for fixing and repairing bells 

<&C. &C, CvC. 

Okuriki, Sawada 4 Co. 


(Opposite the former Chinese Telegraph Office.) 
Priceslow. Satisfaction guaranteed. 

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offers good accommodation to visitors. 





Established 1864. 



Special attention is given to the Provision & Household 
Store Department, which comprises a fine assortment of 

all stores, groceries and preserves necessary for the house¬ 


Terms Cash. 



Being a Vocabulary of Korean Colloquial Words in 

Common Use - - - - Price $2.50 

A Manual of Grammatical Forms. - „ „ 


j\a:m::kjs scott, nun. jy. 



No. 7. 



JULY, 1896. 




Alexandis Poleax. 


H. H. F. 


F. H. M6rs :l. 


Rev. Jas. S. Gale. 


H. B. Hulbert. a. m 














*r -'Tnura, §3.00. 

Per crpy, 30 c. 

| g 8 d" 

; Published at 


< 9 \ 


Go gle 






Residents in the interior and outports 
can depend on getting the whole of their 
requirements QUICKLY forwarded 
carefully packed and at equally low 
prices as if imported from home. A 
specialty is made of obtaining all 
goods not in stock and attending to 


Whymark, Kobe 

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» :» 

T. WEEKS & Co, 

Telegraphic address "Weeks, Shanghai." 

Sole agents in Shanghai for 
Celebrated “K” boots & Shoes. 

The Singer Sewing Machines. 

E. C. Burt & Co. New York. 

Brown’s Satin Boot Polish. 

Dr. Jaeger’s Woolen Clothing. 

® Automatic Knitting Machine. 

^ The Cellular Clothing Co. 


S. D. LESS tm. 


Baker and Compradore 

Fresh Supplies by every Mail Boat. The most reduced 
prices quoted. Goods when ordered from the interior or 
elsewhere will be carefully packed. Packing free of charges. 

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Original from 



-aapiva uyi tj wsmwmwi* 

Published Every Morning, Sundays and Holidays excepted. 


(Payable in Advance) 

One Month ... *1.00 One Year ... $10.00 

Postage Free throughout Japan and Korea. 

/HE DAILY ADVERTISER has a larger circulation thru 
. ny other daily paper published in the English language in Jap- 
. n, and is therelore without a rival as an advertising medium. 

. Rates on application to tile undersigned. 


aa&aa wamn mvm'anm. 

Consisting of from 24 to 32 pp., 

Published Every Saturday Morning 


(Payable in Advance) 

Six Months ... $3.00 One Year .. 

Postage Free Throughout Japan and Korea. 




List of Firms, etc., in Japan, Korea and Wladivostock; Japan¬ 
ese Government Departments; The Peerage of Japan; 


Alphabetical List of Foreign Residents in Japan, Korea and 
Wladivostock, and an 

Appendix of Useful Infoi mation. 

With Lithographed Plan of Yokohama. 


Publishers and Proprietors, 

No. 49 , Yokohama, Japan. 

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JULY, 1895. 


A bout 20 miles above Chemulpo the Han River suddenly nar¬ 
rows and takes a bend around two bluffs which stand on op¬ 
posite sides of the river facing each other. Up to these narrows 
the river is quite broad; beyond them it again broadens, ojiening 
apparently into a wide, placid, land-locked bay. Such is usually the 
impression made upon a traveler coming up the river for the first 
time. As the tide sweeps his boat through the narrow channel 
around the bend into the waters beyond, he beholds especially at 
h igh water the wide expanse of the tide-swollen river extending 
one half mile or more from shore to shore, while in the distance 
ahead the hills of Kangtvha and Tong jin descend to the water’s 
edge and appear to meet and lock the river in a basin. The illu¬ 
sion is complete. 

The large volume of water winch here spreads out so far, 
]K)urs through the narrow channel at a tremendous rate, swirling, 
twisting itself over rocks ami shallows and fretting against the 
edges of the tortuous channel. This has led foreigners to name 
the place the Kang wha Rapids. The Korean name is Son-tol-mok 
which rendered into English is Son-tors Narroivs. Thereby hangs 
a tale. 

I The Apotheosis of a Ferryman. 

It was the original plan of the Founder of the reigning dy¬ 
nasty to place the seat of his government at Kay-riong San in 
Cholla Province but being supernaturnlly warned to seek another 
location, came north via Chemulpo, Han Vang (the present Soul) 
having been indicated as the proper place. * This is not the oar- 

*See most interesting articles entitled “A visit to a famous monastery” 
by Rev. I). L. f'.iflord in Repository Roll. 1S92, and "Tne beginnings of 
1 bul" by Rev II. (j. Appcnzcltcr— idem. May. 

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.* 'K! 

« ..rinuii"*. t»t ■..* «» ntcrnn'!*-: * 

-• *• l vh> M“**ti *: \ •. .»• m. i!r!*! * Ti— 

' I s I ;l:* -I V t k i i*t -- ’ 

\ • ’ !>• iv »: .r *ri - -tv _• ~ 

-J’ltul. lit ur; «• ^tu. !* - - i 

’ :at >«-v r.’t' 

V4 ~.m. \u\ ■.jiuiui-'i*-. •w: m ^.r?^r >' 

V'.k”' »-v • t 

'■*- ^rTT 




was once popular in Korea. A shrine was erected at royal expense, 
an<l sacrifice ordered to be offered periodically by local officials, and 
his name was given to the swiftly flowing waters below, so that as 
long as the bluff should stand, and the water scurry by they 
should perpetuate the name of the ferryman of Chemulpo, and 
evidence the repentance of a righteous and humane Monarch at a 
royal blunder. 

Some time ago I visited this famous spot. The grave of the 
posthumous hero stands out clear and distinct on the farther end 
of the bluff visible to the traveler coming up or going down the 
river. A wall intended as a fortification runs out on the bluff, 
iuside of it being the grave, while on a small knoll is the shrine 
to Sou tol, — an insignificant structure of sticks and mud, covered 
with a thatch and in dimensions about 8 feet square and 7 feet in 
height. A rude caricature is pasted on the wall intended, I would 
say, as a portrait of Son-tol, and Ijeneath it is a long shelf to hold 
the votive offerings. The building which thus serves as a shrine 
is of recent erection. The original building may have perished 
during that wave of anti-Hero-worship which about a generation 
ago destroyed a large number of the temples erected to the wor¬ 
thies of Korean historv. 


II Martyred Priest and Convert. 

The scene up and down the river from the top of the bluff is 
very pretty. The varied scenery of Kong 70 / 10 , the bluffs on whose 
brows perch forts like crowns of stone, humble hamlets among the 
hills on each side of the river, in the distance here and there a 
white robed Korean, while lazily dropping down the stream one 
beholds a shapeless, rude native junk, silent as though it were 

“The dead, steered by the dumb;” — 
all which combine to make a scene for contemplation. It would 
have been pleasant to have left the bluff with this as a last 
impression, but tragedy clings to the spot, hiding even in the un¬ 
derbrush. The Koreans themselves do not frequent the bluff and 
the underbrush grows quite rank. As I was trying to force my 
way through it, I stumbled and found mv foot had hit against a 
long, rusty, iron cannon, lying dismantled on the ground, and 
hidden by weeds and bushes. Swift as thought I was carried 
down the course of time to another and more terrible tragedy 

Under the self-sacrificing labors of devoted Roman priests, 

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Tin: k<>ki:a\’ ukih-itouy. 

.i i; itv % from 1 on, st«*:ulv mul 

tlit' kotvnit*. Many \\rn* l«*t 1 t«» niiomur tin* \v<»r>lii|> o| 
anti ti tiilu's, anil \triv iu>tnirttil uml lui[»ti/<tl. 
rjvi> ii n niotiial attrai tiil anil licltl tlinin ami the <*on>4»]a- 
V.vii : .*^ ami *ou-:nmti«s in mnmvtiou w irh tin 1 ihtnl 
-v v-r Korean to Nvonn- mi»miit<»! to tin* puttimj 
' • . !• ;ria! ritual. Th* G».\t rmm nt of tin 

v - \ 7 a ' : . . i v :!>• j* ... v . r !u-ion, ami 

- ^• ■ ». r.tit.i: h t«* rwrythimj 

. v ■ - ^ v t ,; with ^ ;: nn ami 

‘ : * r r ■> in t»» 1 <t- 

« • z * k. ♦ n . i» . t * *■* *» »• r~ * • * t i «■_ i ’ •« I 

• * - ‘ :;*r * »r-. tt. ~*r .2 

• it .ii 

C - 1 t • 

O* —* ;« ‘V liii.T’X :U.- 

• ■ : p*:h in <* ami K^t-outi 

- /• *3It. V II!! If Iio 

• ’ :i»* * v-imon of %,'■* t!»• 

. \ ip* ir-ii't. v i:i. ili- in*• *i t»: 

;s«i; •- ..) ! rm. eonim, 

- \* <\iuu'. iwioyt 

. • *.i*4n«M i* 

- ~ iranum uii(i**T iotu \ m 
li :* i i!*- am. e- uj» 

- nulm-mimm 

*-»o] ■: 1 1OTTO! o: llia<*U 
v ir.\r \. |.;r tin 1 ‘ini— 
a. \ j • ran 
*.t, itva in 1 -** n*i.K ailvan- 

*. i o iii r iiv.ti! n 

- ' ■ >:i‘ • mm*iiifi i. mtt* tin 

. !, : i i«mk‘ iwrain* tin 

• 1 Tru" 

• • . v. wm- i . nil!’t io 

i - ill: 1. oi. 

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w iiKui: tiik iian iu:n:>>. 


troying tin harmless town of Yong-jong opposite, ami giving it- 
Admiral's name to Ro/a'* Island, departed. 

This i*x|Militioii was not fruitless. It taught the Koreans 
the necessity of ii»rtiiyinjr the approaches to the Capital. I mid¬ 
dle vigorous administration of tlie Prince Parent the whole coun¬ 
try was enlisted t«» made the Capital impregnable to the Ht'uk-£ * 
jit “Mark (Wants/’ The walls am] torts on hoth sides the river 
were put in a state of repair and new ones orcetid. The arma¬ 
ment, which up to that time, as now, had consisted of thorn-bushes, 
climbing ivy and ]H>rt-holes was increased by the addition of guns. 
A volunteer militia was levi<*d and preparation made to give the 
}Iink-go-i il a hot reception the next time lie 1 came. And that 
was how the cannon I had stumbled on had conic there. It had 
served its purpose, and now was lying dismanthd, rusty and 
inIss, with the heel of a Hcuk-go jii on its neck. And the old 
rusty cannon like the bluff and its shrine is a memento of tragedy, 
a blunder, and human folly. 

III. Tout Palos. 

When was the gun overthrown? In May 1S71 a fleet <4 
American warships appeared on the Han to negotiate a treaty with 
Konkins. Hut neither the Koreans nor the Americans had the 
requisite exjierirnec of cadi other which might have avoids! ^im¬ 
plications. Each was ignorant of the habits, customs and frame 
of mind of tin* other. Where they ought to have walked as eir- 
eiinisjxvtly as a eat on the top of a picket fence, Ih> 1 li parties acted 
like a bull inn (Tina shop. I*aek of tact prmpitafr-d a struggle 1 . 
The Americans sent a surveying party inside the Korean lines of 
defense to examine the river and the Komi ns liivd on them. 
This was the spark needed for the explosion. An exjHxlition of 
nliout 7(H) men was fitted out from the fleet and furred its way up 
the river to the historic bluff on which I stood, and having wreak¬ 
ed sad vengeance on the Koreans spent its font* here* and rot rami 
its steps. 

Looking down the river I could s<r the line of forts from 
which the Koreans had tried to oppose the on-coming Htuk go- 
ja. r. A few shells wen* sufficient to clour them of their defend¬ 
ers. There in the distance on the right bank of the river is tin* 
place where the American troops leaving their boats (under cover 
of fog the Koreans now claim) plunged through the mud jiorfhrm- 
ing sueossfully the diif.cult task of dragging their guns through 

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th'* w/t -!irnr- of nitifl flat- to Ann land. Ju-t a little nearer 
ri (lie bluff with a small fort nam'd by its captors Fort 
1 Juroii'!*', and l/ack of 11*I- i- the -in* of the night’s encampment, 
lb re the turn and marine slept on their arms awaiting the light 
of the next day, which wa* Sundav. 

The work U*gan early. Marching up the right hank the 
first loll captured was nam'd Fort Monocaev. It yielded with¬ 
outa struggle. Iiight across from old Son-tol's bluff there is a 
high hill crowned by a flirt, which sends out a ramification a- 
long the cost of the spur of the hill; this ramification is lower 
than the fori and comes to the water’s edge almost within a 
stone’s throw* of S on ful's resting place. 

The Americans found the fort alive with Koreans. Here 
they had gathered determined the enemy should go lull her. Shot 
and shell wen* pound into them; breaches were made in their 
stone fortifications but still thev held out with doirged determina- 
tion. The bluejackets then formed for a charge, and in the face 
of’ a heavy fire rushed up the hill, over thewa 11s or through the 
breaches in the fort on its top, into the midst of the yelling Ko¬ 
reans. It became a hand to hand struggle, and the carnage was 
frightful. The Koreans did not know' how to surrender to lleuk- 
— they wanted to kill them. It was a vain struggle. The 
blue-jackets forced them out of the fort down into the ramification. 
As the Koreans would not yield, this place became u slaughter 
|h*u; they fought until noon, by which time the last Korean W'as 
dead or an unwilling and desperate prisoner. But in the struggle 
Lieutenant McKee had fallen mortally wounded and in his honor 
this fortification lx*eame Fort McKee. 

What jutrt the Ibrt on Stoi-foi's broxv played in the fight I 
do not know. I find however that in maps of the engagement it is 
named “Fort Palos.” 

The forts weiv dismantled and much that was in them 
carried nwav. And the cannon on which 1 stood wits probably 
dethroned at that time. 

And so this old hlnll, with its grave, shrine, fort, dismantled 
cannon and traditions commemorates a victim of despotic power, 
the martyrs of a Christian cult, and the deeds of a needless, result- 
loss and regrettable conflict. 

Alexandis Poleax. 

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T he sight of two Koreans, in their white robes and black hats, 
marching gravely along the street yesterday, recalled to my 
mind memories of the duys when I dwelt among those simple 
and kindly folk in that far off land of pine covered hills and 
smiling valleys, now rudely awakened, alas, from its sleep of ages 
and dragged unwillingly into the fierce light of modern day, to Ik* 
a prey for the nations to fight over and a helpless victim of the 
enterprising globe-trotter. Flow little these good people who lately 
have written so much about Korea, hurrying through the land 
with camera and sketch-book, in breathle&s haste to print and 
bind in fantastic cover what they have seen, how little they really 
know or care about this longsuftering people in the land of C'hos n. 

But I must not venture to criticise them and their work, lx*- 
eause although I have read them I have already forgotten their 
contents. It Ls almost impossible to know or understand from 
lx*oks, or even by a cursory visit. One must have lived there, le 

watched the every day life of the people, traveled through the *li 

country to appreciate what an intensely pleasant little corner of 
this earth it is: a place wherein to live contentedly forgetful of 
the outer world with its never ceasing round of hurried work and 
pleasure and morbid desire lor news. This description of course 
applies to Korea before the war, Korea of last year and of a thous¬ 
and years before that. Now “the old order changcth, yielding 
place to new,” and of that new order I know little and have noth¬ 
ing to SJIV. 

My thoughts carry me back to the springtime in Korea, 
when nature, waking from her long winter sleep, has shaken oft 
her covering of snow and is donning her wreath of fresh, green 
leaves, embroidered with flowers. I can sec the hills around Seoul, 
blashing with azalias, red and pink; the valleys, with tints in¬ 
numerable of green, yellow and brown and grain ripening for the 
harvest: the silver streams flowing noiselessly along to join the 
great river. 

You have often, have you not, gentle reader, walked up 
Xaru San on a spring day, through glades oi lias rooks and 

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fa?a vi?a?Mi? o’ as 



gn*en swards, following 1 the city wall as it climbs to the top. You 
have heard the birds singing, the pheasant calling, and seen the 
shy violets peeping out from their lx*ds of moss and ferns wait¬ 
ing to 1)0 plucked. You have stood on the projecting meks and 
gazed at the city outspread Ix neath like a panorama with its 
cos, houses, streets and white crowds bustling along and von lifted 
your eyes to the hills beyond with their brown sides and serrated 
peaks range* after range, far into the blue distance and you have 
said perhaps to your companion or to yourself (lor one needs no 
companion when alone with nature) “The founders of this city wen* 
indeed wise and not without an eye for beauty.” On the top of 
Nam San von have rested on one of the* l>eaoons where in olden 
days flashed tidings of war and peace from height to height across 
the land; you must also often have visited tin* valley sheltered by 
the hills skirting the road to Peking where under the cool shade 
of thickly wooded slopes huge lilies rear their barefaced heads, in¬ 
viting comparison with the purple iris and red azalis. The 
ground here is carpeted with flowers and ferns innumerable while 
the sweet lillics of the valley wave* their white heads amid the 
bright green leaves. Down the hillside wanders a woodland 
stream to join the larger one that flows through the yellow sand. 
The view up this valley with its pine elad dark green hills on 
either side, the yellow sand and shining river with tlx* blue canopy 
of the sky above and stream all round is truly lovely and not to 
Ik* forgotten. 

Then as the shades of evening are gathering to walk home 
briskly over the hills, looming high in the twilight, fearful lest 
the gates Ik* shut and you will have to climb the wall, to sit in 
one’s garden after dinner and watch the moon raise her bright orb 
above Nam San’s dark outline while the great 1x41 tolls g (mk 1 
night to the tired city and another day with its work and pleasure, 
jov and sorrow. 

II. II. F. 

Shanghai April 28, 1893. 

Go gle 

Original from 



M ok-Poo is one of the places to be opened. Having had a 
little experience in this neighborhood it may not be with¬ 
out interest to give a few points to the readers of The Reposi¬ 
tory. The appr< »aeh from the sea is not an easy one, strong tides 
prevail and many dangers exist which even the careful survey 
made in 1884 by H. 11. M. S. “Flying Fish” failed to note, as 
many sunken rocks some only a few feet below the surface have 
been found since at low water. If Rfivon Sou kang is made the 
harbour, there is this objection that it is narrow and deep with a 
very strong current and bad holding ground. The country where 
the settlement is to be located is barren and the only town of note 
is Che Jin, some ten miles to the west. The river further up is 
broader, less current and better holding ground so that if Mok- 
Poo is opened as a port it should be located further up the river. 
My impression, however, is that the choice should not fall on 
Mok-Poo but Ku kimdo a place some 27 miles south and occupied 
at present by the Japanese as a naval station. It is called in the 
Admiralty Chart “Long Branch;” also “Nautilus” from the fact 
that it was surveyed in 1885 by the Imperial German cruiser 

The approach here is easy and the port presents two sections. 
The outer harbor is very large and was used by the Japanese in 
the late war as a rendezvous for her war-ships and transports. 
There is little or no tide, as the place is landlocked. The inner 
harbor has been surveyed with much care and has all the requi¬ 
sites needed for making it a desirable shipping place. 

There is one drawback at Ko kim-do and that is there is no 
natural waterway. There is none, but should a natural water 
way be made the only condition for a port? It does not seem to 
me that it ought to, especially when other considerations of a prac¬ 
tical character outweigh it. 

The other to be opened is Pyeng Yang. A writer in the 
April number of the Repository informs us that a tramway (drawn 
by coolies and horses) mas between a place called by bim Sam 
IIwa; the proper name is Xan-pn, but where. Cheung Nam-po is 






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he fails to tell us. This lie reports as the place to be opened as a 
port. The tramway is at Nan-po, on the Pyeng Yang inlet aiul 
was selected not for its practicability of anchorage for shipping, 
but because the country between this place and Pyeng Yang is 
less broken, almost a plain and therefore adapted for the main 
purpose of the tramway. As a harbor, however, it is the poorest 
in the whole inlet. At flood-tide there is hardly any current, 
while during the most part of the ebb, the current is strong ainl 
sets with more than a whole force on this point, caused by the 
current striking the opposite point above and therefore sending the 
whole fort* at Nan-po. At the favorable point here, only about 
two vessels can be moored and it would be advisable to moor 
both anchors ahead, to give more strength to the holding capacity 
of the bow-tackle against the strength of the ebb stream. As a 
harbor it is not at all practicable in my opinion, and I should say 
the head of the inlet, though the country is not as well adapted for 
a settlement as at Nan-po. Chul-do, the head of the inlet, com¬ 
mands two water-ways the Ta Tong river and the Wuel Tang 
river. The former in its course through the province of Ping 
An has many tributaries and a stream called Nak-Sa-Kae 
empties into it from Whang Hai province, seven miles above Chul- 
do. Chul-do itself is an island at the head of the inlet and forms 
the western limits of the Whang Hai province. As a port it 
is admirable, four or five fathoms of water and a moderate even 
current with good holding ground. I saw here in 1889 as many 
as fifty Chinese junks loading beans, tobacco and other products 
of the soil. Some of these junks carried as many as 800 bags of 
beans, while a number of smaller Chinese craft went up to load 
in the Wuel Tang, but none went up the Ta Tong. 

I mention this to show the natural facilities here for making 
this place a port and that I believe that all trade carried on here 
must be done by water portage and not by land. Many of the 
tributaries of the Ta Tong lead into the most fertile and produc¬ 
tive districts and pass by not a few large towns. All the cereals ex¬ 
ported thus far have come from these districts and from those on 
the east side of the river, while but little has come from Pyeng 
Yang and the adjacent districts; but if information is correct has 
gone to China by way of the land route. 

Again coal mines are also east of Pyeng Yang as well as 
others and would be more practicable to come down in boats to 
Chul-do, than to l>e shipped across the river to take a land route. 

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It should bo stated in this connection that vessels drawing fifteen 
feet of water can go to within ten miles of the city of Pyeng Yang 

I have now pointed out the advantages and disadvantages of 
the sites that may be opened as ports. At Pyeng Yang, Chul-do 
as a hurbor with natural water communications has more advan¬ 
tages than any other place mentioned, while it is the opposite at 
Mok-Poo which in fact has no ftoints in its favor either as a har¬ 
bor or for a settlement. 

Before closing, a word as to the manner of selecting sites for 
open ports may not be out of order. In selecting a port it would 
seem to n e the foreign representatives should invite a commission 
composed of several nationalities, merchants and nautical men and 
choose the place selected by this commission. In China for exam¬ 
ple, when a light-house is to be erected, it is not left to the report 
of the harbor-master of the district or to the coast inspector. Re¬ 
ports are asked for from the shift-masters and the position favored 
by the majority of these is chosen and the result is invariably 

When new ports are opened, no separate settlements should 
be gra nted but a site should be selected for a general foreign settle¬ 
ment and all of whatever nationality should live there. I call 
attention to the fact that in the three open ports in Korea, the 
Japanese have decidedly the best sites for their settlements which 
is especially true here at Chemulpo. 

In opening more ports, I hope the patent blunders of the past 
will not be repeated. 

F. H. Morsel, 

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I N the 7th. moon of Pyeng-in year, (ISfifi) a dark-colored 
foreign ship with many ropes hanging from its masts, was 
sighted on the Ta Tong River. It dropped anchor first at 
Keujsa Gate, the line between P'yung-an and Whang hit 
provinces, and there it waited. 

The governor (l’ak Kyoo Soo) of Pyeng Yang sent a mes¬ 
senger to inquire into the coming of this ship. Py writing 
characters they managed to communicate, and were informed 
that the foreigners had come to exchange goods with the Ko¬ 
reans. They were from the land of Mi (United States), and 
were in all nineteen persons, the chief l>eing Ch‘oi Ranhun and 
Clio Neungpong. f J here were several orientals aboard, of short 
stature and dark complexion. These understood characters and 
so server! as interpreters. 

The messenger inforn ed them that it was contrary to Ko¬ 
rean custom to deal with foreigners, and that if relations were 
ever established it must l>e by the king, ami could not L» 
through the governor of P‘yung an province. He then asked if 
they n ight send aboard something to eat. They replied that 
they desired nothing but wheat Hour and eggs. The messenger 
returned and reported to the governor. 

At this juncture, without awaiting a reply, the foreigners 
weighed anchor and came up as far as Mangyungda, a hill some 
twelve li from Pyeng Yang. Above this is C row Rapids which 
shuts off further progress. 

The night following there were heavy rains on the mount¬ 
ains that form the watershed of the Til Tong river, and. while 
none fell in Pyeng Yang, the river rose raj idly. It being the 
15th. of the moon there were also high tub s. This lifted the 
boat sufficiently to cross Crow Rapids, a rise of water said to 
have been S’ldom seen before. The foreigners thinking this the 
ordinary depth of the river crossed the raj ids, and made their 
boat fast just above Yang Jak island. 

An adjutant (named Y>) now went on hoard with four and 



e»<;8, and carrying tbiB message from the governor. “You 
have come right up to the walls of our city when asked to re¬ 
main outside, and have insisted on trade which is contrary to our 
laws; matters have come to such a pass now that we must hear 
from his majesty the king before we can decide,” and thus the 
officer came and went several times. 

It was the second year of the present king, buttheTai Won 
Koun was then Lord High Executioner for Korea. He thought 
this foreign ship meant a new invasion of Koman Catholicism, 
and so his reply was. “ If they do not go at once have them 
killed.” The day preceding this reply the river had gone down, 
and the lx>at was already hopelessly fast in the mud. 

The governor sent his soldiers to carry out the orders. 
Ar ms and ammunition were dealt out, bows and arrows were 
also in demand. The Americans seeing the threatening attitude 
of the natives, seized the adjutant, who had come on board for a 
last visit, and made him prisoner. “'Never mind the adjutant,” 
sajs the governor, “fire on them!” and now the fight began. 
It lasted four days, and the whole country was covered, we are 
told, with spectators. From the ship huge guns went off that 
shot ball ten li and roared thunder that could be heard a day’s 
journey away. Fits of broken metal were scattered through 
the crowd. The one who tells the story was then a boy eighteen 
years of age and in the confusion he was struck by one of 
these fragments on the back of the hand. It lamed him for a 
little. “To my surprise,” said* he, “I found I was still alive.” The 
archers and soldiers, some of whom had been killed, now re¬ 
fuser! to go anywhere near the boat and at a distance their aim 
was us dess, for the foreigners concealed behind the gunnel left 
them no mark. 

They then tried the Tortois> Boat, a scow mounted with 
cannon that has a protective armor of sheet iron and lmll-hide. 
The front part of this lifts when the shot is fired, and closes im¬ 
mediately after. They tried several shots but found it impossi¬ 
ble to pierce the ship. Thus far Hit General Sherman had the 

Then a drill sergeant Fak Ch'oongwun fastened three 
scows together Ivefore the East Gate, aud piled them up with 
brushwood, which he sprinkled with sulphur and saltpeter. Long 
ropes were then fastened on each side by which to navigate it. 
It was then set fire to and let down toward the ship. But the 



first failed, and the second, and only after a third attempt, was 
The General Shennan seen to be on fire. 

The crew were smoked out, and came tumbling into the 
water on both sides. Some had jars with them, which, when 
opened, seemed to contain a thick brown oil unknown to Koreans. 

Drill sergeant Pak in a small l)oat that he had ready, push¬ 
ed quickly up to the ship’s side and rescued adjutant Yi, who was 
still alive. 

The wretched foreigners were now hacked to pieces by the 
furious mob. One or two who reached shore carried a white 
flag, which they waved while they bowed repeatedly. Put no 
quarter was given, they were pinioned and cut to pieces, then 
the remains were still further mutilated, certain parts were cut 
off to be used as medicine, the rest gathered up and burned in a 

When the fire burned the ship, there re named the iron 
ribs that looked like posts driven into the ground. These have 
since been melted down and used in various ways 

The two or three pieces of cannon were placed in the ar¬ 
mory of Pyeng Yar.g, where they now are, and the chains of 
the ship are still seen hanging between the pillars of the East 
Gate tower. 

There is a miryuk (Buddhist image) near Crow Rapids. 
The crew it seems had told adjutant Yi that l>efore they left Chi¬ 
na they had consulted a sorcerer who said “ There is danger 
before the miryuk of a city that has stood alone a thousand 

After all was over the governor of Pyeng Yang had a cele¬ 
bration in ynngjvan summer house, with music and dancing at 
the same time despatching a letter to the capital, in which was 
this remarkable statement. “ Drill sergeant I’ak when he res¬ 
cued adjutant Y'i, took him under his atm and leaped with him 
a hundred yards across the Ta Tong from the burning ship." 
When the Tai Won Koun read this, he laughed a great oriental 
laugh and commanded that Pak Ch'ongwun he made an aiile- 
de camp in Anjoo. 

Pak still lives in Kang-dong, P'jung an Province, 


T he Korean language of today is the language of South Korea. 
This is a logical deduction from the following facts of Korean 
history. At the beginning of the Christian era we see Ko¬ 
rea divided between three powers, Kokoria in the north, P&k 
,16 in the south west and Silla in the south-east. Pfik Je was 
made up of the former Ma-han and part of Pyhn-han, Silla was 
made up of the former Chin-han and the remaining part of 
Pyon- han. They were thoroughly southern— that is, the vast 
bulk of the people were from the original southern settlements 
which were described in the former paper. Kokoria the north¬ 
ern kingdom was always at war with China or with the wild 
tribes of the north and east and when at last she was over¬ 
thrown by the combined arms of China and Silla vast numbers 
— 3^300 families, — were taken bv the Chinese and carried en 
masse to what Koreans call Kang HoS* in Southern China. At 
the same time more than 10000 people followed the Chinese 
army back to China accompanying their deposed king. The 
whole of Kokoria was handed over to Silla as r&k Je had been 
and for the first time in history the whole of the peninsula was 
dominated by a single power. Silla administered the govern¬ 
ment of the peninsula, her language became the language of the 
peninsula and when a few centuries later the Kingdom of Korea 
arose it was from the body of Silla that it drew its birth so that 
it is well within the bounds of historical reason to say that the 
language of Korea today is the language of Southern Korea. 

Now where did the language of Southern Korea come from? 
Language is a growth, an evolution, not an invention. It is not 
subject to caprice. It holds within itself the marks and scars 
of all the race struggles. Like the geologic periods its language 
strata give evidence which is prima facie and without appeal. 
Did the Korean language come from China? In answer let us 
briefly recapitulate the characteristic features of the Turanian 
languages, (ai They are agglutinative rather than inflectional. 


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The dialects of China today are neither, (h) They are character¬ 
ized by the free use of suffixes rather than prefixes. Chinese has 
neither, (c) In the Turanian languages the order of the sentence 
is invariably subject, object, predicate. In Chinese it is common¬ 
ly not so. 

Let it l>e noticed that in every feature the Korean of today 
is plainly Turanian. On the other hand the Chinese dialects 
taken as a group have not yet reached the stage which Prof. 
Max Muller calls “phonetic decay/’ it is still a primitive language. 
It is quite inconceivable that had the Chinese ever been a highly 
developed language it should have retrograded to its present sim¬ 
plicity. It is likewise hard to believe that had Korean been an 
offshoot of the Chinese it should have left its progenitor so far 
l>ebind in the race of linguistic development. The progenitors 
of the Chinese seem to have scaled the mountains, which lie be¬ 
tween China and the reputed birthplace of the race, at a period 
anterior to the invention of alphabetic symbols and anterior to 
the beginning of the distinctively pastoral age. This race migra¬ 
tion being followed by the pastoral age, the Chinese were cut off 
from communication with the West by the imp< ssibility of bring¬ 
ing flocks over the great mountain barriers. The next great 
swarm of humanity to leave the Iranian uplands was what w*e 
call the Turanian peoples. Splitting at the apex of the Kuen 
Liun and Himalayas part went north into the Tartar plains and 
Siberia and part went south into the jungles of India. The next 
great exodus was of the Sanscrit speaking race which went India¬ 
ward driving before their superior civilization the Turanian peo¬ 
ples. These latter fled southward into the Deccan, across to Cey¬ 
lon and still further across to the Malay Peninsula and the adjoin¬ 
ing islands The question arises: was Southern Korea peopled 
from the north or was this the last wave of the groat emigra¬ 
tion of Southern Turanians breaking on the shore of Southern 
Korea? When we see the immense, distance its seems impos¬ 
sible but examine the map of the coast islands of China and you 
will see that from the Malay peninsula to Korea one could go 
from island to island without touching the mainland and almost 
without going out of sight of land. We know* that the ancient 
Sultans of Annaui claimed their descent from the Telugus of 
Southern India , we know that the native. Pom osars are close!v 
allied to the Malays: we know that the island of Quelpart 
south of Korea has been from time immemorial the breeding 

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D| g |tlze d MICHIGAN 



place of the dwarf ponies which find their only counterpart in 
Singapore and the neighboring islands. We know that the pecu¬ 
liarity of the people of Quelpart as of the native trilies of Formosa 
is the superior physique of the women over the men. We know 
that tradition says that the thn e sages of Quelpart found three 
chests floating in from the south east containing each a dog, a 
calf, a colt and a woman These are mere straws but they, to¬ 
gether with the facts brought out in the first paper, show more 
than a possibility that Korean may have come from the South. 
Rut we must hasten to see what light, if any, language will throw 
upon this problem. In the study of the question the following 
works are the ones which have been most frequently consulted. 
Adam’s Manchu Grammar, Remusat’s “ Becherches sur les 
languages Tartaros,” Caldwell’s “ Comparative Grammar 
of the Dravidian Languages,” Ivlapproth’s Chrestomathy, and 
various Korean histories. I choose the Dravidian languages 
of India as the basis of comparison from the South because there 
has been so little written of a thorough nature that is accessible 
on the Malay dialects and Formosan. 

Now in comparing Korean with the Dravidian * languages 
we find;— 

(1) That the vowels used in both are identical and that in 
each there is a continual use of soft e, o and a not common in 
the Tartar branch of the family: that the letters /, r, d are inter¬ 
changeable in both; both reject the voca'ized aspirates z and v; 
both reject double consonants at the beginning of syllables; in 
both, t and s are often interchanged; in both the laws of nasali¬ 
zation are the same. 

(2) Roth the Korean and the Dravidian languages have dif¬ 
ferent verbs to denote the two meanings of the verb “to be” one 
denoting existence and the other used simply as the copulad 
They each also have separate verbs of affirmation and negation.? 

(3) As for cases—what Caldwell says of the Dravidian applies 
perfectly to Korean, namely “Every postposition annexed to a 
noun constitutes properly speaking a new case, and therefore 
the number of cases depends upon the requirements of the speak- 

* The Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Tuda, Kata, Gond and Ku tribes of 
Southern India and Ceylon. 

+ and 6} cf. 

* and ^ 

Ill* kott> IS KKlUMTnkV 

:.•> v 

rl* and 1 in' liiil-w.l Soa/nrS ot ?, Vi^K’ii bo WIW> to <-\ 

] lcSs." 

*« ^ 1 n "» v t?t *r is condri « vpvssrd b\ in llviion 1: bo; it, tbo ad 
jocmo isdo$ ol ^^i ]aii°on In K lb, tbo l.tnnovaV at lv st 
in l ml, havo two tor.; s.olio s.b stMitivo and 1bo oi >*« i ad»<vnv< 4 
(Min Ivin tbo ordor ot tbosovtonoo is t:< si:.o- s.i'^vt 
ob cvt. ] rodinat*. ono.i l*oi:i£ 1 vawiaI b\ a. I i:s n adjViv 1 v.t in 

OMi h 11)0 0011.1 1 o\ V, O! .boiS of t MO VOVb OOM O IvlOVO OV< 1 > I MI .O 

o!$u\ Votii ivmm' n$o of i\»rnn;iativo javtvls v. stoad * i oon 
jnvotior.s. In U th tbo vrlaiiw ] vonoun is liolii v: but t < ad 
loelivo tarlieiylo is nsnd mstoad In kMmto roiotonss ov 
] ro\i ‘ it\ in } n^r oui $ is \vv\ i v»v: incut 

b'j In Umm, tbo vcib ston $ avo oon n onh r oi < s\ \W to and 
t!*0 Oltldo IWt is USaI OOM 1 ; ot)\ ;lS ,111 1 ' ]‘OVatlVO. W boil 1 
" llOiVir*; VoWol’ is HAMaI tlx' san C ono is\i 111 lolls 1 

( ) In K*th wo 111 nl roues ol volition w I toll ooinsporl to 
pvjosiiovs in Krjjhsb. J In loth tboro is tbo si o iao ot 
for.; aiivo {MVtiolos to doroto ditVivnt as] a tsin wl ioli an action 
ran Iv viowod § 

(M In son c' of tbo Pmlhan dialvts vodu] lioalioti I ns ore; t 
in, ilno ] rol ab]\ so Nn soiit n lln< 1 o< s but r\on m hoi van wo 
find tl.i' anon alms form a sovt of v«Nhnvioa*i\l in j • n 

tivo fnvn ti'.o stom Hr,7. In i otb, plun^lit\ is o\] vovsa! b\ a 
sopnato purl id*' ot pluvnli/ation and tl o su pdav is olton n ail 
<\1 l\v tbo uso of 11 h' i un oval ’Pirn' is a omioi h ooiivi 

donor in tl at wbilo in hotoan \\o t oil bitVon nt oaso n oil os toi 
anin ato aial inanin ato obvots, m tlio Pnivllian wo tm»l a <lif 
foivn? jartioP of I'hnali/ation to nail tlis distil otion \s \\r 
fuul in Kon'an a tlouMo plunl so wo tiial m tin' Piavult 

• I —MihvtaiUivc ;ali*'iti\c. 

l-£ - .. V- .. 

f The stem Klxrs c| G m uhi, h — w ,hr ,ir, l ,in K x,mH 

t ^J’—iiisiilo the hoiiM\ nt in the in 

which ^ ami aiv teal main , cpaiahlc ami ilnlinahlr 
( As C \ or ^^ in wlmh ami 

a i n 

formative pat tii lev 

|| As in Koiran we say nr in I n^li-ih "one ilav, n m» in (hr 

Dravidian vve liml mu It ininbinatimis as <h(i* mn n\ put ns) 

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an * Some Dravidian dialects cive gal the particle of plurali- 
zation but the older form is ted and in Korean the plural ending is 
ttul, a marked coincidence. 

(9) In both languages the instrumental case is sometimes 
formed by the use of the participle of the verb “to take.”t In 
lx>th languages there is what we may call a conjunctive cas? 
[n Korean its sign is oa or goa; in Dravidian it is otu or to. 
There is an interesting similarity in the use of k in the locative 
case. We sav ( sararn) euike or euige and in the Tamil it is hit, 
in Telugu ki. in old Canarese kt or kke, in Singhalese ghat, in 
Thibetan gya and the oriental Turkish has gc, ga or ghah. On 
the other hand the Manchu has de , the Mongolian dou , the 
Of tiak a kc. It is interesting rather than significant that th^ 
Tamil il, the Latin in and the Korean an all have the locative 
meaning “ in" and the negative meaning "not.” 

(10) The Korean and Dravidian languages are both lacking 
in l'ersotial pronominal suffixes, while we find in Turkish, 
Ugrian, Ostiak and other Scythic brandies of the Turanian 
family a common us^ of them. This is illustrated in such forms 
as the Manchu phrase wambi “I kill” in which the bi is the 
personal pronoun; or vksdembi “I put on armor,” bi being the 
pronominal suffix. This seems to be a radical difference and 
one which it is very difficult to reconcile with the theory of the 
northern origin of the Korean language ! 

(11) The Korean and Dravidian tongues both form nd °ct’ves 
very commonly by appending to the noun the adjective partici¬ 
ple of the verb “to become ”§ 

(12) In the comparison of adjectives we find another striking 

* In Korean I, , we, but we find S| in which either 

the plural form or the plural ending is redundant. So in the Dravidian 
< 11 fan he, avar they, but also the form a~<>ar<vral is found, a double plural. 

t As in Korean 1*1 lit “take the sickle and cut 

the grass" or freely “cut the grass with the sickle." So in the Tamil dialect 
we have Kadei kondu “having taken the knife" or “with the knife." 

J Two or three of the more highly developed of the Dravidian languages 
have pronominal suffices hut the fact that the more primitive of them are 
lacking in thc c e agues strongly that they arc due to Sanscrit influences. 

5-H *14 *15 means literally “a man who has become a beggar." 
The same idiom is found in the Dravidian languages. 

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The superlative idea is expressed directly in Korean only 

by the uso of some Chinese derivative adverb such as ^ 
meaning “most,” but it may also be indirectly^expreesed by us¬ 
ing the word meaning “ among ”, as' in the expression 

"among all* these books the 
history is good,” meaning "the best.” Precisely the same 
method is used in the Dravidian languages. Put in the com¬ 
parative degree the resemblance is more striking still. In each 

case use is made of the root of the verb “ to see.’* We say .2-3 
commonly in Korean but it is a vulgarism from In the 

expession ° l-f-M we say literally “This pen, 

when you look at that one, is good.” In other words “ this pen 
is better than that.” I am aware that some may demur at 

deriving this from the verb “to see” but as it is identical 

in form with that verb and we find pecisely the same idiom in a 
cognate language which affords so many other striking similarities 
we cannot well evade the issue unless we can show Borne tatter 
theory of its derivation. I had come to the decision that such was 
its derivation before I had found this idiom in the Dravidian. 

(13) In such a comparison as we have here instituted nothing 
can be more helpful than a study of the personal pronouns for 
they are perhaps the very slowest of all words to suffer from 
dialectic changes and phonetic decay. I tabulate therefore the 
first and second personal pronouns from a number of typical 
southern Turanian languages and from equally typical northern 
Turanian languages. 

Southern Turanian. Northern Turanian. 

Tamil . 



Turcoman . 

mam —“ I” 

Malay alam ... 



Finnish . 

mina „ 




Lapp ... ... 

nton „ 

Tulu . 








Votiak . 

mon „ 

Ku . 



Ostiak . 

ma ,, 

Gond . 



Manchu . 

bi (mi) „ 





Ugrian . 

Calmuk . 

bi (mi) „ 
mon „ 


In comparin 

o these 

we see 

that the theme of the southern 



Digitized by 


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branch is na and that only. There are slight variations but on 
the whole wonderful unanimity. With equal unanimity the 
nothem branch uses m but with a greater range of vowels. 

Southern Turanian. 

Tamil . ni —“ you ” 

Northern Turanian. 
Magyar . te—“ 



• • » 

ni ,. 


... chi 



• • • 



... se 

9 * 



Turkish ... 

... sen 


Telugu ... 

nivu ,, 

Georgian ... 

... s/ten 



inna* „ 

Samoiede ... 

... tan 



inu ,, 


..» dan 


Korean ... 



... ton 


Here W’e 




in the South n without an 

... dSX 

... nen #> 

exception while 

in the North t, s and d predominate, and they are really modifi¬ 
cations of one sound as commonly recognized by philologists. 

Castren, a high authority, thought that the n of the South 
came from the t of the North but the Behistun tablet settled 
that point by showing that ni was an original or at least a very 
ancient base of the second person. 

As the verb and its modifications plays so predominant a part 
in all Turanian languages we must examine it more particularly. 

(14) First as to voice. We find that while most of the 
northern branches have a passive voice, the Southern together 
with the Korean are entirely lacking in it. They both expess 
the passive idea imperfectly by the use of the verbal noun. In 
both the Korean and Dravidian languages the adjective partici¬ 
ples are usel either actively or passively , As for instance 
2 c f 2.} means “ the fence which was made yesterday " 

but means “ the man who made this 

fence.” In both languages the appelative verb is of the same 

nature and used only in the present, in Korean. In both 

languages, the verb is divided into three distinct parts (a) stem 
(b) tense sign (c) modal ending, and at the very threshold of 
the verb we find a most singular coincidence. We find in the 
Dravidian languages that in the present tense alone can the mod¬ 
al si<rn l»e suffixed to the adjective participle to form a verb. 

* But ni in oblique cases. 


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v * 

v > , * v > • 







\ V \' . 

. • \ y 


\ 1 


N t 


# \ 

• ^ \ . • t 

v > 





V., X.. v -V - 

y., ' . 

s yy 

. "1 A 

' > 




V» ' \ ; \ \ * 

» •- 




^ ; ? 

s v 


y \N 


, , ’N A. ». \ \ **{ 

* , ■ 



*1 \W 

» " 

| '•I 


H '* O'* ; ,'V 

' i \ 




i y 

v *| «| VW !>. *\\> 

«? > » 

1 \ 

. ■ 

' 5 l 

*\ V' 

1 . y 

yy| V 


VhJ hh P*h > 

n ■ y y. 1 

• * ‘ 

> • y < 

y y 

t« 1 

\y ^ V y 

y yl 

^'IHIIH lii'tl \V \ 'y \ \\> 

y V y 


y y y 1 



\\ Hut 

• y 

y \ y 

' 0 

'V»‘.oii\: llu' Ny'iil»\ i w 

\ \ thy \ 

M Ml 

y n 


y y u 1 

IK.. 1 

r 1 . 

\w Oh h 1 1 \\ W\ . 

l\ »'h y h 

h \\ * * 

0 , 


1,0 y l yy 

y 1 


hhlllt. \\\ l‘hihyl»y n 

h> Ihy 



h 1 y 

1 \ 

1 i i 

■ A ' y 

y h 


Ihl i Mil V lo 11 U' I’l'llt I 

ll 1 y h « 


• y <l> 

It .. 1 


1 yiy ili 

l lll M . 

ll, ll 


IlHNO l‘hoh hh \\\W | 

'.111 y >1 


i .1 

y 1 1 1 1 

Im 1 

h i 

i l 1 


tlt'N 1*1 ! l> lllri 1 1 > I’ll (III »,. 

U i’ •• 

\\ 1 



il y l,.i 

H 1 1’ 

> l. 1 

Inline hi iMNt lilt' i 

n. * i .1 

• >v 


*« i * 


.1 h • 

III ill 

1 1 1 


/W0#7 i*/ i*'$ #iW | . 

<i i >ini 


1 II ll 

Ml ill, 

itl. l> .. 1 

1 h 


n 1 

hi h II llll 1 «t :| hi.ll l <| | 

| i .t.jl » »i 1 


ll 1 .. 

1 . i 

1 .1 

1 l| l> 1 

1 ■ 1 I . 

1 r 


Mil iH’liM, " | .1 

it. * 

11 . 

.ll f i 

r l 


4 . • 

* III 




\ekc —“ Wo nan,” amila — 41 male bird,” emile —“ female bird,” 
'tinggen —“ strong spirit,” gtnggen—“ weak spirit,” wasime — 

‘ go up,” wesimc—" go down.” 'I’his is confessedly a striking 
contrast to Korean. 

Again the use of the personal pronominal suffix markedly 
differentiates them from Korean. Again the utter lack of dis¬ 
tinction between relative and verbal participles puts a gulf be¬ 
tween them and Korean that will not soon be bridged. Again 
we find syllables introduced l>etween the parts of dissylabic verb 
roots in forming some modes of the verb os in the Manchu— 
bibimbi— “ I am ” but bi akibade-bici - “ If I am.” A theory of 
too origin of Korean 8]>eech which should propose to place it in 
the North would find in the foregoing four consideratiors ques¬ 
tions which it must answer and answer satisfactorily. I am a- 
ware that the idea is advanced that Koreans came into thi 
jieninsula from the North at so early a date that we find in 
Northern Asia little traces of their passage. Does any one 
deem it jossi’le that the Koreans or theii progenitors at however 
early a date could have brought the na of the personal pronoun 
all the way from the Iranian plateau to the Southern shores of 
Korea around the north of China without leaving a single trace 
of it in any tribe or dialect? If so the task which philology' has 
to do is more than Herculean. 

I would add a word in regard to glossarial affinities apolo¬ 
gizing at the same time for the meager results due to inadequ ite 
preparation. Out of a list of 2">0 Dravidian words I found the 
following possible similarities to Korean. 












To light 



To turn, back ward 



li tin 

Mevk ka 

Mok (ita) 



Tadi * 



Iro Inao) 

To rise 






To shut 




* A* in -g; £(■£). 

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I T is a year since decided steps were taken towards the reforma¬ 
tion of the Korean Government The necessity for reforms seems 
to have been taken for granted sis by common consent. The 
memorable 23rd. of July 1894 when the Japanese troops entered 
the Royal Palace and took possession of the Capital will not be 
soon forgotten. It may or it may not mark an epoch in the his¬ 
tory of Korea. We have from time to time given the readers of 
The Repository information on the subject of reforms and of the 
progress made in that line. We call special attention to the 
review’, by Mr. Hulbert, in the Januaiy number, of the reforms 
inaugurated by the Council of State and to the twenty articles 
proposed by Count Inouye and discussed in the March number. 
We there stated that the acceptance on the part of His Majesty of 
the articles “changed Korea from an absolute to a limited or con¬ 
stitutional monarchy.” We see no reasons now, four months 
later, for changing our opinion. On the contrary, we shall note 
writh some satisfaction a few of the things that have been accom¬ 
plished. We do not venture a prediction as to the permanency 
of the changes already made, nor shall we allow ourselves to think 
that all those made were the best and wisest, our only object now 
is to state what is a simple matter of history. 

Possibly the greatest change made thus far, though perhaps 
not as apparent as some others, is the absolute rejection of the patri¬ 
archal system of government under which Korea has been ruled 
for centuries and the substitution for it of a system which defines 
the duties and prerogatives of the king and his officers. Under 
the old system the king did everything from the appointment of 
his ministers of the Center, Right and Left to granting special 
permission to keep open the city gates for the accommodation of 
belated foreigners. Under it the officials levied and collected 
taxes from a patient and long suffering people that expected to 
be oppressed to the utmost limit possible. It is estimated that from 
50 to 66 per cent of the money so collected went into the cap¬ 
acious ooflers of the rapacious officials. No one, high or low 

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thought of’ hooping or rondoring accounts. With the rejection of 
this system there naturally followed the necessity for the adoption 
of something to take its place. I jaws, laws for the king, laws for 
the officers, laws for the people, laws to be obeyed by all alike, 
laws so mude that ull are equal before them, necessarily followed. 
Allegiance to law must take the place of allcgiunee to individuals. 
This sounds the death knell to feudalism which has its strength 
in |K rsonal allegiance. This then is the first thing accomplished — 
tin* death of feudalism. 

Next in importance with those change, in the Central Govem- 
, ment arc the equally sweeping alterations in the provincial ad¬ 
ministration. Only a passing notice of those is necessary for they 
M ill be found in our review of the Official Gazette in this number. 
The exalted and vornerable titles and offices of A 'am sa, (gov< rnor) 
(e) A/ok-ia (prefect 1°) /h so (Prefect 2°) Kun sa (Prefect 
3°) //i at-gam and llyen-yong (Sub. Prefects) have been ubolish- 
«d and in their place the .Japanese system, which M’as adoptid 
from Fnmee, has boon established, By this system a large reduc- 
tion is to be accomplished in the number of official establishments, 
and consequently in public expenditure. 

In the next place we notice a wonderful improvement in 
• the collection and disbursement of taxes. The revenue of the 
country at a low estimate may be placed at yen 5,000,000. and 
to collect this, yen .’hit),000 ure needed. In April last follow¬ 
ing the directions of article VII, a Budget M’as prepart'd for the 
remaining ten months of the Korean year. The Department for 
Home Affairs has yen 525,11)8 placed at its disjxxsal. This is 
itemized so that yen 42,281 are to be devoted to office expenses; 
Han Stmg Poo yon 3, 221 ; prefectures yen 155,883; and for the 
subdivisions of tin* prefectures, hit'll! .salaries, travelling Arc. 323, 
813. l'.verv officer of the* government from the Prime Minister 
who mvivi'syen 5,000 per annum to the gate-keeper in the small¬ 
est of the twenty three prefectures is to receive a fair compensa¬ 
tion for his services. 

The \Y :tr lVpnrtmrnt h:is von 321,772 appropriated to it, 
while the IVpurtment of Kducation has the small sum of yen 
70,3*15* allowed it. In this latter department ivmmon schools are 
to U'etpmimh In order to prepare tochers for these schools, a 
normal school near the rrsidemv of the Tai Won Koun has been 
started. Two courses an* laid down The regular course is two 
years while the special is only eight months. Text-books have 

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not yet been prepared, but must soon be. [t is hardly likely that 
many Horace Manns and Thomas Hughes will be turned not of 
these schools the first several terms but it is the beginning of a 
good thing. 

The Judiciary on May 19 — 21 held an examination for can¬ 
didates to be admitted into the Law School. They were examined 
in Enmoun, Korean history, geography and Chinese. Of the 300 
or 400 candidates presenting themselves between 50 and 00 passed 
and were enrolled as students. The school was opened May 15 
and before the end of the summer some of these will be graduated 
as “attorneys at law” and possibly be promoted to the liench. The 
wheels must grind fast even if they do not grind fine. 

The jioliee force is thoroughly organized in Seoul. This is 
something new, In the Capital there are 8 inspectors, 30 sar- 
geants and 030 policemen. In each of the throe open ports there 
is a head police-station, 2 sargeants, 30 policemcm in Chemulpo 
and 20 policemen in Fusan and Wonsan each. 

The reorganization of the army. Korea has been dickering 
at this work for nearly a decade. We have seen the “General” 
and his staff sitting with characteristic self-complacency in a tent, 
knowing little and caring less about, military tactics; we have seen 
him in the street, groom in tattered garments leading the horse, 
several braves preceding him bawling and beating passers-by to 
clear the streets; the high perch on an ancient saddle was not only 
conspicuous but amusing. For the present these are things of the 
past. Several days ago we saw a mounted guard, evidently from 
the palace, riding through the streets unattended and overheard 
Koreans ask as they turned round for a second look. “Is he a Ja¬ 
panese or a Korean?” No such question would have been possi¬ 
ble a year ago. 

General Dye and other American officers who have been as¬ 
sociated with him have more than once told us that in their opinion 
the Koreans under efficient officers have the making of good sold¬ 
iers in them. It is a matter for congratulation that the old 
fogyism which so long blocked the path of those who have the 
best interests of Korea at heart is being wiped out and a genuine 
effort inaugurated to develope the military arm. 

Korea is to have a postal service. Only a beginning can be 
made this year. Seoul is to have a local delivery. Mail routes 
are to bo established between S»oul and Fusan, between Seoul 
and Chemulpo and Ix'tween Seoul and Song-do. 

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Wp i trie, in concluding, the new life the changes of the part 
twelve motif lie have wrought among the people. Hope has sprung 
up, even in the Korean's heart. A year and a half ago every thing 
was dead, when bottom seemingly had been reached. Now signs of 
tile are found on every aide, lluaineaa ia increasing; schools are well 
patronised while the aervieea on the Suhlaitli held by the Christian 
propaganda in Korea wen* never so well attended. Where men 
were afraid to lie seen entering a place of worship they now enter 
ojtenlv and Invite their friends. We have it on high authority 
that ('lirlstiaiilfy is the subject of conversation in nearly every 
glade of society. (’hurehes that were much too large for the regular 
congregations all* now mueh too small. Standing room is at a 
premium. Humors of “interference,” “protectorate,” “intrigues,” 
lonspiraev and counter eonspirucies an* afloat but beneath these, 
the new life is manifesting itself iu more ways than one. Korea 
can never return to the depth she had reached on the 23rd. of July 
1 SI'4. She may Is* nlMorhed, or annexed or divided, but as an 
autonomous government she must now go forward along the line 
of genuine tvtdrtn or wtvek herself in general anarchy. 

l'or the folith'lan and intriguer tin* outlook is not hopeful. 
I\w the patriot them is no end of hard work, but there is hope 
tin tin* ivuntrv. (>;«v <v»- a 


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To set aside laws and customs that have the sanction and 
sacred ness of age in a country like Korea is no easy task and 
attended with no little personal danger. The Home Minister was 
radical and out spoken in his views, more progressive than the 
sagacity of Count Inouye always approved. He rushed in where 
more experienced statesmen would have moved slowly. His 
aggressiveness made him enemies. The retirement of the Tai Won 
Koun, the banishment of the grandson, the resignation of tbs 
first Premier of the new Cabinet, Kim Hong Chip, made the 
way clear for the Horne Minister to take the helm of ship of 
state in fact if not in name. 

The Queen, it is seriously claimed, showed marked favors 
to him. He was pleased no doubt, but at the same time alarm¬ 
ed. While his advancement at the Palace continued, his course 
in reference to certain concessions asked for by the Japanese 
subjects displeased them. The counsels of the Japanese Minis¬ 
ter were not always heeded and if we are to believe reports cur¬ 
rent here now he did not have the full confidence of his friends 
who brought him back and placed him in power. 

At this juncture a Japanese soshi, we are told, held a writtm 
conversation with two Koreans in which he stated that Pak Yong 
Ho was plotting against the Queen. The conditions around the 
Minister were such that the story was believed. Their Maiesties, 
the King and Queen, wereiuformed. They professed surprise but 
prompt measures were taken for the arrest of Pak. This was 
late in the afternoon of the 6th. inst. 

A Cabinet meeting was called that evening which all the 
ministers attended with the exception of those of the Home and 
Law Depart! nents. It is said at this meeting the arrest was 
ordered and of course promptly approved by His Majesty. Early 
on the morning of the 6th. inst, the Minister of Foreign Af¬ 
fairs reported the action of the Cabinet to the Japanese 
Minister and asked his co-operation to secure the arrest, or at 
least not to give Pak any protection should he attempt to 

Many strange things happen in Korea and f is beyond our 
ability to explain the dilatoriness of the Korean Government in 
arresting the Home Minister or to account for the escort and 
transport furnished by the Japanese authorities to enable him to 
make good his escape. We merely record the fact, and leave 
the ^explanations to others. 

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The Minister of the Law Department still retains his port¬ 
folio. His failure to attend the Cabinet meeting on the 6th. 
gave color to the lielief that he was implicated with his associate 
this time, as lie was in 1H84. We are happy-to believe this is 
not the case. 

What effect will the downfall and departure of Pak Yong 
Ho have on the cause of reform P No one can tell or at least 
we have not been able to receive a definite answer when we 
have asked the question. 

The real cause of the whole trouble centers in the attempt 
to change the government from an absolute to a constitutional 
or limited monarchy. The limitation of royal power and pre¬ 
rogatives is something new in Korea and it is at this point that 
the storm is raging at presjnt. Every body believes in reform 
as long as his prerogatives are not questioned. The situation is 
not reassuring. 

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“Notes on Korea” by H. 8. Saunderson, Journal of the 
Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland for Feb¬ 
ruary 1S ( J5 This essay occupies 17 pages of the Journal and is 
marked to a commendable degree by terseness and simplicity in 
style. Mr. Saunderson’s paper is entirely innocent of any ev- 
i.lence of scientific investigation for its author falls into error at 
points where sufficient evidence is at hand to insure correct con¬ 
clusions; but more of this in detail further on. It is written in 
popular style, and being confined to the ordinary aspects of life 
in Korea is certain to be interesting. In it however we find 
certain errors which rather surprise one in the pages of an em¬ 
inent scientific Journal. 

In less than a page of history he makes out Kitzu (Ki-ia) 
to he king of “the somewhat mythical kingdom of Fu-yu, which 
is supposed to have been situated on the south bank of the Sun¬ 
gari River.” As a matter of fact one of the most interesting 
archaeological remains in Korea is the site of Ki-ja's old capital 
at Pyong Yang on the banks of the Ta Tong. Here the Sage 
set up his capital and named his dynasty Cho-son (Chao-hsien) 
of which name Mr. Saunderson seems to have heard but not in 
connection with Ki-ja, for he rather hazily says it was “ the 
name of an ancient nation inhabiting what is now the Chinese 
province of Shingking.” Mr. Saunderson founds Korai in the 
3d. century of our era. This dynasty was not existent until six 
centuries lat?r, w r hen the great Wang gon united the entire 
peninsula under his sway and took the dynasty’s name of Ko- 
rib (Korai). From these errors, we fear Mr. Saunderson’s 
knowledge of Korean history is scant in quantity and doubtful 
in quality. 

Passing over his paragraph on “physique” in which he 
perjx'tuatesOpperts “blue eyed, flaxon haired’’ Koreans, by sav¬ 
ing “ one frequently encounters eyes that am hazel or even blue 
in color” (italics ours) w-e find (p 306) the following “The 
French Jesuits made use of this very convenient disguise (the 

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i noumers costume) when they first came to Korea in 1835.” 
We submitted this statement to Bishop Mutel and he informs 
us there never were any ,l French Jesuits ” in Korea. 

Of Korean foods he says that their kim chi (sour-krout) 
is so atrocious that " 1 have never heard of a European lieing 
so bold as to taste the stuff.” If lie has any desire to be accu¬ 
rate in his statements we will furnish him with a list of “ bold 
Europeans” who have tasted “ the stuff.” “The natives will 
eat any thing, dogs, rats, weasels, crows, magpies—none of 
these come amiss to them.” We greatly doubt the propriety of 
putting rats, w'easels, crows and magpies,” in the list of Ko¬ 
rean food-stuffs. They may be used as medicine, but not as 
food. “ They eat with spoons and knives; chop sticks are also 
used , but not so largely as in China.” Oppert has it that the 
Koreans eat with knives and forks , and possibly he led the au¬ 
thor astray. As for the Koreans eating with knives , we would 
be equally correct if we said Mr. Saunderson ate with his fing¬ 
ers. Then as to the use of chop-sticks, it is universal. Consid¬ 
ering the fact that China has probably 400,000,003 professors 
of the chop-sticks, and Korea cannot show more than 12,000,000 
in that business, it is hardly fair to demand that she shall aver- 
ge up the difference or lie branded as deficient. We are forced to 
the conclusion that Mr. Saunderson was treading on unfamiliaF 
ground when he undertook to speak on the Korean bill-of-fare. 

These errors and inaccuracies we esteem of small moment 
however and we pass over a numlier of others of the same kind 
in order to call attention to three inexcusable ones which led 
to this review. The author says of the Buddhists (p 310) “They 
were the chief if not the only disseminators of learning, and to 
them the Koreans owe their language, which is said to have been 
invented in the eighth or ninth century by a learned Bonze named 
Pi tsung ” (italics ours). This is astounding and staggered us 
at first. We wondered what the Koreans did for a language 
previous to the time of the Bonze Pi-tsung. It is too bad that 
Mr. Saunderson after indefinitely throwing the burden for such 
a prize fact in philology on another person, should have dismis¬ 
sed it with no speculations as to how the Koreans communicated 
with each other previous to this momentous event, the inven¬ 
tion of their language by the Bonze Pi- tsung in the eighth or 
ninth century; did they bark, liellow or bowl ? Or possibly they 
were altogether dumb. Do give us the data on which this 

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statement is base! 'or the sake of the foolish philologists who 
seem never to have heard of these inventive Pi-tsungs y but still 
Rtupidly wrangle over the bow-wow theory and the pooh-pooh 
theory of the origin of language, 

w When the King is in need of money he adopts the ex¬ 
pedient of debasing the coinage” (p 515). It is greatly to be 
regretted that one who has been in the employ of the Korean 
Government should in a public place make a statement like this 
reflecting on His Majesty the King. We know it has been the 
fashion, especially among globe-trotters and seekers after cheap 
fame to trv and pillory His Majesty before the public of the 
West. No man has been 60 thoroughly misrepresented and 
maligned as he. The shafts of slander and libel have been aimed 
even at the sorrows of life. We think it time to call a halt in this 
contemptible business. As for Mr. Saunderson's statement 
about the debased coinage, it is certainly true that there were 
manipulations by a notoriously conscienceless faction, which 
brought the country to the verge of dire ruin, but the infamy of 
it belongB not to His Majesty the King but to those who deciev- 
ed him. A man in the position occupied by Mr. Saunderson in 
Korea might easily have ascertained the facts; either he did so, 
suppressed the truth, or else made the statement on pure as¬ 
sumption. In either case it is both reckless and reprehensible. 

“ But in spite of their good manners I have not the least 
doubt that the people, taken as a whole, would willingly kill 
ev n ry stranger in the country. They are arrant thieves, and in 
their utter disregard for truth, morality and decency, they ex¬ 
ceed both Ciiinese and Japanese.” (p 301). Frankly, there 
would be something rather human and even Anglo-saxon in 
the Korean's going on the warpath, if all foreigners entertained 
this opinion of them. We would not push a statement like this 
to more than its author would have it bear. It is simply an 
expression of Mr. Saunderson’s personal and very uncomple- 
reentary opinion of the people whom he thinks he is describing. 
We are inclined to think that he would find bin self in a very 
deep hole if some one should ask him for any evidence that “the 
nation as a whole whould willing kill every stranger.’ In fact 
the absurdity of such a statement as this is evident when one 
recalls to mind that it is doubtful if Mr Saunderson ever visited 
the interior of Korea. If personal testimony may be admitted, 
the write/ of this review would say that he has travelled over 

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•5000 miles in tlie interior in various directions out from Foul 
and lias v's.tcd all l>ut one of the provinces and he has yet to 
record having found even a local evidence cf a thirst for foreign 
blood, let alone a thirst in “the nation as a whole.” Without 
intending any discourtesy to Mr. Saunderson, we would bay 
that his opinion is an indefensible one, we doubt if it is held by 
any one familiar with the people of Korea, and as far as our ex¬ 
perience gcxis is erroneous in every sense. 

Then as for their “ utter disregard for truth, morality and 
decency” exceeding even the Chinese and Japanese, Mr. 
Saunderson must jxissess scales of a delicate construction to 
strike a balance like this or else he as acute as hut lei’s hem 
41 Who could a hair divide 
between the south and south-vest side ” 

Asiatic Cholera in Korea. 

This dread scourge I as made its appearance in the 
China Border Province of Pyong A • breaking out fir«t 
in lie city of We-ju. We are indebted to "Y. Ynira'T E*q. 
the Japanese Act. vico-Consul at Chemulpo for the re] t rt we 
present herewith. The Japanese have not suffered so much 
from it doubtless because they are more amenable to quarantine 
discipline. At We-ju they report 20 cases of whom «ver one 
half died. There was also a Japanese death at Oho Chong Kwan 
on .Tune 27th. It is among the Koreans that the disease is 
ii aking terrible ravages. The Japanese, army authorities m 
that section are using their utmost exertions to suppress tl e dis¬ 
ease among the Koreans, hut find it so far nn imy(ssible task 
owing to the latter’s intractahleness. They oh : ect to being re- 
> eve 1 to quarantine stations, where they would have the very 
best treatment possible. In cise of death full funeral rites are 
cel bra ted and the contagion thus spreads nn ong the enwd «>f 
re’ntives and friends who nssen 1 le. It will be seen that the 
number of deaths increased from five on June 21-22 to eighty one 
on <JiU\ Then there was a sudden decrease to twelve on July 
4th. T. :s decrease was not due so much to hi y abatement < f 
the Jisr-'M as to the fact that (approximate ™ iirate) 1 between 
70 o/ g and A0 % of the people of the il. fated eitv had fled. And 

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And to these fugitives probably is due the spread of the disease to 
other places. 

The course of the disease has, as far as our re]torts inform us, 
followed the great overland road from S ul via Fvcttg Ynvg and 
We-Ju to l'eking. The disease traveled 120 miles ia twelve days, 
breaking out in An ju on July 3d. An ju is 60 miles from Py ng r and 240 miles from Soul, The disease is coming this way. 
From time to time rumors have come of cases of Asiatic Cholera 
in the vicinity of the Metropolis. Happily so tar these have b en 
found to be unfounded. The situation however is undoubtedly 
grave. At Chemulpo, dysentery is epidemic, and at that place 
and the Capital there have been a large number of sudden deaths 
from cholera morbus. This it is that has given color to the 
alarm of the Asiatic scourge. The following table shows the 
deaths from Cholera in Pyong An province. 

Deaths from Asiatic Cholera among Koreans. 

(1) At We-ju 

June 2—22 — — 


„ 23-24 - - 



» ^ - — 



„ 26 - - 



97 _ _ 

yj - 1 



„ 28 - - 



„ 29 - - 



„ 30 - - 



July 1 — — 



*9 _ _ 




» 4 — - 





At C i >i- -n» June 21 

-26 — - 


C ) 

(h-d ’hon» Kwu.i 

June 27 (lJap.) 


„ S ng-chun 

„ 26 - - 

- 1 


„ An-,u July 4 

— — — 

- 2 

Total — — 



In this publication the G ivcrnment announces Royal Decrees and 
IVtxTm i.ions, appointment* an t resignations ol office, and other matters 

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<A official interest The period under our review covers the publications June 
15— July 1. A marked feature is the large number of resignations handed 
in, rangeing from Ministerial port-folios to grave-keeper and sexton at a 
Royal Tomb. The two most noteworthy are the resignations of Yi Chai- 
mydn, elder brother of His Majesty the King, and Minister of the Royal 
Household This of course s d>* to tbe Government’s banishment of hi" 
son Yi Chong-vong to Kyo-d * .r» ! tl»e restrictions on his father the Prince- 

Parent, Tai Won Kovn. i n l r. 2. h His Majesty rejected the resigna¬ 
tion of the Prime Minister » t • . i»*j * *r»g. 

f)n June 20th. under li *. k« \ *\ N d and Sign Manual, His Majesty ap¬ 
proves and proclames Roy,*/ Or> t * No. 97, which is the first in a series 
completely reorganizing the provincial administration. This ordinance (97) 
contains clauses abolishing all the old jurisdictions, with their offices, titles, 
distinctions, and emoluments. 

Royal Ordinance p 8(6 clauses) establishes 23 provincial Districts. Wc 
give them below, with the place of Administration, and the name of the 
new'ly appointed Governor, this latter from Gazette of June 22nd., 1895. 



Han S 5 ng 




Yi Chai-ydn 




Kim Kyu-sik 




Cho Han-kuk 




Yi Seung-u 





Nam w< 5 n 



Nam Won 

So Man-bo 

Yi To-jai 

Paik Na-kyun 




Han Keui-dong 




Yi Pyong-seung 




Yi Chai-kon 


Tong Nai 


Chi Sdk-yong 


Tai Ku 

Tai Ku 

Yi Chung-ha 


An Dong 

An Dong 

Kim Sok-chung 


Kang Neung 

Kang Neung 

Yi We 


Chan Ch’dn 

Chun Ch’6n 

Hong Man-sik 


Kai Song 


Ko Yong-ju 




Yi My/ng-s n 


Pydng Yang 

Pyong Yang 

Chong Kyong-won 




Min Chi-wan 


Kang Gay 

Kang Gay 

Kim Chong-keun 


Ham Heung 

Ham Heung 

H 6 Chin 


Kap San 

Kap San 

Paik Song-gi 


Kybng Sdng 

Kyong Song 

Yi Kyu-won 

Royal Ordinance qq (3 clauses) abolishes tbe post of Superintendent 
of Trade Kam-isa, at the Treaty Ports to take effect June 23d. 

Royal Ordina cr too orders the seat of administration of the Tok-w<?n 
Dist. immediately removed to YVVnsan (Gcnsan). 

Royal Ordinance joi (15 clauses) defines the duties of the chief ad¬ 
ministrative officers in the new provincial Districts who are to be known as 
Kwan C hal 'a (Governor) Liam So Ah an (Deputy Governor) and Kyong 
Mu Kwan (Police Justice). 

Royal Ordmance 102 (2 clauses) salaries these new officials. Governors 

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)*;#i8oo to 2200 a year; Deputy Governor Yen 700 to 1000 a year; 
Police Justices Yen 216 to 260 a year; Police Sergeants Yen 120 to 192 a 

Royal Ordinance 103 provides for the Salaries of Presidents of Pre¬ 
fectures ( Kun-su) who are to reside in the old magisterial cities and towns. 

Royal Ordinance 104 fixes the monthly wages of Prefectural and ad¬ 
ministration clerks (a-chon) at Yen 7 

All these changes go into effect (by. Ord. 105) on June 23d. 1895. 

On June 19th. His Majesty makes a Proclamation concerning the dis¬ 
turbed state of the people in the provinces. This he attributes to official 
incapacity and malfeasance. 

On June 25th. the Vice Minister of the Royal Household announced 
the appointment of the following posts in connection with the Palace Ad¬ 
ministration, without salary. 

Shim Syun Taik, 1st rank, Sr. 

Kim Py og Si, „ „ „ 

Cho Pydng Say, 

Min Y<mg Whan, ., „ Jr. 

Yi Him Chik, 

Yi Chai Wan, „ „ 

Min Yang Kyu, . 

Yun Yong Ku, 2nd. „ Sr. 

Cho Tong My< 5 n, 2nd. rank, Sr. 

Yun Yong S^n, „ „ 

Yi Heun Yang, 

Yi Yong Chik, „ „ Sr. 

Cho Py<mg Pil, .. 

Yi Keun Myong. 

Yi Chin Chang, „ „ 

Han Gi Dong, „ 

We believe they are to serve as a Privy Council to His Majesty. 

July 4th. Shin Gi San takes office as Minister of War. 


It is our sad office to chronicle the death, under the most painful cir¬ 
cumstances, of the Rev. Wm. J. McKenzie. About two months ago Mr. 
McKenzie left Chemulpo for Sorai, C han^yan Prefecture, Province of 
Whang-hai, where he has been living for over a year carrying on Christian 
work. Nothing was heard from him until June 27th. when a Korean arriv¬ 
ed from Sorai with a packet of letters and the sad news of Mr. McKenzie’s 
untimely death. The circumstances appear to be as follows: having con¬ 
tracted a severe attack of malaria he attempted to cure it by “huge doses of 
quinine" keeping up and about by the exercise of his strong will power. 
Then came a sun-sroke resulting in insanity. The Koreans saw him retire 
to his room Sunday, June 23d., heard the report of a gun, and Mr. Mc¬ 
Kenzie’s bleeding corpse was found on the floor. 

The news is a terrible shock to us all. Immediately upon receipt of it. 
Rev. Dr. Underwood and Dr. \A ells started for Sorai to investigate the mat¬ 
ter. They have not returned at this writing. (July 15th.) 

Some of the missionaries have gone to the river and the mountains. 

Mrs. Reynolds in improving after her long and severe sickness, 

June 19 the U. S. Legation guard left Seoul Marines from the Balfr 
more, (< ncord, Charleston and Detroit spent nearly eleven months 
in the Legation. 

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Japanese stores are occupying prominent places on South Gate street. 
The street in some parts is changing rapidly. 

June 20 the new chapel erected by Mrs. M. F. Scranton of the Metho¬ 
dist Mission near the south gale was opened ami di\ii.c services arc held 
thcie regularly. 

Rev. F. S, Miller and Dr J. Hunter Wells returned. June 22nd. from 
their trip to tiie Whang llui province to investigate the report 0: the killing 
of a foreigner which we noted best month. J he story as told by the Ko¬ 
reans was substantially confirmed and the evidence slunvs that the unfortun¬ 
ate man was a Japanese. The murderer confessed his crime and is in prison 
at llui Chu. 

With becoming humility wc beg the pardon of the diplomatic corps for 
the error the types played in our last issue in calling that augu t body “clip- 
< malic crops." ’Ac meant no harm nor disrespect and shudder at the 
thought we might have been made to say “crop of diplomats." 

Mr. Carl » oiler made the 166th. round trip between Chemulpo and last month when he brought his bride to the 

The Tai Won Kotin left his palace in the city early in June announcing 
his intuition to visit his grandson and share his fate with him on the island 
of Kyi* Dong. lie was allowed to proceed as far as M«.j on.w hen the police 
i|Uietly stopped Ins chair and esc oiled it to the Ex-Kegcnr's I cautiful sum¬ 
mer villa near 1 \. Here he is carefully guarded and spends his days in 
clignn eel retirement. 

The stones extensively calculated al out the quarters occupied by ti c 
gr; nuson on the island are on a par with most tumours cunuii here. The 
voting ldime is in exile it is true I ut Ins quarters whi.e not luxurious arc 
coiiildl I \. I Its chief hardship is the fact that he is demed comiuuma- 
tic n with the o i.side world. We have it on good authority that toitnre was 
not u evi viiui.ig the trial of the pi nice. 

('n June 24 Yi Cha Yun, first Governor of the Metropolitan district as- 
stin eti the dimes of his Mr. Yi was for several ycstis the j opuDr 
C’baige d* Afiaircs of the Kore. n Legation at Washington and since las 
itii.rn in addition to f eing magiMtate of his native district, a raie honor. lie 
wasla.m Dec 01.; er appointed Vice Minister of the Department lor Agricul¬ 
ture « n. 1 O ai.i; crc e. 

1 k f and Mis. I). A. Hunker arrived in Scon’ on the 25th nil. and re¬ 
ceived a i e« 1 tv vtlccne inn. then many friends, loth foicign and Fo¬ 
ie. n ;'mle*‘or Hanker was fur oglu years in the Royal College an 1 now 
returns tn teach in the l’ai Ch.u College. Mrs. Hunker was the first foreign 
laii. |.hv >ici.iu u> Her Majesty, the (jucen. 

lb-lop N : !c\ whose visit to kotea last winter was as“ointmc*nt j oined 
foilb.," in an article in the A'. J. > r .'i.trt .-/r/7v»<*<nV May 16 says **; ro- 
i.c-i.n e .Seoul as the Irishman would pronounce the word that si an U lor 
hiv na • i r u n " 'bias presc rip: k> 11 while decidedly original is h. r IF ut- 
itct and ti e lesiilciu ot the capital would hardly know* what Patrick was 
can 1 g at. Foicigncis j ronoi n e tl e word in two ways. Sfi-oul and P.ur < k s 
v>:.y. Tie Koic; n j n-i <-ia.< e^ 1: lie* fust way and not the sec on* I Two 
waysol sj edii.g the woid h.oc to,, c to stay, Seoul andSoul. As the ed.iors 

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Original from 




• •I Tl»r Repository have not vet conic to any decision in the orthography, 
the word is spelled both ways in our columns. 

In an editorial note in the same issue of the Advocate we are gravely 
informed that “the Bible is now circulated in the army and navy of Korea.” 
We hu\c not heard of the “na\y of Korea" and shall be pleased to learn of 
k whereabouts. 

The closing exercises of the l\ii Chai College on July 3rd. were largely 
attended. IVuc Wi-llwa, the Minister of Foreign AtTairs and the Minister 
and Vue Minister of the Board of Education were present and addressed 
the audience. 

Tinted States Minister and Mrs. Sill gave a public reception on the 
evening of July 4th. Cabinet Ministers, Ibplomats, Consuls and residents 
nt Seoul were present and the evening was spent in sixaal conversation and 
n» singing national airs. 

The Rev S. A. Moffett arrived from Pycng Vang July 3 and con* rms 
the news of cholera in the north. IS eng Yang is in the greatest danger, 
lev or is more prevalent and the conditions after the great : attic there last 
v 0j tcvnhct are most favorable for fearful ravages of cholera. 

Kev. and Mrs, James Kdward Adams arrived in Fusan May 29 to join 
the Australian Mission. 

The Ke\. S. F. M<>ore furnishes us with the following interesting new- 
wliiv h wit be read with feelings of gratitude. 

*Vn the \ z:\\. ot the fourth moon a jxttuion wa> sent to the Home De- 
I .*“•••< nt ot the Korean iVn*t .«-s n^ that powers be V ’t • '* gh* * - t the 

1 ;li j .ovuues nothing the people that 1 tchers shall be allowed wear 

.1 e head. hum! and the orduv.rv hat worn 1 v other AA,» that the 

j < *•’ ’e ! e to: \i.vr. to beat the 1 tit: hers and take away 'h ,: r Tne 

; v.o'.; U t>* ti e ‘ ; a >..;V 1 the g’ ot the ! atitvers, h • % t.*r 5 ^ 

u■ i»\ .5. h.-agh ... >: n v erm* a: the - g • :n:r.. :a. ’ a 

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T he street 

<\\st M^ Sl ‘ 
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their trip 
of ii tore' 

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cher's children and near relatives. They have been considered the oflscom 
ings of Korean society. 

Mr. Pak says that this deliverance is a parpllel to the Jews deliveraru 
from Egyptian bondage, and that the butchers will hear the gospel gladl; 
and he will probably te sent with a native preacher to preach to his despi< 
ed class who are said to number about in the three large southern 
provinces, with a much smaller number in the north. 

\Ve have now six butchers in the Church, all good Enmoun scholan 
and men of ordinary intelligence. 

It is both difficult and unwise for a man of one nation to *it in judge¬ 
ment on the food stuffs refeired by the people of an ther nation condemn¬ 
ing as disgusting or commending a* delicious anot er. •Taste*' is an 
English word of very wide *igi ifican e, in its exercise extending to most 
matteis detern ined by judgement and a< it is permitted us to have a 'ariety 
ot tastes in the matters of d ess habits, etiquette. in fact in most of the rel¬ 
ations of life, why not in matters o hod? The Korean menu is a verv different 
one from hat which prevails in Western lands. The chief differences are ft) 
t‘ at in a number ot dishes especially in those intended as flavors the ma¬ 
teria s are served up » nc< oked, (2) In tl-e preparation of co< ked foods salt 
is not needed during t e proces- of cooking but is served up in the form of 
salted salads and saui es. (3) Red and black pep* er are used to exces (to 
our palates) in nearly every dish. I hese featutes which are characteristic 
of the Korean diet re consul erab e of a surprise to the western palate. 

Tongchim, one of the chu f relishe of the Korean table conri*t^ of 
peeled whole turnips soaked in a st ong brine and mixed with shred red 
peppers 1 hey should remain in brine over twenty days to he good. 

A r abak-chi, a other Korean pick'e, consists «f fresh sliced turnips 
wh'Ch have been held in a strong brine ft r twenty four hours. 

Sdk-lah-chi is manufactured as follows! Sliced turnips and cahbages, 
heavily salted, red peppers, crude ginger, shrimp and fish salad, onion top* 
and oysters. 

I'ai-chv Chan chi Sliced mw cabbage soaked in table sauce and seas¬ 
oned wi h red pepper 

Tcng-mu-ttKim-chL Very much be same as na-babchU only the 
turnips are pickled whole ai d remain longer in brine. 

hai-chu Sok baik-wt chi whole raw cabbages stuffed with uncooked 
fidi. si ced rrd pepper-, chipp d turnips, reawei d onions, stem and bulb, 
pears, dried persimmons, pine nuts a e preserved between layers of salt, 
a little water being added 10 make a I line. 

Kak-tu-i>i cornets of chopped raw turnips, heavily seasoned with red 
pepper and mixed with a soup made ef shrimps ginger, and onions. 

Korean table sauce is a succ< ss. It is m >de as follows! cans are boiled 
until soft ard mushy an the water strained off The mush is then m ked 
into large cakes by hand. These cake- are kn *wn as me V# and are tied to¬ 
gether and hung in the room to dry and harden. Tobocco s oke and otl'cr 
odors do not neces-arily interfere with the drying process. The cakes of 
mti-ju are then take down as needed, first split into halves in a strong 
brine, which is thus changed into a hne table sauce. 


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»are retailing exporters of General Family ' 1 but it embraces 
ea. Send for our free, 144 paged ILLUS- ever ything you 
LTED Catalogue and our Export Circular. - T, 

y not buy your goods in America? We can need, or n-y 

ply you. One order to our house secures al- ev erything, our 
it everything you need, at minimum ship- . , , , - f 
g expense. fA goods. Great variety, Rea- published list 

table prices. Expert packing. Correspond tolls about. _ 

lb us. Questions answered. | Send for it. 

«“-*SsS*S*«&«SsS>«S*StfSWSs!S»*&*Si«^» ' —:—~ 

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published list 
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Dairy packed. 
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Prices to 




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iOBV&S ai35>» 'SOHI?©®* 

large stock of 

Electrical Gear 


BELLPUSHES, in button and 

j e '• Gape. (a large assorting it) 

mm^L CELLS complete, also the diffe :- 

S ent parts separate. 

i V; M CALL BELLS (as per fliustm- 

gle ar-’ double, different qualit¬ 
ies suitable for in and out-door 

f INDICATE, with 6, 9 and 12 
numbers. (Smaller sizes can lie 
made to order.) 


KIES for fixing and repairing bells 

t’vc. c. &c. 



(Opposite the former Chinese Telegraph Office.) 
Priceslow. Satisfaction guaranteed 

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naaasas siwaiim asa. 

offers trood accommodation to visitors. 

» i 





Established 1864. 



Special attention is given to the Provision & Household 
Store Department, which comprises a fine assortment of 

all stores, groceries and preserves necessary for the house¬ 


Terms Cash. 



JBkinq a Vocabulary of Korean Colloquial Words in 

Common Use - - - - Price $2.50 

A Manual of Grammatical Forms. - „ 






No. 8. 




AUGUST. 1895. 



Mrs. D. L. Gifford. 


Rev. Jas. S. Gale. 


Rev. W. L. Swallen. 

IV. Rev. WM. J. McKENZIE. a memoir. 

Rev. Geo. Heber. Jones. 


H. B. Ilulbert. a.m. 


J. Hunter Wells, m.d. 


Japanese Residents in Korea. 

The Korean Official Gazette. 

Korean Proverbs. 


Price per annum, S3.00. 

Per copy, 30 c. 

Published at 



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Residents in the intrior and outports 
can depend on getting the whole of their 
requirements QUICKLY forwarded 

carefully packed and at equally low 
prices as if imported from home. A 
specialty is made of obtaining all 
goods not m stock and attending to 


Whymark, Kobe 

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the lake is forty four miles. In their quaint manner of expres¬ 
sion they state it as many a day’s journey from the base of the moun¬ 
tains to the lake, while no one has been able to earn* a sufficient 
amount of provisions for the long and tedious climb to the top of 
the surrounding ]x'nks. The bed of the lake is thought to be the 
crater of at) extinct volcano. The sands on the shore are beauti¬ 
fully white. The lake is not designated by any name other than 
“Great I.ako.” The mountain is heavily timbeied up to the height 
of the lake. Some of the trees compare in size with those of the 
Pacific sloite in America. The variety is considerable, several of 
the indeeiduous kinds predominating. Some of the s|ieoies of trees 
found here are unknown in other parts of the peninsula. The 
foliage in these forests is said to be so dense as to exclude the sun’s 
rays. Unlike almost any other mountain in Korea of even prim¬ 
ary imjK)rtanee, there are no Buddhist temples on White Head Mt. 
which accounts in part for the scant and unreliable information to 
be obtained regarding it. The mountain has a deity of its own, a 
white robed goddess, who in times past was worshiped at a temple 
built for her, where a priestess presided over the sacrifices. 

Tradition tells us that it was on the slopes of this mountain, 
3000 B. C. when the earth was yet very young and Methuselah 
was only an infant, that Dan Kotin the first ruler in the peninsula 
was miraculously liorn. 


In the western part of the province of Whang Hai is Kou- 
wol-san, one of the largest mountains of the province, on the top of 
which is a fortress in extent equal to the walls of Seoul. The in¬ 
terior of the fortress is heavily timbered. On the mountain are 
twenty-four Buddhist temples built in the days of Korai, when 
Buddhism was more popular than at any other period in the his¬ 
tory of the country. On this mountain is the cave where Dan 
Koun is said to have laid aside his mortal form without dying, 
when he resumed his place among the spiritual beings. With 
some surprise we find his grave in the southern part of the Ping An 
province in the Kang Tong magistracy. To reconcile the tradi¬ 
tion of his traitsformation with the fact that his grave seems to 
testify to his having been buried, we must remember the custom the 
Koreaos followed in those ancient days when mysterious disap¬ 
pearances were so common, of burying some article of clothing 
which had been worn by the individual or perhaps something 

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which he had been accustomed to use more or less constantly, as, 
in the case of a certain noted warrior, his riding whip was interred 
in lieu of the body. 


Keum-kang-san, popularly known as Diamond Mt, is located 
ed in the eastern part of Kang Won province. It is not a single 
!K>ak, but the name is applied to a group said to be twelve hun¬ 
dred in number, a jiart of the main range running the whole length 
of the peninsula, Diamond Mt. is renowned even in China for 
its beautiful scenery. The Celestial says, “Let me but see Keum- 
kang-san and there is nothing more to be desired.” The moun¬ 
tains are visited annually by crowds of native sightseers, who beg 
their way from temple to temple as the difficulties of climbing the 
rugged slopes, which is accomplished in some places on one’s hands 
ami knees, do not admit of one’s carrying even a small amount 
of Korean cash. No criminal, they say, can make a trip through 
these mountains in safety, but will inevitable at one dangerous 
point or another lose his life. The sight-seer sacrifices before he 
enters the mountains, praying for protection from harm on his 
jxrilous expedition. In some places the ascent i9 made by means 
of ropes and ladders provided by the priests. There are one hun¬ 
dred and eight monasteries in these mountains, where the priests 
are said to lead busy, happy lives. The mountains are heavily 
timbered to a considerable height, beyond which there are only 
stunted shrubs. The foreign estimate of the altitude of the highest 
]>eaks is not above six thousand feet. The idea, current among 
Koreans that they are covered with eternal snow arises from the 
white appearance of the rocks, as they are seen from the distant 
valley below. These rocks, probably limestone, though in some 
parts of the mountains there is ljeautiful granite, have been formed 
into many fantastic shapes, no doubt through the agency of the 
mountain spirits cooperating with the elements, till one can find 
here represented any thing ever known in the works of nature or 
art r lowers are believed to bloom throughout the four seasons. 
There are eighteen water-falls of some considerable importance. 
Here is found the largest cave in Korea, more than one hundred 
h in extent, having openings on opposite sides of the mountain. 
The one on the eastern side is in a perpendicular cliff' overlooking 
the sea. The cave is spacious, presenting a landscape with hills, 
valleys and streams. 

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We find much of historical interest centering around Pyeng 
Yang, the seat of government in the days of Dan Koun, the “Son 
of Heaven,” who reigned in prson from .3000 to 2000 B. C. 
Afterwards from 1100 B. C'. till 200 B. C\ Ki-ja and his descend¬ 
ants held their court here, and built a wall around the city, which 
still exists. Ki-ja was the originator of the system by which the 
taxes were collected for the government, by taking the whole 
crop of the central plot of a square divided into nine plots, this 
central plot being cultivated conjointly by the eight families who 
farmed the surrounding eight plots exempt from any other tax. 
The field which now* lies between the ancient wall and the more 
modern one of Pyeng Yang is still known as “Ki-ju’s tax plot.” 
The grave of this ancient civilizer of Korea is just outside the north 
gate of the city. Dr. Griffis calls the Ta Tong, on which Pyeng 
Yang is located, the Rubicon of Korean history. It has been the 
scene of niuny of the decisive battles from the time of Ki-ja and 
his descendants till the present day. For several centuries during 
the early part of the Christian era Pyeng Yang was the capital of 
Ko-korai, one of the three kingdoms into which the peninsula was 
formerly divided. During this period hordes of Chinese were 
several times repulsed although on one occasion their land and 
naval forces combined numbered one million men. Finally the 
fall of the Kingdom was predicted by the entrance of the nine 
tigers within the city walls, by the waters of the Ta Tong becom¬ 
ing blood, and bv the picture of the mother of the first king of Ko- 
korai sweating blood. The city witnessed two terrible battles at 
the time of the Japanese invasion about the close of the sixteenth 
century. In the first of these two battles the Japanese were vic¬ 
torious; but in the second the Chinese and Koreans defeated the 
invaders, who left two thousand of their number dead on the battle 
field. Thirty years later Pyeng Yang was taken by the Manchus 
on their invasion. With what the city has suffered in these clos¬ 
ing yenrs of the nineteenth century we are all familiar. 


Kiong-chiu in the south eastern part of Kyeng Sang province, 
though now a place of small importance, was the capital of Silla 
from the beginning of the Christian era till the tenth century, when 
the three Kingdoms in the peninsula were welded into one. By 
the sixth century Silla had advanced beyond her rivals Ko-korai 

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and Paik C’hai, and Kiong-chiu became a city of wide influence. 
The relations between Si 11a and China were close and the civiliza¬ 
tion of the little kingdom seems to have been not far behind that 
of her great neighbor. Kiong-chiu was a center of learning, arts and 
religious influence. It was the home of Chul Chong the greatest 
scholar and statesman Korea has ever produced. Representatives 
from 8illa met with those of many countries at the Court in China 
and it is said that to the day of its destruction, treasures from In¬ 
dia and Persia were preserved in the towers of Kiong-chiu. The 
architecture of the city was imposing, and among the buildings of 
greatest magnificence, were many temples and monasteries. In¬ 
tercourse between this city and Japan was frequent, and the latter 
sat, an apt student, at the feet of her instructor in civilization, arts 
and sciences. After Silla last the ascendency in the peninsula, and 
Korai became the one kingdom, Kiong-chiu was still regarded a 
sacred city because of its temples and monasteries, which were care¬ 
fully preserved and kept in perfect order. It was left for the Japan¬ 
ese on their retreat from their second invasion in 1596 to lay the 
magnificent old city, to which they owed so much, in ruins. 


8ong-do, in the north western part of Kiung Kie province 
was the first capital of united Korea. Fro ti the tenth century for 
four hundred years it was the seat of a government remarkable 
especially during its later years, for its dissoluteness. Buddhism 
flourished, and inside the city walls were temples. Priests often 
played important parts in the affairs of the government. Even 
Song-ak-san, the guardian mountain of the capital, rising from the 
rear of the city is said to have assumed the appearance of a man 
in priestly garb. The audience room in the palace was called the 
place of the full moon; but the full moon must, decline, so as a sign 
that the kingdom had not yet attained to its greatest glory the 
wall around the city was built to represent the moon in its first 
quarter. The last king of the Wang dynasty was responsible for 
the murder of C’hien-mo-chu which was committed on the Seun- 
chook bridge outside the east gate of the city. Time has not yet 
erased the blood stain from one of the stones of the bridge. The 
deed and the indelible witness are known throughout the kingdom 
at the present day. Upon the fall of the dynasty Song-ak-san 
wept audibly. The Buddhist temples inside the city were des¬ 
troyed because of the pernicious influence the priests had exercised, 

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which had really led to the over-throw of the dynasty. 

The inhabitants of Song-do have never been willing to acknow¬ 
ledge the present dynasty, and to this day the citizens, except the 
unimportant Sang-nom, wear huge hats such as we see in Seoul 
worn by the countrymen. They have never forgiven providence 
tor the fall of their dynasty and refuse to look toward hus dwelling 
place. They declare themselves still without a sovereign 

Song-do has for centuries been a commercial center. It is 
said that a large proportion of the inhabitants are traders who have 
their homes often in distant parts of the country. 

In the neighborhood of Song-do is a water-fall of some con¬ 
siderable importance. The height of the fall, as given me by a 
Korean, is four thousand feet! It is at least sufficient to produce 
a spray which rises to the height of twenty five or more feet. 


Kang Wha, one of the three large islands over which the 
dominion of the King of Choson extends, though tally the second 
in size, is of more historical interest than either Ul-lung-do or Quel- 
part It has an area of 169 sq. miles and is fertile and thickly pop¬ 
ulated. It belongs to Kiung Kie province. The mountains ure 
well wooded and picturesque. On Ma-yi-san is an ancient altar 
forty five feet in diameter at which it is said Dan Koun worshiped. 
Equally aocesiblc from Song-do and Seoul, Kang Wha has been the 
refuge in time of danger for the kings of Korai and Choson, and the 
place of safety for the archives and royal library. The royal resi¬ 
dence is in the city of Kang Wha situated on a hill, from which a 
fine view of the mainland and sea is to be had. About the middle of 
the 13th. century the king fled from Song-do to this island before 
the invading Mongols, where he was kept a prisoner while they 
over-ran the country and set up a government under Mongol offi¬ 
cials. One hundred and fifty years later, when the founder of the 
present dynasty became king, the last ruler of Korai was sent a 
prisoner to Kang Wha. In the early part of the seventeenth 
century when the Manchus entered the country the queen and 
palace ladies took refuge on this island. The king made a treaty 
which he broke as soon as the Manchus were over the liordcr. 
Returning with larger forces, provided with boats and cannon they 
took Kang Wha, and once for all the king was brought to terms 
and yielded allegiance to the Manehu dynasty in China. 

In 1866 the French burnt the city of Kang Wha in retaliation 

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for the murder of French priests during the persecutions of the 
Christians, which occurred from time to time, beginning with this 
century till the present king came to the throne. In the city they 
found many valuable books and manuscripts, also large stores of 
ancient armor with other military supplies. 

While mentioning places of interest, we would not omit to 
speak of the mountains on which the history of the reigns of the 
early kings of Choson are said to be preserved. They are four 
in number located in Kang Wha island and in Kyeng sang, Chulla, 
and Kang-won provinces. An accurate record of events, and of the 
actions of the kings were made by historians to w’hom the work 
was committed, each of w’hom made four copies which were pre¬ 
served on these mountain tops by trustworthy keepers to be opened 
for perusal only after the dynasty has passed aw’ay. It seems that 
the writing of these records was discontinued through the action 
of a treacherous king who, curious to see what had been written 
about himself gained possession of the record, which he found to be 
not very flattering. He had the historians put to death, and 
since that time though the office of historian, one of considerable 
dignity, is still continued, it seems to be merely complimentary. 
The principal duty of the lonely keepers on these mountain tops, 
w'hile waiting for a dynasty to expire, is to occasionally expose to 
the sun these mysterious, musty volumes. 

Mrs. D. L. Gifford. 

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V no no*--r! r.f ^* r! 

( f ^ 4 Jrorri frk* : r. j .raj 

A r/1 ?-* vo»; ^r f * *»o p.*-n-» t •T:V-'! 

7 hair* mo-r -\r* !y k v 

I|rr r / # o torn rnor *• -!o*Gy -*>. 

H?»vf f",o liv** '-r rhr«*. 

Four or fiv*- v.t ! 

Tlii* Forro‘vr*l Hf/* in 'Ir^rns 
T;»k^* on n form it -^<*m-. 

K oou^ onl/ -orroiv ;?t th^- fx^t T 

NVr r fin'linu r**T. 

•Ja*. S. fink*. 

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T here are now two problems confronting the Church in Ko¬ 
rea which are of paramount importance, and call for some 
settlement in the near future, if the Korean Church is to be 
planted upon what may be called an evangelical basis. These 
problems are (1) Polygamy, (2) Ancestral worship. 

The first of these especially will be considered, with a view 
of reaching some definite conclusion, at the annual meeting of 
the "Presbyterian Council” next October. At that meeting it is 
to be hoped, this subject will receive a very full discussion ; and 
that the Church may take a stand which she can show to be 
scriptural, and that she may utter her voice with no uncertain 
sound concerning this special phase of heathen iniquity. I be¬ 
lieve this subject ought to be carefully and prayerfully consider¬ 
ed by every member of the “ Council” long before the Autumn 
meeting, if we are to hope for a thorough discussion of it at that 
time. It is therefore not from any sense of my own ability to 
discuss this subject, that I undertake to lay before the Korean 
Missions what I believe to be a simple statement of the problem 
before us; but that by so doing, I may provoke, discussion from 
the pen of those whose learning and experience have enabled 
them to thoroughly handle the subject. 

Seeing that this problem has long been perplexing tbe mis¬ 
sionaries of India, China and Africa,—equally venerable and 
faithful old veterans taking directly opposite positions upon the 
subject,—it, although devoutly to be hoped, is scarcely to be 
expected that there will be unanimity among the missionaries 
in Korea, even at this early stage. I observe also that for al¬ 
most any position which may be taken upon this subject, there 
can be found both arguments to substantiate and experienced 
missionaries to advocate it. A few of the different views and 
conclusions reached by different missionary societies and com¬ 
mittees ought to be in order at this point. 

First:— Some hold that polygamy was tolerated in the 
early Church in the same manner in which slavery was tolerat¬ 
ed; that it was acknowledged to be inconsistent with the Christian 

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V •. ' ■ ' -- r- - * • : ;*• tr*- 

‘ - l?-.- ‘ ~Y\- a ; shall I 

v v ■ .= ~ • r- } u: at 

T * - * - r - - - :::: * He that 

: - :ir ; roun«l 

v ; : ' - -.r- <ir \ in<: 

*- t ' * v .; : r vivise y - m break 

v > t %.* : - V - *. . • -s f. v e v._ : : receive 

• n * ' A? ; - :-;r • . j : ' * ve;v t: any 

! v. vwj * • ; •* - - - : wv. t re r^ir c f re- 

y « ns ' ' ? • • >v A : v • • wnl rm lor.zor lv 

' 'J' v- J v v* j.-r f ■ r z :* - : t-t an: vf baptism. 

Hard ’— <r < - • : • *• ?. ; *••.:' : armze, in which 

a i ' i. r • t \\ *-\. i cm * / cm- v.::-* m:: **t he held as con - 
r-f Jf • if.i /.:• I Hiri r/I: :-.t h!’> Al ‘1 ti *t if. c-;.?;; cases ti>* I: ail OU^ht 
f>. Iv r>, | 4-||mI Vj rriv*- nr . ! ';t only n!! 1 :: one. hr*t even every 
oi.< i,| : I?.. v»iv<'>. m. I tvr. rim mend and r: am any one of 
the (l *,r #,//!;/ of |.is for er wives. just as }> cl roses. even to 

iitirtI s , >.n :j<* lu-v/ on#* if he sr, prefers. 

bnnrlh: Still ntl mb hold that all hut the first wife must 

h< vim n up, hut tljfit h<‘ must retain until “death do sep- 

fi i • 1 1 * fh< j I Witiii/' 

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Fifth :— And Btill others hold that while he must be 
made to give up all but one. that one need not necessarily be his 
first, but rather the one he loves most. Some would also go so 
far as to assert that although it be wrong to baptize a poly¬ 
gamist, living in this relation, still upon sufficient evidence of 
repentance and faith in Christ, all the wives, living at the same 
time with this polygamist in this sinful relation ought to be 
baptized and received into full membership of the church, but 
he never. I have not mentioned all the views taken upon this 
subject, but enough to show the great diversity of opinions con¬ 
cerning this matter. 

Now in looking into the various discussions of this subject, 
I am surprised to find on the one hand this strange diversity of 
opinion, and on the other such a marked absence of scriptural 
reference. I also confess that I am utterly shocked at many 
of the views above stated. I verilv believe that if we are to rea¬ 
son this out upon the basis of what we consider to be proper 
and right, without resting solely upon the plain teaching of 
scripture, we may expect nothing else than a diversity of opinion. 
When once we leave the word of Gad to seek ground for the 
justification of an action in church polity, who can prophesy 
where we will land? I believe there are innumerable perplexi¬ 
ties connected with this problem, but I also believe that they 
lessen in number and difficulty as we keep close to the Word of 

Now if I may humbly venture a few remarks expressive of 
my own opinion in this matter I would say; 

(1) That I believe it to be in accordance with the will and 
purpose of God, that man should have but one wife, and wo¬ 
man but one husband. This is clearly taught in Scripture; in 
creation; at the fload, when Noah and his sons had each but 
one wife; and also in the New Testament Matt XIX. 5, tv, 
Mark X 7, S,; Eph. V. 31, 33. 

(2) That no man having plural wives should hold any office 
in the Church. This I believe to be the plain teaching of 1st. 
Tim. iii, 2. 12,; Tit. i, 6. 

(3) I also believe that we have a clear record of God’s own 
dealing with his chosen people, on this important subject which 
cannot be left out of account. In consulting this record I 
fail to find a single instance in which God has excommunicated 
a man hecausf of his living with two or more wives or con- 

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g .'2 

cuLnnes Furtber:_vre. mose who did tbuB take to 

themselves two or .'^ore wives as well as concubines, we find 
such lathers in Israel as Abraham. Jacob. M uses, Gideon, Elkanah, 
Saul, David, Solumas: Ax. Ax Sandy here is a testimony with 
God’s signature which we dare neither deny nor gainsay. Not 
indeed, that God endorse polygamy, bat that be has endorsed 
the toleration of polygamy. and that too in a meet remarkable 
way. Observe the line through wticn our promised Saviour 
came. Matt. I, C. You can trace that line right back to Da¬ 
vid's son. bom of one of David’s wives, but not his only wile, 
neither his first wife: for be had wives many and concubines 
many at that very true, and did God. indeed, disapprove of 
this? He bin self savsturuugb his prophet Nathan addressing 
David, “ I gave thee thy master’s wives into thy loeom " 2nd. 
Sam. XII, k. Do we not also see something of the finger of 
God in the s niting of the first child—conceived in adultery.— 
bom to David of the wife of Urias? The second one conceiv¬ 
ed and bom to bi:u of Bathsheha when she was bis legel wife— 
though he already had many—became the glorious Soloman. 
through whom the promised Messiah should come. And 
how many wives did this glorious Solornan not have? Now if 
this teaches anything, (and I believe it teaches much.) it cer¬ 
tainly shows us how very leniently God has been pleased to 
deal with this sin in the Church of oid. Shut out David because 
of his multitude of wives and concubines, and what becomes of 
the promised seed ? Will any one say that this did not occur 
within the Church of God ? Was it not the Church of God that 
was in the wilderness? Certainly this was the Church, and in 
her God ruled and polygamy was tolerated. 

(4) I find in this record no instance where God at any time 
condemns polygamy as a sin that should shut a n an out from 
the Church, or the kingdom of God. In such passages as Gal. 
V. 19, 21, and others where it is distinctly stated that “they 
which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God,” 
polygamy is not once mentioned among these sins as a sin for 
which the person committing it shall be excluded from the king¬ 
dom, and snail we attempt to bar them out and exclude them 
from the privileges of the sacred ordinances? I should like to 
be pointed to the Scripture for it, if there he any. If there be 
none where does the Church get her authority for such action? 

(5) 1st. Tim.Ill teaches plainly enough, as I take it, that 

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such persons shall not bold office in the church. But it certain¬ 
ly also hints, at least, with the very strongest kind of presump¬ 
tion that there were those in the Church at that time, who had 
more than one wife, else of what significance the injunction that 
such should not hold office in the Church? If it be insisted that 
these passages be interpreted by 1st. Tim V, 6, then, it seems 
to me the Church of the present must be very far out of the way, 
seeing that it is by no means true of the Church of today that 
an office in the Church is ever witheld because the man has 
rua - ried a second wife after the decease of bis first one Taking the 
former meaning that it refers to plural wives, I think Paul is 
speaking solely with reference to church officers, so that the in- 
juction can never be made tc apply as a condition of member¬ 
ship, but only of office bearing. I would not be mis¬ 
understood as advocating the right or propriety of plural mar¬ 
riages. Far from that, I believe we can not stand two firm 
against that pernicious evil. I believe God’s word is very clear 
as to what our duty is with reference to this matter. But 
marriage being of the nature of permanency, once done it is 
done for ever. Once entered into it can never be severed 
while either of the parties live, save for the one sin of which the 
Bible speaks as being a just ground for divorcement. Now for 
this very reason, which is found in the nature of marriage itself, 
I believe that God intentionally witheld the relegating of any 
such power to the church. Perhaps the punishment of having 
plural wives is sufficent per se, I do not know' how that is, but 
the Bible has given us some ground for thinking so at least. 

It seems to me thtrefore that there can be no question 
with regard to the reception into the church, of a man who has 
already plural wives before his conversion. If a polygamist has 
given satisfactory evidence of repentance and faith in Christ we 
neither dare assume the authority to keep him out of the church, 
and thus debar him from the benefits of the sacraments of 
the Church, nor dare we assume the power to sever the un¬ 
ion which has from all tin e been considered to be of sufficent 
validity as to have been tolerated by God himself all through 
the Old Testamant dispensation. No man can compel a poly¬ 
gamist to abandon his wives or concubines without causing him 
to commit a sin for which he can never atone. I do not be¬ 
lieve we can tolerate polygamy in the church. But at the same 
time we cannot bar out one who, having effected this relation in 

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4 ko:-.ean r.E: _ :.v 

bis sttiul darkness and cannot v. r«irAa*r ri;;:scil therefrom. 
We must admit hi:- and ora:.; hut: the sacratiients of the 
Church \Yi:ur. tue Churcr. of course i: car. never i-e tolerat¬ 
ed. If h occurs, there i> but one ruu r he done. — cast him 
out Once a Chrstian and enlightened uyor. tni= ras 
every Christian ::.u>t he wni never want to tread that 
wretched way. I do not believe that :re Christian Ct.ureh ever 
was or ever will he tro t: led polyps ,.y Within her midst, 
polygamy is a x'.ant ;f the darkness. ar t never wiil thrtve in 

W L. hv* ail*.: 

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bev. \vm. J. McKenzie. 


T he Rev. Wm. J. McKenzie was bom and educated in Nova 
Scotia, and became an ordained Minister of the Presbyterian 
Church of that Province During his seminary' course he 
served as missionary to the settlers in Labrador, braring the 
rough seas and terrible cold of Arctic winter in order to bring 
the Gospel to perishing souls. Called of God to a missionary 
career he decided to give his life to the work in Korea. Haring 
conscientious doubts as to the propriety of the general principles 
on which the great missionary Boards of the Church are organiz¬ 
ed, he further decided to cast himself entirely on the Providence 
of God for maintenance on the field. As soon as his purposes 
and plans were known, money sufficient for all his needs was 
provided and he started on his journey to his chosen field. 

Mr. McKenzie reached Chemulpo, Korea, Dec. 15th. 1893 
and then went on to Soul. His genial countenance, jolly laugh, 
great good humor and hearty good will soon endeared him to 
all. His conscientiousness, courage and shrewd common sense 
early won lor him the respect of his colleagues, who were not 
slow to recognize in him a missionary of the brightest promise 
He entered with zeal upon the drudge work which confronts all 
new missionaries,—the study of the Korean language, and of 
the customs, views and condition of the people in whose service 
he proposed to spend his life. A short time in Soul, a little 
longer in Chemulpo and he removed to Sorai where he met his 
death. In Sorai he settled himself temporarily in the home of a 
Korean Christian. His food was such as the surrounding farms 
produced and he adopted the Korean dress. He made excellent 
progress in the study of the language; and his presence, counsel 
and administrations strengthened and confirmed the little body 
of Christians there, and resulted in a large increase in their num- 
liers. He visited the surrounding villages for miles and in a 
short time his name was known all over that section. 

All through the Tong Hak excitement he remained at the 
village, laboring with those of the insurrectionists he could meet. 

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re:>\>nstrating against deeds of violence, and striving to win 
them, through ah acceptance of the Gospel, back to a life of order 
and peace I lieard tiwn a Korean of one of his early encoun¬ 
ters with a Tong Hak chief. The rebel delivered a tirade a- 
grinst Christianity and ended with a distinct threat against 
McKenzie’s life. In reply McKenzie asked the man to “ please 
remember one thing, that Christianity might he foreign and bad. 
but Korea was in sad reed of it ;ust row. for Christianity .did 
no: pennit us f Flowers to murder the King's efSters. destroy 
Gowro.mer.t property. rob defenceless country folk and :twce 
them into the ran\s of insurrectionistsThe Korean was noc- 
phtss-d. and as he saw McKenzie’s six :.vt three of hone and 
brawn, striding a\va\ concluded be had Setter have nothing to 
do with 

The new hie wtth which his presence inspired the local 
Christians showed itself m a deter uiari r. :• buhl a crate-. 
This ts t:v s\v.*\l chare! tc have her. "mil r. toe native Chris¬ 
tians of Korea .v\d t;v r.rst to wtuco- no roreigrt/cr .'f.-htted 
Mr regarded tons as hr? greatest tm pn He .-rthd 
hardly hv\e Seen, prouder of a costly ritSedral nar he w-as of 
tee s: tie u'rrvNrntxus ritrre structure In. us hast >tvr Vt 
tv wrier date: ou~e »n >- says "Crurr’ r.vSec writ the? 

1 hilar? *r>d hea ts oc -. ore t'an. . rtmtar. wor~..a~.s~ttp A 
pvsfecc Ivaut-• In a grove wtvre o.evils renm* 1 ■ — i~ c tot 

.vnturva. *>* ha's labor our tree tv Xcretrs. aui I” V 
•taiS I tive *-.o part u. tee oust ess- I .-ot tre~ srevr tt ■« 

t-V-t T.vy itun : to ~ -eut-t tuar 'uuertrars nuL 

co t e .'• ' v tv V : - see 

. N e of tie sen -o. g mans 7 'l:.V_3-tf : narazuer 

‘ -» . - 

C . 

;sr :.s v : 

js :szz lz : “ :-r -szj 

^ V 'TVC ^ _ 

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these days when it is the fashion to censure or ignore those 
whom we succeed, it is refreshing to meet a man like McKenzie 
who stood ready to grant the deserved meed of applause to 
those upon whose labors he entered. Writing of the work in 
Sorai he said “Dr. Underwood, I hope, will come up to dedi¬ 
cate the Church, having been first on ground. Indeed some of 
this, much of this is his own sowing coining to fruit.” 

Another shining trait of Mr. McKenzie’s character was his 
conscientiousness. His word, in all matters was as sacred as 
his bond. His life was unmarred by one single compromise in 
a doubtful matter. His sense of duty, justice and right was 
very acute, and his conduct completely under their guidance. 
He had the courage of his convictions. Enjoying a comfortable 
post in Nova Scotia as a Presbyterian Pastor, he looked for¬ 
ward upon a useful and alluring future in his native land. But 
when the conviction came that his life work lay in Korea, he 
uttered no mutnur but gladly made ready. Then when the 
further conviction came that he must turn aside from the ordin¬ 
ary path to the field through a Missionary Board pledged to 
sustain him, and throw himself unreservedly on the Providence 
of GckI for support, he did not falter or hesitate. He looked to 
God for his funds and they came, and he came to Korea in the 
unshaken confidence that all he needed would be forth-coming at 
the pro|>er time. His faith was as towering as his own tall form. 
Faith, mighty faith, the promise sees. 

And looks to that alone; 

Laughs at impossibilities, 

And cries, “ It shall be done.” 

Mr. McKenzie possessed an exalted idea of the nature of 
missionary operations. He had before him a clearly defined ob¬ 
ject to be accomplished, and he took as direct a course towards 
it as possible. He held that the. chief and most laudable object 
of the missionary was to lead the Koreans to find salvation from 
sin through Jesus Christ, and to organize these saved souls into 
a Church of Christ. His one object in Korea was to raise up a 
large number of Christian congregations throughout Korea. I 
once asked him if he intended to bind these congregations togeth¬ 
er by some kind of connectionalism. and he replied that such 
was his purpose, and t' at be would never have asked them to 
adopt anything either in doctrine or government which they 

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could not find for themselveB in God’s word. Into a work thu s 
dearly outlined in his own mind he threw himself with an on* 
thusiasm which knew no lxjunds, determined to avoid if possible 
the mistake to which an unconnected and independent worker 
is so liable of jermitting work to liecome dissipated and lost 
through lack of organization and system 

The sad and {gainful circumstances of his end till us with 
grief. The fever, the loneliness, the sun-stroke, insanity, suicide, 
following each other in rapid succession, they constitute a most 
mysterious Providence. 

Mr. McKenzie's record in Korea is bright with the glory of 
a beautiful promise undimmed by one single failure. He fell at 
his post in the front. Heron, Davies, Hall, and McKenzie; 
Paik of We-ju, Kang of Chemulpo, No of Sang-dong,—they 
died on the field of battle and have gone to enrich heaven as 
Korea’s treasure. 

Geo. Hebcr .Jones. 

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T he question of the romanization of Korean sounds is a live 
one. It is not so necessary for use among ourselves here 
who are familiar with the native character as it is in convey¬ 
ing to other people an idea of Korean sounds. It is especially 
necessary in any philological discussion, for, while it makes little 
difference whether the ordinary reader catches the exact sound 
of the Korean word, it makes all the difference in the world to the 
student of philology. A careful presentation of one side of this 
question was given by Mr. Baird in The Repository for May and 
was reviewed editorially in the June number. In the former 
article the ground was taken that precision is the great desider¬ 
atum and precision was gained by the use of a very' complex 
system including one absolutely new combination. The other 
writer argued in favor of the utmost simplicity, doing away as 
much as ]>ossible with diacriticrd marks and making use, aB he 
does in practice, of diphthongs. 

It seems that we have in these two presentations the two 
extremes, namely the precise but complicated and the simple 
but indefinite. We believe the middle course is better than 

In searching for a good romanizing medium we must do as 
the soldier does in deciding upon what to put in his pack. It 
must lie light and it must contain all the essentials. So our 
system of romanization must lie simple and it must be exact. 
Now it is evident from the start that simplicity and exactness 
preclude each other. If a system is too simple it will be in¬ 
exact if it is too exact it will be complicated. There is then but 
one conclusion. We must strike a mean between the two and 
lie as simple as precision will allow and as precise as simplicity 
will allow. 

In the first place I want to put in a good word for the 
simple unaccented vowels. The writer of the article in the 
May number of The Repository, whom I will designate as 
Mr. B. would give us no unaccented vowels. They all have a 
mark over them or under them. He wants us to go by the 

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standard of Webster’s dictionary which was made for the purest* 
of noting the fine shades of sound in the English language. Hut 
that system never would do for general work in romanizing, 
first localise it is so complicated that it would lx? useful only to 
those who are constantly handling it and can thus keep it in 
memory, and in the second place l>eeause, complicated as it is. 
it fails to meet the needs of Korean sounds. 

We must accept the continental sounds of the simple voxvels. 
They are not English or American to l>e true but I venture to 
say that ninety nine out of a hundred of the language students of 
the world recognize this rule. If we are laying down a system that 
is to 1)0 intelligible to the philologists of tin* East and of the world 
we must start on that basis—the continental sounds of the sim¬ 
ple vowels. A as in “father,” e as a in “race,” i as in “ravine,” o 
as in “note,” u as in “rule ” Lotus see how this will work? If I 
call the mythical founder of the earliest dynasty in Korea, fan 
Gun , some one finds fault because it looks like the two English 
words" tan ” and “ gun ” united. Such a criticism simply shows 
that the critic is unable to see beyond the utterly illogical rules 
of English pronunciation. It is probable that there is no other 
language in Europe so ill adapted to the purposes of a scientific 
system of romanization as the English. We know of no philo¬ 
logist who uses it. The continental sounds are universally 
known and are probably far more familiar even to English and 
Americans than the diacritical marks of Webster's dictionary. 
To take them up in detail; Of" is romanized variously by it. ah 
and a. Now in romanizing Korean sounds the letter a need lie 
used but twice, once in giving the long sound of the letter and 
once in giving the short sound so it ought to be easy to remem¬ 
ber that the simple unpointed one means long a as in “ father.” 

In regard to there is little difference of opinion. People 
generally take the simple unpointed vowel to mean long o as in 
“ note ” and no pointing is necessary. It is incorrect to say that 

5* has the sound of S at any time. %-s. has been cited but 
if it is pronounced as we usually do the word “ song ” it is mis¬ 
pronounced. The sound of jS. in such cases is much longer 
than our d while we admit that it has not quite the ordinary 

sound of o as in “ note.” The letter is the continental i as 
in “machine” or the short I as in “ hit.” is the most dif¬ 
ficult of the vowels to place. Some rornanize always by o the* 

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German umlaut; others say u, u and si. Now I wish to show 
by illustrations that has the three sounds of the German 
umlaut o, the short 6 and the short u. In the words ’ 

51. -H *1. we have the pure German o. I grant that it is 
about the same sound as the u of “ purr,” but this sound of u, 
in English is comparatively rare. There are probably a score of 
people who know the German 6 where one knows the accent 0. 

Then take the words &c. they are the simple 

short o as in “ hot,” “ not,” “ got ” \c. One would judge from 

the article in the May Repository that ^ was.pronounced like 
our English word “ pup ” but it is not. It is the o of “hot” Ac. 
as above, and right here we Americans must remember that we 
generally mispronounce these words “hot,” “not,” “God,” “sod” 
giving too much the sound of a in “ far.” Then take the words 

^ “(bottle),” lj, (of .) In these the ^ has the 

sound of u as in our “ sun,” “ fun ” Ac. The sound of a as in 
“ fate” in connection with this vowel is very exceptional being 

found seldom excepting where the root of a verb in is fol¬ 
lowed by the causative suffix 6 | and it is easily explained on the 
ground that the Koreans run the and °) together which 

gives the sound of a as in “ fate.” When we come to -T* there 
is no difficulty in calling it simply u. The writer refeiTed to 

alcove says that “ -r" never has any of the English sound of u 

“rumor,” “stupid,” “superior,” “ tul>er” and a thousand 
others? Are these only occasional words? Those who adopt 
on are in as bad a dilemma for in English ou is usually pronoun¬ 
ced as in “out,” “stout," “about,” “knout,” “trout," “proud,” 
“cloud,” “loud,” “siiroud,” “ pout,” “gout,” “spout” although 
occasionally we find it pronounced the other way as in “ route,” 
“ rouge,” “ troup,” “ routine " which are generally direct from 
the French. But in the French the simple u has almost the 
same sound so why take the more complicated ou when the 
u is sufficient ? 

Mr. B. wants us to ro . anizo 

by co with a dash above. 


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There is no doubt that thW is the ^ und ot -r* I ut, as I haw 
tried to show, his objection to s:*:.j 1** u is unfounded and the 
same can he said of this, namely t at it is unnecessarily com¬ 
plicated. As to his eo with the circumflex alove there is not 
enough difference Wtwe.m this shorter sound and the other to 
male* it worth while to burton th»- memory with another 

KV J1 :1 H il. Ti 0*11 We com.** to the YnWcl it has a SOUlul 

continually u> • l in English hut :> i.«»t r-*r. mni^'d as n separate 
vowel. It is the simplest of all v, ave! sounds, the tongue 
lyinK in the mouth in its orlinary position and the lij s and 
teeth slightly ojimi hut n<u 44 sha1 ” in any w:i> to male* k 
particular sound. It is th« sound of e which we t: ake 
we say a The man.” The c of 14 the” has that indefinite* 
transitional sound constantly us hi hut hard to roman We so as 
to differentiate it from other sounds 

Mr. H. mrnanizes it hv the Fivneh cu and I 11 ink for 
want of a Water we will haw to adopt that n etl od although 
it breaks the rule, which he has set, of aecuraev. The sound 

of .SL is never that of the French cu and for tins* reasons 
that in the pronunciation of the French cu ti e li] s are 
siurhtly protruded and the tongue is thrown slightly forward 
:•> if we placed our lips in in position to sav 44 rude *’ and 
said 4| iwd " instead, without drawing hack the lips. In pro- 

lmuncinz SL, on the other hand the lips keep their normal 
V(*sitnii and the tongue instead of Wine advance! is left in 
norma’ position or even perhaps drawn back i\ trifle. But 
ner accuracy must pivo way to simplicity and we stand by 
# - a. it is not very far removed from the actual 

< mil ! ►cause so many have become accustomed to it. 

• ;:rs- ? > the sau e as c |" so far as the Western oar 

> *. m eating the eontineiital sounds of the simple 
rrimj to the best usage in th" Hast. Hook at 
7 in Japan. We have Tsushima which 

w: sidled Tsooslun a, (Others Tsousheemah Ac , 
_ s • wi ’«*h sc'i?*o Americans pronounce as if the 
- — and the third 44 sack,” we have Nagoya, 
■’am Goto we have Mikado, Shogun, 
: words all of which wo see and pronounce 
- * ^! tu 1 sounds of the vowels. In China 

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the mixture is greater. Some say Fuchow others Foochou 
others Fuchou and other Foochow. 

When we come to Korean diphthongs the difficulty in¬ 
creases. We have several of these, namely 

and The last three are easily disposed of. They are si n- 

ply the combinations of « and /, o and <?, u and 6, the first 
being sounded as we sound “we” the second as we sound wa in 
“was” and the third as we sound wa in “water.” The 

diphthong is variously romanized bv a and ai. The former 

is the preferable one. Why should we use ai'} There is no 
warrant for it so tar as English usage is concerned. It is 
true that in English a few words with ai are pronounced like 
the short a, when foil envoi by the letter r, as “ air,” “ fair,” 
“stair,” “ lair,” “ pair ” kc. but these are exceptions to the 
rule for the common sound is that in “aim” “stain” “brain,” 
“fail,” “tail,” “sail,” “main,” “waist,” “waif” <i'c. On the 
other hand we find that in Europe while the French usually 
give the short a, sound to ai the Germans do not and there is 
no concensus upon it. For this reasou I advocate the use of the 

accented letter for it will tend to perspicuity. has two 

sounds that ot e in “ met" and of a in “ fate.” I think there 
is little question among students of Korean that the first of 
these must be romanized by e, the only possible other method 
Ixhng to use eh. This latter might pass among a certain class 
hut philologists would never use it. It is toe.) bungling. When 
we come to the other sound, that of a in “ fate ” there is more 
margin for difference opinion. There are three possible ways of 
romanizing it, first by Webster’s a, second by the two letters ay 
after the analogy of the words “day,” “say,” “may,” “clay ” 
and many others, and finally by the use of e as in “regime” or 
“resume.” I would strongly advocate the last method for while 
it is not English it is understood by all English speaking people 
and by Europeans as well, while fi or ay would lx< terra incognta 
to all but English speaking people and we fear the former would 
lv, even to many of them. I am in favor of as broad a system 
as possible. I do not believe it is for English and Americans 
alone. Students of philology are far from lxnng confind to these. 
We should have a ststem that will l>e readily understood by the 
greatest number of people without making them learn a nciv sys- 

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ton Wo have in a somewhat anomalous form which Mi¬ 
ll desires to romanize by the use of the letter a with a dash 
alxivo and beneath. As this particular character cannot In* 
found in any lists of types sold by the largest type founders of 
the world it is evident train the start that it will not do. It 
has l>eon said that this is an independent vowel sound 
and that the perpendicular stroke does not enter into the pro- 
nounciation at all. This is evidently a pure matter of ear. 

When I hear a Korean pronounce the wo id S) =4 1 distinct¬ 
ly hear two vowel sounds in the first syllable. When he 1k- 
gins, his lips and tongue are in the position to say o but 
during the utterance of the sound the tongue is suddenly 
thrust forward, Bo that at the end we get the sound of e. 
It is not quite so pronounced as the sound of ice in the word 
‘‘went” hut it is nearly so. For this reason I should ad¬ 
vocate the use of oe in romani/.ing. 

As to the use of w in rononizing the diphthongs S4 

and and the triphthongs and xi] it must In* granted that 
it is the easiest method for English speaking people hut it is 
utterly unscientific and misleading. In the first place notice 
that it is a narrow and cramped method. Only English and 
Americans use w in that way as a vowel. The German will 

pronounce it v and the French do not use it at all. For we 
should write oa, for we should write ub for oa and for 

ue. The re is so strongly intrenched however that its re¬ 
jection can scarcely lie hoped for at this late date. 

We have then; 



— a— 

as in “father." 

•oe nearly as wc 

in “went.” 

s . 



,, “note.” 







u — 

.. .. “rule.” 

— on - 

* as wa in 



6 — 

,, “kbnig.” 

Ol J 

f no — 

,, 7UH ill 




.. .. “hot.” 

^ < 

{ 11 o — 

„ in Go 




.. “tub.” 


-not the French. 


i— , 

„ „ “machine- 


— oa— 

as 7c<7 in 





„ “tin ” 


- lit— 

as 7i'ti in 


o . 

- eu 

— not t: io 




— a — 

as in “hat.” 

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as in “regime.” 

^ {6— „ „ “met:” 

The greatest trouble that foreigners in Korea have in 
speaking the language is not in the matter of vowels but in 

consonants. One man says ^ spells dan and another that 
it is tan; one says that spells choe and another that it 

spells joe, one says l\ spells ka another that it spells ga. 
The following is a list of the lettei6 in dispute with their dif¬ 
ferent sounds. 

1 is sounded k or g. 

U » » P or b. 

^ >i n ^ or j. 

C „ ,, t or d. 

Let us analyze the English sounds and find if possible 
a solution of the difficulty. Let it be noticed that in English 
all * these are true consonants namely cannot be pronounced at 
all without an accompanying vozvel sound. The true conson¬ 
ant is either a sort of explosive sound made by the organs 
of speach introducing a vowel sound or a check which abrupt¬ 
ly stops a vowel sound. Ka and ga are guttural explosives, ta 
and da are dental explosives, cha * and ja are lingual explo¬ 
sives and pa and ba are labial explosives. 

On the other hand in ak and ag we have guttural checks 
in at and ad dental checks, in aclt and aj lingual checks, and 
in ap and ab labial chocks. 

Now in English how does the sound ka differ from that 
of ga both being guttural? Simply in this that in ka the 
vocalization begins instantly after the explosive k while in ga 
the vocalization begins just before the explosive g. If you 
will pronounce the words “cane” and “gain” a number of 
times one after the other making a full stop between them 
you will see that in order to pronounce “gain” you have to 
begin the sound with the vocal cords before the g sound be¬ 
gins. So with t and d; pronounce to and do in succession 
and j t ou will see that in do the vocalization begins before the 
consonant sound. So with ch and j; take chezv and jew and 

* Ch is an exception as it partakes slightly of the nature of an 

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the same thing is evident, also p anil b as illustrated by “pay" 
and “bay " We lay it down them as a rule that in these 
letters the vocalization comes just before or just after the con¬ 
sonant sound. Now the whole trouble lies in the fact that in 
Korean the vocalization comes at the very instant of the explosion , 

neither liefore nor alter. I} is neither ka nor ga but half be¬ 
tween and that is why one hears it ka and another £77, i is 
neither to nor do but just lietween. Let a Korean pronounce 
one of these words to you several times in succession and you 
will note what I have above said that the vocalization comes 
neither liefore nor after the consonant but at the sa.i e instant. 

If this is true then neither our k nor g accurately repres¬ 
ent the sound. Hut as we have nothing else to do it with we 
must choose lietween them. At the lteginning of a word the 
choice is an almost jierfectly arbitrary one and I prefer to use 
the k, t, eh and p rather than the g. d, j and b. When the 
consonant comes in the body of a word the choice is not ar¬ 
bitrary. Take for exam.pie the word . shall we say ajo or 

acho. We must say the former linearise the vocalization begun 
in the first syllable is continued through the second and there¬ 
fore the sound of % is instantly preceded by the vocalization. 

which gives the sound of j instead of eh. So in tb.e vo¬ 

calization is continued light through the into the ^ so we 

must say pon-da. So in wo cannot say Dan Kotin nor 

Dan kun because k would mean that the n of the first syllable 
chocks the vocalization, which it does not . One can use bis 
taste in saying Dan or Tan but he cannot rightly use it in 
saying kun or gun. Hero then wo find some argument for us¬ 
ing k, t, cli and p at the beginning of words because 1 sometin es 
in the body of words wo must use g. d, j and h, and it will pre¬ 
vent confusion and ambiguity. Of course in the body of a won! 
we should use k, t, ch and p after a syllable which forms a 

complete check as in ^ J2- = mok-po =■ ttop-ta in which 

the "1 and ^ chock the vocalization. 

IT. R HullxTt. 

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T hk foreign community here in Seoul was shocked and surpris¬ 
ed bv the startling news, received on June 27th. of the death 
by suicide of Rev. W. J. McKenzie, an independent mission- 
i.ry living in Sorai, district of Chang Yon, about two hundred 
miles north east of the city. He was a British subject, so the 
English Consul-General, Mr. Hillier, took immediate steps to have 
the affair fully investigated. For this purpose Rev. Dr. Under¬ 
wood and myself left this city on June 29th. and reached Song Do, 
54 miles away the same evening. We remained there the next 
day, it being Sunday, and held two meetings, both largely attend¬ 
ed, over the big South gate. This gate stands in the center of the 
city. For some political row, years ago, the rights of the citizens 
(since restored) were taken away and consequently much of the 
city is now built outside the walls. The population is about fifty 
thousand, the situation is delightful, as it lies at the foot of a 
range of lofty mountains. It is surrounded by a remarkably 
rich and fertile region. This city and surrounding country is at 
present without a missionary, but is only like scores of other places 
where the harvest is great and the laborers few. A feature 
around Song Do is the ginseng farms, protected by the high walls 
and guarded. This plant, cheap and useless in America, is used 
largely ns a medicine—a sort of panacea—in China and is very 
valuable. That grown in Korea seems to possess peculiar virtues 
which are not found in it elsewhere. The growth and sale of it is 
under the control of the government but much of it is smuggled 

We met with no noteworthy incident until we arrival at Hai 
Ju, though we slept one night at an inn near one which had been 
plundered by the Tong Haks the night Indore. It gave us no 
concern however for these semi-religious rebels seldom if ever 
bother foreigners. My ex|)erience on a previous trip into the north¬ 
ern part of Whang Hai Do, right where they' were supposed to 
be thickest and where we saw many villages in ashes and other 
evideix'es of their work, had made me know that there was noth¬ 
ing to fear from them, though at the time we were in their dis¬ 
trict, thousands were ready to n\se at a moment’s notice*. 

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Just before reacliing Hai Ju we met alxiut 200 unarmed 
Korean soldiers straggling along the road to Seoul. They were 
from this place* and having had some dispute with the Hai Ju 
anthoritics had got mad and, standing not ujxin the order of n*- 
tuming, had returned at once without bag or baggage. It was 
an amusing and odd exhibition, but what else could they do. The 
Governor sent his cards to us as soon as we arrived in the city, 
but we had heard he had been removed and that his removal had 
come close ujxm our other visit, which was an official one and made 
under the direction of the American, Russian Japanese and Korean 
Legations, concerning the murder of a foreigner which he had to 
report at Seoul, and to have to toll him of this trip under similar 
circumstances would, to say the least, be 1 rather embarrassing, so we 
sent our regrets. He sent us a guard of honor however and early 
the next morning we continued on our journey, but at noon we bean! 
he was about to behead a well known Christian, a Korean who had 
formerly been a Tong Hak, but was pardoned by the authorities 
at Seoul so Dr. Underwood sent letters and succeeded in saving 
the man’s life as he was about to be killed by mistake. We ar¬ 
rived at Sorai on July 4, nnd were received by the stricken com¬ 
munity most kindly and cordially. They could not understand, 
as neither can we, how such an end should come to one they loved 
so well. They only knew that a man had come and labored 
among them and had lain down his Iilc for them. They realized 
the great sacrifice and many who were not certain belbrc of their 
belief in the Christian religion came out positively Mr. McKen¬ 
zie has done a noble work among the people there and the new 
church, built entirely by their own lalior and funds, is a material 
monument of their faith, while in their hearts is a belief which 
assures them of “temples not made with hands eternal in the 

Air. AIcKenzie’s last entry in his journal will give the best 
idea of his last conscious moments. He was confused on the dates. 
It was dated the 23rd. when it was written on the 22nd. and was 
to this effect; “Snt. 23rd. f or last two days went for a lew rod 
walk vomiting one or twice. Resolved yesterday to go to Seoul by 
boat. Ordered one to come tomorrow, getting shvpless. Keep f>eo- 
ple from coming in today; will not go out too weak. Find in P. M. 
that body is cold as need so much clothing. Hot water bottle sweat; 
easier after. Hope it is not death for sake of Korea nnd the many 
who will say it was mv manner of living like Koreans. It was im- 

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prudence on part of myself travelling under hot sun and sitting 
out at night dll cold.” 

Here his journal abruptly ends and the rest of our inform¬ 
ation was from the depositions of the people there. These show 
that he was conscious up to the morning of the day on which he 
shot himself, when he was entirely “out of his head”—temporarily 
insane. That he contemplated the act a day before is shown by 
the testimony of two people whom he told that they would be 
ashamed. A week before he had told a woman not to work so 
hard under the hot sun or she would lose her mind, that he had 
worked too hard and was crazy. There was no evidence at all of 
melancholia or disappointment in his work. Such in brief are the 
details of the sad tragedy. Though sad, there are many particulars 
of his life and work there which are very interesting. It is not 
appropriate for me, being here so short a time and knowing so 
little of his work, to write of his life and labors, but I can truly 
say that a man actuated by the highest motives which can stir a 
human being coming into this far country and sacrificing himself 
for these people and his faith deserves a higher tribute than my 
weak but willing pen is able to inscribe. “Greater love hath no 
man than this, that a man lav down his life for his friends.” His 
friends for whom he died, buried him in a lot back of the church, 
this according to his expressed wish. 

We spent a week in the village during which time Dr. Un¬ 
derwood dedicated the church and baptized ten women and nine 
men who were converted under the ministration of Mr. McKenzie 
and of whose sincerity and understanding of the step they took 
there is no doubt. All who applied for baptism were not accepted 
as yet however. The Christian community there at Sorai is a 
bright spot in this dark land. It is like letters of gold in a frame 
of lead. Ijot us hope that the work, started there, will spread out 
all over the country as has so often happened under similar cir¬ 
cumstances in other lands. 

Having finished our duties there, and mine consisted much 
in medical and surgical work, some patients coming as far as 
thirty miles to see us— I treated over a hundred patients and the 
charges for medicines amounted, in Korean cash, to as much as a 
man could conveniently carry, we returned by junk to Seoul, 
taking a whole week to accomplish what should not have taken 
more than three days at most. 

J. Hunter Wells. 

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r'l>rn >kial hep a in mex r. 

•I.M'ASK'l 11K" 11'!'NT" IN 1 A. 

C oim Ir.ouvv. anvnling t«> tlx* A;./.. A: to a> <ju<.ini in rix- 
«.| .luiw 'J'.'tli. «>th« r tiling aN*!t K*.res 

“.lapuntx- rvsiti« nt* in K'-ivn mu-l I»e nlirmol. I Ik 
i'ount nuiki" thiv>‘ ch:nw~ uir.iinM hi- tV-11>>w ivuntryiucii in tiii- 
.vmntrv, lack of" »*.»-. .penuioti, arrotsmtv &r>] t-xtrava^ance. Eatii 
v-hanp* is hackt'd l*v :■ n it>k- illustration.". l’ndt-r tlx- • 

His ¥ LxoeHeney “Tin Japanese aj^ r> t only imp *ulr. Ixit 

often in>u]i ilit* lv n-si.s 1 hey art* rink* in their treatment • K«- 

tvr.n eusrvnuis and when there is slight ini-ur/x 

tiny d«« net hesitate t«* ap|***l t.i and even ?** -ar ^ to 

:hi\ \\ Kon*::n< inti* river* * r u-e w»*j**iis. Mervhanfc* th::- !re> 
yjentiv U*o*n>e n»wdi < ^nd nianv «»h th*ni an* i*«nse»}tXT-t]y 

v Th i-e \vh.» jiv- ie! morehant> an still m* n. n*iv ar«J 

o hnt~ They >c:y tluy have made K«r*a indejvriden:. tiry hav* 
>.:^>ri*s^A{ tile Hak*. arid th««N* K«*rvair wie- 

:h*: .. who dan «::*»»U-y tliem. an* u:.^r&t#. nil H ^ «^rn 

t tv K 'Tva:.- ! * !j* U ::.j trj!.?ei>fd hv rr>*‘ Japanese? :*r n. jht 

at;/; hatnd dislike TL»n it is • 

: ‘ : K« t ■ k it/ ••••-ship with «*htT r*. -Tv 

~ *< eatjon *: ( !::>>»■ an • * mii.j :cJ:i :• r - - 

.t t>.*. • * :r. th* ir arr*jtsi «> a;xl -s-. 

'Nie t i ! v- d*> tv :h-*m \iill K ' nt a:?! tie r re- 

iul ru-nvi a:>i «them/' 

*: tti'.mv d;.v- . / i *:/:><♦ - :^n :..:*•*» wt tr>*::>; ,t.v 

^ v v't » s; trt. hr* ar*: tr T^Sat t ir K- nc^r-. 

•** > * . w :> *. r t- "1** w r. V K• n*: : - •!;*! r> t T S» Jt 

i ^ ;v*^ » v • •:: ** these :m:*:h:t >-ihn^ MV z> t 

. ? i * • * • v .vr * h »r /. :: > k : >i * 

: :_» i^r ta. >: n* the t •«:p*i> 

- • . K -n* :• ;> /: hi> : .i; v-'-t :r> /* M r 

' in t rthv v.crv : i: v • 

* - iir>;» * ’v* an * xtr ’ > / r •> :.t . 

*n** ' V*f S CMTrS X C i tJLV * l."* ' .t ^ WT -v* 

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Korean is defrauded aud assaulted. He ventures to expos¬ 
tulate, he tries to resist only to find that the barbarian, (we 
should use the same term in characterizing similar acts of our 
country man) from a across the sea has more muscle and skill 
than he has and that both will be used when necessity demands. 
What do these adventurers care for law? They are after money 
and the rights of the Koreans do not enter into the account. 
Japan is to be congratulated that Count Inouye sees these evils 
and we may be quite sure that unless “the general Japanese 
residents correct themselves,” measures will be provided by the 
Government to do it for them. 

The Korean Official Gazette. 

New form for Official Gazette. Beginning with the First 
of the Sixth Moon (July 22nd ) this interesting publication puts 
on a new dress. The old type and paper which were purely 
Korean are discarded for a more modern and foreign dress. 
We doubt if the result can be considered an improvement. 
There was a something characteristic about the old form we 
miss in the new. The scope of the publication is further enlarg¬ 
ed so are to include the latest foreign telegrams. We thus find 
references to the Black Flags of Formosa, affaire in Peking, and 
the Cabinet changes in London. This is a most significant 
change, for it show’s that Korean officials no longer bound their 
vision by the shores of their peninsula but look with interest 
to the outside world. 

Asiatic Cholera. Immediatly on the appearance of this 
scourge the Government proclaimed quarantine regulations for 
the infected districts. These are Royal Oids. llfi it 117 and 
Home Uept Reg. 2 issued July 5th. and Oth. In accordance 
with these, medical and other relief has been afforded and re¬ 
ports received from the afflicted places. We-ju reports 404 
deaths between July 10 and 24, making a total of 4155 deaths 
from the beginning of the scourge. There have been 70 deaths 
at Whang ju 150 miles north of Seoul. 

Reorganization of the Government. This continues slowly 
but surely. A system of rewards for superior Police Justices 
( Kybng~mu Kwan) is established and their responsibility more 

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clearly defined by making them subject to the District Governors. 
A regulation of the Hon e Departn ent locates the seats of the 
provincial District Administration. Office hours for all the Public 
Departments and Offices are fixed, and the reorganization of 
the military forces begun. 

Royal message to the Minister of Justice. Mr. K. P. Sob, 
Minister of Justice, l>elieving that his personal intimacy with the 
exiled Home Minister might make his own resignation accept¬ 
able, presented it to His Majesty. The Gazette announced as 

The Minister for Justice, So Ivwang Pom, having resigned 
his post His Majesty the King, on the 17th. of the Intercalary 
oth. Moon (July 9th.) sends him the following message. 

“We have received and given due consideration to your re¬ 
signation. You come from a family which for generations has 
filled official posts ; you are yourself our relative. In regard to 
the affairs of the year Kap Sin (emeute of 1384) you were then 
young and immature and through the sifting of others were 
precipitated into an evil plot. We are certain it is impossible 
for you to Ixj as at that time We distinguish a fragrant flower 
amid useless weeds. We have fully tried and now know you 
so what reason is there for you to feel disturb'd or alarmed that 
you should resign your post? Resign not., but attend at your 
department and perform the duties which fall to you.” 

Resignations. There is never any lack of these, and to the 
higher officials His Majesty generally replies usually returning 
the resignation unaccepted. The new Home Minister Yi Won 
Yong after a few’ days of service sent in the usual pleas of 
sickness, to whom His Maiestv replied as follows; 

"Wo have examined your resignation. These are times of 
reorganization when the entire realm is effected, and things 
profitable and harmful are being determined. Why then do you 
plead sickness? Resign not, but take up your duties and attend 
immediately (or quickly) at your Department.” 

Korean Post Office. Regulations instituting and organiz¬ 
ing the Korean Post Office constitute Royal Ordinance 1‘24, and 
consist of 80 clauses This ordinance was promulgated July 
18th. and the Post Office began running July 23rd.* We 
shall refer to it more fully in our next issue. 

Public Granaries. It has been the eastern from time im¬ 
memorial for the Government to collect through its provincial 

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officials, rice from tlx* people and store it in public granaries 
against times of la s ino and for the relief of distressed persons. 
This in course of time I'ecame a prolific source of trouble, un¬ 
scrupulous officials disusing of these stores for their own enrich¬ 
ment. More riots have probable grown out of peculations of 
the whan-ch'a (rice thus stored) than from any other one source. 

Under the new Government a radical and complete change 
is made which will l>e very satisfactory to the people. Circular 
No. ? of the Finance Department provides 10 regulations for 
this rice. The following is a summary of the contents of the 
circular. The rice is explicitly set aside for relief purposes; it 
is to lie stored in granaries centrally located in each Myon (Pre- 
fectural Cantonment) which granaries are to lie erected by the 
people at their own cost; the people in each cantonment shall 
elect five of their own number of approved character and in¬ 
tegrity who shall net as a IV>ard of Control: these shall appoint 
a Sa-su, Custodian and Su-chang Janitor, who shall have charge 
of the granary ; for each// (J mile) them shall lie a Po-chong, 
Overseer, who shall facilitate the collection and dishursment of 
the rice; this rice, the lout s of which shall I'e assessed by the 
people themselves, must I'e delivered in the 10th. Moon and 
disbursed not beforo the 3rd. Moon of the following year: in 
years of distress it shall he used for relief purposes, in years of 
plenty it shall he disposed of as the people shall direct: in stor¬ 
ing the levies collection shall lie made from the immediate vic¬ 
inity first and later from outlying sections , in disbursing this ord¬ 
er is to lie reverstxl; the Custodian and Janitor are to receive as 
compensation for their services five measures in every hag stor¬ 
ed ; their names must lie reported to the local Prefect who shall 
attest their appointment with his official seal: people who do 
r ot contribute to these levies must he reported to the authorities 
and when those who are indebted for relief flee without paying, 
t're village in which they resided shall make restitution: the peo¬ 
ple must keep the granary in repair and the Janitor is respon¬ 
sible for the things in the storehouse, the people may also use 
the granary for storing private supplies of rice; the local au¬ 
thorities shall report in full to the Finance Department on the 
state of these granaries and the stores in them, giving names of 
those connected therewith. These regulations go into effect on 
the 1st. of the Tenth Moon (Nov. 17th. 1305). The most im¬ 
portant feature of those regulations is that they remove tlie 

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I'll K KOliKAN REIUMlnltl 

:u i 

niiilio] of this rice from the (tow rim out ( Hlieiais and jut it in 
tho ! lands of the )'coj>!e. 

Kokkan ! itovKitns. 

M uni ol‘ the wisdom of the Eastern people is wrapp'd up in 
their proverbs and pithy sayings. Much of ethical ami 
economic truth is thus conserved. It is only in the amplifica¬ 
tion of the Confueian code that the Korean becomes prolix and 
tiresome. In other lines of ethical thought he is as sentenious as 
he is diffuse in that. It is refreshing to find amidst the dead flat¬ 
ness of Confueian commentary some truths shaiplv defined and 
elcnrlv drawn, neatly and incisively expressed. 

1 n th<* following attempt to tabulate some of the more strik¬ 
ing of the Korean proverbs it will lie noticed that in nearly every 
nine the higher truth is illustrated bv reference to the common 
things of life, that there is no generalization and that the result 
aimed at is eminently practical. 

He ate so fast that he choked. 

To us this means nothing more than is <>n the surface hut 
the Korean means by it that the man to whom it is applied 
tried to get rich so fast that he over reached himself and defeat¬ 
ed his |>ur|!ose. It is sjnrially a j'plied to provincial magistrates 
who are so anxious to “mako hay while the sun shines." that 
they jiafis the point of endurance and find themselves ousted 
from their jiosition hv a poj mlar demonstration which, on ac¬ 
count of the laxity in the administration of justice which j ro- 
vails in China as in Korea, is the last court of appeal. 

"A JltKi'fr that is in full Hoorn in the morning withers by 

This is a terse wa\ of expressing the truth that a too )>re- 
eocjoint child is apt to j>erforin in after yearn loss than his pre- 
c< eit v J'rou isos. It is eo'im only apj'lied to children who show 
unnatural aj'tness in the memorizing of Chinese ehaiacters 
which occupation is of course tlie very one to overstrain the 
mind of the child. 

" J \>u eon recover nn arrow that you have shot but not a 
word that you hare spoken." 

I’ois | row rb o\] lams iisT. i! is j ai'lioiil irly apj'licaHo 

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to the Koreans for archery is perhaps the eon.ii onest out door 
sport of the upper middle class. 

“If you ilon t keep your fence mended the dogs will get in” 
means that a single fault spoils a man’s reputation. 

“Their virtues else, he they as pure as -.’lace, 

As infinite as man may undergo. 

Shall in the general censure take corruption. 

Fro n that particular fault.” 

“A dusty mirror is useless ” 

This is the Korean’s subtle way of expressing the idea that 
a tainted mind can perceive nothing truly hut is hound to dis¬ 
tort and misrepresent. 

“A man who stands behind a wall can see nothing else.” 

In the Korean sense this is the precise counterpart of our 
wool “book-worm.” It represents a man who lias spent his 
life in the mere acquisition of Chinese characters to the neglect 
of everything else. He has } iled a wall of words up liefore him 
beyond which he cannot see. 

“It is easy to hurt yourself on a stone that has sharp comers ” 
means hr the Korean ear nothing more nor less than that a 
violent tempered man is an uncomfortable companion. A truth 
that is unfortunatelv not confined to the Peninsula. 

“ What are birds by day are rats by night.” 

“Honey on the lips but a sword in the mind.” 

These are two was s of expressing the same truth The n an 
who flatters to the face will slander behind the hack. It is a 
general synonym for hypocrisy, and a very expressive one too. 

“ In'making a mountain you must carry rvery load of sand 
to the very List.” 

This proverb expresses the Korean idea of the value of 
finishing touches. Nothing is thoroughly praiseworthy that is 
not thoroughly done. This proverb is directed against the t<xi 
(•(min on Korean habit of laissez faire. 

“If you try to save time by going across lots you will fall in 
7vith robbers” 

This is one of the n ost characteristic of all the Korean 
proverbs. It contains the keynote of the conservatism of the 
once “Forbidden Land.” The long way around presents some 
difficulties hut nothing compared with those of leaving the beaten 
track and “cutting across ” It is not a projior inference from 
this proverb that highway robbery is very common in Korea. 

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Consul General Hillier and family arc spending the summer in 

The members of the Southern Presbyterian Mission are rusticating with 
the Buddhists in Kwan Ak San. The temples given them are on the west 
side of the mountain, the air cool and bracing, the view beautiful and ex¬ 
tensive. Mr. and Miss Tate of this Mission are in Japan. Mrs. Greathouse, 
mother of C. R. Greathouse, is spending the summer in Seoul. She is re¬ 
mark abl> well and strong for a person of her years. 

Vice Minister of Education, T. H. Yun, was transferred on July 22 to 
the Foreign Department as Vice Minister. We had hoped Mr. Yun would 
ix? permitted to remain in his former position and be given an opportunity 
to develop a system of education for the country. 

Koreans, even, recognize that surface water running into their wells is a 
fruitful source of sickness. Hence just before the rain on the 15th. the peo¬ 
ple as far as possible laid in a supply to last for a few days. 

“Places of Interest in Seoul,” a series of article* in our columns by Dr. 
Allen, attracted much attention. We are happy to lay before our readers 
“Places of Interest in Korea” by Mrs. Gifford who has given much study 
to this subject We hope our contributors w ill continue the series. 

When you see three full grown Koreans on a hot July day tramping 
thro the dust vigorouslv fanning themselves followed by a small boy carry¬ 
ing a huge jar supposed to be ancient and therefore valuable, you need not 
go further for the reason why some of their very common things are far 
from being cheap. 

Sericulture, with proper care, we arc told by those who have given the 
subject attention, might become a very remunerative industry. In the few 
places to w hich the production at present is confined the quality of silk pro¬ 
duced is said to be superior. 

The Minister of the Home Department, appointed since the departure 
of Prince Pak is a new r man and supposed to belong to the conservative 
party. That is to say the Queen’s hand it felt again. Clearly the plank 
in the reform policy bearing on this subject needs careful looking after. 

Mr W. Gowland A. R. S. M., F. C. S. &c. late of the Imperiai Jap¬ 
anese Mint, visited Korea in 1884 for the purpose of examining dolmens. 
He gives an account of his investigations, in the Journal of the Anthrop¬ 
ological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Feb. 1895, * n a P a P^ r en¬ 
titled “Dolmens and other Antiquities of Korea.” He says of them : “Un¬ 
fortunately we have no internal evidence such as that afforded by pottery 
or other remains, and no ancient legends attached to them, to assist us in 
assigning to them even an approximate date. It is hence difficult to say 
w ho their builders w ere.” We once saw a small dolmen in the middle of a 
small plain on Kang-wJhi. Inquiry elicited the following account, which we 
hope may prove of use in discovering builders and date. Sometime ago, so 

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those once in His Majesty’s service to leave the country immediately on the 
expiration of their contract; we also observe a readiness to renew contracts 
and consequently a willingness to endure a while longer the hardships of 
a residence here. Former Chinese residents likewise are returning in large 
numbers, one hundred and sixty arrived in Chemulpo in the "Afghan” from 
Shanghai. Among these was Ex. Consul General S. Y. Tong, one of whose 
last duties lx:fore leaving a year ago was to haul down the Dragon flag. 

We were asked a few day’s ago (July 26) whether we knew that Ex. 
Home Minister Pak was back in Seoul again and in power, having been 
brought back by Count Inouye. Wc confessed ignorance, a thing that is 
probanly unpardonable in editors. We want this placed to otir credit, both 
die confession and the fact that we did not issue an Extra! 

I)r Scranton and family returned July 25th. from their outing down the 
Han on a Koreanjunk. They report the experiment a great success especially 
in dry weather: but we infer from the faint praise liestowed that something 
more water-proof than a Korean junk is desirable in wet weather. 

'Hte General Educational Assembly held at Kyoto in May last was 
attended by about 2500 teachers and friends interested in education. We 
find according to the June number of The Educator some remarkable 
utterances on the Chinese language. President Kano of the Higher Nor¬ 
ma! school said: "The Chinese characters must be abolished to make our writ¬ 
ing easier.” And Prof. Inouyc of the Imperial University said : "The Chin¬ 
ese characters hitherto hindered the developcmcnt of Japanese civilization. 
They must be abolished and the elegant Japanese characters should be im¬ 
proved and used instead.” 

Ex. Home Minister Pak and two refugees with him reached Tokyo about 
the middle of July. 

Correspondents from Seoul to Japanese newspapers make themselves 
ridiculous bv what they telegraph and write to their papers. One correspond¬ 
ent for example explains that the Japanese troops escorting the fleeing Min¬ 
ister Pak to the river "marched out for the purpose of manoeuvres and that 
their movements had no connection whatever with Pak”. 

The Italian cruiser Chris to foro Colombo arrived in Chemulpo July 21. 
Prince Luigi di Savoia Duca degli Abruzzie was on board. The next day he 
went to Seoul under the escort of T. H. Yun, Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs. 
While in the Capital he was the guest of Consul-General Hillier. The Prince 
was received in audience on the 23 rd. and the following day returned to 

Mr. Swallen’s vigorous discussion of "Polygamy and the Church” is ad¬ 
mitted to our columns, but we can in no way lie held responsible for the 
conclusions reached. The question is a live one and should be discussed with 
freedom and frankness. 

Count and Countess Inouyc arrived in Seoul on the 20th. of July. About 

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Electrical Gear 

Co m p in si n <; 

BELLPUSHES, in button and 
pear shape, (a large assortment) 

CELLS complete, also the differ¬ 
ent parts separate. 

CALL BELLS (as por illustra¬ 
tion) diff';r.:nfc sizes. 


"lo and double, different qualit¬ 
ies suitable for in and out-door 

INDICATORS, with 6, 9 and 12 

numbers. (Smaller sizes can be 
made to order.) 

RIES ft ,• f’xing and repairing l»ells 
Ac. Ac. Ac. 

—-«—> ~* x > Ae • . 

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Kstablislied 1864. 



Special attentiun is given to the Provision Sc Household 
Store Department, which comprises a fine assortment of 

all stores, groceries and preserves necessary for the house¬ 


Terms Cash. 



Bring a Vocabulary or Korean Colloquial Words in 

Common Use - - - - Price $2,50 

a Manual of Grammatical Forms. - „ * w 


J'.A-IMIiJS SCOTT, im:. .a. 













Rev. Jas. S. Gale. 


Rev. D. L. Gifford. 


Dr. H. N. Allen. 


Dr. O. R. Avison. 

The Real Korea. 

The Battle of Pyeng Yang. 
The Bird Bridge. 


Price per annum, S3.00. 

Published at 


T. WEEKS & Co. 


Telegraphic address "Weeks. Shanghai." 

Sole agents in Shanghai for 
The Celebrated “K” boots & Shoes. 

The Singer Sewing Machines. 

E. 0. Burt & Co. New York. 

Brown’s Satin Boot Polish. 

Dr. Jaeger's Woolen Clothing. 

Automatic Knitting Machine. 

The Cellular Clothing Co. 




Baker and Compradore 


Fresh Supplies by every Mail Boat. The most reduced 
prices quoted. Goods when ordered from the interior or 
elsewhere will be carefully packed. Packing free of charges. 

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<M(?aia man 

Published Every Morning, Sundays and Holidays excepted. 


(Payable in Advance) 

Onk Month ... $1.00 One Year ... sio.oo 

Postage Free throughout Japan and Korea. 

THE DAILY ADVERTISER has a larger circulation than 
any other daily paper published in the. English language in Jap¬ 
an. and is therefore without a rival as an advertising medium. 
Rates on application to the undersigned. 


■MPaa 'sjaacsii'tf MssmsBia 

Consisting of from 24 to 32 pp., 

Published Every Saturday Morning. 


(Payable in Advance) 

Six Months ... $ 3.00 One Yeah ... 85.00 

Postage Free Throughout Japan and Korea. 


FOR 189'). 


List of Firms, etc., in Japan, Korea and Wladivostock; Japan¬ 
ese Government Departments; The Peerage of Japan; 


Alphabetical List of Foreign Residents in Japan, Korea and 
Wladivostock, and an 

Appendix of Useful Information, 

With Lithographed Plan of Yokohama. 


Publishers and Proprietors, 

No. 49 , Yokohama, Japan. 

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THE KOREAN REPOSITOBY is a monthly maga¬ 
zine of forty pages devoted to Korean affaire. It will be 
published between the fifth and tenth of each month and wfll 
be delivered to subscribers in Korea, Japan and China for $3.00 
per annum and to all other countries in the postal union for $2 
00 gold or its equivalent. These rates include postage if paid in 
advance, otherwise it will be extra. 

The agents for China and Japan are 
Messrs Kelly a Walsh, ld 

Advertisement Bates. 

Full page for one year — — — $18.00 

Half - - - 10.00 

Quarter „ „ — — — 6.00 

Full page for half „ — — — 10.00 

Half .. „ — - - 6.00 

Quarter . — — — 4.00 

Full „ three months — — — 6,00 

Half. - — — 4.00 

Quarter „ „ — — — 2.50 

All communications should be addressed to 


Seoul, Korea. 

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Residents in the interior and outports 
can depend on getting the whol of their 
requirements QUICKLY forwarded 
carefully packed and at equally low 
prices is if imported from home. A 
specialty is made of obtaining all 
goods not in stock and attending to 


Whymark, Kobe 

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SjiiJr^'-fa^rMrFEEiR/, 189S. 


(Translations from the Tong-gook T'ong-gam.) 

U I n B. C. 2332 a spirit being alighted under a sandal-wood tree 
I on Tabak mountain, Yung-pyun, P'yung-an province. The 
*• people of the country gathered round, made him their chief, 
and proclaimed him Tan-goon, king of Chosun. He built, his capi¬ 
tal at Ping-yang in the 25th. year of the Yo Emjieror of China, 
again he built another capital at P&g-ak mountain, and in the 
year B. C. 1324 he ascended into heaven from the Adal hills. 
Kang dong District.’’ 

Notwithstanding his miraculous ascension, ho has had 
several graves built to him. One is in Choong-hwa and was tv- 
paired as late as 1890 by the governor of P'yung-an Province. 
There twice every year the nation offers a sacrifice of raw meal 
and uncooked food to Old Sandalwood, (Tangoon) and prayers 
for the occasion are printed and sent from Seoul by the Minister 
of Ceremonies. 

“In B. C. 1122 the Chinaman Moo-wang defeated the 
Eun Emperor Choo, then looked up his nephew Keui-ja the sage, 
and asked him to teach him the way. Keui-ja explained to him 
the “great plan." For this the Emperor appointed him to 
Chosun with his capital at Ping-yang. 

“Keui-ja came riding on a white horse, dressed in white 
clothes, bringing with him five thousand Chinamen, people skilled 
in literature, poetry, music, medicine, philosophy and masters of 
all kinds of trades. Not being able to communicate in their 

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own language, they translated into Korean, and fixed the eight 
laws of the kingdom as follows. 

1st. Thou shalt kill a murderer. 

2nd. Thou shalt pay for an injury to another in grain. 

3rd. 1 hou shalt bind a thief as slave. 

4th. Thou shalt charge 5000 yang for freedom. 

5th. Thou shalt pass no money in marriage. 

6 th. Thou shalt not commit adultery. 

7th. Thou shalt have no private feuds. 

8 th. Thou shalt not lie." 

It is Baid that Keui-ja on closer view found his subjects a 
most violent lot, who fought and tore each other with the wild¬ 
est delight. To provide against this evil, the seventh law of his 
code enacted that every subject wear a broad brimmed earth¬ 
en hat, poised carefully on the top of the head. Any unseem¬ 
ly behaviour now would lie sure to leave its mark on this frail 
headgear. A cracked or bioken hat meant death or exile This 
had the desired effect, and blood and actual violence disappear¬ 
ed. Their wrath must now needs confine itself to grinding 
teeth and glaring eyes. 

This explains the wide-brimmed small-crowned hats worn 
at this late day. It also accounts for the threatening attitudes 
seen in the streets. No mortal can ever work up more fighting 
agony than a Korean, and yet he very rarely lays violent hands 
on the object of his fury. It haB become first nature to him to 
settle it by words and tableaux, the man who cuts the fiercest 
attitudes being the acknowledged victor. 

“ Forty-one generations later, about the twentieth year of 
Keui-choon a Chinaman of the Yun kingdom called Euiman, Hy¬ 
ing for his life at the head of a thousand or more soldiers, top- 
knotted and dressed in barbarian style, came scurrying over the 
Tft-dong river. He cheated Keui choon out of his kingdom, plant¬ 
ed himself in P'ingyang and called it Wang-gum city. 

In B. C. 137 Oogu the grandson of Euiman failed to pay 
tribute to China. At once Emperor Moo-je sent admiral Yang- 
bong with war junks by sea and Soon-ch'e a general of the left 
with troops by land. These inarched south-east and surround¬ 
ed P'ing-yang. The Chosunese nobles secretly sent a message 
of surrender to the admiral but Soon-ch‘e uninformed as to this, 
threatened P'ing-yang with destruction only awaiting the ad - 
miral's forces. The admiral did not come, and time passed. 

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Moo jc anxious at this delay, sent Kong-soon 800 to settle mat- 
ten and report to him at once. Soo pushed on rapidly and 
meeting general 8 oon-ch‘e, was informed of the perfidy of the 
admiral. The latter they arrested and forthwith took posses¬ 
sion of Chosun. The Chosunese nobles in fear had killed their 
king Oogu and surrendered. Moo-je then ordered Chosun to be 
divided into four provinces as follows. 

1st. Nang nang— modem P‘yung-an Province, 

2 nd, Hyuu-t‘o — „ Ham-kyung „ 

3rd. Im-doon — „ Kang-wun 

4th. Chin-bun — „ Pak-doo-san (The Ever- 

white mountains) 

Afterwards in P. C. 8 , Emperor So-je changed them into 
two provinces Tong-l>oo and P‘vung-joo. 

“Keui-choon whom Euiman had turned out of doors, made 
good his escape by boat to a place called Keum-ma, and there 
established the kingdom of Ma-han with its capital on the site of 
modern Ik-san, Chul-la Province. He had under him fiftv 
feudal states, the larger in families numbering some tens of 
thousands the smaller some thousands. 

“People in those days built round walls, thatched their 
huts with straw, and climbed in and out through the roof. 

I hev regarded not gold, silver and silks as precious, and yet 
they loved to adorn their heads with jade ornaments and ear¬ 
rings. Ordinarily the men wore silk coats and string shoes. By 
nature they w'ere warlike, fond of archery and spear tossing. 

“Certain fugitives from the Chin kingdom China came 
across to Mahan, and to these was given a tract of land to the 
east. There they formed a tributary state called Chin-han with 
capital at Kyung-joo. Another state tributary to Ma-han was 
Pyun-han to the south of Kyung-sang To, the site of its capital 
l)eing modem Kim-ha. 


“ In B. C. 57 we meet the founder of Silla. His clan name 
was Pak his given name Hyu-gu-su.” 

“ During the wars in the north, many people of Chosun 
fleeing lor their lives came south, and formed six cantons. A 
gentleman from one of these by name So-pul-gong one day pass¬ 
ing Yang mountain heard the neighing of horses. Thither he 
went. As for horses he saw' none but under a tree was a large 

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he. “ I am a daughter of the water spirit ” she answered “ and 
my name is Yoo-hwa. I was once out playing with ray brothers 
and sisters, when Ha-mo-soo deceived me and took me off to 
Ara-nok mountains. There he left me and never returned again. 
Father and mother said I had disgraced them, and turned me 
out of doors and so I have wandered here.” The king felt in¬ 
terested in this story, locked her up in a room and through a 
chink in the wall came a ray of light, that followed the maiden 
to every comer that she turned. Struck by the sun she con¬ 
ceived, and brought forth an egg, and tossed it out to the an¬ 
imals, but swine and dogs touched it not. She left it on the 
road but the horses and cattle went round about it, and when 
in the held birds came and covered it with their wings. The 
king tried to break it but could not, and so Yoo-hwa at 
last wrapped it in a napkin and placed it in the sun, and a boy 
cracked the shell from the inside and came out a child of mar¬ 
vellous beauty. 

“ When seven years old he was so skilled in archery that 
he missed not once in a hundred shots, and according to the 
custom of Poo-yu he was called Cboo-mong (which might he 
translated Robin Hood.) 

“ The king had seven sons by the same Yoo-hwa, but in 
ability they were far inferior to Choo-mong. The eldest Ta-so 
reminded the king that Choo-mong was bom miraculously, that 
he was terribly ambitious, and that if the king did not exercise 
caution he would get into trouble through him. But the king 
poohpoolied it all, and made Choo-mong keeper of the stables. 
Choo-mong fed the best horses little and made them thin, he fed 
the poorer much and they grew fat, and when the king went 
hunting he rode the fat horses, and Choo-mong the thin. With 
only a few arrows he would take more game than the king him¬ 
self, and all his brothers wished him dead. Then his mother 
whispered. “ There are many who would like to harm you here, 
with your ability you will make your way wherever you go. If 
you stay here I’m afraid it may be too late for repentance some 
day.” Choo-mong with three followers left at once, and reached 
the river Urn, but the bridge was missing and soldiers were now 
after them in hot haste. Then Choo-mong prayed saying. “ I, 
God’s son and grandchild of the water spirit, am fleeing for my 
life this day, before me is a river and behind me horsemen are 
coming. Save I pray thee.” Ere he had ended speaking all the 

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creatures of tin 1 river, back to back, joined their forces and 
formed a bridge. Choo-mong and party went over, and the fish 
disappeared no one knew whither. 

“Going on be met three noblemen whom he t<x>k with 
him to Chol-bon Poo-yu where he built a capital by the rive*’ 
Pi-ryoo and took the clan name Ko. This was the first capital 
of Ko-goo-ryu and was built where Sun ch'un now stands. Choo- 
mong was great and when he died they honored him with the 
title Bright East, Tong Myung.” 

“ Before leaving East Poo-yu, Choo-mong had married a wo¬ 
man called Ye-si. After his flight she liore a son and lived in un¬ 
broken chastity. The boy Yoo-ri with his short bow went hunt¬ 
ing birds in the meadows. One day he shot and pierced a 
water bucket that a woman was carrying to the well. The wo¬ 
man rated him soundly. 

“You rascal! it’s because you have no father to check your 
impudence” said she. 

Yoo-ri put some mud on the end of his arrow, shot again, 
and plugged the hole in the water bucket, but he went home 
downcast. Said he. 

“Mother, who is my father anyhow and where has lie 
gone?” Ye-si said “You have no father.” 

Yoo-ri began to cry “when n person has no father how 
can be look the world in the face? I’d rather die ” lie added. 

Ye-si said “Wait a minute and I’ll tell you something to 
make you glad, your father is no common man; he left here in 
times of trouble, went south, and has become a great long.*’ 

“Yes; father a nobleman and I a begger, have I not cause 
to be ashamed ?’ Ye-si said “when he bade me good bye he 
said ‘Above a stone with seven comers and seven angles, under 
neatli a pine tree there is something hidden; he who finds and 
brings it will be acknowledged my son.’” 

When Yoo-ri heard this, off he went to the mountains hunting 
everywhere, but found nothing. One day sitting at home he 
noticed an opening above a foundation stone of a pillar, and 
heard a voice from within. Looking closer, sure enough there 
was a stone with seven points and seven angles. “Seven points 
and seven angles” said he “according to the riddle. The pillar 
above is the pine tree. I’ve got it.” Searching the opening be 
found the broken point of a sword. With three of his friends 
off he started for Chol-bon Poo-yu, appealed before the king of- 

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fering the broken sword point- The king brought out the blunt¬ 
ed haft and tried the two together, and they fitted exactly. In 
great joy he proclaimed Yoo-ri his son and heir. (B. C. 17.) 


“The founder of Pak-je, Ko On-jo, was the son of Cboo-mong 
of Ko-goo-ryu. When Choo-mong in his flight reached Chol-bon 
Poo-yu the king of that country had three daughters but no son. 
Convinced of the worth of this man from Poo-yu he gave him 
his second daughter and shortly after the king died and Choo- 
mong took his place. 

“ He had two sons born to him. the eldest called Pi-ryoo 
the second On-jo. Seeing that the king intended Yoo-ri as his 
heir they said “Let’s leave and hide our shame! ” So taking 
a few followers they started south and built a capital at Ha-nam 
calling the kingdom Pak-je and because they originally came 
from Poo-yu so they named their capital. 

“ Pi-ryoo, the eldest son, on the way there, proposed that 
they divide the land, he going east and iiis brother south. He 
reached a place on the sea shore called Mi-ch‘oo where he tried 
to establish himself, but the ground was barren and disease rife 
so he left in disgust and wandered hack to his brother in Pak-je 
and when he saw the people prosperous and at peace he died 
of grief. 

“Thirteen years later the king of Pak-j6 changed his capital 
to Han mountain (Seoul?) There some years later the palace 
well ran over and a horse bore a calf with one head and two 
bodies. A sorcerer explained it saying, “It means by the over¬ 
flowing well that the king will prosper, and by the two bodied 
calf that he will possess two kingdoms.” In the following winter 
the king of Pak-je conquered Ma-han and so he became king of 
Pak-je and king of Ma-han.” (A. D. 9.) 

»7as. S. Gale. 


Original from 


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urcrused :>r 'ns untp uvi :n* n i kan v rv.: :.v 

\.:ui; - -tru\es. or :iie IV^vx '.ad a T-T.r.e<«eear- ’* v nines* i.** 
•ns*? % vo ^nunrs ;ar:^i »./ v/ , /'^nv:v f n^ 

. leas&nt ide -irouar.r ns no r.:.e vyrirdm : Y ! r-^ix. ':p- 
v :ver - nu:k. Instead of pansir.^f i.*r* n«^eTer. 

\;c -;ui irrner m :he to a cir;ft?/-r of rTonaea, ^herf* imn- 
•r ^ n«.:t *.ll; umbers prepared, wr^picw^A from the distiir^ 
•i • lie.i .louse. And a einr;.p of splendid, sfreat bee*ch 

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trees. Arrived here the view was fine. Downward to the 
steamer landing the river swept, with a bank that was a perfect 
curve. In the background rose the bluff, mantled to the very 
top with the populous village of Yong-san, in the center of 
which like a bright clasp was set the red brick Catholic Semi¬ 

We were soon off our horses. The winter had been mild; 
and to my disappointment such ice as remained on the river 
looked too fragile for skating. The interest therefore all center¬ 
ed in the hunt. 

There is a place near here in the river, especially where 
the river bends, the surface of which, even in the coldest winters 
when the ice in other places has been eight or more inches 
thick, I have never seen frozen over. Warm springs in the 
river doubtless account for this: and here all winter long water 
fowls are feeding. At the water’s edge below us was a row of 
large boats; beyond was a shell of thin ice; and still beyond 
was open water. In this open water was a succession of groups 
of wild swans, ranged like the links of a chain down the stream, 
One group in particular was not far away; and the Doctor, 
eager for a shot, threw off his over-coat, which he replaced with 
a “ turimachiy or long, white outer-garment, such as was worn 
in those days, borrowed from a Korean. While I hid myself 
behind a pile of brush, he craftily sauntered down to the ■water’s 
edge, in the hope that the birds might mistake him for an in¬ 
nocent minded native, puttering among the boats. But no, the 
swans turning their graceful necks, slowly closed one eye and 
solemnly gazed at the Doctor, as they deftly glided out of range. 
But the Doctor was a man of spirit, and was not so easily to be 
out-done. Presently he was hard at work, tugging at this great 
boat, shoving that one with all his might. But his efforts were 
in vain. The tide so powerful along the coasts of Korea, was 
low in the river, and the boats could not be floated; and in addi¬ 
tion, roost of them were partially embedded in ice. A few 
moments later the Doctor some distance away has found a skiff. 
He motions for me to come. The boat is made of pine boards 
clumsily tacked together. We have no business to enter it. But 
the fever of the hunt is upon us, and we are not disposed to be 
critical. In we clamber, followed by two half grown boys to row 
us. The Doctor’s handsome black dog sprang into the water 
to follow us; but gesticulations and splashings of the water in- 

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*T rrva';;.- : -hm_ahy vo: :*.■ ::-_:.i : -a.:. : third. fourth and 

Ilf*;. fm/v.-yi : .• ir *>;**;.: 1*. Ls.r*ky : r-t or four ducks 

were -:ar>.-d. a.:.-I thtse fly;: g s.mewLat r.-arir to our boat, the 
I>/1- r ventured fir*-- at t\,u_m I Ix-lieve without dis¬ 

astrous effects u:> the r-.rds. 

'Inoi. the :rmu_'\t occur.-*! to us loth, “It 

m alu/.st time f. r ih- cat*-* to ci s* ” In those ante-bellum 
days *-verv n;_-shortly after sui.-r.wi.. with ti e bray of horns 
ar;-i to*- ixjou. of 1 »>«*-dr::m. the guaiviiil-S of ti e city's peace 
causol ti <•- o-;. jtt gate* of t-.v city to le cl-s»d. and then retired 
to rest v.ith ti.*.- co...fortir g dfl >i:r. ti at ah :: iu leer, done that 
was r.* • •.'=-ary t»« ke*-p r ut of the Cat ita: any hostile foe. even 
wcr»- ttrained ace-rding to Wistem mk.i.iry methods—a sys¬ 
tem ir. i-t-1 of a: i >nt as mucii \ ract; h • fucicy as if a council of 
Limbs should decide to ward of: attacks of wolves i v the 

defensive use of their W-c-Ls. The el d::g 'f t..e gates with certain 
other ancient and interesting custo:..s. has ix>w to lx* sure ras- 
sed out of vogue, hut in thoe.* days it was certainly no joke 
for ti.e W-lated foreigner to find hi;; self confronted of an even¬ 
ing with the closed leaves of two great, folding, iron-clad gates. 
It involved the staving outside the city all night, or climbing the 
high, slipjvry wall; or, lx* it wbisjered, the occasional jingle of 
a string of cash operated like magic in swinging open the port¬ 
als, just «s it was currently rumored, though of course most 
slanderously, that a similar jingle, only in greater volume, open¬ 
ed in the same magic way doors leading to rank and j lace in 
the governmental world. In a word we little relished the idea 
of climbing the city wall after dark. 

We must hurry We could see the servants and horses 
on the shore; hut could we get to them? A long field of ice 
lay between us and the bank. There was nothing to do hut to 
row hack up the river to our starting-place. The boys were not 
rowing fast enough. We took the oar in turns and rowed after 

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the foreign fashion. But the oar being peculiar our efforts were 
clumsy, and not unlikely the wrenching of the boat resulting 
therefrom started the sea’ns. Of a sudden we became aware 
that considerable water had come in through the bottom. By 
this time the boys are rowing. We observe that the water is 
coming in much faster. The boys are now swinging at the 
sculling oar with every inch of their strength, with the prow 
headed for the ice. Now and again, in their frantic endeavors, 
they drive the boat into the ice, and the seams are wider op¬ 
ened. Higher, higher creeps the water. Then in a moment 
I can never forget, I see the prow pause a moment, then sink 
out of sight under the black, cold water. Neither of us could 
swim. In a moment down we all went. My thought as I 
sank was to grasp at the boat as for the first time I came to the 
surface. It all happened in less time than suffices for the telling. 

And now this is our situation. We are on a sand-bar 
in the very middle of the river. I am standing in water up to 
my waist; the Doctor is in water up to his arm-pits; while only 
the heads of the boys are visible. Natives told us afterwards 
that only a few feet on either side of where we sank, the water 
was deep enough to have drowned us. Fortunately we were 
close to the ice. The Doctor was presently clambering out, his 
gun still firmly grasped in his hand. Next, the boys were try¬ 
ing in vain to leap out of the water. They were in my way, as 
I came to where they clung at the edge of tbe ice. So I reach¬ 
ed down till I could grasp their baggy trowsers and heaved 
them on like logs; and presently we were all upon the ice. 

A glance at the ice -field was not reassuring. It was shell-ice, 
with black air-holes all about us. Our location was about half-way 
between Youg-sin and the hamlet with the beech trees. Those 
on shore were aware of our peril In after days when we could 
think of our misfortunes with greater cheerfulness, the Doctor, 
with that p 2 C iliar, half-satirical twitch of his heavily mus- 
tached, upper lip, would tell of tfte tremulousness of my tones as 
I called “ossa,” “ossa” (hurry, hurry); and I believe I respond¬ 
ed that his voice had taken on a hoarseness that was hardly 
natural. But if we were frightened, the boys were terrified. 
One is dancing about in a way that threatens to break the ice. 
Expostulations are unheeded. Only one thing remains; the 
Doctor points his empty gun at the frantic youth, with the 
command to desist. Now force is an argument the validity of 

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which, fro.a centuries of use, tiio average Korean is [ to 
recognize. The boy unr-vidcs. Soon, quiet settles upon oar 
group, as we recognize ti.e tact that the men on shore are doing 
all that can be done. Anil we dare not move about for fear of 
breaking the thin ice. The Doctor in bus white Korean coat 
sits upon the ice, with gun across his lap: I aru kneeling 
with my over-coat tucked under rny knees: one hoy is standing 
erect and tlie other lad is seated. Night has now fallen, and 
from the over clouded sky the full moon sheds a dim and hazy 
light. Not a ripple stirs the water, and a deep quiet rests upon 
the river. True we hear dimly from the hamlet with the beech- 
trees the faint hum of voices, and sounds that suggest the chop¬ 
ping of ice around the ice-bound l cats. As silent and motion¬ 
less as a group of statuary, we keep our several attitudes for the 
space of an hour. The mental tension is extreme. 

f inally wc observe that water to the depth of an inch has come 
over the ice. The tide is coming in. Now the w ater has risen to 
the depth of two or three inches. Then we are conscious that the 
cake upon which we are seated has broken loose from the ice¬ 
field, and is turning around, preparatory to floating down the 
river. Our danger now is great: for should our frail raft strike 
against an obstruction, it seems inevitable that we mast sink in¬ 
to the black, deep water. Hut just then from an unobserved 
quarter, the direction of the village of Yong-sam came the 
sound of the plash of the oar. Through the dim moon-light we 
discern a l>oat with five rescuers approaching. The rebound of 
feeling was strong. Hut still we dreaded lest by the ungentle 
striking of the boat against the ice, we should be precipitated 
into the stream. Under the Doctor’s directions they reach the 
edge of the ice without mishap. A long oar is extended to¬ 
ward us, which we, beginning with the boys, each in turn grasp, 
and sliding, are pulled to the edge of the boat, and thus are re¬ 
scued. What ecstatic joy fills our hearts! 

Landed upon terra firma , the servants bring the horses. Hut 
to rido to Seoul from Yong-san in our frozen garments is out of 
the question. The Doctor full of resource, atoncecalls for Korean 
clothes. They are soon brought. We do not stop to enter a house, 
hut under the dim moon-light in an apartment walled about with 
living heads, we took off such garments as were wet and stiffen¬ 
ed with ice, and replaced them with the baggy Korean clothes, 
even to the straw sandals. The thought of the Doctor’s sick 

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wife at home lends wings to his speed. In a moment he is ready 
and off on his horse. Our wet clothes are slapped together pro¬ 
miscuously upon a carrier’s frame, and are started ahead upon 
the back of a coolie. Formal thanks to our benefactors are re¬ 
served for a later time and a form more substantial than words. 
Now with the servant running beside, I set out at a rapid gait for 
the city, which brings again the glow into my frozen blood. 

Arrived at the city wall, the horse and servant must stay 
outside until the morning; but there is nothing for me to do but 
to clamber up the twenty feet of sheer, stone wall. A man 
sent by the Doctor, is waiting to accompany me over the wall. 
Side by side he climbs with me, now drawing back my Korean 
robe so that I shall not lie impeded, now guiding my hands to 
safe projections. Near the top ho hastens ahead and pulls me 
over the wall. Thence a short brisk walk brings me to the 
Doctor's home, where I find him already arrived and clothed in 
his usual attire. Congratulations alternate with merriment at my 
appearance, while underneath it all was deep thankfulness for 
the providence that had rescued us from peril. The next morn- 
the servants who had accompanied us remarked that we were 
“as men who had come back from the dead.” And I think 
they were correct. Two or three days later, the two boys came 
to 6ee us, and they re polled that their mother instead of render¬ 
ing thanks to such deities as she knew, had soundly trounced 
them both, though for what reason they did not state. But as 
we fed them with Korean sweet-meats and gave them a proper 
amount of cash, I think that we consoled them. 

Daniel L. Gifford. 


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r ^o hundred yearn ago, during the reign of Yun San Cha, who 
was overthrown by rebels, the Prime Minister was much 
favored by the king ro that he obtained great power and 
influence. Any one desiring rank had to come to him and by 
costly presents secure his intercession with the king. In this 
way Kim obtained great riches. 

The Prime Minister had a poor cousin a man who was 
supposed to l)e deficient in intelligence and who may as well be 
called The Fool, as he was so designated by his neighbors two 
centuries ago. The Fool hod no position and his influential 
cousin showed no inclination to Itestow one upon him. This 
made him sad but it developed the latent ability which later on 
made him famous. 

The Prime Minister had a beautiful white pony. It had 
not a black hair anywhere upon it, and its beauty was well 
known throughout the city, lie wanted a black one just as 
perfect but as yet no perfect black one had boon brought to 
him. The Fool knowing of his conBin’s desire stole the white 
pony, took it to a deserted place and painted it thoroughly with 
black paint, which he allowed to dry and then applied another 
coat. When this second coat hod dried in he took the pony 
into the sun and spent hours in rubbing, polishing and other¬ 
wise grooming it, till it fairly shone in its jet black lacquer coat. 
Then he led the pony to the house of his cousin and made him 
a present of it, telling him mean time that as he had spent all 
the money he could l)og or borrow on this gift he would like to 
have a good office as soon as possible by which to reimburse 

The Prime Minister took no offense but l>oing used to such 
acts and recogin zing them ns the regular course of procedure 
in such cases, he at once set alxmt discharging the debt by 
securing such a position for his cousin as he considered the gift 
and circumstances merited. 

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The Fool was made magistrate of the district of Kang Gay 
in the North Western part of the country. Before leaving for 
his post he called in the confidential attendant of his cousin and 
made a contract with him. The Fool said he intended to 
squeeze as the people had never been squeezed lxjfore. lie would 
have all the money that was to be had in the district, and he 
would give the attendant half of all he made if he would keep 
him informed of any movements against him at the capital; for 
he well knew that his proposed scheme would breed trouble 
and lie reported to Seoul. The attendant reasoned with himself 
that it was scarcely worth while for him to remain a poor de¬ 
pendant upon his prosperous master, while such a chance was 
open to him to amass a little fortune of his own, so he agreed to 
the proposition. 

The Fool went to his district and carried out his plan 
faithfully, and began to pile up wealth rapidly, but he was ere 
long reported to the king who called the Prime Minister and 
ordered him to send an U/isa, or spy, to examine into the affairs 
of the Kang Gay district and report at once. The order was 
obeyed and the alert attendant at once despatched a letter advising 
the Fool of what had been done, when and how the Ulrsa 
would make the journey, and all Ire could ascertain as to his 
personal peculiarities. 

From this letter the guilty magistrate saw that the official 
sent to examine him was a cowardly man that would ride a 
mare with a colt and that prompt action was necessary on his 
part to prevent serious trouble. He had his hunters lull a tiger, 
the skin of w'hich he put upon a young sucking colt which ho 
had sent down the road and tied to a tree. Soon the Uhsa was 
seen advancing in the distance. The hungry colt was freed and 
as the mare drew nearer and heard a colt she whinnied at w’hich 
the hungry colt, thinking its mother had come, ran to meet the 
ocession. When the mare saw’ and smelled what she thought 
was a live tiger bearing down upon her she set out for home as 
fast as she could travel with the disguised colt in pursuit. The 
(JJtsa was so terrified that be rode his mare till she could go no 
further, then stimulated by fear he made his way as best ho 
could till he reached his home. 

The Prime Minister next selected a brave man for the 
task, but this man’s courage usually came from wine, and the 
attendant promptly wrote the whole matter to his confederate 

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who at once made the necessary preparations. He stationed 
Gee saing * at every wine Bhop along the road with full instruc¬ 
tions as to what they were to do when the Uhsa came along. 
Accordingly he was plied with wine continually and was having 
a roaring progress through the country till, approaching the 
magistracy, an inn keeper and his wife at an inn where the of¬ 
ficial was carousing, by arrangement, began a dispute in which 
the drunken official’s name was unpleasantly mentioned. For 
supposed safety from the husband he had been placed in a 
large empty rice box the ownership of which was disputed by 
the man and woman. Finally to reach a decision they agreed 
to lay the case before the magistrate; so they took the rice box 
to him and told of their quarrel. He asked how much they 
had paid for it, and they said one thousand cash. “Well I 
want just such a box” said he “and I will give you two thous¬ 
and for it, so that you will each have the original price.” They 
went away apparently satisfied. The official inside had to he 
very quiet and the magistrate promptly despatched box and 
contents to his cousin with a letter informing him that he was 
sending him a fine rice box full of the kind of grain they were 
harvesting at that time in his district. 

This made the Prime Minister angry and he decided to get 
a man that would answer the purpose and be proof against fear 
and temptation; so he selected a man of very devout habits, a 
student of Buddhism and one not easily affected by worldly 

The attendant promptly informed the Fool of all the par¬ 
ticular's of this newly selected officer and in preparation for him 
the magistrate had the flat top of an adjoining mountain care¬ 
fully cleared. Here he placed curiously constructed tables and 
stools, with strange utensils for preparing and taking food as 
well as game boards and games. He also prepared some gorg¬ 
eous suits of clothing such as heavenly beings are pictured as 
wearing, on screens and mural decorations. 

Four old men with long grey beards were rehearsed in 
their parts as gods, while three lx>ys with each a double top- 
knot, such as the gods are supposed to wear were fully instruct¬ 
ed as to their duties in warming and serving wine, in cooking and 
serving food. All was ready by the time the Uhsa arrived. He 

* Dancing girls. 

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was allowed to begin his investigation with the secretary of the 
yamen, while the official absented himself. While busy at this 
work he heard music in the air and looking up he saw the 
strange tableaux in the gloaming on the mountain top' 

“What is that?” he inquired of the scribe. 

“Don’t speak so londly” “replied he “that is the feast of the 
gods. About once in two years they come there and eat, drink 
and play for a while.” 

“Do you ever go to see them?” 

“Certainly not. If a man should approach them without 
first purifying his body he would die.” 

“ Well I am pure,” said the Uhsa, “my whole life has been 
spent in worshipping the gods. I am not afraid to approach 
them and tho’ no one accompany me I intend to go and present 

He did so. Ascending to the edge of the plateau and there 
bowing low to the heavenly personages. 

“Cone,” said one old god, “we know you. You are Kim. 
You have been a great searcher after heavenly things all your 
life. We welcome you. Sit down and drink some wine.” 

The Uhsa protested that he had never tasted wine, but 
the gods pressed it upon him saying it was heavenly wine which 
would make him like unto themselves. He drank a very large 
bowl of the strongest wine from one old man and then another 
from each of the others, so that he was soon insensible with 
drunkenness. Then coolies were summoned who bore him off 
some distance into a wild valley where he was allowed to come 
to his senses alone. He did so after a time and in searching for 
water for his raging thirst he found he was in entirely new 

He met a farmer and asked where the magistracy of Kang 
Gay was located. The farmer told him that it was about 
twenty li distant. 

“Well did you hear of the Uhsa being entertained by the 
gods last night?” 

“I did not” said the man. “I have always heard that an 
Uhsa, Kim, was entertained by the gods on a mountain near 
Kang Gay but that was a hundred and fifty years ago and he 
disappeared nor has he even been heard of since. I was told 
the story by my mother when a boy and as Kim was a very 
good man we always supposed he was taken to heaven by the 

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gods.” The farmer had been well instruncted and poor Kim ac¬ 
tually believed he had been in heaven or asleep, which is the 
same, for a hundred and fifty years. He decided to go back to 
Seoul as the Prime Minister would be dead and could not blame 
him. He did return and finding the same Prime Minister 
there, looking much as before, asked him how he managed to 
live a hundred and fifty years in such good condition. Where¬ 
upon the Prime Minister dismissed him, as crazy and gave up 
persecuting his wise fool of a cousin. 

H. N. Allen. 

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r E report that Cholera had broken out in the Japanese 
army in Manchuria and among the soldiers, returned to 
Japan, sent a thrill of fear through this land, for it was seen 
to be highly improbable that the scourge would fail to follow 
the line of travel from the northern country into Korea over¬ 
land by way of We Ju and from Japan by boat via the Korean 
ports. Nor was it long before the fear was realized, for reports 
of its arrival soon came from We Ju. 

At this juncture the writer, during a conversation with the 
Prime Minister, suggested urgent need of instituting strict 
quarantine with a view to prevent the further advance of the dis¬ 
ease, and he said he would lay the matter before the govern¬ 
ment. Had immediate steps been then taken, the scourge might 
have been stayed, but I heard nothing further about it for some 
time and then it transpired that the Japanese had undertaken 
the work and sent a doctor to the north and set up a commis¬ 
sion at Chemulpo. What they did is not known to me but it ap¬ 
pears that no quarantine was instituted at Chemulpo and there 
being therefore no barrier to the entrance of the disease there, it 
was only a short time until we heard of its ravages in that port, 
followed immediately by the news that it was devastating the 
city of Pyeng Yang. Within a few days suspicious deaths oc¬ 
culted in Seoul and then the government became really alarmed 
and set about devising a scheme for fighting the disease in the 

About July 24th. I received a note from Hon. J. M. B. 
Sill, U. S. Minister, introducing Mr. Namkung, Secretary of 
the Sanitary Board, who said the Korean Home Minister wish¬ 
ed me to assist them in establishing a Cholera Hospital and 
taking other steps towards restricting the disease. 

Glad to find the government movingin the matter, though at 
& late stage, I willingly consented to help, and next day was sum¬ 
moned to a conference with the Home Minister on the subject, a 
Japanese physician being also present. It was decided that we 

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should call a meeting of all the physicians in Seoul and organize 
a Sanitary Board, which should elect one of its number to 
supervise the work, the one thus chosen to then receive appoint¬ 
ment by the government. It was stated that $20,000 was 
available for the use of this Board. 

During the next two days, the organization was completed, 
both Japanese and Western physicians being included. The 
officers elected were, Pres. Dr. Avison, Vice Pres. Dr. Kozio, 
Sect’y. Miss Dr. Cutler. Mr. Namkung entered into the 
work with much energy and His Excellency the Home Minister 
personally consulted with the Board and on behalf of the 
government endorsed its proposals. Committees were appoint¬ 
ed to carry on the work under the following heads—Literature 
Hospital, Quarantine, Inspection, and Supply. 

Literature —The excellent regulations issued by the New 
York Board of health at the time of the Cholera scare of a few 
years ago were translated and changed to adapt them to the 
conditions here and 50,000 copies in native character and 1000 
in Chinese character were printed and distributed. 

The information thus scattered broadcast was a revelation 
to the people and it is known that a great many tried, however 
imperfectly, to carry out the regulations. This probably had 
the effect of considerably limiting the spread of the disease. 

Quarantine .—A completed system of quarantine was planned 
and submitted to the Home Office, but rejected owing to the 
fear that the ignorance of the people would cause a riot if such 
restrictions were placed upon them. 

Later on, however, the Japanese Minister requested the 
Koreans to cooperate with them in quarantining against Che¬ 
mulpo which they agreed to do and at the same time asked us 
to establish quarantine against Pyeng Yang. 

Although we knew it was now too late as the disease was 
already in Seoul, remembering that our work was as much 
educative as otherwise, we consented and for about a week car¬ 
ried on quarantine efforts at a station just beyond the Pekin 

Hospital .—The vacant buildings near the East gate known 
as Ha Do Kam being on a hill and well separated from other 
bouses were selected for hospital purposes and by July 27th, 
carpenters were at work preparing them. The first patient was 
admitted July 28th. 

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There were no walls to the rooms and there was time to 
put in only rough board floors, but as they would be used only 
temporarily and the weather was warm, these were scarcely 
thought to be drawbacks; however they proved to be not only 
serious hindrances but almost complete obstacles to success, 
for the rainy season set in and the weather was raw and cold 
and it was impossible to keep the patients warm, a most serious 
matter when we consider the great need of external heat for 
patients already cold, blue and pulseless with such a disease. 
As a result in spite of as faithful work as was ever done by doc¬ 
tors and nurses the majority of the patients died. 

This difficulty could have been surmounted by the repairing 
of the rooms, but a still more serious matter was the prejudice of 
the people on account of some previous associations connected with 
the building not known to us when we chose it. As a result practi¬ 
cally only those who were homeless would consent to be taken 
there and they only did so when it became evident that it was the 
one hope left to them. 

After 135 patients had been treated, with a death rate of 
75°/o the place was closed. 

Much more encouraging was the work done at the Hospi¬ 
tal known as “The Shelter” situated in the district known as 
Mo Ha Kwan outside the West Gate. There all necessary con¬ 
veniences were obtainable, comfortable rooms, warm floors, &c. and 
the patients received were of a better class and as a rule were 
admitted at an earlier stage and thereforo were more amenable to 
treatment. This does not apply to all for many cases admitted 
during the stage of collapse, rapidly recovered under the treat¬ 
ment. Here up to the time of writing 173 cases had been ad¬ 
mitted with the remarkably low death rate of only 357<>. The 
hospital is still running for the reception of the odd patients 
who are brought in. 

When the Eastern hospital was closed a portion of the 
Methodist Mission Hospital in Sang Dong was offered and ac¬ 
cepted but it was found that the disease was already declining 
and one place was able to accommodate all the applicants. 

Inspection .—A central office was opened and placed in 
charge of both Japanese and Western Physicians, while another 
near the South Gate manned by the Japanese and still an¬ 
other at Mo Ha Kwan by the Westerners. At these places re¬ 
ports were received and every case of diarrhoea reported was 

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investigated, medicines were administered, the houses and pre¬ 
mises disinfected as well as the circumstances permitted, and 
all who could lie persuaded to go were sent to the hospital. The 
great majority refused to leave their homes. When we urged 
compulsion, the government met us with the report from Che¬ 
mulpo saying that they had tried it there with the result that 
reports ceased to come in, inspectors were met with a denial 
that any cases existed, the dead were buried secretly during the 
night, the doctors wore threatened with mob violence, and the 
work was completely blocked. 

In the face of this it seemed wise to go on as we were do¬ 
ing, win the confidence of the people as much as possible and 
work, as much in the hope of educating the people for the next 
epidemic as for the amount of good to l*e done at this time un¬ 
der such difficulties. 

After a week or ten days, the Japanese, not enjoying work¬ 
ing under the supervision of a Westerner, withdrew from the 
organization and devoted themselves to the one office near the 
South Gate. I have no knowledge of the character or amount 
of work done by them after that time. 

During the progress of events, the necessity of getting go¬ 
vernment sanction, by the roundabout methods inseparable 
from government transactions, for all our proposals l>efore 
carrying out plans which needed prompt action to make them 
effective, rendered many of our efforts useless, so we laid the 
matter plainly before His Excellency the Home Minister, w’ho 
authorized us to carry on the work thereafter without con¬ 
sulting any one, giving us $2000 to meet running expenses 
with the promise of more if needed, and full control over a 
special force of policemen detailed from the regular force to as¬ 
sist us. Ke-encouraged by this mark of confidence, we divided 
the force of workers between different sections of the city. 
Each foreigener took with him several Korean helpers who 
went in advance of him and made a house to house canvas, re¬ 
porting all cases of diarrhoea to him. He then visited these 
places administered medicines and when he met with true 
cholera, disinfected the premises as well as possible. Much 
good done was in this way for many cases of diarrhoea were cured 
which might indeed have been the beginning of true cholera 
and imperfect as the disinfection was it doubtless was a help. 
At the same time people were instructed as to the true nature 

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of Cholera and how it could be avoided and it is impossible to 
estimate how much that did towards limiting the spread of the 

Much alarm was caused by the report that some cases had 
occurred within the Palace walls. At the request of His Majes¬ 
ty we established a medical station within the Palace. Here a 
great many cases of diarrhoea amongst the soldiers and servants 
were treated while those showing symptoms of Cholera were im¬ 
mediately sent to the Hospital and in this way the spread of 
the disease was effectually prevented. Nearly all thus sent to 
the hospital, being sent before collapse set in, recovered. 

At this date the disease has almost ceased within the city 
but is extending to the villages round about. 

Full statistics are unavailable because reporting was not 
compulsory and the majority of the cases were unreported. I 
can give only the following: — 

Treated at Ha Do Kam 135 with IC2 deaths. 

„ „ Mo Hoa Kwan 173 with 61 „ 

Cases reported, investigated and treated in their homes— 
Central Inspection office 
Mo Hoa Kwan 
S. Eastern District 
N* ,, ,, 

Northern „ 

North Western District 
Some results worth noting.— 

In the hospitals nearly all well recommended methods of treat¬ 
ment were tested and the experience of the physicians greatly wid¬ 
ened so that they feel that should another epidemic occur they 
will be in a position to show even better results from treatment. 

We believe the people have learned to trust the mission¬ 
aries as never before and a greater portion of the city than 
ever before has been brought into contact with the mission¬ 
aries and through them we trust with Christianity-—or perhaps 
we had better say with Christ. The people have also learned 
something concerning the true nature of disease and how to 
avoid it. The close connection between dirt and disease has 
once more been demonstrated by the great preponderance of 
the number of cases which occurred amongst the poor and 
badly housed class over those which occurred amongst those 
living in better circumstances. 



I 1 


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The Missionary cause has been helped for the mission¬ 
aries have demonstrated the spirit of the Gospel of Christ, 
spending the warm weeks, when they had hoped to be rest¬ 
ing in the mountains, caring for the sick Koreans in the dis¬ 
ease stricken city, and they have thus strengthend themselves 
and have magnified the Grace of God before this people The 
government has manifested such a growing confidence in the 
integrity and good judgement of the missionaries that it tinn¬ 
ed over to them without restrictions the work of fighting the 
epidemic, $2000 in cash, and the full control of a portion of 
the police force, It is I believe the first time money has 
been thus placed in the hands of foreigners. 

I desire to thank the Hon. J. M. B. Sill, U. S. Minister for 
his valuable assistance and support and also W. C. Hillier, 
H. B. M. Consul General, wno issued orders to the Chi¬ 
nese residents who are under the jurisdiction of the British Con¬ 
sulate,to abide by the regulations of the Cholera Board. Per¬ 
sonally I am deeply indebted to all the physicians and other 
missionaries, whose names I have not mentioned, for the prompt 
and hearty response they made to the call for workers, giving 
me that support without which my promise of help to the gov¬ 
ernment would have been unavailing. 

As a body of missionaries we are grateful to God that he 
preserved our lives throughout all our close contact with the 
disease, giving us necessary strength to carry’ on the work and 
so blessing our efforts as to make them much more abundantly 
effective than the means used would warrant us to expect. 

O. R. Avisou. 





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The Real Korea. 

T here have been and still are several Koreas. Though this 
statement appears to be parodoxical nevertheless it is true. 
There is Korea the unknown, located somewhere in China, or 
Japan, adjacent to Java or southwest of Africa. There is Korea 
the Disturbed, with its insurrectionary populaces, warring factions 
and bloody changes, decapitated missionaries and foreign men-of 
war moored off the walls of Soul. There is Korea the Corrupt 
all of whose oflicials are half Chinaman, half Turk; and there is 
Korea the Unhappy where all men are liars, and not an honest 
man among them. Then there is the Korea of the adventurer 
with coffins of gold and tombs bursting with treasure; the Ko¬ 
mi of the newspaper correspondent where they learn more about 
the country in a month of investigation than an old resident can 
verify in a mouth of years; the Korea of the author thirsting for 
tame where the people “excel the Japanese as landscape gardeners 
dotting their lawns with little lakes, emerald with lotus and span¬ 
ned by bridges of marblefinally there is Korea the Hermit upon 
which rhetoric has exhausted vials of wrath and hogsheads of 
lamentation. Some of these Koreas have been, the rest still are 
and we fear will continue to be until kind Fate gives them a 
quiet funeral with a small tombstone. And however pleasant 
an excursion into one of these would be, we pass them by to have 
a brief look at the Real Korea. 

The real Korea is mountainous. From Paik-lu-san on the 
north to Che-ju in the south there is a mighty panorama, one of 
the master-pieces of the divine Author of the universe. Moun¬ 
tains with snow-clad, cloud-wrapped summits; beautiful valleys 
with rich crops and picturesque hamlets; winding rivers that look 
in the distance like ropes of silver about to be coiled; and birds that 
flit and twitter, and crow and croak and the cuckoo with its staccato, 
aud the lark that sings in heaven but lives on earth. Everywhere 
the mountains predominate. There is not a plain worth mentioning 
in the whole peninsula. Big mountains and little mountains, hills, 
knolls and mole-hills, mountains of every conceivable shape from 

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lie land; misfortune, wrong and indolence have produced a large 
lass who spend their time in holding the wolf by the ears just 
<utside the door, but they manage to keep the beast out. Pover¬ 
ty there is but not want. The story often heard in the West of 
men driven by desperation to steal bread to keep dear ones from 
starving has not yet been heard in Korea. Foreigners’ ideas on 
the poverty of the Koreans have been derived from a class in¬ 
significant in number and whose imperfections and failings we ex¬ 
aggerate through race prejudice. The great mass of the people 
are not on the verge of beggary. From this it not be gathered that 
the people roll in weath. Far from it, but what they have is at the 
disposal of the distressed. It is said that a generation ago, in years of A 
plenty it was the custom to feed t ravelers free of cost along the great 11 
roads. This is characteristic generosity. To the generous hospitality lj 
of the Koreans is due the fact that in the midst of poverty, want is 
excluded, and we have an Asiatic nation with no beggar class. 

Good nature and hospitality are twin virtues. We put good¬ 
nature among the distinguishing characteristics of the Koreans in 
their relations with foreigners. To begin with there has been a 
noteworthy absence of ill-nature. Whatever may be his opinion 
of foreign institutions and habits the average Korean is friendly 
and well disposed towards the foreigner personally. There is an 
litter absence of that enrrishness and contemptible meanness for 
instances of which one will not have to go far, after leaving Ko¬ 
rea. All this may he changed after fifty years of intercourse with 
us, but if it is, the foreigner will be largely to blame. At the 
present time and for several years past the feeling among the 
mass of Koreans has liecn one of friendliness born of goodnature. - 
Among themselves in spite of noise and bluster, generally ovei 
money matters, the innate goodnature is constantly cropping out. 
If two get into a dispute and appeal to a third to arbitrate, in 
nine cases out of ten he, to avoid giving pain to either, will de¬ 
monstrate that both are right and both will compromise on that 
basis without delay. 

Natural goodnature and hospitality will facilitate that 
international intercourse which will be of immense value t<> Ko¬ 
rea when once she gets on her feet. Both will make her a desira¬ 
ble member of the International Family. 

The real Korea is note in a transition state riven - tiling is 

in an undetermined shape. The past is in mins, even to the Ko- < 
rean’s eye; the present and the future are all in the rough. The 

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stones must Ik* dressed, the timbers mortised and dovetailed and 
fitted into their places and the people become familiar with their 
new habitation. Alt this will take time. They are unwise who 
ridicule the present Reformation, and cry out “it is all on paper, 
there has yet been no reform.” Better have reform on paper, 
than never mooted at all. The reforms are on paper, but the 
paper bears the seal and sign-manual of His Majesty, and they 
lare therefore defacto the law of the land. Hardly a year has passed 
I since the work of reform was taken in hand and yet some do not 
I hestitate to or}* “failure,” because figuratively there are still many 
j spots on our leopard and our Ethiopian is hardly pale in color yet. 

The time factor as an element in reform has been overlooked 
by partisans and opponents alike. The one in demanding the act- 
ualisation of their measures in six months or two years have 
been like the parent that would command his boy to grow six feet 
or sixteen feet in a like period. And the other in standing by 
and hooting because the boy didn’t grow, comes under the same 

Korea is in a transition stage; she must not only have u 
chance, she must also have time. The great task has only been 
commenced. The road ahead is clear a very short distance and it 
is still a little lonesome. The Reformation sutlers for lack of 
support and intelligent appreciation. A nation is now supposedly 
at least struggling upward. She is on the plane which leads to a 
higher and bettor level. While under no necessity for the specta¬ 
tors to hold dieir breath till Korea arrives there, neither is there 
any good to lx* gained in wasting their breath. A time of transi¬ 
tion is necessarily an unsatisfactory time. Such is the present in 
Korea, yet who so hopeless as to hold it will ever be thus? 

The real Korea is a country whose resources are umieveloped 
Sometimes Korea is represented as having no resources, and 
such an impression the country would easily produce in a casual 
observer. In Soul, the finest city in the land, there is not a single 
mercantile establishment run by Koreans that gives an impression 
of opulence. Compared with the establishments one finds cvery- 

1 where in Japan and China the most pretentious business places 
do not rise even to the level of shops,—they are stalls, one horse 
/ aifairs. The great merchants themselves deal largely in imports 
j from China, Japan and the Occident. Native manufactures are 
of the crudest and simplest description and are relegated to the 
| smaller fry in the mercantile world. This utter absence of mer- 

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in ik 
d tbs 
do not 
nr yet 
e act- 
; have 
X f« 

ini it 
k of 
to a 


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*- v 

cantile establishments and manufactures confirms the impres¬ 
sion as to the poverty stricken and resourceless nature of Korea. 

Such an impression is a false one. The resources of Korea 
are not exhausted, they are undeveloped. They consist of the 
energies of the people and the possibilities of Korean land and 
water. First as to the energies of the people, these now lie in¬ 
dolent and dormant. Some of the best brain and blood of the 
country, which ought to be managing the mercantile and com- 
merical affairs of the land, is now holding its hands in inglorious 
inactivity, misdirected by had education and paralysed by ab¬ 
surd social obligations. The vast mass of the people are an un-** 
trained mob There are no skilled occupations to which they 
can turn their energies; these are now exerted only sufficiently 
to procure food and the necessaries of life. But introduce machin¬ 
ery and instructors among them; teach them to manufacture 
porcelain and Chinaware; to spin and weave the cotton necessary 
to clothe the nation; to mine the iron in their mountains and 
turn it into articles of utility; to manufacture the necessaries 
and luxuries of a higher life,—attempt this and we think it will 
be discovered that there is a vast amount of energy which can 
l>e converted into wealth. We do not deceive ourselves into be¬ 
lieving that this can be done in a day, or a year, or a generation. 
We do not think the attempt itself at the present time would 
l)e successful, but when Koreans once feel the pressure of the 
demands of an improved, more complex and expensive mode of 
living, they will themselves make a success of the attempt to 
supply that demand. Korean manufacturing will develope in 
time but it will find its first development in a Korean demand. 
But whether eventually used in manufacturing or not, we are 
sure there is enough energy wasted for instance in carrying 
Privilege in a chair to make many a chair coolie rich enough to 
ride horse back. Wonders might be accomplished and wealth 
amassed with the energy now spent in turning tobacco into 
smoke, observing rest days and trying to convince the other 
fellow that he is a fool. 

The natural resources of the land are the mines above men- * 
tioned. They should be examined and their possibilities measur¬ 
ed. Possibly they are overestimated ; this is quite often the case 
with mining prophecies, and the matter ought to be cleared up. 

In a former editorial we alluded to the fact that Korea’s chief 
dependence is on its single crop of rice and contended that 

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there is every inducement to reinforce this hy or ttor. ar.i silk- 
fruit ar>i grain. There are multitudes o: le who car. turn 

their i ai.-is to these oj.-rations without .mtur: i:.g ir. luvtrial 
conditi- ,1.5 [ t fur the : ♦ tt» r. ar. i j ’•-r.ty i i_it.d t* carry . t. 

the incra.soi farming with. Finally the &-.* «rings untold 
wfalth to Korean shores. At every i« in: K re-.i*s 1* i:q 
coast line the f;sh«-ries arc rich. It is sai-1 t: e Fusan r.?:.erica 
yield«l si. ’ • • last yc-ar. T!.»tc is 1.0 -uthei«.i t rc-as*to 

oiir minds wiiv equally large sums shoal t in,: !:«. i t*.»-;r wv v 
into the hands of the Koreans at various other points ai* r g t. • 

The Patter or Pyen« Yano. 

As scat by a Korean* 

I was in Seoul July 23, 1S94 when the Ja|.-ar.esc trcx: ;s t* oh 
possession of the city. IT no days later I left for n.v h<:r «• 
in Pyeng Yang. In all the ten magistracies along ti e rruri 
there were Japanese soldiers; at Chung \Yha the last ore and 
hut fifteen miles from Pyeng Yang there were sixteen cavalry¬ 
men. Here there were a numher i f travelers, K ui. l for Pyeng 
Yang hut afraid to continue their journey iveaus-.- the Japan.-s.- 
hail pushed on to the Ta Tong river, which flows under t:.»■ city 
walls. T determined, notwithstanding the protests and i: tsgiv 
ings of n.v friends, tc> continue my journey until stopped A 
stay of several we'ks in Seoul and the demeanor of ti:*- 
troop* there, as well as the counsels of a valued friend, i: ad.* 
clear to me that the Japanese soldi-rs were not after Ko «■:»!> 
hut Chinese. 

T reached Pyeng Yang without challenge or molestation 
and found the city in the greatest excitement over the j lvsen v 
of Japanese on the east side of the Ta Tong, looking anxiously 
for help> from the millions beyond the Yalu river. I ventured 
once and only once to express some doubt alxuit the advisability 
of the Chinese coming to our city, for in case they should he de- 

* The following account of this important and decisive battle is furnish¬ 
ed us by one who was in the city from the time of the arrival of the Chinese 
until their departure. We admit this to our columns because of the impres¬ 
sions made upon the Koreans. 

Original from 




loated. our condition might become unbearable. “No danger of 
defeat. There are millions of Chinese and only thousands of 
Japanese.” The citizens of Pyeng Yang were not the only ones 
whose trust in China’s millions was found to be misplaced. 

After waiting several days, on August 4th. the eyes of the 
people were gladdened to see the white horses of the Manchus 
in the distance The Chinese had come! They took 
]>eaeeable possession of the large plain south of the city, the 
place lietween the walls of the ancient and present cities of 
Pyeng Yang and later, as more soldiers arrived, of Mo Ran 
Pong, the high mountain to the north of the city. They 
commenced to build over seventy forts, as I found by counting 
after the battle. These forts were built of solid masonry and as 
I look hack now it seems to me the Chinese braves were greater 
experts at digging trenches and building stone walls than in 
defending them against the Japanese. 

The governor of the province and the mayor of the city 
heartily welcomed their defenders. The former was most atten¬ 
tive to the Chinese Generals, Ma and Choo and later to Yi, 
whose laurels, won at Asan, had not faded while making his 
“masterly retreat” to our city and whose fresh honors and liberal 
rewards from his own government had just arrived. With 
drums beating, horns tooting, banners flying, umbrellas outspread. 
His Excellency made daily visits to the camps of his fnends. 
“What does all this racket mean?” asked the braves from the 
north. “This is our ‘great man,’ ” was the calm response. “Let 
the noise and parade cease” and after that the genial governor 
paid his respects in a more quiet and less ostentatious manner. 
The generals of the army and the officers of the government, 
the military and the civil arms of power, became fast friends, 
they “wined (later it was whined ) and dined together” frequently 
during the forty days that elapsed between their arrival and the 
great battle. 

The Chinese commanders asked the local authorities to 
construct a pontoon bridge across the Ta Tong river. This 
was agreed to and a time limit fixed which of course was not 
observed by my compatriots. A little dispute arose in conse¬ 
quence of tiiis between the subordinates but it was not taken 
up by the chiefs. 

The behaviour of the Chinese troops during their stay in 
our city was not entirely exemplary. The more substantial food 

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was supplied them naturally while the minor delicacies like cake, 
fruit &c. they supplied themselves with from the nearest stalls 
and very frequently omitted the formality of handing the price of 
the goods to their owners. On the inarch from the frontier, to 
these smaller depredations was added the stealing of chickens, 
pigs and cattle. The part of An-ju outside the south gate was 
burned seemingly out of sheer wantonness. 

Some days before the battle, three spies were captured. 
The Korean guards saw them moving about in Korean attire, 
but there was something about them that attracted attention 
and raised suspicions. The guards approached the spies, raised 
their hats, and their foreign was soon established. They 
were arrested, handed to the Chinese authorities and of course, 

One of our Christians had occasion to go into the country 
and took with him a few books both Chinese and Korean. He 
had the misfortune to be short of stature and on his return was 
not unnaturally mistaken by the vigilant guard for a spy and 
arrested. He showed his Christian books but as he had only 
Korean ones left, this did not help him; he appealed to his 
many friends in the city and finally amassed enough evidence to 
warrant his release. 

I was in charge of our dispensary. I w'as called on by the 
guards and acknowledged frankly that I was in foreign employ. 
This raised instead of allaying suspicion, my hat was jerked off 
and my top-knot seized to make sure it was fast. The medicine 
bottles were carried to the Captain, by him inspected, pronounc¬ 
ed “American medicine” and then quietly returned. 

During this time the construction of the defenses was pushed 
forward with vigor. On the 14th. of Sept, the Japanese were 
discovered in large numbers to the east of the river and along the 
main road from Seoul. At first the Chinese troops seemed anx¬ 
ious to meet the foe they had come all the way from Mukden 
to meet. Large numl)er8 of them crossed the pontoon bridge 
and on the other side exchanged a few shots, then returned to 
the city and exhibited to the gazing and admiring crowds their 
trophies of the battle—boots, hats Ac. of the enemy. There 
was great rejoicing in the city ; wood, food and wine were freely 
offered and accepted with great readiness. In the first brush 
with the enemy, our friends from the north were victorious. 

The Chinese were prepared for and expected to fight the 

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battle in the eastern part of the city, and their main strength 
was turned in that direction. When however the Japanese 
were seen pouring in from the north and northeast up Mo Ran 
Pong mountain and the boom of cannon was heard in the south 
and southwest the Chinese became confused, discouraged and 
disheartened. They had not expected to be surrounded and 
when they asked the governor, he informed them that the des¬ 
patches lie had received from the different magistrates along 
the several routes of advance showed that “thousands of Japan¬ 
ese-” were marching upon them. 

While the battle raged on the 15th. 1 remained in my 
house. Bullets went whizzing over it and in the evening several 
struck it. Two fell in the yard, one only a few feet from the 
porch on which my little lxw was playing. I inferred from 
the direction of the sound of the whizzing bullets that the 
battle had changed and was at a loss to know what to make 
of it. The general expeetat on was that the battle would lie 
fought in the eastern part or to the cast of the city. The 
bullets however came from the north or west when they should 
have lieen co ning from the cast 

Up to the evening of the 15th. the people in the city 
were led to believe that a signal victory bad been won dur¬ 
ing the day. The usual presents were offered the victorious 
braves. But while receiving the present with one hand, if the 
brave happened to see something he wanted on the person of 
one bringing the gifts be wrestel it from bin. How general this 
was I do not know, but our people were deceived and while 
returning thanks to our supposed friends, were abused and robbed. 
The revulsion in feeling was very great. Where once there 
was confidence and respect now there is nothing but loathing 
and hatred. It is so to this day. Not that Pyeng Yang 
loves the Japanese more hut she hates the Chinese with greater 

The flight, rout or whatever you may call it took place 
during the night of the 15th. Every body from the Governor 
down took to his heels and made for the South gate. I did 
not know what to do and as I had seen the Japanese in peacea¬ 
ble possession in Seoul, I decided to remain. 

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The Bird Bridge again. 

M onday Aug. ‘20th. was the 0th. clay of the 7th. moon. This 
is the day when the magpies make their annual trip up 
into the heavens to huild the hire! bridge across the milky 
way so graphically deserilx'd by " X ” in the February mindk-r 
of 7 he Repository . A little after noon it mined a little, these no 
doubt were the tears shed by the Prince and the Princess. 
About sunset we noticed a few magpies with milled head, no 
doubt the result of the rumbling chariots. We fanes the meet¬ 
ing between tho couple was of short duration to-day owing no 
doubt to the unsatisfactory state in which “the reform move¬ 
ments” are at present. The star-king, intensely interested 
in the tight for Korea now quietly going on between Japan and 
Kussia, could not absent himself for any length of time from 
this sublunary sphere and cut short the meeting between the 

It is however rumoured that among other tilings the fol¬ 
lowing political gossip was indulged in. 

Princess. “ How about the war between Japan and China?” 
Prince. Over long ago and tho Chinese notwithstanding 
their rout at Pyeng Yang, expulsion from Korea, less of Port 
Arthur, Wei Ilai Wai and the Peiyang squadron; the imminent 
danger of ]’eking, the cession to Japan of Formosa and the 
enormous war indemnity, are now industriously circulating re¬ 
ports that Japan wus conquered and not China. 

Princess. “How is His Majesty, the King'.’'' 

Prince. “He is well and holding on to the reins with a 
grip worthy of John of Kngland in his conflict with the Parous. 
“How is ller Majesty, the Queen?” 

“Active ” 

“Where is the Tai Won Koun?” 

“Back in the saddle again, side saddle seemingly.” 

“What about the Grandson?” 

“Oh, he is back too.” 

“What is Home Minister Pak Yong llo doing’’” 
"Travelling abroad—gone to America" 

“How about the great reforms introduced with so much 
flourish of trumpets?" 

“They are still on paper.” 

“Where are the mighty Mins?” 

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KDi n Hi f Ali DFPAKTM KNT. 

4 Vo :iin*4 back to [owei: slowly.** 

“What iliv tiio Jnmnes * doing?*' 

'•'Trying sugar now install of vinegar on the Koreans— 
coi ciliiitiou.” 

“Wliat ;T>out Russia?** 

“Don't know. Too many nrnonrs alloat, to t*'ll. Good l>yo. 

\ few tears w iv shod \vlu*n; couple parted for another 



The Methodist Episcopal Mission liegan its eleventh Annual Meeting 
Wednesday morning Aug. 28 in the chapel of the Lai Chai School. Bishop 
John M. Walden was expected to be present and after holding the Japan 
Conference, he came on his way to Korea as far as Nagasaki, but was unable 
to find a steamer with suitable accommodations to bring him to Korea. In his 
absence (he Superintendent of the Mission, Rev. W. B. Scranton, presided. 
After devotional exercises, the election of Dr. J. B. Btisteed as Secretary and 
the transaction of some routine business, the Superintendent read his report. 
It is an interesting document, full of facts about the work, but too long to 
insert entire. The Rev. W. A. Noble and wife returned to the United States 
since the last meeting while the mission was reinforced by the Rev. D. A. 
Bunker and his wife. 

“The work has made no advances l>eyond the old lines during the 
year, not because of lack of opportunity but lack of time and strength. We 
have three charges outside of Seoul; Wonsan in the East, Chemulpo our 
west port, and Pveng Yang a prospective port.” 

Speaking of the work in the Chong Dong charge he says, “This is our 
oldest charge and has the honor of beginning the erection of the first Church 
of any si/e m Protestant Korea. Baldwin chapel was as far as we know the 
first lout this structure has such proportions a^ scarcely to allow the naming 
of any other with it The need for the building is great and work on it has 
already been begun.” At every place where regular preaching services are 
held there an increase in membership, the greatest gain being in the Sang 
Dong charge where the gain over all losses reported is 97. 

Every department is passed under review, progress noted, suggestions 
made and the conclusion reached by the Superintendent is that the present 
force, and especially the evangelistic, is inadequate to carry on the work in 
hand and he recommends the immediate reinforcement of six new men who 
are to give their whole time to evangelistic labors. Reports were further 
made by H. G. Appenzeller pastor of the Chong Dong. Ewa Hak-dang and 
Chong No charge and by G. H. Jones, pastor of Chemulpo .and Kang Wha 

No session was held in the afternoon. 

The second session was held Aug. 29th. A half hour dev otional service 
in the Korean language was followed by reports from Dr. McGill of Won¬ 
san, Mr. Hulbcrt and I)r. Busteed. These reports showed that the medical 
work in Wonsan, the interests of the Mission Press and care of the General 
Hospital were not only in safe hands but in a prosperous condition. 'The 

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Manager of the Trilir.gual Pres- showed that ^r^eth.r.^ ever a m.lhon page*? 
have teen pu! oj: during the pa?t r.ine n.« r/.h? and that the aorking force 
ha? v een increased eighty percent Full set? of main .e? for three s^es of 
Korean type are he»r:g made in Shanghai and other nece?>ar\ furniture ha> 
been secured. The Pres? Veldes paying expenses has put over 
three hundred doILari into the plant 

The General Hospital a as moved from Chong Dr.g to San*; Dong, a 
new dispensary erected and the number of patient? treated is the same as 
the previous year. 

The third session Aug. 30ch. was preceded !v a from 
9^09.30. The morning was devoted almost entirely to reports from Korean 
Jdocal Preachers and Exhorters. Mu?: interesting were these repents as show¬ 
ing along what lines the work is being pushed. One luld of the number 
of books he sold in addition to his Ld/or? a* personal teacher. One had just 
returned from two months work in cholera hospitals where he did excellent 
work. These in Seoul. The brother in Pycrg Yang told how hard the soil in 
that field is and yet that the fallow ground i? being broken. A proihgate son 
was rescued and the preacher received most hearty thanks from the father. 
Single handed and alone this brother is pushing the work i.ot only in the cit%. 
but in the country as well, giving as his opinion that from present indications 
work will open to the south of the city. One brother from Chemulpo told of his 
experience with evil spirits and the colporteur and exhorttr from Kang \Vha 
told how with some twenty others he was caught in a storm on the nver. The 
danger was imminent. The pagans felt that something ‘pious'' ought to l>c 
done promptly,with the Christian they engaged in prayer and then invested in 
such books he had with him. This truly was “casting bread upon waters.*’ or 
illustrated the saying, 

“It is an ill wind that blows no good.” 

Five men were licensed as Local Preachers and five as exhorters. 

This fourth session was given almost entirely to the discussion of a 
question of discipline. G H. Jrr.cs, pastor at Chemulpo and Kang \Yha 
in his report said, “Another case to which I desire to call your attention is 
that of a man who joined the church on probation, and afterwards I discover¬ 
ed that he ha.d a wife and a roncubinc. I immediately excluded him from 
Church membership as being ineligible to membership until he discards hi- 
concubine. His w ife is the mother of three children, the concubine of two. 
The question I would submit is — Was my administration correct in this 
case ?.' 

An interesting discussion followed in which all the members of the 
mission took part and the sentiment was unanimous that the Church could 
not countenance concubinage in the slightest degree. The point was made 
that the subject of polygamy was not discussed by the Saviour, as the Jews 
were monogamists. The question of divorce, however, was presented and 
the master’s answer gave the one and only just cause for divorcement. 
Paul in his teachings is equally clear, and with the single exception of Luther 
when he allowed the landgrave of Hes^e to take a second wife during the 
life time of the first, the history of Church is in accord w ith the teachings of 
Christ and Paul, and up to 1834 when missionaries in India in an evil hour 
assented to allow a man to enter the church with his wife and concubines. 

The following action was taken without a dissenting vote either from 
foreign Missionary or Korean Christian: “It is the judgement of this annual 

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meeting that the action of Bro. Jones as cited in his report, viz. the exclusion 
of a probationer on account of polygamous relations is in accordance with 
the law and usages of our Church and that in the judgement of this meeting 
no man or woman living in polygamous relations can enter or retain mem¬ 
bership in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

Several of the Koreans present took an earnest part in the discussion 
and they heartily concurred with the action of the Annual Meeting. 

Two services in connection with the Annual Meeting were held on the 
Sabbath in the chapel of the Pai Chai College. The first in the morning 
was in Korean in memory of Kang Chai Hyeng, Local Preacher, No Pyeng 
II, exhorter and K. S. Kang, helper. The meeting was addressed by Choi 
Pyeng Hon and H. G. Appenzeller of this city, Kim Chang Sik of Pyeng 
Vang, Chang Kyeng Hwa and G. H. Jones of Chemulpo. 

In the afternoon Rev. H. G. Appenzeller preached the Annual Sermon 
before the mission, from Acts 4.12,—a forcible presentation of the central 
truth of Christianity—Salvation through Jesus Christ. The preacher’s identi¬ 
fication with Protestant missionary work from its beginning gives special in¬ 
terest to the following historical characterization: 

"Brethren of the mission, of all missions, up with this banner. 

‘Forth to the mighty conflict 
In this his glorious day.* 

“Never as glorious a time as now. No other name in which to trust. 
Seek the power of the Holy Ghost. We may be a mere Gideon’s band, but 
let us be properly equipped. I look around me and tho not an old man, I 
have lived long enough to see a goodly number of men of the spirit of Caleb and 
Joshua who have already come to this land, men who have come not to spy 
out the land, but to possess it for the Lord Jesus Christ. Ten years ago last 
April in the same boat came Underwood a sort of electric batter)- with many 
currents well charged or a battering ram making it unsafe for anything that 
can l>e shaken to remain. The diplomatic Allen had already preceded us 
and been thro the war of ’84 and has lived thro the second in ’94, A 
month later came Scranton, my true-yoke-fellow, the first physician of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in Korea. Ere two moons came and went he 
was followed by his mother, the Barbara Heck of Korean Methodism, wise 
in counsel, abundant in labors and Heron of whom the Scripture was fulfill¬ 
ed, “Seest thou a man diligent in his business? he shall stand before kings: 
he shall not stand before mean men.” 

“A year went by when Her Majesty’s first foreign physician, Miss Ellers, 
passed thro the Palace gates and the thin end of the wedge that will break 
from its solid bed of custom and superstition, the seclusion of woman, was 
then entered. At the same time, the education of the sons of Noron and 
Soron, Namin and Poukin was intrusted by the Korean government to 
the conscientious Bunker, the classical Gillmore and the brilliant not to say 
enthusiastic Hulbert. The conservative Ohlinger came at Christmas in 
1887 when the preacher of to-day with stammering and halting tongue 
limped thro the first Methodist sermon attempted in the Korean language. 
Oh linger was followed in May by a youth full of hope whose presence among 
us raised the question how far back in tender years the Missionary Society 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church intended to go to secure reinforcements 
for Korea. But in the words of the good Book, we can now say, “the child 
grew and waxed strong in spirit,” and is become a workman that need not 

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be ashamed. The cautious Gifford was followed by the judicial Moffett, 
who with our own sainted Hall began to announce to the dwellers in the 
ancient city of Ki-ja “that there is none other name under heaven given 
among men whereby they must be saved." 

“‘And what shall 1 more say? for the time would fail me to tell ' of 
the practical McGill, and of the scholarly Baird, and of the versatile Gale 
and of the modest Noble and of the zealous Busteed and of the eloquent 
Junkin and those associated with them not to mention the students of 
prophecy; men who thro faith will wax valiant in tight and turn to llight 
the armies of the aliens.” 

The sixth session was devoted almost entirely to reports from the ladies 
of the Woman’s Foreign Missionary Society showing the excellent condi¬ 
tion of the work entrusted to them. In our next number we hope to give 
extracts from these reports. 

The following action in reference to reinforcing the mission was taken. 
Whereas our numbers have been lessened by the death of Dr. Hall and the 
return to America of Mr Noble on account of the illness of his wife and, 

whereas our opportunities for Christian work among the Koreans are much 
greater than formerly and arc constantly and rapidly increasing and, where¬ 
as we believe most firmly that the work demands more laborers in this 
field,— Resolved that we petition our Board to reinforce us as soon as posi- 
ble with the six new workers called for by the Superintendent. 

The last session was held Tuesday Sept., 3. Reports of Committees 
were made, the one of chief interest being by the Chairman of the joint Com¬ 
mittee on the Decennial Celebration of the founding of missions in Korea 
to he held next month. The program for that interesting occasion as decid¬ 
ed upon was given in Knglish and Korean. The plan is tor a two days 
session just preceding the Annual Meeting of the Presbyterian Mission in 

Superintendent Scranton read the appointments, the Sacrament of the 
Lord’s Supper w as administered and the meeting adjourned sinr <//<-. 

Aj'pointHunts. W. B. Scranton, Superintendent. Aogi. D. A. Bunker; 
Baldwin Chapel. H. B. Hulbert; Chemulpo, G. H. Jones; Chong Dong. Kwa 
Hakdang and Chong No, H. G. Appenzcller; Chon ju, to be supplied: Knng 
jti and Suwon, W. B. Scranton, Pycng Vang, to be supplied; Sang Dong \V. 
B. Scranton; We ju, to be supplied; Wonsan. W. B. M< < nil. 

H. G. Appen/.eller, President l*ai Chai College and Principal rheologi¬ 
cal Department. 

1 ). A. Bunker, Principal Academic Department Pai Chai College. 

H. B. Hulbert, Manager of the Trilingual Press. 

\\ . A. Noble, absent on leave. 

J. B. Busteed 

W. B. Scranton 


Physicians in charge of Medical work in Seoul. 

Appointments Womans 1 'orcign Missionary Society 
Mrs. M. F. Scranton. ) 

Miss L. C. Rothweilcr. - Kvangclistic work. 

Miss M. W. Harris. ) 

Miss J. O. Paine, ) .. , 

Miss L. K. Frey, \ Kua S< 

Miss M. M. Cutler, In charge of Woman’s Hospital. 

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Miss K. A. Lewis, Assistant. 

Mrs. G. H. Jones, Woman’s work in Chemulpo and Kang Wha Circuit. 


Founder's Day, the day when Tai Cho 'Iai Wang, the first king of the 
reigning dynasty, opened his kingdom, was observed for the first time Sept. 3. 
The object is to inaugurate national holidays in the hope of fostering 

.1 national spirit. The day among the Koreans is called « £ *""■ 
llt>/: Lhul. 

Thirty five Korean students are about to leave for Europe to travel 
and study. 

The Official Gazette on account of lack of space goes over to next 

The Hon. J. M. Ik Sill, L\ S. Minister and family left Seoul on the 
13th. inst. for a two months' leave of absence in Japan. 

The Hon. C. Wacber has been appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to 
Mexico. Wc present hearty congratulations hut are sorry this well deserv¬ 
ed recognition of his services will probably mean his removal from our 

J. Hunter Wells m. d. was the first physician in Seoul to use salol or 
sulpho-carbolate of sodium in treating cholera patients. This remedy if given 
before the third stage or total collapse takes place will cure 80 or even 90 
j)er cent. In over 150 cases treated at “the shelter” sixty five per cent re¬ 

The Korean Post Office is fairly launched. The day it was opened 
12 letters were cancelled, the second day 17, the third 18. the fourth 19, the 
fifth 18; the sixth 40. the first month 616. Collected from sale of stamps 
ven 362.48. The Chong Dong rounds are made at 7 a. m. and at 4 p. m. 
The mail for Chemulpo closes at 9 a. in. and arrives from Chemulpo at 5 
p. m. Letters in the city require 10 poon or 2 sen stamps. 

The Corner-stone of the Chong Dong Methodist Church was laid by 
Rev. W. B. Scranton on the 9th. inst. The attendance was large, addresses 
were made by the Rev. Dr. Underwood, T. H. Yun, Vice Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, (who is a member of this church) and by the pastor. Rev. D. A. 
Bunker, Rev. W. M. Junkin, Rev. D. L. Gifford and Rev. G. H. Jones also 
too 1 : part in the serv ice. 

Lieut.—General Viscount Miura, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary from Japan to Korea arrived in Seoul Sept. 1st. Count and 
Countess Inouyc expect to leave Korea about the middle of this month. 

W hat effect the departure of Count Inouyc will have on the reforms 
introduced by himself we do not know. Those who affect to believe 
that the only changes made thus far are the removal of the long pipes and 
the adoption of black as the color for the coats of the Koreans will tell us 
that all is now over. For ten months Korea has had the benefit of the ex* 

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r i:u: K(>ur.\s irr.posiTonv. 


pericnce of the makers of modern Japan. Count Inouyc's policy of Reform 
ha^ been published in our columns from time to time. While there have been 
dumgcs in the personnel of the Cabinet, modifications and adaptations in 
the reforms, we are happy to Iclicve Korea has entered upon a new era 
and if die continues along the lines laid down, there is hope for this 
kingdom. We rcr ogni/c however that there is more or less danger of 

In one of the audience., the king expressed his sincere regrets that 
he was unable to confer an order of decoration on Count Inouye. We men 
tion this to show that the disinterested labors of Count Inouye for the inde¬ 
pendence and reformation of Korea are fully appreciated by His Majesty 
the King. 

We think there is a misunderstanding as to I’nitcd States ginseng. Wc 
arc informed that it sells for 52/10 gold a pound in New York and that the 
export from that point to Hong Kong amounts to several hundreds of thous¬ 
ands of pounds yearly. Prom a commercial stand point it would appear that 
it is one of our most valuable medicinal products. 

The Shanghai Mercury and its weekly edition, the Celestial Umpire, 
deserves the gratitude and esteem of the entire missionary community in the 
P ar P*„ist. In its editorial, news, and contributors columns it steadily takes 
a sturdy attitude in favor of and in defence of Missionaries and their work. 
It is refreshing to find a great Kastcm Journal an unenuivocal champion of 
C hristianity. And the Mercury is not alone in this. Wc note with pleasure 
the attitude of the Japan Advertiser. 

The terrible news of that indisrribable deviltry in Kuchcng China, in 
w hich eight ladies a gentleman and his son were massacred has just readied 
us (Aug. 15) and f#.-cn heard with horror. In addition to flic dear!, six others 
including a baby of thirteen months were hacked and stabbed with spears, 
swords and knives. Nothing like this has happened since the Tientsin mas¬ 
sacre. Wc trust that the arrn of justice will )>e found equal to the task this 
fiendish crime imposes on her. We join our journalist brethren of the Fai 
Hast in demanding that jushre bare her arm. For there is nothing to pal¬ 
liate this crime or justify leniency. 

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Electrical Gear 


BELLPUSHES, in button and 
pear shape, (a large assortment) 

CELLS oomplete, also the differ¬ 
ent parts separate. 

CALL BELLS (as per illustra- 
tion)jlifferent sizes. 

gle and double, different qualit¬ 
ies suitable for in and out-door 

INDICATORS, with 6, 9 and 12 
numbers. (Smaller sizes can be 
made to order.) 

RIES for fixing and repairing l»ells 
Arc. Ac. Ac. 

Original from 


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416*418 FRONT STREET, 

Our atot ~ l« not cou 
flut'd to 

cry eooos, 





And a general variety. 

M-tr Ir e?nl*ra'*ea 
• 11 

itcd. or h early 


fMihiUiiwl \■ t lells 
AlH’llt - 

The 1H * v 1 umber 

ft»r It No charge. 

Meoflou tni> paper 

We are retailing exporters of General Family stores. 
Send for our free, 144 paged ILLUSTKATID Catalogue 
and our Export Circular. Why net buy your goods in 
America 1 We can supply you. One order to our house 
secures almost everything youfneed, et minimum hip¬ 
ping expense. Fresh goods. Great variety, Reasonable, 
prices. Expert packing. Correspond with us. Ques¬ 
tions answed. 


Solid and Pickled Roll. 

For the Finest send for Prices to 



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wholesale am® rataol ©Rweeainrs, 

Importers of 

Pure Drugs, Chemicals, Chemical and Photo¬ 
graphic Apparatus and Scientific Instru¬ 
ments of all Kinds. 

Manufacturers of 

Aerated Waters. 

am a the mm ®, 


Orders from outports promptly attended to. 

rjf ^XZlSit —TOBSy 


f V'V ^^*37 W AuS£i_2 

4nmtn¥ ftp ■ ■»■ — — — 

/( M/HP&0 ^ ^MMMRK law — 


,/ A 4-£i2S SCCTI 

Ht mu it m roman 

M, -A 

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Yol. II 

No. 10. 



OCTOBER, 1395. 


AND JOHN. S. A. Moffett. 


C. C. Vinton, m. d. 


Aunie Ellers Bunker. 





C. C. Vinton, M. D, 


Assassination of The Queen of Korea. 

"She hath done what she could.” 

The Decennial Anniversary. 


Price per annum, $3.00. 

Per copy, 30 c. 

Published at 


Original from 


OCTOBER, 1895. 


T in: editorial in the May Repository oil the Translation of the 
Scriptures iorms a fitting introduction to a review of the gos- 
ples of Matthew and John which have just been placed in our 
hands by the Permanent Executive llible Committee. 

All former versions belong to the pioneer stage of Mission 
work and while they have been used to great advantage; their 
uecwssarily imperfect diameter and numerous mi.-translations haw 
given occasion for long repeated calls lbr the best production which 
the Ifoard of Translators could give us in their present stage of 
proficiency in their work. It was felt that, even tho this should 
soon have to give way to another translation, the result of the 
more deliberate and co-operative work of the whole Hoard, yet 
the individual work of the translators would surpass what we 
wen* then using. The Translators wen* loth to hand over their 
manuscripts in their present form before they had received the 
benefit of a critical revision from all the Board but in response to 
urgent aud repeated requests consented to place them in the hand 
of the Executive Com. which has published an edition of 1,500 
copies, not for indiscriminate distribution but for use in the native 
Church among Christians and inquirers. We have now before' 
its this edition of the gospels of Matthew and John and the Acts of 
the Apostles with the expectation of soon receiving the whole New 

An examination of the two gospels reveals so many excel¬ 
lencies and so many points of superiority over all former versions 
that to our mind they prove conclusively that the judgment of 
the translators and the Exec. Com. was right when they decided 
that it was not advisable to undertake a revision of former ver- 

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-ions hosed on tin- Chino*.*, but that a new translation from the* 
original should be undertaken. 

The point of greatest superiority over all other versions and 
when in consists the great merit r>f these translations is the smooth¬ 
ness serured through accuracy in the rendering of endings and 
touncctivcs and the choice of words and their amingement in the* 
sentence. As all students of Korean know, the difficulties of the 
language disappear just in proportion as one acquires facility in the 
iMe of the proper connectives and verbal endings. The vocabulary 
of any language is not so difficult of acquisition, requiring merely 
a good memory and access to the people and their literature, but 
acquisition of the grammatical stnicture so as to be able to ex¬ 
press the thought accurately and intelligibly to the natives is the 
gn-it desideratum, which, in the Korean language, requires yearn 
of careful study and comparison. 

That the translators have succeeded in sec uring translations 
showing a marked improvement in this respect is evident as soon 
as the books are placed in the hands of Koreans or read in their 
hearing. It is impossible to make mention of all the jwssages 
where this improvement is noticed. Often it Is the result of slight 
alterations or turns of expression which tho not particularly notic- 
ablc to a foreigner, yet to the Korean make all the difference be¬ 
tween a smooth and intellighle rendering of the thought and an 
awkward jumbling together of the same words which renders the 
thought ambiguous or unintelligible. It is sufficient to call at¬ 
tention to such passages as Matthew 5:20, 29-30; 8:29-34; 
9: 13; 10:37-42. Also in John 1: 1-3; 4: 1-15; 5: 46: 
6: 25-27,66-69; 7: 6-10; 8: 64; 12: 48; 20: 27. 

Improvement is also marked in the correction of infelicities 
in the use of words, some of .which have given veiy erroneous 
ideas, or confirmed superstitious views or have rendered the sense 

ridiculous. Instances of this are the substitution of for 

Matt 4:22; ■?* f or °} in Matt 8:26 ; ^ ^ or 

for -nf-^1 in Matt 9:20, John 4:15 and elsewhere, 
altho the word 4* has by mistake slipped into John 20:13; 

for in Matt 24;43 and -§* for ^ in 

John 20;1. for in John 1:29 is better and 

the use of for throne instead of which is so com¬ 

monly used is certainly good. 

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There yet remain, however, a number of infelicitous and 
erroneous words which need correction. In the Lord’s prayer in 

Matthew ’af c t is properly used but in the 15th. verse where 
it should again have been used is wrongly substi¬ 
tuted for it In 8: 20 ^ for while intelligible, is clearly 

inaccurate. In 27: 63 “Sir” as applied to Pilate is translated by 

^ the word which throughout the Gospel is used for “Lord” as 

applied to Christ 71" would have been a better translation 
and it is used by the Koreans in exactly that connection. 

In John 4: 7 for ; in 4: 24 

for ^l; in 4: 27 H °| for ; in 4: 28 *>*+# for 
when in the preceding verses the former is used in the sense of 
“husband; in John 6: 56 for ‘"M ill are infelicities. 

In this connection we would also notice the ambiguity occasioned 
by use of .3* instead of %, *?| in John 5: 43; the double plural 

“+«l-8*1*1 John 5: 44: the omission of the pronoun for 
“they” making John 7: 25 obscure; and the apparent confusion 

on the part of the translators as to the proper usage of and 

as shown in Matt 20: 23: John 8: 31 and 51; 12: 24; 14: 2 
and elsewhere. To us it seems that while in the Chinese these 
endings may have the same meaning, they convey different ideas 
to the Korean. We notice also a few' other mistakes in verbal 

forms—as Matt 20: 30; the location of $•£“1 

in 26: 13: the past tense in John 3: 5 and 5: 19; and the future 
tense in John 14: 6. The use of the future instead of the present 
in John 6: 47 is a mistranslation which deprives us of the force 
one of the strongest and most valuable texts of scripture. We 
would also question the right to make such changes as those in 
John 8: 57 — 58 and 4: 21 and the substitution of the 3rd. for 
the 1st. person in 4: 26 which weaken the force of the assertion. 

The translation of Matt 16: 13 and John 17: 3 need revi¬ 
sion while that of John 6: 55 strikes us as peculiar. 

Minor faults in spelling and proof reading are not so infrequ¬ 
ent but that they detract from the smoothness of the sentences and 
render the sense obscure in many places. 

In Matt 5: 41 ^ for in Matt 24: 32 fruit, for 

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Hi summer, undin John 3: 36 3L for ^ jL , in .John 
4: 21 for or ®1 show the imjtortaiice of careful attention 
to proof rending and spelling in order to be seenre against serious 
• •riors. 

The differences in spelling which often up|>cur on the same 
page and the frequent differences occurring in the two 1 moles show 
that one of the duties before the Board of Translators is that of 
adoption of some standard which shall I** followed throughout. 

Is it i c | l or J5L C ^? Certainly the latter. Is it or 

y it. ®f tc or *t "H -ft or Tj 1 or ^ 

'i S. V H or <4 » X 4, g ..r t «+. 6 t-t or 

The Board of Translators will do us all a great service 
if they will find some standard and make it known to the public 
as soon as possible. 

Doubtless many of the defects noticed above would have Iteen 
obviated had these books received the lienetit of a careful review 
from all the members of the translating board, before being 
published. As it is they are not numerous enough to seriously 
detract from the great merit of the translations. 

In our view however that which dims seriously detract and 
the defect which will cause the translators the ban lest kind of 
work and study in order to remedy is the unnecessarily fre¬ 
quent use of Sinico-Korean words. It is so much easier to obtain 
from dictionaries and from the Chinese Character worshipping 
scholar of Korea, the Chinese term for an idea than it is to get 
hold of the pure Korean word for the same, that the translator 
is doubtless greatly tempted to adopt the former. Nevertheless 
when the pure Korean word is found if is so much more forcible 
and to all hut the literary class conveys the idea so much better, 
that we cannot but express our great regret that the translators 
have made use of such a large number of Sinico-Korean words. 
The beauty and strength of the Authorized English version and 
Luther’s version of the German Bible are largely due to the ex¬ 
tensive use of pure Anglo-Saxon and pure German words. Doubt¬ 
less there are technical terms and many expressions for which the 
Korean has no equivalent but we do not believe the translators 
will have given us the best translation of which they are capable 
nor have done the best possible service for Korea and the Korean 
Language, until by a through and diligent search through Korean 

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literature they have found pure Korean words which will enable 
them to eliminate the Chinese far more than has been done in 
these gospels. 

If the fact that Matthew which had the benefit of critical 
revision by some of the translators, shows a much greater pre¬ 
ponderance in the use of Chinese terms than does John, indicates 
a tendency on the part of the Hoard to show a preference for these 
terms, we express our very great disappointment and our judg¬ 
ment that their work will just so far fall short of the translation 
which the Korean people need. 

What advantage is there in the use of 'fr instead of "H 
Jp in Matt 9: 37 or for in 10: 35? Are 

there not pure Korean equivalents for sis, tan «, s. 

, and 3L? Is not the use of f| 
for ^ in John 12: 43 not only more accurate but more 
forcible? We notice that in Matthew is used while in 

John we have ^ ^ the latter a much better term for convey¬ 
ing the idea. 

We desire to express our sense of gratification at the appear¬ 
ance of these translations and not only do we congratulate the tran¬ 
slators upon the character of the first fruit of their labors, but we 
heartily thunk them for putting into our hands those Gospels which 
will enable us to place before the Koreans the Gospel in a form 
which will l>e read by them with pleasure and profit. After 
several years of attempN-d use of former versions over which the 
Koreans have stumbled in their attempts to read them it has been 
a pleasure to hear the remarks made when *hese new ones have 
b(*n placed in their hand. 

We shall eagerly welcome each volume of the New Testa¬ 
ment and if all that follow are as intelligible und smooth in their 
rendering as these two volumes we shall be ready to wait patient¬ 
ly for the authorized edition of the Board of Translators as they 
proceed with their careful and more deliberate work of revising 
and correcting these individual versions. 

S. A. Moffett. 

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A 8 affects tbe internal constitution of tbe Korean state, tbe 
reforms of tbe new era centre, like tbe American Declara¬ 
tion of Independence, Magna Charts, and other similar 
documents, around the principle of equality between all men. 
And this means necessarily, not that the highest step down and 
range themselves with the low. That was the almost fatal error 
of the French revolutionists. 

But it does mean that the very lowest are raised to an equal¬ 
ity in right, in privilege, and in civic training, with all their super¬ 
iors. In preparing for this assimilation of the social classes, for 
this welding of the people into an independent nation, the Ko¬ 
rean authorities early took the step perforce of declaring the 
abolition of slavery. What other nations have accomplished only 
by mighty internal convulsions, Korea, emulating Russia, aspired 
to effect by a mere edict. With what success the future must 
determine. Those who are inclined to speculate upon the event 
have need to remember that slavery bas never been a pronounced 
institution in this land, that it has long been undergoing a pro¬ 
cess of Bteady disintegration and that the people are notably 
accustomed to submission in all things. 

At present the law stands inert, stillborn. Slavery still 
exists, law and law-giver notwithstanding. 

Let us, ere this time-honored institution, with so many 
others of the old regime, has passed away, examine somewhat 
into its character and conditions as it has existed here. 

And in doing so, we shall speak not of what has been but 
rather of what is, knowing that the time of its actual passing 
away has not yet arrived. We shall needs deal also with another 
class of household dependents against whose existence tbe re¬ 
former has raised likewise an unsparing hand, and as yet equal¬ 
ly ineffectual. 

Ab elsewhere throughout the East the essential idea of fami¬ 
ly life here is patriarchal. There is one head of the household, 
whose age is the proof of wisdom, and beneath whom, by dis¬ 
tinctly marked gradations, the several ranks descend in domestic 

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authority and consideration down to the humblest and most 
abused slave, boy or girl. Such is not only the model upon 
which even the poorest and meagerest household establishment is 
planned, but such too is the ideal fully realized, where we can to 
l)est advantage study it, in the elaborate social constitution of 
the wealthy yang ban 's home circle. 

Feudalism in the European sense never existed in Korea. 

Lords and feudal barons, upheld in petty conflicts by a 
multitude of martial retainers, never stained the valleys of the 
peninsula with bloodshed in fratricidal strife. Nor has the fierce 
spirit of Japanese tribal warfare ever crossed the channel to 
decimate with internecine feud the scanty population of its fast¬ 
nesses. But none the less the head of a commune, the chief 
man of a village or a district, “the sower of a thousand bags,” of 
two thousand, of five receives the loyal homage, the service, the 
moral support of all his circle of dependents, and confers on 
them liis favor his protection, his charitable bounty, with as 
lordly a rule and as unquestioned right as ever did Christian 
suzerain of the middle ages. In poverty ’tis he makes 
the loan or the gift of rice to tide over till better times. 
Must a widow sell herself for a time into slavery that the 
mouths of her children may be filled ? Tis to him she goes with 
acknowledged right that he shall purchase her service, and not 
any stranger lord. To the criminal he is a protector against 
magistrates and officers of the law, pleading and compelling that 
Lis follower be not punished. When his crops need harvesting, 
his wood cutting or transportation, when he has a house to be 
built, his villagers to a man are his to command. Is he in any 
manner of strait, or has lie a whim, innocent or criminal to 
gratify, then can they and do they return the favors his influence 
has won them in the past. Such is the feudal entourage of 
larger or smaller dimensions that centres about the village yang- 
ban, an extension merely of that over which, as chouin he presides 
in his own household. 

Beside his own personal relatives he acquires dignity, power,' 
prestige in the eyes of his fellow-countrymen from the constant 
presence beneath his roof of a number, large or small according 
to his standing in official circles and his ability to maintain them, 
of mmnkaiks. In the instance of a very high noble there may 
he even as many as two or three hundred of these leeches both 
fattening upon and adding to the revenues of their patron. < 

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for you may be sure luuuan nature is ne\’er so materially altered t» 
Chosun poungsyok as to maintain this troupe of hangers-on wilfa- 
out deriving from them a bcniit quite as sulistantial as that confer¬ 
red. Not all of them are bad men, aud not one is wholly devcki 
of some human sympathies; a considerable part arc man whin, 
luive homes of their own with wives and families; yet no small 
proportion live to old age and die without having entered inti 
matrimony: and, taken all in all, there can he little, doubt they 
form the darkest moral blot upon the face of Korean society . and 
always have done so. They are essentially the feudal retainers' 
of the Korean lord, and it requires the combination of an upright 
loid and a household of blameless mounkaiks to esca]>e th* 
deserved imputation of being a social aud moral scourge to tne 

In Seoul and in the country alike this class of parasites alx mnd 
At whatever hour of the day or night you visit the home ol 
their patron you are sure to find his sorting and outer courtyard 
infested with them. They are eating his food, smoking his to 
baceo, drinking his liquor, sleeping above his fire, scribbling with 
his pons and paper, wearing the clothing he has cast off after the 
first sheen of its newness had disappeared, and even, unless 
he. himself looks closely after it, spending the money that 
forms the rightful income from his fields. For him they 
perform no direct service beyond the occasional writing of a letter 
I fm his liehalf, the reading aloud, it may be of some hook when 
j lie is in the mood, or the transaction at his behest of sonic 
f piece of business. 

Morning and night they are accustomed to present themselv¬ 
es to express to him a hope that he has slept well or that he 
may do so. Those who have some literary ability usually 
have lieen aspirants for the honors of rank as earned by 
successfully passing the quagga. 

Many are seekers after some petty office or other; and to 
either class the patron is expected to lend his aid. 

But there is one employment beyond and above all others 
to which the mottnkaik is understood to give close study and 
in the pursuit of which he is a notable adept. It is this 
of “squeezing”, not in the minor, hut in the maior sense. 

By it he replenishes as often as need be his meagre purse, 
rewards those who are his tools in the craft, and unless lie lias a 
patron of almost superhuman virtue adds to the revenue that 



•tea lily filters in to and out of the great money cheat of the 
establishment that maintains him—the latter part of the 
distribution being made strictly without the knowledge of the 
head of the house. 

This opera tion of squeezing is a very simple one. Certainof 
the residents of the district are sure to be prosperous merchants, 
farmers, gentlemen at ease, priests in charge of a well pat' 
ronized tempi i or monastery, persons to whom a stroke of 
material good fortune has come. The servants of the 
establishment make a sudden onslaught upon such an 
individual, by day orby night, at his house or in an unfrequentad 
place, drag him to a convenient locality, aud there nog him 
until he agrees to pay over, and has actually brought to the 
spot, it is likely, and paid over, such an amount, no small 
one you may be sure, as his captors may think sufficient for 
his ransom. These captors, it may be, have acted by their 
own initiative. In perhaps many instances it is by the direct 
instruction of their master. In either case he is sure to be 
execrated by public sentiment. But in far the larger number 
of cases the masters who issue the order for the foray, and in 
any case those who make distribution of the spoils, are the 
men whose position is midway between these two and who 
would be perhaps found insufferable in the establishment, did 
they not adopt this way of upholding its prestige. 

Let not the reader think we have wandered from our subject. 
We have been observing that there has been and still is 
feudalism in Korea. And feudalism and slavery are the two 
props of the oriental social system, the barriers to that equality 
already potentially established here. That feudalism shall one 
day yield to law we may assure ourselves by the fact that its 
outrages have already diminished in the provinces and almost 
ceased in Seoul. 

We turn now to the lower, the servile stratum of the 
Korean yang ban's household. Not nearly all his servants are to 
be spoken of here. 

He is likely to have many, working side by side with his 
chattels, to whom regular wages are paid. Yet few are the 
bouses in Korea where more than a servant or two can be 
afforded and a slave more or less is not also to be found. Slavery 
is one of the ancient institutions of the land. If we consult 
tbe Chinese History written it may be a thousand yearn 

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or so ago by Tjou we find there mentioned nearly all the forms of 
slavery lately recognized as legal here. It seems probable, though 
I find no clear evidence, that Korean slavery is as old as Korean 
history, he that as it may there seems never to have been a time 
when the proportional number of slaves was very large. At the 
present time it has undoubtedly diminished and is on the steady 
decrease. An estimate, a Korean guess, we may callit, upon the part 
of an informant would place the number at less than one in twenty 
of the total population nut this is for the region of Seoul and the 
central provinces where as in remoter districts then* is certainly a 
larger proportion of the free j>opulation. 

As compared also what we have seen or read about as 
the cruelties of slavery in Africa in South America, in Arabia, 
in Persia, and in n ore civilized lands, Korean slavery resolves 
itself into a very mild serfdom—in fact rather a feature of 
its equally mild feudalism, than a cruel system of traffic in the 
bodies and souls of men. Cruelties are practised no doubt, 
and some of them barbarous enough, but the life of the lond- 
nian in general bears such favorable comparison with that of 
his free neighbor that not a few of the latter class have l>een 
found anxious when pressed by poverty, to enter the state 
of servitude. 

It may he reckoned that there were in Korea four class 
of slaves. Of these only one, the chyong, was hereditary, and in 
this class alone are male slaves to he found, at least in any 
numbers. Probably these are the descendants of the original 
slave class, having from time immemorial a servile ancestry, 
and all other form forn s of slavery are excrescences which have 
grown on to the system in later times. The chyong being 
hereditary, was inheritable, salable, loanable, or might be given 
away by bis master To no other class did these properties 
lielong. The chyong moreover was not to l h ■ redeemed without 
the free consent of his owner, while to two of the other classes 
this right inheres by custom though not by law. The chyong 
like any other slave, is at the absolute command of bis master, 
but he differs from every class of his fellow workers in that 
he has almost no control over his own future or that of his 
offspring. While the chyong , therefore, is an absolute slave all 
other classes are conditional slaves only, and may work out 
a higher status as well as an easier position for themselves. 
Next to the chyong in the severe conditions of his servitude stood 

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the koanpi , but notice the possessive. With but few exceptions 
the koanpi were women: They were the wives, daughters, and 
other female relatives of criminals, political or otherwise,or they 
were in much more frequent instances criminals themselves, 
thieves, adulteresses, rarely murderers, women guilty of offending 
some high lord. It was to the state, not to private masters, 
that they were enslaved. Their residence was at the magistracy 
or some other government office and their duties were to do 
all the menial work suitable to the Korean conception of woman’s 
lot. They suffered much abuse from underlings. Their male 
children were free ; their female children were so too, except in 
instances of punishment for aggravated crimes. The reason there 
were few men of this class was that the male criminals were 
usually executed or banished and their male relatives who did 
not share their fate were visited with lighter punishments than 
slavery. A Koanpi could never l>esold, many statements to the 
contrary notwithstanding. Their female offspring often were. 
This form of slavery, being dependent wholly upon the law is 
now entirely done away with, so that we speak of the koanpi 
solely in the past tense. 

A totally distinct class of female slaves to whom we now turn 
is the c/tamai, a class always rare except at the capital. These 
are women whom distress has driven to sell themselves for a 
temporary loan. Their condition is much like that of th echyong 
but they had always the privilege of redemption at will, and 
usually exercised it after a few years. This redemption often 
came by union with a man, who purchased the chamat’s freedom 
Their offspring was never enslaved, though its temporary service 
is required by the master as a condition of support. 

The slave women of the palace, our fourth class, are itaiitt. 
There were formerly some thousands of them in all, but the 
number has been considerably reduced. They are carried there 
when small children and grow up in the palace. They are not 
purchased as slaves, but rather given by their parents as an 
honor, and are at liberty to leave whenever they wish, but may 
never return. While children they are occasionally allowed a 
few days leave to visit their parents, and should the queen leave 
the palace on any occasion a number of them are included in 
her escort Each is assigned to a special line of work—cooking, 
cleaning of rooms, sewing, embroidery. They cannot marry 
without leaving, and some, specially chosen by the king, become 

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n 'i rf* t / * vT I r f , _ _ 

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, ti„ \‘; Ht ‘ n : . rn, -’fk them wcciJ hei 

"/ ; -'T " r ^' 4 "I feod * & ”. w 

''wan “* W ’« i »«lnnlc ra , l bj mi 

C - C. Vinton, u, D 

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D uring the visit of Mrs. H. G. Underwood and myself to 
Her Majesty on the 14 th. of September we saw’ the Queen 
Dowager and she gave ub each a handsome gold-embroider¬ 
ed chumonty or purse—Our visit to Her Royal Highness was in 
the same place where some years ago I went to see the Queen. 
Many changes have come since then and the Queen now lives 
in a new building, beautifully lighted with electricity, in another 
part of the grounds. 

It is just nine years ago this fall since I was first, in com¬ 
pany with Dr. H. N. Allen the King’s physician, called to visit, 
Her Majesty, the Queen. She had been ill for some time and 
they had sent to Dr. Allen for medicines. As there was no im¬ 
provement in her condition the Doctor assured them, that, in 
order to treat Her Majesty properly, she must be examined, 
and so the writer was called. 

It was a lovely autumn day, when in the early afternoon, 
we started for tbe Palace in our sedan chairs, with our keysos 
(soldiers) running ahead and clearing the way. My heart was 
thumping vigorously and I wondered how I would be received, 
half fearing the ordeal. 

On our arrival at the outer side-gate of the palace wall, 
we had to get out of our chairs and walk quite a distance, about 
a quarter of a mile, I should judge, to the Reception Hall. As 
we neared the place we were met by Prince Min Young Ik whom 
I had met, and who, having travelled much, knew something of 
the customs of foreigners. 

He showed us some of the beauties of the palace grounds 
and after our walk around the artificial lake, he escorted us to 
the waiting-room and there had us served with foreign food, 
Korean fruit and nuts. 

Soon a messenger dressed in court costume came for me 
and, Prince Min accompanying me, we started for the Audienoe 
Hall. We first crossed a large open court, which I noticed had 

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kT. ' 

: ~z rxt m Ep»=ar of 
* : ;ffcr»i etoc*± 

- : -l.; T-r i hi:u J«>: r 
i j.r.j. r:aii, 

/.l- i" : r.Ard to ol— 

* -:. : * ~ • ' - : I 5i>x % Lin:* r.’U'.rer of 

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. i*: •-/ -i » : t •*- : - : :; ': f :’v* oon-rarv 

* - 

: '.: -■■ 1 * ' *. .: ." ;:-r M - * -*«:•• ami for the 

-* . i" I .. : -.e -r In later visits 

1 -a — • . • : * : get- ,-r. fr : -■ eurucn«. and 

•. ■ - j.:. -f ■ vi,-...; • r.-^vi-jear and their 

:.:*- • .• r ; ~'-. - . -~ s- ; _- ;_s worn by*' 

r .: I-. i.s * ai.v r :t also as to 
~ r. _» ir : . r%. ^ gkssy strands 

s u.""' . ' ■ _ v.; - v. .T.-s-.r^ some of tfm 

i r:t 1 i"i •- iin-i y the dancing 

_■ ~,s ir -■*_*. I i.3 -: :■••■- f t’’’ t.* r chignon was 
- r ••-•k*"— . a - t s -r. •.•ary ai ! n akes my head 

w:e. 7 »• s- .-\l; • • _> •.- 7 _. ::.*»tiu es they are 

i. r l i' : . l~ v.' -'it • a.-i.-. ;..-;• i av.- large lateral loops. 

T’:e . . -•-a;:: :,.y n. silk crauze skirts, with 

jcrr :>? r * 'ears :z . r nv-:. i a la»iy. short of stature, with 
?•- ' '.i. - k - i' i ’• ;.v?k i.;tir. greeted t: :e most pleasant- 

" ; - u: - : •: r:." : .is head dress hut only her own 

_:.stec.;- _ . ••;_ 5 in a most lx*coii>ing knot low down on 

her r.'-' ki - w-nr- ■ r the top of her forehead her Korean 
n:?irt.:s : rtt-k. Ah tee l.wlies of tlio nohility wear a similiar 
tec; rat;, r. ; it «.f infenor quality aud workmanship. To tee the 
tv>? of S' - <,»;• et. • specially when she smiles, is full of I'eauty. 
.•s’::*- Ls a s:;r»'ri-.-r wort ;m and she impressed one as having a 
'troi.g will ar;d great force of eharaetitr, with much kindliness of 
heart I have always received the kindest words and treatment 
fro*.; her and I have much admiration and great respect for her. 
After first asking if I were well, how old I was, how my parents 
were, if I had brothers and sisters and how they were, she pro¬ 
ceed*.'] to tell me that they had boon told by Dr. Allen of my 
arrival in Korea; that she was much p>leuH‘d at my coming and 
hoped I would like the country. All of this conversation was 
carrie 1 on through an interpret u- who stood, with his body 

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bent double, back of a door where he could hear but not see. 

Prince Min, who had been standing by, now had a chair 
brought for me and I noticed that back of Her Majesty there 
was a foreign couch. The Queen telling me to be seated sat 
down on this couch and then the medical part of the interview 

I had noticed that two gentlemen had seated themselves 
when the Queen sat and when I got up to leave, they with Her 
Majesty rose and returned mv bows. 

Prince Min conducted me back to the waiting room and 
there I waited for Dr. Allen who was having an audience with 
His Majesty. When he returned I learned from him that both 
the King and Crown Prince had been present during my inter¬ 
view. I was very glad that I had not known who the two 
gentlemen were, for I fear my composure would not have been 
even such as it was. After being served with more food and 
fruit we were each given a certain number of soldiers to accom¬ 
pany us home and also, as it was dark, lantern bearers. The 
sight of the Korean lantern with its outer covering of red and 
green silk gauze is very picturesque and as we passed, many a 
dusky bead peeped out through opened doors and windows to 
see what it all meant. The empty dark streets with the dark low 
houses on either side, the lantern bearers of the Doctor’s chaii and 
of mine with the attendant soldiers, carrying their rifles made a 
picture at once interesting and unique. In recent visits we are 
]>ermitted to go through the large front gate into the grounds 
and right up to the waiting room door. Upon arriving here 
tea, coffee and fruit are served and then we are called in to Her 
Majesty, who receives us in one of the smaller private appart- 
ments. The King and Crown Prince are always present. After 
the interview we are permitted to proceed home immediately. 

Annie Ellers Bunker. « 

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aro Six H 

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mined ion with the hospital. The dispensary on the n ain 
Lreet was built by funds given by Mrs. O’ Neil of New York. 

There are three wards nan ed “ The Cuyler word,” “ Dobbs 
vard and “the Margaret Humphrey ward.” The present ac- 
o'rmiodation is for twenty five patients, but in case of epidemics 
hirty or n:ore can be taken in. 

The institution was begun in faith and is not on the list 
>f appropriations made by the Board to the mission. To quote 
Dr. Underwood again. “The cost of running the institution 
iomes entirely from voluntary contributions. Those sending 
patients can if they desire Income sponsors for their keep and 
rent of roo n. The place is free to all. Those who send patients 
there t an on application have them attended by their own 
physician; any doctor can send patients there and attend to 
them himself if lie so desires. Boo t s are there for those of 
the upper classes if they make suitable payment. 

“ God has honored this faith in him thus far. No patient 
has been dismissed for lack of funds and yet at we 
were down to the last dollar, but lx'fore the last “cash” was 
used more has always come and more will come ” 

Since its opening two years ago a large number of native 
fever cases have been treated and so far over ninety per cent 
have be?n cured. When the cholera broke out, with that 
zeal aiul enthusiasm so characteristic of Dr. Underwood, The 
Shelter was promptly offered for cholera patients and the dis¬ 
pensary was opened as an inspection office. Over 500 dif¬ 
ferent cases were inspected, medicine given and their places 
disinfected. The hospital received up to date (Aug. 27) 159 
cases and t lie re have been 56 deaths. Of these cases at 

17 were in a dying condition when they arrived. 

86 were rigid and in total collapse. 

56 were in first stage all the way from incipient 
cholera to partial collapse. 

The foreign force consisted of J. Hunter Wells, M. D., 
Mrs. Underwood, m. i>. and Bcv. Dr. Underwood himself. 
They wee ably assisted by a force of intelligent and earnest 
Korean Christians; “and in a large measure the success that we 
under God have had has lieen due to their untiring efforts with 
the sick.” 

We were grateful that two of our best helpers when taken 

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with cholera had a place t*-ar by to which they could go. One 
of these thinking be coold rot live asked lor a 1 rash and paper. 
Wi'.h great eflDjrts he wrote oar name, intending to his 
sin to our care, after he was gone, but be suddenly collapsed 
His life was despaired of and tl»e shroud was ready to be put on 
him but “he came back from tl>e dead’' as the Koreans call it. 
very grateful that Christian people in Korea and America had 
rrovided a place ami medicine for him. The hundreds that 
have been treated and helped at this place which is “run on 
faith ” are ready to tell the 6ame story. 

The Governor of the Province a lew days ago in recognition 
of the gool work done at The Shelter issu- d a proclamation telling 
the people of what had been done, of the numlcrs cured and 
tol 1 a’l the people as won as they were taken down with cholera 
to go straightto The Shelter 

jjinal from jj 



To the Editors of the Korean Bepository 
Dear Sirs. 

In the September number of The Repository I notice 
an article on Korean History, a translation from the Tong Guk 
T'ong Gam, an interesting and inclus ve account of the salient 
points of early Korean history. So little has been done with 
Korean history from the native standpoint that we welcome 
this the more heartily and hope it may be but the beginning of 
good things. 

In history, however and especially in a translation, ac¬ 
curacy is an important quality and I would beg to call attention 
to one or two joints where the writer lias inadvertently misre¬ 
presented that most important of all the ancient histories of 

He tells us in the first place that Ki Ja was the nephew 
of the Moo Wang the first King of the Chu dynasty. Now in 
the original the only reference to any relationship between Ki 

Ja and anyone else is in the passage ^ “jp ^ which 

states that Ki Ja was uncle of Chu the corrupt king of the Eun 
dynasty and not to Moo Wang the young conqueror. Ki Ja 
was a sage, a councillor of Chu and if so it is scarcely conceiv¬ 
able that he should have been the nephew of the young Moo 

Wang who overthew Chu. The characters have evident¬ 

ly been mistranslated nephew instead of uncle and made to ap¬ 
ply to the relationship between Ki Ja and Moo Wang instead of 
that between Ki / a and Chu. 

Again we are told that when Yu Wha addressed Keum 
Wa she told him that Ha Mo Su enticed her away to the Aw 

No k mountains. The passage in question reads SHMUT 

M* which means that it was to the Am Nok house un- 
<ler the Ung Sim mountain that she was enticed. This of not 
r ^f great importance but as we already have an Am Nok river it 
may be as well that we dispense with the Am Nok mountains. 



Original from 




Another point that has given me a pood deal of trouble is 
that the Tong Guk T‘ong Ga n, as the writer says, apparently 
states that Kui Man in his (light from Yo Dong “ Scurried 
across the Ta Tong river.” It is only lately that I have found 
the explanation of this statement which is so difficult to believe 
since Ki dun’s capital was on the north hank of the river 

Now the original uses the ter n Pa, Su for the river 

which \Vi Man crossed. The Koreans universally understand 
by this ter n the Ta Tong river but I ran acros the follow¬ 
ing passage in the Tong Sa Kang Yo, an equally reliable history, 
which solves t* e difficulty. 

m 7jc uij t- ± mi fr-m x m £ a tk m 

m ft flT H 'n 7k Ifll*This 

passage shows that 

, the great work of the Han dynasty, 

called the Am Nok river the 7IC but that later, in ti e Tang 
dynasty it was applied to the Ta Tong and later still to the 

called usually zxH To Chi) Ul, near Pyeng San. But the 
Tang dvnastv was a later one and the events recorded occurred 
in the Han dynnstv itself so that we cannot hut conclude that 
it was the Am IVok and not the Ta Tong that he. crossed. The 
fact that Korean histories have preserved through all these 

years the characters instead of substituting for them 

t,he characters representing the Ta Tong is a remarkable testiiuo- 
nial to their historical accuracy. Historians knew well enough 
that Wi Man creased the Am Nok and stopped and yet they 
would not drop these characters which mean now the Ta Tong 
and have so meant for many centuries. Of course the writer is 
easily excusable for saving the Ta Tong hut it shows how mis¬ 
takes will almost inevitably slip in. 

Tt is hard to see how the writer should have slipped into 
the error of saving that the king of Silla was called Su-ra-pul 
and that the kingdom was called Ku su-gan. It is generally’' 
known among educated Koreans that Kb sb-gan was the term 
appliel to the kings of Silla until the twenty first generation 
when the ter n Wang was substituted, and that the name of 
the city or district which was the seat of his government was 

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called S5-ro-bol from which by process of attrition we get our 
word So ul or Seoul. The following passage, quoted directly 
from the Tong Guk T‘ong Gam, leaves no doubt cn this point 

atguTisif-'m The writer has inadvertently 
transposed the two words Ku-su-gan and Su-ra-pul. 

The writer in speaking of the removal of the capital of 
Pak Je to Han makes the query whether this Han was the 
present city of Seoul. It was probably Nam Han as the follow¬ 
ing passage on the preceding page of the Tong Guk T‘ong 

. . m n 

«W flUf T li J T 18K F 1 ■ This shows that 

in looking for a place the king struck upon a point south of the 
Han river to lay out his capital. Koreans generally understand 
that the place referred to was at least near Nam Han. 

These few suggestions are offered solely in the interests of 
historically accuracy, at a time when mistakes if left uncorrect¬ 
ed are likely to become stereotyped and become doubly difficult 
to correct. 



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of the Protestant Churches in Korea : 

. I paper read before the Decennial Con fa cnee of Christi u 
Missions in Korea, Oct ber loth. ‘$95- 

P rotestant missions have dwelt ten years in Korea. Is the 
plant of vigorous growth or a weakling? The committee of the 
day have asked me to gather some statistics bearing upon this 
question, and herewith I present a resume of what I have learned. 

I am enabled to enumerate to you the results attained by 
Methodist, Baptist, and Presbyterian workers in connection with 
42 congregations who worship God by meeting each Sabbath lor 
the study of His Word. In 19 or more of these stated preaching 
is observed, in the remainder the exercises are of a simpler char¬ 
acter. 4 are churches formally organized under the Conference 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 8 are recognized branches 
of the one organized Presbyterian church in Korea. As regards 
location and missionary supervision these may Ik* tabulated as 
follows: — 

Organized Churches (4 ethodist Episcopal')'. 

in Seoul: Chong Dong Church — organized 1888, 

Baldwin Chapel at East Gate—organized 1892, 
Sang Dong Church — organized 1893, 
in Chemulpo: Chemnl|K> Church — organized 1893. 
Branches of the Presbyterian Church: 

in Seoul: Chong Dong Church — organized 1887, 

Kong Dong Kol Church — set apart 1893, 

Yun Mot Kol Church — set apart 1895, 

Yak Yun Church — set apart 1894, 
in Pyeng Yang: East Gate Church — set apart 1893, 
in Eusnn: Eusan Church — sot apart 1893, 
in Gensan: Gcnsan Church — set apart 1893, 
in Chang Yun (Hoang Hai Do): Sorai Church — set apart 

Places where Sabbath preaching is regularly held: 
in Seoul: at Chong No, 

at the Chyei Cheung Ouen, 

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at the South Gate Chapel, 
at Cha Kol. 
at Mo Hwa Kwan, 
at Aogi, 

in Pyeng Yang: at Methodist Mission, 
in Gcnsan: at Methodist Mission. 

Other places of Sabbath worship: 
near Seoul: Tjantari, 
in Kiung Ki Do: Kangwha, 

One other place (name not learned), 

An San majistraev, 

Mousong in Han Yang, 

Haijuwan in Souwan, 
in Chulla Do : Kun Cliang, 

Chun Ju, 

near Fusan: Choliang. 

in Hoang Hai Do: Sin An Po in Chai Ryeng, 

Sun "m! 8 } of Anak in Chai Ryeng 
in Pyeng An Do: Syou An, 

Han Chen, 

Kou Syeng in Sai Cliang Keri, 

Sak Chou, 

Yai Chou, 

Eui Chu, 

Syoun An city, 

Cha Chak in Syoun An, 

Sa Chou in Svoun An, 

Tyeng Ju. 

Thus it appears that organized and systematic, not merely 
desultory, propagation of the Gospel is being carried on in all but 
two of the eight provinces of Korea. 

528 baptized members are reported as the existing number of 
communicants who have made open profession of their faith and 
are still connected with the churches. Beside these, 44 in all have 
died in the faith, 26 or more have been disciplined, and “a num¬ 
ber” have withdrawn “under charges.” Of the church members 
at present upon the rolls about two-thirds are males and one-third 
females. 567 also, called variously “catechumens,” “probation¬ 
ers,” or “inquirers,” are reported as having given hopeful evi¬ 
dence of conversion and of a desire for baptism, of whom one-fifth 

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only are women. In all 1) Sj.bbath-schools are rojsutod, einoll- 
ing 445 person. 

Thus far we have dealt chiefly with bare figure* and fact*, 
and tacts and figures mav mean verv little or verv much accord- 
ing as they are interpreted. I> t us turn now to other figures by 
which we may throw some side lights upon them. These* eleven 
hundred Christian professors whom ten year; have gathered around 
us, what is the vigor of tlu ir profession, what is the warmth of 
their faith, what is the measure of their consecration? Ixt tIi«» 
figures help us to determine. 

202 communicants have been received during the past year, 
or some 01 of the previous memberbhip, a healthy increase' 
many home churches might envy. 

Exactly 00 baptized infants are reported, and the number of 
families enrolled entire upon church records is 50, Such state¬ 
ments mean that Christianity is converting the Korean home, the* 
stronghold of the nations. 

0 churches are ministered to bv native j>astors, all unlicensed 
and unordained, and all supervised by foreign missionaries. 2 
congregations employ each a home missionary, contributing in 
one c'ase all, in the either case part of his maintenance, that he 
may carry the light to the regions beyond. Hut many individual 
believers are known to be engaged in this labor of love wholly at 
their own charges. 

Not the feeblest te*st of a Christian's sincerity, as we all 
know, concerns his zeal in support of tlu* means of grace. En¬ 
quiring here, we find that the Chong Dong Church of the Method¬ 
ist Mission, mini taring 51 communicants and 74 probationer , 
has contributed during the past year some §201 toward the 
erection of a new house of worship and some § 10 for general 
benevolence: that the Baldwin Chapel raised §15 from 18 com¬ 
municants and 27 probationers for current expenses: that the Chong 
Dong Presbyterian Church of 156 members “is now building a 
place of worship for itself entirely with native funds,” the full 
cost thus far, more that § 400, being paid by members, except 
§ 35 by other Koreans, while church members have themselves 
performed most of the manual labor of erecting the structure, giv¬ 
ing almost as much iu labor as in money, and at the same time 
raising 8 82 for current excuses and general benevolence: that 
the Kon Dong Kol Church of 43 members and 14 inquirers lias 
raised 825 or more for missionary work: that Chemulpo Church of 

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46 communicants and G1 probationers “owns its woman’s church 
building,” costing §44 of which three-fourths was paid by mem¬ 
bers. It owns also a parsonage, “purchased with money raised by 
the Korean Church,” and withal raised last year $65 for current 
expenses: that §orai Church of Chang Yun, numbering 26 mem¬ 
bers and a large but indefinite number of catechumens, last year 
built entirely its place of worship at a cast of more than $ 160 
beside much labor: that the 20 members and 82 catechumens of 
Sin An Po congregation support their pa«tor or “native teacher,” 
and have contributed §12 toward a building fund: that the East 
Cate Church of* Pyeng Yang have paid § 26.49 for current ex¬ 
cuses, §10.12 for missionary work, and §1.82 for other benevol¬ 
ence: that the 7 members and 4 catechumens of Ivon Syeng con¬ 
gregation have raised § 22, or half the cost of their church build¬ 
ing and paid all current expenses: that the Sa Chou jx>ople of 
Syoun An, counting 12 members and 31 catechumens, own their 
own church, for which they paid §24, and have raised §8.93 lor 
current expenses: in other words, that Korean believers have 
averaged more than §1 apiece in gifts to the Lord’s work. Are 
these rice Christians? 

-Vs we look back upon these summaries, what cause have we 
not to thank God for that which they indicate? Did any other 
mission field ever record such results at its decennial term? And 
vet these estimates are conservatively drawn. Ti e. fall short of 
the truth rather than exceed it, and the writer knows jersonally 
that in quite a number of cases figures have been cut down lest 
some should turn out not to be sincere inquirers. What presbytery 
or conference in Christian lands can show such a ratio ot annual in¬ 
crease, or such a proportion of gifts to personal means? A church 
of such promises, may we not expect that her next ten years will 
bring forth that by which the Ix>rd shall indeed astonish the 

C. C. Vinton, m. r>. 


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The Assassination of the Queen of Kokea. 


A T the time of the celebration of the mid Autumn Festival 
a row arose between ceitain troops in Soul and the Metropol¬ 
itan police forces. Oct. 6th. a further encounter occurred 
which resulted in the defeat of the police forces, and the follow¬ 
ing day the patrol boxes and police stations were deserted, the 
city being virtually in the hands of the military. The tmops 
who were raising the disturbance are a regiment which has l»een 
organized recently under the auspices of Japanese military offi¬ 
cers, largely out of material which had lavn already trained 
under foreign auspices and had reached a degree of efficiency. 
Tney number over 1000 men and were in command of Colonel 
Hong who in 1S82 rescued Her Majesty the Queen amid 
circumstances of the greatest danger, and l>eing regarded as a 
loyal adherent of the Royal Family had risen to this high and 
responsible position. The trouble lietween these troops and the 
police naturally gave rise to some concern hut no inkling of the 
real truth transpired outside the ranks of the conspirators. 

The Royal Talace was in the hands of the old guard un¬ 
der Col. Ilyon who in 1884 when Hoi Majesty's life was en¬ 
dangered had assisted her to escape in a similar manner to Cel. 
Hong. This Palace Guard however had for a few days past 
had its strength shamelessly sapped as if in preparation for an 
evil deed. Men were withdrawn from the Palace and their 
numbers greatly reduced. Arms and accoutrements were taken 
away and inferior and useless weopons substituted, and the 
supply of ammunition reduced to nil. Thus His Majesty’s de¬ 
fenses were withdrawn at the time he needed them most. On 
the afternoon of the 7th. the approaches to Her Majesty’s quar¬ 
ters were observed to lie open and unguarded,—a most unusual 
occurrence. Outside the Palaco bodies of the troops who hod 
been rioting were observed moving about, and marching from 
place to place in the vicinity of the Palace. Though no special 
significance was attached to it the fact was noted and com¬ 
mented on inside the Palace. 

’ G< ? ? le _ 

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The Palace is situated in the northern fart of the city and 
consists of a large area surrounded by a fine wall 12 feet or so 
high inclosing a perfect labyrinth of buildings. About one third 
of a mile in from the main entrance, measuring in a direct line 
lies a small lake or pond, back of which is a foreign residence often 
occupied by His Majesty, whose usual apartments are alongside 
but juit beyond. Her Majesty the Queen’s apartments are to the 
cast of these buildings but immediately adjoining, and having 
still further to the east a pine grove of about five acres. Pacing 
tine lake but to the left of it are the quarters of the officers of 
tl)e Koyal Guard. All these buildings are close to the western 
outer wall of the Palace which is pierced by agate 200 yards be¬ 
low the lake, this gate being guarded by a squad of troops. 

The approach to the main entrance to the Palace is via a 
magnificent road a third of a mile long, 300 feet wide and flanked 
on both side by the quarters of the various ministries of State. 
As you come out of the Palace, immediately to the right are large 
barracks now occupied by a battalion of Japanese troops. 

Throughout the night of the 7th. inet. some uneasiness was 
felt in the Palace, for the insurgent troops continued marching 
and countermarching until they could be found on all sides of the 
Palace. At 4 a. m. on the 3th. came the fust serious alarm. The 
cry was raised that the Palace was being attacked, and the officers 
of the Palace Guard rushed from their quartern most of them to 
His Majesty’s residence, some of them to the various pests. 
Nothing however transpired at this time, but a body of Japanese 
soldiers were discoverd outside the west wall of tlie Palace in 
the vicinity of the Gate near the little lake. The condition of 
affairs in the meantime was communicated Col. Hong who 
mounting bis horse hastened from the Palace to notify the Min¬ 
ister of War. When Hong reached the Palace on bis return 
he found the Main entrance surrounded by his troops massed 
in front of the Japanese barracks.. What happened we do not 
as yet know in detail. The Colonel ordered the troops to dis¬ 
perse or return to their barracks. He was fired at, eight shots 
taking effect, and also cut up in a horrible manner with swords. 

This was the signal for a rush on the Palace. The Gates 
were forced the Guards fleeing without dichargeing a gun and 
the white coated insurgent soldiers who had surround¬ 
ed the Palace swarmed in from every direction. A small 
squad of Japanese troops numbering possibly 15 soon made 

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their appearance on the west side ol the little lake close to His 
Maesty's quarters and before tlie-.n came a fleeing rout of Guards, 
Palace servants and runnel's,—in fact the rout came Hying from 
every direction. An attempt was made to rally the fleeing troops 
and alnnit 1*20 massed the i.selves in a small alleyway. Hut they 
wjre too excited and scared to maintain order or to pay attention to 
commands. In the confusion, one soldier in loading his rifle had it 
go off accidentally, and this was the signal for a general fusillade 
the soldiers firing promiscouslv, the shots taking affect only on 
their own men, 7 or 8 of whom were either killed or wounded. 
Soon alter the appearance of the Japanese troops on the west 
si le of tli* lake another company was discovered approaching 
alon ' the east side of the lake, followed by the rioting troops 
who now »iia le their appearance for the first ti ne and were ac- 
eompai ie 1 by Japanese in civilian dress, many of whom were 
armed R 'aching the entrance to the immediate quarters of 
His Majesty the Japmese troops took possession stationing 
guards of their own men at all the approaches to His Ma esty. 
T;ie white coated Korean troops wore drawn up in front of the 
enclosure containing the buildings in which the King was pres¬ 
ent, but were excluded. 

Just at the loginning of the alarm sounds as of the smash¬ 
ing in of a gate were heard in Her Majesty's quarters, and later 
on the reports of two shots were heard, betas to what really 
transpire 1, there are many conflicting reports. Hut a ready en¬ 
trance hal been found and a mad search for Her Majesty, the 
Queen, began Ruffians, probably soshi who seemed to have 
joinel the insurgent troops led the way. The report is that 
they seized women by the hair of the heal and dragged thorn 
about to make them lead the way to Her Majesty. But the 
hlioly work was done in one of “those two storied structures 
w’ ere it is now admitted the Queen had taken refuge. Here 
was found the Minister -of the Royal Household Yi 
Kydng-jik, who was cut down and killel. In the upper 
story a numlrerof ladies were found anl the first one. to be 
seiz d was the Crown Princess who was dragged about by the 
hair, beaten, wounded with a sword and thrown down the 
stairs. It was difficult to discover which one among the women 
was the Que°n and in the hope’of making sure work four \vu •- 
men were brutally murdered. A Palace maid says one of them 
was Her Majesty, and that she was knocked down, tvam]>elle<l 

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and jumped upon and finally dispatched by the sword. For hours 
even days after the shocking news reached the foreign communi¬ 
ty it was refused credence. It seemed too inhuman and devilish 
to >3 true. But this hope has proved baseless and it is now, Oct. 
14th. generally believed that Her Majesty the Queen is no more. 

So neti ne during the night the guard of the Prince-Parent 
(the Tai Won Kun) at the river were startled by a call to open 
the gat3S and admit a visitor. This was refused, when without 
any more ado a window was burst in and Japanese sos/ii sprang 
in amid the frightened guard. These latter were overpowered 
and an entrance forced in to the Prince-Parent’s apartments. 
He soon appeared accompanied by his visitors, and the rest of 
the party having deprived the police guard of their uniforms, 
dressed themselves in them and started for Soul. When they 
reached the Palace they were further accompanied by Japanese 
regulars acting as a guard of honor. The Prince-Parent was 
then installed in power and the two following proclamations 
posted in public places. 

The first Proclamation reads as follows: 

" At present the national power is endangered and the hearts of the 
people dissolve thro the presence in the Palace of a crowd of base fellows. 
The abuses of the past are being revived. The laws are in disorder and the 
dignity of His Majesty is violated. The government stands in imminent 
danger and the people are in distress like unto a furnace tire. So the Nation¬ 
al Grand Duke is returned to power to inaugurate changes, expel the base 
fellows, restore former laws and vindicate the dignity of His Majesty. He 
returns to power to insure national peace, and to quiet the alarm of the people. 
This is all; so this proclamation is published. Therefore all are exhorted to 
follow their ordinary vocations and feel no alarm. 

8th. Moon 20th. Day. (Oct. 9th.) 

Sigtted Committee on National Independence. 

The second Proclamation reads: 

“Nowadays low fellows interfere with the royal glory, drive away men 
of integrity, substituting inferiority, so that that which would benefit the nation 
fails on the path to accomplishment. A nation of 500 years is run into dang¬ 
er in a single morning. 1 was l orn of the Royal Family and cannot bear 
the sight of such doings. I have now entered the Palace to aid His Majesty, 
expel the low fellows, perfect that which will be a benefit, save the country 
and intro .luce ^peace. Everyone should attend to their usual affairs and feel 
no alarm. Those who now interfere with me will have cause to repent 
of it. 

Signed National Grand Duke (Prince-Parent.) 

His Highness still r* nains with His Majesty to help him 
g v le a*Ttirs at this juncture. 

We were awakened by the report of firing in the direction of 

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the Palace about five a. m. This was the useless and disastrous 
fusillade of the remnant of the Palace G uard that attempted to 
rally near His Majesty's residence. We hastened to the vicinity 
of the Palace and found the great street leading to the main en¬ 
trance crowded with people numbering fully 1U.000. The gieat 
front Gate was guarded by .Japanese troops, and more could al¬ 
so be discerned inside. A surging crowd of Koreans could be 
seen at the far end of the great rectangle just it side the Great 
Gate and among them were some Palace women, Only two 
were jiermitted to pass out and they were voundel Koreans 
who were carried out by their fellows. About seven o'clock the 
guards were changed, the white coated fellows wl o had by this 
time cleaned the Palace of the old guards, taking the place of 
the Japanese at the Gate, though the latter remained insile 
the Palace. 

About 9.3G A. M. as we turned into the great Palnce road 
leading to the main entrance, on a second visit to the scene, the 
crowd of Koreans appeared not to numlrer more than 4,000. The 
first object to catch our eyes was a Japanese coolie dragging a 
cart otr w’hich was a mass covered with matting. Four infantry 
men with fixed bayonets guarded it, while just I'eliind marched 
a platoon of infantry in heavy marching order. It was proceed¬ 
ing towards the southern part of the city. From time to time 
small bodies of Japanese troops passed us marching from the direc¬ 
tion of the Palace, and when we arrived at the main Gate we dis¬ 
covered that some of them came from the interior of the Palace, 
while others came from the barracks atxrve alluded to as occupied 
bv Japanese troops. The centei and east entrances of the great 
Palace Gate were barricaded: at the wo6t entrance a double line 
of the w-bite coated Koreans kept guard with fixed boyonets. A 
constant stream of straggling Koreans was pouring out. They 
were probably the last of the old Palace Guard. They bad 
throwm-off their uniforms and hidden their arms; everyone of 
them as he came to the Gate was seized and searched 1 before he 
was permitted to pass out, 

The first of the diplomats to arrive at the Palace was Vis¬ 
count Miura, who was soon followed by Mr. Waeber and Dr. 
Allen. The}' all had an immediate audience with His Majesty, 
who was found in company with the Prince-Parent. Through¬ 
out the morning of the 9th. nothing of note happened. Humors 
were constantly flying about but the Korean people seemed to 

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be impervious to any impression one way or the other. When 
interrogated they said it was a quarrel of the aristocracy, some 
of whom were getting killed and many others were fleeing,— 
it did not concern the people. Yi Wan Yong Minister, of Edu¬ 
cation; An Kyong Su, Minister of War and Yi Yun Yong, Min¬ 
ister of Police were dismissed from their posts, and the two lat¬ 
ter ordered to be arrested. An Ky&ng Su was found and con¬ 
fined to his house; Yi Wan Yong escaped. For the offices thus 
made vacant Cho Heui Yon was returned to the War Ministry, and 
also ordered to act as Supt.-General of Police. So Kwang Pom, 
Minister of Jusice was ordered to act also as Minister of Educa¬ 
tion. A number of high officials sought safety in flight. 

The Official Gazette of Oct. lith. contained the following 
edict of deposition of the Queen. It is based on the supposit.on 
that she is still alive, but is unsigned by His Majesty. When 
this paper was presented for Royal signature, the king refused 
to touch it very properly affirming he would rather have his 
hand cut off than affix his signature to such an edict. 


It is now thirty-two years since We ascended the Throne, but Our 
ruling intiuence has not yet extended wide. The Queen Min introduced her 
relatives to the Court and placed them alxnit Our person, whereby she made 
dull Our senses, exposed the people to extortion, put Our government in dis¬ 
order, selling offices and titles. Hence tyranny prevailed all over the coun¬ 
try and robbers arose in all quarters. Under these circumstances the founda¬ 
tion of Our dynasty w as in imminent peril. We knew'the extreme of her 
wickedness, but could not dismiss and punish her because of helplessness 
and fear of her party. 

We desire to stop and suppress her influence. In the Twelfth Moon of last 
year We took an oath at Our Ancestral Shrine that the Queen, and her rela¬ 
tives and Ours should never again be allowed to interfere in State affairs. We 
hoped this would lead the Min faction to mend their ways. But the Queen 
did not give up her wickedness, but with her party aided a crowd of low fel¬ 
lows to rise up about us, and so managed as to prevent the Ministers of State 
front consulting us. Moreover they have forged Our signature to a decree 
to disband our loyal soldiers thereby instigating and raising a disturbance, and 
when it occurred she escaped as in the ImO year. We have endeavored to 
discover her whereabouts but as she does not come forth and appear we are 
convinced that she is not only unfitted and unworthy of the Queen’s rank, 
but also that her guilt is excessive and brimfull. Therefore with her We 
may not succeed to the glory of the Royal Ancestry. So we hereby depose 
her from the rank of Queen and reduce her to the level of the lowest class. 

Signed by 

Yi Chai Myon, Minister of Royal Household. 

Kim Hong Chip, Prime Minister. 

Kim Yun Sik, Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

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I’ak Chong Yang, Minister for Home A fairs. 

Shim Sang Hun, Minister for Finance. 

Cho Heui Yon, Minister for War. 

So Kwang Tom, Minister for Justice. 

So Kwang Tom, Acting Minister for Kducation. 

Chong P)6ng Ha, Vice Minister, for Agricultwc Ccn n.crcc. 

This edict has leen revoked however by a further one issu¬ 
ed the following dny in which Bcr Mojisly w; s “la.’std ” to tl <• 
rank of Concubine of the Fiist Order. This was explained in 
the edict to be issued out of pity for IIis Royal Highness the 
Crown Prince and as a rew ard for his deep devotion to his 

Upon the news reaching Japan the Imperial Government 
immediately and emphatically disavowed all knowledge and 
connection of these deeds. It npioirted Mr. J. Komura, Direc¬ 
tor of the Diplomatic Bureau, and also one other gentleman 
special commissioners, to proceed to Korea and with Viscount 
Miura thoroughly investigate the wl ole matter. The two Com¬ 
missioners from Japan reached Soul the evening of Oct. 15tb. 
The Japanese Consular authorities have caused the arrest of 
fifteen soslti and hold them for investigation. An exodus < asy 
to understand, under the circumstances, of certain characters, 
lias taken place. It is hoped that none of the guil'y are among 

“she hath done wiiat she <Ol U>.” 

A Korean girl, a memlx*r of the Kwa sehool this eity, died 
last month In the Woman’s Hospital. Six or seven years ago she 
was enrolled a member, and nfter attending the sehool awhile, she 
went home during one of the vacations. The mother with a 
heartlcsness ns unimaginable as it was uncalled for, sold her as a 
slave and the teachers in the school found her running the streets 
following the closely covered chair of her mistress. .Soon she was 
taken sick and her owner finding the investment unprofitable, was 
ready to sell here again to the sehool for the amount spent in med¬ 
icines. Thus redeemed she came back once more to the Ewa school 
and for several years was a comparatively well child and made 
good progress in her studies. She became a Christian and led a 
beautiful, quiet life before her companions. 

About a year ago she was taken sick, which soon developed 

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into hip-joint disease. She was moved to the children's ward in 
the hospital. (When Bishop Mallalieu visited Korea in 1892 he 
took with him some embroidered Korean thimbles, sold them and 
with the receipts built the children’s wards.) For over nine 
month * thro the cold of winter, the bloom of spring and the heat 
of summer she was confined to her bed, unable to move without 
help and always in great pain. When we began to talk of build¬ 
ing the new church and opened the subscription list she too was 
interested and wanted to do something. But what could she do ? 
She could not sweep rooms, she could not run errands, she could 
not even sit up. But on her back her willing hands plied the 
peedle and thimbles and book majrks beautifully embroidered 
came forth from the sick room. They were sold and the money 
received carefully consecrated to the “new church,” “our church.” 
The wear}' days dragged slowly on, but the thin pale hands were 
not idle unless the body was in too great pain to stand the work. 
The 9th. of Sept, came when we laid the corner-stone of the 
church, The girls in the school were invited to attend, a tent 
having been put up for them to protect them from the gaze of the 
men. The patient, industrious little sufferer would come too; 
the strong arms of the out-door men bore her cot carefully and 
placed it in the very front where she could see and hear. And 
she w»s worthy of a front place for by her zeal and devotion she 
contributed over 12,000 cash or the full pay of a grown person for 
a month. When the service was over, exhausted by the excite¬ 
ment of the occasion and by the pain incident to the moving, she 
closed her weary eyes and said to one of the teachers. “ Now let 
me go to Jesus.” 

She was carried back to the ward, faithful nurses attended her 
from day to day, but her mind was looking forward to that “house 
not made with hands.” Feeling a little stronger one day, she 
called for the few things that belonged to her personally, and then 
remembered each of her school-mates with a book or a pict ure 
card. Martha, herself once an inornate of the hospital but well 
now, bestowed a mother’s care and love upon the suffering 
patient, received the scissors, the thimble and the rings, long since 
too large for the emaciated fingers; Mary was given the beautiful 
New Testament sent from America by her patron and to our own 
girl was sent a small roll from which the silk was wound to do 
the embroidery. Her teachers, her schoolmates, her friends were 
all remembered with a kind wish. This nine days before she 

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died. On Sept 21, her wLs'i was granted and the sweet spirit 
“went to Jesus.” At the funeral two days later, little woi»der 
there was not a dry eye among her friends and playmates. A 
slave girl! One of the King’s daughters 1 “ She hath done what 
she could.” Is it any wonder some of as feel that we must finish 
the work of building the church begun by those who gave so 
much to it. 

Tiik Decennial Anniversary. 

Tho Decennial Anniversary of the founding of Protestant 
missions in Korea was observed in Seoul Oct. 9, 10, and 11. A 
joint committee of the several missions consisting of Rev. G. H. 
Jones, Chairman: Mrs. M. F. Scranton, Miss Ellen Strong, Revs. 
D. L. Gifford, F. S. Miller and H. B. Hulbert prepared the fol¬ 
lowing programme which was carried out in every part with the 
exception of the banquet on Thursday evening. On account of 
the assault on Her Majesty, the Queen, the bunquet very properly 
was omitted. 


Wednesday 9 a.m. 

Chairman, Rev. D. L. Gifford. 

Thanksgiving service, conducted by Rev. S. F. Moore. 
Historical Adress, H. N. Allen, m.d. 

Historical Paper of the Methodist Mission Rev. W. B. Scran¬ 
ton, M. D. 

Historical Paper of the Presbyterian Missions North and South, 
H. G. Underwood, D. D. 

Memoir of J. W. Heron, M. d. by Rev. D. L. Gifford. 

Memoir of Rev. J. H. Davies, by Rev. I). A. Bunker. 

Memoir of Rev. W. J. Hall, M. D. by Rev. II. G Appenzeller. 
Memoir of Rev. W. J. McKenzie, by Rev. H. G. Jones. 


Wednesday, 2.30 r. m. 

Chairman, Rev. G. II. Jones. 

Addresses, by T. H. Yun, Esq., H. K. Kim, Rev. H. G. Un¬ 
derwood, D. D. and Rev. II. G. Appenzeller. 

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Thursday 9 a.m. 

Clmirman, Mrs. M. F. Scranton. 

Duct, Mrs. Hulbert and Miss Strong. 

Scripture Reading, Miss Paine. 

Historical Paper of the Woman’s Society of the Presbyterian 
Mission Mrs. H. G. Underwood. 

Historical Paper of the Woman’s Foreign Missionary Society 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Mrs. M. F. Scranton. 
Paper “The Relation of the Wives of Missionaries to Mission¬ 
ary Work, Mrs. W. M. Baird. 

Response, Mrs H. G. Appenzeller. 

Paper, “Wherein do our methods of work differ from those of 
Christ and His Apostles? What is the justification for 
this difference?” Miss L. C. Rothweiler. 

Response, Mrs. D. L. Gifford. 


Thursday 2.20 p. m. 

Chairman, Rev. W. M. Baird. 

Devotional Exercises were led by Rev. C. E. Pauling. 
Spirituality of the native Church. 

Rev. H. G. Underwood, D. d. 

J. B. Busteed, M. D. 

Weaknesses and Difficulties. 

Rev. S. A. Moffett. 

Rev. H. B. Hulbert. 

Statistics, C. C. Vinton, M. d. 

Literature, Rev. J. S. Gale. 

Rev. G. H. Jones. 

The same general snbject was discussed on Friday at 2, 30 p. m. 
Rev Dr. Underwood, Chairman. 

Instruction, Rev. D. L. Gifford. 

Rev. W. M. Baird. 

Native Ministry, Rev. H. G. Appenzeller. 

Rev. W. D. Reynolds. 

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Uoa t jo « g*rr- m-s. 33*7 j* i uiai in im liner JLiter the re&i- 

mc it ni^ 7 mD*r. He rra^mc T’/'-v ini: ~Pr»i^e (Jud iruiL 

fnum 4u it/w"* ji ^^piicua it He j^«J work begun 

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rar ne jpiniun HT1OMU17 i-nmt in He "**Ktwn Christian 

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m TiiiEHiav 3J«iTTuinc He na-rrs: ewuaxnafiHL TV Ls^piration 
:rMn xJ ae :n**^iixr^ ranxn/t jar je jfcd-c. ^oCwitV 
-ontiing He Hiumi/ic^ Hm^ hpjuioi vaiea we irw pa^imr, thr 
amrrnie^ inline sn^i/ns :a i rrat 11x1x7 v*H oquiur xt tbe begii>- 
Hxnr* it Heir v-ins. iere. if jr _f Heir; /u*r nxorfiX nx>ir 

jrjimxieixr Hua -iimcier x was- cast JH17 x Here i>y'rTziag had 
Hia? ar Tefcn nxaie. 

mu rxe -uumr~ n—— 

jc .7. nv: m n Jlatse J^rrs^—ic rmn Miiix we rxrii 

x ~ .^.n ;e .-ent a 7e-'— 

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rrrr-..*ru . Trc -i.i. str ji -*^ca he » aod cs 

cm .n«^ « 4 a* ’. 

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- r i n jl ::e r:u a —=c x--nn -Xw nc r^iumi^ -z* 

■ ^~u«..<c».a.^‘j «nu 

Zr. 7. xai. iir»* t.* *• c. rt ir?m r^r s^ nmg brnne ce 

He .* 7 * *er *1 ix. * j^er.rr^ -**~n lie ^v.vcranedi. rn^pai, "XST 

3Dnr..’_ r^czi aU^u’4 ne iir.e .1 uc'jx^u. 

~V':n 7t. ur* . :: f n * r . 7 ****' ire -.a ji 7 Tenner. %c enure be TiMtacn 
■fi 2 i Uc * a ,ria7 7--..U7ir^n %.: - %.r.,e ^ irwf^ vrren *nx xur 

n * il iHia x ^ r .c,u .axnLe -x ^/.rn, c xnuxr^. 

T'ic 5TT7 r ' n ne ’.^:-.r:tr-e --et^cmeTr: -m :<rir^ -e%^re?i ami t h g n g 
;erti: jz \ Ccccl 7;c x^_n ^rwt fi V* Icjttvj, Jti ‘tie x^uii 

^ue £re=i u^re ire x 7^ a _^ec rvuns> mng vh ^ues- n ire 


Mcx u whix ziai^ 2e «n -tx ±e Kiecs. ^ hacFe aot ran a 

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any arrests and indulge the hope that the day may not be far removed when 
a man will be permitted to wear what pleases him without dictation from 
the government. t 

Speaking of the Chinese, we notice they are returning to Korea in large 
numbers and reopening their shops. Hawkers and peddlers are dispensing 
their goods in the foreign settlements and on the principal streets. The 
"Ghazee" in her trip near the end of last month, it is said, brought over 7000 ( 
packages of goods to Chemulpo. 

It invariably occurs to us, notw ithstanding the lapse of some four or 
five years, when walking on the city wall back of the extensive grounds of 
the French Commissionaire to ask by what authority about one half of the 
lop of the wall was fenced in as property of the French Government? We 
always supposed the city wall, top and all, belonged to the city and could 
not be purchased. 

The annual Meeting of the Southern Presbyterian Mission was held 
on the 19th. and 20th. of September. The Rev. L. B. Tate presided. This 
mission was founded in the fall of 1892 and its members during the last year 
did considerable travelling in the southern provinces. Miss. Tate spent 
several weeks in Chun Chu, the capital of the Chulla province, being the first 
lady to visit that city. 

Among other arrivals by the steamer 11 Ghazte' was Ex-Premier and Court 
Favorite, Min Yung Jun. His presence outside the gates of Seoul was an¬ 
nounced in the Palace on Sept. 24th. He did not enter the city. Many 
called to pay their respects to their late chief, but for reasons of his own he 
refused to see them, and after a few day's rest, went to the home of his 
father in the country'. 

We have the following from a reliable Korean source. There are thirty 
Korean brick layers in the city, of whom only three are skilled in the trade. 
They charge two yen and fifty sen to lay a thousand bricks. Chinese brick¬ 
layers two yen a thousand and w ill lay the thousand while the Koreans lay 
only seven hundred. The Koreans must wake up or they will be driven to 
the wall in labor as well as in business. 

A Public Library for Seoul! It is needed. The Koreans are seeking 
knowledge. The Library should have books in Chinese and Unmoun first 
and laler books in the English, Japanese and other languages might be 
added. We make the suggestion and shall be pleased to be used as a 
medium either for discussing the project or for receiving contributions. The 
Library is intended primarily for the Koreans. Who will make a start? 

The “GJuizee" brought from China to Chemulpo Sept. 23rd. the Com- 
mi s’on of the Transportation Department of the Field Meseum, Chicago. 
Mr. \\ llliam H. Jackson visited Seoul the following day. The object of his 
visit was presented to the King, who promptly opened all the buildings and 
grounds in the Palace to Mr. Jackson who was thus enabled to secure some 
tine photographic views. On the 25th. Mr. Jackson left Seoul for Wonsan 
overland to join the Commission there again. 

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The island of Wol-ung Do, <lesc:ihed by Mr. Morsel on another page 
is well known lo Koreans and has an interesting history. The fertility of 
the island made it famous, for we are told that "bamboo grew to twice the 
size it grew on the main land, while the peaches were so large that the pits 
were divided and wine cups made from the two parts.* 1 The island 
was inhabited by a people as wild and lawless as they were superstitious. 
Various attempts were made to subdue the fierce dwellers in this island, 
but they all ended in failure. At last in the days of Silla, >7 So Poo, more 
brave and ingenious than his predecessors hit upon a device which may be 
compared favorably with the wooden horse strategy of ancient Troy. He 
played upon the fears and superstitions of the savages. Before sailing, so 
the legend runs, he had a large number of wooden sea-lions made. Ap 
proaching the island be uncaged the fierce beasts and quietly dropped them 
into the water. He then harangued the people, pointed to the sea full of lions 
and threatened them that unless they submitted immediately and surrender¬ 
ed unconditionally the angry' beasts would be turned loose upon them. The 
articles of surrender were drawn up at once, signed and YVolung Do be¬ 
came one of the islands over which His Majesty holds sway. 

So nc time during the present dynasty, perhaps after the Japanese in¬ 
vasion, for reasons unknown to the inhabitants they were all moved from 
the island to the shore. Once in three years an inspection was ordered to 
see that the law was enforced. 

Recently the edict was revoked and in order to encourage emigration 
thither, the taxes are remitted, The place however has a bad reputation — 
it is infested by rats and to exterminate the vermin each citizen is urged to 
catch ten rats every year and report to the government. 

The camphor wood obtained on this island is very highly esteemed by 
Koreans and is used in offering sacrifices more extensively than that brought 
from any other place. 

The following communication was sent up for publication from Wonsan 
by reliable persons. We regret exceedingly the occurrences related below, 
but give them all the publicity we can in the hope that the recurrence may 
he made more difficult if not impossible. 

"On the last day of the 7th. Moon a Korean by the name of Pai was 
cutting fuel near the dwelling of the Catholic priest, when the owner ordered 
him to go away. Because the man did not go at once, the priest who had 
a shot-gun fired upon and seriously wounded the Korean. One shot passed 
thro the right arm near the elbow and another wounding deeply the left lcj^ 
a little below the knee. The man evidently was in a stooping position. Not 
satisfied with this display of barbarity, the offender resented all inquiry by 
the Korean authorities. The Chief of Police on calling to ascertain of w hat 
offence Pai had been guilty was not only ordered away but was first strnclc 
by the priest and then beaten by a hand of Korean Christians w ho had ap¬ 
parently been summoned to strengthen the hands of their spiritual adviser. 

"The Chief of Police succeeded in escaping from their hands at the 
priest’s house, but was followed by both the priest and his adherents to the 
police station in the native town where he w^as again severely beaten. 

"The wounded man w'as taken to Dr, McGill’s hospital and at last re¬ 
ports was doing w ell but his recoveJy is by no means assured. The poor 
fellow had been in Wonsan but a short time and says he did not know that 

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foreigner lived in the neighborhood and that he was fired upon immedi¬ 
ately after being shouted at in words he did not understand. That the man 
was not killed or mortally wounded was not due to the * nr.allness of the 
shot used, but only to the fact that tho^ uking ef cct did rot chance to 
strike a vital part 

“About two months ago the priest above refuted to together wi h am 
other priest living in the district of An P)un was c< mrg into Woman whin 
the latter ordeied a boy to stf p smoking in his pierence. He vmtireda 
rep’y ai d was be ten first by the priest’s groom and afterwards by the priest 
himse f for his so-talcd insolence. 1 hi I oy has since died as the result of 
injuries then received. <The Superintendent of Tndc said to a foreign re¬ 
sident of Wonsan that the beating surpassed an)thing he had ever seen 
among Koreans. Editors K. R.) 

•• If there were the only of ences of these priests, most of us would proba¬ 
bly be si w to believe but that the facts of these occurrences, as above 1 elated, 
had been misunderstood and therefoie misupresented. It is comn only re¬ 
ported that the offender in tbe second c a* c is in the habit of beating Koreans 
often without the least prove cation and at least two instances of >uch mis¬ 
conduct, to speak very mildly, have teen witnessed by fore ; gn residents at 

Through the courtesy of Gen. LeGendre we were privileged to ex; mine 
briefly. 14 Bibliographie Careen* Tableau Liltrraire de la Coree ” \ ol. i, 
by Maurice Courant, interpreter de la Legation dc France a Tokyo. This is 
i\ valuable work for scholars and we hope to give our readers a review of it 
soon. In the meantime students will not make a mistake if they secure the 

Seoul has been honored with distinguished visitors of late. Mr. and 
Mrs. Alexander Keumure arrived Oct. 7 ; Mr. Kenmure is agent of the 
British and Foreign Bible Society and we have pleasure in announcing that 
he intends to remain in Seoul several months. Rev. Ji. Loomis, agent of the 
American Bible Society for Japan and Korea peached here Oct- 9 

The Rev. E. R. Hendrix, D. n. Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South and the Rev. C. F Reid, D. n., of Shanghai arrived on the 
1 ith. inst. The river steamer on w hich they took passage from Chemulpo ran 
on a sand bar. Under the leadership of Rev. W M. Junkin the visitors at¬ 
tempted to come overland to Seoul—some twenty miles. This long tri.inp, 
however, did not keep the Bishop from preaching an eloquent and powerful 
sermon to the foreigners the next day. The subject was on working togeth¬ 
er with God. The Bishop has kindly consented to have the discourse put 
into Korean and we hope to publish it in tract form. 

Col. Cockcrill, representative of The A ew York Herald , also arrived 
about thc»a:ne time, 

Just as we make up the final form we learn that His Majesty has con¬ 
ferred the rank of Fan So upon Gen. C. W. Le Gendrc, This is the position 
of President of a metropolitan Board and is we believe the first time a 
foreigner has been honored w ith this high rank. 

One of the very few foreigners w ho has seen the Great Lake mentioned by 
Mrs. Gifford in the August Repository, is Major Goold-Adams. who gives a 
most interesting account of his visit to Old White Head (Paik tu san) in the 
Repository for 1892. We reproduce here his most interesting description of 

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the Lake. M At 12.30 A. M. after an arduous climb of 2700 feet the summit 
(of Paik-tu-san) was reached. The last 1000 feet was very steep and the 
climbing hard as our feet sank in the crumbling pumice which forms the 
side, and the color of which gives the mountain its name. About 100 feet 
below the summit we found ourselves between two jagged peaks, on the 
edge of an immense lake, two and half a miles in diameter and circular in 
shape. It conies so suddenly in view that one is almost startled. The en¬ 
tire lake presents itself during the last half dozen steps of the way. # * 

* * The height of the mountain according to the aneroid is 8900 feet * # * 
The sun was shining brightly and the wind was strong and bitterly cold, but 
in snite of it the surface of the lake was w ithout the slightest ripple so far 
(^50 fect)‘is ft below the crater, for of course the mountain is an extinct 
volcano, which at one time in ages past must have been very active. The 
water of the lake is of a deep blue color and but for the steepness of the sur¬ 
rounding rdeks iind their crumbling nature some of the water might have 
been procured for analysis.** 

This would give the lake an altitude of over 8000 feet above the sea 
level, not 2500 as is stated by Dr. Griffis in his reference to it 

The post Office is loaded down with employes that would kill any insti¬ 
tution that cancels even more than 40 letters a day. There arc four Japanese 
“Advisers** drawing 100, 80, 60, 30 yen a month. Then there are twelve 
Koreans attached, not counting the carriers of w hom there are 13. These draw 
from 10 to 12 vena month while the carriers receive 7 yen. The service has 
extended to Song Do and to Su Won, the carriers here receive 1 5 yen per 
month. The aim we fear is not to make the sen ice effective as to give rank 
and an easy berth to a large number of men. 

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Residents in the interior and outports 
can depend on getting the whole of their 
requirements QUICKLY forwarded 
carefully packed and at equally low 
prices as if imported from home. A 
specialty is made of obtaining all 
goods not in stock and attending to 


Whymark, Kobe 

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T. WEEKS & Co. 


Telegraphic address "Weeks. Shanghai." 

Sole agents in Shanghai for 
The Celebrated “K” boots & Shoes. 

The Singer Sewing Machines. 

E. C. Burt & Co. New York. 

Brown’s Satin Boot Polish. 

Dr. Jaeger’s Woolen Clothing. 

Automatic Knitting Machine. 

The Cellular Clothing Co. 


S. D. 


Baker and Compradorc 

□a, m saaaasasQ, cmaasm 

Fresh Supplies by every Mail Boat. The most reduce] 
prices quoted. Goods when ordered from the interior or 
elsewhere will be carefully packed. Packing free of charges. 

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3A(?aa mni aowsamaa. 

Published Every Morning, Sundays and Holidays excepted. 


(Payable in Advance) 

One Month ... Si.oo One Year ... $10.00 

Postage Free throughout Japan and Korea. 

THE DAILY ADVERTISER his a larger circulation than 
any other daily paper published in the English language in Jap¬ 
an, and is therefore without a rival is an advertising medium. 
Rates on application to the undersigned. 



Consisting of from 24 to 32 pp., 

Published Every Saturday Morning. 


(Payable in Advance) 

Six Months ... $3.00 One Year ... $5.00 

Postage Free Throughout Japan and Korea. 


■JiVLD 11)343 3Vi)47 

FOB lB'ji, 


of Firms, etc., in Japan, Korea and Wladivostock; Japan¬ 
ese Government Departments; The Peerage of Japan; 


Alphabetical List of Foreign Residents in Japan, Korea and 
Wladivostock, and an 

Appendix of Useful Information, 

With Lithographed Plan of Yokohama. 


Publishers and Proprietors, 

No. 49, Yokohama, Japan. 

Original from 




i f 

> . / 

X J , S w J . 

';''/ cj." 


/ ' ✓ , f ' 

/ - 

, y / /- ✓ s '* ' 

' .T'j. # 

/ J 

- ^ 

, J. . . ■ i . M- 


V ' ' 

v ✓ J 

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^ ^ n f 


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/ ' J / ‘ 

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v /> ;v; 7 r . 


‘ to 

i: b, 

urd on qua, 

oeriGze of 


h ! I'O'JlTORYi and forward 



a:, noon as 

possible to 

j. vv. hodge, 

Ion '\i h Church Mission Press 

Nak Tong, Seoul. 

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Importers of _ 

Pure Drugs, Chemicals, Chemical and Photo- ; 
graphic Apparatus and Scientific Instru- 

ments of all Kinds. 

- • » * * * * 

Manufacturers of 

Aerated Waters. 

N@. 0 TUE 

Shanghai. • 

Orders from outports promptly attended to. 

Go gle 


Religious Tract*Society 


I>isft)jre»E ok Salvation. 

Bibi.e Catechism. 

„ „ CHIXJ>E. 

^ "^1 l] Peep of Day. 

Salient Doctrinfx. 

^ -T 1 ^ -?T Two Friends. 

Great Themes. 

Guide to Heaven. 


^ Leading the Family. 
Law and Gospel. 

Seven Blessings. 

'he True Saviour. 












C. C. Vinton, m. d., Custodian, 


Rev. W. M. Baird, Custodian, Fusan. 

W. B. McQifl, M.D. ,, Wonsan. 

Rev. S. A. Moffett, „ Pyeng Yang. 


NOVEMBER, 1895 . 


I approach the subject with reverence. Whatever may be the 
weak points of Confucianism, it has given the Korean his con¬ 
ception of duty and his standard of morality. My pur¬ 
pose is not to discuss the system from the stand-point of a 
philosopher—which I don’t pretend to be — but as a Korean 
who lias paid some attention to its practical results. A brief 
outline of the life of Confucius may not be out of place here. 

He was born in 550 B. c. Loo, which was in his time a 
small dukedom in north-eastern China, enjoys the honor of hemp 
his birth place. Even in childhood the future sage was remark¬ 
able for his sagacity, love of knowledge and for filial piety. At 
the age of 19 he married. From this time on we find three dis¬ 
tinct periods in his life. 

The first period extends from 530 t o 495 b. c- During this 
time he travelled through different states in the hope of per¬ 
suading princes to adopt his system of politics. Upright was his 
character, pure were his motives, wise were his plaus. Not¬ 
withstanding these noble qualities, nay, on account of these very 
qualities, he was rejected wherever he went. 

The second period is from 495_ta.4S2 £.c. Finding that 
he could not reform the princes, TuTdevoted his time in this per¬ 
iod, to instructing his disciples who came to him from all parts of 
the country. The last five years which we may call the 3rd. 
period of this noble, but in some respects, sad career were given 
to the revision of the classics of China. He died at the age of 
73 having survived his wife and an only son. 

Confucius wrote no books of his own. He only revised and 
systematized the maxims of morality and politics handed down 
to him from the sages of ancient China. His principles are set 
forth in the conversations his disciples collected in a book called 
Discourses and Conversation. Here we find that he was a 

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r »>-■.< v»■ * s K r .! 

V: :t; : . v, ; • -. 
rn . v. : *.■: ;v* r~ > 

t; * I >» '. S '— ’ C 

der:i ^ 

to vir •- * r . i 
• r dt:i % , ■ * • .* r r 

At : ■ *. * » * 

tLe !m * ' • • , 

wcrs r . * 

and : s * - - ~ - * 

c.: virvirs • i mar; 

i.5 K*ir u t l *• of all 

► w rv : is ei: x:i»i 

t *. .ir a t rat Lor 
i s: *:♦ 

.' . *. . s !! .t i i neexl into 
j : t:.-- ancient 
* * W. : wi o lived 

■ 17 .: : IM *1 a V. 

t r L: S S i.f tLv 

: t - t ityr.astv 

. : ci 9 rtu’ty to the 

- *■:>'> ci Lily lor the last 

- ;; ; a: i Wart r.f the 
■-* a: 1 Ci n-tianity 

r • t a few. Coi:- 
•' ?• Ti *■ dtlfer- 

j • :• i!. trivial r* :r*« 

• v- ' v few } eor L ■ 

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play in the liturgies. laws and literature of the nation. 

What has Confuciansim done for Korea? With diffidence 
yet conviction I daresay that it has done very little, if any tiling 
for Korea. What Korea might have been without Confucian 
teachings, no hol v can tell. But what Korea is with them we 
t if > well know. Behold Korea, with her oppressed masses, her 
general poverty, treacherous and era*1 officers, her dirt and filth, 
hor degraded women, her blighted la'nilies—behold all this and 
iurige for yourselves what Confucianism has done for Korea. 

That I a:n not irrationally prejudiced against the system I 
shall show by mentioning some of its clarinet fault3. any one of 
which may injure a ponnle who build their political or social 
fabric on it. 

1 . Confucianism enfeebles and gradually destroys the faculty 
of faith. It. is an agnostic system. He who is imbue*! with its 
teachings finds it hard to believe in any truth beyond this mate- 
: :al world of bread and hu'tm 

‘2 Confucianism nourishes pride. It tells you that your 
heart is as naturally inclined to be good as the water is to seek 
the level. In the name of wonders, where did the first evil come 
fro u, then? Further, it overlooks the distinction between 
things moral and mental. It holds that if you are moral —that 
is, if you love your father and mother—you will know every¬ 
thing under the blue sky. It [daces no hounds to the human 
understanding, and thus makes every pedant who can repeat 
the classics a boundless fool, serene in the flattering contempla¬ 
tion that he is verily o nnisrient! 

3. Confucianism, knowing no higher ideal than a man, is 
unable to prnluee a godly or gvl-like person. Its followers 
may ho moral, hut tv'vr spiritual. The tallest of them, there¬ 
fore, does stand higher than six feet or little over. On the other 
hand a Christian, having God to look unto as tlie, author and 
finisher of Ids faith, is a man all the wav up, how ever s nail he 
may he in hies If. hi other words a Confucianist begins in 
man and ends in man. A Christian begins in nan but ends in 
Gad. If thiwi 'h hu nan i nperf vtions, a i ’iirisrian fails to reach 
Go llikennss. the possibility m nains nevortk vss the same. 

1 . Confucimis n is selfish or rather encourages selfishness. 
It never says go anl tneh, but co ne and learn. In trying 
to make men to keep the i npossible doctrine of the mean, it 
makes them mem, narrow, calculating, revengeful, ever ready 

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with specious excuses and never given to generous adventures. 

5. While Confucianism exalts filial piety to the position of 
the highest virtue, and while a Confucianist makes this very 
common principle hide a multitude of uncommon sins, the whole 
system saps the foundation of morality and prosperity by clas¬ 
sifying women with menials and slaves. When, a year after the- 
death of the expelled wife of Confucius, his son wept over her 
loss, the great sage was offended, because it was improper that 
a son should so long mourn over his mother’s death while the 
father still lived! A woman, in the Confucian morality, is vir¬ 
tuous in proportion as she is dull. 

6 . Confucianism aims to make people good through legisla¬ 
tion. It is true that the founders of the earliest dynasties of 
China were great and good men. hut is it not equally true that 
the majority of princes of even these ti odel dynasties abused 
their power? Is it not true that during the time of Confucius 
and of Mencius, the reigning princes were, most of them, notor¬ 
iously had? Suppose either of these sages did find a virtuous 
prince who could carry out the doctrines of the ancient Kings, 
was it at all sure that the succeeding princes would keep them 
up? It is amazing how short sighted Confucanists seem to lie 
l ot to have seen the folly of committing the moral welfare of a 
nation into the hands of absolute monarchs whose surroundings 
and temptations were and have been notoriously unfavorable to 
the growth of virtues. The idea of reforming a society through 
the reformation of each individual of the mass seems to have 
never crossed their mind. 

B. The hunger and thirst after office for which Confucius 
him self set a conspicuous example. Most readily do I ad n it 
that he was actuated lw the purest motives to seek after office. 
Yet as a drunkard throws over his weakness a kind of religious 
sanction by quoting Paul's injunction to drink a little wine for 
the stomach's sake, every Confucianist who runs after office for 
nothing but the squeezing there is in it, sanctimoniously tells 
you that he is following the steps of Confucius. 

A system of ethics yielding the fruit of agnosticism, selfish¬ 
ness, arrogance, despotism, degradation of women, can rot be 
pronounced a good one. If other countries can make a better 
use of it Korea is or ought to be willing enough to part with it 
— the sooner the letter. 

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T here is great use in lists of identical words. In discussing 
the kinship of the Tartar languages I will adduce as many 
words as I conveniently can because identical words are 
powerful in convincing readers who have not decided what view 
to take in philological questions. 

The following Mongol words are also Chinese. 



Chinese. Mongol. 

rnit "honey” 


t’sit “varnish” tolaga. 

t'eul “head” 


t’ot “explain” tailobu 

% t'u “hare” 


^ sa. sat “sow” tarihoj 

(U hwei, gu for put 


f^fi fo “Buddha” Borhan|| 


from But. 

ilpt pit “pencil” 


^ me, mek “ink” belie 

“writing brush' 


“Cliinese ink” 

ifL pei for pok “low 1 

” begon r 

~|* f-liufor zbip “ten” arabantt 

-b t'sit “seven" 


fE cbeng ‘‘proof” temdeg§§ 

*T is here L It should be noted that every final t in Chinese is 1 in Korean 
transcription of Chinese words made in the Tang dynasty and later. 
fOld Chinese du for dut. 
j Here s becomes t and t becomes r. 

3 Here h stands for g and r for t. The Japanese is kayeru, kayeshi. 
j|Here r stands fort as in the next. 

€ ’ The Mongol h stands for k as in Chinese, Thibetan, Mongol, Man- 
chu and Korean. K in Japanese stands for the Chinese and Tartar h. 

** Final k. lost in modem Chinese sounds is revealed in the phonetic 

£3 pak, “white.” 

ff “tie in a bundle,” for this is the origin of the Chinese word. D has 
become sh in Chinese and r in Mongol; cf. Mongol airiben “many.” 

XX L for t. The letter s is a Chinese insertion after t. 

Deg is a suffix for nouns. 

||j| The surd k is from the sonant g. 

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“yes.” Korean 5- eho, as used in chio an ^ hata, “in 
health,” “at peace,” and in C V chio hoi hata 

“peace he to the king.” In Japanese yoroshi, “good.” yoro- 
kohi, “rejoice." In Mongol, sai “good.” Sanscrit, eu. 
Greek eu. It is honorific in all these languages. Perhaps 

e chita, "good” “good” e chin 

“good” are the same word. Final n and final t in old times 
interchangeable. On this understanding shall, dan “good,” 
is the same word in Chinese. 

hwa gwat, “wonls” “speech” Korean ^ kal, since this 
word is (Fr. Diet.) used only in hooks for the Chinese 0 
ynl it may preserve to us the lost initial of the Chinese word, 
yet it is a Korean word and is correctly equated with fjjjj 
hwa ta. tap, “with.” “connect,” Korean topul “with,” 
(Mcdh. Jap. Yoc.) topta "to aid” (Fr. Diet.) to-a. 
put “writing brush” Korean -^C put. Old Korean ^ p’il. 
Korean of the transcription, 
shi shat “arrow.” Korean sal “arrow.” 
ch’ap “quiver” (iSttfUAyn) Kor can sal chip “qui¬ 

ver’’ and at the same time a bow case. The 1 in sal points 

to the lost t of th.' Chinese word. 

) iau lor pot “bright,” “make clear” Korean gi palk, 

“clear.” In all such words k is derivative. The root is 
pal. The same rul\ I think, holds in sal in “to boil,” talk 
“nourish.” tabu “like,” palp “tread down,” palp “tosup- 
nort/’ “a plank to e mark by,” help “bitter” “astringent ” 
In all these thereof is in the sal, pal. tab tel. The same 
holds in saram “man,” p:iram “wind,” ] aram “hope.” It 
is not radical in these words. It is a special Korean develop* 
i. ei t with which we 1 1:1 v* lu*re to do. It reminds one of 
the £ivat Thibetan deve!« ■ • nent of prefixes and affixes. 

cilia, kn, “price” “that for which an object in exchanged in 

the n:arket Korean kap “value.” This p is probab¬ 
le the lost final of the Chinese word. As there is no trace 
< r final p in Chinese dialects we must treat kap as an old 

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Korean work for there is no p final in the Book of Odes in 
this word. 

i. it, “clothing/* “to clothe** Korean ot. This is an old 
Korean word. It preserves the lost t of the Chinese word 
K the lost initial appeal's in the Japanese kiri “to wear.*’ In 
coat and cloth we have the same root, k and 1 are the root 
in cloth and th is a derivative affix. From kot, a verb “to 
cover.'* See under coat in Skeat*s Etymol. Diet. 

i f .... J 

chi for tit “intention** “will** Korean ^ deut, “sense" 

“intention.** Here again the final t, quite lost in Chinese, is 
found in the Korean. 

In further elucidation of the laws of letter changes affect¬ 
ing words identified in this paper I mention the following facts 
and considerations. 

(1) S is evolved from d in Chinese, Mongol, Korean, Japan¬ 
ese. sim “heart** in Chinese is tim in the Cochin Chinese 
transcription. The Chinese dialects show that s, sh, ts, ch, <lg, 
z, dj, t, d, 1, n, are for purposes of etymology to be treated as 

one letter. Thus g chi for tat “imperial decree’* is jarlig in 

shi for shat, “to use** in Chinese is jaraho in Mongol 
utor in Latin, use in English. In these examples h and j are 
both lost in Latin and English. This t of Latin Incomes s in 
the Latin and English substantive, and z in the English verb. 

( 2 ) In Mongol, naras is the sun and uder is the day. The 
vowel u, is a prefix and n = d. Thus the identification with the 
Korean nat, “day,” beyond question. 

( 3 ) In identifying the Mongol tereg “carriage” and the Ko¬ 
rean soorai we must remember that China has ku “car- 

rage*’ and ch’e also meaning the same. The Japanese kuruma 
is formed from the one and the Mongol and Korean words are 
taken from the other. The more civilized nations had carriages 
first. The Chinese brought them from Central Asia. We find 
in Europe currus and rheda. These are the same two roots be¬ 
cause civilization had a single origin in western and central Asia. 
Knowing that t and s are but the old and new forms of the 
tongue tip consonant, we identify the Mongol and Korean words 
for carriage without hesitation. U is sibilated t. 

( 4 } b, p and m are interchangeable. In Chinese ma “horse.** 

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is be in Amoy. In Japanese mesbi “cooked rice or other food” is 
bada in Mongol. So also butege in Mongol may be mal in Korea. 

( 5 ) k becomes h in Chinese, Mongol, Tibetan, Manchu and 
Korean but never in Japanese. 

Some Mongol and Korean Identifications. 

Mongol uder “daytime” Korean nat, “day.” U is pros¬ 
thetic. n=d, t=r. 

Mongol am “mouth” Korean ip, ^ , “mouth.” 

Mongol bada, “rice” “food” Korean pap, ^J*. Here p 
stands for d and perhaps is older than d. 

Korean pal, “foot,” Chinese pu “step,” in old Chin¬ 
ese hot. In our word foot and the Latin pes, f and p have been 
evolved from the sonant which we have in Chinese and in the 
Mongol bad any, “footstool;” 

Mongol chilagon, “stone” Korean tol, “stone.” t is the 
source' of ch. 

Mongol tereg, “carriage,” Korean 'r* ?] soorai. 

Mongol nisehu, “to fly,” Korean nal, 

Mongol naisalal, “the Capital City,” Korean Syo-ul, 

Seoul, s for n. The root is dut, our “dwell.” 

Mongol butege, “do not,” Korean mal, 

Mongol bohado, “intention,” “thinking,” Korean pota, 

“see” “consider.” 

Mongol baran jug, “western quarter,” Korean syot 

7 iok. Japanese tokoro, “place.” The Latin locus, |||, 'ch'u 
for tok, “place.” 

Mongol saihan, “good,” han is suffix. Korean S.,tyo. 
s for t. 

Mongol hereg, “thing.” h for g. Korean got, “thing.” 

Mongol hoto, “city,” Korean . 3 --^, keu ol. 

Mongol borogo, “vice” “bad,” Korean , mochil (Med). 

This is our word bad and the Chinese fei for put in fei lui “bad 
persons.” Fr. Diet, has mochita, “fierce” “savage” “cruel” 
“courageous ” Medhurst’s is an independent authority of Japan¬ 
ese origin printed at Batavia in 1835 . 



a few Indo European and Korean Identifications, 

English move, Latin mot, Korean mool “to remove. 
English two, Korean tul, Chinese ni 

English float. The root of this word is pi for pt and final t 

is a repetition of the true radical t. Korean pooril •au-i# 
pu, “float/' Japanese hisago. 

English assembly mot as in “witenagemot" and the 

Scandinavian mote, Korean mot eul, “gather" (Med) 

mota, mo-e (Fr, Diet). 

Latin mollis, Korean null sin, “soft," Skeat says our 

tender is from thin through the Latin tener. The Chinese is 
nun, the Korean sin. The meaning tenderness attached to the 
root ten is older than Skeat supposes, and for thinness we find 

the Chinese t'sien, Shanghai dien, Korean ton. 

By careful study of letter changes the Korean vocabulary 
may be found to consist of words belonging to the common 

Asiatic and European vocabulary’. For instance ^ nyok, “re¬ 
gion", being the Japanese tokoro on the east, the Mongol jug 
on the north and the Chinese ch'u for tok on the west is beyond 
question. The same with the Latin locus. The Chinese say 

for villages t'sun lok. Let the inmense area of the con¬ 

tinent now’ occupied by the languages in question 1x3 considered. 
Human migration has spread this w’ord very widely and canned 
it across the Tsushima straits to Japan. The Chinese brought 
it from the West. By the nature of the case every word is the 
common property which migrating trills carry with them on 
their wanderings. The love men have for their mother tongue 
is a highly favorable circumstance which helps to keep old w'ords 
in life. Men have no less love for archaic words than for old 
bedsteads and w’alkingsticks. 

Although Greek statues and Egyptian pyramids are preserv¬ 
ed by mankind after the devastation of many centuries they do 
not and cannot rival in antiquity many of the words we are us¬ 
ing every day ourselves. It is not then to be scouted as im¬ 
possible but thankfully accepted as fact that for instance the 

Tibetan possessive particle kyi is the same as the Korean 

kei, “there," *£] heui, case particles now in use and as the Tur¬ 
kish ki in l>enimki “mine", aninki “his," this kei or heui or ki a 


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W ol-UNG-do or Matsusima as it is called by the Japanese, is 
an island off the east coast of Korea, 37 ° 48 ' north latitude 
and 130 ° 17 ' east longitude. It is about 190 miles from 
Fusan, 170 from Wonsan and 63 miles direct from the coast. 1 
think this will be found more correct than the position given by 
the charts in common use, with the exception of those surveys 
made by the Japanese and Russians. 

Explorers of those waters first named the island Dagelet. 
Some navigators gave it the position of another island and called 
it Argonaut and so named it on the charts. About 50 years ago, 
careful surveys were made by Russian, English and French navi¬ 
gators and it was then found that the island Argonaut had no ex¬ 
istence, only Dagelet. There is no doubt the sailors who first 
located Argonaut, after leaving Dagelet got into a fog and after a 
day’s sail, with perhaps contrary winds and currents, sighted 
Dagelet again and placed it ( n the chart as another island. 

Wol-ung-do is a gem in the sea. Notwithstanding its dis¬ 
tance from the mainland the right of the Korean government to 
the island, has never been questioned by the Japanese government. 
The length from east to west is about ten miles, from north to 
south about six and a half. Seen from the distance it looks like 
a dark towering rock, but on nearer approach it will lie seen to be 
composed of a collection of conical hills, with a peak 3000 feet 
high rising from the center and having the appearance of being sup¬ 
ported by the smaller ones. The shore is steep and nigged ; on all 
sides the water is very deep. A number of detached rocks, some 
having a height of 300 feet, are found near bv. On the south 
cast is an islet, called Wo-san, about 500 feet high, a quarter of 
a mile from the main island with a deep passage between the two. 

Unless examined closely, a landing seems impassible, but 
between Wo-san and the point projecting from the main laud, 
there is a small beach and here close to the shore a vessel can find 
anchorage in from 16 to 25 fathoms, but even this harbor is avail¬ 
able only in fine weather. 



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L ast summer on board a Korean junk I passed down the 
Ta Tong River from the city of Pyeng Yang and en¬ 
tered the estuary formed at Chyel To ( ana 
by the junction of the Ta Tong with two smaller rivers 
flowing from the province of Whang Hai. Ascending one 
of these streams we passed at our left the beautiful Chyeng 

Pang mountain (JE^rtU) the summit of which is one of 
the walled fortifications which abound in Kora. Far off to 
the right appeared the peaks of the noted Kou Ouel moun¬ 
tain (xn uo which is now the site of a number of Bud¬ 
dhist temples but which in ancient times furnished at its base 
the site for the capital of a fugitive king from Pyeng Yang. 
Between these two mountains lies a lurge low plain, well 
watered and fertile, producing immense crops of rice. Here the 
region is so thickly dotted with villages as to indicate that it 
is probably the most densely populated plain in the king¬ 

As we descended the Ta Tong river in order to reach this 
plain, we spread our mats on the deck of the junk and drop¬ 
ped to sleep listening to the dipping of the oars and the song 
of the boatmen keeping time with their rowing. This song 
with its constant repetition of the syllables E-ki, E-ki, E-ki 
aroused our interest, and in the morning conversation with the 
boatmen elicited an interesting legend as to the origin of the 
song. As the legend is connected with the location of the cap¬ 
ital of Ki Ja, the reputed founder of Korea’s civilization, it is 
worth recoiding in connection with the article io the March 
Repos tory. 

It is as follows:— 

In the year B C. 1122, w*hen the Shang dynasty in China 

gave way to the establishment of th Chvou kingdom (^J) Ki 
Ja is said to have crossed the Yellow sea and to have entered 
the wide estuary marked on the maps as the Ta Tong River. 
Ascending this he reached the point opposite Chyel To and 
saw rising but a short distance before him the Chyeng Pang 



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T he application of military terms to the movements of the 
Church of God is always peculiarly inspiring. Take the 
hymns of the Church; “Like a Mighty Army Moves the 
Church of God,” “Onward Christian Soldiers, Girded as for 
war,” “Stand up, stand up for Jesus, Ye soldiers of the cross ;” 
and the Bible is full of such terms, as in Ephesians, Timothy 
and many other places. We on the mission field are a portion 
of the army, not stationed in barracks or on parade or detailed 
for sentinel duty or on the defensive, but engaged in active, 
open, aggressive warfare. 

From this point, if we press the comparison, we fall into 
strange confusion. Every one knows that when an earthly 
soldier is fitted up for active seivice the amount of weight that 
he carries is cut down to the very smallest limit. Not an extra 
pound is allowed him above what is necessary for his actual 
maintenance; and if some kind hearted philanthropist should 
propose that since the soldier was going to have a hard and try¬ 
ing time, he should take along with him for his comfort and 
solace, his wife, his children and his home, what a madman he 
he would be voted to be. 

Yet what a tremendous amount of impedimenta the Chris¬ 
tian soldier carries about with him, of which the weightiest, 
most distracting, most absorbent of time and strength are the 
wife, the children and the home that he must keep up. 

I wonder <f there are those here who may l>e filled with 
the same resentment that surged through my soul when these 
ideas were first presented to me; but as I thought and prayed 
over the matter, with the determination to swallow the dose if 
it were what I needed, it was borne in on me with irresistable 
force that the question w T as an honest one. Are we a help or a 
hindrance to missionary work? Are our husbands less active 
in the promotion of the missionary enterprise, more taken rp 

* This Address and the two following were delivered at the decennial 
anniversary of Christian Missions in Korea. Oct nth. 1895. 

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better way of trusting and being not afraid, letting each little 
one do its work. 

I asked a mother with Fur little children, whom I met 
this summer at Arima, if she were able to take much part in the 
work of the station and she said, “No, not very much.” “How 
about the native services?” I asked. “Oh! 1 always go to all 
the native services” she said, “and take all the children.” The 
picture rose up Ixjfore me of the patient loving face and the row 
of earnest little faces beside it and it seemed to me that they must 
have preached almost as tender and constraining a sermon as 
could l>e contained in the words of the husband and father. At 
least, this I know, that his hands were mightily upheld as he 

There is another thing in which the ocurse of the mission' 
ary will be largely determined by the ideas of his wife:—namely, 
style of living Some months ago we entertained a visitor at 
our home. He was a glol>e trotter who had already trotted 
over a considerable portion of Korea l>efore he reached us. 
Something was said about the lives of the natives in the interior 
and he looked about our little parlor which seemed plain enough 
to me and said, “Why, this is palatial, simply palatial.” Now I 
hold that no one who has ever visited Korea or who is ever 
likely to visit Korea, lias, from their standpoint, the right to 
utter one word of criticism or reproach. But, on the other 
hand, we as Christian workers ready for any sacrifice that may 
advance the cause of our King, have the right and should ques¬ 
tion ourselves most closely as to this tiling. 

Simplicity of living is of course entirely a relative matter. 
Compared with the Vanderbilts we live in a humble, not to 
say mean, way. Compand with the bulk of our constituents at 
home we live in, to say the least, the greatest ease and comfort. 
Compared with the }>eople whom we have come to serve and to 
save, we live like princes and millionaires. The question easily 
resolves itself into two parts. First, what do we in all honor owe 
to our constituents at home, and, second, what do we in all de¬ 
votion owe our people here? Yes, into three parts; what do we 
in all faithfulness owe our lellow workers by way of an example? 

I do not know how I can better emphasize this point than 
by giving, as they fell from her lips, the w ? ords of a young mis¬ 
sionary with whom I had a conversation last summer. She bad 
not been on the field long and she had a troubled face. “We're 

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other. God and His work first; husband, wife afterward. 

We all know of the cuttle fish, that great sea monster with 
eight long arms that seem so soft and yielding, but when once 
they wind themselves about the swimmer, be he ever so bold 
and ever so strong, he is crushed and helpless. Dear friends, 
the ann that keeps a man at home when he should be out 
among the people, that takes up his time in attentions to her 
when he should be attending to the work of his master, that 
would snatch her children away from every Korean touch, that 
insists upon a style of living that he perhaps would gladly 
forego, that interposes itself in any way between her husband 
and his work, believe me, is not the arm of affection, it is the 
ann of the cuttle-fish. Let us not constrain our husbands in 
that way. 

So much for negative ways of work. There is one thing 
which every one here may entertain and I hope may realize, 
and that is the distant hope that by and by there will come a 
time when our children will be ready in their turn to begin the 
struggle of life, and we will be left with empty hands for some¬ 
thing. Whether or not it shall be direct missionary work will 
depend upon tw f o things: first, inclination, second, knowledge 
of the language. The first I trust we have; the second, let us 
never cease our efforts to acquire. From servants, teachers, cool¬ 
ies, visitors, let us add little by little to our knowledge of this 
tongue and then, bv and by, richer in wisdom, riper in exper¬ 
ience, deeper in spiritual life, w*e can take up the work to which 
we have looked forward so long. 

My heart has been full this morning, for the subject seems 
to me of more than ordinary importance. As missions here we 
are very young and tne character of our future w’ork can scarce¬ 
ly be said to Ixj deteimined. And whether the conflict is to be 
feebly carried on by a dawdling, self seeking soldiery or whether 
it is to be waged by self denying, self-forgetful heroes is going to 
depend in no small degree upon us. 

Mrs. W. M. Faird. 

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visits, or hold meetings at a distance but she can be gone from 
home an hour or two with no possible harm to even a quite 
young baby. 

I have no sympathy with turning children loose to play 
with the native children so that they will be amused and happy 
while the mother is studying the language or off doing doubtful 
work for other people’s children. I say doubtful advisedly be¬ 
cause I believe very much of the work of married w’omen is 
doubtful to say the least. Unless she knows the language she 
can not do direct missionary work. This going out with a raw 
heathen who has had a few months training, and letting her 
say what she pleases, you not knowing whether she is exalting 
Buddha or Jesus, is in my humble opinion very doubtful mis¬ 
sionary work. 

Then what can a woman do? If possible learn the lang¬ 
uage before you have the care of a house; but if, as in many 
eases, that is impossible, be sure you do not do bann in your 
efforts to do good. 

To my mind it is quite possible that it may be a good thing 
to have a few ladies in the community who can visit the sick 
and even lend a hand in some cases There may be old people 
who through no fault of their own are forced to live thousands 
of miles from home. With everybody too busy to call on them 
and cheer them up what a pitiable state of mind they might 
come to. 

Some may have been especially educated in some branch, 
as music and if they can and will teach this to the children who 
through no fault of theirs are compelled to live far from the 
advantages of schools I am sure that is good missionary work. 

A woman who has the will will find the way to do some¬ 
thing helpful to somebody. 

May it not be part conceit to want to go out and do some¬ 
thing which will show or read well in a report? Be sure that 
when you are doing this you are not keeping some body at home 
to look after your work who could do much better than you can. 

God pity the woman who left her four small children 
in the home land to came out to work for the heathen. If, in 
the mercy of the All Wise, they do not grow up worse than 
the heathen, she must give him all the glory. 

Ella Dodge Appenzeller 


L iterature like ancient Gaul may be divided into three parts; pictorial, 
musical, mathematical. 

Descriptive literature is picture painting. True poetry, whether it be in 
prose or verse, is music. Argument, disquisition and law hang on the ax¬ 
iom that two and two make four and these we may style mathematical 
Pictures, music, mathematics. 

Now compare our pictures, music, and mathematics with that of the 
Korean and it seems to me it will give an idea of how widely our style of 
literature differs from theirs. 

I. In pictures, we fill out in detail, everything must be put in. We think 
details give clearness. The Korean looks at it mystified and says if he only 
had a microscope to see what it is. With his pictures so in his descriptive 
literature he prefers suggestion and outline to a full statement It is also for 
this same reason that he uses the interrogative for a strong affirmative. It 
suggests the affirmative and to suggest in his mind is stronger than to state 
fully. The Chinese classics are all done in outline only, being hints and 
suggestions of the subject to be taught, not the subject itself. Those of you 
w ho have looked into the Hook of Changes the greatest of Chinese classics, 
will be struck with this tact. I read you a translation of the first three lines 
of the first hexagram. 

" In the first line undivided is the dragon lying hid; it is not the 
"time for active doing. In the second line undivided the dragon 
"appears in the field. It will be advantageous to meet the great 
"man. In the third line undivided the superior man is active 
" and vigilant all the day and in the evening still careful and ap- 
" prehensive Dangerous but there will be no mistake." 

Giles calls it a fanciful system of philosophy; most foreigners say the 
book is madness. Confucius says "Through the study of the Book of 
Changes one may keep free from faults or sins." Evidently it meant 
something to Confucius that it does not to the foreigner. It is made up of 
far off hints and suggestions in which the oriental sees meaning and which 
style of literature he specially loves. 

We are given to realistic painting. Our pictures must say exactly what 
we mean, nothing more, nothing less. The Korean is not so, the presence 
of a flower or sea-gull will suggest numberless thoughts many li distant from 
the object itself. I happened on a song which translated into English dog- 
gered runs thus:— 

(Absent husband inquiring of a fellow-townsman newly arrived) 

Have you seen my n tive land? 

Come tell me all you know; 

Did just before the old home door 
The plum tree blossoms show ? 

(Stranger answers at once) 

They were in bloom though pale ’tis true. 

And sad, from waiting long for you. 



“What does he mean by plum blossoms ? I do not see how they could 
grow sad waiting for anyone." “ You poor drivelling creature” was the re¬ 
ply "h? does not mean plum blossoms at all; he means," did he see his wife as 
1 e passed by ? “She was pale and sad from waiting" was the answer. The 
form and beauty would have all been lost to have asked for his wife straight 

The oriental mind whether possessed by literati or coolie is cast in the 
same mould. They all think alike in figures, symbols, pictures. For this 
reason I believe that allegory and suggestive literature must have a special 
place with them. 

II. Music:- Our style of music is meaningless as yet to the native. As far 
as sound and expression goes he thinks “Gwine Back to Dixie " a better 
hymn on the whole than ■* Rock of Ages." But there is a music that we 
have, namely the eternal melodies that run through the story" of salvation. 
Truth set to music as the old hymn says. “*Tis music to the sinners ears and 
life and health and peace." The music of the spheres that touches the hearts 
of all mankind. 

Koreans claim, and I believe them, that true music has been rarely 
heard these last few centuries. Ages of outward form and ceremony have 
shut and sealed and petrified every heart so that there is no longer a call for 
p'oongyoo. When men are all l>orn leaf mutes piano makers must turn 
their hand to something else. To put it in other words, Koreans must ha e 
a literature that will touch the heart and awake it to life. They have cudge ¬ 
led and whetted their intellects over Chinese until now the literati arc head 
without heart, all blade and no handle. They are not fools to whom we can 
ladle out knowledge that we have acquired in universities at home. In 
brain-culture they are I believe superior to us for an educated man in Ko¬ 
rea has had his mind trained in one thing well while educated men at home 
have been partially trained in many things. His argumentative two-edged 
intellect can outstrip the foreigner at every turn, but an honest foreigner 
in heart is vastly his superior. 

What we need in literature are not intellectual abstractions but some¬ 
thing to touch the heart. Can we not write in a way that will be music to 
them and cause them in return to break out into singing like Paul when he 
wrote! “O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and power of God; 
how unsearchable are His judgments and His ways past finding out'" 

Confucius said “For improving manners and customs there is nothing like 
music” also “Hear the music of a state and you can guess its laws and gov¬ 
ernment." Can we not prove this true to them in a way Confucius never 
dreamed of so that their manners and customs will be Christianized and that 
they may have in their hearts a knowledge of the laws and government of 
the kingdom of Heaven. 

III. Mathematics:- Deductions, 1 gic, proving that such and such is true; 
literature that would attempt to argue truth into the native I should be in¬ 
clined to mark as utterly worthless. Koreans can prove anything by argu¬ 
ment. Chinese characters have the habit of conveniently providing two 
meanings, the very opposite of each other. If you are hard pressed in one 
meaning, you simply take the other and so reduce matters to zero or a con¬ 
dition suitable to continue on. So Koreans regard all argument as really 
meaningless, not to be taken seriously at all. 

This would seem to be because their mathematics are hopelessly con- 



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Korean Names. 

Proper Names. 

T i e haphazard go-as-you-please method of manufacturing 
personal names in the Occident is unknown in Korea. 
The cognomen of each Korean from the aristocrat in 
pill s to the coolie in dirt is a gem in its way, the finished 
product of the operation of certain curious, interesting and 
Perplexing laws. Korean “Nomenology” is an exact science 
admirably preserving the intricacies of the genealogical tree, 
and the safeguards of precedence, and producing a name which 
to the Korean indicates a great deal more than a Western¬ 
er would care to have published. That is, it gives away 
ones relations in a very public manner, as will be seen. 
Korean names consist as with the European of two compo¬ 
nent parts, — the family name and the given name, but these 
are reversed in order, like eveiything else Asiatic; the fami¬ 
ly name comes first and after it the given name. Thus 
John Henry Green in Korea would be known as Green John 
Henry. He might object, but it would do no good. The 
law is inexorable 

Family Names. 

These are not numerous in variety. It is probable that 
the entire list in use among the fourteen millions of Koreans,, 
numbers one hundred and fifty names. Of original Korean 
names there are about one hundred, which fact, gives the 
language its word for people, populace or inhabitants, viz. paik 
syong . The balance of the one hundred and fifty names com¬ 
prises names of Chinese who have been left in the Peninsula 
in the course of the countless invasions with which the 
country lias been afflicted, or have come across the border as 
emigrants. We can fir d no trace of purely Japanese family 
names though undoubtedly such exist. 

The family name is technically known as the syong and 
consists of one syllable, though there is an exception to this 



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Kwang san 









P 4 a-p‘yong 






Numerically the clans rank in the following order: (1) Yi, 
(2) Kim, (3) Pak, (4) Ch6, (5) An, (6) Chong. As to the 
origin of these names, folklore has mauy curious tales to tell. 
It says the family of Ko appeared on the stage of their future 
activity through a hole in the ground; that the Ho family 
came out of a cleft rook still to be seen half way between Che¬ 
mulpo and Soul on the Han River; and the Yurts having had 
a codfish for their ancestor never eat cod. 

Korean given names . In this branch of the science under 
review we arrive at what is to a stranger complex confusion. 
In the United States it is a serious matter for a man to have 
two names,— in Korea it is a serious matter if he don't have 
them. Etiquette in Korea weighs and determines everything 
andseems to have made a specialty of the Korean's given 
name. It has different names for him at the different stages 
of life, and permits him to change these to suit himself. 

It is well to note in this connection that certain names 
are sacred in Korea. One of these is the name of His Majes¬ 
ty the King, which no Korean may mention. In fact the 
name is not known When for the purposes of historical re¬ 
cord it is necessary to write the given name of a Kim:, the 
written characters are carefully covered by a si ip of red |>aper 
to conceal them. The name of the King is known as the 6-hui 
or Royal Secret. The given name of the father is also sacred 
as far his children are concerned and will never he pronounced 
as a name by them. In the case of an intimate friend they 
may be induced to indicate what the name is but after the fol¬ 
lowing fashion Suppose a young man's father's name is 
Hak-irt. In conveying this information he would say 44 My 
father's name is ‘science' hak and ‘man' in. 

A girl may have a name in childhood, but it as well as 
all other individual distinction is lost at the time ot marriage. 
Public women such as dancers, singers and prostitutes retain 
their childhood name, which is often qute poetical. 

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tion of an investiture with a brand new name, known techni¬ 
cally as the kwan-myong. By it he is registered in the census 
records, and by it he is known henceforth to the world. 

The chief feature of the kwan-mong is tlie han? yol cha 
or u genration character.” The names of all the member? of a 
clan of the some generation contain a certaiu character or syl¬ 
lable which serves to identify them. Thus Kim Myong-tai, 
Kim Myong-ok* and Kim Myong-hak may be three men who 
have never met each other, but the presence of the syllable 
myong in their kwan-myong as the hattg-yol dui identifies them 
not only as members of the same clan but also as belonging to 
to the same generation. The hang yol cha is selected by the 
clan authorities and in some instances a series of these charact¬ 
ers will be adopted for several generations ahead. 

Considerable ceremony is generally observed in the selec¬ 
tion of the kwan-myong for the newly made Korean man. In¬ 
timate friends are invited in to refreshments and the occasion 
is made one of much festivity. The kwan-myong always con¬ 
sists of two characters or syllables, and makes with the sur¬ 
name a full cognomen of three syllables. When the company 
who are to manufacture the legal name have assembled the 
hang yol cha is first called for, and this given the difficulty 
is to find a proper mate for it. Two requirements must he 
satisfied, (1) The third character must unite euphoniously 
with the hang yol ; (2) it must make proper sense. 

IV. The cha-ho Familiar name. The cha-ho is different 
in character from both the nickname and the Legal name, It 
is an evolution from the latter and based chiefly on the hang - 
yol. That is, there are certain rides in the matter, by the use 
of which, given the hang-yol , the cha-ho is easily deduced. In¬ 
timate friends know each other by their cha and use it of each 
other when absent, to mutually intimate friends. It can be 
used only by one’s equals or superiors. This is a very con¬ 
venient thing for in the presence of a third party an absent 
person can be discussed without giving a clue to his identity. 

V. The Tyol-ho Distinguishing name. Etiquette in Kona 
forbids a person’s inferiors from alluding to him or addressing 
him by his “legal” or “familiar” names. The younger brothers 
iu a family waive this dilemma easily where their elder broth¬ 
er has a son by addressing him as his son’s father, but whe r e 
there is no youngster to help them out, they are in a difficulty. 



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was her intention to appear at the public reception usually giv¬ 
en on that occasion. 

The visit of Count Inouye to Seoul was looked forward to 
with very great interest. A touch from his magic wand was to 
bring order out of confusion but there is some disappointment 
that he left