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CVol. y. No. 1.] JANUARY, 1898. 

THE 

KOREAN BEPOSITOKY 

H. G. Appenzeller, ) 

Geo. Heber Jones. \ Euit0rs * 



CONTENTS. 


THE KOREAN GENTLEMAN, 


Jas. S. Gale. 1 


THE ORCHARD IN SEOUL IN 1897, Wm. McE. Dye. 7 


THINGS IN GENERAL, . 

MY HOST,. 

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT:— 

Eighteen Hundred Ninety-seven, 
The Population Of Korea, 

In All The Churches, 

M. Kir Alexfieff, .. 

Another Weekly Newspaper, 

H. I. H. The Princess Tai Won, . 
The English Fleet At Chemulpo, 

LITERARY DEPARTMENT, . 

OFFICIAL GAZETTE, . 

NOTES AND COMMENTS, . 


Naw. 22 


Price per Annum, $3.00 


Per Copy, 30c. 



Published at. 

7 HE TRILINGUAL PRESS, 
Seoul. 



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CVol. y. No. 1.] JANUARY, 1898 

THE 

KOBEAN EEPOSITOEY 

H. G. APPENZELLER, 1 

Geo. Heber Jones, { Euit0rs * 


CONTENTS. 


THE KOREAN GENTLEMAN, 


Jas. S. Gale. 


THE ORCHARD IN SEOUL IN 1897, Wji. McE. Dye. 


THINGS IN GENERAL, . 

MY HOST. 

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT:— 

Eighteen Hundred Ninety seven, 
The Population Op Korea, 

In All The Churches, . 

M. Km Alexfieff, . 

Another Weekly Newspaper, 

H. I. H. The Princess Tai Won, ... 
The English Fleet At Chemulpo, 

LITERARY DEPARTMENT. 

OFFICIAL GAZETTE, . 

NOTES AND COMMENTS, . 


Naw. 


Price per Annum, $8.00 


Per Copy, 30c. 




Published at. 

THE TRILINGUAL PRESS\ 
Seoul. 


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ADVERTISEMENTS. 


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"?l(e fihftejtb#).” 


The only English Newspaper published in Korea- 


The Independent possesses unique facilities for obtaining 
the latest and most reliable news from all parts of the country. 
Strictly non-partisan in politics, it endeavours to present to the 
public the fullest, most impartial and thoroughly accurate 
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Published Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. Circulates 
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Subscription: $6.00 per Annum. 

Office of “The Independent,” Seoul, Korea. 


“THE TOKNIP SHINMUN.” 

A Korean paper for the Koreans. Written throughout in 
the native script. Has a larger circulation than any other 
newspaper pullisl cu in Korea, and is extensively read by all 
classes of the community. Special arrangements have been 
made for speedy delivery by post and horse couriers. 

A unique opportunity for Advcrtsers. 

For rates, Ac., apply to The Fesiness Manager, Office 
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jLDYEBTISEMENTB. 


METHODIST PUBLISIII6 HOUSE, 

No. 2 SHICHOME, GINZA, KYOBASHIKU, TOKYO. 

In Stock All Kinds of Japanese Religious Books. 

ALSO, a selected line of ENGLISH BOOKS, latest American 

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NEW BOOKS ARRIVING 
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Orders for Periodicals and Books promptly attended to. 

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The finest lot of Oxford and International Bibles ever imported . 
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The CHINESE 

RECORDER. 

AND 

Missionary Journal. 


Published by the Presbyterian Mission Press, Shanghai, China. ; 

Price, including postage to Korea, $3.36 per annum. 

A monthly Magazine,. having a wide circulation, issued 
primarily in the interests of Mission work in China, but including 
also Japan and Korea. Valuab'e for all missionaries, everywhere. 

‘ ’Orders for the same will be received by the publishers of 
The Korean Repository, or may be sent direct to The Pub¬ 
lishers, The Presbyterian Mission Press, Shanghai. 


FIFTY HELPS 

FOB THE 

EESONNEK ON THE USE 

OF THE 

EZORBAJ5T XjlA-ILT GJ-TX -A-GKEl- 


By Annie L. A. Baird. 


Price 75 cents. To be had from the Mission Press, Seoul; or 
from the Chong No Book Depot, Seoul. 

“This little booklet is not intended for the eye of those who have 
made considerable progress in the study and use of Korean. It is not a 
•upplanter of text-books, but is designed simply to help the beginner to a 
speedy use of certain common idioms.”— Authors preface . 

“The ‘Fifty Helps’ which Mrs. Baird has prepared cannot fail to gain 
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from quite an opposite quarter to that usual with the grammarian and in¬ 
stead of discoursing upon parts of speech and drawing fine distinctions 
with respect to pronouns and prepositions, has compiled a series of illugtm- 1 
tions of the ordinary forms of the verb and their uses. The reviewer can¬ 
not speak too highly of the clearness and simplicity she has attained nor of 
the service this little book seems likely to render to those who stand moat 
in need of it .”—Korean Repository . 


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mi PUBLISH Eli. 

Demy 8vo. SUPERIOR PAPER. 150 Pages. 

icoK.E-A.isr 

WORDS J^TSTJD KJEaZIR-A-SIEJS. 

A Handbook and 

Pocket Dictionary for Visitors and New Arrivals 
in the Country, 

Containing over 1.000 words and nearly 15,000 Korean Sentences 
(Romanized) with the Krnmoun Script. 

Also with an Appendix containing Information respecting 
Korean Numerals and the Native Currency. 

Price: ONI 4 ] DOLLAR [Postage extra]. 

Copies of the above may lx* obtained from— 

Mr J. W. Hodgk, Nak Tong, Seoul, or from 
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ADVERTISEMENTS. 


Second Edition. Pkice $2.50 

A KOREAN MANUAL OR 
PHRASE BOOK WITH 
INTRODUCTORY GRAM . 
MAR. 

By James Scott, M.A. 

On sale at the Methodist Book-Store, Chong-No, or from 
the Rev H. G. Appenzeller, Seoul. 


NEW BOOKS! 


“Jn Jcwmeykigs Oft’ 0r f< The Life and Travels of Mary 


C* Nind, by Georgians Bancus, 1.90 

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“The Expositor’s Bible,” Cju.plcie Set, 110.(0 

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t-upplea.ent, "Ovols. 75.00 


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No. 2. SincnoME, Ginza, 


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AND 

SUNDAY SGHOOL UNION. 
SEOUL, EZOE-E-A.. 

Daihan Hoi Po. 

A Religious Weekly Paper of six pages 
published in the interests of Sunday 
School and other Religious Work in 
Korea. 

Price per copy one cent, per month 
3 cents, per year 36 cents. Postage extra. 


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copy 

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-c,,., ( H. G. Appenzelleb, 

, Eartars {G. H. Jokes. 

As heretofore The B eposttok y will aim- to meet the wants 
of all its readers in the thorough discussion of all topics of 
permanent interest to Korea. Prominence will continue to be 
given to articles o.. the history, religion, folk-lore, commerce and 
customs of this land. Ti e Editorial Department will deal in a. 
full and impartial manner with current topics of practical in¬ 
terest. Translations from the Official Gazette will be made and 
The Literary Department will review current literature on 
Korea. 

Terms* 

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-rSO.cents a.number. 

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a number. 

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» 

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Japan: Pev. J. W. Wadman. No. 2 Sbichome, Guiza. 
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All communications should he addressed to 

"THE KOREAN RE10SIT0HY ” 

Seoul, Korea. 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


J-^lTTJJLRy-Z-. 1898 


THE KOKEAN GENTLEMAN. 

T HE calm and composure tbat environs a Korean gentleman 
is one t f the mystei ies of the Orient. Embarrassed he may 
be by a thousand debts, and threatened by a hungry wolf 
at e\ery chink of his mud dwelling, yet the placidity of his life 
ron tin ups on unruffled. He is a master of composure, which 
forn 8 the ground work of other characteristics. Erom Confucius 
he has learned to mortify evpry natural impulse, and to move 
as tho he acted his part on a stage, where a single misdirect¬ 
ed smile, or thoughtless turn would urset the greatest piece on 
record. His choicest word is nyf or yi. If he but guard ye, he 
may offend against every command in the Decalogue, and still 
hj the sagp or superior man. If be breaks y6, he is covered with 
conlusion and counts himself the vilest of the vile. Y( of course 
rs the eternal fitnes« of things, the scholar’s interpretation of 
Confucianism. If you mention a word in disparagement ol yf, 

! , F en l! Pn fin is frantic, forgets y6 altogether for the moil ent 
m his efforts at violeace 

Korean speaks respectfully of Mencius as mang, and 
° Ywlucius as koag, so tliai the names coupled togetbei would 
je.-ul mang-lumg. 1 his word unfortunately has another meaning, 
namely, the croaking of frogs. A Koiean gentleman who had 
travelled much abroad, and lean ed foreign languages, came home 
quite outdone with Korea's ancient civilization, and particularly 
set again* t Confucianism. In one of bis public addresses to 
a company of Koreans he made use of the word many-kong ; 

, "'! ,at benefit, says he, “has Confucius been to Kcrea? 

1 hose best veised in bis doctrine are the moat helpless people 
we have. TI hey simply sit and croak martg-kong, mang hmq to 
11,n S* . scholar wholieard him. and whom 1 know well 
left the meeting in a piping fury. “Nothing,” says he. “but the 

knife for a man like that.” Yes, murder he would for the sacred 
name ot ye. 

One thing that interferes with the rigid requirements of yt 


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2 the Korean repository. [January, 

is of course to be avoided, for which reason no gentleman indul¬ 
ges in manual labor, or in fact in labor of any kind. His life 
consists fn a supreme command of coolie service, while the cool¬ 
ie lesponds vye or yea to every order. The lighting of his pipe, 
or the rubbing of the ink on the inkstone, must he done for him. 

1 Down to the simplest details of life he does nothing. Not even 
should he scold the coolie, who said he would, but nevertheless 
i failed to do what was told him. Consequently the gentleman’s 
hands become soft, and his fingernails grow long. From con¬ 
stant sitting his bones seem to disintegrate, and he becomes al¬ 
most a mollusk before he passes middle life. 

When once they have attained to this physical condition 
of pulp, they are in a measure immured from the thumps and 
shocks of ordinary life. It was my misfortune once to be obliged 
to ride thro a rough mountainous country, in company 
with a Korean gentleman. By keeping a constant hold on the 
halter-rope, I managed to avoid a somersault backwards when¬ 
ever the pony jumped. I warned Mr. Clio of the danger he ran 
in sitting bolt upright, without girders or supports of any kind 
to protect him. He remarked, in reply, that it was not good 
Korean custom to hold on to the halter as advised and so we 
proceeded. When the sun grew hot, he added to his already 
top-heavy condition, by opening an umbrella. The startled pony 
with one bound shot Mr. Cl o backwards out of the saddle, and 
his fall, which is the point of my story, was marvellous to be¬ 
hold. On that uneven surface be flattened out like a hall of 
Paris plaster. Jacket an 1 pantaloons were lost sight of, even 
the. hat was but a sp; t on the sun, merely an irregularity of 
color on an otherwise flattened surface. But from the mass came 
forth tbs man, illustrating how we have all proceeded from ori¬ 
ginal protoplasm, for Mr. Cho palled himself together, and said 
he was none the worse, tho I should certainly have been 
damaged by such a fall. 

Not all the gentry by any means ar? scholars, tho they 
ought to be if they would come up to the standard of Confucinn 
requirement. Those who have attained to this, are marked and 
honored men. They arj all i>ut worshipped by the mass of the 
people, are given the freedom of every city in the kingdom, and 
are admitted as distinguished guests to the presence of the high¬ 
est, free of pass. Chinese characters seem to have for this 
few, a consuming fascination. Net so much the thought 
conveyed, as the characterised, seems the object ol veneration. 
From them he “build3’ , (chita) forms of expression and verses, 
as a child builds enchanted castles from blocks of various sizes, 
and as there is no limit to the variations, and combinations pcs- 


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THE KOREAN GENTLEMAN. 


3 


1898.] 


sible, so there is no limit to the charm they possess. Two schol¬ 
ars can find sufficient to argue on, to interest one another from a 
single character and as there are m nse some 12,000 characters, 
we might say they have a fund to draw on that w ll last for 
aqaarterofa century. ]So attempt is made to write more than 
original dittie3 or mottoes. Anything like an original work in 
Chinese, would be an attempt to outdo Homer in Greek, presump¬ 
tion unheard of. So the scholar plays his life away with this 
unending rosary of ideographs, that entwines not his neck, 
but bis mind, and heart, and soul. 

For the unlettered gentry, Chinese has no charm. They 
keep a few learned expressions at their fingers’ ends as a sort of 
bulwark of defence, when hard pressed, but as far as possible 
they avoid the subject. Their life, s nee shut off from intellec¬ 
tual pleasure, consists in material pleasures,dress arid enjoyment. 
Tuns class of scholar is exceedingly common in Korea. In im¬ 
maculate v hite he emerges from the holes and corners of every 
mud village. It he is an official of importance lie does not walk 
alone, but is assisted by the arms on each side. If he ventures | 
by himself, it >s with a magnificent stri !e that clears the street 
of indifferent passers, and commands only onlookers. In one 
hand a pipe, three feet long, in the other a fan; over his eyes 
two immense discs of dark crystal, not to assist him in seeing, 
but to insure his being seen. How precious these are! Many a 
man will forego the necessaries of life, if only he cm gain a pair 
of Kyenrj-ju crystals, and so cover himself with glory before an 
onlooking assemble qe. 

I once off Midi d greatly against yv in nil effort to befriend 
an impecunious gentleman, who had told me of his financial 
embarassments. lie was wearing at the ti ne a pair of dark 
crystals and thinking to make tint a present under form of a 
purchase I eff red hi u six American dullais fur his glasses. 
He wns amaZ'-d to think that I should virtually ask them for 
nothing, for he had paid equal to fifteen, and a bargain they had 
been at that. This is one of the absurdities of the oritr.t, where 
a man pays equal to two or i*.ive months* ontbe income lor 
son ©tiling abs< lately worthless It was on the same ] rineiple 
that Chinese cavalry tode. into the battle of hyeng-yang. v. ir.h fan 
and paper umbrella, the servants bringing iq> the rear with 
Winchester rifles. 

This impminiositv of the Koicmi g i- il- . a rrn- 

found mystery. I have figured ior wins on hie q\ 1 as to 
l ow an idle man, who has nothing h it to-dgy, shall um.ive to¬ 
morrow, but be lives dressed just as well, and misses none of his 
meals. He will tell you frankly that the last of his hopes for a 


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4 THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. [January, 

livelihood have perished, that he is financially a total wreck, 
that bis present condition is one of clinging to tlie rocks, where 
he is every moment in danger ot the devouring element. You 
are exercised deeply on hi* behalf, much more deeply than the 
man is himself. Months pass and be is still in the same condi¬ 
tion, no better, no worse By way of encouragement I have 
said, "You have managed to eat and live for this month. Just 
continue on in the san e manner and you will do veiy well.’’ 
“Eat and live?” says he, ‘ Of course even dogeats and lives. You 
would not expect tne to lie down and die would you?” and he 
leaves you in disgust feeling that the delicate points of an 
oriental qu°stion can never penetrate the shell that encases the 
“barbarian's” brains. 

The fact that tradesmen and business people are regarded 
as low, encourages the Korean gentleman to neglect thought and 
training in this line. He is a veritable child in business. Many a 
foreigner entrusts his affairs to his native teacner and then 
wonders why they should turn out so unsatisfactory at the 
hands of a native of the country. It is explained on the ground 
that a man may be a foreigner and yet be incapable of taking 
command of a foreign ship. If business must lie done, an hon¬ 
est “boy” will quite outdo in executive Bkill the hot and most 
honest scholar. 

Not only in business relations, hut in other matters of life 
the Korean gentleman is a master of inaccuracy. Be pretends 
to be absolutely certain of everything uud*»r the sun, and no 
object evr-r daunts hm , or is leyond Ins ability to elucidate. 
The slightest clew gives ■ im a key to the wl ole. Mere ly lot him 
see the sn oke from the funi el, ai d he will explain to you the 
why and wbereloreol a steam-ciq ine Tie will tell you what 
a comet’B tail is composei'of, or what color the dog is ilint caus¬ 
es the eclipse of the moon. He compares the. minor details of 
life about him, with wi at wet t on in the days of king Sun 
(2255 B. C.) with as much certainty ns we would talk of yester¬ 
day. The barbarian Imm the west begins to think what a 
marvel for information the man is, and what a fund of accurate 
knowledge for him to ai quire, and he a heathen tco. It is only 
when you put liisstatei. entsto the test tl at y>u find he is wrong 
in everything. By the rarest accident he may be right oc¬ 
casionally but it is the exception and :s purely accidental. He 
has no intention of deceiving you. The delect lies in the fact 
that there is something ladieally wrong in bis manner of reason¬ 
ing, his premises and conclusion are strangely out of harmony. 

He has a profound contempt for woman, speaking of her 
generally as Ke-chip or female. He takes for wife the one his 


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THE KOREAN GFNTLEMAN. 


5 


1898.] 

father bargains for him raising no question as to her looks, 
health, or avoirdupois. She is a subject altogether beneath 
his consideration, as a member of the male sex, with its massiv 3 
understanding. She is relegated to the inner enclosure, and lives 
a sec uded life. He refers to her as kosild (what-you-may-call- 
hei) or keu (she) and never loses an opportunity of showing how 
li.tie is the place she occupies in his extensive operations. If 
the truth were told, however, we would know that the I ttle wo¬ 
man. with delicately tinted skirts, within that enclosure, is by 
no means the cypher he pretends her to be, that she »s really 
mas er, commander, and skipper ot the entire institution, and 
that no man was ever more thoroughly under petticoat govern¬ 
ment thin the satre Korean gentleman. 

His prime object is to have a son who will sacrifice to his 
shades, when he is dead and gone. ') be boy is expected to obey his 
father implicitly. If he but develop this trait, he may grow up 
to be quite as useless or more so than his sire and yet be a model 
eon. If no son is born to him, he adopts a nephew or nrar relative 
as the best substitute under the circumstance, but the stranger 
never wholly takes the place of the real son, who is regarded in 
this Hie, as his strorig right arm and in the life to come, as his 
eternal satisfaction. 

In order to make sure of this eternal life thro posterity, 
the gentleman marries his son off when he is still a mere boy, some^ 
times but nine or ten years of age. Child marriage is one of the 
old and respected customs of Korea, and the reason it is not more 
common is the fact that it requires an outlay of money, that parents 
are not always willing or able to make, and so the lad is some¬ 
times left unmarried until he can provide for himself. 

_ The serious question in the life of a Korean gentleman is the 
service of his ancestor’s shades. His life is marked by periods of 
mourning, three years for parents, and lesser periods for those 
more distant A succession of fasting and feasting, requiring forms 
of dress, and outlays ot mooey, consumes more of his time and 
means than the service of the living. But to neglect these forms 
would degrade him to the level of a Mohammedan who had re¬ 
nounced his faith. 

We have glimpses occasionally of the gentleman’s ability as he 
shares in the games of the outer guest-chamber. Chess, und paiok 
a kind of draughts, he plays frequently. A half hour’s teaching 
will show him the moves on a foreign chess board, and a very re¬ 
spectable player he becomes from the outset His best work is seen 
in the leisurely development of the game. I have seen excellent 
players who had no gift whatever for the solving of a problem. 
When one attempt failed, he would give it up and say, “It can’t be 


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6 


the Korean* repository. 


[January- 

done.” This again proves the jellyfish in his nature, his condition 
being passive not active. Anything like a determined effort he is 
entirely incapable of, as the mollusk is incapable of performing the 
feats of the shark or swordfish. Were we to choose one common 
saying from the language that enters more largely into the life and 
character of a Korean gentleman than anything else it would be 
Hal su vpta —There is no help for it, or It can’t be done. 

A marked characteristic of the Korean gentleman and his 
home, is entire respectability. There is frankness and freedom in 
speech, but no looseness, and few conditions exist that would in 
any way offend in the best-ordered western household. Strange to 
say, even in a home where there are a number of concubines, 
propriety and good order obtain. 

I once made a journey in company with a strict and devout 
Korean Confucianist. He had heard much of Christ and Chris¬ 
tianity, and while he assented to and rejoiced in whatever of it 
agreed with his ancient faith he remained a Confucianist firm as ever. 
We took ship from one of the eastern ports, and started for Japan. 
He had heard of the adoption of western life and custom in the 
Sunrise Kingdom and was desirous to sec something of the benefits 
it would c<mfer upon a race. The first sight that met him was 
the depravity of the women. “Selling themselves,” says he, “in 
the eyes of the public and for copper money too.” A year's residence 
confirmed him in the belief that what he had seen was not an 
exception, but a natural trait. “Where women are so depraved, 
the men must be equally so. They know nothing: of Confucius 
and no fear of God is before their eyes. Western civih'zation only 
tends to encourage such depravity.” He lived as in a kind of 
nightmare, horror-stricken by sights that he had never dreamed 
of in his isolated kingdom. He saw two drunken English and 
American sailors, and the so-called “respectables,” whose life was 
merely pleasure seeking. “Your Christ,” says lie “has but a 
meagre hold upon you after all.” He had put off his Korean dress, 
and laid aside his top-knot, but his heart remained still faithful 
to the garments of his ancient faith. The more lie saw of life 
abroad, the more he sighed for his straw thatch and mud hut, 
where modesty and virtue had honor still, and where life was lived 
with some degree of regard for the teachings of the ancient sages. 

So lie passes from us, one of the last and most unique remains 
of a civilization that lias lived its day. His composure, his mastery 
of self, his moderation, his kindliness, his scholarly attainments, 
his dignity, his absolute uoiKl-tbr-iiothingiicss, or better, unfitness 
for the world he lives in, all combine to make him a mystery of 
humanity that you cannot but feel kindly toward, and intensely 
interested in. 

Jas. S. Gale. 


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1898.] 


THE ORCHARD IN SEOUL IN 1897. 


7 


THE ORCHARD IX SEOUL IN 1897. 

H AD you asked me to tell the distant readers of your esteemed 
magazine, for their amusement if not their edification, 
something about the }x»litical situation in Korea, during 
the past one or two years, I would not have hesitated a mo¬ 
ment in saying what I think. But you are not that kind of a 
man. Xor is your magazine of that character. But when I am 
asked lor a review of the situation of the orchardist in Daihar, 
especially in Seoul, during the past year, I am full of hesitation 
and delay, as this late reply indicates, for I have not to any extent 
gone into the orchards and gardens of our friends, nor have I 
talked much to them on this palatable subject. 

My experience during that time has been almost entirely 
limited to my own acre of herbage and its varied fruits. This 
acre consists of .soil made productive recently only by unremitting 
labor. The greater part of it has a slight inclination to the south, 
with some terraces, altho other parts of it are quite level and are 
apt to retain too much water during excessive rainfalls. As all 
know, gathered fruits rot where there is too much dampness and 
change of temjierature, so are growing fruits damaged by too 
much water. In fact young trees even, and shrubs are soon 
drowned out under similar circumstances. And our 1897 rain¬ 
fall during the fruit season was, if not prodigious, as the pen was 
about to .say, certainly very exceptional, for the amount was about 
double that of an average rainy season. That is, forty-five to 
fifty inches, for the regular rainy season was ushered in by three 
weeks of almost continuous showers, beginning the night of June 
(th, tho immediately followed by a severe drought. The surplus¬ 
age of rain, it is generally thought, affected deleteriousl y all fruits 
m oreor lass, and some disastrously; tho not always in the same 
way. The^suiinner apple ?—Early Harvest, Red Astrachan, Red 
June, Sweet June and Jcrsev Sweet—under the influence of the 
early June rain, grew very fast and then began to ripen during 
the warm and rainless days of the latter part of the month, only 
to be caught in this natural process by the regular and soaking 
rains of that season, when the apples again began to grow, as you 


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8 


the Korean REPOSITORY. [January, 

no doubt have often observed branches do just so after such rains. 
Upon the trees which had been well fertilized, as all summer apple 
trees especially should be, like the peach, this additional growth 
of the ripening fruits was so great that the apples growing (from 
the centre) faster than the skin, broke open in one, two or three 
places, the fissure sometimes extending half-way around. 

This was not the worst of the injury, for into these openings 
several ravenous beetles, seemingly too large or too nauseating for 
the gullets of some of our chickens, burrowed themselves clear out 
of sight and, if not molested, were with their voracious appetites, 
not long in devouring all under cover of the skin which nature 
had provided as a protection to the developing nectars of the in¬ 
terior. This gluttonous beetle seems to thrive almost exclusively 
upon these disruptive fissures as do lawyers and dip'omnts upon 
the misfortunes and mistakes of the weak of their fellow kind. 1 
have said so many bad things about these beetle imps that 1 am 
restrained from continuing in that line for fear that the good 
reader may finally conclude that I am prejudiced. 1 would not 
accuse them wrongfully. It must be acknowledged therefore that 
they never asked me the loan of an implement to make an open¬ 
ing into a healthy apple, as the leaders of the grasshopper hosts 
are said to have done one year in arid parts of Kansas to get 
down to the potatoes after eating off the tops. 

And the beetles have my thanks that they seemed satisfied 
with two or three weeks of such hospitality ns I could afford. In 
some western countries, notably the United States, there is a later 
brood of beetles (coming in Sf ptember), which prey upon succulent 
fruit. If a second brood is also developed here, as seems probable, 
the lack of daintv fruit in the orchard or the sharp end of the 
hornet may have kept them aw ay from my trees. More probably 
the latter was the cause, for there is no fruit many of us believe, 
more delicious tlian the pear w hich ripens about that time. 

The ravenous beetle is not the only epicure of the Korean 
ore ard. There is another—the wasp or hornet, just ns fond of 
delicacies. And it does not seem satisfied, like the beetle, with a 
sojourn on a few trees with specially sweet juices, but, armed as 
it is, lays trihute upon the wdiole orchard, as remorselessly and 
indiscriminately as the Korean soldier with his sticket has been 
known to have done upon a province. The hornet, more tardy 
at the feast than the beetle, when it does arrive is at once giver 
the place of honor, and in supremacy tarries as long as it finds the 
least sign of hospitality. 

The skin was no protection against the formidable battery 
these freebooters carry around with them—dangerous at e : ther 
end. By the middle of October we had to gather in the last of 


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1898.] THE ORCHARD IX SEOUL IX 1897. 9 

the fall and winter apples, because of the hornets’ attacks on the 
sweeter and more tender varieties. The healthiest of these, ex¬ 
cepting the very hard or late varieties were not proof against their 
attacks. Several of these depredators, seemingly a brood work¬ 
ing on the communistic plan, soon made breaches. Several times 
I found apples (pears as well) healthy in appearance in the middle 
of the forenoon, which early in the afternoon had only form with¬ 
out substance, several of these creatures having made a crater as 
if also provided with dynamite, and burrowed into it like the 
beetle out of sight, only the skin and form of the apple remaining. 
And it must further be said of them that they are as impudent 
as the magpie and as ungrateful as the average Korean. 

Endowed by nature with more curiosity than wisdom, as a 
Korean ediet would say, several times I sought to learn what was 
taking place in the crater. Dynamite surely enough thought 
I as they resented disturbance when in the enjoyment of the feast 
I had been instrumental in providing them. It was several days 
before I began to forget my experience on one of these occasions, 
when I received sensible proof that the order of nature is some¬ 
times reversed, and the females carry stinging rapiers around 
with them. These two pests—the beetle and hornet—must be 
dealt with individually, in the orchard. And no one needs advice 
as to whether he should carry about with him a battle-axe or 
bludgeon, if fowl and ordinary care in the destruction of larvae, 
Ac., do not prevent the ruinous production of the pests. 

But I did not finish about the effects of the excessive rains. 
In the lower parts of my orchard where water was most likely 
to stand, the leaves and some of the fruit on several of the trees 
were spotted with an apparently fungus yellow growth. The 
leaves contained many spots, while the fruit usually had only one 
or two. But these one or two gradually grew from the merest 
discoloration observable by the eye, until the whole apple was 
converted into a spongy, fermenting mass. This tiny discoloration 
of the skin, as if it had been stung by an insect, was the first indi¬ 
cation observable that all was not right with the fruit. If left 
on the tree, the spot in any case did not grow' to any size before 
the apple fell, and soon lotted thereafter. Learning this we plucked 
all tlias affected and cooked them, for only the grown or nearly 
full-grown apples were thus affected, and these were fall or early 
winter apples. However, it probably was the location and not 
the character of the apple that mast bear the blame for this disease, 
for similar apples in better drained parts of the orchard were less, 
if at all, affected. I have seen it stated that if these colored and 
slightly swollen spots upon the leaves are opened they will be 
found to contain myriads of infusoria. Having no microscope I 


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10 the KOREAN repository. [January, 

could not test the question. Another statement was that the order 
of nature was reversed there in some mysterious way—the leaves 
and green fruit ordinarily giving out oxygen and absorbing carbonic 
acid from the atmosphere, in this diseased condition absorbed 
oxygen and gave out carbonic acid, like ripe fruit. 13ut this 
question does not affect us practically. 

A friend when looking at my trees and hearing the opiuion 
that excess of rain caused the dropping and opening of apples and 
some other fruits, asked me if I was sure of my ground. Well, 
it may now be said with due humility, in reply, that I am not at 
all as dogmatic about such matters as I am when my friend Dr. 
S-prescribes ipecacuanha instead of Enos’ Fruit Salts for me. 

But this indiscriminate falling or opening of several different 
kinds of fruit never occurred in my Korean orchard before. 
This peculiarity came with the exceptional amount of rain. More¬ 
over, after a very heavy rain of two or three days, only such 
apples as were nearly ripe w r ere affected so far as bursting open is 
concerned—fall and winter apples of slower growth not being 
affected at all in that way, altho later, as we have seen, began 
to rot and drop off Apples (wind-falls), will as we all know, 
drop off prematurely in windy weather and during drouth. 

But the apples this year were not subject to either of these 
conditions. On the contrary, the fall atmosphere was unusually 
quiet, and water was given without stipulated price, the spirits 
controlling such matters in this land of superstitions, responding 
generously to the appeals and offerings of the delegated official 
during the June drouth. After a heavy rain there generally 
remained upon the trees some apples not far enough advanced 
towards maturity to break open. We were always hoping that 
they would ripen before another rain came. Some, indeed many 
of them did. But, if not, the next rain was sure to have the 
effect of bursting those approaching maturity. And this was also 
observed with the apricots which were ripening about the same 
time. In fact, in the case of the apricots, when an extremely 
heavy rain came and opened some of them, if another heavy rain 
did not very soon occur, the fissure in the skin seemingly healed 
and the fruit ripened as if nothing unusual had overtaken it, thus 
showing a natural resistance to the unusual conditions. This was 
also sometimes the case with apples when the fissure was slight 
but the apples generally suffered more from the mishap than the 
apricots did. 

There are two other important matters, especially, which it 
may be well to talk about to our good readers, altho some of them 
may, as well as myself, have been making observations which 
during the past year have in my mind clirystalized into maxim®. 


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THE OllCEAlt t) IN SEOUL IN 1807. 


11 


1898.] 


The borer and the aphis have extravagant appetites and are am¬ 
bitious in their climbing propensities—preying upon the more 
tender branches which shoot out from year to year on the upjjer 
tree. In a young tree the borer found succulent food from the 
ground up. Now when it has reached four or five years of age 
and has noth care escaped the great danger of destruction from a 
borer tunnelling thro its body, it has little further danger to en¬ 
counter in that respect, especially if some additional care be be¬ 
stowed by working around the base of the tree and putting ashes 
of coal and its kindling-wood there in the late fall. But there 
still is dancer, tho of a different character and less troublesome. 
The mother beetle lays her eggs during June in the crotches of 
the upper limbs. 

You may have noticed the grub’s entrance of a limb—the 
first bole it makes is ju«t above a crotcb. It does not descend— 
the gormand has inherited more discrimination—it delves into 
the tenderest shoots large enough to admit its telescoping joints, 
growing as it gnaws its wav along until the limb becomes too 
small for the expanding body, too confining for its liberty-loving 
self. It retraces its path, and il the season is not too far ad¬ 
vanced the borer similarly damages the oth?r limb springing from 
the crotch. In any case, before frosty weather overtakes it. it 
closes the upper hole, seemingly for security, and descends to 
hibernate where it is protected by thicker wood and bark. The 
older the tree gets, seemingly the higher are the crotches where 
the eggs are laid and the less danger is there that the body of the 
tree or its large limbs will be attacked. A little care will now protect 
the tree from further si.i ilar damage. When the borer is ascend¬ 
ing in the spring or early autumn, it is quite impracticable to 
reach it with kerosene, tobacco or carbolic acid. But in the fall 
when it has begun to descend, this treatment, alter finding the 
uppermost hole, may be adopted with advantage, if one prefeis 
this n ethod. My own experience, however, directs to the knife 
and amputation. 

The of her of the pests—the aphis—I have specially experi¬ 
mented with on two or three trees. There is abundant experi¬ 
ence teaching the necessity of feeding the trees well, for they 
need vigor as do animals, to resist disease, and insect attack 
it may be said, for disease in all nature perhaps is mostly 
caused by insects or germ pests. Hut even the healthiest in ap- 
[learance sometimes suffer under certain conditions as when gerrn- 
prodtiring stable manure is used too exclusively as a fertilizer. 
Very little about this insect, besides what has already appeared in 
this magazine, need be stated, for it is not so destructive ot vitality 
in the tree as the borer. But it has as discriminating a taste 


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12 the Korean REPOSITORY. [January, 

and attacks only the leaves of the new shoots on the young limbs. 
Two or three of ray trees were specially attacked about three 
years ago. 

Not getting rid of the insect by the use of ordinary washes, 
after repeated rough applications (lacking a sprayer), the 
affected limbs were cut off and burned. No sooner did new 
shoots spring out. the same year or the next, than they were 
attacked more voraciously than those cut away had been. Neither 
of these trees has borne any fruit, or bloom for that matter, du¬ 
ring these three years, for every year the same course was pur¬ 
sued towards them, to determine the best course to pursue in the 
future, with the result that they were more furiously attacked 
after each successive amputation. The conclusion reached me 
finally as I bad divined it would, that we had simply (in both 
senses) been cutting away branches which under the ordinary 
provisions of nature and with a little more care would soon have 
grown vigorous and beyond the attacks of the predatory insect, 
to be supplanted by new and tender shoots and leaves specially 
suited if not adapted to the palate of that voracious feeder. Since 
I quit purveying fcr these insects, prospects have appeared for 
fruit on these trees the coming year. There is an important 
lesson conveyed in these facts. 

The pear is another fruit which suffered from excessive rain¬ 
fall, and especially where there was not good drainage, both sur¬ 
face and underground. Altbo the leaves showed very little if 
any such injury as did the apple leaves the fruit was injured by 
very yellow spots similar to those upon the apple. Even some 
young pears were thus affected but the growth of the diseased 
portion seemed to be slower than that upon the other fruit; 
eventually, however, causing the pears to fall and to rot instead 
of to ripen. This disease showed itself more or less upon three 
trees.' The one that suffered most is situated upon level ground 
where there is but little surface or underground drainage. 

There was but little “set” of fruit on this tree and only a 
small fraction of that little remained on the tree to ripen. 

The next severe sufferer is under and close to a terrace 
whose drainage it received besides its own share of the direct 
downpour of rain. Early in the season it had a beautiful set 
of fruit; but perhaps two thirds of it was destroyed by this dis¬ 
ease and the hornet. The other of the three trees, with better 
surface drainage than the other two, suffered less from disease. 
Three other bearing trees, more favorably situated, exhibited no 
signs of that disease, altbo there was an uu usual falling of unripe 
fruit. As more than the usual amount of fruit was left upon 
these three trees in the spring, they may have been overtaxed, 


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1898.] THE ORCHARD IN SEoHL IN 1897. 13 

yet I am inclined to ascribe the falling mostly to excessive 
amount of water in the soil. It may be of interest to have the 
feet mentioned that the three trees which escaped the yellows 
were Bartlett, while two of the three affected ones were rot. 
The ripening pears, like the apple, suffered from the attack of 
the hornet tho not from the borer. I observed on these trees 
signs of no other preying insect or disease, excepting a few aphis 
upon one tree, which a nest of red ants at the base of the tree 
soon destroyed—at least what a drenching of soap-suds left of 
them—notwithstanding it is said that the ant milks them for 
the sweets they contain. This wonderfully interesting and in¬ 
telligent insect seems to treat the aphides as man treats the or¬ 
ange. I had almost forgotten that a few pears were pierced by 
the codling-moth, causing their premature falling. This had ndt 
happened before. If memory does not fail me, I am right in 
saying that no other of the surrounding fruit suffered this year 
from that insect, altbo the apple in some places seems to be its 
favorite fruit. The chickens may have destroyed many of them. 
May it also be said, in this out-of-the-way place, that the mis¬ 
chief-loving magpies did not trouble any fruit this year as they 
did the late apples last year. 

Peaches aJso suffered from excess of rain. Tb^y. -and the 
nectarines, later in maturing than the apricot, suffered extremely 
from the yellows (may the disease be called ?), the leaves coloring, 
curling, and thickening, retarding the growth of all fruit on 
the same limb. A very young tree which, unattackad by dis¬ 
ease or insects, bad the year before borne quite a number of 
fruit, lost all of its half grown fruit this year, "by withering, 
rather by shrinking and falling, altbo it suffered comparatively 
little from the insects which took possession of other trees of 
that species. ThuB, the aphides, coming as they do in myriads, 
notwithstanding tobacco and lime, have been the yang-bans of 
the peach orchard in the Kingdom of Korea. 

Let us hope the Empire of Daihan may be more fortunate 
—may be more than a name and have a panacea for evils of 
every kind. Any resident may Batisfy himself, if he will only 
observe when the harvest of leaves and fruit is approaching, 
what myriads of ravenous animal life, rush frantically around up 
nr.d down, remorselessly climbing over each other to get at the 
harvest, destroying everything within reach, yavg-bavA\ke t with¬ 
out care of the morrow. It is not certain that the later rains 
were not in a measure a benefit to trees which had suffered the 
r wages of this pest for three weeks, for some fruit whose healthy 
gn wth had consequently ceased, began as the insect disappeared, 
to renew their growth. However, the matured peaches were not 


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Origirt^l fipm'-.ifi’ 
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



14 traE KOBE a it repository. [January, 

so good as they would have been with a eteady growth especi¬ 
ally as every peach but one had been pierced by the curcnlio. 
But this one, a late Crawford, satisfied me that the freestone as 
well as the cling, grown successfully the year before, will do well 
here if the trees can be depopulated by the use of Eordeaux 
mixture or other insecticide. Apricot-trees were not so seriously 
attacked by the aphis as some peach-trees, both foreign and na¬ 
tive, and therefore growing right along, suffered only, as already 
said, severely by the bursting of the skin, which the peaches 
escaped doubtlessly because they had ceased to grow when the 
ravages of the insect were so severe. 

The basket-worm, a caterpillar, was another parasite upon 
the apricot trees, devouring the leaves. They had done much 
damage before they were discovered, when we prescribed the 
torments of sulphur burned under their noses and quieted them 
for the season at least. A little later, however, a full-bearing 
plum tree was similarly attacked and successfully doctored in a 
similar manner. An occasional plum was also bursted open, 
altho the tree is upon well-drained ground. But the fruit was 
free, from the attacks of curculio, or codling-moth, and wasps. 

Cherries on well drained ground entirely escaped disease 
and insect (even bird) attacks. 

Grapes, a delicious fruit for so many people, I fain would 
not have to write that they especially, altho eighty per cent of 
their composition is water, are, like the water-meloD, fond of 
plenty of breathing-spell between drinks. 

It is pertinent to say I once put in one hundred and fifty 
acres of an arid region in corn, and left three men tented upon 
the field to regulate the irrigation. They by neglect suffered the 
corn, which is fond of water, to get too much, the consequence 
being tLat there were no ears, altho the stalkB grew to sixteen 
and more feet in height, and as fodder saved me my outlay. 
Even in countries not havirg so continuous a rainy season as 
we have here the successful grape grower as in southern Italy, 
Switzerland, &c., locates his vineyard upon hillsides and slopes, 
to be sure of proper drainage. I have in mind three places I 
visited during the bearing season of this year. At two of these 
were vines growing and spreading maguificently, literally weighed 
down with fruit half grown, impelled in its early growth by 
the first rains. So far well. But, unfortunately, the rains con¬ 
tinued, and clusters continued to grow and new ones to come, 
grapes shrank, new ones too late to ripen crowded themselves 
among the old which fell in quantities to cover the ground. Ex¬ 
cess of water few will question was here primarily the cause 
of the failure to have an abundance of good fruit; but it was 


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THE ORCHARD IN SEOUL IN 1897. 


15 


1898.] 


secondarily due to too much growth of wood which could have 
been prevented by proper pruning. The third place was that 
of Doctor, whom I have been abusing. 

Here a vine was on a gentle slope to the south, and judging 
from the color, with enough iron in the soil (like that of the south¬ 
ern point of Italy), to keep up a vigorous and healthy growth. 
Altho this vine was subject to the same rains which drenched 
the other two, there was upon it, young as it was an abundance 
of excellent fruit. My own young vines are not so favorably 
situated as this one, and suffered from the rains. In the mosr. 
unfavorable locations the leaves colored and were preyed upon by 
insects, and there was much shrivelled, imperfect and unripe fruit. 
However, much of the damage was caused by borers, tor I dug 
out seven of these plagues which had ruined several of the prin¬ 
cipal vines. It seems to be the same borer, with a black-pointed 
auout, a3 infeBts the willow in the orchard. It has the habit of 
the flat-headed apple-tree borer, of descending in the fall and 
n ay generally he tound within two or three inches of the lower 
hole which is filled with saw-dust from its grinders. 

About berries it need only he said that they seemed to be 
EUJcessfully grnwn in nearly all situations, independent of the 
character of the season, and by nearly everybody, for there was 
always an interval between rains long enough for some of the 
shortlived fruit, on rich soil to grow and ripen, even tho others 
were injured by too much moisture. 

I have not thought it necessary to take np space for a de¬ 
scription of the condition of native fiuits. Only may it be said 
about the favorite one—the persimmon—tl at so much of its 
growth is (like that of the winter apple) after the raiuy season, 
that it dees not seem to have been injured by the excessive 
rain-fall, an .1 may be looked upon, in its deliciousness, asan evolu¬ 
tion of peculiar climatic conditions. One very readily understands 
why the pear, both native and foreign, are grown here so 
successfully. The composition of the palatable substance of 
the pear and persimmon, judging from the taste, is probably 
about the same. And the pear contains nearly ninety-five 
tiroes as much sugar as free acid—more than any other of the 
above-named fruits unless it be the persimmon. It is true that 
grapes, like the Concord, contain nearly double the quantity of 
sugar that the pear does; but it also contains so much acid that 
one's palate is rot sensible of the real amount of sugar. I men¬ 
tion this because it bears upon the subject of improving the 
quality of fruit by cultivation. Cultivation increases the quan¬ 
tity of sugar, and diminishes the amount of free acid and in¬ 
soluble matter in fruit. The better the cultivation, therefore, the 


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16 


the koreak repository. [January, 

better becomes the pear, for instance. In fact the limitation of 
comparative acidity and insoluble matters improves the tastes of 
all fruits. 

Notwithstanding the excessive rain-fall and insect ravages, 
the quality, excejA as to keeping, of most of the fruit was not 
below the average of other years; and the quantity, especially 
of apricots and summer apples, not long subject to the injurious 
effects of rain, even of pears, was much above the average. The 
“Ben Davis” and “King” apples were exceptionally large this 
year, many weighing nearly a pound. 

Mr. Appenzeller would, perhaps, somewhat modify the 
conclusions from this article for the city generally, were he to 
kindly add a few words about his own experience and that of his 
immediate neighbors with fruit3. 

Wm. McE. Dye. 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



1898.] 


THINGS IN GENERAL 


17 


THINGS IN GENERAL. 

Country Notes:— 

I N the southeastern part of Kyeng kui province, west of the 
road from Iclion to Chong-ju sa chang, is a mountain 
standing somewhat off by itsvlf. It is conical in shape, sur¬ 
mounted by a rugged, rocky peak which leans very much to¬ 
wards the south. The shape of the mountain and the inclina¬ 
tion of the peak make it look like a Korean with his lace towards 
the south. This led in ancient times to its being called the 
Tiaitor Mountain. All other mountains, it was sai 1, face Seoul. 
This one turns his back on the royal city. So when a traitor 
had been executed and his mutilated holy had been circulated 
around the eight provinces together with the proclamation of his 
crime the head was brought to this mountain and thro wnaway 
there. At least those in charge collected their wages and wine 
money for so disposing of the body. Near this moun ain are 
several smaller ones said to resemble a constable and his assist¬ 
ants who presumably aid to catch the traitor. 

On these journeys around the provinces, the bin lings in 
charge of the body could not resist the temptation to "makehay 
while the sun shone.” For instance, they would arrive at a 
market-place, hunt up the salt merchant’s shop and inform the 
proprietor that as they were commissioned to carry this head 
around the provinces, and as the head was about to spoil, he 
would have to supply enough salt to salt it down. The merchant 
would persuade them that the head wi.uld keep till they reached 
the next salt merchant, who lived just around the corner or over 
the hill, using that kind of jingling ] rsuasion to which Korean 
government servants are reported to he very susceptible. 

• Then they turned their attention to find the carpenter’s 
shop and told the proprietor that they needed a box in which to 
carry the head. He replied in the same brazen-tongued langauge 
and they passed on to the seller of cotton goods and demanded 
some cotton cloth in which to wrap the head; and again yielded 

to the same artful persuasion. 

***** 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



18 


THE EOBEAN REPOSITORY. 


[January, 


Like all oppressed people the Koreans enjoy a story in 
which their oppressors figure as the conquered. One of their 
stories is as follows. A yang-ban was walking thro the village 
and as he passed some men, who were eating in front of their 
houses, one of them greeted his highness with, “Have you 
dined?” Hi8 highness replying? “No,” the plebeian said good 
naturedly, tbo perhaps with a little too much familiarity, 
“Then come and eat with us.” His highness with becoming 
indignation replied, “This fellow! Do you ask a yang-1 an to eat 
with a low fellow like you? Bind him and give him ten strokes.” 

Later on, hard times came to the yang-ban and he wan¬ 
dered thro the village on an empty stomach, and with no prospect 
of filling it. Perhaps not wholly accident illy he came across a 
group of men eating by the roadside. One of th mi politely 
asked, “Have you eaten?” “No,” he replied, and r.n awkward 
silence followed. Then his highness with his old time dignity 
administered the proper censure; “This fellow! why don’t you 
invite me to eat?” *T was afraid to invite such a high yang- 
ban to eat with such a low fellow.” But his highness did not 
bear the reply—perhaps he was thinking of something else, for 
he approached a little nearer the tabb s looking w if h longing 
eves at their contents. “What are you eaiingV' ’ he asked. 
‘Large-grained barley.” “Is that so? if it hud been small 
grained-barley I should have refused, but as it is large grained, 

I’ll take some.” And be sat down, a man among men. 

* * * * * 

In the hill below the four government store-houses from 
which Chong-ju sa chang gets its name, is a large grave-mound 
somewhat flattened by great age. It lies in a square surrounded 
—all but a small gatew ay 7 —by a wall of earth also showing great 
age. There is a pleasant simplicity about the grave, an absence 
of images and sacrificial tables that, along with the walled square, 
mark the grave as peculiar. It is ‘aid to belong to the old Song- 
do times and is the grave of the ancestor of the Min family. The 
Koreans say it is famous for fortunate situation as is proven by 

the prosperity of that family. 

♦ * * * * 

The Koreans from close and constant observations know a 
few facts about the natural history of certain insects, which facts 
do not appear in the books treating on those subjects. 

As I arose one morning from the superheated floor, if you 
can so speak of a floor that is heated from below, I asked half 
aloud and half to myself, “Was it fleas or bedbugs?” Then 
lifting up my cotton mattreas, I looked under it and said in the 
same dreamy way: “It must have been fleas for if it had been 


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THINGS tX GENERAL. 


ID 


1898.] 

bedbugs there would be some under here.” Whereat my Ko¬ 
rean companion in misery laughed at my ignorance and said; 
“Why no! bedbugs always run away when they hear the cock 
crow in the morning!” 

* * * * * * * 

One often sees remains of Buddhist monasteries here and there 
over the country and he is apt to think it a sign of the decay of 
Buddhism. He may be right, but the Koreans have another ex¬ 
planation. They say the priests have to move their monasteries 
every once ii a while. They may not kill the insects. They can 
carry th en^o ut into the woods near by and lose them, but like 
lost cats ft^y may come home again, aud anyhow the woods in 
time become full of them and the monastery must be moved. 
There is that oft-told story about the monastery that was moved 
500 years ago and where, the Koreans affirm, if you turn up a 

stone anywhere on the mountain side you will find bedbugs. 

* * * * * * * 

The dutiful son in Korea has what he thinks a pleasant way 
of sharing his filial piety. We might not think it cheeerful, but 
as long as his parents are so pleased and satisfied it must be all 
right. 

As soon as the parents reach the age of sixty years, the son 
buys and lays away—often in a conspicuous place—the coffins that 
shall contain their earthly remains. It sometimes makes one feel 
slightly melancholy—-perhaps nervous—to be entertained for the 
night in a room that contains these coffins. One night we were 
so located. The coffin was resting on two rafters that extended 
along the end wall of the room—such as are found in all country 
houses and are so useful for holding the household clothing and 
for bumping your head. The ends of these rafters extended thro 
the wall and projected a foot or two under the eaves on the court¬ 
yard side. On these ends the chickens roosted. There would be 
nothing about these innocent facts to make one nervous, but the 
chickens did not sleep well. They turned over frequently and 
every time their toe-nails scratched the rafters the coffin, acting as 
a sounding-board, sent out sounds such as ghost stories say dead 
men make when they turn in their coffins. 

A Korean stood the sound as long as he could and then got up 
and investigated the coffin, but the host assured us that it was 
the chickens turning over. This assurance, however, did not cure 
the insomnia of his chickens nor the consequent insomnia of his 
guests, till the sun rose and the crowing of roosters, the stamping 
and neighing of houses, the squealing of pigs, the quacking of 
ducks, the crying of babies, the barking of dogs, and other noises 
human and inhuman poured in from the courtyard, drowned the 


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20 THE KOREAN repository. [January, 

noises of the chickens over turning rafters and lulled us to a 
morning nap. —Rev. F. S. Miller. 


Missionary Hardships:— 

T am very often asked, “What about missionary hardships?” 
I and in my long journeys, and in the 145 mission stations 

that I have visited in the last eight years, 1 have seen much 
of them; and I think that there are no missionaries who Mould 
not agree with me, that these hardships to which people refer and 
of which they dream at home have very little effect upon them. 
They have good houses—on the whole—good food, suitable 
clothing, and—lx\st of all—regular mails. These tilings dwelt up¬ 
on are nothing, and they would tell you they are nothing if they 
w ere asked. But it appears to me that there are most grievous 
deprivations attending missionary work which affect the spiritual 
life, and which must—unless they are battled with—lead to a 
depreciation of that life, as time goes on. 

Then there are positive dangers, and on those I would touch 
very lightly. There is the danger of “grooviness” in work and 
in spirit. Then there is the natural temptation to envy the suc¬ 
cess given to the methods and work of others, and this oltimes 
makes the heart and spirit sink. Then there is the feeling of 
having entirely sounded the mental and spiritual possibilities of 
the daily associates, and there is a stalencss in daily associations 
wliieh comes to be felt, when, perhaps, the associates for the year 
round number only two or three people. Then there is the dead¬ 
ening influence of the surroundings, which I have heard spoken 
of by many missionaries, and by none more than by the excellent 
Moravian missionaries in western Thibet. 

Then there are things which are different to their expectations. 
We often heard—but not so much, I believe, as fbrmeily—of the 
craving of the heathen for Hod, of the heathen flying as the 
doves to their windows to hear that gospel which is for the heal¬ 
ing of the nations. It is really no such thing at all. The craving 
of the oriental mind is for money, for the things of this earth, 
and not for God. The longing which is represented to exist has, 
I believe, no existence at all. The constant tendency to criticise 
small things in those living about you, and the frequent feeling 
that you are yourself the subject of unfavorable criticism from 

hose about you—these things sound, I suppose, very small; but 
t 


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1898.] THINGS IN GENERAL. 21 

they make np the sum of what we may call the private life of 
missionaries in heathen lands, and they make up an amount of 
trial to which no physical hardships would bear the slightest 
comparison. 

And I would say that these tilings press specially heavily 
upon women missionaries, because, if a man feels that there is 
friction, and that his associates are not perhaps treating him quite 
as they ought, he can go on an itinerating jourrey, or he can take 
a long walk, or perhaps even a good gallop, and the breezes blow 
it all away—and he wonders at himself for having thought this, 
that, and the other thing. But with a woman the case is differ¬ 
ent. Perhaps the naturally greater sensitiveness of a woman helps 
to make small things thought more of, and observations which 
have had no personal meaning often come to be treated as if they 
were actually personal. Then, by the custom of all oriental 
countries, a woman is deprived of these outlets which do so much 
to make life possible for a man. She is shut up within the court¬ 
yard, or goes out only in a closed chair. And so the thing grows 
and grows, till a remark which may not have had any meaning 
at all comes to embitter her life—till some fortunate breeze blows 
it away. And there are many other things on which I must not 
dwell. But I would ask the earnest and continued prayers of 
every one in this large assemblage for these, which are the real 
hardships and trials of the missionary. I have left one trial till 
the last, and that is the greatest of all, as I have been told by 
many missionaries of very many of the churches. When I have 
asked them what the greatest trial of missionary life is, they have 
told me that it is the falling away of persons whom they believed 
to be converted, and whom they had trusted as fellow-Chrisl’ans. 
—Mrs. Bishop. 

["We have to thank Mrs. Bishop for these timely words which seem to 
us to represent faithfully the real hardships and difficulties with which mis¬ 
sionaries have to contend.—E d. K. A.] 



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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



TUB KOREAN REPOSITORY 


[January, 


MY HOST. 


i lcft tlie oily on my bicycle for an absence of two weeks 
among mv hi *nda in the exxuntrv. The great street leading 
hwm the West ilate was tilled with pedeetiians, and with cat¬ 
tle Wh\l with brush for the market. The patient creatures 
wuh tl>eir huge hardens came in long lines, and in groups, and 
h.v nshx finals. tit eon par. ions tor t: eir dull leaders. Drivers sod 
hedkv'v* aeenvxl to kvk with a kvhrg of estisisciioc to the 
g**at eux gate hcyvmd wVvh they r..^l.s by tbeir heavy fcur- 
doCi* dewvg 

V :v> v.x'ir ir.'S was bright tud hea*rY. has sach a sier 
^wvxsjLvt*-. v\v ww'« iVe.'k s:\st see heart ot each iriiwranid 
a wv-u'- * ?c t>ai ec she hFVcVs hack, arc shat a sc-iSe 
had w>v»v c v*s$evi she* ho*<y Tto*::'.:r«. Vcs saashfi irsas mse 
’U.AxSk* '«j. ! wr *fe«r * hvycifK 1 r.vk cc«e s» 3 * cc :h* surest 
av • > -g ti/as ?c hr v.’,x sharw. As r. y absi r:oe£ liras 

w,- X .•» Hr».kv>W* i-.vx $a.v;*«xfc. 5 ra : . « ... :c«z ina: hcaaei. Fur 
a r-Ney ivd a tot *.r t.r.usc atic?„ iiuar_ wrsi a 

kW v'vt^, yi'i/OjSJC. vg. r i rc 'u'% ro; hr.w t.:«? rrrtarr feiut 
*m ) .MUit-i.'sk Ac^vc-wo's ?.*• ii:i? rrcuecs. rxmi % 

•t.vi»t:*-.uviov «ic*t ,v»; usvrr,. *10) r. -vie rcx-ncas zurs. Fat 
•jv\V’W vt• u ji)cu.->o it iii*:.rue-wnui.if r zmcx-usaff 

• a- ,vu<tiMV*i eo-Htix:*] I trsv-A' v .*» -v.-usaa arms -*m 

W ,'iiv sowitug )y Wits, x; .•vc a.a is- T:*nu..msn«t» 

V - 10*1 Hills ’* \ )u y. ■•••;>■-* -vittt: ’vuvi *.ne m sausra. 

»v»t jailyvv-s- -<xiiiivd t„» ;!tr scemr ncsc :t wL I tab 

V w -»xj Usoai«iV'»- 1 ,-j i: ■’•v-?. hn: era stamir ;t •amt vimai 
V. t»d in viiinv' fxust’i xiMjinuv; it ji • muu. a ^ nuanr auL- 
-iiii'.'M •!n'Mi v 'tv\u titi v'.iu :\ rtu in' 

‘>v riwt n : f :wx\f.'"‘ tin ■ jwiwtmwf « a Bsc-murat 
v i*v ' u t; :’y -..I’- i > ui iimnuiiiH'I arcs inu 

ivr.i-.-.m. ’■ .u tin • trtvviw *'.'ur rcmnanicnm rc 

-i H.vrs. -i iA-ts i»r •.■Itiiw mi> r. ^rur r.iTivixr- 
-.nv, • -i V.-. i 1 . tWiVVI.N itv: -y TsTV. UTU £“b 


. 'V v l! 

V L'v 'Mi 

*rf Kv 'i 

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iiitM u«> n ^tot r.iTir^xr- 
"i rn.h 4*4uri et - 
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1 •«. *-‘-4 tr. uv.s u *irz r inaiL 
9 ! >a! :r *9 i-‘su * 

: a 

JSa 

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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 




MY HOST. 


23 


1898.] 


monarch did not disdain to accept of its hospitalities when¬ 
ever bis journeys brought him within reach of her borders. 
Now, however, travellers study to avoid it as a village too mean¬ 
ly kept to have the care of any one’s comfort. But as all 
villages in Korea are nomadic, it is simply an indication that in 
a short time, a few centuries at least, this particular one will 
pull up stakes and wander to a better locality. My host and 
friend of previons visits met me with a hearty welcome at his 
inn door. He is a man of few words. That, we are told, is 
an evidence of deep thought and a cause for admiration. At 
least, I was not displeased that his questions and solicitude 
for ray comfort were soon over. One point of attachment 
between my ho6t and roe is our familiarity, lie beamed upon 
me pleasantly a few times, then lay down to rest his head un¬ 
evenly balanced on a wcoden pillow and was fast asleep. 

I was born with a sense of individual rights which I fear the 
Koreans do not appreciate. I don’t like to have them feel them¬ 
selves abused if they don’t know all my business; and my food 
tastes sweeter if it has not the flavor of their hands. My host 
seems to think that my peculiar taste in the matter is of no partic¬ 
ular concern and when once he accidently spilled the kerosene 
from his lamp in my supper he merely remarked that it had gone 
in. But now as he lay with his head on the wooden pillow his face 
offered a pleasant subject for reflection and compensated for dis¬ 
comforts from curious strangers. 

It is said that unconscious moments reveal a man’s greatness. 
If it is in proportion to the depth of that unconsciousness, my 
host must be a Socrates. Tho, I sometimes fear, he never comes 
wholly out of his'present state. He presently awoke. I asked for 
some Christian books which I had left with him on a previous 
visit. I had been pleased to hear him say he had studied them 
carefully. “O yes, he would get them.” He thrust his arm to the 
elbow into a dust-choked box which was hanging from the ceiling. 

The room and our throats were filled with its contents but 
he could find no books. I felt a nervous dread of looking around 
the room to find them pasted on the wall. It is to be regretted 
that the paper of Christian literature serves such good protection 
from the cold. I am sure my host can read, but why did he paste 
those leaves w'rong side up? He has a somewhat humorous face, 
but 1 would never give him credit of inventing anything ridicu¬ 
lous, much less of suggesting the acrobatic feat necessary to read 
those leaves. I concluded that he, like one of more ancient date, 
was aq honorable man and according to his word had studied. 

My meditation on Korean veracity was interrupted by my 
host fishing from beneath a pile of bean balls a half-completed 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



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!..• ’I a.v Xt Cal. i-t. r I i;C IXX*!. i- Ul St 0}»TireSS- 

**' -■---1* ii:t- irx:. tiuit Ti»f \.iia^*i ♦ ’ i* • it*t * v.'as a dark 

t: a: Lac crei: out o: tiic xreat s; . iu AA as the 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 






MV HOST. 


25 


1898.] 


present offer of the Christian faith the only voice thro which 
God had spoken for three thousand years; or did that monitor, 
conscience, the possession of * very mini’s heart, speak louder to 
them than to us who are called a more favoured people? I was 
sorry to disturb my host by entering the room lata; he scrambled 
from the floor ai d hastily pulled his coat over bis bare back, 
I tried to make amends for intruding upon bis rest, by a short 
lecture on praying before be went to sleep. He said lie would 
faithfully follow my suggestions and with a polite half self-dep¬ 
recatory motion laid his bead again on the wooden b]ock, bis 
feet stretched under my cot and w T as fast asleep. I lay down 
by the sile of the bean balls and for purer air turned my face in 
the direction of my host, and began watching the caiidle light 
play over his round features. I set to wondering when he would 
begin to pray. He may have thought that there was no fair 
dnlcinea to release on his own account. 

I don't think my 1 oet could be very wicked, his mind seems 
to take a coarse in the dire ;tion of the least resistance. 1 can, 
however, imagine that under some stress of circumstances he 
would grow fie; ce like his native tiier and stake terribly barl. 
Some time ago bis grown-up son had displeased him. He stood in 
the door. His mild face grew hard and doubly wrinkled. Hi 
let forth a volley of words that would have done credit to a labor 
boss in America. Such an outburst would have remained in the 
mind cf some, an unpleasant companion for many a day, but my 
host turned into the loom, his face alight with benevolence and 
good will. 

In the unceitain light of the room the number stretched 
upon the floor apreared uncanny. Among them was my helper, 
his high forehead thin, face, high cheek-bones and large nose, 
made me think of the mummy of Ran eses ILL His ancestry 
dates back to the time of that monarch but possessed none of the 
austerity of that race. The men upon the floor are a good rep¬ 
resentative of this relic of a people. 1 he fierce nations have 
battered each other to pieces, while mildness and flexibility have 
preserved Kotea a nation thro these thousands of years. 

We took leave of my host late in the day. He followed us on 
onr way to the lop ol a neighboring bill. As I looked back in the 
deepening twilight at bis rugged fig’ire outlined against the sky, 
he called out to my companions, “Take good care of my pastor.” 

The solicitude m his voice reminded me strangely cfa gen¬ 
tle voice that had said farewell when I left my old home years 


afeo. 


Naw. 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



26 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[January, 



EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED NINETY-SEVEN. 

T HE year 1897 was a comparatively quiet year for the Empire 
of Great Han. There was what might be called a lull in 
the storm that howls around us, at least until the sun had 
crossed the autumnal equinox. M e have the somewhat unenvi¬ 
able reputation of being the political storm-center of the Far-East. 
Vo do not say this is true. For the last year, the major part at 
least, there was a low, cold, conservative wind Wowing nearly the 
whole tune, which in the last few months changed into a good stiff 
breeze. Rut w r e round up the year, if not in the desired haven 
of peace, prosperity and progress, at any rate headed for that port 
The first event of importance was the removal of the king 
from the Russian Legation to his own Palace, the Kyeng-won, in 
Chong-dorg. This on February 20th. This took place amid 
general rejoicing on the part of the people, both in the capital and 
and in the country. 

During the year, leading members of the Righteous Army 
‘‘repented” of their past deeds of violence and lawlessness and 
received “forgiveness;” the memorialist, that somewhat doubtful 
reflector of a still more doubtful opinion, w ith mat, table and 
vermilion paper was a familiar ob'ect kneeling on the streets near 
the Imperial Palace gates; the cabinet changed several times it is 
true, but no lifeless forms of ex-members were dragged thro the 
streets of the capital at the chariot wheels of the successors, neither 
w-as there any wild scamper for a foreign asylum on the part of 
the retiring statesmen; we were represented at the Diamond 
Jubilee, and our roving Minister to Europe visited a few of the 
several courts to which he was accredited and then “retired,” but 
has not yet returned. We paid off 2,000,000 yen of the Japanese 
Joan and can w ipe out the balance without difficulty. The im¬ 
perial guards have improved so markedly in appearance that we 
are beginning to be proud of them as we see their serried ranks 
marching, with erect bearing and steady step, thro the streets— 
the coolie is developing into the soldier; our street improvements 


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EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 


27 


1898.] 

continued throughout the whole year and at the present rate of 
progress we shall be ready for horseless carriages in a short time, 
if our enthusiasm is not chilled or cheeked. His gracious Majesty 
yielding to the earnest and repeated petitions and memorials of 
patrician and plebeian, reluctantly laid aside the royal purple for 
the imperial yellow; and Great Chosun gave way to Great Han 
—all as quietly and smoothly as a penny slips out of the small 
boy’s pocket. Her Majesty, the late Queen Alin, was buried with 
nil the honors of an Empress, the Emperor himself attending the 
funeral and superintending the obsequies in person. 

The schools had a quiet and as far as we know a profitable 
year; there was no interference by the Department with the dress 
and coiffure. Many of the lads wore caps, others helmets, some 
the regular Korean hat. We believe in young Korea and in 
the boy in the school. Bright, tractable, polite, apt to learn and 
regular in attendance—give him a chance and he will grow up 
and be a man. He is thirsting for knowledge, and, in some in¬ 
stances of which we know, heroic efforts are put forth and splendid 
sacrifices are made to secure an education different from the old— 
an education such as is required , by the times. The Christian 
schools for girls have already demonstrated that. 

“Full many a gem of purest, ray serene,” 

is ruthlessly, remorselessly, and we may add wickedly, at the tender 
age of ten or twelve, sent for the rest of her girlhood days into the 
“inner room” and kitchen, there to learn the three fundamentals of 
Korean house-wifery—sewing, washing and cooking. 

The publication of “A Korean-English Dictionary,” by Mr. 
Gale, was the literary event of the year, tho the publication of two 
religious weeklies should also be mentioned. 

The churches throughout the whole land had a year of marked 
prosperity. The colporteur, the native helper, the foreign mis¬ 
sionary, all had a ready hearing w herever they went. As in the 
days when the Son of Aran was in the world, so now, the common 
people hear the word gladly. 

In trade there was an increase over the previous year and 
the opening of two ports, Chinampo in the northwest and Alokpo 
in the south, will aid to stimulate trade in those districts. 

The work on the Seoul-Chemulpo Railroad, and that at the 
mines in the province of Ping-an must be regarded as among the 
peaceful victories of the year. Apart from political affairs—on 
which we shall carefully refrain from expressing an opinion—it 
seems to us the past twelve months must be reckoned as showing 
some advancement in <he right direction. We have our seasons- 
of depression, especially when we look at the political sky which 
is nearly always overcast, but when we take a calm view of the 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



22 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[January, 


MY HOST. 

J left the city on ray bicycle for an absence of two weeks 
among ray fri rads in the country. The great street leading 
from the West Gate was filled with pedestrians, and with cat¬ 
tle loaded with brush for the market. The patient creatures 
with their huge burdens came in long lines, and in groups, and 
by individuals, fit companions for their dull leaders. Drivers and 
bollocks seemed to look with a feeling of satisfaction to the 
great city gate beyond which they might lay their heavy bur¬ 
dens down. 

The morning was bright and beautiful, but such a sober 
procession: One would think that the heart of each driver carried 
a weight equal to that on the bullock’s back, and that a smile 
had never crossed their heavy features; but neither drivers nor 
bullocks had ever seen a bicycle. I took one side of the street 
deeming that to be my share. As my wheel glided toward that 
rank of bullocks they stopped deal still, their feet braced. For 
a moment, they fixed on me an amazed stare, then, with a 
loud snort, plunged right and left, out across the rough fields 
with their drivers clinging desperately to the tethers. Such a 
multitude, such confusion, such a wild, ridiculous race. The 
people broke forth in shouts of laughter that became uproarious as 
the confusion increased. I asked a group of women what was 
the matter. One holding her sides, to contain her mirth, gasped, 
“O those bulls!” The drivers when they were able to control 
their bullocks seemed to enjoy the scene most of all. I felt 
sorry for the discomforted drivers, but the scene of mirth which 
I had unwittingly caused remained in my mind a pleasant com¬ 
panion throughout the long ride of the day. 

The wheel in the country may sometimes be a discomfort 
to the natives, hut to the rider it is an unqualified success and 
source of enjoyment. You may choose your companions, or 
travel alone; you leave the air polluted inns of your night’s so¬ 
journ, you mount the wheel; the crowds divide right and left; 
their parting salutation is already heard from a distance; the 
frosty air rushes past you; the blood mounts to your brain 
bringing a consciousness that you are a man for "a’ that.” 

This particular morning my destination was a village in 
the Bouth of the province—a village that had long since lost its 
social and commercial importance in the prefecture; but in the 
time of Kija, I am told, its influence was far-reaching, and that 


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MY HOST. 


23 


1898.] 


monarch did not disdain to accept of its hospitalities when¬ 
ever bis journeys brought him within reach of her borders. 
Now, however, travellers study to avoid it as a village too mean¬ 
ly kept to have the care of any one’s comfort. But as all 
villages in Korea are nomadic, it is simply an indication that in 
a short time, a few centuries at least, this particular one will 
pull up stakes and wander to a better locality. My host and 
friend of previous visits met me with a hearty welcome at his 
inn door. He is a man of few words. That, we are told, i6 
an evidence of deep thought and a cause for admiration. At 
least, I was not displeased that his questions and solicitude 
for my comfort were soon over. One point of attachment 
between my hoet and me is our familiarity, lie beamed upon 
me pleasantly a few times, then lay down to rest his bead un- 
evenlv balanced on a wcoden pillow and was fast asleep. 

I was born with a sense of individual rights which I fear the 
Koreans do not appreciate. I don’t like to have them feel them¬ 
selves abused if they don’t know all my business; and my food 
tastes sweeter if it has not the flavor of their hands. My host 
seems to think that my peculiar taste in the matter is of no partic¬ 
ular concern and when once he accidently spilled the kerosene 
from his lamp in my supper he merely remarked that it had gone 
in. But now as he lay with his head on the wooden pillow his face 
offered a pleasant subject for reflection and compensated for dis¬ 
comforts from curious strangers. 

It is said that unconscious moments reveal a man’s greatness. 
If it is in proportion to the depth of that unconsciousness, my 
host must be a Socrates. Tho, I sometimes fear, he never comes 
wholly out of his J present state. He presently awoke. I asked for 
some Christian books which I had left with him on a previous 
visit. I had been pleased to hear him say he had studied them 
carefully. “O yes, he would get them.” He thrust his arm to the 
elbow into a dust-choked box which was hanging from the ceiling. 

The room and our throats were filled with its contents but 
he could find no books. I felt a nervous dread of looking around 
the room to find them pasted on the wall. It is to be regretted 
that the paper of Christian literature serves such good protection 
from the cold. I am sure my host can read, but why did he paste 
those leaves wrong side up? He has a somewhat humorous face, 
but I would never give him credit of inventing anything ridicu¬ 
lous, much less of suggesting the acrobatic feat necessary to read 
those leaves. I concluded that he, like one of more ancient date, 
was an honorable man and according to his word had studied. 

My meditation on Korean veracity w'as interrupted by my 
host fishing from beneath a pile of bam balls a half-completed 


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'2*1 the kobeah repository. [January, 

bag. I noticed as he did so, he cast a fond glance towards those 
beans with which he intends to make a liquid to cheer his honest 
soul. I recognized the bag as one I had seen quite well on the 
way towards completion some months ago. He explained with 
an air of pleased confidence that he did that work at odd mo¬ 
ments, that when done it would be about two and a half feet long, 
and might take.two years to finish. The varying shades of dirt 
running in lines around the bag convinced me of his patient toil 
and over-burdened life. The purchaser of such a money bag, he 
said must always secure a receipt for the amount paid or he might 
be arrested by an official on the charge of having stolen it from a 
neighbor for the sake of its contents. I suggested that he might 
have trouble from the same source in the future, as he was the 
• manufacturer and could have no receipt. He looked grave for a 
moment, but evidently did not believe in borrowing trouble, but 
sat down and with great vigor commenced to “improve a few spare 
moments.” I looked for a speedy transformation in that bag. He 
took just thirteen stitches, groped around for his wooden pillow 
and was again fast asleep. 

My host being an old man, I have asked him abort his 
folk-lore and native heroes, but he assures rue that the face of 
time as far as his sixty-four years have taught him, has had no 
change; all things have been tbe same as they now are, tho on 
■ fuither reflection he felt sure that bouses occupied at the time 
of his boyhood had fallen into decay and had been replaced hy 
others; and that there bad perhaps been a few bright minds in 
his village, whose lamps bad gone out. Here he paused as if 
- wondering where they had gone, opened his mouth once or 
twice, closed it and looked sleepy as ii it were a natuial thing 
to'do after beine left in such darkness. I could never under¬ 
stand tbe mental process thio which my host reasons. Iain 
quite sure lie is ready to part with any thing he has for my 
benefit and would protest at the thought of receiving compen¬ 
sation. Yet lie added to my bill also that of a crowd who had 
followed me from a neighboring village. He protested when I 
told him 1 was able to pay for my fire. Yet in tho change of 
silver took advan'ageof twenty cash. 

The evening after my arrival I held a service in a room 
eight by twelve feet. Tbe service lasted two hours and befoie 
returning to my inn for tbe night I was glul to take a walk 
across the hillside to drink in nature’s pure air. The crisp fro¬ 
zen grass crackled under my feet. The moon was as bright as 
an eastern moon alone can be. The reign of almost oppress¬ 
ive silence made me feel that the village at my feet was a dark 
shadow' that had crept out of the great silent past. Was the 


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MV HOST. 


25 


1898.] 


present offer of the Christian faith the only voice thro which 
God had spoken lor three thousand years; or did that monitor, 
conscience, the possession of * very misu’s heart, speak loader to 
them than to us who are called a more favoured people? I was 
sorry to disturb my host by entering the room lata; he scrambled 
from the floor ai d hastily pulled his coat over bis bare back. 
I tried to make amends for intruding upon his rest, by a short 
lecture on praying before he went to sleep. He said he would 
faithfully follow my suggestions and with a polite halt self-dep¬ 
recatory motion laid his bead again on the wooden block, bis 
feet stretched under my cot and was fast asleep. I lay down 
by the si le of the bean balls aod for purer air turned my face in 
the direction of my host, and began watching the candle light 
play over his round features. I set to wondering when he would 
begin to pray. He may have thought that there was no fair 
dnlcinea to release on bis own account. 

I don’t think my 1 ost could be very wicked, his mind seems 
to take a course in the dire :tioo of the least resistance. 1 can, 
however, imagine that under some stress of circumstances be 
would grow fie;ce like his native fiver and stiike terribly hard. 
Some time apo bis grown-up sod had displeased him. He stood in 
the door. His mild face grew hard and doubly wrinkled. 
let forth a volley of words that would have done credit to a labor 
boss in America. Such an outburst would have remained in the 
mind cf some, au unpleasant companion for many a day, but my 
host turned into the loom, bis face alight with benevolence and 
good will. 

In the unceitain light of the room the number stretched 
upon the floor apreared uncanny. Among them was my helper, 
his high forehead thin, face, high cheek-bones and large nose, 
made me think of the mummy of Kan eses III. His ancestry 
dates back to the time of that monarch but possessed none of the 
austerity of that race. The men upon the floor are a good rep¬ 
resentative of this relic of a people. 1 he fierce nations have 
battered each other to pieces, while mildness and flexibility have 
preserved Koiea a nation thro these thousands ol years. 

We took leave of my host late in the day. He followed us on 
onr way to the lop ol a neighboring hill. As I looked back in the 
deepening twilight at his rugged figure outlined against the sky, 
he called out to my companions, “Take good care of my pastor.” 

The solicitude in his voice reminded me Btrangely cfa gen¬ 
tle voice that had said farewell when I left my old home years 
ago. 

Naw. 


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26 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[January, 


EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 

EIGHTEEN HUNDRED NINETY-SEVEN. 

T HE year 1897 was a comparatively quiet year for the Empire 
of Great Han. There was what might be called a lull in 
the sturm that howls around us, at least until the sun had 
crossed the autumnal equinox. \Vc have the somewhat unenvi¬ 
able reputation of being the political storm-center of the Far-East. 
We do not say this is true. For the last year, the major part at 
least, there was a low, cold, conservative wind blowing nearly the 
whole t : me, which in the last few months changed into a good stiff 
breeze. But we round up the year, if not in the desired haven 
of peace, prosperity and progress, at any rate headed for that port. 

The first event of importance was the removal of the king 
from the Russian Legation to his own Palace, the Kyeng-won, in 
Chong-do:'g. This on February 20th. This took place amid 
general rejoicing on the part of the people, both in the capital and 
and in the country. 

During the year, leading members of the Righteous Army 
“repented” of their past deeds of violence and lawlessness ana 
received “forgiveness;” the memorialist, that somewhat doubtful 
reflector of a still more doubtful opinion, with mat, table and 
vermilion paper was a familiar object kneeling on the streets near 
the Imperial Palace gates; the cabinet changed several times it is 
true, but no lifeless forms of ex-members were dragged thro the 
streets of the capital at the chariot wheels of the successors, neither 
w r as there any wild scamper for a foreign asylum on the part of 
the retiring statesmen; we were represented at the Diamond 
Jubilee, and our roving Minister to Europe visited a few of the 
several courts to which lie was accredited and then “retired,” but 
1 has not yet returned. We paid off 2,000,000 yen of the Japanese 
loan and can wipe out the balance without difficulty. The im¬ 
perial guards have improved so markedly in appearance that we 
are beginning to be proud of them as we see their serried ranks 
marching, with erect bearing and steady step, thro the streets— 
the coolie is developing into the soldier; our street improvements 


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EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 


27 


1898.] 

fxratinued throughout the whole year and at the present rate of 
.progress we shall be ready for horseless carriages in a short time, 
if our enthusiasm is not chilled or cheeked. His gracious Majesty 
yielding to the earnest and repeated petitions and memorials of 
patrician and plebeian, reluctantly laid aside the royal purple for 
the imperial yellow; and Great Chosun gave way to Great Han 
—all as quietly and smoothly as a penny slips out of the small 
boy’s pocket. Her Majesty, the late Queen Min, was buried with 
•all the honors of an Empress, the Emperor himself attending the 
funeral and superintending the obsequies in person. 

The schools had a quiet and as far as we know a profitable 
year; there was no interference by the Department with the dress 
and coiffure. Many of the lads wore caps, others helmets, some 
the regular Korean hat. We believe in young Korea and in 
the boy in the school. Bright, tractable, polite, apt to learn and 
regular in attendance—give him a chance and he will grow up 
and be a man. He is thirsting for knowledge, and, in some in¬ 
stances of which we know, heroic efforts are put forth and splendid 
sacrifices are made to secure an education different from the old— 
an education such as is required .by the times. The Christian 
schools for girls have already demonstrated that. 

“Full many a gem of purest ray serene,” 

is ruthlessly, remorselessly, and we may add wickedly, at the tender 
age of ten or twelve, sent for the rest of her girlhood days into the 
“inner room” and kitchen, there to learn the three fundamentals of 
Korean house-wifery—sewing, washing and cooking. 

The publication of “A Korean-English Dictionary,” by Mr. 
dale, was the literary event of the year, tho the publication of two 
religious weeklies should also be mentioned. 

The churches throughout the whole land had a year of marked 
prosperity. The colporteur, the native helper, the foreign mis¬ 
sionary, all had a ready hearing wherever they went. As in the 
days when the Son of Man was in the world, so now, the common 
people hear the word gladly. 

In trade there was an increase over the previous year and 
the opening of two ports, Chiuampo in the northwest and Mokpo 
in the south, will aid to stimulate trade in those districts. 

The work on the Seoul-Chemulpo Railroad, and that at the 
mines in the province of Ping-an must be regarded as among the 
peaceful victories of the year. Apart from political affairs—on 
which we shall carefully refrain from expressing an opinion—it 
. seems to as the past twelve months must be reckoned as showing 
some advancement in ‘he right direction. We have our season*, 
of depression, especially when we look at the political sky which 
is nearly always overcast, but when we take a calm view of the 


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28 THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. [January,. 

country of our adoption, note the progress already made amid 
most untoward circumstances, our courage revives and confidence 
is restored. There is hope for Korea. She Is in a transition state. 
Time is needed. The editor of the Xorlh China Heroic!, in a kindly' 
notice of our November number, when commenting on the article, 
*‘A Week between Seoul and Song-do” says quite truly, “What 
a pleasant country Korea, with all its enforced poverty—poverty 
which is entirely due to its atrocious misgovernment—seems to 
be and what a promising field it offers for the introduction of 
western civilization, is well shown in this account. The more one 
reads of the non-official Koreans, the more he likes and pities 
them.” 

The population of Korea.—Two important facts con¬ 
cerning Korea, that of the numerical strength of the people, and 
that concerning the territorial area of the empire, have been in 
a state of mdefiniteness exasperating to the average writer, and 
tbo the recent census returns are now at band we are sorry to 
say, still remain unsatisfactory. The idea of the census has 
• not been unknown to Korea. Under the old regime the HoJ/v 
or Department of Finance compiled every three years an 
eumeration of bouse- and the number of their male and female 
‘occupants. The Pyong-bu or Department of war also preserved 
lets supposed to give the actual numbers of males available for 
military duty. Had an honest attempt been made to prepare 
these lists r.o donbt would exist in the matter, but it is notoiious 
that the facts set forth in them have been absolutely unreliable. 
In making these lists the government depended upon the returns 
made by the local prefects, and these iu their turn bad them 
made up from the local records at prefectural yamuns iu which 
tbe peoi le are registered for supervisory and revenue purposes. 
The ajvn or local clerks who compile these records are a hered¬ 
itary class and are notorious for being unscrupulous. They 
have always falsified these returns, reduc : ng them greatly below 
tbe actual figures in order to increa c e their own gains. That is. 
as the central government based its levies made on the* provinces 
on these figures the hope of these gentry was that the amounts 
for which they would be held responsible would be greatly dim¬ 
inished by reducing tbe returns, while they would be free to col¬ 
lect the full amount of the tax from t e people and pocket tbe 
differei.ee themselves. To them, public office was a public op¬ 
portunity to make a nublic raid on the public in general. It has 
therefore passed into common belief that the census returns are 
always one third of tbe actual number enumerated, and it is on 
this ba«B that it is declared that to raise the yen 5,000,000, 


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29 


1898.] EDITORIAL. DEPARTMENT. 

-which finds its way into the treasury of the central government, 
yen 15,000 000 are actually collected from the people. 

Under the old regime the approximate estimates of the pop¬ 
ulation made by foreigners ranged bom 5,000,000 to 28,000, 
000, the best authorities striking an average of from 12,000,000 
to 16,000.000. 

One of the early measures ol the re'orm government waa 
to secure an accurate enumeration of the p» opK and this work 
was undertaken by the Home. Department. M’e are indebted 
■ to our contemporary 7 The Independent for the returns. In pass¬ 
ing we would note that the ancitnt division of the country was 
into eight provinces, but in 1895 the realm was distributed first 
into twenty-three and iator into thiiteen piovir.ces, which is the 
present status. The facts cf this census are confined to an enu¬ 
meration of the nun.her of houses and of persons n ale and fe- 
maD occupying them, nothing appearing concerning area and 
productions, occupations of the p< epic, illiteracy and the many 
other iten s which render the census ol a western nation so val¬ 
uable. In explanation of the following table we would say that 
the suffix do is the common designation employ* d by the Ko¬ 
reans to indicate a province, in contradistinction to a hun or pre¬ 
fecture. 

Xu. Aver. 


1 

v A M K 

I* 

I*t‘f' ts 

Males 

lYinales 

Total 

llollM 6 

\)lt h. 

Seoul (city). 



115,447 

104,368 

219,815 

45,350 

4 + 

lvyeng 

ki-do ... 

• • < 

.28 

352,863 

291,367 

641,230 

167,230 

3 + 

N. Chung chong-do 

17 

147,330 

132,372 

279,702 

72,313 

3 + 

s. „ 

55 


37 

215,058 

171,869 

386,927 

114,793 

3 + 

A. Chulla-do. 


.36 

189,780 

150,342 

340,122 

1)7,815 

3 + 

S. 



33 

199,791 

166,299 

366,090 

101,918 

3 + 

N, Kyeng .sung-do.., 

.41 

306,854 

242,959 

549,813 

149,952 

3 + 

s. „ 

1 * 


30 

261,499 

199.52.3 

461,032 

126,972 

3 + 

AY hang 

Iiai-do ... 


.21 

184,456 

151,059 

335,515 

98,550 

3 + 

S. Pyeng an-do... 


23 

198.331 

168,910 

367,211 

96.406 

3-b 

K. v 



21 

198,987 

158,205 

357,192 

86,888 

4 + 

Kang w 

un-dn ... 

... 

.26 

142,203 

111,897 

254,100 

75,853 

3 4- 

S. Ham 

kyong-do 

... 

.14 

208,068 

177,384 

385,452 

59,074 

6 + 

x. „ 

13 


10 

148,900 

101,897 

250,797 

41,187 

6 + 

Total... 


( 

\ 

3 

40 

2,86 

9.767 

O ;p> 

8,481 

5,19 

8,028 

1,0.) 

2,501 

3 + 


A number of interesting facts concerning Korea are suggested 
by this table. * The realm now contains 3-10 prefectures, the pro¬ 
vince of north Kyong sang having the largest number—forty- 
one. The largest single jurisdiction is that of the metropolitan 
province, whese governor has a population of (511,210 to rule. 


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30 the Korean REPOSITORY. [Janawry, 

The most populous section appears to be that of the southeast¬ 
ern end of the peninsula, where the provinces of north and south 
Kyong sang report a total of bouses 276,924 and persons 
1,010,848. Tbs most prolific people appear to be those of the 
north, northern Pyeng an reporting an average of persons 4+ to 
each house and in the two Ham Kyong provinces the aversgs 
k persons 6+. The general average throughout the country is 
persons 3 + to each house, but on this point we shall speak later. 
A most significant fact is that the males exceed the number of 
females by 541,236. If this is so, then Korea is an exception to 
the general rule throughout the world, which is that the fe¬ 
males exceed in number the males. We doubt, however, if the 
oensus shows the actual facte. The seclusion of females, the 
difficulty of verifying returns, and the fact, that the law regards 
women as standing in an exceptional attitude toward it, renders 
it quite possible that the returns should be incomplete in this 
item. 

Thus far we have treated these returns as reliable, but it is 
with regret tbskt we have to state that the census is absolutely 
unreliable, and its returns regarded as absurd. The Independent 
says: 

The figures are absolutely unreliable, but as it is the first census the 
government has ever attempted to take according to foreign methods, it will 
be of some interest in the future to compare the actual number which may 
be ascertained before many years, with this first census. An official of the 
Department states that the figures only represent one third of the actual 
number for the reason that these new figures are one third less than those of 
the imperfectly taken census of 300 years ago. 

The truth of this is apparent from the results which ex¬ 
hibit the average number of persons to each house. With the 
exception of Seoul (4+ persons) and the three 1 orthern provin¬ 
ces above alluded to, the average, according to these returns, is 
only persons 3+ in each house and one familiar with the in¬ 
terior of Korea must look with suspicion on returns which yield 
such an average. Heretofore the average has Ixjcn placed at 
from 6 to 10 persons, tho an interesting experiment, in which 
the average in ten houses in each cf five widely separated sections 
in Korea was taken, yields persons 5 + . The point we have 
made against the returns of the number of females is further 
emphasized, lor multiplying by three we ate asked to believe 
that in a population of 15.514,034 the males exceed the females 

( by 1,623,758, a disparity of over ten per cent. 

In conclusion we are still compelled to confine ourseiv'S fo 
an approximation of the population and would place it at 17, 
000,000, which we obtain by inutiplying the returns made by 


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1898.] EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 31 

Hues, and adding this disparity between males and female** 
which we do not think exists. 

In all the Churches. —The year 1897 has been the best 
year in tho bistory of Christian Missions in Korea. It has been 
so because more souls have been n ade free from sin, more homes 
redeemed from heathenism and sorrow, n are hearts filled with 
the joy of a new and better life than any other year in the his¬ 
tory of missions. Unaffected by the course of political events* 
from which the Korean church holds itself studiously aloof, the 
church steadily progressed under the influence of the momentum 
of past success—a momentum which has been greatly augmented 
during the past year. Statistics will fail to convey a true idea 
of the work done. It is safe to Bay, however, that the Christian 
church has doubled its members in the past year* The Pro¬ 
testant Missions have under their care fully 5,000 converts whioh 
number, when augmented by the 25,000 members of the Roman 
Catholic church, makes a total professing Christian population of 
30,000, or approximately one five hundred and fortieth part of 
the population. There still remains a vast amount of work to 
do before Korea may take her place as a member of the com¬ 
monwealth of Christian natons. 

There is no more beautiful sight iu any land than that of a 
Christian home. In Korea there are twice as many as there 
were last year; homes where morning and evening father and 
mother gather children and servants about the family altar to 
offer to the God of nations homage and pr aver in the name of 
His Son; homes where the Song-ju, To-ju, K'6l-ip and Oii-aok, 
dread demons of the heathen abodes, have been cast to the moles 
and the bats, and Christ, and the Bible, and song, and love, and 
hope and better things have taken their place. We have been 
in and out of these homes aud have found them clean and neat 
and tidy. Wife-beating, a universal practice in Korean homes 
has been banished. One wife told in a prayer-meeting of the 
changed behavior of her husband toward her. “No more 
drunkeuness aud hard, unkind words and low, vile talk. We 
eat at the same table, at the same time and out of the same 
dishes.” A missionary hastening into the home of one of his 
flock where death was expected, found the dying one full of a 
joy unshakable and the household awaiting with resignation 
and gl ubiess the entrance of the aged mother into that land 
where all tears are wiped away aad perfect joy reigns eternally. 
Another missionary went into a home from whence the husband 
had been carried to prison on a trumped up charge. He found 
the young wile with her year-old babe lonely and a little sad, but 


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"32 the Korean repository. [January, 

( 

her husband. And He did in twelve hours. The great judge¬ 
ment and eternity alone will reveal wnat Christ has done in the 
homes of Korea in 1897. In one of the interior cities, the Christ¬ 
ian church has without foreign help built a school building to 
accommodate 100 boys. 

We know a school where at noon the actions of one of the 
hoys attracted the attention of his teacher and he asked him why 

• he was always in such a haste to get home. “You see,” was the 
answer “Ve do not have breakfast at our house until nine o’clock, 
while school begins with chapel at 8:30. So I come without my 
breakfast and get very hungry by noontide.” That boy in his 
zeal to get a Christain education went without his breakfast. An- 

• other case came to our notice in a certain city. The Christian 
school had a good repute, and early in 1897 a bright boy applied 
for admission stating that he wanted learning and not religion. 
Recently a friend said to him, “Why do you pass this good school 
near your own home and go such a distance to a school of the 
foreign religion?” The boy said, “I do it not only because they 
give me the best learning, but also the be.st religion there is on 
earth.” Christian schools are the hope ol Korea. 

Two thousand years ago, to the sick, tin 1 blind, the lame, the 
lepers, the suffering of every kind, there was no touch like that 
of Jesus of Nazareth. It will bean underestimate to sav that 
25,000 Koreans found relief from disease and stiflcring, in Christian 
hospitals of Christ, in this country in 1897. Christian medicine 
appeals probably in a special manner to the Koreans because of a 
national weakness for medicine in theory and practice. No coun¬ 
try of Asia has paid more attention to medicine than Korea. For 
centurie s the peninsula was the fruitful source whence, on the one 
hand, Japan came lbr medical knowledge and China h»r drugs. 
Christ and Christianity in the diameter of a physical! has special 
attractions to the Koreans. And whore is not this the ease? 

In a beautiful little village near a seaport then' lived a man 
wlm had once bought a Christian book. He bad often studied 
its contents but it was meaningless to him. One day a Korean 
Christian landing at the seaport saw the village a mile away 
across the valley, and led bv an impulse went there, and to the 
first man he met announced himself a believer in the Jesustruth. 
r Ihis villager was the man with the meaningless book and he re¬ 
ceived the Christian with great joy, “For,” said lie,“I have a Jcmis 
book, but that is all I know about it. Come and make it clear 
to me.” That wis in August. Wc are told that there are now 
ten Christian families m that beautiful village which has not yet- 
been seen even by a foreign missionary. 



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EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 


33 


1898.] 

The fast falling night found a colporteur of the Bible Society 
in a strange village. He accosted a villager and asked for food 
and lodging. It was given and when the evening meal was over 
the neighbors came in to niagi, “talk.” Among them was a school¬ 
teacher who did not think there was “any good thing of out xsaza,- 
reth,” but the earnest words of the colporteur impressed him and he 
bought a Chinese bible on trust. The next we heard was that 
the school-teacher and i.is friends were hard at work weaving mats 
and sandals to earn money to pay for their bibles and buy more 
Christian books. In the center of a small town there is a large 
grave which has been the seat of a spirit shrine for hundreds of 
yeais and which gave the town its name shrine-town. But the 
Leads of the village became Christians and led many of the vil¬ 
lagers to lollow their example and now at that grave where 
formerly the only symbols of religion were barbecued dog and the 
wailing chant of the mudavg —sorceress—we have a Christian 
chapel and each Sabbath enlightening and uplifting instruction. 

Recently a small Christian congregation was organized in the 
interior and shortly afterwards they forwarded their subscriptions 
for three copies of a church paper and one copy of The Inde¬ 
pendent. 

We append no moral and make no comment to the above 
but add that a volume might be written of incidents, many of 
them even more interesting than the above, which have occurred 
in the churches in 1897. 

M. Kir Alexei eft —In the November number of The 
Repository we gave the full text of the agreement entered in 
between the Russian Representative, M. de Speyer and the Ko¬ 
rean Foreign Minister, Cho Pyeng Sik. In the December num¬ 
ber we published some comments of the eastern press on the signi¬ 
ficance of this important and remarkable document. 

M. Kir Alexeieff, who by the provisions of this paper is 
placed in charge of the administration of the finances of this coun¬ 
try and Superintendent of Customs, is a gentleman of one of the 
first families of Russia. He is a native of Tambov, a district in 
the central part of the empire. He received a thorough military 
education, and spent three years in the cavalry service with the 
rank of lieutenant. In 1884 he entered the Finance Department 
in St. Petersburg, being connected with the customs service. His 
promotion was rapid, so that in ten years he rose to the highest 
position of chief in that part of the department. This position he 
has . held for the last four years. He is a Councillor of State of 
the fifth rank and we understand will during the present year be 
promoted to the sixth rank.. M. Alexeieff retains his relation 


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<34 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[J an nary. 


with the Finance Department in St. Petersburg and on his card 
he styles himself, “Agent dn Ministere Imperial des Finances de 
la Russie.” He is an expert financier and has had extensive ex¬ 
perience in customs affairs. Like all Russian officials of hi^h 
official position M. Alexeieflf speaks several European languages 
fluently, but is unacquainted with the Asiatic languages. He is 
in the prime of life and we doubt not will discharge with fidelity 
the onerous and important duties of the offices in Korea to which 
his government has appointed him. 

M. AlexeiefFhas with him his private secretary, Mr. Stephen 
A. Garfield, a young man likewise connected with the Finance 
Department in St. Petersburg, and detached to assist his chief in 
Seoul. 

Another Weekly Newspaper. —With the new year ap¬ 
peared another weetdy newspaper in the capital. The Mutual 
Friendship Society of Paichai school feeling the need of a 
ck>=er bond o r union between its 200 or more members, decided 
to publish a small weekly. L'hus far every paper published in 
Korea has had foreign support ami siij ervisicn. but this one is en¬ 
tirely under native control. The name of the paper is the Hyep- 
Sung Hoi Hoibo. It contains four pages and in size and appear¬ 
ance is similar to the Korean Christian Advocate. The first page 
is devoted to the discussioa of general and current topics by the 
editor, then follow domestic and foreign news on the second and 
thiid pages and the lourth is devoted to tee interests of the 
society. Th*- staff consists of nin? men in which respect it re¬ 
minds us of departments in the government. 

In the third issue of the paper the local reporter under 
domestic ivws makes the following observations and reflections: 

Back of Paichai is a large locust tree. On it for the last two or 
three years a magpie has built her nest and reared her young. A few days ago 
a terrible ejgle came and lighted on one of the branches in the :ree. The 
magpie was unequal to the task of getting the large bird away: she set up 
a series of loud cries, bit in this direction and then 11 that, putting forth every 
possible effort to give the alarm rnd to defond herself. From all directions 
came other m gpies first, then crows and hawks- The magpies pecked 
the eagle with their beaks and struck it with their wings. The crows sat by 
waiting developements; the hawks went by and kept a sharp eye on the 
magpie and on the conflict; the sparrows kept gathering and flitting 
and chattering in great concern. After all it was the magpies that with united 
effort dislodged and drove away the eagle. \Yhzn birds, even, become of 
one mind they are able to drive away large and voracious eagles. 

And again: 

On a certain street at the corner was a double house. The house on 
the west side was in good repair and complete in all Tespects; the one on 
die east side was indifferently kept and in bad repair. The owner of the 
fcjuQg qa the west side ^iid, “I am anotit unfortunate, my house adjoining 


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1898.] EDITORIAL department. 35 

your house is in danger of being damaged. Put money into your house, 
straighten it up so that-1 do not have to lose my house." To this the owner 
'Of the house on the east side made answer, “What concern of yours is k 
whether my house tumbles down or not?” The man on the west side said, 
"The tumbling down of vour house while it is no business of mine, neverthe¬ 
less as your house is built against mine, why does it not become a matter in 
which I am interested?” Bystanders hearing this argument and having de¬ 
cided the owner on the west side was in the right, the other not having any 
money himself tried hard borrow some, but as there were none ready to 
.accommodate him, he found himself in a sorry plight. 

H. I. H. the Prinoess Tai Won.-— On Saturday, January 
8th at 10:30 p.m. Her Imperial Highness the Princess Tai Won 
mother of His Imperial Majesty, the Emperor, died at her resi^ 
dence in the north section of Seoul. The imperial lady was ill 
but a short time and at the time of her death lacked but two 
months of bein» eighty years of age. More than sixty years ago 
her nuptials with the Tai Won Kun were celebrated and their mar¬ 
ried life covers one of the most interesting and stormy periods in 
Korean history. She was the mother of four children; the eldest 
a daughter, married Cho Pyeng Ko, a former president of the- 
War Office; Hon. Yi Chai Myon, ex-Minister of the Imperial 
Household, is her second child; the third, His Imperial Majesty 
having been adopted by the late Dowager Queen Cho, and isthej*^ 
fore regarded as the son of that lady and H. M. Ik Jong, (A.D. 
1832). Her youngest child, a daughter also marriedmto the 
Cho clan, her husband being Cho Chung Ku. 

Her Imperial Highness was a lady of the Mia clan, the late 
empress being her second cousin. The court has gone into mourn¬ 
ing for thirteen days. A state funeral will be accorded her and 
it will occur three months from the time of death. During thi»- 
period, a number of officials have been commanded by His Maj¬ 
esty to observe the proper rites attending the lying in state of the- 
remains. 

The English Fleet at Chemuloo.— The English fleet 
under Admiral Puller arrived in Chemulpo, December 30th 
1897. It consisted of eight sliips. The feeling among the Kol 
reans in consequence rose to a high pitch of excitement No end 
of speculation, but there was a general feeling that the presrnce 
of the fleet tended to improve political matters rather than to- 
complicate them. This had a quieting effect upon the common 
people. The interview between the Admiral and the Superin- 
tendent of Trade at the office of the latter also perhaps eased ut» 

. the strain. The Superintendent expressed his pleasureat meetimr 
the Admiral for which he was heartily thanked. There was ala» 
concern manifested on.the former’s part for the welfare of 


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36 THE KOBEAN BEPOSITOBY. [Jdliuary, 

the fleet. ‘ After this preliminary shuffling, the Admiral was asked 
tow long he expected to honor the port with his presence. “I do 
not know. All depends on the weather.” 

In the imperial palace, so Madame Rumor saith, there was 
great anxiety, even alarm, because of the visitors at the port. The 
versatile Foreign Minister, however, was equal to the occasion 
for he explained that it was the ‘‘business” of these ships to plow 
the billowy deep in winter as well as in summer, and that they 
“happened” to come to Chemulpo. It is also said that he was of 
the opinion they would leave again. The fleet is here still. 


LITEBABY DEPABTMENT. 

The Life of Rev . William James Hall , M,D . Medical Missionary to the 
slums of the New York, Pioneer Missionary to Pyeng-yang, Korei. 
Edited by his wife Rosetta Sherwood Hall, M.D. with an Introduction 
by Bishop W. F. Mallalieu. Illustrated. New York, Press of Eaton and 
Mains. i2tno. 421 pages. Price 3 yen. May 1 e ordered of Mrs. Hall, 
Seoul. Also for sale at the Chong-no book-store, Seoul. 

This book came to our table just as we were making up the final form 
and we do not have space this month to review it. The many friends of Dr. 
Hall will be glad to secure a copy of this book as it not only presents the life 
and work of a most devoted man but imparts a great deal of useful inform¬ 
ation about Korea. The illustrations are excellent. 

Herr von Brandt has published a book entitled “Three Years of East 
Asian Policy—1894 to 1897." The first t> ree chapters of the book deal with 
the relations between China and Japan from April, 1894, to October, 1896. 
Chapter four describes the relations of other powers with the combatants in 
the late war. Other portions of the book deal with “Japan and Russia in 
Korea,’* while a chapter headed “Spolia Oprna" enumerates the territorial 
and other a '.vantages gained by England, Russia aud France. 


OFFICIAL GAZETTE. 


On January 4th His Majesty appointed Mr. Yi Chong Ku, Chief of the 
Civil Law Bureau in the Department of Justice, to the responsible post of 
Chief Commissioner of Police. Mr. Y» is well known to the foreigners of the 
capital, and his appoint*:>t nt was immediately regarded,as a promise of t,he 
inforccmcnt of some of the good laws on the statute books. The first thing he 


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OFFICIAL GAZETTE. 


37 


1898.] 


did was to release thirty prisorers who had been held for several months in 
the police jails as an accommodation to certain persons who thus secured 
private vengeance. The Commissioner said the law permits tne police to retain 
prisoners only twenty-four hours. On January iotli instructions were issued 
calling the attention of the people to the laws against the tnudang and other 
forms of Shammanite superstition; against gambling; against befouling the 
streets with refuse; against long pipes; and against fast driving. It is added 
significantly, “The department has issued such orders before, but they were 
not enforced thro various unfortunate causes. But if anyone considers this 
order in the same manner as the old ones he will soon find that he has made 
a great mistake. The department will not tolerate anv irregularity or favor¬ 
itism in official acts and enforcement of the city ordinances.’* On January 
nth, the police orderlies, that have been in attendance on the ministers of 
state, were withdrawn in order to utilize them in the public service. There 
were police orderlies at the various courts in Seoul but as they were utilized 
for menial offices the commissioner withdrew tl em. This action much 
enraged Mr. Cho Pyeng Sik who, among other portfolios, carries that of the 
Law’ Office; so he issued official instructions to the courts to refuse to accept 
prisoners arrested by the police! This deadlock is a curious one and we 
suppose has been raised on the principle that the l est wav to spite yorr face 
is to bite off your nose. From these farts it may be inferred that the new 
Commissioner of Police is in earnest in the matter of the enforcement of the 
laws. 

We append the edict No. 3 on the government of jails and the inmates. 

(1) All the jails and prisons are under the supervision of the Home 
Department. But the immediate control belongs to the Chief c ommissioner 
of Police and the Governor of the provinces. (2) Each judicial di trict 
shall have two kinds of jails: One is for those w ho are accused of certain 
offenses, but are not yet convicted; the other for those who are convicted. 
(3) The duties of wardens shall be to superintend their subordinates in the 
performance of their respective duties and specially to attend to the manage¬ 
ment of the prisoners so that the latter will not receive unnecessary harsh 
treatment. The turnkeys and police must inspect the cel s day and night 
so that the cells may be kept in good hygienic condition and prisoners will 
not be ahowed to escape. (4) The judges and their assistants must inspect 
these jails fiequently. (5) The warden must give a receipt to the police 
offeer whenevtr he re eives a prisoner and in case there is more than one 
for the same offence, they must be confined in separate cells. (6) If a 
female prisoner desires to bring an infant, it may be placed with her. (7) 
The warden must make a record of the name, address, and personal history 
of each prisoner and the person of each must be searched and all weapons 
must be removed and valuables be taken and kept in the office safe, which 
will he returned to the owner upon his release. (8) Tnc female prisoners 
must be kept sepaiate from male, and except on official business, no one is 
allowed to enter the female cells. (9) The names of all ihe prisoners and 
the date of their arrest must be recorded in the office ledger. (10) When 
sending up prisoners to the courts fort rial, the male and female must be sent 
separ tely, and. in case precaution is necessary, the prisoner s hands may 
be tied. (11) Whenevei a prisoner is released the warden must report the 
fact to the court, and no prisoner shall >e kept over twenty-four hours after 
the expiration of his term. (12) In case theie is a fire, flood or earthquake, 
the waiclen must use his judgement in removing the prisoners to a safe cus¬ 
tody. If he cannot find such, the light often <ers maybe temporarily re¬ 
leased. (13) The amount of w ork which e ch prisoner is required to perform 
must be regulated accordingto the physical and mental condition of thepris- 


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38 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[January, 

oner, and it must be approved be the Minister of the Home Department. 
(14) After serving one hundred days in the prison, the prisoner must be paid 
the regular wages for the woik done, but half of the amount deducted for his 
expenses. (15) The wages thus saved shall be given to 1 he prisoner upon 
his release, but in case he should die before the expiration of his term, the 
money shall go to his nearest relative. If a prisoner escapes, the money 
thus saved shall be forfeited. (16) The following holidays shall be given 
the prisoners; first and second of January ; anniversary of the foundation of 
the dynasty; Independence Day ; Emperor's birthday ; anniversary of the 
assumption of the imperial title ; thirty-fir't of December, and three days 
should the prisoner’s parents die. (17) The convicted prisoners' clothes 
and bedding shall be provided by the jail and allowance fur a day's meal 
be eight cents per head. (18) Those prisoners, who are confined in the jail 
pending their trial, mud provide themselves with clothes and food, except 
bedding However, if any one is not able to thus piovide himself, the 
warden may give him assistance, after obtaining consent of the court (19) 
Minor rules and regulations shall be drawn up and promulgated by the 
Home Department after consulting the Law Department. (20) This law 
takes effect ou the day of announcement, January 12th, second year of 
Kwangmu. 


NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

Gun-boat diplomacy! 

Japan and Russia have recognized the imperial title of His Korean 
Majesty. 

The greatest trouble our Korean statesmen are experiencing is the 
laws put on the statute books before their advent to power. 

R. A. Hardie M.D. of Wonsan has an interesting article in the De¬ 
cember number of 7 'Jic Missionary Review of the World on “Religion in 
Korea,” 

J. McLeavy Brown, L.L.D., was among those who received New-Year’s 
recognition by his government. He was made an honorable Companion 
of Saint Michael and St. George. We congratulate. 

Jack Frost seems to have fallen asleep. We have neither snow nor 
cold weather. Pci haps he is afraid of the warships now plowing these wintry 
seas, or riding calmly at anchor at Chemulpo. 

I ■ Korean labor has found a good market in the coal mines in Japan. 

! Recent news states that thirty-seven Korean laborers have been engaged by 

I ; the Chikuho colliery to make good a deficiency in Japanese hands. 

The Rev. S. L. Baldwin, D.D., Recording Secretary of the Missionary 
Society of the M thodist Episcopal Church, and Mrs. Baldwin, visited Seoul 
Jan. 20-—24 and were the guests of Mrs. M. F. Scranton. 


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39 


4898.] NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

The announcement is made that the Nippon Yusen Kaisha finds it 
necessary to raise the price of freights to Korea. The amount has not yet 
been deoded, but reports put it at from ten to thirty percent on the present 
rates. 

Mrs. Isabella Bird Bishop has remembered her many friends in Korea 
with New-Year’s cards most tastefully gotten up and tearing the Korean 
prove* b, “You may recover an arrow that has been shot but never a word 
that has been spoken.” 

Both the President of the United Slates and His Majesty the Emperor 
of Korea have been afflicted by the death of their aged mothers. The sad 
event drew the two chief Magistrates towards each other in an interchange 
of messages of condolence. 

What does it mean ? The Council of State re' ently passed the following 
ordinance which received the Imperiil sanction: “Hereafter the Koiean 
Government shall not grant concessions to foreigners in building railways or 
working mines in the empire.” 

We should not be held responsible for the vagaries of the postal service. 
A subscriber in San Francisco wrote us a little while ago on this subject: “I 
note a curiosity in the matter of mail service—the July number of the maga¬ 
zine having arrived some days later than the August number.” This » 
"curious” but it happened en route and not at the start. 

The Korean telegraph service, while neither perfect in service nor oper- \ 
ated under the most fav rable conditions, is nevertheless progiessing and 
used mo;e and more by the people There are now' nine offices in the coun¬ 
try, four of which were opened last year. The total re:eipts for the year 
amounted to $13,940.01. The postal service likewise is growing in favor 
with the people. It gives us genuine pleasure to make note of records of 
this kind. 

Sometime ago the government “recalled" the Korean students now in 
Japan, by announcing that no more funds would be forthcoming for their 
support. The Japanese in Tokyo, however, took the matter up and a large 
sum of money was raised by popular subscription for the students in order 
that they may continue their studies. It is not altogether a misfortune, how¬ 
ever, that the young men should be thrown on their own resources in getting 
an education. 

Korean New-Year was on Saturday, the 22nd inst. The weather was 
fine, the streets were c.owded w ith people of all ages and sizes, and all the 
colors ofihe rail.bow were represented seemingly in the clothing worn. 
High officials hastened to the imperial palace to offer congratulations to 
their sovereign; friends interchanged calls; the small boy an I he, .“of 
larger growth” w'ere Hying their kites. There was wining and dining and 
general merry making. May this new year be one of progress and pros¬ 
perity to this country. 

Consolation. The triple Ministerial dignities ejoyed by H. E. Cho 
Pyengsik are not without their consolations, as the following will show:— 

“When the present Minister of Foreign Affairs and Acting Prime Minis¬ 
ter and Minister of Law,Cho Pyengsik, was Governor of Hamkyeng he stop¬ 
ped the export of Korean beans. The Japanese Government demanded 


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40 the koreaj* bepositoby. [January, 

indemnity for the action cf the Governor on the ground that it was against 
the treaty stipulations. The amount of the indemnity was 190,000 and trom 
which, Governor Cho was made to p »y ?6o,ooo. Mr- Cho brought in a bill 
to the Council of State a few days ago asking the Government to reimburse 
him the money. The bill was passed by the Council with one dissenting 
vote which was cast by Councillor Ye Yunyong. Mr. Cho is said to have 
cast three votes as Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs and of Law. 
The rule of the Council requires five members present to make a quorum 
and Mr- Cho represents three memheis on account of the triple responsi¬ 
bilities which he carries on his shoulders. All the business of the Council 
can be transacted when Mr. Cho and two other members are present and 
his three votes will make a majority every time." The Indfjendent. 

Advice to the Russian Government: We copy the following, without 
endorsement or contradiction, from The Nagasaki I rets t Jan. 13. 

The A 'ovoe Vremya publishes a letter trom Seoul, in which the writer 
gives an account of the schemes by which, he says, the Japanese hope to 
establish their domination in Korea, and describes the aversion with which, 
according to him, the Japanese arc regarded by the inhabitants. He then 
goes on to advise the Russian government to defeat Japan’s policy of ex¬ 
ploitation by establishing Russian Consulates at all b orcan ports, by sending 
a sufficient military force to assure the protection of such Consulates and of 
the Russian Legation, by organising banks, by taking over the financial and 
Customs administrations, by vigilantly guarding against any foreign inter¬ 
ference in those services, by establishing Russian schools, by building at 
Seoul an Orthodox Church at least equal in size and splendour to the church 
constructed by the Roman Catholic missions, and by sending >oung Ko¬ 
reans to Russia to complete their education by technical studies, especially 
in mining and railway matters. 

The journal’s correspondent adds that the terminus of the Manchuria 
Railway ought to be connected with Ping yang, near the Korean frontier, 
whence a French Syndicate is building a line to Seoul. A railway should 
also be built from the capital northwaids to t.cnsan, and another south¬ 
wards to Fusan, steps l ein^ taken for a rigorous exclusion of the Japanese 
from those enterprise* 1 . In conclusion, the writer says that Korea is a 
country rich and productive enough to render it w< nil Russia’s while to 
make the sacrifices necessary for the firm establishment of her influence. 

BIRTHS. 

In Wonsan, Eec. loth, 1897, the w ife of Rev. W. L. Swallen, of a 
daughter. 


ARRIVALS. 

In Seoul, Jan. 10th, Mr. William Franklin Sands, Secretary of the U. S. 
Legation. 


DEPARTURES. 

From Seoul, Jan. 17th, Mrs. H. G, Underwood for the United Statls. 


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WWItfltfltntntfWmlTfWWWItflT? 


®y/* £5«?f at S^etai? 

}^)rOVISION3 

^ Groceries 

Canned Goods 
Crockery 
Clothing 
Footwear 


rfn •Piny Quantity 


Wale Paper 

Kitchen Articles 

Woodenwarr 

Hardware 

Neckwear 

Glassware 


•Jor G^porf 

"Y ”™ 

stationery 
Medicines 
Furniture 
Earthenware 
Dried Fruits 
Tinware 


•Plff on @ne (Drier 


Camping Outfits 
Garden Seeds 
Farm Tools 
Rubber Goods 
Graniteware 
Stoves and Ranges 


SEflD YOUR ORDER TO 


SMITHS’ CASH STORE 


Sgpert pacftii^r 


Carpets, Soaps 
Dry Goods, Notions 
Harness, Baskets 
Lamps, Toys 
Bicycles, Tricycles 
Cutlery, Jewelry 


•free (sarfage 


Sewing Machines 
Blacksmith Supplies 
Furnishing Goods' 
Baby Carriages 
Celluloid Goods 
Rubber Stamps 


(Dafcfi tfte §teamer > ©ur pfea/ure^- topfea/ 1 ® ~^2 


I One order to our bouse 


- secures practically ev- 


- erytbing you need at 

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low pruts and least 


~ pens*. 

mJgS • ***< 

\ SMITHS’ CASH STORE 

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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 









































ADVERT1HKM ENl'S 


MW HD KEVISED FUBIICiTIOIS 

OF THE 

Eev. H. G. Underwood, D.D. 


NOW BEADY. 

Fourth Edition of the enlarged and improved. Con 

tains 164 Hymns (including all the popular ones) besides 
the Lord’s Prayer, the Creed, and the Ten Commandments. 

On heavy foreign paper, glazed cloth covers, per copy $0.14 

A smaller edition, containing 115 hymns, with music, cloth 
covers, $1.00 each. 

The Three Principles. A translation of Dr. Martin’s 
Three Principles. Foreign paper, glazed covers, per 
100, $4.00. 

Questions and Answers to my Soul. A leaflet 
translated from an English tract, third edition, per 
100 .‘20 

The Lord’s Command, third edition, per 100 .30 

*1 "I *1 An Easy Introduction to Christianity. A trans- 
slation of Dr. McCartee’s well-known tract. In Chinese 
and Korean. Glazed covers. 35 pp. Per 100, $4 00 

nalAa-Sr't The Christian Catechism. Translated from 
the Chinese of Mrs. Nevius, 6th edition. 39 pp. Per 
100, $3.00. 

Catechism of Christian Doctrine. An abridged 
edition of the Christian Catechism. 

The True Doctrine of Sang J6. 3rd edition. 

Exhortation to Repentance. „ „ 

15 : On Regeneration. 1st edition. 

These are translated from the Chinese of Dr. Griffith John. 

2 cents each. §2.00 per 100.. 


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[VOL. v. No. 2.] FEBRUARY, 1898. 

THE 

EOEEAN EEPOSITOEY 


H. G. Appenzeller, 7 

Geo. Heber Jones, { EmTORS - 


CONTENTS. 


GEOMANCY Us KOREA, 
THE ITU, . 


E. E. Landis, M. D. 41 
H. B. Httlbert. 47 


PRINTING AND BOOKS TN ASIA, Geo. Heber Jones. 5o 
CHRISTIAN MISSIONS AND SOCIAL PROGRESS. 64 

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT:— 

The Budget foe 1898, 70 

Thu Memoriae of the Independence Club, ... 74 

Fruit in Wonsan,. 76 

Introduction of Chinese into Korea,. 77 

Death of the fx-Regent, 78 

LITERARY DEPARTMENT, 78 


NOTES AND COMMENTS, 

Piirc ft Ai.rvu:. CAPO 


Tei Copy. 80c. 


} ul : ..I ;U 


7 fit IFJI.IM.VAL J I\/:SS, 




(&W'M 


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HONGKONG & SHANGHAI 
BANKING CORPORATION. 


PAID UP CAPITAL 
RESERVE FUND 
RESERVE LIABILITY 1 
OF PROPRIETORS/ 


$16,000,000 

6,500,000 

10,000,000 


HsiB Office: —HONGKONG. 

Chuf Mantget^-T. JACKSON. Esq. 

Branches and Agencies: 

London Calcutta Foochow Batavia 

Lyons Singapore Wangkok Soorabaya 

Hamburg Saigon Hankow Colombo 

New York Shanghai Amo> Yokohama 

San Francisco Manila Tientsin Nagasaki 

Bombay Iloilo Hiogo Rangoon 

Penang Peking 

Interest allowed on Current Accounts 2 ,J jo on Daily Bal¬ 
ance over Yen 500, 

Money will be received on Fixed Deposit on the following 

terms:— 

For 12 months at 5 per cent, per annum. 

*i ® >» 1 »» » 

3 V 

ft ff It 

LOCAL BILLS DISCOUNTED. 

Credits gran tel on approved Securities, and every descrip¬ 
tion of Banking and Exchange Business transacted. 

Drafts granted on London aud the Chief Commercial 
places in Europe, India, Australia, America, China, and 
Japan; and CIRCULAR NOTES issued for the use of Travelers. 

Holme, Ringer & Co., 

Agents. 

Chemulpo 


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ABVERT1SEMENTS. 


44 


?l(-e tfxlejtettbii. 


tt 


The only lEgliiL Xitmpaper jillificd in Kcrea- 


Tip; Indef. ni ext possesses unique facilities for obtaining 
the latest and most reliable news from all parts of the country. 
Strictly non-partis mi in politics, it endeavours to present to the 
public the fullest, most impartial and -thoroughly accurate 
accounts of all’ matters of pubtic interest. 

Published Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. Circulates 
throughout Korea, Japan, China, Jtussia, Siberia and America; 
Hence- the very best paper for Advertisers. 

. Subscription s $6.00 per Annum. 

Office of “The Independent,” Seoul, Korea. * 


“THE TOKNIP SHINMUK” 

A Korean paper for the Koreans. "Written throughout in ’ 
the native script. Hus a larger circulation than any other 
newspaper puMis! -d in Korea, and is cytensivHy read by all 
classes of the community. Special arrangements have been 
made for speedy delivery by post and horse courier-.. 

A unique opportunity for Advertsrrs. 

For rates, Ac., apply to The Ptjsiness Manager, Office 
<y e Tub Independent, Seoul, Korea. 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 





ABVEKTIR BMEKTS. 


“Tp PPOSlfOKY”. 


Editors 


j H. G. Appenzelleb, 
(G..H. Jones. 


As heretofore The Repository will aim to meet the wants 
of all its ieadei8 in the thorough discussion ,of all topics of 
permanent jpterest to Korea. Prominence will oontinue to be 
given to articles o.j the history, religion, folk-lor9, commerce and 
customs of this land. • The Editorial Department will deal in a 
full and impartial manner with current topics of practical in¬ 
terest. Translations from the Official Gazette will be made-anil 
The Literary Department will review current literature on 
Korea. 

Terms: 


_ In Korea, Japan, and China, three silver dollars a yean 
80 cents a number. 

In Europe and America, two gold dollars a year: 15 cents 
m number. 

Postage in all cases extra. ' 

Agents. 

China : Mepsps. Kei.lt a Walsh, Ltd., Shanghai. 
Japan : Rev. J. W. W ADMAN. No. 2 Shichonie, Ginza,. 

Tokyo. 

United States: Messrs. Eaton & Mains, 150 Fifth 
Avenue, New York. 

England: Messrs. Lczac & Co., Opposite British 
Museum, London. 

Germany: Otto Harros=owitz, I ’uchhandlung, Leipsig. 
All communications should he addressed to • 

“THE KOREAN REPOSITORY ,” 

Seoul, Kohba. 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


I* 1 23 33 IR/ TT -A. "R, IT. 1898. 


GEOMANCY IN KOREA. 

G EOMANCY. which in China is Known as the ,f Wind and 
Water Doctrine’* )» is in Korea known as the 

“Doctrine of Hills and Streams.” The Korean term is 
much more appropriate, as the eo- called science has much more 
to do with hills than with wind, as will be seen below. The 
rules for choosing a grave, or the site of a house, are all carefully 
laid down, but the geomancei has taken good care that all the 
requirements are very rarely met with, so as to give him a ready 
excuse in case the descendants do not become as ‘‘rich and hon¬ 
ourable” as predicted. The prclessor ot geomancy is usually 
some impecunious “nyang ban” who has exhausted all other 
methods of living at the expanse of his credulous countrymen. 
A few of the necessary requirements of a typical site are here¬ 
with given. 

1. A hill which begins in the northwest and extends to 
the Im quarter. On such a hill the peaks of the drag¬ 

on are numerous, but they do not form a head nor is the pulse 
at the base. The form of the hill need not be considered. If 
the dragon’s head is in the center it is compared to the abdo¬ 
men of an ox or a golden hen. It should face the east. 

2. A hill which lies in the Im j quarter and faces 

the Pyeng f ) quarter, having a peak in the north which 
faces the south. If the earth is clear and nice it is compared 
to the forehead of a dragon horse. If the bills facing it rise 
abruptly and resemble a man grasping a baton, the descendants 
will flourish for generations. At a depth of nine feet a golden 
minnow will be found. 

3. A hill beginning in the north, extending to the west 
and facing the south. If the ground ia clear and good, it is 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



42 the Korean REPOSITORY. [February, 

compared to a serpent's tail. If there i6 a road or path in 
front of the hill the children will be tortured at the yamen 
and the family will become extinct after a few generations. 

4. A hill which begins in the Chyouk quarter and 

lies in the east or the In (^ facing the eonth. Such, a 

hill is compared to the forehead of a large rabbit. If the ground 
is clean and nice, the descendants will become celebrated 
men and will be successful in the examinations for generation 
after generation. 

5. A hill which begins in the Kyei quarter and 

passing by the east lies in the Chyouk ( quarter, facing 

the south. Such a hill is compared to a horse’s tail. It is a 
very poor and unlucky site. 

6 A hill which begins in the northeast, and lies in the 

In £ ) quarter facing the west, is compared to a wolfs eye. 

This is a bad Bite for the descendants will suffer from boils 
and abcesses on their legs whilst the daughters will be lewd 
and steal. 

7. A hill which lies in the Kap ( ) quarter and faces 

the west is compared to the eve of a Siberian wildcat This 
is a very poor site. 

8. A hill which begins in the northesst and lies in the 
Chyouk (3£) quarter, is compared to the rib of an ox. The 
female descendants will be pretty, and the male descendants 
famous and have their granaries filled with the five kinds of 
grain. They will be successf il in the examinations and obtain 
official employment. Their wealth and honour’s will be endless, 

9. A hill which begins in the northeast and lies in the 
north is compared to a lip. This is a very unlucky site, for the 
head of the lamily will become blind and almost die in conse¬ 
quence. 

10. A hill which begins in the Kap ^ ^ ) quarter, and 

lies in the east, facing the west. If it has a number of peaks 
it is compared to an azure dragon and the earth will be of a 
golden colour. The descendants will bold high official posi¬ 
tions, receiving batons from the king. For generations they 
will be famous and honoured. 

11. A hill which lies in the east and faces the west is 
compared to the rib of a hawk. If the earth is clean and bard 
the descendants will often be successful in both the civil and 
military examinations and will attain to the position of minis¬ 
ters of state. 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



’ 1898.] . geomancy ■ IN KOREA. . 43 

12. A hill wbicb begins in the Eul (ӣ,) and lies in the 

Chin 9 aarter « facing the west. This is compared fca& 

day’s lip and is an unlucky site. The descendants will lobe 
their property and suffer from ophthalmia. ; 

13. A long hill which lies in the southwest or in the 
Chin j quarter and laces the northwest, is compared to 

the nest of a flab. The descendants will fiequently hold high 
official positions. 

The instructioM of the teacher To Syen. (3) 

1. If a hill begins in the Im quarter it is corii- 

parel to the abdomen of a horse. The descendants will be 
successful in the examinations and will become rich and hon¬ 
ourable. If tbe ridge of hills extends for some distance arid 
there are roads to the right and left which are much used, £he 
granaries of the descendants will be filled with gold and silkk. 

2. If a hill come3 from the Im (^) 9 uarter lies 

in the north, it is compared to the forehead of a dragon. If 
there is a pond and a drain in tbe east, a flat rock like a table 
in the north and a road in the south, the descendants will be¬ 
come ministers of state. 

3. If a hill begins in the I n ( ) and lies in the south, 

it is compared to the abdomen of a dragon. If there is a large 
river to the right or left which turns and flows in front, a well 
to the east, a large rill to the west, and a large roct< standing 
erect to the north, this may be considered a very lucky site. 

4. If a hill lies in the south ic is compared to a wild goose. 
If the highest hill is one of a range which comes from far and 
has a series of smaller hills in front of it all arranged iu order 
as well as to the right and left, this miy be considered a very 
good site. 

5. If a hill begins in tbe Sin (ajj) quarter &ud lies in 

the southeast it is compared to the ear ot a dragon. If on 
tbe summit there is a stom about a foot in height which resem¬ 
bles some animal, or a rock of ten or more feet on the dragon 
hill, the descendants will become dukes and marquises. 

C. II a hill begins in the Kyeng (J|?) quarter and fles 

in the west it is compared to a serpent. If there is a rock 
seven feet in length in front, as well as rocks of tbejsame size 
to the right and left, the descendants will bold exceedingly high 
positions. If in addition to the above there are two rocks, one 
three feet in length and tbe other fifteen, this may be considered 
a very rare site. i 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



44 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[February, 


7. If a hill begins in the Hai (^ ) and lies in the Im 
quarter, it is compared to the abdomen of a fox. If there 

is a lock on the summit about three feet in height or one resem¬ 
bling an animal, the descendants will firet be rich and after¬ 
wards poor. 

8. If a hill begins in the In: quarter and lies in 

the north, it is compared to the forehead of a dragon. If the 
enter side is narrow and the inner wide; if the chief hill is roll¬ 
ing and resembles the male and female principles in nature, it 
. is a very lucky site. 

9. If a hill begins in the north and winding around frorns 
a circle, earth of the five colours (4) will be found at a depth of 
three feet and red earth at a depth of lour feet. 

10. If a hill begins in the northeast and lies in the 

Chyouk qnarter.it is compared to the rib of a recurn- 

■ bent ox. 'JLhe descendants will be successful in the examina¬ 
tion and the go-downs will be filled with slaves, horses and 
. cattle, gold and jade. At a depth cf three feet below the sur¬ 
face will be found a flat 6tone resembling a table, 'ibis is a 
very lucky site. 

31. If a hill begins in the Chyouk ( ) and lies in the 

Hai (JO quarter it is compared to the lib of a rabbit. At 

a depth of three feet below the surface will be found a white 
stoue. The sons will hold high official position and the daugh¬ 
ters will be as pretty as a lotus flower. 

12. If a hill lies in the west it is compared to a dragon's 
nose. At a depth of three feet below the euiface will be found 
a red stone; at a depth of five feet, earth of the five eolours; 
and at a depth of twelve or more feet, gold-fish in th water. 
Eefoie and behind, to the right an I to the left the hills should 
surround as if embracing this place. The descendants, both 
male an 1 female, w ill be filial and obedient, rich and honourable. 

. This is an exceedingly good site. 

13. If a bill begins in the In (quarter and lies in 

the noitheast it is compared to the rib of a tiger. If the prin¬ 
cipal hill is rolling whilst the hills in trout are arranged in order 
and bow low as if at cour; if peals to the right and left rise 
up like a baton and a great river flows in front, a bright stone 
will be found at a depth of three feet below the surface. If at 
a depth of nine feet a store like a dragon is found, the descen¬ 
dants will become famous, rich and honourable. 

34, If a hill begins in the Sin (to) and lies in the 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



4 *88.] 


. GEOMANCS IN KOREA.. 


44 


** ($) quarter it 19 compared to the ears of a wild goose. 

At a depth of three feet below the surface will be found a .white 
stone and if at a depth ot seven feet, an awl-shaped stone is 
found, one of the descendants will become a noted scholar with¬ 
in three years and bavin"' passed the examinations will become 
a minister of state. 

15. If a hill begins in the north and lies in the Cbyohk 
(iffc) < 3 uarter is compared to the back of a fish. If there 
are three peaks in the Coin quarter and five in tb 6 rear 

the descendants will be generals and ministers of state for 
several generations. 

The mysteries oj the teacher Mon Hak. (■">) 


1. If a hill lies in the northwest it is compared to the 
forehead of a dragon. Within a hundred days (G) one of the 
descendants will become a minister of state. 

2. If a hill begins in the northwest and lies in the 
Chyouk (-JJ-) quarter it is compared ton golden hen. One 

of the descendants will become a minister of stnte. 

3. If a hill begins in the Syoul quarter and lies in 

the northwest it is compared to a pigeon’s forehead. Within 
three years the descendants will be successful in the examina¬ 
tions and within s ven years they will become very rich and 
honourable. 

4. If a bill begins in the northwest and lies in the Svoul 
(m quarter it is compared to a day. The descendants when 
young will be poor but they will afterwards become rich and 
possess many slaves, horses and cattk. 

5. If a hill begins to the right of the north and lies in 
the exact north it is con: pa red to the lent head ofr. hoise. The 
descendants will become duties and marquises. 

6. li a hill begins in the Chyouk <*) quarter and lies 

in the northeast it is compared lo the forehead of an elephant. 
The descendants will become rich and honourable and hold 
official positions whilst the female descendants will be like ihe 
flowers. 

7. If a I 11 .1 begins in the east and lies in the Kul uo 
quirlo; the descendants will Income kings or feudal princts. 

b. If sand resembling suits >s found on a hill in the north¬ 
east or i; the I’veng quarter, the earth will be red. 

9. On a hill in the northwest or in the Kap (^ quar- 
tei, yellow earth or earth of the five colours will be found. 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



46 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[February. 


10. On a hill in the east or in the Kyeng Hai 

) OT Mi (^c) ^ uar ^» black and white earth is found. 

11. On a hill in the southeast or in the Sin quar¬ 

ter, an egg-shaped stone will be found. 

12. On a hill in the south, or in the In 

(-f : ) or Syoul (j^) quarter, earth of the five colours will 
be found. 

13. On a hill in the southwest or in the Eul ("Jj ) quar¬ 
ter, red and white sand, and a table-shaped stone will be found. 

14. On a hill in the west or the ChyeDg (“p), Sa 

( EL ) or Ch y° uk ( ~ff*) quarter, white sand and the roots of 
trees will be found. 

15. On a hill in the north or in the Kyei, (»> s “ 

( ^ ) or Ohin quarter, eaitb of the five colours will be 

found. 

E. B. Landis, M.D. 

i. In order to make the above rules intelligible it is necessary to ex¬ 
plain the Korean names for the points of the compass. This is best done 
by means of the following diagram. 


•M'N 

U !S 

\Y\- 

u;s 

noAg 

'd'S 


c 
o 

u Z Oh C/7 


£ 


N.E. 

Chin 

Eui 

E. 

Kap 

In 

S.W. 


s. 3 'S 

2. This is a lucky site. A minnow or other animal found in this man¬ 
ner is not a real creature at all, but one which vanishes on exposure to air— 
a sort of zoological Jack-o-lantern. 

3. To Syen was a Korean monk and a celebrated geomancer who 
lived during the latter part of the last dynasty. 

4. Vari-coloured earth indicates a good site, and among all the various 
colours yellow earth is the most lucky. 

5. Mon Hak was also a Buddhist monk who lived some time subse¬ 
quently to To Syen. # . 

6. There must be some mistake in this passage as it is impossible for 
a man to become a minister of state within 100 days after his father’s death, 


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UNI VpB jjlTY OF MICHIGAN 



1898.] 


THE ITU. 


47 


THE ITU. 

r E Itu is a system of arbitrary signs to be introduced mar¬ 
ginally in a Chinese text to help the Korean reader to apply 
the proper endings to the Chinese picture words. As we 
all know, the Chinese runs to two extremes. While each idea is 
indicated by a separate ideograph, the most complicated that the 
■world can show, it is grammatically the most crude and primi¬ 
tive in the world. Inflection is entirely wanting. A Chinese 
•document is a succession of simple ideas in isolated words and the 
connection between these words is indicated partly by the method 
cf collocation and partly by blind tradition. The result is that 
the mere memorizing oi the Chinese character is not half the labor 
involved in the mastery of written Chinese. What is the result 
cf this? Simply that the great body of Korean literati are ac¬ 
quainted with a large number of isolated characters but can read 
only the very simplest Chinese text; in many cases none at all. 

In order then to make the Chinese text intelligible to the 
Korean what is necessary? Merely that a system of endings such 
as are in use here should be appended. In that case all a man 
would need would be the knowledge of the meaning of the sep¬ 
arate characters. 

T his was recognized in Korea long centuries ago and the 
attempt to make such a system of endings was a protest against 
the crudeness and unwieldiness of Chinese syntax. It really con¬ 
demned the Chinese as being practically unfit for the communi¬ 
cation of ideas by intelligent people. 

It was in the reign of Chong Myung in the southeastern 
kingdom of Sil-la, 682—702, that Sul-ch’ong the son of the king’s 
favorite priest Wun-ho attempted a solution of the problem. 

We must bear in mind that iu those days the ability to read 
was as rare as it was in England in the days of Chaucer. All 
writing was done by clerks called ajuns, who corresponded exactly 
to the “clerk” of the middle ages in Europe. 

Taking the endings in common use in the colloquial speech 
•of Sil-la he found Chinese characters that would represent these 
sounds. The correspondence was of two kinds. In some cases 
he took the sound of the Chinese character itself, as for instance 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 


k 



4fi 


THE KOREAN REllrfsITORY. 


[Febtuary, 



the character JjjfJ which is sounded myo irrespective of its meaning. 
In other cases he took not tlie sound of the name of the character 
but the sound of the Sil-la word by which the character 
was translated into the language of Sil-la. For instance the 

character is named jjok but in the itn it is called ml because 
one meaning of the character in the Sil-la language was ml, the 
root of the verb ml-wi-ta. 

It seems plain then that wherever we find a sound dif¬ 
ferent from the name of the character, we find a Sil-la word pure 
and. simple, and if the same sound is used to-day we may conclude 
that the word has come down from Sil-la times. 

A close study of the list appended would bring to light many 
more facts than it is the intention of this ]»por fo present. I. am 
simply trying to show that the Korean of to-*lay is the language 
of Sil-la just as the English of to-day is radically Anglo-Saxon. 

The five columns in which I have tubulated the words are, 
beginning with the left hand, first the Chinese ideograph, second 
the name of the character, tliird the prommoir tion According to 
the itiiy fourth the present endings in Korean, fifth these endings 
in the native character as used to-dav. 

It must bo borne in mind that these itn forms are not obsolete 
hut to this very day arc used by the ajutus or prefe<tural clerks* 
in the country, whose tenure of office is hereditary. This last fact 
has facilitated the handing down of this ancient system from 
generation to uoneration. The ajuns take gn at pride in the use 
of these stilted forms w*»er talking with their ridels and they 
secretly ridicule the prelect cannot- understand them, precisely 
as lawyers at home would ridicule a judge who did not under¬ 
stand the technical language of the law. 

In order to discover where the other endings came from, 
which arc not found in the itn, it would be mvrssnrv to examine 
the system called the Ku-gyul invented by Chong Mong-ju an offi¬ 
cial of Kory o about the year 1480 A.l)., but this must be reserved 
for a future paper. 



Chinese 

N. of char. 

Itu 

Korean 

lluroun 

1. 


si my6 

i my<*> 

ha myo 


2. 

&%u 

si nyd 

i ta 

ha yot ta 


3. 


si eui 

i toe 

ha to6 

Us) 

4. 


si kyun 

i ko 

ha ko 

fjL 

5. 

TE 1 !? 

si yu 

su chi 

mu 6 siu chi 



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Original from 

UNIVEJ^SITY OF MICHIGAN 



1898.] 

THE ITU. 


49 

6. 


si ho myd 

i u myd 

ha si rrivQ 


7. 


si nyo ho 

i ta on 

ha yot ta ni 

r lj 

8. 

**■ 

si ho wi 

i on chi 

ha yot nan < 

[H 

;hi ^ <3 






Tel*! 

9. 


si ka yu 

i t(xn chi 

ha yfit tfin chi ’t'^j 






[9!*) 

10. 


si ol chi 

i ol kkeui 

ha ol kk6 

■44*l| 

11. 

^fijt 

si pak kyun i sal ko 

ha si ko 

•t-'-lJL 

12. 


si ho eui 

i o to6 

ha si to6 


X3. 


si cha kwa 

i kyun kwa han k6t kwa 


14. 


si p&k ho 

i sal o to6 

ha si to6 

tr>-|5q 



[eui 




15. 


si cha ka 

i kyhn ta 

hal t’6 in to *| cj 



[cliung 

[chung 


[«1 

1G. 


si pAk ol 

i sal ol 

ha op ki 6 




[chi 

[kkeni 



17. 

Hir$lB«if 

si ol ka yu 

i ol tGn chi 

ha y6t tun 






[chi 

f*l 

18. 


si cli’i yu 

i tu yu y6 

keu ra to tto J3L 5. 



[y6k 



[«. 

19. 

M&'iS 

siryangch’i i ra to 

i ra to 


20 . 

r t 

si cha ny6 

ikyun to 

keu rat to 

3 3! <4 


21 . 

22 . 

23. 

24. 


[ryang chung [a 6 pia nan td 
Pf s i nyo ka i ta ka ha ta ka 
&«Kt si pak ppun i sal ppun ha ol ppun *4“ 

[& [ch6 ryang [do ro [do ro [ *-") *H 


h3 si pAk ol i sal ol ha ol ppun "$* -%^r’ 

[ [ppun pul ya [ppun an il chi [an i ra [ 6 J: a 1 ^ 

/) h.~Jn£\lzl •“i chi i i ol kkui i haul kki ro 

[S. 

25. s i nyo si ol i ta i ol ko ha da ha op ^ 

GS [kyun [ko 

20. si ho eheuk i on clicuk h.aon eheuk *3f 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[February, 


27. si ho ni i o ni ha o ni JLH 

28. ^'i'jni/Ssi ol kani ioltoni hayAtsap 

(tdni M 

29. si nyA si ol i ta i ol to ni han ta ha 1§L c |" 

(jjII/S (k*“i (optoni 

30. si nyfl si ol i ta i ol tu kcu ri lia 3-£] "$* 

([§ (chi (r&tu 

31. iew« p&k ho so i sal on pa ha sin pa 

32. wi ha ki ha ki e 

33 ill wi teung nyo ha tceu ro mo to ta ASh 

M. US widTS ha kiwi hakie 

35. “©fiS wi pak kyun ha sal ko ha si ko 

36. ^ ^ wi pak chi ha sal keui hasi kie "ff 'll 

37. ^ wi pak chi wi ha sal ki wi ha si ki e 

PW 

38. ^ wi pak ha eui ha sal o toi ha si toi 

39. wi yu nyo ha ha yu ta on ha sin ta ni 

( H 

40. wi yu cha hayutkyun ha sin kot "§f "vl 

kwa kwa kwa 


— ^1 "T" 

ha ol kki ro ha op kki ro ”4* 
ha nu on sa ha on il ira "|f 

4^*1 ^ 

ha s il on f a ha sin pa *€ 

a? 

i ma ha n a 

i sa ha so sa 

i si Ba (ha si sa) ^*1 


41. 


wi 

pak teung 

42. 


wi 

teung ryang 




[chi 

43. 

fi=£P,H 

wi 

ol chi i 

44. 


wi 

wa ho ea 

45. 


wi 

pak ho so 

45. 


k > 

'() mi 

47. 

Hct> 

k> 

o s, 

48. 


ky 

o si sa 

49. 

tScJiiWT- 

ky 

o si ka ho 


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UNIVpifi^OF MICHIGAN 




1898.] 

THE ] 

OTJ. 

so. &&& 

ppnn che ryang ppan to ro 

61. 

ppaa pal ya 

ppan il chi 

52. ppanpalsiol 

ppananiol 

m 

ya 

chi 

S3. ±T 

sang ha 

chca ha i 

54. 

ryang chang 

a e i 

65. gg 

tan chi 

ttan tu 

56. |nlg5 

hyang chnn 

a chan 

67. 

eui to 

eai na i 

58. ft® 

ko earn 

ta chim 

69. 3ER 

pyong chi 

ta mok ki 

30. yd wi yu ha 

yu da ha ra 

(-^E (ny6 ho 

(on 

«i. zjas. 

eul yong eul sd a ha or 


(ryang 



51 

41 

oro^°| 

ni ra 


chu si tan kot ^ 

e of 

to i 

yo chan JtjcJ 
cho heai teul i 

S-t«| 

to cbim c f?| 


(cheuk 

ipa 


In the first 31 the character occurs. This is pro¬ 
nounced si but the meaning in Korean is i= €, tliis ,, « Giles gives 
4 to be 1 also as meaning of this character. It is the idea of ex¬ 
istence and the itu gives i as the sound so we may safely say 
that the root t = “this/' and the verb ila u tob<?’ in Korean to-day 
are aiuientiSilla words. We notice that to-day *$r is used in 

stead* It is probabWbat in these days the % toot was used in many 

•cases where we use -Jr todav but we shall also find that -i- 

^ > 

is also a Siila root. 

No. 1 the Myo is the Chinese sound of the character, the 
character ^ meaning “continuation’*. II. looks as"if this end¬ 
ing was coined in Siila days directly from the Chinese. At any 
th te the existence of the 3Tyo in the itu shows^that the present 
inding mijo is of Siila origin. 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



TEE KOBJEAX BBPOSITOBT. 


j_Febmaiy. 


lu No. 2 we find that the ending tu is of Silla origin ior it 
has come down inlact in the itu. 

In No. 3 we find that the common ending toi or Jcj is ct 
Sdla origin. 

In No. 4 we find the ending the common connective 
also in the Silla list. 

In No. 5 the ending chi JC| is found to be of Silla origin. 
This is seen in No. 16 and others also. 

In 6 the Chinese character lip., ho, is the equivalent of o» 

in Korean and the use of o in the itu shows the the mean in? 
was the fame practically tnen as row—as an ending it wa 5 
■imply an honcnSc and is so used to-day but« is often rubstituted- 

In No. 7 the on of the itu has become m in modern Korean. 

In No. S and others we find in Silla times the Korean 
meaning on attached to the character as it does to-day. 

In No. 9 we find that the important ending fun <a «■« 
the same then as now aud as the character used is jjjjj In. 
meaning to or cj in Ki i-t* we have another evidence that tbe 
*onrd c| was of Silla origin. 

In No. 10 we find the characterise ^ of, which is not a Chi¬ 
nese character but was invented by Sal c eng by uniting Iip.= 
cm and "T =etrf and making ol from the combination, using 
the o_ it tiie one and the l of toe other. We find here also 
that tne bc-rcrific ending khd=JCjJ| :s of Silla eiigiu, for it is 
doubilt ss an adartatim from hhrui of the itu. 

In No. 11, 14.16, tto. wo find the character Q. pah, but 
called «:/ in the iin. New the n.eat.i: g of Q in Korean to-dar 


is ml-vir 1't so we t: it tins ro•; * ? co . = ’r ■ S ;]». 

lu 13 we find the eorr.e tive 1 wa or jtj. to l>c from Silla. 

Jt looks as if the Korean word kCt, *T* “thing” was pro- 
conned Kvnn in SiPa day?. 

In ' o IS :he Chi esc* hzr »ct?r chi, is called tu in tbe 

s ulr.it ss its in Korean i< f.* —iducc’’ vre see 

tLst tl.i^ is nlsn a Si Ha word. 

lu > o. 1C the ending ^ ‘xkhouglr shown to he of Sills 
csrig'n. 

In v o. Cl the the ntenrpt ve entTn: t :•:: is shown to te 
from Siil& 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



1898 ] 


TIJK ITU. 


53 


In No. 22 vre And a carious combination. First pak 
giving us aal as its Korean meaning, then ^ = jt>o**n, giving 

ppun in the itu and this has come down to the present in the 
same form ppun “only;” then |^, chi, whose meaning is 

tol= "subtract.” T his with the following — ryang whose mean¬ 
ing is o-jie gives tol-ojie in which only the 5 of ojie is used, 
we have to! o which by a common rule in Korean becomes fco-rd. 
The itu therefore has -sal-ppun do-ro. In these days we have 
ha instead of i, ol insteud of its cognate honorific ml (or si), giv- 
ing« 8 ha-ol-ppun-do-ro as the present form. In this one form 
i-sal-ppun-do-ro we fin i five words that are common to the an¬ 
cient Si I la language and the Korean of to-day, namely i = “this,” 
sal < wita) = “tell, ppun = “only,” dol (ta) — “to subtract” and 
(ojie,' = “humane.” 

In No. 23 we find that the Chinese pul, had the mean¬ 
ing anil in Silla times the same as it has to day. 

In 24 we find that the ending AlJ was common to ancient 
as well as modern Korea. 

In 26 the itu ending cheuk is the same as the present end¬ 
ing eheuk —JZj.. 

No. 27 shows us that that most common ending uj was 
used in Silla the same as it is to-day. 

In 31 we find that the Chinese Jijj, so, meant pa in Silla 

as it does in Korea to-day. 

No. 32 is one of the most important because it shows that 
the verb ha-ta was used in Silla. This we can easily discover 
from the fact that they used the character wi, to represent 

it. We also find here that the ending ki, -j|, was used in Silla 
as it is to-day. 

In 37 we find evidence that the common honorific particle 
m, /.J, comes from the Silla saL 

In 42 we find that the Chinese character ^. — teung which 
is now translated in Korea by mwi, ^-2), is called teul in the 

itu. This shows clearly that the plural ending teul originated in 
Silla. Under this we also find that the particle rd, now 

used before the concessive ending tr>, tf. . is probably from the 
Silla rya. 

In 44 we find that the Chinese wa, is called nu in the 

itu. As this character means nu=“to # lie down,” to-day, we see 
that it is common to Silla and to the present Korean. 


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A 





50 the Korean REPOSITORY. [February, 

27. Jib^FJS si ho ni i o ni ha o ni 

28. si ol ka ni i ol t6 ni ha ydt sap "|f ^ ■-& 

_ «* < Wni (°iM 

29. JBJnfi* ri nyfi «i d itaioltdnihantaha 

(ka ni (op t6 ni (-% Cl i M 

30. Jib^H Jlbl^ si nyO si ol i ta i ol tu kcu ri ha -HE) "&* 

(uIl (chi (r& to (S| 

a^sfsi pAk ho so i sal on pa ha sin pa *41 
O wi chi haki hakie 

wi teung nyo ha teen ro mo to ta S.^ 
wi chi wi ha ki wi ha ki e *iH 
wi pak kyun ha sal ko ha si ko ‘t’ 3L 
pak du ha sal keui hasi kie f* I iH 
pak dii wi ha sal ki wi ha si ki e "$* 

^ (tH 

ts Q w» pak ha eui ha sal o toi ha si toi '§'*1 S| 

39. 1 wi vu nyo ha ha yu ta on ha sin ta ni *41 

(M*t 

fi fi UiHi wi yu eba bayutkyun ka sin kot *-a 
kwa kwa kw% 

-a* 


81. 

32. 

33. 

34. fiRfi 

36. Bfiit 

36. fifjR w, 

37. fiRQfiwi 


%V>. 


40 


41. 

40. 

40. 

44, 

40 . 


fin's 

wi pak 

B’sro 

wi ton:' 

lA T; n I'l 

/•"i —« ^ 

w i . J cl 

fiSVF* 

wi wa 


w: . 'a 


4> 


-1- 

v.- . . 

< ■» 


- . .* I 


Jfc- 

varg :ea tuirya r.a teu la t i ? 

['hi — ^ ] J f m 

ha e! -;k: ro ha or kki to 

... c:: -i '. .i ov il ira ‘f’ 

‘ #o < 1 cr. .» i s n ^ 

. , f ^ 

sa > >4 


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1898.J the rru. 51 

41 

50. ppnn che ryang ppun to ro ppua toro 


51. 


ppuu pul yu 

52. 

ppnn pul si ol 


m 

yu 

53. 

JtT 

sang ha 

54. 


ryang chung 

55. 

mm 

tan chi 

56. 

iSjstl 

byang ebun 

57. 


eui to 

58. 


ko earn 

59. 

MR 

pyong chi 


ppna il chi ppnn ani ra 

ppan an i ol keu ri bal naj 
chi ppan an i ra ~fE 




chca ha 

chu si tun kot ^ 



a e 

• 

ttan tu 

to 

a chun 

yo chun JLjc| 

eui na 

cho heui teul i ^1 


Sl-toJ 

ta china 

ta china l= r^ 

ta mok ki 

mo do ta 


€0. y6 wi yu 

(ny6 ho 

€1. eul yong 

(ryang 


ha yu da 
(on 

eul sd a 


ha ra ha on T a l-t 
(cheuk 
ha on pa 


In the first 31 the character occurs. This is pro¬ 
nounced si but the meaning in Korean is *=“this”. Giles gives 
* to be’ also as meaning of this character. It is the idea of ex¬ 
istence and the itu gives i as the sound so we may safely say 
tliat tiie root i = “tbis,” and the verb ita “tobJ’ in Korean to-day 
are aiuientiSilla wolds. We notice that to-Jay *$• is used in 

stead - It is proimble'thatin these days the i loot was used in many 
-cases where we use -&• today but we shall also find that -j* 

is also a Siila root. 

Ni>. I th a Jlyb is the Chinese sound of the character, the 
character ^ meaning “continuation 1 ’. . It looks as^if this end¬ 
ing was coined in .Siila davs dire?tly from the Chinese. At any 
rate the existence of the Jfi/o in the itu shows^tbat the present 
inding myo is of Siila origin. 


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50 


the kobean bepository. [February, 


27. «ho ni i o ni ha o ni i\s.H 

28. 81 ol ka ni i ol td ni ha y6t sap ’3f ^ 

(Mni (CfH 

29. si ny6 si ol i ta i ol td ni han ta ha 

(JH/S ( kani (op td ni 

30. UtnU^sinyd siol i ta i ol tu kcu ri ha "$* 

(i!l (chi (r& tu (?l*^f* 

31. si p&k ho so i sal on pa ha sin pa -ra«M- 

32. fiR wi chi ha ki ha ki e 

33. ^3? SB wi teung nyo ha tceu ro mo to ta s.s. c V 

34. ^SiR^ wi chi wi ha kiwi ha ki e 

35. ^ 1=3 wi pak kyun ha sal ko ha si ko ■**13. 

36. wi pak chi ha sal keui ha si kie f *1 iH 

37. l~3 ^ wi P ak chi wi ha sal ki wi ha si ki e "tf 

pH 

38. ^ P ak ka eui ha ^ 0 h>i ha si toi $*13 

39. v? 1 y u n y° ha ha yu ta on ha sin ta ni $4 

(M c t 

40. wi yu eba hayutkyun ha sin kot f ^1 

kwa kwa kwa 


41. wi pak teung ha sal teun Ta ka 'tpH 

42. wi teung ryang ha teu tulrya ha teu la tu *f 

[chi -H. ?1 "T" 

43. wi ol chi i ha ol kki ro ha op kki ro 

-§•”1 * 

44. wi wa ho ea ha nu on sa ha on il ira 

45. wi pak ho so ha sil on pa ha sin pa 


43. $:8}c kvo iui i tua ban a 

47. ^C*fV kyo s . i sa ha so sa $dL*f 

48. kyo si sa i si sa (ha sisa) -$~a] /*} 

49. fC&iW kyo si ka ho i ha si ta on ha sin ta ni 


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1898.] 

THE 

ITU. 

51 

50. 


ppun che ryang ppun to ro 

ppun to ro^ 0 ! 

51. 


ppun pul yu 

ppun il chi ppun ani ra ^ 

52. 

ppun P al si ol 

ppun an i ol keu ri bal H-2f 
chi ppun an i ra 

53. 

±T 

sang ha 

chca ha 

chu si tun kot ^ 

54. 


ryang chung 

a e 

• <* 

55. 


tan chi 

ttan tu 

to 

56. 

|SJh3 

byang chun 

a chan 

yo chun 

57. 


eui to 

eui na 

cho heui teul i -jA 

58. 


ko euru 

ta chim 

ta china 

59. 

MP, 

pyong chi 

ta mok ki 

mo do ta 5 L t^ 


«0. y6 wi yu 

(ny6 lio 

€1. eul yong 

(ryang 


ha yu da 
(on 

eul s6 a 


Cj. 

ha ra ha on T a (-f 
(cheuk 
ha on pa 


In the first 31 the character -jfe occurs. This is pro¬ 
nounced si but the meaning in Korean is*=“this”. Giles gives 
* to be’ also as meaning of this character. It is the idea of ex¬ 
istence and the itu gives i as the sound so we may safely say 
that tiie root i = ‘*this,” and the verb ita “tobJ’ in Korean to-day 
are amientiSilla words. V» T e notice that to-day *3r is used in 
stead’ It is probably hat in these days the i >oot was used in many 
-cases where we use todav but we shall also find that -ir 

is also h, Siila root. 

N<>. 1 the Myb is the Chinese sound of the character, the 
character meaning •‘continuation**. It looks as*if this end¬ 
ing was coined in Silla (lavs directly from the Chinese. At any 
rate the existence of the Myb in the itu shows^that the present 
indmg myb is of Silla origin. 


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62 


THE KOREA® REPOSITORY. [FeblUAty. 


iu No. 2 we find that the ending tu is of Silla origin ior it 
has come down intact in the ilu. 

In No. 3 we find that the common ending toi or is ci 
Silla origin. 

In No. 4 we find the ending the common connective 
also in the Silla list. 

In No. 5 the ending chi JZ] is found to be of Silla origin. 
This is seen in No. 16 and others also. 

In 6 the Chinese character ho, is the equivalent of on 

in Korean and the use of o in the itu shows the the meaning 
was the same practically then as now—as an ending it was 
simply an honorific and is so used to-day but si is often rubstituted* 

In No. 7 the on of the ilu has become ni in modern Korean. 

In No. 8 and others we find in Silla times the Korean 
meaning on attached to the character 3j£. as it does to-day. 

In No. 9 we find that the important ending tun was 
the same then as now and as the character used is jfjjj ha, 
meaning toor ej in Koiean we have another evidence that the 
B ourd Crj was of Silla origin. 

In No. 10 we find the character ^, d, which is not a Chi¬ 
nese character but was invented by Sui chong by uniting ISJ2.** 
on and d and making d from the combination, using 

the o_ of the one and the l of tne other. We find here also 
that the honorific ending kk£=Jttyj is of Silla origin, for it is 
doubtless au adaptation from kkeui of the ilu. 

Tn No. 11, 14,16, &c. we find the character pdk, but 
called ml in the itu. Now the meaning of in Korean to-day 


is mlr^cir ta so we see that this root sal com* s from Silla. 

In 13 we find the corneotive kwa or jtj. to be from Silla. 

Jt looks as if the Korean word kot, “thing” was pro- 
nourccd kyiln in Silla days. 

In t o 18 the Chinese i harncter jpjt, chi, is called tu in the 
ilu but as its meaning in Korean is tu — ‘ to place” we see 
that this is also a Silla word. 

In No. 19 the ending ^ “although” is shown to lie of Silla 
crigMi. 

In No. 21 the the interrupt.ve end’n - taka is shown to be 
from Silla. 


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THE ITU. 


53 


1898 ■ 

In No. 22 we find a curious combination. First s= pak 
giving os sal as its Korean meaning, then ^ — j»/xm, giving 

ppun in the itu and this has come down to the present in the 
same form ppun “only;”then |^, cite, whose meaning is 

tol— “subtract,” 1 h is with the following — rya/w/ whose mean-' 

ing is a-jie gives lol-ojie in which only the 6 of ojie is used, 
we have tol q which by a common rule in Korean becomes to-rd. 
The itu therefore has >sal-ppun do-ro. In these days we have 
ha instead of i, ol instead of its cognate honorific dal (or si), giv- 
ingi s ha-ol-ppun-do-ro as the present form. In this one fora 
i-sal-ppun-do-ro we fin i five words that are common to the an¬ 
cient Silla language and the Korean of to-day, namely i = “this/* 
sal *wita) = “tell, ppun=“only,” dol (ta)=“to subtract” and 
(ojie,' = “humane.” 

In No. 23 we find that the Chinese pul, had the mean¬ 
ing anil in Silla times the same as it has to day. 

In 24 we find that the ending £t| was common to ancient 
as well as modern Korea. 

In 26 the itu ending cheuk is the same as the present end¬ 
ing cheuk=^.. 

No. 27 shows us that that most common ending was 
used in Silla the same as it is to-day. 

In 31 we find that the Chinese Jtfj, so, meant pa in Silla 

as it does in Korea to-day. 

No. 32 is one of the most important because it shows that 
the verb ha-ta was used in Silla. This we can easily discover 
from the fact that they used the character wi, to represent 

it. We also find here that the ending ki, -j|, was used in Silla 
as it is to-day. 

In 37 we find evidence that the common honorific particle 
m, A|, comes from the Silla saL 

In 42 we find that the Chinese ehararter ^ — teung which 
is now translated in Korea by mwi, £|, is called teul in the 

itu. This shows clearly that the plural ending teul originated in 
Silla. Under this we also find that the particle ra, now 
used before the concessive ending to, is probably from the 
Silla rya. 

In 44 we find that the Chinese gS)^, wa, is called nu in the 

itu. As this character means nu= “to.lie down,” to-day, we see 
that it is common to Silla and to the present Korean. 


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54 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[February* 


No. 46 shows that the ending ma is both Silla and Korean. 
No. 47 shows that the precative ending ta, came from. 

Silla. 

The cha-ha of No 53 belongs not only to the itu but is 
commonly used now in such expressions as cha-ha chup-si-o* 

No. 54 indicates that the locative ending e= ©f| comes from 
Sills. 

The ttan-iu of No. 55 is not confined to the itu but is a com¬ 
mon low term like nom, Jc., and is used in such expressions as 

= “What are you fellows doing?” or 
the ttan is used without the tu in «uch expressions as 

“Where did this worthless thing corns 

from ?” This is used with great frequency. 

No. 55 shows that the word chun = meaning the past 

was used the same iu Silla as it is iu Korea to-day. 

In 57 we find that the ttu na is called teul in the present 
but na is also a common plural ending to-day, for instance in the 
terms Oj *-| or o j *r| or V] or ' rhi> 

V] is a lower term than teul, -|£, the common plural ending. 

In 58 we see that the word ta chlm is common to ancient 
and modern Korea. 

In 61 we sec that the Chinese IQ, yong, was translated by 

ths word s6 = “to use” even as it is to-day. 

If we attempt then to summarize the result of this compari¬ 
son we shall find that there are at least thirty-eight almost if 
not quite identical forms in the endings of Silla words and of 
Korean words to-day. In fact the most important of the verbal 
and inflectional endings are found to be the same. 

It seems tome that this is a more striking proof that the 
language of Korea to-day is the language of ancient Silla than 
any more historical statement to that effect eould be. 

It indicates also that Chinese was introduced into Korea at 
or about the time of Christ. Perhaps a little before, at the time 
of the fall of the Tsin dynasty in China. It is hard to believe 
that it was effectively introduced before that time. 

If the validity of the foregoing argument is conceded it will 
be another step taken toward the solution of the origin of this 
language. The question then remaining will be where Silla got 
her language. 

H. B. Hulbert. 


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am] 


PRINTING AND BOOKS IN ASIA. 


55 


PRINTING AND BOOKS IN ASIA. 

I ”' N 1881 Sir Ernest Satow, then attached to the English 
Legation in Tokyo, read an article on the early history of 
printing in Japan, before the Asiatic Society. It contains 
material of great value especially on the development of printing 
with moveable types, and it is doubtful if much has been add¬ 
led to the information then made public. A digest of the essay 
is here presented, intended tho to exhibit the important relation 
of Korea to the development of this most useful art. The art of 
printing with wooden blocks had its origin as far as eastern 
Asia is concerned in China, and its discovery was probably due 
to the accident of some one desiring to obtain a facsimile of an 
inscription on a stone monument. This would be done by tak¬ 
ing a “rubbing” in which the incized characters would appear 
-in the natural color of the paper, the rest being blackened by 
•the ink on the “rubbed" monument. In this we may possibly 
see an explanation for the fact that copy books for learning to 
write Chinese often have the characters in white or the natural 
color of the paper, and thus preserving even in modern times 
the orthodox form of antiquity. For the purpose of multiplying 
copies it is said that the entire classics were engraved on stone 
tablets about A.D. 175 and erected in the university at the then 
capital. From these “rubbings” were taken of which some are 
said to lie even now in existence. This method continued in 
use until about the end of the 6th century A.D. when the foun¬ 
der of the Sui dynasty earned the remains of the classical books 
to be engraved on wood, and thus gave the art of printing its 
first impulse. For a long time the chief books published were 
Buddhistic, the first classical book not being published until 
about the middle of the 8th century. Printing as an art, how¬ 
ever, was slow in working its way into general use, t e stencil 
maintaining its ancient hold on the public and books continuing 
to be multiplied by hand. About the middle of the 10th century, 
however, printing had forced its way into general recognition and 
printed books became quite common. 


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' THB KOREAN RBPCSTTOBY. [February* 


M 


According to tradition Japan owes the introduction of the 
art of printing to religion. In A.D. 764 the Empress Sbotoku 
in pursuance of a vow, ordered one million small wooden pagodas 
to be made for distribution among the Buddhist temples and 
monasteries of the realm. Each of these pagodas was to con¬ 
tain one of the six dharani of the Sutra Virnaia nirbhasa. Of the 
six dharani only four appear to have been used. The million 
pagodas were completed and distributed in 770 and of those 
which have survived the passage of tine, the larger part are 
preserved in the Hofuriushi monastery in Yaroato. It seems 
clear that these texts were printed, some from wooden blocks 
and some possibly from bronze or copper castings. The text 
was Sanscrit written in Chinese characters and printed on slips 
of paper eighteen inches long and two inches wide, and these 
slips were rolled up and deposited inside the pagoda under the 
spire. The paper of those specimens still existing is brown with 
age, and the little scrolls are often ranch worn. Two qualities 
of paper appear to have been used, one thick and of a woolly 
texture somewhat resembling certain kinds of modern Korean 
paper, and the other of a thinner and harder substance, with 
a smooth surface which did not absorb the ink so thoroughly at 
first. Thus printing as an art took its rise in the Island Empire- 
bat as in China, it was long in coming into general use. Not 
until 987 does the expression *uri fum, "printed book” appeaiy 
and that was applied to a Kok brought from China. The ear¬ 
liest printed book of which any record exists did not appear un¬ 
til 1172 when a monk brought out the “Seventeen Laws” con¬ 
sisting of a fascicle of not more than a dozen leaves at the out¬ 
side. The earliest book to come down to modem times is 
uncertain as to date being variously estimated at from 1198 to- 
1211. Being the literary legacy of the founder of one Buddhist 
sect the priests of another sect attempted to destroy it as heret¬ 
ical but were unsuccessful. Until about the middle of the 14th 
century printing appears to have been entirely in the hands of 
Buddhist monks who printed works of their own composition, 
translations of Buddhist Butras, and reprints of both Chinese acd 
Korean woiks, among the latter being a small volume con¬ 
taining the biographies of monks and bearing the date 1349. 

From 1364 the date of the first Chinese classic to be printed 
in Japan, namely the Analects of Confucius, Chinese works be¬ 
came more and more common. These were largely facsimiles 
of works printed in China during the Sung and later dynasties 

tho a Korean edition of the Cho-dor g-chong a book 

of Buddhist biography, appears in the list of works ot that period* 


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PBIKTINO AND BOOKS IN A«*A. 


57 


1898.] 

The blocks of the first edition of this work were destroyed at the 
burning of Kyoto 1467, and a second edition was engraved the 
year Columbus discovered America. 

The first four centuries of printing in Japan ends with the 
16th century. During those four hundred years it is doubtful 
if the total number of different works printed exceeds d sixty. 
This lack of vigor gives place, however, at this time to a period of 
enterprise in printing due entirely to Japan’s touch by Koiea. 
A great impulse to printing was given in the closing years of the 
16th century by the invasion of the Korean peninsula by Hide- 
yosbi’B armies, for the victors returned with the spoils of the 
libraries of the peninsula and the Japanese learned for the first 
time what bad been done by a people they bad heretofore con¬ 
sidered their inferiors, in the way of multiplying books valued 
by all cultivated men. A further stimulus was imparted to 
this by Iyeyasu the great Shogun who spent the last lew years 
of bis life in forming a library of Japanese manuscripts and 
encouraged their reproduction by the printer. Amongst the 
hooks obtained from Korea were some printed with moveanle 
types, a contrivance which seems at once to have found great 
favor with the Japanese, for we find that nearly all the books of 
any importance that were printed during the next thirty or forty 
years after the return of the troops from Kor-:a, were printed 
with moveable types. This phase of the subject, moveable types, 
introduces Korea most prominently on the stage, for it was in 
connection with that great invention the people of the peninsula 
obtained their high and honorable place in the art of printing. 

There is a tradition that the fust moveable types were 
made of clay, and that the invention was Chinese and dates 
from about the middle of the 11th century. Whatever may be 
the date, the fact appears to be accepted by Julien whose opin¬ 
ion is entitled to great weight. To the Koreans, however, appears 
to belong the honor of having invented moveable metal types, 
which were of copper, and specimens of their work with these 
types are in existence, which date back to the first years of the 
15th century. This invention found its way possibly into the 
Middle Kingdom fiom Korea, for the Chinese government in the 
reign of Kang hi (1662-1723) printed an enormous dictionary 
which bears that distinguished emperor's name, from a large font 
ofcop) er types. A copy of this dictionary is possessed by the 
British Museum, but the font of type wa* melted down and 
corned into money in the time of Kanghi’s grandson (1740) and 
a fo.it of wooden types still said to be in existence was made 
to replace it. 

* The art of casting these copper types reached its highest 


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i 


58 *wtt: korsaW^bBposopory. : [February, 

0ev?loprt1etit in Korea where All evidence points to its having 
had its rise, and the books produced in that country were eagerly 
sought after by the Japanese. In the library of the Toku giw» 
Sltogon there were twenty-three moveable type Korean books. 
The author of the Kei-Seki Hau-ko Shi enumerates fourteen 
more while Sir Ernest Satow possessed several otbers which 
were unknown to the author of the work above mentioned or 
to the compiler of the catalogue of the Sho-guu’s library. Some 
of these were extremely volnmiuous extending to ovei *200 fas¬ 
ciculi such as the Complete Collection of Biographies of Famous 
'Scholars, the Jade Sea, the New Collection concerning tbiiigB 
Ancient and Modern, the Histories of the Sung dynast) and the 
Seventeen Specific Buies. The most interesting fact in connec¬ 
tion with these books is the early date assigned to their publica¬ 
tion, some having come from the printer’s hands as early as 
•1409. As this antedates the appearance of printing by move¬ 
able types in Europe by a number of years it is most fortunate 
that the facts concerning this most interesting invention have 
been preserved for as bv contemporary witnesses In the fifth 
volume of the In bun Ko-jhi by Kon-don a Japanese scholar, 
which may be translated “True Account of Ancient Things" we 
find the pest face reproduced which was appended to the poeti¬ 
cal works of the Korean hard Chin Kan Chai. The present 
•generation kuows little and cares nothing for the ve>ses of the 
poet, and in this he has shared the universal fate, but concern¬ 
ing the value of the lacts in prose attached to his worKS there 
is but one opinion. The following is the trail-lation, made by Sir 
Ernest Satow, of tbe passage preserved in the “True Account 
of Ancient Things.” 

"The art of printing with moveable tvpes was started by Chen Huo, of 
the Sunj; dynasty (nth and 12th centuries A D.) and was perfected bv 
Vang K’e. But mo-t of these were clay types, liable to be easily destroyed, 
and no: sufficiently durable. A ce.itury later, owing to the divine wis- 
'do»n begotten by the revalafion of time. the lx-ginning of moulding copper 
into characters for transmission to all after ages was made in our country 
(Le. Koteal. * * * *. In the first year ci Yung-to (140)'. they were called 
Keng-tru characters and the old expositions of the Books of Poetry and His¬ 
tory, and the commentary of Tso which had been read in the presence of 
the emperor, were used as models for forming the types, but of this font 
nothing has survivevL In the year 1434 they were called Chia-yin characters, 
and these were modelled upon the stones of filial piety, obedience and 
good actions, and upon the Lun yd. Those which were made in 1455 also 
went by the name of the year in the sexagenary cycle, and they were writ¬ 
ten by Kang Heui-an. Again in 146; a font was made and called after the 
name of that year, by Chong Nang Chong and both these fonts are still in 
use. In 14S4 our king gave an order to the cabinet, and as a result of this* 
copy of the Lives of Virtuous Women compiled bv Ku Yang Kong 0lfe_ 
moos scholar of Sang) was used as a model tor the characters. The work 


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189EL] PRINTX^O AND BOOKS; IN 4SIA. {j»9j 

occupied from the 24th of the 8th moon to the 3d month of the sir leedujg 
year. Over 3,000,000 characters, large and small, were made and these were 
wed in printing books. They were clear, correct, good and finely made and 
■■when arranged in order resembled a string of pearls.” 

The statements contained in this interesting document art 
clear and direct and are borne oat by the evidence obtainable 
from books printed at the time. It is therefore certain that 
td Korea belongs the credit of having first manufactmed and 
used moveable metal type, an invention destined to play each a 
large and important part in the world of letters, its appearance 
in the peninsula anticipating the European invention by nearly 
half a century. 

The credit of the invention is given to His Majesty, King 
Tai-joiig, and even tho it should be discovered that the origins! 
idea arose in the mind of another, it is undeniably true that His 
Majesty is entitled to be called the foster-father of printing ip 
Korea. The government has from earliest times been the chief 
publish ng concern ol the country, and some of its ventures, 
notably that of the yearly almanac, have been most profitable. 
In the old days before metal came into use for types the wooden 
block process was altogether in use while that of clay types was 
•well known and has remained in use even to the present day. It 
is possible the first suggestion to use copper for types may have 
come from some member of the printing-office, or it may have 
come from s^me literary man, whose ruined eyesight and out¬ 
raged sense of the artistic had led him to grapple with the prob¬ 
lem of improved printing. Be this as it may the king took it 
up and moreover made it a personal venture for as we shall 
see he defrayed from his personal funds, and such contributions 
as his friends and officials made, the cost of the first foot. 
Raising the funds, as it were by a sort of public subscription. 

There exists in the imperial library at Soul a work en¬ 
titled the Churja-msil or the ‘ History of Moveable Copper 
Types.” In this work the main facts collated from various 
posftaces. prefaces and supplements to different works, may 
be verified and supplemented, the exist dice of a work of this 
Kind on the history aDd art of printing with moveable types 
giving an indication of bcrw thoroughly alive Korea was to tbe 
inportance of tbe invention. 

Most prominenently connected with the invention of coppek 
types was the litterateur Kwfin-Keun. Bom in the walled city 
-of An-dong in the province of Kyong-sang he became a student 
and follower of Po-eun, better known in Korean history as 
Chong Mong-jo, the last iF Prime Minister and one of the greatest 
-of the Ko-ryo dynasty. It was this Po-eun. who popularized 


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60 the kokean REPOSITORY. [February, 

ihe Cocfucian cult «n.l fastened its grip on Korea by introducing 
tbe Sa-dqng or family shrine to the ancestors, into the national 
worship. In tbe halls of this famous man, Kwon and b» 
brother bad for their classmates men who afterwards rose to 
the highest distinction and greatest usefulness, and here they 
obtained that learning which put' Kwon-keun’s name first- on 
the list of the famous liter ati of Korea ar.d his brother only 
two names below him. From 1368 to 1398 Kwon keun was the 
envoy from the last King of the Koryo dynasty to tbe imperial 
court at Peking aDd while there he was apparently a member 
of a select coterie of literary men including the emperor and 
some of his highest officials, who spent their time in composing 
sonnets, and these versifications of the imperial poet and bis- 
courtiers with bis own efforts on the occasion ware published by 
Kwon on his return to Korea under tbe title of Eung Cbei-sr 

He was also author of the Tvng-hycn Sa ryak 
«HR. “Abridged History of the Scholars of Korea,” and 
oint author of the Tong Kuk Sa Ryak, or “Abri* 

dged History of Korea,” an ambitious work based on the Sam, 
Kuk Sa Keui, and a large number of contemporary documents. 
He was also author of a work on philosophy entitled “Intro¬ 
duction to Science,” and his collected works pub¬ 
lished under the name of Yang Chen Chip , Yang- 

chon being the literary nom of Kwbn, reach to nine volumes and 
are contained in the imperial library at Soul. Kw5n rose to- 
tbe rank of a councillor of tate, Ch’an-Song, and both his son 
and grandson followed in his steps becoming famous authors 
and high officials, the son being head of the printing bureau 
under Se-jong and tbe grandson a councillor of state under Se- 
jo. Kwon Keun wrote a postface to the Son ja Sip-ii Ka-ju r 

IHH—a work on military science to which we 
shall refer again. This postface contains the main facta concern¬ 
ing the invention of printing in Korea, and for the following tran¬ 
slation we are indebted to the invaluable paper by Sir Ernest 
Satow from which we have aleady quoted so extensively:— 

In the third year of Tai-jong—1403—His Majesty said whoever is 
desirous of governing must have a wide acquantance with books, which 
alone will enable him to ascertain principles, perfect his own character and 
to attain success in regulating his conduct, in ordering his family aright, and 
in governing and tranquilizing the state. Our country lies beyord the seas, 
and but few books reach us from China. Block cut works are apt to he im¬ 
perfect and it is moreover impossible thus to print all the works that exist. 
I desire to have types moulded in copper with which to print all the books 
lhat I may get hold of, in order to make their contents widely known. This 


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1898.] 

would be of infinite advantage. But as it would not be right to lay the bur¬ 
den of the cost upon the people, I and my relations, and those of my dis¬ 
tinguished officers who take an interest in the undertaking, ought surely to 
be able to accomplish this.” 

In obedience to the edict above quoted a font of 100,000 
typeB was founded and put into use the same year (1403). For 
the model on which to form the matrices the handwriting of 
famous scribes was taken, the King giving, as we learn from the 
poet Chin, above quoted, manusciipt copies of the Boobs of 
Poetry, Books of History, and the Commentary ot Tso, Thus 
was obtained a font capable of printing poetry, history and 
philosophy. 

This date (1403) is the generally accepted data for the in¬ 
vention of metal moveable types. It is to be noted that it was 
contemporary in Korea with the rise of the present d\nasty. 
Tai-;o the first king ot the line ascended the throne only elev¬ 
en years earlier in 1392, and the author of the above decree 
was his fifth son, having ascended the throne on the retiieraent 
of his brother two yeais previously. In lact the aj.ed founder 
of the dynasty was still living when the first font came iivo use. 

Of the works printed with this first font, tl o the above 
quoted jostface to the works of the poet Chin, says to the con¬ 
trary, one is know n to exist. It was originally in the library 
of the Takugav.a Shoguns, (the Momiji Yang Bunko) which was 
kept in son e buildings in the garden of the castle of Yedo. At 
the revolution of 1868 the gr< ater part of the books came into 
the pcssession of His Imperial Majesty the emperor of Japan. 
Some of them were probably the spoil of one of th e libraries of 
the peninsula rifled in 1592-1598, biought to Japan by one of 
the victorious generals, and finally found their way into the hands 
of the Shogun lye-yasu, "When they came into the hands of 
the Mikado’s government among them was the issue of the first 
font of moveable metal tyfe the world ever saw. One of these 
was the al ove quoted Sanrja Sip-il-ka-ju and consists of a mem¬ 
oir on military matters by Son-mu an ancient worthy 

belonging to the 6th century B.C. Eut it was deemed sufficient¬ 
ly up to date for Korea’s purposes and had the honor of being 
printed with eleven conm entaries on the same, with the first 
metal type ever cast. This edition bears the date 1409, and Sir 
Ernest Satow, 1 eing permitted to examine it by the custodian, 
pronounced it genuine. If so it is certainly a treasure. The 
font of type however was not altogether satisfactory, for in a 
postfacp to an edition of the 1 

nil also a book of mili 
we find the following:— 


ok-tai-chang Kam-puk-eui 

tary nr< moirs and printed m 1436, 


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62 the Korean repository. [February, 

*The invention of cast types for printing all kinds of books for trans¬ 
mission to posterity is truly of infinite advantage. But at first the types thus 
rast did not attain to the highest degree of perfection and printers lamented 
that the work was difficult to perform. In the 1 ;:h moon of the 18th year of 
r¥ung-lo (1420) His Majesty of his own motion ordered his officer Yi Chan. 
Vice President of the Boaid of Works, to cast a fre^h set of types, to be very 
fine and small, and be also commands certain of toe officials to superintend 
the under aking. The work was completed within space of seven 
months. The printers found these types more convenient and were able 
to print at the rate of more than twenty sheets a day. Our late King 
'Kong-jong (Tai-jong) had already done the same thing, and now* His 
Majesty our present sovereign has extended his work. It would be 
impossible to add to the perfection of the workmanship. Thus there 
wall be no book left unprinted ?nd no man «*ho does not learn litera¬ 
ture and religion will make daily progress, and the cause of morality 
must gain enormously. The Targ ax.d Ha rulers, who considered the first 
duties of the sovereign to be finance and war, are not to be mentioned in the 
same day with them. It is certainly an eternally boundless pece of fortune 
for this Korea of ours.” 

The superlative character of the language of this preface 
indicates the high estimate and gr r at hopes with which the in¬ 
vention was regarded. The reference t .j literature, religion and 
the progress of morality is good. It shows that in those days 
the Koreans recognised the inti'i ate relation between morality 
and cold types. The reference to the lulers of Tanc and Ha 
with their estimate on finance is not quite to fortunate however, 
for it seems that some of the chief works which have come down 
from those early fonts weie treatises on the urt of war. For tbe 
San-ja SipM-ha-ju which we have mentioned as being possessed 
by the Mikado, and which is the specimen of the first font, from 
which we have quoted, was a military memoir w hile the Yok* 
laijang Kam-pnJc eui printed in 1437 contains the me moirs of 
the famous generals of various dynasties, with comments and 
discussions,—a work which has continued to the present day an 
authority on military affairs for the Tai-chon Hoi-tony, or tbe 
Completed Instiuffes of the Dynasty/* issued in 1865, decreed 
it still the text book tor the military examinations. It would 
therefore seem that the art of printing was early made an ad¬ 
junct by the military authorities, and continues so to this day. 

The author of this pest face was Kim Bin, one of the first 
heads of the Typographical Bureau of tbe Korean Govern!! er t 
and some of the glowing prophecies to which lie gave utterance 
were certainly realized. As in Euroi»e so in Korea literature 
received a great impulse, ai d the real rise of learning may be 
dated from tnis period. The year before the king died was marked 
by a great wave of feeling against ttie Black Art and as in 
Ephesus of old so in Soul many works on magic were destroyed. 
Tbe following reign, that of S^-jong, was a long one (1419-1450) 


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PRINTING AND BOOKS IN ASIA. 


63 


and was one ot the most brilliant kuown in Korean annals. 
Affairs of state were in tbe hands of a group of statesmen at whose 
bead stood Sin Snk-ju and Song Sun-mam, two of Korea’s most 
famous scholars. The Kyong-yoag Chong or Hall of Royal 
Tutors was established at this time and continued uutil 18S5 
one of the most honorable and influential of the departments of 
government. In 1421, the year in which the second font of 
type cast in Korea came into use, a royal decree fixed the age at 
which boys should begin their education at eight years and 
the king set an example for tbe nation by sending the Crown 
T> - ; nce. who was jusc that age, to the Confucian college where 
ne he seeD any day in the costume of a Son ri studying 
Sjoki. The King founded a Noble’s School also; ordered 
the compilation of the first great Code of Laws, began the com¬ 
pilation of the royal annals, placed in the palace a water clock 
to measure time, decreed the spring and autumn sacrifices to 
Oonfucius which have been tbe peculiar institution of tbe literatti 
ever since and instituted measures to reduce to conformity the 
pronunciation of the Chinese ideographs, thus laying the foun¬ 
dation of lexicography in Korea. Of the ninety-seven great Ko_ 

lean literatti listed in Yu-rim-nok Hf only fifteen precede 
the invention of moveable types. 


Geo. Hebeb Jones. 



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64 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[February, 


CHRISTIAN MISSIONS AND SOCIAL PROGRESS. * 

T HIS 19 a great book—great in subject, great in exposition, 
great iu literary treatment. Not by any means easy read¬ 
ing, yet always attractive and inspiring. There is a re¬ 
freshing freedom from theological jargon; the language is modem 
and up-to-date, the references exceedingly apropos, while the many 
literary quotations o f ten throw floods of light upon the subject. 
Take, for example, llieiimtto on the title page. Could any lines 
in modern or ancient liter.. more fitly describe the present con¬ 
dition of mission-work, say iu China, than these lines from. 
William Watson:— 

“The new age stands as yet 
Half built across the sky, 

Open to every threat 

Of storms that clamour by: 

Scaffolding veils the walls, 

And dim dust floats and falls, 

As, moving to and fro, their tasks the masons ply.” 

It is a pleasure to recognize the patient, selective care which has 
gone to the choice of these passages. 

But throughout the author’s reading and research has been 
immense and reveals itself on every page. It is not obtrusive— 
felt rather than scon—not merely in foot-notes and references, 
which might tasily be vamped-up, but in the woof and warp of 
his text, of his thought, and in the far-reaching ramifications of 
his subject. A practical missionary, for years connected with the 
American Presbyterian Mission, Beirut, Syria, he is an expert in 
mission problems. But as no individual experience could cover 
the whole field, so no mission-field could supply the data iudis- 
pensible for such a study as the part played by Christianity in 
the social progress of the world. 

■* Christian Missions and Social Progress. A Sociological Study of Foreign 
Missions. Vol. I. By the Rev. Jas. S. Dennis, D.D. Fleming 
H. Revell Company, New York, 1897. 


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4«88.]!'«'7$HRISTIAir’ W1S8IONSSOCIAL PROGRESS. $$ 

•i:’- rft: Apparent>from the scope of ,*th$ subject, and the range of data 

required to treat it intelligently and with any basis of authority, that no 
adequate discussion wis possible without much fresh and explicit inform* 
ation. The effort was made to obtain this not only from the current liter* 
arure of missions, but directly by correspondence with missionar es in atf 
parts of the world. A carefully prepared circular, with detailed question? 
.upon special aspect of the theme, was sent to over three hundred mission* 
aries, representing various societies in many lands. The replies were of th? 
greatest value and pertinence, and gave to the author an abundant supply 
of data from which to col ate his subject-matter and upon which to establish 
•his generalizations. 

Upon the facts thus obtained he brought to bear a Stroqg 
philosophic mind and fine gifts of insight, analysis and generalize 
•tion. H19 reading enabled him to appreciate their hearing upon 
current sociological discussions and to state them in terms which 
makes them acceptable to htudents of every kind. It is not a 
surprising result of his work that the author 

'•Has been led in the course of these studies to give to Christianity 
more fiim‘y than ever his final, unreserved and undivided allegiance as an 
authoritative and divinely accredited system of truth, full of salutary guid¬ 
ance and uplifting power to humanity." 

Nor that, in contrast with the social results of the ethnic 

tyigions 

The comparison has seemed to the writer to be fruitful in results 
which were favorable to the Christian religion and virtually to substantiate 
its divine origin, superior wisdom and moral efficiency. 

It is noteworthy, however, that while awarding the palm ix> 
Christianity the writer can still speak of the ethnic religions with 
appreciation and respect The a Confucius-is-in-Hell” spirit no¬ 
where finds expression. True, he uses such a jarring phrase as 
“false religions,” with its suggestion of pelilio principii but one 
booh finds that it is rather the final result of careful and prolonged 
examination—an expert opinion—than the cheap abase of smug, 
self-satisfied phariseeism. It is well to be assured on such a point, 
.otherwise no confidence could be anywhere placed in bis reason¬ 
ings or results. 

•'That there are plain traces of truth in all the prominent ethnic systems 
of religion is a fact which is too evident to admit of d* nial. This is mani¬ 
fested in much of their ethical teaching and in their adjustment of the duties 
of human r.lationships, yet it is just in these respects that some of their 
most serious failures are observable. It is because the religion® hn sis of 
their e f hic? is so defective that the practical. outcome is so disappointing. 
* * * Primitive revelation, with its emphatic restatements, covering many cen¬ 
turies in time and reaching mankind through vai ious direct and indirect in¬ 
strumentalities, was a mighty and pervading religious force in early history. 
It lingered long and worked deeply in human experience. Truth dies 
hard- if, indeed, it ever dies. Half truths, and even corrupted and over¬ 
shadowed truths, can influence men, although partially anti uncertainly, *n 
the direction of a sound religious faith Men are made brave and courageous 
and often ready for martyrdom, by whole conviction concerning half truths. 
The truth sometimes survives and even lives long in an atmosphere of cor- 


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66 ' THU KOREAN REPOSITORY. [February 

rnption and degeneracy. Again, it will kindle an earnest disposition far 
reform, and a new religion appears in history, but likely to be imperfectly 
furnished and so in alliance with error, that it can do little for the spiritua 
and moral good of mankind * * * Monotheism having been cast 
aside or deserted, something must take its place in the presence of the awfa] 
and mysterious phenomena of nature. It may be pantheism or polytheism or 
nature wroship in its varied forms. Man then devises—not necessarily in 
any dishonest or insincere spirit—a religion of his own, for himself or his 
family or his tribe, according to the conception which he forms of his need 
and in harmony with his own philosophy of nature. 

„ "The genesis of false religions is therefore to be found in the desertion and 
corruption of the true, and in man's urgent blit unavailing struggle after some 
substitute lor what he has forsaken. They are to be traced to treason sad 
surrender in the religious citadel of human history. Jt is a story of 
**many inventions" in order to recover what has been lost or for¬ 
feited. * * * There is primitive truth lingering in the consciousness 
and in the religious environment of all races. There is the natural con¬ 
science, and, above all, there is the free 8pirit of God with immediate access 
to every soul. God is not bound, and His truth, if He wills, can be so 
•brought home to the moral nature of man by the monitions of the Spirit, 
with or without ex'ernal means, that the saving act of faith may occur even 
in a partially instructed soul, for whose benefit the atoning work of Chxist 
may be made available by divine mercy." 

In justice to the author's position it is perhaps only right 
fo add the sentence which immediately follows, defining and 
limiting as it does the opinion expressed in the last few lines of 
this long quotation. 

"This is not," he says, "universal salvation for the heathen; it is, un* 
happily, the writer fears, merely a possibility, and only such for those faith¬ 
ful souls who are humble, and loyal to light and privilege. The rest shall 
be judged justly in view of the light, and that alone, which they have sin¬ 
fully ignored and rejected." 

The present writer has made this long excerpt in order to 
present clearlv and distinctly the author’s qualifications for tbe 
task he has undertaken. It wonld be a poor recommendation 
and would inspire but little confidence in the candid reader, 
were the writer unable to acknowledge and recognize some 
power of goodness and earnestness even in the "false religions." 
He can and does make ample acknowledgement of the part 
they have played in the history of humanity and by so doing 
contributes largely to one’s confidence in the essential truth and 
justice of his conclusions. 

The origin of the book is interesting. Thd subject was not of 
the author's choosing, altbo his reading and thinking had for long 
been upon thee ? lines. It was suggested to him W tbe students 
of Princeton Theological Seminary, especially byNmembereof 
the Sociological Institute and of the Missionary Socielt of the 
Seminary. It is symptomatic of much that tbe 
should eminate from such a source. It indicates* for 




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JL898.J CHBISOTAN MISSIONS ANfi SOpiAI. PBOGBES8. 67 

-tbe strong spiritual and intellectnaL practicality of the men 
the strength and depth of their realization of the world-widp 
mission of the Church. In this must be the brightest angary 
af final sbccess. 

’ ‘‘Christian Missions and Social Progress" is a work in twp 
■volumes, of which only the first has come to hand. The coua- 
jolefce work is designed to contain six lectures, with an appendix 
•The. titles in Volume I. are The Sociological Scope of Christian 
^Missions; The Social Evils cf the Non-Christian World, Ineffec¬ 
tual Remedies and the Causes of their Failure; Christianity the 
Social Hope of the Nations. VoL II. will contain The Dawu 
of a Sociological Era in Missions; The Contribution of Christian 
Missions to Social Progress, and an exhaustive statistical survey 

• of Foreign Missions throughout the world in a series of clas¬ 

sified tables. In both volumes there are elaborate bibliographies, 
indices, synops<8 of lectures, etc., and a series of capital photo¬ 
graphs which not only i'lustrate the text but materially aid ifx 
. the understanding of the subject. , 

• Limitations of space will not permit us to dwell much long¬ 
er upon these lecturea, greatly as we would like to do so. There 
is one point, however, so fundamental to the conception of the 
book, that it cannot be overlooked even in a review. What is 
/the author’s definition of Sociology? and what relation would he 
•establish between it and Christianity? Sociology is the science 
which treats of the general structure of society, the laws of its 
■development, and the progress of civilization. Christianity is 
, the system of doctrines and precepts taught.by Christ. Sociology 
•deals with positive and knowable data, and proceeds by strict 
scientific law. Christianity acts in the power of a new life. 
No two things could at first sight differ more diametrically, qr 
have less in common. 

His definition of Sociology can hardly be quoted here, but 
bis method of union is the old one of widening the accepted defi¬ 
nition and this along lines made familiar to ns by Mr. Benja¬ 
min Kidd. "Mr. Benjamin Kidd is correct in his contention 
that the religions forces of history, emphasizing as he does those 
distinctively Christian, are necessary factors in a full and roundqd 
•ocial evolution." This method of enlargement is not in itself 
objectionable. It is one with which Science i§ perfectly famil¬ 
iar, but it is one which calls lor very jealous scrutiny. There -ia 
■ always a suggestion of special pleading and of weakness about 
it, altho cf course it may be the legitimate result of enlarged 
intelligence. In the present instance and to the reviewer, the 
broadened connotation appears perfectly, justified. Just as the 
; ""dismal science” has widened her borders,and now includes the 


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86 ■ ! ' ; * [Feb rd ttH ^ 

fcttfaftW fafctor,- ^oBbterOld^; thu&fc wlcfohrfoer#attd wokoc -vwQj 
* tfee'spiritual'. 1 $ut fbrtltefolf' disctl^feta ift this ■poitJfenraada* 
Ifcfcht tefer'io-the leetiife rh-volume I.’ > •• 1 * 

I ecture II is the saddest possible reading. •' It deals with 
the social evils oLthe hon-Gbrtetian world ana amply defies all 
-fcflbfrts at effective' summarization. The author, however, he 
'attempted to help his; readers by treating; these evils in groups 
■'tfrhieh he labels respectively, the Individual group, the Farmily 
'group, the Tribal group, (he Social group, the National group, the 
Comnlerc al group and the Eeligious group. 
l: ^Lecture III. passes in • review some remedial expedients 
Vrhich have been applied to the evils catalogued in tbe previous 
lecture. It does not assert that they are in every instance inher- 
“ently and necessarily without value, but that m view of the 
'ordinary tendencies of human nature, they are found to be for the 

* purposes of social reconstruction defective and misleading, incom¬ 
petent to cope with the difficulties and demands of the environ¬ 
ment, unless pervaded and directed by the moral power and spip- 
‘ifcual enlightenment of Christian ideals. With a view to test tbe 
eocjal fruitage of theve a^ncies apart from Christianity, the fol¬ 
lowing proposition* are (...sinssed : I. Secular education apart 

' from Christian truth does not bold tbe secret of social regenera¬ 
tion. II. Material ctvilizntion, as exemplified in temporal pros¬ 
perity, artistic luxury and commercial progress, cannot guarantee 
' the moral transformation of. non-Christian society. III. State 
' legislation in and by itself, apart from Christianized public sen¬ 
timent, is not an effective instrument of social righteousness 
IV. ratriotis n cannot be trusted to insure the moral or poe¬ 
tical reform of non-Christian peoples. V. The moral forces of 
ethnic religions ate not capable of an uplifting and beneficent 
renewal of -ocietv 

' In Lecture IV. the need of a supernatural remedy for 
tie evils of non-Christiau society is assented and advocated, and 
"the adaptation of Chr stinnity to wage a beneficent and effective 
crusade against the moral lapses and social cruelties- of heathen¬ 
ism is argued under the following heads: I. Christianity alone 
offers the verfert Bnd final solution of the problem of sin; II. 

• It provides a new and powerfnl motive in the moral experience 
''Of 'mankind; III. It suggests new views ot- society; IV. 

' The code of social ethics advocated by Christianity is an immense 
; improvement upon that which prevails under any ethnic system 

of religion; V. Christianity inti-oduces new moral forces into 
' heathen secietyesp cially the noble impulse to missionary service; 

‘ VI. Philanthropic ideas are generated and quickened into 
activity by the entrance of Christian teaching and example 


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1998 .]' CHRISTIAN MISSIONS AND SOCIAL PROGRESS. 

among non-Christian peoples; VII. Historic Christianity is 
declared to be equal to the task above outlined. 

In bringing this notice to an end the reviewer would like 
to express his own sense of indebtedness to the author. He 
has found the book most interesting to read and very piovccative 
of thought. Deeply interested in missions, of which he has seen 
a great deal, with some store of facts of his own, and with a 
strong belief in the social mission of Christianity, it has been bis 
great joy and privilege to travel rather extensively in this part 
of the world. This book has helped him much to a right under¬ 
standing of what he has seen and has suggested possible answers 
to various questions. He would cordially recommend the book, 
therefore, to every one interested either in Sociology or in 
Christian missions, and very specially to young missiona ries. 
For them it has special value. It is a more or less well-founded 
complaint among the students of theological colleges at home 
that the prescribed conrse of studies is rot specially adapted for 
their requirements. It may be very difficult to decide what 
changes in curricula are desirable and even more difficult to 
bring them about w hen their exact nature has been determine!, 
but the man who has carefully read and thorougly digested this 
book will have gained an intellectual appreciation of the nature 
and extent of the work set before him and a spiritual fervor 
Tor its execution which will go far to make him a well-equipped 
workman, needing not to be ashamed. 


i 



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70 


THE KQBEAJf EXPOSITORY. 


[February. 


THE BUDGET FOR 1898. 

O N the 12th of January the Council of State laid before Hit 
Majesty the Budget for 1898. It bas been printed in a 
neat pamphlet in mixed script and was prepared by the 
following councillors: Cbo Pyengaik, active Prime Minister and 
Minister for Foreign Affairs; Min Chongmeuk, Minister of Fi¬ 
ance; Yi Chongkeun, Minister of war; Chong Nakyong Minister 
of agriculture, etc.; Kim Myongku and Min Pyengsok. We have 
•examined this budget with genuine pleasure, for whatever may be 
thought of the items themselves it must be a sourceof congratula¬ 
tion to the f iends of Korea that the oadieu has learned well its 
lessons in national book-keeping, and is making success in the 
endeavor to iutro.l nee system into its finances. Contrasting pres¬ 
ent-day methods with those of the old regime it is evident that 
■some sttides have been made towards progress. 

The total income on which the budget is based is estimat¬ 
ed at yen 4,527,478, and appropriations amounting to yen 4,525, 
530 have been made leaving a margin of yen 1,946. This 
on the surface must appear very close figuring, the margin of 
less than yen 2,000 if it were the real margin between the in- 
ooore and the out. go being ridiculously small and inadequate, 
but as will be seen in basing the national expenditure on less 
than ysn 5,000,000 of assets a very large margin has been al¬ 
lowed for all defaults and shrinkages. The income is derived 
from four sources as follows: 

A Cho-sd =Government tax yen. 3,779,316 

B Chapsu, ip^= Miscellaneous income. 40,000 

C Chvrdto-u}ha= Mint seignorage. 200,000 

D Surplus from last year 508,160 

$4,527,476 

The detail of these items showing clearly from what they 
are derived is as follow: 

A = Government tax. 

l=Lrand taxes yen 2,227,758 

2 = House registration 229,558 

3=M iscellaneous 24,000 


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1898.] THE BUDOET FOR 1893. 7Jt 

4=Twees in. arrears 358,000 

5* Income from jinseng monopoly 150,000 

G=Income bom gold mines 40,000 

6—Customs returns 750,000 


yen 8,779,316 

The land-tax is an assessment on the grain bearing abil¬ 
ity of the land under cultivation throughout the realm. For this 
purpose all farming lands are divided into thirteen classes accord¬ 
ing to the character of the crop and the fertility of the soil. 

Formerly the assessment according to these classes was 
collected in the grain produoed and for the storing of this grain 
great storehouses, like those erected by Joseph for protection 
against famine in Egypt, were erected throughout the land. And 
this process ictro.laced the government into a fostering relation 
to agriculture, for the snrplus after paying the cost of government 
was loaned to the people at a small per cent. When O You 
Chung was Minister of Finance he instituted aseale of conversion 
tor these tax returns in kind into money and since then the 
people have paid in the coin of the realm. The following ie 
the scale, the unit being the Jsyel or “heap” of grain, In 1st class 
lands each kyel is compounded for yen 6.00; 2nd class, $5jOQ; 
3d class, $4.0d; 4th class, $3.20; 5th class. $3.00; 6th 
class, $2.80; 7 th class, $2.40; 8th class, $2.00; 9 th class, 
$1.60; 10th class, $1.00; 11 tu class, $.80; 12th classy 
$.50; 13th olass, $.40. In tbe higher classes are grouped 
the rich rice swamps of the central and southern provinces 
while iu the lower classes are placed the rocky, sterile hills and 
Ravines of Pyeng-an and Hamkyong. A most interesting ta- 
hie at the end of the budget gives this distribution in detail i#r 
Cheating the character of the farming lands of the various pro- 
winces. In the metropolitan province and in the province pf 
North and South Cbungchong, North and South Chnlla, North 
and South Kyongsaog, Whanghai and Kangwon the lands are 
placded in tbe first three classes, while the land in the four Pyeng- 
an and Hamkyong provinces are classed from the filth down to 
the thirteenth urade. The following table shows the amount 
in yen of the levies made on tbe provinces. 

$397,014.3$ 

238,755 43 
527,413 00 ; , , 

693,5$>.flO 
888,651.62 
593,829.03 : . . 
.544^826.13 


Original from 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 


1 =* Kyong keui 
2acrChung-chong North 
,3±* „ South 

4=Chull& North 
5a* „ South 

-6*=Kyong-sang North 
„ South 


Digitized b\ 


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-V2 the KOREAN repository. [February, 

8s=Whai)g-bai 
9 = Kang-won 
10=Pyong-an North 
11= „ South 

12=Han -kyong North 

' 13= ' South 

$4,876,475.73 

These are the figures actually.used by the government in 
making the formal levy on the provinces. By way of rebates to 
the people for crop failure and other causes this sum is reduced 
to $4,455,516. . Then for some cause or other this sum is further 
cut in two and only half the amount placed in the budget as 
reliable assets, $2,227,758. Tbe reason for regarding such a 
large percentage of the formal levy as fictitious and unreliable 
we do not know. The Independent contains the following which 
may indicate where trouble lies: 

"The department still goes by the rough survey which was made (three) 
centuries ago so that hundreds of poor people pay taxes on land which has been 
washed away and many influential yan%-bans pay scarcely anything for the 
use of their rich lands. We i.ope the time will soon come when a thorough 
survey of the cultivated fields of the empire will be made thereby adjusting 
the irregularities of the present system of taxation." 

We join our contemporary in hoping that an accurate and 
complete survey will be made, for not only does tbe present 
condition of affairs disturb tbe computation of tbe land tax, but 
tbe same thing is true of tbe bouse registration tax. Tbe total 
for tbe latter as levied on tbe thirteen provinces is $688,674,208, 
but two-tbirds of it is rejected as fictitious and unreliable and 
■only $229,558 is placed in the budget, this being based on last 
gear's returns. Conditions like these reduce national finance to 
guess work There is now in arrears on these two items 
of which one-tenth or $358,000 is placed in this year’s 
budget as receivable. 

Tbe items grouped under tbe subhead of miscellaneous are 
derived from various sources such as tbe income irorn yamwi 
lands, and tbe lands attached to various courier posts; from tbe 
sale of licences to tdats, butchers, salteries, and fishermen; from 
tbe rent of osier lands; tbe sea weed tax, and the tax on raw 
ginseng. The totpl for these items in 1897 was $17,973 of 
which the largest item was tbe return of the batcher's tax which 
Amounted 1 to $7,378. 

Tbe facts relating to tbe income from the drug ginseng ate 
Mo well known it hardly needs comment, a tax is levied on tbe 
cultivation of this valuable root and tbe returns from this are 


488,992.08 
100,853.41. 
304,631.84 
187,422 30 
47,246.01 
139,257.36 


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1$98.}- EDITORIAL, OTJPAEtTJlBNTj 

* - • \ % 

volaed at $150,000, The sixth item in the Hat, of $40,000c*oyal- 
ties from the told mines, is largdy in exejaof the returmof last 
year which amounted to $5,000, butin view of the development 
of operations at the mines the increased sum is not regarded as 
excessive. I?he seventh item is that of customs.returns* Last 
year the revenue from this source amouute I to $640,000, but m 
view of tbe two poits Ghinnampo and Mokpo the revenue was 
regarded as certain to rise to $750,"000. An J* under favorable 
commercial conditions with pioper fostering by the government 
we have no doubt that these expectations will be realized. f 

B. - Miscellaneous income. This is made up of mulcts and 
fines, the produce of government property, sold and like items. 
The estimate of $40,000 in this year’s budget is based on the re¬ 
turns of 1897. 

C. Seignorage at the mint. It is proposed to increase the 
minting of silver and copper coins during 1898 and for this pur¬ 
pose as will be seen by the.appropriations $100,000 is added to 
the working capital of the mint. It is therefore estimated that 
the government seignorage on this increased output of ooih. will 
amount to $200,000. 

D. Balances from 1897. There was in the treasury on the 
31st of December, 1897, the sum of $881,800, but outstanding 
elarms reduce this amount to an available balance of $508,100. 

The detail of the expenditures is so clearly laid down that 
no comment is necessary. Oue item, however, we feel deserves 
a passing notice of hearty endorsement and approval. It’is pro¬ 
posed to organize twenty new government schools in 1898, one in 
Seoul, one in each of the the thirteen provincial capitals, and oue 
ill each of the six open ports. The appropriation to each of tuese 
schools is $360. Their number should be increased until there is 
one in every town of 1,000 or more inhabitants throughout the 
empire. The following in the. table of expenditures: 

Ordinary Expenditures. 


I. Imperial Household Department. 

t _: .1 a_i • i 


Imperial household. 

5500,oco 


Sacrificial rile®. 

60 poo 

^j^O.OOO 

H. C ouncil of State. 


32,0»6 

Ill- Foreign Office. •' 

• 

Department expenses, 

25.984 


. Superintei\dcncey,.of trade, 

3 1 . 73 - 

‘ 32.396 

Three Legations abroad, 

IV. Home Office- 

74.680 

Department expenses, 

28,410 


Police department. 

161,17s 


Prisons and jails. 

12,158 


Government of Seoul,. 

7.050 


Provincial; dministration, 

140,916 



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*74 the KOREAN repository. [Febit»ry, 


Prefectures, 1 st class. 

3 °. *86 


Government of Chei-ju, 

4.265 


Prefectures, 2nd class. 

786,120 


Police at open ports. 

42.375 


Vaccination, 

,000 


Traveling expenses. 

10,000 

1.25.655 

V. Finance Department 



Department expenses. 

49.334 


Privy Council etc.. 

10,173 


Customs administration, 

120,000 


Mint operations. 

100,000 


National debt. 

«12,690 


Transport of currency. 

200,000 

892,197 

YI. t-aw Department, 


46,853 

VII. Department of Education. 

Department* expenses. 

19.124 


Astronomical Board, 

3.55° 


f Schools, 

50466 


Grants in aid, 

16,200 

89.340 

VIII. Department of Commerce, etc. 


1 Department expenses, 

29,230 


Post office, 

73.000 


Telegraphs, 

87,000 

189,230 

IX. War office. 

Department expenses, 

96,000 

* 

Military establishment, 

U 5573 6 

1,251.745 

Total ordinary expenditure. 


*4.418432 


Extraordinary Expenditures. 

Sacrificial rites. 

Foreign office, 

Hoad improvement, Seoul, 

Archives, Home office, 

; Department of commerce, etc., 

Total ap ropriations. 

The Memorial of the Independence Club.—Tliis im¬ 
portant and influential organization at its public meeting on the 
13th inst. apjxhnted a committee of five to draw up a memorial 
f to the Throne to be presented at the meeting one week later. 
•The matter being public of interest an immense audience assembled 
on the 20th inst to hear the reading of the paper. The hall was 
crowded to its utmost capacity, doors and windows full of Kore- 
•aulc anxious to hear, and hundreds we e unabletoget within hear¬ 
ing distance. A Korean assembly is remarkable for its order¬ 
liness and us ally for its absence of anything that savors of en¬ 
thusiasm. This latter, however, n’as not the case on the 20th. 
There was an enthusiasm born of the righteousness as well as of 
the necessity of the memorial. The paper was adopted with greuj, 


70,000 

480 

30.000 

4.400 

1,218 

*4.524.S3» 


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UNIVERSITY QEJVy£HIGAN 




76 


A898.] ewtobial dei*aotmest. ; 

-unanimity. We reproduce the memorial as published m,2%e 
Independent on the 24th inst.: » 

We, your Majesty's humble servants, desire to state thaftwo important 
factors constitute an independent and sovereign state, rtaitiely: first; it must 
not lean upon another nation nor tolerate foreign interference in the national 
administration; secondly, it must help itself by adopting a wise policy antt 
-enforcing justice throughout the realm. The power of establishing these two 
great pi maples has been invested to your gracious Majesty by Heaven 
above. Whenever this power is destroyed there is no sovereignty. 

The object of erecting the Independence Arch and organizing the Inde¬ 
pendence Club by your humble servants is to reverence your Majesty's aug¬ 
ust throne and to ftremjthen the hearts of the people in order to maintain 
.our dynasty and the independence of our nation. Recently we, your hum¬ 
ble servants, have observed that the condition of tt.e nation is on the verge 
of destruction ; great disappointment and constant discontent prevail in the 
heart of every citizen. The re ison for this state of affairs is due to the giving 
away to a foreigner the authority of administering the national finance, 
which power must be in the hands our own people: the controiing influence 
of the military department ought to be in the hands of our own officials but 
this also has been transferred to foreigners. Even the power of apfiointing 
and dismissing government officials has been taken from our own authorities. 
The dishonest and corruptive classes thus created take this opportunity to 
'satisfy their contemptible nature by bringing foreign influence to bear upon 
Your Majesty and some go so far as to even oppress and threaten the 
Throne for their personal gain and for the interests of their foreign employ¬ 
ers. Impossible stories and baseless reports which these classas continual¬ 
ly bring to Your Majesty produce the most damaging effect upon Your 
Majesty’s saintly intelligence. There is an old saying that ice is generally 
discovered after stepping repeatedly upon frost. Hence it is perfectly nat¬ 
ural for us to come to*the conclusion, after witnessing so many lamentable 
events which have taken place, that before many moons the entire power 
of self government will have become a matter of past record. If it is once 
lost, \ epentance can not restore it 

The only way to maintain order and achieve improvement in national 
life is to enforce just laws and to apply proper rules and regulations to all 
institutions of the government. But of late the authorities totally disregard 
both the old ai d new' laws and the rules and regulations have become worth¬ 
less dead letters. Under such circumstances how can we expect other nations 
to consider us capable of self gr vemment? Whenever this doubt is enter¬ 
tained by other nations, they naturally feel inclined to interfere with our 
affairs; when they are o *ce permitted to interfere, they will go still further 
to use coercion i . order t r carry out their object. ■ 

Alas! the fifteen million souls within this land of three thousand // arc 
all Your Majesty's children and it is their duty to protect our imperial house 
and to defen I the independent and sovereign rights of our country, bul 
through their ignoiance and self love, the great and glorious reponsdulity of 
defending the nations's right h*s been forgotten. The consequence is that 
he powerful neighbors have been treating us -s if we are nobody, and even 
Yoi.r Majesty's position has become perilous For this sad condition of affairs 
we blame no o.»e but our humble selves. Having realized our crime of neg- 
ligency and incompetencv, we are ashamed to stand u r on earth and face 
Hdaven. We would rather be shot through our hearts or have our abdo¬ 
mens cut open for the sake of the country and our sovereign than to prolong 
our unworthy lives with the shame and humiliation of neglecting our duties, 
and shifting our inherited responsibilities. After having resolved upon this 


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TBTfe fcOftfcAK'HfePOSfrtJtfSr. 




[February, 


point we humbly and unanm»oc«fc pfay Yoor Majesty to consider tbie wel¬ 
fare and ir t crests of the fifteen milker. *ouls as Y«ir Majesty’s wu; to te- 
joke. >»kh them when ihey aie. f rospeieus and hapjn ^ to weep with them 
when they are are fn disre s and sorrow; to Fvn-parhtre wi;h them in aQ 
their worthy and patriotic movements. To direct T'n Majesty’s officials to 
enforce, justire strictly in every department and to jealously guard again* 
foreign infringment of our sovereign rights are what ^e humbly desire, ff 
Your .Majesty co-operate with Your Majesty’s own subjects and elicit tbeirloyaS 
support. Your Majesty’s august house will be'the reigning house of our hind 
unto endless years,'; thousands of enemies will not dare to usurp our 'inde¬ 
pendent power. Before the sight of Heaven we have pledged our lives to 
the cause of our country and we humbly take an oath before your august 
presence that we will not alter our decision in the matter. We pray that 
Your Majesty will take cognisance of our lovalityto Your Imperial house 
and to the cause of our independence. 

[Signed by one hundred and thirty-five.]] 

Of the patriotic sentiments of the Memorial we need not 
speak. The members of the Club are loyal to their sovereign 
and simerely desirous to establish the independence of their coun¬ 
try. The widespread interest in this memorial among the people 
here shows that they are carefully watching the actions of thego- 
▼ernment and respond whenever an appeal is made to them in be¬ 
half of their interests and rights. 

Fruit in Wonsan, —During the-past mouth we had the 
' f leisure of a visit lrom Mr. Malcolm C. Fenwick after an ab¬ 
sence of five years. Mr. Fenwick visited Cbang-yun in tbe 
Whang-hai province and reports a most cordial reception by 
the Korean Christians there, . 

Mr. Fenwick is much interested-in horticulture and agri¬ 
culture In his home in Wonsan Where he has a large garden 
he has given quite a good deal of time to fruit culture. We 
•tried to pursuade him into writing an article but we succeeded 
only in a kind of half promise He, however, very-good naturedly 
allowed ns in ply him with questions and we obtained some in¬ 
formation which will interest our fruitists. We ruav say here 
tt nt Mr. Fenwick had considerable experience in the orchard 
and garden in Canada, having spent a year on a model farm of 
that country. 

In speaking of mulching he say‘B it should Ire put on to 
keep the frost in, not to keep it out, and therefore should be ap- 
< plied Hlter tbe ground is frozen bard. In Wonsan where the 
frosts are more than three times as severe as in Seoul this prac- 
tifee of mulching will preserve such delicate vines as the red rasp¬ 
berry and the black currant, and the grape vine 1 ; treated in this 
v»av need not l>e wrapped. He favors a rich) well-rotted ma¬ 
nure as a mulch,-and would put it on strawberries at least four 
Itches deep. He was careful,'however, to add “providing some 


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EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 


77 


A898.] 


ODe would make him a present of the feitilizer” Treatment 
C>f this kind is not the best as valuable fertilizers would lose 
much available ammonia. 

ITe confirmed what we h*d heard before, that tbev do 
Dot have the borer or wasp described by Gen. Dye in the Jan¬ 
uary number of The Repository, but in all other respects he 
thinks they have as many pests as the friends on this side of 
the peninsula. They do not have more than about half the 
rainfall in Wcnsan that falls here, and being a little later in the 
season they are not troubled with apples cracking. His pump¬ 
kins, corn, wheat, millet and oats were the adimration of his 
Korean neighbors. He has grown pumpkins larger than a 
wash-tub, so large that it took two men to lift one the Korean 
jiggy. His celery was twenty six inches high and seven in¬ 
ches in diameter. We refer this to Dr. Underwood whose celery 
we have been eating the past several years as the largest raised 
in the country. Some of his corn bad twenty six rows to the 
ear. The wheat sown was Korean wheat and sown the Kore¬ 
an way so that his Korean farmer friends would have do ex¬ 
cuse. Nevertheless they would have it that the seed came from 
the west as “no Korean ever grew such a crop.’’ Some of the 
facts here given we had heard before, and used this information 
to secure more and to have it confirmed. The record 6urely is 
.wonderful. Mr. Fe-w.ck’s fruit trees are just beginning to bear 
and we shall Iook forward for good reports of them in a year or 
two. For fine luscious Bartlett pears we are accustomed to 
look to Gen.’s orchard. We ourselvesused our last apples on 
Washington’s birthday which is probably the best on record 
for keepingthus far.Korea should have a large share in supplying 
market the fruit of the Far East. 


Introduction of Chinese into Korea. —In the present 
issue a valuable contribution is made by Prof. Hulbert on the 
Itu, a system of Korean interlinear annotation invented 1,200 
years ago by a Buddhist priest in order to make intelligible the 
Chinese texts studied in Korea. Those who would derive the 
Korean speech from China have to face the fact that the speech 
of the peninsula and that in which the Chinese ideographs orgin- 
ated were so radically different that an elucidation of this kind 
was necessary. Chinese, whether written or oral, was clearly a 
foreign importation into Korea. But when? By whom? How? 
In answer to the “when” Prof. Hulbert says: 

'‘It indicates also that Chinese was introduced into Korea at or about the 
time of Christ. Perhaps a little before, at the time of the Tsin dynasty in 
China It is hard to believe it was effectively introduced before that time.” 


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78 THE KORKAJf repository. [February,, 

By “it” we understand Prof. Hulbert to refer to the ilu and 
thfe comparisons possible to be itstituted in connection with it. 
His reference to the Tsin dynasty would seem to indicate that he 
refers the introduction of Chinese literature to that immigration 
into the peninsula of refugees fleeing from the forced labor on the 
.Great Wall of China, and who founded one of the three ancient 
Han (Chin Han) which existed in southern Korea. If we have 
thus correctly stated what is conveyed by the words quoted, a 
most interesting question is raised. If to the Tsin refugees is due 
the credit of introducing Chinese into Korean, what are we to do 
with the “mere historical statements” that Kija enjoys this honor. 
The Tong-kuk tong-ham says: “Kija came riding on a white horse, 
dressed in white clothes, bringing with him 5,000 Chinamen, 
people skilled in literature, poetry, music, medicine, philosophy 
tpiil masters of all kinds of trades.” This statement is repeated 
in every history of Korea we have read. If the historical con¬ 
nection of Kija with Korea is accepted, the statement that he in¬ 
troduced Chinese literature and civilization into Korea even tho 
a “mere historical statement” outweighs all the inferences possible 
from a table of grammatical symbols. But, did Kija ever come 
to Korea? We believe he did because the Korean traditions 
dbneemin- him have been confirmed and accepted by Chinese and 
and Japanese historians and because he is one of the very few 
ancient worthies of Korean history of whom we have archooolog- 
ical remains. 

Death of the ex-Regent. —The Tai Won Kun, father of 
His Majesty, the Emperor and regent of the country during the 
minority of his son, died in Seoul on the evening of the 22nd 
inst. He was eighty-eight years of age. He was a man of iron 
will, resolute purpose, an aFdent lover of his country, and a thor¬ 
ough going statesman of the old conservative type. 


LITERARY DEPARTMENT. 

The Life of Rev. William Jatnes //all, M. D. Medical Missionary to the 
slums of New York, Pioneer Missionary to Pyeng-yang, Kore.t, edited 
by his wife, Rosetta Sherwood Hall, M.D. with an Introduction by 
Bishop W. F. Mallalieu. Illustrated. New York, Press of Eaton Sc 
. Mains. 12 1110. pp. 4 21 . Price 3 yen. 

Dr. W. J. Hall, whose short life as leckoned in years is told in these 
was bom in Glen Buell, Canada, January 16, i860. As a boy he was 
amiable; thoughtful, good-natured, studious. He was converted in his 15th 


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1898.] unaunr WW«WPW. 

year, and united with theWesleyan Methodists. He learned the cabinet 
maker's trade, at which he worked until his 15th year, when his health 
jailed and he returned to the farm. "I went home, as I thought, to die. O 
*what dark days! Going out into eternity without having won a single soul 
for Christ. 1 could not bear to harbor the thought. I piomised God if he 
vrould restore me to health and strength I would consecrate n* y entire life 
to him. ” God restored his health and the young man was fluthful to his 
vow. Dr. Hal), earnest, devoted, self-sacrificing, a successful winner of 
-souls, was the result. 

The next six years, from 1881 to 1887, he spent in school, perparing 
himself for future usefulness. In the latter year, the year that marked the 
beginning of the Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, while 
at Queen’s College, Hall with twenty-one ocher students signed the pledge 
to enter the foreign held should the way be opened. In 1887 he attended 
Moody's summer school at North field, Mass^ and from there went to New 
"York to finish his medical course. He received his M. D. from BeUevot 
Hospital Medical College in April, 1889. 

His life in the great American metropolis covers a period of four years, 
from 1887 to 1891. It is told in three chapters and most interesting ana 
helpful reading it is. One's heart is warmed as he reads the story of Dr. 
Hall’s labors among the drunkards and thieves, among Roman Catholics 
4ind Jews; among the poor and outcast of all classes and nationalities. Wo 
*ish we had space to quote a few of the cases given, but we must leave 
that to the reader of the book. 

With Dr. Hall’s arrival in Korea in December, 1891, he enters upon a 
new stage of his life. His associates in his own mission and co-laborer* in 
other missions tell the story of his short but active life. Dr. Hall is intro* 
duced to his work and then follow a series of articles, some from our own 
pages, some by Mrs. Hall herself, and some by other writers, illustrative of 
Korean life, customs and manners. These chapters will be of interest to all 
whether they have »>een in Korea or not 

The published letters of Dr. Hall furnish the reader much valuable 
loimition of Korea and of the progress of Christian work. They also show 
Dr. Hall as a writer and a man. In his first letter from Yokohama he 
speaks of his woik on shipboard among the Chinese as “very interesting.’* 
"The first day I went among them, one who spoke a little English came up 
to me and said; “You a good man? You look like a good man. You loot 
like a Jesus man.” The comment of Dr. Hall was characteristic of the 
man. “I realized as never before that we were indeed ‘living epistles 
known and read of all men.' ” 

The chapter on "Social and Home Life” by Mr. Noble presents a 
beautiful picture of the life of this good man. Charming as the picture is 
drawn, we whose pleasure it was to know the life thus portrayed know it is 
-simply a faithful lepresenlation by a devoted friend and arde t admirer. 
Here we read again how wonderfully God used his servant; we hear his 
prayers, feel the touch of his w'arm grasp, admire his devotion while pass* 
ing thro the fires of the Pyenjr-yang persecution, rejoice in the founding of 
the Hall Memorial Hospital in that city, follow hi ti on his last trip to attend 
the wounded after the battle; with sad heart watch him thro his final sick¬ 
ness and then follow him to his last resting place in the foreign cemetery on 
the banks of the beautiful Han. 

We recommend the book heartily. It will do much to inspire in the 
hearts of the young an eamst desire to live a holy life and to save souls. 
The illustrations as a whole are well chosen, tho we think some of the war 
pictures drew more on fancy than fact, especially the one representing 
Minister Otori on a fiery charger “Fighting before the Palace Gate." 



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* 1 . 


SO THE EOBEAN BEPOSTTOBT. 


NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

The cord and tassel are back again. 

We learn the English fleet has left Chemulpo. It came, it saw it—went 
- away again. 

fcf * The streets of Seoul are lighted beautifully since the advent to office of 
m the new Commissioner of Police. 

* The period of mourning for the. late Empress ended the 10th inst with 

a great final sacrifice. The next day black hats appeared on the street. 

The first locomotive of the Seoul-Chemulpo railroad was brought to 
Chemulpo towards the end pf the month. May its whistle soon be heard. 

- ' The last entertainment of the series this winter given under the auspices 
of the ladies of the Seoul Union was a musical concert—a splendid program 
brilliantly*executed—Friday the nth inst. 

! We learn that Seoul is to be lighted with electricity, that the contract for 
the erection of the plant has been given to the company constructing Seoul- 
j (ihemulpo railroad, that the money has been paid over and that work will 
\ be begun at once. Good ! 

Rev. James S. Dennis D.D., in a letter to us says, “Please accept my 
thanks for The Repository regularly received by me. I find it useful, and 
often consult it I have had occasion frequently to refer to it in the prepar¬ 
ation of my work on “Christian Missions and Social Progress.*’ 

The interpreter at Russian Legation, Mr. Kim Hong Neuk, who has the 
reputation of being the most influential at the palace at present, was attacked 
by three assassins on the evening of the 22nd inst He had just come out 
of the rear gate of the palace and while walking on the elevation to the rear 
of the customs, was assaulted. The two policemen accompanying him were 
attacked simultaneously, overpowered and thrown off the embankment, 
while the third assassin delivered several serious blows on the head and 
shoulder of Kim. His cries for help brought some of the English marines 
to the spot and the assailants jumped over the wall and escaped. 

We are in receipt of a personal note from Rt. Rev. Bishop Mutel in 
which lie lefers to the figures in our last i*sue of the membership of the 
Catholic church as inecrrect. We stated in scund numbers that the mem¬ 
bership was 25,000. “This is already ancient history, and thanks to God 
we advance a little every year. Here is a note of our official figures for 
recent >ears: 

1894, total number of converts, 24,733. 

1895, “ “ “ " 25,998. 

1896, “ “ “ “ 28,802. 

1897, “ “ “ “ 32,217.“ 

We thank Biship Mutel for these figures and are glad to make this cor¬ 
rection. 

BIRTHS. 

In Tai-ku, January 14th, the wife of Rev. James Edward Adams, of a 

son. 

In Seoul, February 12th, the wife of Col. F. J. H. Nienstead, of a son. 
ARRIVALS. 

In Seoul, February 12th, the Rev. George C. Cobb and wife, to join the 
Methodist mission. 

In Seoul, February 14th, Dr. Harry C. Sherman and wife, to join same 
mission as above. 


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A BYERTISEMENTS. 


V 


THE LIFE OH 1 

REV. WI1UAM JAMES Hill,, 1, B. 

Medical Missionary to the Slums of New York 
Pioneer Missionary to Pyong Yang, Korea 

ILLUSTRATED. 


EDITED BY HIS WIFE 

ROSETTA SHERWOOD HALL, M.D. 

INTRODUCTION BY 

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Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church 
* . * 

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vi 

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A KOBEAN MANUAL OB 
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MAB. 

By James Scott, M.A. 

On sale at the Methodist Boot-Store, Chong-No, or from 
the Rev H. G. Appenzeller, Seoul. 


NEW BOOKS! 

f _ 

“In Jmmeyings Oft” Or, The Life and Travels of Mary 

C. Kind, by Georgiaua Bancus, L90 

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“Cambridge Bibles for Schools'' Jtc., Conlplote Set, 50.00 

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Interest allowed on current accounts at 2 per cent on 
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.w)VKK iiBEMENTS 


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OF THE 

Rev. H. G. Underwood, D.D. 


NOW READY. 

Fourth Edition of the enlarged and improved. Con 

tairs 104 Hymns (including all the popular ones) beside* 
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On heavy foreign paper, glazed cloth covers, per copy $0.14 

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iQeH V'| An iv.sv Introduction to Christianity. Atrans- 
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hi <1 Korean, (hazed covers. 35 pp. Per 100, $4.00 

HZ}/-- The Christian Cat cellist n. Translated from 

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#=*! *1 el T1 e True D, et iilie of Sang i](\ 3rd edition. 

" 5*1 K\\ on:.l.i ,i-i; ;t. [ U‘ : * •] 1 1 » )} 

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[Vol. V. No. 3.] 

MARCH, 1898. ^ 


THE 

KURBAN 

KEPOSITOKT 


H. G. Appenzeller. 1 
Geo. Heber Jones, ) 


Editors. 


CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 


SIMEON FRANCOIS BERNEUX, BISHOP AND 81 

MARTYR, . Geo. Hebeb Jones. 

THE KOREAN BABY,'. Dr. W. B. McGill. 92 

MR ROBERT E. SPEER’S REPORT, . 95 


KOREAN FARMS—IMPROVEMENTS, Wm. M. E. Dye. 98 

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 

Politics, . 107 

The Attempt on the Life of Kim Hongyuk, ... 107 

The Deer Island Episode, . 109 

Right About Face, 113 


LITERARY DEPARTMENT,. 

Price per Annum, $3.00 Per Copy, 

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A D V ERTISEM ENTS. 


Ill 


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RECORDER. 

AND 

Missionary Journal- 


Published by the Presbyterian Mission Press, Shanghai, China. 

Price, including postage to Korea, S3.36 per annum. 

A monthly Magazine, having a wide circulation, issued 
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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


IMI ^ IR, O ZE31 7 1898. 


SIMEON FRANCOIS BERXEUX, BISHOP AND 

MARTYR. 

“Korea, that land of martyrs! Korea, whose name alone causes 
every' fibre of the missionary’s heart to vibrate! how could any¬ 
one refuse to enter it when the doors were open to him! ’— Words 
of Berncux when appointed Bishop of Korea. 


Eiuliograwiy. — I. Life of Monseigneur Rerneux, by M. L*Abbe 
Pichon Translated from the French by Lady Herbert. 1872. 2. Histoire 
de LTglise dc Coree par Ch. Dallet. 1874. 

* 

r a 1 HE history of the propaganda bv the Roman Catholic Church 
I in Korea is replete with materials for one of the most inter¬ 
esting and romantic chapters in the narrative of the con¬ 
quest of this world for Christ. In obedience to the traditional 
policy of that great church little effort is made to acquaint the 
world with the movement of the forces at work and the experi¬ 
ences which meet them. Such items of information as come to 
11 s only increase our desire to know more, and especially is this 
the case with Korea. 

Among the men whose names will be immortal in the history 
of the Christian Church in Korea none will shine with more 
resplendent beauty than tuat of Rerneux, the last martyred bishop 
of the faith. A man of tender affection, deep religious ardour, 
a plain unostentatious character, passing his life with a deep- 
seated conviction that he was fated for martyrdom, he eagerly 
thirsted for the ruby crown, and the words at the head of this 
memoir, spoken in the wilds of Manchuria when the bulls came 
from Rome announcing his transfer to Korea were prophetic, 
sincere, and heroic. Irrespective of creed, race, or mental view, 
they must provoke a response in the heart of every missionary. 


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82 


THE XOUEA.X REPOSITORY. 


[March, 


Simeon Francois Berneux, Bishop of Capse in ptrlUnts iiiji- 
ddium, V’car-apostolic of Korea, was born May 14th, 1814, in the 
town of Chateau-sur-Loir, France, and beheaded for the faith on 
the 8th of March, 1806, at Soul, the capital of the land of his 
diocese. Of his parentage we know but little except that they 
were poor but industrious people, his father dying about the time 
the son was ordained to the priesthood in 1869, and his mother 
about the time of her son’s death, and his sister only surviving 
him. As a boy he was bright and intelligent and at the age of ten 
years attracted the attention of the local priest, M. l’Abbe Xouard, 
who made him one of the choir boys of the local church. The 
lad early expressing a desire to enter the priesthood, the kind- 
hearted abbe gave him personal instruction for a time and then 
placed him in the college of Chateau-sur-Loir where he soon dis¬ 
tinguished himself for his regularity of conduct and his rapid 
progress. After a time in the seminary at Pr6cign6, he entered 
in October, 1884, at the age of twenty, the great seminary at Maas. 
Here he devoted himself to study, mentioning in his letters 
specially physics, ecclesiastical history, and the Fathers of the 
Church. We pass over this period, only pausing to remark that 
the early reputation of the boy for regularity of conduct and rapid 
progress was maintained in the wider fields of the seminary and 
college. On September 24th, 1836, he was ordained deacon 
in the church of the priory, now the abbey of the Benedictines of 
Solesmes, which order he had once desired to enter and the two 
following years, 1836 and 1837, in spite of his y^uth he was ap¬ 
pointed assistant teacher of philosophy at Mans. It was on the 
2oth of May, 1837, that the great desire of his heart was realized 
and in the bishop’s private chajiel at Mans he was oidained to the 
priesthood. A year’s rest was granted him to recuperate after 
his long term of studies but. in October, 1838, when only twenty- 
four years of age, the Bishop of' Mans installed him as professor 
of theology in the great Roman Catholie seminary at that point. 
Not long, however, was he to remain in this honorable jaist. We 
are told: 

"It was during this year (1838) that he realized his vocation; and his 
desire to offer himself for the work of an apostle to the heathen was so great 
that his health gave v ay under it. He confided his secret to M. N-nunl, 
who had great difficulty in obtaining the bishop’s consent to this change of 
plans; but perceiving that the pressing nature of the call he had received 
from God had materially affected his health, he at length permitted him to 
resign his post.” 

Thus released he spent a few days at home, not however ac¬ 
quainting his mother and sister with his determination, and July, 
1839, he left them to enter the Seminary des Missions Etrangdros 
at Paris, never again to behold their dear faces. This famous 


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181 ) 8 .] 


SIMEON FKAN<,’OlS HER vEL'X. 


83 


semi liar/ was founded in 1607 for the purjicse of receiving such 
ecclesiastics as are desirous of devot'ng themselves to missionary 
labor, whether amongst the heathen in distant countries or 
amongst those who are separated by so called heresy and schism 
from the Roman Catholic church Here for six months Ber- 
ncux remained,—a time spent largely in heart preparation for 
his future work. Then came the news of the ]>erseeution in 
Tonquin. Fifteen priests and two bishops had been put to 
death, while a third bishop had died of fatigue, suffering and 
grief in fleeing from persecution. The heart of this consecrated 
man bounded with joy at the thought that he might lx> selected 
to a post at this point, and so it proved. He was ordered to the 
front. Writing Nov. 28, 1839, to his old friend, M. Nouard, 
he says: 

“<T d lc praised our vessel is ;>t Havre. P will take ns direct to 
Macao, where the superior of our mis^ior s there will assign each of us our 
particular post. If the persecution in Cochin Chi a or Tomjuin should relax, 
we shall be sent there in order to repair the damages done our Lord’s vine¬ 
yard. If not we shall go cither to Tartan, China or the h orea. O, how 
glorious is the portion which God has assigned to me. Lie long perhaps I 
shall tread tl e very soil where the blood of martyrs is yet flowing! a land 
where everythin ' pleaches a lesson of san«tity! O, what gra e is this for 
me to help me to overcome the evil 0 at is within me! May I profit by it 
indeed, tor the glory of God and the salvation ot souls. I must set to work 
at once to become a China • an. It will he hard work. I must Larn to eat 
rice, drink tea. sn okc a pipe, shave my head, wear a pigtail, and a long 
beard as well if it will gr w ! But what matters: were it i ecessarv to wal < 
with head downwards and one’s feet in the air, 1 am ready for all provided 
it be for the glory of God !” 

The voyage in a small Railing vt ssel began FeK 12th* 
and it took the party 110 days to roach Anger on the 
island ot Java. The future bishop was seasick ’or five weeks. 
Traveling in moss days was vny different from what it is in 
these times. On the H'lh of July his heart was set in a flutter 
by the sight of the coast of Cochin-t diiiui, hut *ao hope ot a land¬ 
ing existed lortlie persecution still prevailed. On the 31st of 
the following October he is finally in Macao, since 15E0 the 
headquarters; l the Latin race in China. Hei nmediatelv adopted 
the Chinese costume and mode of living and in addition to 
other worhad assigned to him the education of two Koreans 
afterwards to rise to fame, named Andrew Kim and Krancis 
Choi. While thus at the threshold of his missionary career he 
was brought into contact with his future field, the day when be 
should enter the peninsula was still far in the future, hie was 
first appointed to Tonquin to which field he accompanied the 
bishop, Mgr. lteturi, arriving Jan. lfiih, 1H41, alter varied ex¬ 
periences and a narrow escape lro:n falling into the hands of 


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84 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[March, 


hostile Mandarins. Berneux and a brother priest, M Galy, 
were lelt in a Christian village in hiding while Mgr. Eetord 
proceeded to the episcopal palace which consistedof a mud hut* 
With his compsinon M. Berneux found a hiding place in * con¬ 
vent in the v llage of Yenmoi. In this hut he co n ld take but six 
s eps, he was obliged to carry on a 1 ! conversation in a whis¬ 
per; all the daylight he saw was what came in thro a crevice 
in the wall and in order to read or write he was compelled to lie 
full length on a mat. Yet he esteemed himself the happiest 
of men. Unmolested he abode with the humble villagers ad¬ 
ministering to them until Easier Day. lie was then to leave 
this retreat with M. Daly for a more listunt one and all pre¬ 
parations were perfec ed for the departure and farewell mae3 
had been said when suddenly a band of 500 Tonquinesc sol¬ 
diers surrounded the dwelling and Berneux and Galy with 
nineteen Christiaus found themselves prisoners. He managed 
to illude his captors for a time and took refuge in a basket of 
onions in a loft in tire house ot one ol the nuns. Beneath him 
the nun made a smudge fire which nearly suffocated him and 
proved ineffectual to protect him. With his companions he was 
taken to the chief provincial town, Nam-Dinh, Berneux and 
Galv being confined in cages. From lu re he was transferred in 
May to Hue w hen* evTy effort was math? to in lure or fotce him 
to apostatize and trample on the cross, the judges going sj far 
as to try to drag him nvei the precious symbol. They were beaten 
on several occasion^ with th • ^rud r din. Tim judges finally 
found them guilty of having ] ivachrd the U mist is n faith and 
condemned them r.. !>e beheaded. Their death w u iants were 
made out and only needed the king's signature to be executed. 
But the sentence was delayed and days grew into months, all 
this time the piiesrs being confined iti prisons and meeting tieat- 
ment which reminds us of the experiences of Judson in Bunns. 
On the 3d of Dec., 1812, the King, Thi*u tri, signed the death 
warrants hut hesitated to proceed in the execution, the prisoners 
being remanded to the prison lor condemned felons. Wiiting 
of his experiences INI. Bcrivuix says: 

“It was, I assure you no small humiliation w lien for the first time we 
found ourselves squatting on the ground amongst thieves and murderers, 
and elbowed hy le ers; but the disciples are not above their Master. Was 
not Jesus Christ confounded with thieves ? was not an assassin preferred 
l>efore him ?” 

How long this would have cot tinned we caun )t say. A 
period was put to the whole affair by the arrival of the French 
corvette H6roine, M. L6veque, commander. He effected the 
release of the priests on March 12th, 1813, and five days later 


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they sailed away from the shoresof that inhospitable land. Seized 
the 11th of April. 1841, -their captivity lasted two full years lack¬ 
ing hut one month. This was Berneux’s training. It gave him 
« hardihood an 1 courage in the presence of danger which knew 
not how to listen to the dictates of personal safety. 

Capt. LGveque having given a pledge that the missionaries 
■should not again put loot on the soil of Cochin China carried them 
iu spite of trieir protests to the Isle Bourbon where they were 
permitted to land and remain Finally, having given tne 
-governor of ti e col< ny a promise he would not attempt to 
penetrate into Cochin China, Berneux was permitted to return 
to Macao. Here he remained for a time until appointed to the 
mission in Manchuria and proceeding north on loth March, 1844, 
one year and thiee days after his release from the prison for 
-condemned felons in Tonquin he landed in Lean tong, and pro¬ 
ceeded to the residence of the Vicar-apostolic, Mgr. Yerolles. 

Originally part of the diocese of Peking, in 1838 the Vatican 
separated Manchuria into an independent diocese and appointed 
Mgr. Yerolle- to the head of the new see. He arrived here in 
the spring of 1841 s ccotupanied by M. Ferreol appointed to 
Korea who was seeking to penetrate into the peninsula. Here 
M. Berneux was permitted to prosec ite his labors in peace 
umil 1 Mb when trouble broke out and a courageous attempt 
on the pa r t of Berneux to induce the Mukden mandarins to 
follow a different couise proving ineffectual be and the bishop 
thought it wise to go to Shanghai f r a time. Berneux bow- 
ever soon returned and having been made Pro-Vicar-apostolic of 
Manchuria on the‘27.1 1 of Dec., ls.o4, he was ordained episcopaily 
'w Mgr. Yerolles w.th the title of Bishop of Tremita. fiiswork 
in Man diuria was ended ! -nwever lor bulls 1ro:n Rome had al- 
v adv Kcii sent appointing him Bishop of Copse and Vicar- 
apostolic of Korea. A long seige of sickness delayed his depar¬ 
ture but recovering somewhat In- went to Shanghai and on the 
17th of Jan., 1 Dl>, embarked m a Cliim so junk lor Korea. 

The tralitions o. the work of the Catholic Konisbi, com¬ 
mander of one the Japanese armies of invasion in 1592, and the 
efforts ct his chaplain and Japanese believers to proselyte the 
Koreans, are familiar to all. The story of the early work of 
Romans in the closing years of the hSth century, who having 
become converts to the laith in Peking return el to propagate 
the faith in their own land, is also well known. To a young 
Chinese prest belongs the peculiar honor of having been the 
first foreign missionary to enter Korea to preach Christianity. 
He arrived in 1791 and died in 1794 t > be succeeded by another 
young Chinese priest. It is claimed that the number of con- 


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verts in 1800 amounted to 19,000. This large figure is certainly 
an exaggeration but it is still tvrue that the zeal and energy of 
the missionary drew on him the vengeance of the government, 
which proclaimed the Christian cult and death to the mission¬ 
ary.* He was beheaded on the 2lstofMav, 1801, and for over 
thirty years the Korean church whs without a foreign overseer. 
At length in 1882 Mgr Pruguieiv, cc-adjutor of the Vicar- 
apostolic ol Siam, was app< inted to Korea and the mission was 
confided to the Missions Et range res. Mgr Brugiere got as far 
as the Korean border but did not succeed in crossing and finally 
died there in 1835. His com pa: ion however, a Chinese piiest 
named F. P. Li, who had been educated in Naples took up the 
uncompleted mission and entering the peninsula found means 
also to assist the entrance of MM. Manbant and Chastan who 
were the first European missionaries to reach Korean soil. They 
were soon joined by Mgr. Imbert who bad been appointed 
co-ad jutor of Mgr. Brugiere. The three French priests reached 
the capital the 31st of Dec., 1837. For nearly two years they 
carried on their work when a persecution breaking out, in order 
to save the Koreans, the three French priests hero cally sur- 
rended to the authorities and were executed 21st of Sept.. 1889. 
The new bishop was Mgr. Ferreol, already mentioned. Ac¬ 
companied by M. Daveluy and a Korean priest, Andrew Kim, 
they entered Korea in 1845. In 1852 the, < Ihristians are said 
to have numbered 11,000. Mgr Ferieol died peacefully on the 
3d of beb., 1853, and his successor was Mgr. Berneux. 

Accompanied by MM. Pourtbie and Petitnicbolas, Bishop 
Berneux left Shanghai the 17th Januiry. Two months later 
they are anchored opposited an extensive Korean village, having 
been detained along the coast of China. At their mast-head 
they flew a flag with a cross on it as a sknal, and for four days- 
they continued sailing back and forth looking for the party that 
was to ro'vive an.! guide them U> their destination. Finally 
they were signalled and under the guidance of native Christians 
and disguised in the costume of mourning they proceeded to the 
capital. Here he uad a joyful meeting with M. Devaluy. 
Mgr. Berneox immediately rook over the administration of his 
diocese and fixed his residence in Seoul. His main effort was- 
to conceal his piesence from the government. To facilitate 
this be adopted the rank and style ol a noble. He writes: 

I myself have adopted this dignity' as by this means I can pass rivers 
and lodge in inns without danger of discovery. But, as I should have been 
obliged to wait too long before I could obtain from government the letters of 

♦For this famous edict, the first against Christianity, sec Korean Re¬ 
pository, Yol. IV, page 223. 


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nobility, I have given them to myself. I have adopted all the,manners of a 
noble, excepting the blows and the exactions. I have purchased a house in 
the capital, and have taken a Christian, a true noble, and installed him in 
the outer apartment. His wife and children occupy one of the interior 
rooms, and I lodge in the other. This family appears to the world to lie the 
proprietor of the house, and no one dreams that a European bishop resides 
therein. But if the nobles have their privileges, the women hawkers and 
beggars have theirs. These women are permitted to enter, unannounced, 
into the inner court; and as my red beard, my eyes and fair complexion 
belie any idea of my being of Korean blood, I am obliged to remain shut 
tjp in my little room f»om morning till night, and from night till morning, 
without the liberty of going out in the court, without opening my window 
-even in the summer, and without speaking above a whisper. This little 
room is in fact my entire palace. Here morning after morning upon a 
chest which serves as an altar, I celebrate Holy Mass; here seated on 
the ground I work; here also I take my two meals, and receive the cat¬ 
echists by means of whom I communicate with the Christians; for, except 
the four catechists, and a few others who are necessary to me, no one 
amongst the Christians is allowed to come and see me. My house is not 
supposed even to be known to them, and they may not reveal it to others 
when it chances to become known to any of them. Notwithstanding all 
these precautions however, my house is often suspected, and in this way I 
have lost two of considerable value, and two others I have been unable to 
sell." 

This side glance into the life of the bishop is interesting, 
for it shows us a Korea which has passed out of life into history. 
Having reached the capital in May, he gave the first six 

months to the study of the language and then in November 
following made his first round of visitation to the provinces. 
As a missionary lie had reserved to himself the capital and sixty 
neighboring villages, for each missionary had a parish for which 
he was responsible. All work was attended with the greatest, 
peril for it h d to he undertaken in the presence of the torture ’s 
club and the executioner’s ord. Everything had to be done 
with the greatest secrecy. There were no chapels and no 
places of resort for the C hristians. The fact that they were 
Christians had t.. he concealed by every possible artifice by the 
native converts not only from their neighbors, but sometimes 
from their nearest relatives. Mgr. Berneux says:— 

"Among the Christians there are many who belong to families who have 
no idea that such is the case—women who have been baptized unknown 
to their husband?, children unknown to their parents. The difficulties they 
have to overcome in the practice of their religion in these cases are innum¬ 
erable ; nevertheless faith makes them very ingenious. They continue to 
avoid detection, and to recite their daily prayers morning and evening, and 
what is more difficult still, to keep clear of joining in the superstitions of their 
country, and to leave their homes yearly for confession in the catacombs, 
where we are ofien obliged to conceal ourselves; were it found out that they 
were Christians, their bodies might be broken by blows, but their constancy 
would be unshaken.'’ 

And this was true and were it necessary to prove it a thou- 


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sand instances of constancy to the faith even to death might be 
cited. The bishop gives a: interesting instance of the conver¬ 
sion of ftyoune man of family whom he had taken to dwell with 
hint preparatory to baptism. This young man had a concubine* 
to whom he was gieatly attached »*nd from w hom his family had 
sought iti vain to sej aiaie him. After becoming a Christian he 
is told that religion wili not nennit him to retiin the woman* 
and that day he sends hejr away. The bishop adds: 

"An old uncle, a mandarin in ihc capital who had vainly exhorted hiirr 
to separate himself from this woman, Leine win css of the facility with whie K 
the youth broke away from this tie w hich h; d so long enthralled him, desiied 
to know the cause. It is nc t liiddc n from him ; in consequence of which after 
having studied our hooks, this old man sells his mule of office and his house,, 
throws up his charge and begins himselt to learn the catechism.” 

Another instance of conversion cited by the bishop is that 
of an old official seventy je.ns old who by chance obtained >• 
a Catholic book, rend and was convimod. lie rcsigno i bis post* 
and retired into private life, hut in older to keep bis family in 
ignorance of bis object he f* igiud imbecility, never washing or 
speaking. This ccmtini ed for several years; a catechist finally 
succeeding in baptizing the old man. The ncc >unt of the methcxl 
in which the work of the chinch at this period w? s curried on 
is most interesting. 

“ . he capital we divide into four quarters, and al llie head of each v\e 
have a catechist. It is tmo them that the Christians communicate with me, 
and they accompany me on my visits to the sick. Twi<e a year, in spring 
and autun n when I begin die administration, the catechists seek aiming the 
Christians a place which may serve as chapel. I hi-* i-* alwa\s very difficult 
to find. In the poor dwellings of our ( hristians it is often impossible to stand 
upright for ihc celebration of holy mas-, or to locate the live and twenty 
persons wlirm I ought to confess I ho e wh.ch are net so inconvenient arc 
either in a d.mgcious quarter, or th.e family is not all C l.iisti.m. Put in order 
that our met tings should rrn ai secret i; would be necessary for us to l.a\c 
about forty houses amongst which Christian-of t! e capital might ! e divided; 
but I have not even fifteen. When the ‘ hristums have prepared » \u\tl mg 
1 go before da\break to the bou e wbue i am to administer the sacra it ents. 
Twent)-five < hiistians arc i » vailing; the n.cn in the com , the women in 
one of dm tv.o small rooms of the bouse ; the oil er loom, ronveited into a 
chape 1 , i > for me. After a few wools with our dear nenphues, who are al¬ 
ways overjmed to see their bishop and to receive the sacraments, for which 
they are really famishing, I recite mv office and timing this time the catechist 
lakes down the names of all who arc coming to confession with the circum¬ 
stances concerning them which may be useful for me to know. After this 
some books are re id by way of meditation, in order to prepare them for the 
reception of the sacraments. 

After breakfast follows catechism and examination in Christian doctrine, 
then confessions, during which lime the women attend in their apartments 
to the spiritual readings. In the evening the catechumens are examined ; 
and then I go to rest, weary but content with my day’s work ; unless, indeed* 
some wife unknown to her pagan husband comes at mi might for instruction 


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In these cases even a timid noble lady who lias never be foie c rossed the 
thresh'»ld of her own door finds courage when it is a question of receiving 
tne sacraments. Disguised as a poor worn in she comes when all her fam¬ 
ily are asleep, and in the middle of the ni^ht, to the lemsc where the Chris¬ 
tians ai e assembled. d he number of thoe ladies is considerably and al¬ 
though in the midst o' a p.iqan family, they tind means to lul'ill their duties 
most exactly. In the middle of the flight they come to er»nlession, and as¬ 
sist at three o’clock in;ss alter which the\ re-enter tla-ir houses as they left 
them, without being mspe< led by either husband or funi c Woe to them 
if t : cir nocturnal abseiue is diM'ovcred by■ tl.eir hu-»iKinds! Instant death 
b\ poison would be the punishment <>1 their lemeniv. 

After mass follow- the baptism ol < hildren and a bill-, contirmation, 
and on adonalb extreme uration. The Christians ictumto their respec¬ 
tive lames oiten w.tpirg lor i*>\ ; wbi: t the mis-i< Muir\ batons thankfully, 
to the next hc.use to repeat the exorcises and functions «>: ti e prc\ ious dav. 
The numl'cr of Cluislians in this town is over 1,400. The administration, 
therefoie, in this secret manner requires no less than two months.” 

\Y s ti e missi ta v cv.-r tired 0 Y< s, an s *• 11 «*ti**i« s the 
his op won d wake up m tin* in it ii g to lin 1 that, he had 
fallen last asleep in the u ids: ,1 <l’< 1 <»1 i• e •u. l Lad 01.0 sock 
still in ids hand and the < ther on his 1, >0! ! I der circum¬ 
stances like those ahov< del ithl it :s n arvelotis 1 ! * * iriu-uiit of 
Volk that was aremi• | i shed. In spite ot cii;l> ai:d. av' the 
l« issioi: lie- wr re -d'C to assehide in "yno.i in M uch, l^oT, 
when 1 Vi 1 ;eti.\ 1 Me alia d as Ids l*. •Ile.ipie .\r. ] );ivi 1 ay, who had 
hem in K r'a for <!e.< n year . Mpr 1 Viv< iuv 1 aioe titular 
liisiirp ut Am: is Ida* mission then n esismd of two bishops, 
JVrneux an I 1 >av< 1 11 \ ; four n Ksim.arim, M is*i \ l’ourthio, 
lVtiti iei.ola* ;ti d l emn, and a Korean paii s:, d’humus Choi. 

Persecution soon lvcame the universal e\;x r.enee uf the 
mission In l-d»0 a number ol Chrsiians w« m seize 1 . The, 
bishop hin self narrow Iv escaped seizure in a country station 
and tidy esraied hy prtci] itate llLht to th(* mountains where 
lie wandered for eight da\s and nights without fund. I >y 
their presence became known and on one neca-ion I Jernoux 
was actually seized and heaten hy the people, Ta } sorrow’ of 
the Worthy bishop at the ravining of his ikeK was great. lie 
passed the veins under a heavy strain and described himself at 
tilty as a w hit* -liaiiol old man. lie gave Sums, If up will a 
generous abandon to his work. Special attention w s paid to 
the development ol a literature for the church, and one is im¬ 
pressed with the number of works which bear on t er title 
pages the names of Berncux (whose Korean name was Chany), 
and Daveluv. From this time dates the Human Catholic 
printing puss of Korea. Tin peat Catholic work among 
ehildien known as the Mission of the Holy Infancy was set up, 
and fifty ehildien rescued from the streets were hi ought up by 
the church and from by >00 to 10,000 children baptized \ early 


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who soon passed to the happiness of heaven. For the form¬ 
ation of a native ministry two small colleges committed to the 
care of MM. Pourthie and Petitnicholas were hid away some- 
wheie in the hills. 

But already the unquiet inquisitive obtrusive West was 
standing outside Korea’s door demanding admission. In Jan¬ 
uary, 18G6, a Russian man-o-war appeared on the east coast 
with some extraordinary demands. The circumstances attend¬ 
ing the absoiption of the Amur region by Russia which had long 
been the buffer between Korea and the northern power were 
probably little understood in Seoul and this naval visitor only 
succeeded in inspiring intense alarm, and, unhappily for France, 
the terrible deaths of her nationals anl the spoiling of their 
church. Certain Christian yang-ban -s perceived in this the appor- 
tunity for the church and proposed to the Tai Won Kun and 
th< se in power that Mgr. Berneux should mediate between 
Korea and Russia. This was done without the bishop’s author¬ 
ization, however, and when it came to bis knowledge be stated 
be could do nothing in the premises. However, pressure was 
at work. The first advances to the regent were coldly received 
and cast a damper over the project, but Martha Pak was an 
attendant on H. H., the Princess Tai-won, and one day she 
brought word that Bor Highness bad said: “Why this inaction? 
The Russians will enter Korea and take possession of the coun¬ 
try ; whilst the bishop who might doubtiees prevent this mis¬ 
chief goes off on his mission in the interior, altho we need him 
so much here. Let them write once more to my husband: it 
will succeed, T assure you. and then vecnll the bishop.” The 
second letter was received by the court and the all-powerful 
Prince-Parent with such favor that c. nvevance^ were sent for 
both bishops, the funds necessary being so i plied by the Tai 
Won Kuu’s son-inlaw. The bishops (keyed the summons, 
Delevuy arriving in Seoul first on Jan. :25th, 1 -St>*j, and JVrneux 
on Jan. 20th. But the drift had already s t in an opposite 
direction and it is said at this time a letter from Peking was re¬ 
ceived at the court stat ng that China had begun to massacre all 
Christians, one of the most infamous lies that has stained history 
with blood. The Christians at court met with a serious rebuff, 
and much disquiet was felt Bishop Berneux writes Feb. lOtli 
to M. Peru n : 

“I expectc I ar interview with the regent immediately after my return, 
since they sent tor me in such haste; Ini: until now he has said nothing I 
think it will take place. Anyhow a great step is gained " 

But already the p'ati was blasted and very differ jnt meas¬ 
ures decide 1 upon. A servant of the bishop named Yi Son-i 


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betrayed his residence and that of other missionaries to the au¬ 
thorities and at four ocloek on the atternooon of Feb. 23d the 
bouse was surrounded and the l ishop seized. He was first con¬ 
fined in th a Ku-ryu Kan or felon’s prison, but was soon removed 
to the Kcum-bu or official's prison. Among the soldieis who 
attended the bishop during the trials weie two Christians, So 
Sieng hiei n i and his son Jacques So In-Kiei ini, fr>in whom 
all the details of the inquiry have been learned. The replies of 
the bishop were terse and heroic. “If you take upon yourselves 
to recouduet u e to my own countiv, without doubt I must go; 
but not otherwise. Do what you will; I am quite ready to give 
my life as a witness to the truth of the religion I have 
pr* ached.” lie was cruelly tortured both with the paddle and the 
club. His death sentence we arc to’d was, “Since (N) refuses to 
submit and will neither apostatize nor give information required, 
nor yet return to his own country, he is sentenced to lose hia 
bead alter submitting to various torments.” 

The sentence was not long delayed. On March 8th, the 
bishop, accompanied by M M. de Bretenicres, Beaulieu and 
Doie, was led out the west gate to the place of execution. The 
site selected was on the river’s hank near the village ot Sai-nam- 
t . T he account (f the execution is a s-ckening one for they 
were executed by the ciuel hoi si process. T he work was soon 
done and the soul of the heroic priest and bishop was at rest 
foiever For three days the bodies were lott unbuiied when 
the villagers of Sai-nam-to interred them in one grave. Thus 
fell in the 52nd year of his life, Simeon Francois Fcrncux, after 
ten years of labor in Korea, and with him fell ten thousand 
converts it is said. In August the holies of the bishop and the 
priests were finally recovered by the Christians, and became the 
po session of the church. As a priest, a missionary, a bishop, 
a Christian, the martyr needs no eulogy. His friends would 
have the Church of Borne canonize him. It is unnecessary. 
God has already done sc. 


Geo. Heber Jones. 


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THE KOREAN BABY. 

I N appearance Ik* is plump and round with a milky complexion, 
black and sometimes brown eyes. If clean, which is the 
exception rather than the rule, he is attractive, ami justifies 
the remark frequently hoard, u What a cute little baby!The 
“diagnostic n ature,” as the profession would say, of a Korean 
babv is not the hideous tufts of hair soon on a Japanese baby, but 
a remarkably Hat back bead. You might at first conclude they 
were related to the Flat Head Indians of America—and no one 
can disprove it if I say they are. 

The head of the Korean babv is wider than long or about 
equal, and the depression is from a loss of the back, or that the 
back is more consolidated and requires less space. The phrenologist 
tolls us that the front head is for intellect; the top for worship; 
the sides for mechanics, locomotion, construction, tin* whv and 
wherefore or things; the. back for love of borne, country, friends, 
children and wife. 

The careful readers of local news in Korea will no doubt have 
observed the deficiency of some of the qualities of the back-head 
as well ns an excess in the dcv< lopcim nt t f others. 1 am not 
going to di>enss the virtues or the faults of the Korean, but tin’s 
by way of introduction to my subject—the Korea : baby. 

If you area newcomer you will very early be told that the 
head of the Korean baby is flat 1 localise it is laid on the hot stone 
floor. Then when you discover that the babv rnnlv lies on the 
floor but is either engaged as the twins of Mrs. Mieaxvber were 
represented, or tied on its mother’s back or on the back of another 
child a trifle larger than the one carried; you perhaps not un¬ 
naturally conclude that the head of tire Korean baby is like a 
jelly fish and b squashed by its own weight. This is all a delu¬ 
sion. The fact i- it i' harder than its western counterpart. 

Then you will also not ee that even the most ignorant and 
barbarous mother will put sonv* old eln f lies under the Imbv’s 
head when on the floor, or in the better regulated f'amilie- a pillow 
of saw dust, cotton or chaff. You have als«» read of the Flat 
Head Indians who tied the papoose to a board and in that way 
made the head flat. This is also a delusion and will do for those 


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who would like to conceal their ignorance. Such a pressure 
would paralyze and subsequently kill all Flat Heads. It is not 
pressure in the case of the one nor is it stone floors in the other. 

When I was a school boy I used to hear, “If you want a 
■strong muscle you must use it. If you wish to improve any 
intellectual faculty you must use it.” 

.1 therefore conclude that the flat head is caused indirectly 
by bad fond as it does not stimulate the back-head faculties, and 
in several generations would produce such results as we see here 
from inartif.n. This inaction is furthermore the result of culti¬ 
vating some faculties at (ho expeme of others, such as the top 
head or front head. The Korean's education has developed the 
front head and top-head. The educated Koreans have bright 
intellect* and good memories. And as to the top-heads, they are 
most re!ig : uus. They worship everything from the sa.ulals on 
their feet to the hair on their heads. 

More*over I have seen that the flat-head is not an artifieal or 
mechanical production but the babies are born with it. 

Koreans can explain anything and the floor business is his 
explanation—side-head exaggerated. But when you find him 
deserting his king or selling his country you say there is some¬ 
thing wrong with his ethics. No it is his flat back-head. But 
this is politics or something akin to it and I am on the Korean 
bahy. The Korean baby rarely has anything on except a little 
onat of many colors like Joseph’s, while some of the better people 
clothe the little tot in a pair of pants large enough for a child of 
six. 


W e westerners keep making the mistake of comparing our 
ideas with theirs. Xow while washing in the west implies u;e of 
water it is quite different in the east. If you say wash the baby 
without u in wafer” the Korean wipes the baby. You say was 1 ! 
the sore, the Korean wipes the sore. The washing the baby’s 
-clothes is rare except with some of* the belter class. They simply 
wipe them until a fly couldn’t keep his balance on them. You 
may hear of habits being washed at birth, but after you learn 
that water is not essential to a wash not only in Korea, but in 
Arctic regions where Dr. Nansen “scraped” his clothes for a 
“wash,” you may discover that the new baby is wiped with a 
rag, cotton, bit of straw, the fingers, anvthing. In such filth the 
eve* suffer and thus we have many blind not from war or aoci- 
<1 *nt, but from filth. You see a good many hunch-back babies, 
but not many adult hunch-backs. And you say, “What is the 
cause?” Why the babies die. “And what causes hunch-back?” 
Rachitis. “And Rachitis?” Poor food. Did you ever try to 
xai-c a colt on sour railtc and corn meal? I did, and it died. 


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94 THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. [Maidl,. 

And so do many of the Korean babies who get the extract of 
millet and sour cabbage. 

The mother has “plenty of n ilk!” So does our cow when* 
I feed turnips. But she has “rich n ilk” when I feed beans 
and oat9 and buckwheat. Book at the mother’s diet ; millet, 
or rice, or potatoes or oatmeal with a poor rtd bean which con¬ 
tains some bone and brain food, with pickle cabbage and turnips. 
The old saying you can’t get b'ood out oi a t urnip is here pi ac¬ 
tually demonstrated. < he poor in the interior only gets beef 
and fish on fenst days and sacrificial days. Akaig the coast 
fish is cheap, and the poor eat it. 

The exciting cause of hunch-back may be the way the 
babies are carried tied on the mother's back or often on a child’s 
back seven or eight years old. Now the tying on is a support 
forthe pelvis only and the head and shoulders arc jerked around 
on the unosseHcd spine. 

I have seen such a child with the baby on its back playing 
4 *top’’ on wooden shoes. Yes, they do fall and 1 have seen bro¬ 
ken legs Iron) such a game. I once* saw a light. Two men 
and one woman with a baby on her back. She fell backwards 
on the baby, the two men fell on her, and 1—fell on the top 
(knots). 

The n ortality of the Korean haby is high, but must be 
not so high as the second year, lor then they are more exposed 
and are stuffed with anything the mother can get such as lid hit a 
of cucumber, dried fish, and the like. Think of a mother tying 
her infant on her back with an old lag and going to the river to 
wash her husband's clothes in the cold spiing and fail and getting 
the baby’s feet frozen till the flesh dropped off. her it would 
“cry” if left in a warm room. Or what would you say lo see a 
naked baby near a fire box and ll it should sit down and cook 
a part of it, or fall into a kettle ol hot water, (the Korean kettle 
is level witn the floor) or if you should see it crawl around hy 
the kettle wheri the chink had fallen out of the floor and get 
its leg into the fire and roast it? Would not a society for the 
prevention ot cruelty to children be in order? 

W. B. McGill. 


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1898.] 


MR. ROBERT E. SPEER OX KOREA. 


95 


MR. ROBERT E. SPEER ON KOREA. 

M R. Robert E. Speer, one of the secretaries of the Presbyterian 
Board of Foreign Missions, accompanied by Mr. W. H. 
Grant, visited Korea last August. We are in receipt of a 
pamphlet of forty-seven pages embodying the result and impres¬ 
sions of his visit. Mr. Speer is an optimist, an enthusiast, a thor¬ 
ough believer in missions, and in the ultimate triumph of Chris¬ 
tianity The ever present note-book and ever moving pen are 
discernible on every page of this report. Few things seem to have 
escaped his notice and lie draws from his store-house “things new 
and old,” some well digested and others not so. The conclusions 
from native testimony are not always the logical outcome of the 
premise. For some reason it is not wise to build too much on 
simply testimony of natives. 

Mr. Speer discusses with fulness and evident sympathy and 
approval the “Methods and Policy of the Mission.” The “six 
months’ probation” as catechumens is ]>crhaps borrowed from 
their Methodist brethren, but it seems to work well and surely 
something of the kind is needed here. We give below the ques¬ 
tions asked of and answers given bv an applicant for baptism. 
We do this in order to show the thoroughness of the examination, 
and l>ccause we believe these questions are a fair sample of the 
questions asked by other missionaries. It is our custom to ask 
similar questions tho nobody but a stranger would think it worth 
while to write them down: 

“Why have you a mind to be baptized?” The candidate, 
who was evidently under some feeling, replied, “Formerly I did 
not know Christ; now I lielieve in Him/' “Whv?” “On ac¬ 
count of my many sins. I have sinned much.'” “W hat kind of 
sins?” “1 know scarcely any sins that I have not committed.” 
“What ones?” asked Yi, a native leader of great capacity and 
|ieiietration. “'I have wordi’ppod spirits. I did not know that 
i was sinning Ijeforc* I heard of Jesus. I heard Ilis words that 
the people of the world are sinners, and that lie had eome to 
stand in sinners' stead. 1 learned this irom a man named Chu.” 
“Who is Jcsils?” “The son of G oil. The Bible taught- me this, 
and that He had come and died and lived again.” “Has Christ 


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THK K*MU:aN KKl'USl fUKV. 


[March, 


90 


borne your old si ns 7” “Yes, He has.” “Ifymi died lielbre baj>- 
tram would you go to heaven?” “Yes.” “Is not useless,, 

then?” “It is a sign of union with Christ, showing that 1 am a 
part ot the bodv ot Christ.” “Do von ol>sc*\c tin* Sahlwth7" 
“1 lia\e done so >ii.<v I lx-cmne a eateel. humii." “\Yhv7 
cause it is a holy day.” “\\ hat G y< ur bu.-Iia•ss'/” “1 am a go- 
between or middle-man." “Fair-days n ine on eaeh tilth dav ; 
when they fall oil Sundae do you still obv r\c the day7” “Yes, 
T have d< »ne so tor s* • veil months. “Do v*u h»vc.Jcsus7 t>; 
He sa\ed me mid will give me re * life." “Do von love vuta* 
wife and children?” “Yes, we used to light. I got drunk in thnx* 
days. Now I h»vc her and I love doti^ more than all.” “Do wm 
understand the L« >\ d’s SupjxT?" “I think so. it is kept so as not 
to forget d ( si;-. The eating and drinking* are marks of our Ding 
joined to Christ.” “Do yon still sm7" “1 eatmot help doing 
wrong daily, but I piav to (hid when 1 do." “Docs (.■«hI hear 
von lor the poo ini ss of y t «ur praying? Have you anv lim it 7” 
“No He d..es it for Christ's sake. As for merit, 1 have not the 
slightest little hit.” 44 ilow do you know voii are forgiven?" 


“The Jhhlc savstiau if we confess, we are forgiven, I l**heve it.” 
“\\ liv do you believe the Hi bit* 7 ” “It is the \\ old ot Hod. 
“How do you kuo • 7” 44 1 lie story of the sliephci ds and the 

coming ot‘ tiie w ise men makes me think that it is true." “ila\e 
•uhinc?” “No." “1 )o vitii drink7" “I 


von ever liau a cone 


wa* a 


hard drinker, but not now. This bodv is mu mine. If I abu-e it, 

•j 

J shall receive eternal punishment.” “Doy«.ii speak the truth7" 
“I have lied even while 1 was a catechumen. aA.iit tiie price of 
goods so a-. to make a Squeeze, but I have pu;i. It C hard in 
my business, but l cannot lit* and be Chri-tV d> io!r. ’ “dell of 
your expel-ienec as a eateelmmen.” “Well, otln r middlemen will 
not ha\e anything to do with me, now that 1 have become tt 
(hr istian. I am able to n»ad tin* llible in both Chinese and 
Korean, and mikc becoming a eateehumeii I have b en going to 
the (hnieh every night, "Ik le a number of its meet and read. I 
liavc preached to my wife and children, hut only my wife and 
one son have come yet to believe and to do.” “What is your 
idea oft «od 7” ‘T know that Ik* is the very high spirit.” “Where 
is lie7” “There is not one place when* He is not.” “lias (iud 
power /” “Yes, He has power to deliver us from wicked devils.” 
“Do these tempt you much?” “Yes; if 1 don’t keep reading the 
Hihle J am constantly tempted to gamble, to commit- adultery, 
etc.” “Have von give" tip sacrifice 7” asked Yi. “Yes.” 44 Wliat 
do you do on the day of ancestral worship?” “I go to tin* church 
on that day.” “Can Christ keep you from sin?” 44 Yes, if I trust 
Him with all my strength.” “lint will He continue to do what 


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1898.] MR. ROBERT E. SPEER OX KOREA. 97 

He has done?” “Can I think otherwise of Him?” was the re¬ 
joinder. “You can’t see the Lord,” said Kim; “how do you 
know oil this?” “I believe, therefore I know.” “I fear,” Mr. 
Lee, “that in about six months you will quit this business.” The 
man looked up sharply. “Not so,” he said. “Do you know,” 
the questioner resumed, “that Jesus loves you ?’ 4 “If He had not 
loved me, He would not have died for me. From the time He 
died until now I know that His love was bestowed on me.” “But 
how do you know,” I asked, “that Jesus died for Koreans? was it 
not for Europeans only?” “No,” he said kindly; “He died for the 
whole world,” as though I had suggested depriving him of his 
own. “We have asked a great many questions now,” said Yi, as 
though satisfied. I told the man, then, that we w ere glad to wel¬ 
come him into the great society of our Saviour, made up of mil¬ 
lions from every land, and that though we should never see him 
again here we should meet him above at the reunion eternal. 
“That is a thankful word,” he replied as’with glowing face ne 
passed out, and Chung, one of the leaders, added. “I never thought 
before of that not meeting and then meeting above. That was a 
good w T ord. I am glad.” 

We think Mi. Spcei is in error in the statement that the 
Methodist girls’ boarding school “came at a later time” than 
their own. He devotes much space to the discussion of Bible 
translation over which the mission spent several days ot bscussiou 
Mr. Speer is greatly in error in saying in his account- of the 
periodicals m Korea that the Christian News and Dr. Jaifohn’s 
paper are the only publications of the sort in Korean. The 
Christian Advocate preceded the Christian Neics and theie were 
8ocular newspapers not mentioned by Mr. Speer. 


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98 


THE KOREAX REiXiSITORY. 


[March, 


KOREAN FARMS—IMPROVEMENTS. 

T HERE is much uncultivated land in the peninsula due to two 
principal causes—the lack of water ana the excess of water 
(strange as this may seem). That these two opposite dif¬ 
ficulties should be suffered to exist together is generally because 
of poverty or ignorance—because the farmer is without the where¬ 
withal to make the improvement necessary to secure water or he 
is ignorant of the method of making the most economical im¬ 
provement looking to that end. What little knowledge I have 
of this matter is in this diluted form gladly put at the service of 
this laborious and suffering class of the Korean population, in the 
hope that it may Ixj of some benefit to him practically. 

With two difficulties so diametrically opposed a solution of 
the general problem is promised at a glance in the use of one dif¬ 
ficulty to modify if not surmount the other. That is: if the 
farmer can find or discover some means to transfer the excess of 
water at one place to such other places as it is lacking. 

Let us first examine the case where there is a lack of water 
at hand. With an average precipitation of forty inches a year, 
as there is in Korea, there is sufficient water for general agri¬ 
cultural purposes. 

But in a district where rice is by far the most- remunerative 
crop, sufficient water is not always available and cannot always 
be secured for this thirsty cereal by Korean methods. Rains 
then, if equally distributed throughout the growing season, would 
generally be sufficient even for its cultivation. And if nature fails 
to make a proper distribution, often it is in the power of man to 
so supplement her generosity as to provide the water just where 
it is nmled. For instance, where an alluvial valley is surrounded 
or partly so, by hills without streams or springs—where the only 
water to be obtained is from the veins, it may be collected in res¬ 
ervoirs npon the hillsides and the water distributed as needed. 
Nature herself often provides reservoirs both upon the surface as 
lakes, and underneath resting upon a horizontal or impervious 
strata. To form an artificial reservoir often only a dam will be 
seeded across a ravine, especially if there is a deep sub-soil of clay. 


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KOREAN FARMS—IMPROVEMENTS. 


99 


1898.] 

In this case, if the valley to be irrigated is large, the expense 
will be very small, especially when compared to the increase in 
value of the crop of rice over that of another cereal, such as 
wheat, which might be raised by the ordinary rains, for not only 
is the land capable of producing considerable more bushels of rice 
than of wheat, but the value of the crop, considering both foreign 
(American and Japanese) and domestic markets will.be two or 
three times that of the wheat, even were the latter marketable, 
which at the present time is certainly not the case. If the bottom 
should have to be tamped or clay should have to be brought from 
a distance to make the reservoir impervious, even if artificial 
cement should be used for the purpose, still the value of the crops 
may justify the expense which at any rate must be separately 
determined for each individual case. 

A valley enclosed say by three hills each with a reservoir 
having a capacity of 1,000,000 cubic feet, would hold enough 
water to irrigate 100 acres of rice land. That is; assuming the 
evaporation from the surface of the reservoir and irrigated land 
to be in this latitude, only equal in inches to the average annual 
fall of rain direct upon that surface (namely about forty inches), 
the reservoirs would hold enough water to flood the hundred acres 
of land and keep it flooded, if the fair assumption is allowed that 
rain of at least one inch will fall, in most places in Korea, at the 
season of rice growing, during any one month. Fortunately for 
the farmer’s purposes, at the very time there is most evaporation 
(during the period of rice growing), there is the most fall of rain 
—in fact for an average year about half the precipitation of the 
year, and the stated rule of evaporation still subsists. Korea, 
therefore, does not have to contend with the difficulty fou' d in 
central California, where there is an evaporation of twenty-one 
inches and only one inch fall of rain. 

But evaporation is not the only obstacle to contend with here. 
Percolation in the soil irrigated must be calculated for. It varies 
with the character of the soil. In a known case where the aver¬ 
age yearly rainfall is twenty-four inches and the evaporation 
twenty-one inches, and the percolation four inches in earth, if 
sand were substituted for the earth the percolation would be 
twenty inches. However, available soil used lor the cultivation of 
rice, would be classed as earth instead of as sand an;l the percol¬ 
ation would be much less than if it were sand, especially in places 
where the soil is already saturated with water, which is often the 
case here. The difference between the value of the rice crop and 
a wheat crop on that land for one year would be several thousands 
of dollars—much more than enough several times over to construct 
even expensive reservoirs; and those it should be remembered 


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100 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[March, 


would, with but little annual repair, remain good indefinitely. 
Should there l>e springs or streamlets heading in the hills, the 
Korean farmer may be trusted to regulate the water supply upon 
his few acres in the valley below. But it often occurs that the 
land to be irrigated is upon the border of a slow moving stream. 
In that case, if there is sufficient fall in the stream and its banks 
are not too high, some of its waters may be brought from a point 
higher than the land to be irrigated in a side canal of more moder¬ 
ate fall than the stream. Whether it would be economy to raise 
rice instead of other cereal upon such land would depend upon the 
additional expense necessary to be incurred for the canal. That 
is it would depend upon the distance the water has to be brought 
It may be stated generally, however, that for agricultural as well 
as for mining purposes, in the United States and elsewhere, water 
is often thus conveyed in canals or flumes, scores, even hundreds 
of miles. In passing, may it be said, that a certain Korean once 
came to me to learn if possible how to irrigate a small piece of 
land located within a few yards of a body of water slightly higher 
than the land, but with an impenetrable hill of rock between. 

Both the syphon and the pump were explained to him. The 
syphon was just what he wanted, for it will convey a constant 
stream of water over any obstruction nearly thirty-four feet high. 
But some days afterwards I learned that the pump pleased him 
most, and that he had made a serviceable one by nailing four long 
boards together. He had learned only half lfs lesson. 

To return; if the distance is far or the water is stationary 
a more economical method of flooding or irrigating the land 
may he found in one of the following: the basket so commonly 
used by Egyptians and their neighbors; hydraulic ram; the 
noria and the I'ersian wheel; or the pump, using stenm, gaso¬ 
line, electricity or compressed air, wind, or animal, as motive 
power. Steam, gasoline, electricity and compressed air may be 
excluded from further consideration in this connection e.s they 
may lie used economically only in the largest enterprises. And 
lifting water from terrace to terrace in a flexible water-tight 
basket may be usad only where labor is very cheap and for 
small patches of ground, ns for gardens nt-ar a city as in Egypt 
wbere the vegetables raised thereon may be sold at a high price. 
There remains then to be specially considered o: ly the hydraulic 
ram; the noria; the Persian wheel and the pump moved by 
falling water, wind or animal power. 

The cidinary hydraulic ram will raise only about one-sev¬ 
enth of the water that comes to it, to four or five times the 
height the water has fallen upon the ram. Considering its ca¬ 
pacity a.id its expense, it can be economically used only to do- 


• a » 



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H898.J KOREAN FARMS-IMPROVBMEN1S. 


101 


liver water to upper stories of high, buildings and other places 
■where only a small quantity is desired. WbeD the height to 
which the w*ter is to be carried increases, there is a correspond¬ 
ing decrease in the amount of water that can be raised. 

The noria is a large wheel turning upon a horizontal axis; 
-with buckets permanently attached to its circumference every 
Tew feet. Tins wheel under other names may be revolved by 
the wind or by animal power. But, situate! in the current of 
Jallm«> water, which from its construction seems to he its natural 
place, the tno.i entum of the water revolves it and the buckets 
•dip up the water which is afterwards poured out at an eleva¬ 
tion not quite equal to the diameter of the wheel. It can be 
«se 1 economically only where the current has considerable veloc¬ 
ity and the watei lias to be raised only a few feet. But there 
-are many such places in the peninsula, an! an ordinary Korean 
carpenter can make sjch a wheel at slight expense, as it consists 
mostly of wood. A wheel ten feet in diameter in a natural 
current of a sufficiently large stream, or an artificial current 
which the farmer can make, of from three to five miles an hoar, 
will have the capacity to cover from six to ten acres of land one 
inch deep with water, once in every twenty-four hours. For a 
larger piece of ground it will depend upon the lay of the land, 
the locality of the water, etc., whether it will be better to use 
two or three wheels, or one large one, say of twenty-five feet 
in diameter assuming that tLe current is strong enough to oper¬ 
ate the laige wheel, although the effective power of wheels 
increases mncb faster than their diameters and much faster than 
their cost 

The Persian wheel differs from the noria in having, instead • 
of buckets fixed to the wheel, an endless chain or rope with 
buckets attached and running iu a groove over teeth to prevent 
•slipping upou its circumference, the rope hanging far enough 
beiow the wheel, to reach the water to be raised. It delivers 
the water above similar to the noria and reaches water at a 
lower level, (consequently raises it higher), but is not suitable 
for the work performed by the noria. It is specially adapted 
to the work by animal, sav bull power, of raising water as in 
villages, from wells too deep for the ordinary lifting pump. 
Indeed in parts of the East, it is used even where the pump 
-would do the work more economically. It consists of two wheels 
rather than of one as the noria. 

This single wheel when moved by the wind Ls called a 
windmill, and is specially adapted to the great plains of north¬ 
western America, where the wind often has a sweep of hundreds 
of miles. And strong currents of air may always be found in 


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102 


TBS KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[March, 


Korea near their natural courses, the narrow valleys, as they 
are in India and Holland where the whepl is in such general 
use. No cheafer power than this can he found, and the wheel 
itself may be made by a Korean ofsotne ingenuity. 

Average size wheels called “Jumbos” are often made by 
formers in America at a cost of twenty-five or thirty dollars, A 
similar rough wheel sin uld be put up here at a cost of fifty 
dollars silver. But if the capitalist h< re should desire to import 
a windmill with pump attachment and tower, bow would the 
account stand ? Let us assun e water to be in a 6tream or lake 
near the land to be irrigated or in wells'a few feet below the 
surface, and that rice rs the crop to he irrigated—lice is said, lor 
WHter would be needed on other crops only occasionally, as in 
case of drouth. 

As already stated, if water can he procured, this is the 
most valuable crop the Korean farmer can raise. What will it 
cost to irrigate twenty acres of liceland? The yield of rice 
in value would be, in a conservative estimate over and above 
that of wheat, at least $5C0. assuming only thirty bushels to 
the acre. And the extru expense tiran injurted tw»nty-fm- 
foot windmill, with ] ump arid tower, and for ltd or to keep all 
in good working ouler, would hef i the hest, §1,000 gold, though 
a ten-foot wheel, etc, would cost only $125, and there ate wit'.d- 
n ills ol Irom Un to sixteen feet in diameter in the n arhet that 
n ay be bcuplitlor from $16 to $75 gold. But accepting the 
m.t8t unfavoral l«- case, interest ats even fer cent oti $1,0 0 gold, 
or $2,TOO silver a year would he $140 a year. But this would be 
paid for tlue»- or lour times over every ytat, tor it is recorded 
that such plants which have been in constant use lor thirty 
years are y» t in good condition Tl is twenty-five-foot wheel has 
a capacity to irrigate more than twenty acres, if the water is 
not raispd mote than ten feet, which is as high as water would 
genet ally have to be raised. 

We have been assuming that the water is put direct upon 
the land, and that the pumping goes on only eight hours in the 
twenty-four, because of the luck of sufficient wind. Now instead 
of putting the water at once upon the land, let us suppose it is 
run into a reservoir, then there will be a constant supply of water 
—the excess raised by the wheel during strong winds being stored 
up for use w-hen there is no wind. Moreover, it will not be neces¬ 
sary to run an additional inch depth upon the land every day, 
for on good rice land the evaporation and percolation together 
will not amount to that much. But the first cost of an imported 
windmill with its appurtances does, at first glance, seem large and 
is more than the ordinary Korean farmer is able to pay for the 


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1898.] KOREAN FARMS—IMPROVEMENTS. 103 

irrigation of a few acres of rice land. But the large land-holder 
•can afford the expenditure and would greatly profit by it* Even 
ordinary crops are greatly benefitted by regularity in the water 
•supply which sometimes increases the crops two or three fold. 
Were one “jumbo” windmill constructed in this country where 
farmers could see it in operation, it might be used as a model 
for their own windmill which they themselves could construct at 
•comparatively little cost. It should be remembered that when 
the windmill is not in use for irrigating a crop there are many 
other uses to which it may be applied on a large farm, as threshing 
and winnowing grain, pressing hay, cutting straw, shelling and 
grinding corn, rice and other grain, sawing lumber and wood, 
•churning butter, and the grindstone, lathe, blacksmith bellows, 
•etc., may be worked by it. It may also be added that one large 
windmill is more economical than several small ones having an 
aggregate equal capacity. Also, when the height to which water 
is to be raised increases, the amount of water that can be raised 
diminishes in corresponding proportion. The pump may also be 
operated by falling water and by animal power. Water falling 
upon an undershot or overshot wheel, as at Namhan, may oper¬ 
ate either a lilting or force pump and raise water higher than the 
noria, with its buckets, would raise it. And it will supply water 
more regularly than the windmill, for it runs at all hours. When 
one may choose between a noria, a pump operated by a water 
wheel, and a pump operated by wind, the solution would be based 
upon the following considerations, assuming their original cost 
the same; the comparative amount of water they can raise, the 
height they can raise it, their durability and the cost of main- 
tainance. The noria would be selected when one desires a con¬ 
tinuous supply of a large amount of water at a limited height; 
the water wheel (turbine, overshot or undershot) with pump attach¬ 
ment for a continuous supply of a less amount of water at a greater 
height; and the windmill with its irregularity would ouly be 
selected where wind is the most accessible power. 

Let us.see what can be done with the pumps operated by 
animal power. A man in ten hours’ time can, by hand, pump 
enough water ten feet high to cover one-half an'acre of ground 
one inch deep with water. If .he walks back and forth upon 
double levers operating two pumps he may similarly cover two 
acres, and if the pumps are in constant operation during twenty- 
four hours, in the first case one and a half acres would be covered, 
and iu the other nearly five acres. This pump, if imported, 
would cost, if of wood, not more than thirty-five or forty dollars 
{silver). But the farmer during leisure can himself make a ser¬ 
viceable one costing only the material, and it would be found 


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104 thb Korean kepositobt. [March r 

very useful-to the small farm. If more water were needed than,, 
can be supplied by the hand pump, then two pumps with double 
leverage, operated by the weight of a man and bis burden, would 
be more serviceable. An average size horse, weighing a half ton 
would under similar circumstances cover in ten hours, six acres; 
and the pump, were it operated continuously, nearly fifteen acres 
a day. Hence a pump adapted to the labor of a bull, slow 
though he be, would in twenty-four hours keep that twelve or 
fifteen acres of rice land covered with an inch of water. The cost 
of maintainance of two bulls and boys, to keep the pump con¬ 
tinuously ac work, added to the interest on the first cost of the 
plant, would not in any one year, during the period of rice grow¬ 
ing, amount to more than thirty-five or forty dollars, which the 
increase in value of the rice crop over that of any other grain, on 
any one of the twelve or fifteen acres of ground, would every year 
pay two or three times over. 

But the horean must give up his exclusiveness, his objec¬ 
tions to charge involving improvement be they based on race 
predjudice or what not if he will benefit by experience; if it comes 
Irom an alien no matter, for the Korean has something valuable, 
and olten d st'nctively Korean, which he can offer in exchange. 
And he inustignore the fact too that obstructions against improve¬ 
ment aie sometin es found even in the palace itself. A •vear 
ago a | ump was put in one of the wells there, at His Majesty** 
request. It operated wed and was an ornament to its immedi¬ 
ate surroundings. Vet it was allowed to remain only a few 
weeks, the dangerouR open well and unsightly ablutions and 
slopping buckets and dirty erolies toon takirg :1s place. 

For the fanner who cultivates a large number ol acres a- 
series of pumps may be operated by a bull (or horse). More 
than one hundred acres of rice land niay be watered at sn all 
cost by this method, which need not be explained in detail until 
there shall be evidence that gratuitous iufonnation of this kind 
is accoptablo by the people. 

1 he other case which we were to consider was, when there 
is too much water. That is where the land is low and flooded 
during rainy sea6ot s or is marshy even if never flooded; or where 
both difficulties subsist together. WbeD the hnd is an exten¬ 
sive plain and is submerged by the heavy freshets of summer, 
there are two general cases which may occur—one where the 
land is sandy to a considerable depth, and the other where there 
is a clayey subsoil. It is not a fact t bat the Korean is always 
ignorant of every method of modifsingor surmounting these 
difficulties and of obtaining some profit from bis land, for I have 
seen evidences, in several places i.ot far from Heeul that he bad 


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1898 .] KOREAN FARMS-IMPROVEMENTS. 105 

started in the right direction to mend matters but was obliged 
to desist right in the midst cf his word; very likely, for lack of 
means to pursue it to a successful issue. 

That such land is untilled is more often because of the 
supineness of the government, the ignorance, indolence and self- 
sufficiency of officials who make no effort to aid the government 
and who are concerned only to help themselves and this by devi¬ 
ous wavs. They may generally be found within reach of Ko¬ 
rean cash especially if it belongs to the government. Inasmuch 
as the lards are the property cf the 6 tate, and the people have 
only a usufruct right therein, the government must bear 
the n sponsihility if they suffer any lands to remain untilled. 
The people will not bear, indeed in most cases ar ? } ccuniarily 
unable to near the expense of rendering overflowed lands pro¬ 
ductive, except where the overflow occurs cnly on occasional 
years, and then they merely take a risk and get crops often 
enough to pay them for their labor. 

When the overflowed land is sandy both the evaporation 
and percolation do nst hinder but aid man in his efforts to grow 
remunerative crops of some kind upon the lanl. After the 
waters have subsided, th 3 land soon becomes dry, principally 
thro percolation. This is the case with much of the land on 
the banks of the Han near Seoul. And Koreans have discov¬ 
ered this fact and raise crops of some sort upon the laud, altbo 
it is sometimes covered with water to a depth of five or six feet. 
The Korean may have enough experience and knowledge iu this 
case to preclude the necessity of his receiving suggestion* about 
it. It need, therefore, only be said that where there is so much 
percolation the substance of the soil escapes very fast in conse¬ 
quence of the heavy rains and overflows; and, while the crops 
raised, therefore, may be healthy in condition thev are not apt 
to be abundant. Hence it is patent that to get most out of the 
soil much fertilizing material should be put upon the land, and 
such as will be immediately absorbed by the crops; or such crops 
should be grown as get a good part of their nutriment from the 
atmosphere. 

The clovers—red, white, scarlet, alkali and alfalfa—which 
are not cultivated here, cow-peas, and among the grasses, rye 
and buckwheat, extract much of iheir food from the atmosphere. 
Hence, ti.o they are not all equally serviceable here as a crop, 
because some will endure more moisture than others, they are 
especially adapted to that character of soil occasionally lor two 
or three successive seasons, when, being turned under they 
mrich the soil and greatly augment the following crops. And 
any one of these c overs, especially white, if only occasionally 


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submerged for two or three dar/s, will not seemingly be injured 
thereby. During growth they all furnish delectable pasture food, 
even for bees, or may be cut 'or hav, which the Korean farmer 
should more generally learn to profit by. 

White clover on account of its shortness is b-tter suited for 
pasture than for bay. Eed clover may be cut twice and alfalfa 
lour times, even five times farther south, producing during the 
season from four to six tons of rich food to the acre, as 1 have 
learned by experience on a small scale. If any one of these 
grasses should be injured by an unprecedented overflow, the 
grass may be plowed under at the close of the rainy season, say 
in September and sown in winter grain. Those winter grains 
(spring grains as well), are ripe and nearly ready for cutting 
about the latter part June a generally, perhaps four times 
ont of five, before the rainy season begins. However, if the 
farmer does not care to risk the loss of a crop even one year in 
five, the grass, especially if it he oats, barley or rye, may be cut 
earlier than usual—before the grain is matured—and put upl ke 
clover and ether grasses as a food for fattening stock of nearly 
all kinds, and especially is this true of oats. Th p presupposes 
that the Korean farmer s' all pay more attention to raising stock 
than he now does. And he will get more out ( f the grain in 
this way than if he sold it, the substance of the grain going back 
to the sail in the manure. Such land, too, would p.-rhapp pro¬ 
duce good crops of Indian com (maize) which is such excellent 
and cheap fool for man and beast, for planted Imre during the 
last days of April, it will generally have grown above the reach 
of freshits when they come, and as green food as well a ripe, 
both grain and stem are excellent fatteners for stock. Such 
grasses as timothy, red, top, and modiolu, fond as they are of 
moist soils, although they do not get so much ot their food Irom 
the atmosphere us do clovers, might be used to advantage as 
occasional crops for pasture and hay. Tiomtby does well here. 
And there can he no doubt that red-top and modiola would do 
equally well although the assertion is based upon experience 
here only with the first named. All and each of these grains 
and grasses woul 1 lie a valuable accession to the Korean stock 
farmer’s supply of food for his herds. 

Wm. M. E Die, 


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EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 

POLITICS. 

O UR esteemed comtemporary The Celestial Empire of Shang¬ 
hai, in its issue of March 7th says; “The Repository for 
this month (January) deals less with political matters than 
before; why is not quite clear.” The simple statement in the 
first part of this sentence is innocent and would not receive notice 
were it not for the comment attached. In reply we would say 
that we are at a loss to under-tand why more attention or less 
attention on the part of The Repository to “political matters” 
should cause comment among our con tern poraries in the Far Fast, 
and raise a fog in the intellectuality of our lriend on “Tie Celes¬ 
tial Empire .” We are in no sense a newspaper and do not con¬ 
ceive it to be our mission to appeal to opinion inside or outside of 
Korea in favor of anyone of the several drifts in the pool of Ko¬ 
rean politics. When the cause of humanity or the fate of Korea 
demand our partisanship we should gladly and voluntarily yield 
it even as we have done in the past, but aside from that the policy 
of this magazine as far as “politics” is concerned is summed up 
in our name; we are a Rqxmtory of all such things relatiug to 
Korea as we esteem of interest to our readers, and current events 
find a place in our pages only to that extent in which they effect 
history. This has been the policy of the present editors and no 
reason has appeared to deviate from it. Some months as at the 
time of the murder of the Empress Min, or in the case of the 
present month, events of the highest importance take place, in 
which case The Repository spares all the space possible to their 
narration. Some months appear barren of such events in which 
case we are silent. We offer this explanation in the hope that it 
will clear up that obscurity under which our eo-frere in Shanghai 
labors. 

The attempt on the life of Kim Hongyuk.— 1*« the 

February issue we noted the attempt made on Feb. 22nd to 
kill Mi. Kim Hongyuk the interpreter at the Russian legation. 


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The wounds proved to be slight and by March 1st Mr. Kim 
was able to attend to his duties. A determined effort was made 
to secure his assailants. The Russian Representative sent a 
dispatch to the foreign office deploiirg the event and stati. g; 
‘‘It is necessary not only to punish th actual culprits but to find 
out the instigators of the crime. Even il the instigators be hi-.li 
in rank their station must rot be considered in the proper ad¬ 
ministration of justice.” His Imperial Majesty also issued an 
edict giving the police department three days in which to arrest 
the culprits. The police immediately arrested several culprits, 
including Kim Seiuuk, said to be a naturalized Russian subject, 
who was thought to have done it to satisfy a personal grudge; 
Yu Cbinkiu an ex-policeman; Yi Kuwhan a policeman in the 
Imperial Household and Yi Pomsuk, a Yangban. Kim was re¬ 
leased after a hearing, hut at the same ‘‘hearing” the man Yu 
implicated Yi Cliaisun, ex-minister of the imperial household, 
who is a cousin of the emperor, and Song Jungsuh an ex-im¬ 
perial private secretary. Dame Rumor haR it that Yu has ad¬ 
mitted being the cu’prit and claimed at his hearing beiore the 
police that ex-minister Yi had offered him a hag of rice and 
lour dollais to commit the deed. This is much below trie usual 
price paid for assassination in Koma but the department seemed 
to think that this sufficiently implicated Mr Yi «nd the 
chief commissioner sent a squad of twenty policemen to see 
♦ hat the ex-minister did not escape In Korea all officials of 
the highest rank may not he proceeded aginst however without 
the pei-smi il sandi-ill and exi less command < I tic soveieign 
and to this class the e\-e mister belongs. T! e police aj [ l ed 
m due form lor Mis M.-uedv’s commands but taking the step of 
guarding ex-Ministic Yi’s reri lence he fere 11 < se com m-nuis were 
given was understood in In equivalent loan attempt to arrest, 
and Mv. Yi immcdritelv appeared at the supreme court and 
surrendered himself demanding the privileges due hi- sta-ding. 
This immunity of first rank officials is a fundar: phase of 

Korean law and tin action of the commissioner in disngardiug 
it set all Korean officialdom agog. The council of stale repre¬ 
sented the mutter to the emperor and petitioned ti e dismissal 
and arrest of tlie rlfeiiiling official. An indignation meeting 
was held by the imperial clan at the house oi 1 rince Man- 
pyeng in Seoul and the sail e measure urgel on His majesty 
In the meantime Mr. Cliaisun lemnined at the supreme court 
to await the investigation, theex-Police Commissioner Yi Clumg- 
ku being also under detention. 

The unsuccessful assassin Yu now states, it is said, that be 
was forced to inplicate the ex-minister of the imperial house- 


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hold by the use of torture by tbs police officials. The matter 
no A' stauds in a completely muddled state as far as the knowl- 
idge of the public is concerned. On the 14th of March the ex- 
-oonmiissioner was tried on the charge of infringing the prerog¬ 
atives of Chikim officials. He admitted the facts above stated 
and says he telephoned the palace for the requisite imperial 
sanction and received a telephone reply to arrest everyone con¬ 
nected with the crime. The court then adjourned. 

On March 6th the city oi Seoul was placarded with a scath¬ 
ing denunciation of the Russian mterpretcr and a gang of me¬ 
morialists which are said to be several thousand strong have tak¬ 
en up their quarters in Sadoug. They announce themselves 
tbe originators of the placard and propose to embody it iu a 
memorial to His Majesty on tbe 29th instant. In the mean¬ 
time His Majesty baa appointed the persecuted interpreter gov- 
-enor of Seoul. And thus tbe matter stands at the present 
-writing, the real motives underlying the attempt to kill Mr. 
Him being either unknown or withheld from the public. 

The Deer Island Euisode. —The recent efforts of Russia 
to secure a cession ot 80,000 square meters of land on Deer 
Island, in the Fusan liarboi appear to be simply an endeavor to 
bring to a close a matter which has been sometime on the tapis. 
Tn August of last year Mr. YVacber the Russian representative 
.sent a dispatch to t ie Korean Foreign office on the matter and 
later on charts were received of the site which had been selected 
by Russian naval and diplomatic officers. The land was intended 
to he used for the storage of coal, and as Jajxin had a concession 
cf the same character there, and both powers enjoyed the same 
privilege on Rose Island, in the Chemulpo harbor, no doubt 
Russia belcived no objection could lie raised to the accommodation 
•she sought.' The site selected lias proved to be a debatable one 
and a great amount ol discussion raised. One of the chief dif¬ 
ficulties appeal's to lie as follows: In providing for the expansion 
of the foreign settlements at Fusan it was determined to utilize 
Deer Island, one of the determining reasons apparently being the 
fact that the water on the island i- .-u)>erior to that on the main 
land. In 189d Dr. MueLeuvy Brown, chiif commissioner of 
customs w as seiit by the Korean government to Fusan to survey 
and make the accessary location, which he did, marking off the 
site with stakes and reporting on the same to the foreign office. 
The present foreign minister, Hon. Min Chongmeuk, claims there 
was no officiaI document that proves that the land was set aside 
for the purposes of a general foreign settlement, tho he also tells 
.us that the representatives of the United States, Great Britain 


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and Germany in August, 1897, all claimed a piece of land west 
of the Japanese coal godowns as in “the general foreign settle¬ 
ment of Fusan.” This would certainly seem to indicate that the 
representatives regarded this land as legally set aside for thia 
purpose. 

But aside irom this phase of the matter another question arose 
in connection with the present private ownership of the land 
desired by Russia. The Independent quoting from the Kanjo 
Shimpo describes the following occurrence which took place about 
the end of January, when the Russian gunboat Sivoutch arrived 
in Fusan. 

'‘The commander of the ship called on the Kamni, who was not in his 
office at the time. The commander sent for him by one of the policemen. 
The Kamni returned and had a conference with the commander about the 
proposed coaling station. The Kamni told him that the site in q» estion 
involved the interests of other nations therefore he could not on his o\m 
responsibility make the concession. He would telegraph to the foicign 
office in Seoul and when he receiv ed a reply he would inform him. 'I he 
commander said he had already obtained the consent of the Korean gov¬ 
ernment in the matter and as to Foicign powers. V e Russian g< vemnent 
would arrange satisfactorily with them. I he Kamni replied he was not 
responsible for the owners of tire land pulling up the trees which the Rus¬ 
sians have planted on the site of the proposed station, and he reported the 
whole conference to the foreign office. No reply reach'd die Kamni 
until the following noon. In the mean time the commander and his staff, 
went to the site cm Deer Island and planted many trees and carried up a 
large quantity of ’•and and gravel from tne bench, for building purposes. A 
Japanese* merchant named Aragi of Fusan owns a tract of land on Deer 
Island and it was on his land the tiees were planted and sand and gravel 
placed. Aragi sent his agent to the island asking the Russian officers why 
they were trespassing on his land But the Russian officer did not under¬ 
stand Japanese nor did the latter understand Russian. But fortunately the 
Japanese interpreter, Nakamura, who was employed by the Russian man o- 
war brought about an understanding I be Russian officers sent akamtrra 
to Aragi to examine the deed of the land which proved that the latter was 
the lawful owner of a portion of the land. Nakamura apologized for the 
trespass an * asked 1 im to sell the land to Russia as he would receive a 
handsome price for it. Also he approached another Japanese named Sailo 
to bargain lor his land on the island. The parlies assembled in the house 
of one M aka no and talked the matter over. The conclusion was that the 
owners absolutely refused to ^ell any portion of their possessions. On the 
28th < f January an attache of the Japanese consulate calluc 011 the Russian 
man-o-war and inquired on what groun is ihey established themselves on 
land owned by Japanese. The officers apologized for the intrusion and 
told the Japanese attache that if the ow ners of the land allowed them to leave 
the tiees on the site for the time being ihey will pay for the me of the 
same. The attache promised he would approach the owners on the matter 
and when they consented he would inform them of the tact.” 

Thesjene of activity was now transferred to Seoul, but about 
this time the Korean foreign office was further embarrassed not 
only by the Deer island question, but also a request from the 


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EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 


Ill 


1898 .] 

Russian Chargfc for 280,000 meters of land in the foreign con¬ 
cessions at Mokpo and Chin-nampo. As the s^ttlemants willy 
contain 900,000 meters each it will be 6een that this demand 
was an impossible one. Most likely it was one of those diplo¬ 
matic moves necessitated by an equally absurd demand in con¬ 
nection with those rew ports, by another of the powers, fi r 
niter the interchange of a “few diplomatic courtesies** Mr. de 
Speyer consented to with draw the request on the part of Russia. 
But the Koreans i ow began to n« nifest an indisposition to ac¬ 
cord Russia the accommodation asked for on Deer Island. The 
foreign minister introduced the matter to the council of state ^ 
whose approval is necessary in order to legalize tta affair, but 
immediately al sented himself on the plea of sickness. Min 
Chongmeuk was appointed m his place as acting-foreign minister. . 
He regarded the approval of the council of st«te as superfluous 
end l>eing favorable to the cession went to the department on 
Feb. 2 r >th to write the necessary documents. All but one seo^ 
r. tiry had deseited, however, and he could find no official sta¬ 
tionery to write on, n r the necessary officials who should have 
signed the document conjointly with him to render it le^al. 
He, therefor*, wrote on private writing paper two notes, one to 
the Russim n narge stating that he made the concession on be- 
liall ol the Korean government, and the other to the Japanese 
minister, doyen of the diplomatic c mps announcing the transfer. 
The note to Mr. de Spever was as lollows: 

“In regard to the question of deciding a site for coal go-downs of the 
"Russian navy on Deer Island, the department, has already received the 
communication of your predecessor, Mr. Waeber, last August, a id subse¬ 
quently the department received from the local official that chart of the 
site which your officia's selected for the go-downs. The department recently 
received your dispatch concerning the matter, but owing to t'ie frequent 
changes of the minister in this department and much deliberation on their 
part, it was delayed until this day, for which 1 am very sorry. I consider 
that the friendly relations between Korea and Russia are especially different 
from those of other countries therefore I make the special concession in 
hopes that our relations may become yet closer. The conditions of the 
concession will be the same as those which we have stipulated with Japan 
concerning her coal go-downs on that island. However the new site which 
your officials selected contains many acres of private land, and for the con- 
-sidei.uion of the interests of these parties I suggest that some alteration of 
the ch -rt be made. I hope this may meet with your approval and the 
details of the concession may be arranged more carefully.” 

Note to the dean of the Diplomatic Corps: 

"Last August the represent itives of the United States, Great Britain 
and Germany claimed that a piece of land on the west side of your coal 
go-downs on Deer Island was intended for a general foreign settlement in 
the port of Fusan, but you and the representatives of France and Russia 
never participated in the discussion. It is claimed that the chief commis¬ 
sioner of customs, Mr. Brown, went to the island in 1895 and selected the 


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[March, 


lacc for general foieign settlement, and he alleges that he marked the area 


/ • i r 

ment is aware of, except a mere statement of the report in the form of a 
letter. There was no official document that proves that the land was really 
set aside for the purpose. Perhaps it was marked off with stakes with the 
intention of making it a geneial foieign settlement in the iuture but the 


matter was never mentioned to, or discussed by the foreign representatives. 
Ihtrefore the land still belongs to our government exclusively and we have 


the right to use it according to our convenience. The purpoit of the 
request of the rc .1 minister of this department Mr. Yi Dochai, made to you 
the other day and to other foreign representatives to come with you for a 
meeting in this department was to discuss the question very thoroughly, 
with all the representatives, in order to have a clear understanding con¬ 
cerning the land on Deer Island. Put 1 consider that it is needless to have 


the discussion as the land is exclusively at our disposal and it has not been 


agreed upon to be a foreign settlement. 1 hope you will understand my 
opinion and inform san e to the other representatives.” 

Signed and dated Feb. 25, 1898. 


Then thesterm began. The Council of State resigned in a 
body, accompanying these resignations with the following memorial 
to His Majesty. 


M We, )our Majesty’s humble servants, have no qualifications for the im¬ 
portant positions which we occupy in the governme t. We are called Coun¬ 
cil ors of State, but in reality we have done m thing v^rtl.v of the name. 
In regard to the Deer Island question there was a precedent of lending a 
piece of sp re land to a friendly power for tl e purpose cf erecting a coal 
store. 1 he Minister of Foieign Affairs, Yi Dochai. has already introduced 
a bill before the council in regard to this matter. Hut owing to his absence 
the council has not freely discussed the advisability of lending the land to a 
foreign power. Now the acting-Minister of Foreign Affairs is said to have 
decided the question without even referring it to the council. In regard to 
the question of the foreign bank it is proper for foreigners to establish banks 
in our treaty ports for the transaction or ordinary banking business. Re¬ 
cently however we were informed that theie is a foreign l ank in this city 
with tie ns-me of Russo-Korcan l ank, which is said 10 have obtained many 
privileges from this goveir.mert. If so this Ccuncil of State never knew it. 
It seems to us that the acting-Minister of Foreign / hairs is the only one who 
represents the government in all state affairs. We might even be incom¬ 
petent to perform cur duties but as long as we oca py this po ition we must 
be consulted in order to keep up the appearance of the government. Under 
the present circumstances we cannot remain in our position with any degree 
of selfrespect. We pray Your Majesty to accept our resignations and ap¬ 
point better qualified men in our places." 


To this the emperor replied in substance that it was proper that 
all state offairs should be dbcuss d and determined by the council 
and they therefore had grounds lor resigning, hut lie could not 
accept the resigi ations. The matter was also taken up by the 
large and influential circle represented by the Independence 
Club, who held an indignation mieting and addressed a letter to 
the acting minister who had made the concession demanding an 
explanation. 1 he Minister of Foieign Affairs memorialized the 
Throne praying for dismissal and punishment because thro his 


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1 * 93 .] 

personal incompotency the irregularities in the cession had oc¬ 
curred. The acting minister also memorialized defending himself 
on the ground that he had followed the precedent in the Rose 
Island cession which had been made without consulting the coun¬ 
cil. But in reply to the Independence Club he claimed he had 
consulted the council and they had told him to go ahead tho 
their consent was unnecessary! The emperor refused the resig¬ 
nation of Yi Dochai but accepted that of the active minister but in 
a few days re-appointed the latter “for good reasons.” Then the 
Council of State resigned in a body again and were refused, and 
again they presented it. And thus the matter stood, reduced to 
a dead lock, when Mr. de Speyer raised a new question which 
completely eclipsed the Deer Island matter— i. e. the withdrawal 
of the Russian employes in the Korean government. 

Right about face. We have already noted al>ove that 
•when the Deer Island incident reached its most complicated 
phase M. de Speyer surprised and startled everyone by raising a 
new and most unexpected issue, viz. thewithdravvul from Korea of 
the Russian military instructors and the financial ad viser and his 
staff. On the 7th of March the following despatch wa* received 
at the Kon at) foreign office from the Russian representative: 

Rct.cn*ly I have been i iformed that there exists a deplorable condi¬ 
tion o! affairs in Seoul, many idlers among vour people claiming to be gifted 
politici ms, create disturbance by opposing Russian interests. 1 his state of 
affairs naturally causes great surprise to my Imperial Sovereign, the Km per- 
or of Russia At the request of your Imperial Sovereign and your govern¬ 
ment, the Russian government had sent military instructors to drill the sol¬ 
diers ano to guard the palace, and an adviser for your finance department 
This action on the part of my government plainly indicates Russia’s inten¬ 
tion of helping your country as a neighbor and her disite to strengthen your 
independence. But your government did not seem to appreciate the import¬ 
ance of Russia’s action at the time and now your government freely pre¬ 
vents Russia from accomplishing the advantages ard beneficial results for 
your country which she intended. The present attitude of your government 
is so plain that Russia cannot endure this condition much longer. There¬ 
fore m> emperor has graciously ordered me to report fully to your emperor 
and to inquire of your government definitely whether Korea still desires to be 
benefitted by Russia’s help or not, and if the military instructors and finance 
adviser are not considered necessary by your emperor and your government, 
my government will make so ».e other necessary' arrangement according to 
the circumstances, but your government must maintain your independence 
in the future acc rding to its ability. I am awaiting your reply and hope it 
w 11 be received within twenty-four hours, and I further request your excel¬ 
lency to report to your emperor th<it I desire to obtain an au ience with 
him for the purpose of informing Dim of the instructions I have received 
from my Imperial Sovereign concerning this matter. 

In accordance with the request of M. de Speyer, the? 
audience with 11 is Majesty took phee the following afternoon. 


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[March, 


The matter was immediately teferred to the Council of State 
while the Foreign Minister submitted it to Kim Pyengsi and Cbo 
Pyengsei, two aged Ministers of State who are living in retire¬ 
ment. The reply to M. de Speyer’s twenty-four hoars ultima¬ 
tum was that more time would be necessary in order to enable 
tb* government to to nulate its answer. In the meantime the In¬ 
dependence (dab maintained tbe pressure which it was bringing 
to bear on the whole question of Russian ascendency in Korea. 
Another letter to Min Cboogmeuk was sent in answer to his 
first reply concerning the Deer Island master, urging that it 
was inexpedient and dangerous to cede Korean land to foreign 
powers, and that he should serve notice on Japan that in a 
r rusonable time they n.ust evacuate the land used on Deer 
Island. To this the minister rep'ied that his action ha 1 been un¬ 
avoidable, and that be could not take up the Japanese phase of 
it as be had sent in his resignation to His Majesty. Then the 
leaders ot the Indpendence people took an action which let in 
the light on the reference in the memorial of the Councillors of 
State quoted above in connection with the I) er Island, in 
which they re'er to the Russo-Knrean Bank. The C ub :uklressed 
a communication to the Minister of Finance ms lulus 

The | ublic lias I ecn informed that the finance department drew th e 
deposits of government money from the two local Korean banks and elepos" 
ited it m the Russo* h • rean bank! Besides there is a rumor to the effec* 
that your department has transferred a large sum of money from the treas¬ 
ury vaults to that of the Russian bank. Furthermore the said bank has 
been authorized to collect and disburse all ovemment revenues for the 
finance department. This matter concerns the people and they ought to 
know the facts in the case. If these rumors are true we must consider that 
the Russo-Korean bank is practically our treasury and \our department has 
become a figure-head. We hope this is not true, hut afier hearing such 
rumors we are in the sense of our moral obligations which we owe to the 
government deeply interested and are rnxiou*; to know the exact relation 
and privileges which the said bank has obtained from the government. 

It was thus that the whole line of Russia’s movement in 
Korea, including Deer Island, the control of the imp* rial per¬ 
son, the administration of the national finance, and the official 
relation ol the Russo-Korean bank, was brought under tire. A 
public demoinstiation was then planned, which took the form 
of a mass meeting Thursday, March 10th, at 2 p. m., con Uicted 
cn the most approved popular rights Principles including 
speeches, committees and resolutions- This meeting which num¬ 
bered about 8,000 persons took place in front of the Cotton 
Guild on Main street at the great bell. Mr. Nu Hongsuk, one 
of tbe “merchant princes” of Seoul, presided. Many foreigners 
were present, including Mr.de Speyer ii son e of the members 
of his staff. The assembly was orderly and the addresses mod- 


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EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 


115 


1838 .] 


erate in tone, and the demonstration crystalized in the follow¬ 
ing communication: 

To His Excellency, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Min Ohongmeuk 
AVe the undersigned, aie authorized by the mass meeting of the people o 
Korea to inform Your Excellency that the people desire the government to 
reply to the dispatch of the Russian lepresentative concerning the military 
instructors and finance adviser that they shall be releived from their engage¬ 
ments for the sake of maintaining our independent sovereign rights. \Vt 
pray your Excellency to consider the wishes of the people in deciding this 
question. 

March loth, 2nd year of Kwangmu. 

Yi Seungman ] 

Chang Bunk > Committee. 
Hyen Korgyem) 

Two days later a counter demonstration was attempted by 
pro-Russians including Beveral officers of the Imperial Body 
Guards att be same place where occurred the anti-demonstration. 
It proved however a great failure. The crowd was larue but as 
the speakers failed to appear one of the audience, probably a 
memorialist from the provinces, took the platform and proceeded 
to denounce Mr. Kim Hongyuk, the Russian interpreter. Then 
the managers attempted to suppress him, but the temper of the 
audience was against them, and some bad Korean was indulged 
in. The speaker was finally permitted to finish his speech, and 
another manifestation of the sympathies of the crowd breaking 
out, the Imperial Gu*rd officers retired thro the back windows 
of the guild house. The Korean rovernment had now reached 
its decision to dismiss the Russian instructors and sent the 
following reply to M. de Speyer It is probably the best writ¬ 
ten diplomatic note which had emanated from the Korean 
foreign office since the beginning of foreign relations: 

Reply of the Korean government to the recent dispatch of the Russian 
Minister . 

To his Excellency, M. de Speyer, Charge d’Affairs of Russia: 

Dear Sir: 

I have received your dispatch of the 7th inst. relating to the question 
of employing Russian military instructors and financial adviser. I have 
delayed in replying to your inquiries thro unavoidable causes, for which 
delay I crave your pardon. 

Since the disturbance of 1895 our government has been in the control 
of a deceptable lot wno have rendered the safety of our country extremely 
precarious. Our Imperial Majesty went to your legation two years ago 
where he was safely domiciled and at the same time restored the safety of 
our Imperial house. Our Imperial Majesty appreciates the kindness of your 
government and our people feel grateful for the protection you offered to 
our sovereign, and thro friendly motives, your emperor especially dis¬ 
patched a number of military instructors, and for the benefit of our Finance 
Department, he detailed an expert here. We all fully realize that he did 
these for the purpo-e of strengthening our independence and leading us 
into the path of progress and enlightenment. 


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116 the Korean repository. [March,, 

Your dispatch states t v at “there exists a deplorable condition of affairs 
in c eoul, many idlers among your people claiming to be gifted politicians, 
creating disturbance” &c. * * * * “This slate ot affairs naturally causes 
great surprise to my Imperial Sovereign the Emperor of Russia.” You 
further state “therefore my emperor has graciously ordered me to report 
fully to your emperor and inquire of your government definitely whether 
Korea desires to be benefited by Russia’s help or not and if the military 
instructors and financial adviser are not considered necessary by your em¬ 
peror and your government, my government will make some other neces¬ 
sary arrangements according to circumstances,” &c. 

Your inquiry makes our emperor and our government feel ashamed 
but our government will !>e more careful and studious in the discharge of 
our responsibilities so that there will not be any further need of causing 
anxiety to your sovereign. 

Thro your sovereign’s kind motive and your government's friendly 
disposition our military and financial affairs have made much progress. 
Both the adviser and instructors diligently and conscientiously discharged 
their duties so that the Imperial guard has been trained satisfactorily and 
the financial condition of the country* placed on a systematic basis. These 
arc all due to the unceasing efforts of your government and we will never 
forget your magnanimous spirit. 

Our govc nment has decided that we will continue to manage our 
affairs according to the methods which your officials have so kindly in¬ 
troduced, tho we must place the controlling power of these departments 
in the hands our own countrymen. We will not cmp!o\ any foreign mili¬ 
tary instructors or advisers. This decision was arrived at b\ the unanimous 
wishes of the oh. statesmen, the present government, and the people at 
large, also thro the enlightenment and independent spirit which jour 
government has so diligently inculcated among us 1 am sure that your 
Imperial Sovereign and \out government will be gad to know that our peo¬ 
ple have become so \ rogiessbe and enlightened as to desire to maintain 
their own sovereignty. 

Before we were able to manage our own affairs wc had to solicit the 
assistance of the frienily powers but at the same time we must consider 
the advancement and maintenance of our independent and sovereign rights. 
My Sovereign and the people unanimously desire that the friendly relations 
between the two nations may become still closer and that no misunder¬ 
standing should exist. Your officials have accomplished their work and it 
is convenient for us to have them re’ieved from our service. 1 feel grateful 
to you for suggesting the idea of relieving these officials. 

I am ordered by my Imperial Sovereign to thank your government 
sincerely for what you have done for us, and His Majesty will send an 
envoy to youi capital who will carry’ the personal messages of gratitude from 
our emperor to your sovereign. In the meantime I request your Excellency 
to inform vour government of our decision in this matter, which, as [ have 
stated above, w is the unanimous desire of our sovereign and his people. 

Signed. Min Chongmeuk &c. 

Mr. do. Speyer immediately replied (March, 7th) that the 
Russian government would relieve Korea oi the burden of send¬ 
ing an embassy of thanks; that they congratulated Ko»ea on 
having readied a point where they could dispense with foreign 
instructors, and that lie had given orders to military officers and 
finance adviser to discontinue their services to the Korean gov¬ 
ernment. f J Ins action of Russia in withdrawing her forces from 


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1898.] EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 117 

Korea and permitting this nation to show what she can do in 
the line of independent action has provoked the most favorable 
■comment. It is an action which has pnt- Korea on her mettle. 

Seoul-Chemulpo Railroad. —With the coming of spring 
the Seoul-Chemulpo railroad takes a new impetus. Work was 
begun on the Seoul end the 2nd of March and 800 coolies are 
now at work there. The station yards are completed and the line 
finished from the river to the city. On the other side of the 
river the sections have been connected with one exception and 
there is a clean line from the junction outside Chemulpo to within 
two miles of the river. At the latter place a pumping and hoist¬ 
ing plant has been erected to aid in constructing the bridge, the 
Seoul abutment of which is already under way. One locomotive, 
which is of the side tank pattern with six driving wheels, is al¬ 
ready here and two others on the way. There will be five stations, 
the Chemulpo terminus being on the river bank near the English 
consulate; the Seoul terminal outside the wall close to the Little 
West gate; aud three intermediate stations at Yongsan, Orikol 
and Ptipyon. There will aLs.> probably be other flag statious. 

Chinampo.— We hod the pleasure ot spending a day this 
month at tins new port. Thro the courtesy of Acting Com¬ 
missioner of Custom-, 10. l’eiignet, we were shown over the 
foreign concession which is quite extensive and contains many 
fine sit- s for residences The mud flats in Iront of the present 
settlement, will he reclaimed as trade develops, while the Japan¬ 
ese and Russian governments have already asked for large tracts 
for their respective; consulates and tradespeople. Our impres¬ 
sion of the concession is very favorable. For the first three 
months after the port was opened, that is, from October to 
December lust year, tlie trade returns showed an average of 
one thousand yen a month. 

The Seoul Electric Street Railroad —The American | 
Oriental Construction company has secured the contract_to,con¬ 
struct an electr ic street railway in the capital. It-wilFstart at the 
Seoul terminal of the Seoul-Chemulpo railroad, enter the city thro 
the South gate, pass the Great Bell to the East gate, and thence 
to the late empress’ tomb. It will be six miles in length, single 
track with passing tracks, and operated by the overhead trolly 
system. The power house will be located about midway between 
the terminals aud the plant will be steam power dynamos. The 
cars will be half-open half-closed, to accommodate two classes of 
passengers. 

Seoul Electric Light Company, —A company has been l 
formed among prominent Koreans to light the city with elec- J 
tricity. For this purpose the trolly line plant will be utilized. 


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118 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[March T 


LITERARY DEPARTMENT. 

Korea and Her Neighbors. A Narrative of Travel with an Ac¬ 
count of the Recent Vicissitudes and Present Position of the 
Country. By Isabella Bird Bishop, F. R. G. S. With & 
preface by Sir Walter C. Hilliev, K. C. M. G. With illus¬ 
trations from photographs by the author, and maps, appen¬ 
dixes and index. 8vo. pp. 480; price $2.00 gold. Fleming 
H. Rcvell Company. New York, Chicago, Toronto. 

We had much pleasure in welcoming Mrs. Bishop to Korea 
and we are heartily glad to see this account of her four visits. 
Sir Walter C. Hillier writes a graceful introduction in which he- 
pays a high tribute to the work of the missionaries. Aside from 
the direct work in which they are engaged, he calls attention to 
“th eir utility as explorers and pioneers of commence. They are 
always ready—at least such has been my invariable experience-— 
to place the stores of their local knowledge at the disposal of any 
one, whether merchant, sportsman, or traveller, who applies to 
them for information, and to lend him cheerful assistance in the 
pursu't of his objects.” 

In this delightful volume Mrs. Bishop takes the reader thro 
beaten and unbeaten paths of Korea. In the author’s clear and 
incisive style everything touched upon is illumined. Wherever 
she goes she observes closely, describes accurately, while her con¬ 
clusions are just. In the “Introductory Chapter” Mrs. Bishop- 
gives a fine description of the Korean and ends the paragraph with 
the short sentence: “The Koreans are certainly a handsome race.”" 
She thinks the population is from twelve to thirteen millions. 
Korea’s arts are l ‘nil.” Interesting and graphic is the description 
of her visits to Fusan and Chemulpo. Seoul, however, is too 
much for her. She shrinks from the task of describing and then 
devotes eight pages to what she thought “the foulest city on earth” 
until she saw Peking, and “its smells the most odious till I en¬ 
countered those of Shao-shing!” Yet, strange to say, she thinks 
the nearer the missionary gets to the people and to these smells, oT 
necessity, the more success will he have in his work. The descrip¬ 
tion of the “kur-dong” or royal procession is given with that full¬ 
ness in detail so characteristic of all of Mrs. Bishop’s writings and 
we heartil/ thank her for preserving to us a most graphic and 
correct account of the “one spectacle” of “this singular capital.” - 

A hundred and ten pages are taken up in a most fascinating 
account of her trip up “The River of Gulden Sand,” in the Dia¬ 
mond Mountains and along the coast to Wonsan. The Rev. F. S. 
Miller who accompanied Mrs. Bishop on this trip wrote an in- 


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LITERARY DEPARTMENT. 


119 


1898.] 


leresting series of articles which appeared in our pages in 1896. 
"The second extensive trip into the country was from Seoul to 
Pyeng-yang and up the Tai-dong river. Her remarks of the 
mission work in this city are worthy of careful reading. She 
travelled 350 miles by land aud endured all the hardships insepa¬ 
rable from travel in the interior. The heading of the chapter 
entitled, “Over the An-kil Yung Pass” is tautological. “Yung” 
means “Pass.” 

We do not have space to notice the concluding chapters of 
this noble volume. Suffice it to say that every subject is treated 
fully, fairly, frankly. Nothing seemingly is omitted. Everything 
is brought down to date. Korea had the same effect on Mrs. 
Bishop it has on other travellers and on us who live here. “The 
distaste I felt for the country at first passed into an interest which 
is almost affection and on no previous journey have I made dearer 
and kinder friends, or those from whom I parted more regretfully.” 

“Korea and Her Neighbors” is as far as we know the latest 
and the best book on Korea. It is not a history of the country 
but a “narrative of travel,” and of the recent changes in the land. 
As such it meets a long felt want. We know how much pains the 
author took to secure the latest, fullest, and best information. 
The result is therefore thoroughly satisfactory. The illustrations 
and maps are excellent. Every resident in Korea, and for that 
matter in the Far East, who wants to know the latest and ltest 
about Korea should lose no time in securing this superb volume. 


43 * 1 Introduction to Christianity; by P.S. No. K. R. T. S. 
•1897. 8vo., 8 leaves. White paper, price, 5 poun each, 51 per 100. 

44 S. ?! -i- The Story of Old Chang: by Mrs. A. L. A. Baird. 

K. R. T. S. : 897. 8vo. f 12 leaves, Manilla paper, 4 illustrations: price, 20 
poun each, £4 per 100. 

H sLT&fA The First Epistle of Peter; translated by W. B, 
Scranton. P. E. B. C. of K. 1897. Svo., 4 leaves; white paper. ml 5 .3. 

The .'-econd Epistle of Peter: translated by W. B. Scranton. P. E. 
B.C of K. 1897 8vo., 3 leaves, white paper. Bound together: price, 5 poun 
per copy. $ l P er lo °* 

The Epistle to the Colossians: translated by H. G. 

Underwood. P. E, B. C* of K. 1898 8vo., 4 leaves, white paper; price, 5 
poun each, 5 * P^r 100. 

Introduction to the Bible: from the Chinese by Yi Chang 

Chin. K. R- T. S 1897. l6mo., folder form, white paper; price, one poun 
each one nyang per 100, free with Scripture portions. 

How to Escape Calamity: by S. A. 
Moffett. K. R. T. S. 1897. i6mo, folder; form white paper; price, one 
nyang per 100. 


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120 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[ March.. 


Prayer meeting topics for 1898: by H. G. Under* 
wood. 1898. i6nio. f ii leaves, whitepaper, price. 


ten poun each, $2 pei 100. 

Hymns of Praise: by H. G. Underwood. 4th. ed. published 
by the compiler. 1897. i6rro., 95, 5. leaves; white paper; cloth sewed; 
price, 15«en each. 



K. R. T. S. 18^8, long folio sheet; manilla paper; price, one 


nyang per 100. 




K. R. T. S. 


1S98. Daily' slip cn can-board back, white paper; 


price, 18 sen each. 

It is the way ot the Trilingual Press, tho relatively quiescent through* 
out most of the year, to issue always at the holiday season a quantity o* 
reading-matter for native perusal. In the ten titles enumerated above nearly 
every* held of its wonted issues is entered, and in ih * books and sheets they 
represent we note an excellence of execution in many respects which is- 
Uer’do.K Gratifying The appearance of an illusirated story is an indication 
of progress in a direction where progiess is most desirable. We hope this 
venture may precede many more such upon the part of the author and the 
society lepresented. If, to a Western eye, the pictures are not admirable, 
let us be assured the Oriental sees in them a pleasing quality that escapes us. 
Fiction the world over is the serviceable disguise of moral instruction, and it 
is not hard to believe the same useful office remains for it to till in this land. 
Truthful James may be the embodiment of cant, but he has fulfilled a plain 
duty in the past and may again. At best his more healthy counterpart may 
be expected to in Korea. 

The Epistles now furnished us by the Bible committee mark one 
further step in their service to the community. We are disappointed in not 
seeing the hoped for improvement in type, but we are told it is coming. 
Our persoral view is that the mid-page division of the Peter should be made 
more prominent not by a heavier line, but by clear-spacing above it: and 
that the continue us system of printing w ithout interruption of topic, w hich 
Colossians inaugurates, could be easily applied by the insertion at the divid¬ 
ing-point of a carefully designed Chinese numeral instead of deforming the 
page by the horrible black blotch which appears at the top in the last-men¬ 
tioned book. Not a little practice, and some already with Colossians, has 
convinced us that the eye does not readily carry from bottom to top of a 
long page, even tho the spacing be wide 

The Prayer-meeting Topics issued by the Christian News is a useful liitle 
volume, of a kind we should like to see in the hands of every Christian in 
Korea. The edition of Dr Underwood’s Hymn-Look is in some respects 
the most attractive yet issued. 

The sheet calendar ot the Tract Society will probably be more accepta¬ 
ble generally than that of last year, and the same may be said too of its 
block calendar, which is greatly improved for certain uses by the addition of 
English dates and by the adoption of a selection from the prayer*meeting 
topics as the verse tor Wednesday each week. It is unfortunate these publi¬ 
cations are issued so late in the season, but we bespeak for them notwith¬ 
standing a wide circulatio \ 

Finally we want to repeat in regard to all these publications, frem first 
to last, what we have said before, that the Korean printer and his instructor 
have still to take their first lesson in the cleansing of types. 


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ADVERTISEMENTS. 


THE T iTTPTTj OIE 1 

RET. WILLIAM JAMES HUl, I. D. 

Medical Missionary to the Slums of New York 
Pioneer Missionary to Pyong Yang, Korea 

i • % 

ILLUSTRATED. 

EDITED BY HIS WIFE 

ROSETTA SHERWOOD HALL, M.D. 

INTRODUCTION BY 

WILLARD F. MALLALIEU, D.D. 

Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church . 

This book presents the life and work of a most devoted man, and also 
imparts much interesting information about Korea. 12 mo. 421 pages. May 
be ordered from the Publishers, Eaton a mains, 150 Fifth Ave. T - New 
York C ity. $ 1 .50 gold—^Postpaid. 

Also for sale at the Choiig-no book-store, Soul, price 3 year. 


TIE3ZD3 

JAPAN DAILY ADVERTISER, 

KOBE, JAPAN. 

Published Ever)' Morning, Sundays and Holidays excepted. 
TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. 

Payable in Advance) 

One Month ... $1.00 One Yeah ... $10.00 

Postage Free throughout Japan md Korea. 

THE DAILY ADVERTISER lias a larger circulation than- 
any other daily paper published in the English language in 
Japan, and is therefore without a rival as an advertising medium. 


THE 


JAPAN WEEKLY ADVERTISER, 

KOBE, JAPAN. 

v * 

Consisting of from 24 to J12 pp., Published Every Saturday. 
TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. 


(Payable in Advance) 

Six Months ... §3.00 One Year ... §5.00 

Postage Free Throughout Japan and Korea. 


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VI 


A-PVKBT LSE M E NTS. 


Second Edition. Pkice $2.50 

A KOREAN MANUAL OR 
PHRASE BOOK WITH 
INTRODUCTORY GRAM - 
MAR. 

By James Scott, M A 

On sale at the Metliodist Book-Store, Ckong-No, or from 
thp Rev H. G. Appenzeller, Seoul. 


NEW BOOKS! 


“In Journeying* Oft” Or, The Life and Travelsof Mary 


C. Mind, by Georgiana Bancus, 

1.90 

“Ihe Growth of the Kingdom 

Sidney L. Gulick, 

1.25 

“The Gut of Ja/xin” 

Jh’. 11. LVerv, 

2.75 

“Weaving of CharocU r” 

Volume of sermons 

by 


Geo. M. Mcueham, 

2.00 

“2he Expositor's Bible,” 

Complete Set, 

mvo 

“Cambridge Bibles for Schools 

” kc. t Complete Set, 

50 00 

-‘Britar.nica Encyclopedia,” 

Including American 

. 

Supplement, SOvols. 

75.00 


-Funk and Wagnall’s Standard Dictionary, ba'f Morocco ‘27.50 

Methodist Publishing House 

No. 2. Sure home, Ginza, Tokyo. 


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ADVERTISEMENTS. 


VII 


PUBLICATIONS. OF 

T IIE METHODIST TRACT SOCJITT 

AND 

SUNDAY SGHOOL UNION. 

SEOTJL, KOREA. 

Daihan Hoi Po. 

A Religious Weekly Paper of six pages 
published in the interests of Sunday 
♦School and other Religious Work in 
Korea. 

Price per copy one cent, per -month 
3 cents, per year 36 cents. Postage extra. 

new ed. per copy $.10, 

•**1 W *T - n -04 

„ „ 06 

w|*{ JL -g U „ „ 02 

CUSTODIAN:— 

» 

Rev. H. G. Appenzellbu, 

' i 

Chong-Dong Seoul. 


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ADVERTISEMENTS. 


Till 


F. STMILMD, 

76 MAIN ST. YOKOHAMA JAPAN. . 

CUSTOM HOUSE BROKER. 

SBIPPmr, FORWA RDISG, 

AND 

GENERAL AGENT. 


TOURISTS PURCHASES PACKED AND 
SHIPPED TO Ai.L PARTS. 


C OMMISSIONS from America, Canada, and Europe 
for SILK GOODS, EMBROIDERIES, ARTISTIC 
DRAWN WORK, CLOlSSONNfi WAKE, IVORIES^ 
ART PRODUCTIONS, and JAPANESE GOODS gene¬ 
rally, will be CAREFULLY ATTENDED TO. 


an mu mi eii. 

Dm 8yo. SUPERIOR PAPER. 150 Pages^ 

KOBEANT 

WORDS -A_TTR) PHRASES. 

A Handbook and 

Pocket Dictionary for Visitors and New Arrivals 
in the Country, 

. Containing over 1,000 words and nearly 15,000 Korean Sentenoes- 
(Romanized) with the Ernmoun Script. 

Also with an Appendix containing Information resjx?cting; 
Korean Numerals and the Native Currency. 

Price: ONE DOLLAR [Postage extra]. 

Copies of the above may be obtained from— 

Mr. J. \V. Hodge, Nak Tong, Seoul, orfrona 
Messrs Steward, & Co., Chemulpo. 


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ADVERTISEMENTS. 


METHODIST PUBLISH VC H9l : SE, 

Vo 2 SHICHOME, GINZA, K YOB ASH IK U, TOKYO . 

In Stock All Kinds of Japanese Religious Book:. 

ALSO, a selected line of ENGLISH BOOKS, latest American 
and English publications in Theology and General Literature 

NEW BOOKS ARRIVING 
EVERY MAIL. 

Orders for Periodicals and Books promptly attended to 

Bibles. Bibles. Bibles. 

« 

The finest lot of Oxford and International Bibles ever imp ), e i . 
to Japan just to hand. Prices ranging from one to ten Y 

Tracts. Tracts. Tracts. 

Tliis is one of our special features in Japanese literature. 

ALSO 

STATIONERY OF ALL KINDS AT LOWEST PRICES 
Nagasaki Tortoise-shell at Nagasaki prices. Please givi 
us a call. Examine our goods and prices. 

. We can easily undersell any House in our line in Japan. 


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X 


ADVERTISEMENTS. 


J? * 

THE 

GENERAL CATALOGUE 

-AND- 


BUYERS’ GUIDE 

Issued Semi-Annually By 

MONTGOMERY WARD & GO. 

THE (MEAT MAIL ORDER HOUSE 


CHICAGO, U S. A. 


Is The Mesl Complete In The World- 


It has more than 14,000 illustrations, about 40,000 quota lions of 
prices, weighs 2 x /i pounds, and contains over 800 pages fwery- 
thing you wear or use is listed in it; and the prices quoted place you 
in a positio: to buy frpm us, in Urge or snv.ll quantities, at wholesale 
prices We do not sell this General Catalogue and Buyers' Guide; 
we give it away. To introduce to you our immense facilities .e will 
send free OF charge to you or any other foreign resident our 
"Buyers’ Guide," and o n "Hand Book for Foreign Buyers," 
which gives all information necessary to put you in touch with our 
methods. Send us your address and we'll do the rest 


MONTROMERY WARD A CO., 

Ill to 120 Michigan Ave., Chicago, U. S. A. 


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ADVERTISEMENTS. 


T 


RUSSO-KOPiEAN BAM 


Organized Under Imperial De¬ 
cree of December*' 5th, 1897. 


Capital 500,000 Roubles. 

Head Office, St. Petersburg. 


Interest allowed on current accounts at 2 per cent on 
daily balances over $500. 

Interest allowed on fixed deposits according to ar¬ 
rangement. 

Every description of banking and exchange business 

transacted. 

Eoreign exchange on the principal cities of the world 

bought and sold. 

Special facilities for Russian exchange. 

at < ^ ABltIEL \ Co-Managers in Korea. 
V. M. Koreylin j ° 

Seoul, March 1st, 1898. 


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Ai> VEitriHKMaNIS. 


HI HI REUSED PUBIICMI0I3 

OF THE 

M-k , 

llev. H. G. Underwood, D.D. 


NOW READY. 

fourth Edition of the enlarged and improved. Con¬ 

tains 164 Hymns (including all the popular ones) besides- 
. " V the Lord’s Prayer, the Creed, and the Ten Commandments^ 

On heavy foreign paper, glazed cloth covers, per copy $0.14 

A smaller edition, containing 115 hymns, with music, cloth 
covers, $1.0 each. 

The Three Principles. A translation of Dr. Martin’s 
Three Principles, foreign paper, glazed covers, per 
100, $4.00. 

Questions and Answers to my Foul. A leaflet 
translated from an English tract, third edition, per 
100 .20 

The Lord’s Command, third edition, per 100 .30 

^1 e] »l *1 An Easy Introduction to Christianity. A trans- 
slation of Dr. McCavtte’s well-known tract. In Chinese 
and Korean. Glazed covers. 35 pp. Per 100, $4.00 

me] The Christian Catechism. Translated from 

the Chinese of Mrs. Nevius, 6tb edition. 39 pp. Per 
100, $3.00. 

Catechism of Christian Doctrine. An abridged, 
edition oi the Christian Catechism. 

^^1 ^ 2.) The True Doctrine of Sang 36. 3rd edition. 

Exhortation to Repentance. „ „ 

On Regeneration. 1st edition. 

These are translated from the Chinese of Dr. Griffith John. 

2 cents each. $2 00 per 100- 


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[Vol. y. No. 4.] APRIL, 1898. 

THE 

KOBE AN EBPOSITOEY 

H. G. Appekzeller, 1 

Geo. Heber Jones, } Editors - 


CONTENTS. 


KOREAN FARMS—IMPROVEMENTS, Wm. McE. Dye. 121 


S. F. Moose. 127 
H. B. Humbert 133 


THE BUTCHERS OF KOREA, 
THE MONGOLS IN KOREA, 
THINGS IN GENERAL, 

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT:- 

Korea’s New Responsibility, 
U. S. Gold Mine Concession, 
Eli Barr Landis, M.D., 


OFFICIAL GAZETTE, . 

CORRESPONDENCE, . 

“THAT FAR AWAY LAND OF CHOSEN,” 

LITERARY DEPARTMENT,. 

NOTES AND COMMENTS, . 

Price per •Annum, $3.00 Per Copy, 30c. 

Published at 

THE TRILINGUAL PRESS, 



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advertisements. 


HONGKONG & SHANGHAI 
BANKING CORPORATION. 


PAID UP CAPITAL 
RESERVE FUND 
RESERVE LIABILITY 1 
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Chief Manager — T. JACKSON, Esq. 


Branches and Agencies: 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY 


APRIL, 3 898. 


KOREAN FARMS—IMPROVEMENTS. 

I T >8 interesting to Irani that com, hesid«s h irg a great 
staple tool for both u an and least in An erica, I as new uses 
row in process of develop! i ent. Ft>r w veral jears there has 
beet: serious apprehension an ong naval j ov\ers that the in- 
provements in the resisting jower of steel am or would not keep 
pace with tLe ircreasii g penetrating jowpr of art'lltry missiTf— 
that l o long tin e would elapse belore any am or of Harveyized 
steel that a ship might float would be unable to r<sist the in¬ 
creasing perelrating power of prospective rifled cannon. Eng¬ 
land, Germany, Fiance, Italy, the Uni’ei 1 . : tabs and some other 
naval powers have, tberetore, been experiti entirg to determine 
whether there is not a more huoyant material whch may be 
need to supplant or to supplement the heavy s e. 1 armor. All 
the most promising of these experiments contemplated packing 
the new material between an inner and outer plate of steel 
ahove ai d below the water line. Cellulose has leng oeen regarded 
favorably for this purpoe®. Indeed, in the hattle ot the Yalu, 
the Japanese cruiser, Itsu kitushima, was saved from sinking by 
tire cellulose she held between h?r outer and inner steel plates. 
Germany has been favoring c>rk. France, a ceitain sea grass 
found abundantly Ufon her coasts: and Italy the CHt>o-mne>’tail 
of the marshts. But the Powers are all now following the 
United States and experimenting with the pith oi the cornstalk, 
which promises, if we r ad our home papers rightly, to be the 
ideal armor; which, altho it d« es not materially resist the 
penetrating shot, so quickly closes the avenues they make that 
no water can enter the punctnred vessel. So confident are the 
naval authorities there that they have discovered the long sought 
for material that two cruisers now upon the stocks and future 
built vessels are to have that armor. In preparing the pith for 


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122 


TI1E KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[April, 


use the outer coating of the stalk, the husks, and leaves are 
ground into a very nutritious meal and sold as food for animals 
And the pith itself is separated into a coarser and finer variety— 
the former being the one used for armor and the latter for paper. 
Anl, it is said that the paper made oat of that is superior to 
Asiatic paper—superior to the so-called rice paper of China. 

• This knowledge may be of great utility to any enterprising Ko¬ 
reans who are such adepts in making strong paper. 

After this digression about corn permit me to resume the 
general subject. and say thfit where rice cannot be raised the 
land would yield the farmers more revenue wore some such 
crops as those named above, and certain roots, raised and fed 
in the dairy and to fattening stock, than by the method now 
pursued. That is: to dairy and beef cattle, sheep (and goats) 
and swine. Althb there are no dairies in the peninsula 
there are good reasons why there should he. The Korean far¬ 
mer may make his own calculation when informed tlmt the 
best foreign cows have been known to produce the daily aver¬ 
age of one and a half pounds of butter the year round. The aver¬ 
age among good dairy cows, well cared for, is at least one-half 
of that, namely three quarters of a pound ; and imported-—not 
fresh—blitter in the East retails to the foreigners in the ports, 
cities, and aboard vessels, at about seventy, even eighty cents 
per pound. This, to say nothing of the demand foif milk at 
twelve and fourteen cents a quart. 

Beef cattle are raised at a profit in the,United States when 
they command only four cents per pound in the market. Here 
the crews of the naval and merchant vessels calling it the ports, 
and'all foreigners in the cities' would, no doubt, gladly pay for 
good beef, even the exorbitant price of fourteen cents per pound 
row paid for bull beef. •> 

Swine of the improved; breeds, if farrowed in early spring, 
will, when, from six to ten months old under good care, weigh . 
from two to.three hundred pounds, even more, which fact rnakes 
the f>ork business a profitable one even at the seemingly starva¬ 
tion price of three and a quarter Cents a pound, instead of at . 
ten cents which the Korean farmer getB for his <liminuti,ye peer 
cary. This last named breed even at ten cents pgr poupd js, 
unprofitable, comparatively so at least, for the food tfiat one of,, 
those little animals consumes in preparing itself for a, remun¬ 
erative market, would fatten a western hog, of the same age . 
into a slp’ek, wealth producing animal. , , , ■ : 

And sheep would be another vain able annual for the Jvp- . 
rean farmer,to raise, especially near the ports and cities, not¬ 
withstanding,one hears on every hand and sqp;etime§, sees,in 

■ ■ ; ■ ., ■ ..'I'- 

‘ ' . r • ' , * 1 t • * ' 


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KOREAN FARMS—IMPROVEMENTS. 


l‘J3 


1898] 

print, that sheep cannot be raised, cannot live in Korea. It is 
not necessary h inquire into the origin of this mistaken idea, yet, 
of the half dozen or more persons f have heard make the re¬ 
mark they one and all averred they were only repeating what 
they had heard. Whether or not sheep Can be profitably raised 
or raised at all, in Jr pan 1 upon bamboo prass, as one frequently 
heats discuss d there.it does not follow that nature’s rule there 
applies here And we have seen them living here from year to 
year under conditions of ill-treatment which ! venture to assert 
would kill them almost anywhere else. At diveis places has 
this b- en seen in tne valley of toe Han. Indeed, were there 
any grass in any part of the peninsula, where it is desirable to 
raise sheep, unsuitable for their growth and injurious to their 
health, it should he extirpated and a better kind substituted. 
1 bis could he done in one or ,wo year’s time. It is a tact, how¬ 
ever, that sheep aie not apt to thrive here or elsewhere under 
prolonged ill-treatment. They will not thrive on the coarser 
grasses of the marshes, which was the principal food of the sheep 
on His Majesty’s farm out side the East gate—the grain intended 
for them having been habitually stolen. They, like horses, are 
fond of rhe sweet herbage of ti e hills. The marshes produce 
that well know.i disease, "foot-rot;” whereas the rocks and 
hil's " eep the feet in healthy condition. It is true that the con¬ 
tinuous rains of summer are not calculated to promote health in 
sheep : f no provision is made to protect the o from the raiu. 
If once wet, their heavy fleeces aie a long while in drying, dur- 
irg which time the sheep take cold, which results in “scab” and 
a running at the nose like distemppr. '! lie best si eep, those with 
the heaviest fleeces, suffer most. Ttiey should have shelter 
which they themselves will always seek on an approaching rain 
or storm 

Again, about tne soil. When it is not very sandy, occa¬ 
sional ditches, blind or open, from tim e and a half to four feet 
deep may be made lo aid in draining and drying the land. And 
plowing it north and south into narrow ridges, as was done be¬ 
fore the days of Vug,I and Cato, and is sometimes done hen , 
aids materially in carrying oft tt;e surface, water and pi event¬ 
ing the ciop wine i is grow ing upon the ridges from becoming 
water soaked, if net, as sometimes happens, actually drowned. 

If the land subject to overflow, and now in question, should 
be clayey, or should have : clayey subsoil h mg near the surface, 
and especially if the clayey strata should he level, there would 
be more difficulty in maintaining the land in a productive condi¬ 
tion. Such crops as are not injured by excessive moisture might 
he cultivated on this land most advantageously. But for geueral 


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124 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[.Apiil, 

farming purposes the excess of water n ust be got rid of. On 
account of the clay in the soil the latter is late in drying into a 
condition for early planting—indeed, in the case cf the level 
■ut strata of clay, ins ead ol having both perc lation and evapor¬ 
ation to aid in drying the land, one must rely aim st entirely 
upon evaporation to accomplish it; ami this goes on so veiy 
slowly a few inches under the surlace that, because of the fre¬ 
quent heavy rains, the land may not be tillable at any time of 
the year It is an absolute necessity, therefor-', that tl is land 
be ditchi d, drained, and dried; and that *be ditches he dug thro 
the st lata of clay lo dram the 1 nd alter soaking rains, to keep 
the growing crop in a healthy condition, or to get the land into 
proper conditi >n for planting. 

ll the strata should have an inclination it may not he nec¬ 
essary f"r the ditches to go thro it, especially it there is 
deep suhs-iil ploughing and ridging, which is more necessary 
than in sandy soil. If this clayey land then is propelly drained 
the crops which may thrive upon it a e not very diffeient Iroiu 
those successfully grown upon the sand v soil just discissed. I.et 
us examine. Korean plains or vallevs, whether clavny 01 Bandv, 
mostly grow up from disintegiated granite. Th“ iiinip elements 
of this rock the geologist names quartz, lei.ispar and mica. T -e 
chemist calls quartz '•i'ica, which is the sand ot the la-nan— 
the farmer: a* d the c lemist finds boll) Udspar and n ica to 
contain in major part siii a, alumina" . and potassium (or other 
alkili). thro their chemical combinations are diffeiuii in the 
tw o rocks. 

During the disintegration, water containing carbonic acid may 
wash away most of the potash as carbonate, and the light silicate 
of alumina by the same agency, be separated from the quartz, 
floated off and again, in still water, be dcpxwitcd as clay, for that 
is what it is, and the quartz or sand remain in Ritu. These sub¬ 
stances are not generally thus entirely separated from one another; 
but the one predominating gives name to the mixture—as sandy, 
clayey, etc. Now wheat is a rank feeder upx)n silica, and the 
alkalies, especially pxitash, and would do best upx>n the silicious or 
sandy soil, if any deficiency of pxitash therein were supplied to it 
by wood ashes or otherwise. Whereas barley which also forages 
upon silica, needs lime as a dressing to make its food more digest- 
able. Clover will grow upxin either a sandy or clayey soil if there 
is a dressing of lime. But turnip® do better in clay—espiecially 
in a loam, containing plenty of the alkalies and lune. 

Should the submerged plain or valley be narrow and enclosed 
by hills or mountains, the problem would be most interesting and 
in some parts more difficult, whatever may be the soil. Tlie plain. 


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KOREAN FARMS—IMPROVEMENTS. 


125 


1898.] 

under such conditions, as is that just this side of Oriool, has two 
sources of water which may cause its overflow; the Han with its 
back water, and the hills which shed the rains iuto the valleys 
below. To get rid of the water from either source is an interest¬ 
ing problem. To get rid of the water from both sources, when 
they come together, as they often do during the rainy season, is a 
problem before which the ordinary Korean farmer well may 
falter and stand dismayed—not because of such poverty in lan¬ 
guage as to be unable to do wordy justice in the premises when 
his crops are unexpectedly flooded, but because of poverty of 
mental aud material resources. The back water flood cannot be 
economically prevented, unless there should be only one or two 
narrow ingresses for water to the valley, which may be closed as 
is the case for one small valley one sees near aud en route to OricuL 
But as already indicated its disasterous or deleterious influences 
upon the cro|»s and soil may be modified. 

And the water shed by the surrounding hills may generally 
be prevented from overflowing the land by leading it off in ditdies 
at their liases. This, as one w ho has had exjierience in such matters 
can readily see, may be accomplished even upon the Oricol plais 
which the supineness of the government will not permitto be culti¬ 
vated, or at least polluted bv the touch of the intelligent foreigner. 
When these ditches have been dug, one has only the other problem 
to deal w'ith, and this has already been discussed. To provide 
against the unexpected contingency that water from the hills may 
sometimes swell the overflow from the Han (let us say), ditches, 
besides the usual shallow ones, ditches deep and broad with ocrar- 
sional bridges, should divide the plain, to carry away all surplus¬ 
age of water, whether upon the surface or inherent in the soil, as 
soon as the flood begins to subside Indeed, altho the farmer 
must provide against the flooding of his land from the hills, it 
may be done so economically in Korea, that the western farmer 
under like circumstances would look upon the hills as a most 
advantageous part of his farm, for there he would house his family 
and stock out of reach of the highest floods, protect proven*ler and 
provide pasture for his herds, which, when the water subside!* 
may resume their ranging in the valley below. And the orchard 
and garden would be upon the slopes of the hills, for they cannot 
endure the long freshets that some of the grains and grasses 
alluded to above can endure seemingly without injury. If it is 
low lying land which is always marshy, tho never flooded, eug- 



which two may be specially noticed. A level substrata holding 
the rains because of their prevalence when evaporation is great* 


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120. THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. [April, 

holds the water there other seasons because there is not much evapor¬ 
ation. If the strata is near the surface little pools of surface 
water may indicate the fact. If it is not, only a moist surface, 
maintaincu by capillary attraction, will be noticed. And sufficient 
has already been said to lead the intelligent farmer into the adop¬ 
tion of effective measures for the draining of his land in either of 
these cases. The other cause of the marshy condition of the soil 
to be specially noticed, is springs in surrounding hills or the prox¬ 
imity of such hills. One who lives near the base of a hill, soon 
learns that in the spring of the year and long after heavy rains, 
when the soil of the country generally is dry, water continues 
to ooze out of the ground at the base of the hill. The ordinary 
ditching and draining may answer, but besides that a ditch 
at the base of the hill to carry off its sliedded water before it 
reaehe* the land would be a most, effective auxiliary. 

If all these difficulties subsist together; that is, if the land is 
low and level with an impervious substrata, which is not only 
submerged bv water overflowing a neighboring river’s banks and 
water shed from enclosing hills, but is kept marshy at other sea¬ 
sons by the hidden springs of the hills near by, enough has already 
been suggested in the foregoing pages to show that the efforts of 
Koreans to maintain in a tillable condition a piece of land sim¬ 
ilarly situated near a village on the edge of the plain approaching 
Oricol are rendered nugatory because of the fact that there was 
more brawn than brain in the work. This remark also applies 
to the government farm outside the East gate. * * * 

Wm. McE. Dye. 


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THE BUTCHERS OF KOREA. 


1J7 


1898 ] 


THE BUTCHERS OF KOREA. 

1 asked Mr. Piik to writb tHe story of the butchers’ woes ami a 
brief history of the" step? by wlr'ch they have ban elevated 
to the common level of Korean mankind. The following is 
a translation of his papet: 

“Three years ago in the fourth' month the butchers living'in 
Koan Cha Kol, City ...f Seoul, Empire of Tai Ilan, sent to (he 
Minister of the Home Department a statement of their (roubles 
and a petition for redress of grievances. This petition was as 
follows: ‘We your humble servants have for offi odd years fol¬ 
lowed the business of slaughtering animals as a means of liveli¬ 
hood. Altho we have all this time been faithful in attending to 
the work required of us by the government in connection with 
the great annual sacrifices, all of which labor has been i>erformed 
gratuitously and with a ready mind, yet wo have been treated as 
the lowest of the seven despised rallies in that, while the other 
despised classes have all been allowed to wear the large sleeves, 
the hat, the mangen (a band used to keep the topknot in place) 
we, ycur humble servants,' only, are not allowed to do so. We 
receive contempt from all men, and moreover, the underlings 
from every magistracy in every province and district come ire-, 
quently, demand money, and take it away. If we refuse .to give 
it they strike us in the face, tear our clothes, and our-o us with 
frightful words. Also they arrest us and force us to do a great, 
deal of work for which we receive not one cash in payment, 
but only mocking, reviling works. And what is more, rrrujmni 
boys t/ires feel high ice receive loir talk. A’here in this world 
can there be found such a sorrowful, pitiable company whose, 
grievances and troubles are so many that they cannot be erntm-. 

( rated? While the Quang tai (buir<ion) who r:ink=* even 

lower than your humble servants wears the hat, man^en, and 

sash, and dresses like other men, we .alone, your humble .-ervanls, 

are not allowed to dp so, and therefore sorrow, tills our minds, 

and penetrates even to. our very bones-, On bended knee we 

have beard that your excellency i* now renourein^ the former 
• * 


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128 THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. [April, 

opfienve customs and establishing new laws, and since this is 
what your humble servants have hoped and longrd for day and 
sight, we now, casting away fear, venture to come boldly before 
your excellency and on bended knee beg y<-ur excellency to issue 
an especial decree making it known in every province and mag¬ 
istracy that the petition of your humble servants is accepted, and 
that henceforth your humble servants shall be allowed to wear 
the hat and mangen, ai>H that the servants of the magistrates are 
forbidden from this time forth to maltreat us, your humble 
servants . 7 The reply sent back was as follows. 4 Your desire is 
granted. Wear the hat and mangen, dress like oilier men, and 
be on common level. Take heed, however, lest you have only 
the appearance of being like others, and consider carefully vour 
inward prosjierity. If the servants at the magistracies come to 
oppress you, be careful—do not quarrel with lliem but show them 
this decree?’ Also in this same year in the eleventh mouth an¬ 
other petition was sent in to the Home Department as follows: 
The new law has been introduced into every province and mag¬ 
istracy except the Province of Kang-won where there is trouble 
everywhere on account of the Tong Haks. Since we have not 
keen able up to this time to wear the bat and mangen, and since 
our troubles from the underlings remain just as before, your 
humble servants petition that orders be issued from Choong Chun 
(the seat of the guverner in Kang Won province) to every ma¬ 
gistracy that the new law be observed a« in the other provinces.’ 
The reply was ‘iince we have already issued the oeciee do not 
trouble us any further?’ Also one year later in the third month 
we petitioned again as follows: ‘Altho all the other low class 
people are registered in the national records, we, your humble 
servants ouly, are not included in the census, so that altho 
sauce we are allowed to wear the hat and mangeu there is an ap¬ 
pearance of our being on the common level it is not 90 in reality. 
We pray that your humble servants may be also included in the 
national registration.’ The answer was ‘Since nil aie alike 
aubj* cts how can your request be refused, and your grievance be 
left unrvmoved?’ Also since that time we have bad many 
troubles being asked to work without pay, and the underlings 
have troubled us as before. We have suit in a number of peti¬ 
tions which have been favorably answered, and still up to the 
present time there are many places where onr troubles remain 
Just as before.” Mr. Pak adds in a postscript “If H is Majesty, 
the Kmperor, only knew of these grievances of several thousands 
mf His faithful subjects we aie sure they would be remedied but 
since there is no one to speak to him for us we are the more 
wirarfnL” 


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THE BUTCHERS OF KOREA. 


121) 


1898.] 

The custom of regarding butchers as the lowest of mankind, 
seems to have originated as a deduction irom the teachings of 
Confucius nnd his disciples. Confucius said, “Since men cannot 
bear to listen to the dying cries or animals all the noble and wise 
agree that the slaughter-house should be far from the dwellings 
of men.” Mongtze. a disciple who flourished about 475 B.C., 
went to call on King Cha-Son newly come to the throne, who 
asked if he would do well the duties of the kingly office. Mongtze 
replied yes. “Why do you say yes?” inquired the king. “When 
you saw a man going by yesterday leading an ox did you not ask 
him what he was going to do with the ox?” “Yes.” “When 
he replied that tlu- ox was to be slaughtered and the hide used 
for making drums why did you tell him not to kill that ox but 
to go away somewhere and kill some other animal instead?” 
The king replied “I don’t know why I told him so.” 44 Well,” 
said Mongtze, “it was because you could not bear the thought of 
killing this ox which your majesty had seen, and since it is this 
mind which befits a king—desiring life for all, even for the ani¬ 
mals—therefore I replied that you would well perform the duties 
of the kingly office.” The deduction from these sayings of the 
sages is that since noble minded men of all ages cannot bear the 
thought of taking life and cannot listen to the dying cries of ani¬ 
mals surely the butchers who make killing their daily business 
must be the lowest of mankind. 

Whang Hui the first Prime Minister * under the present 
dynasty some 506 years ago is said to have firmly established as 
a national custom the degradation of the seven classes which are 

as follows: 1. The p’<> chul or servants of the sheriff 

who beat men, etc. 2. The Koang tai or buffoon — 

the traveling singer. 3. The pak cluing, or butchers, 

4. The Kori cluing or maker of baskets. “P cling 

bark from trees is so much like skinning animals that these 

‘occupations rank together.” 5. The mutang “T“ ^ or women 
sorcerers—all loose characters. 6. Thekeisangs or danc¬ 

ing girls, also loose characters who are found in all the principal 
cities and are supported by the government—and, 7. the k:it pat 

chi or makers of leather shoes, who, because they handle 

the skins of slaughtered animals are classed with the butchers 
There are five great animal sacrifices. One for each season of the 

* Wha g Hui was not thr tir>t Prime Minister of tie present dynasty, 
hut the twenty-third. He held office about the end of reign of the great 
reformer, Se-jong; A.D. 1419-1450 — | Editor k. R.J 


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rear and one s]>eoial sacrifice at the end of the year. At each o ^ 
these threat sacrifice's quite a number of animals are slaughtered, 
some 70 to 90 head of oxen, sheep, and pigs. Besides these, 
sacrifices to the ancestral shades are offered twice per month when 
about 10 heau of swine ar. j killed; sacrifices are offered to 
the household gods of the palace several times a month, a 
representative of the king attending. Sacrifices are also offered 
monthly to Kuan Kong, the Chinese general, who is said to have 
come in a cloud some 300 years ago and rained arrows upon the 
Japanese, thus enabling the Koreans to win the victory. His 
image i-* found in the large temples outside the south and east 
gates where even (he king bows and sacrifices, and Koan Kong is 
considered the greatest among the gods next to Hananim. Special 
sacrifices arc* frequent—twice per year to Confucius, and there are 
sacrifices to Hananim, “The honorable Heavens,” accompanied 
by prayer for rain, or for cessation of rain, or for freezing 
weather, when the king sends some nobleman as his representa¬ 
tive who prays from a written form. At all these sacrifices ani¬ 
mals are slaughtered, and it will be readily seen that the slaugh¬ 
tering of all these animals is no light task. This work at the 
capital besides similar work at the various magistracies through¬ 
out the country was done entirely by the butchers without pay. 

lu return for this the butchers were exempt from taxation 
and since they were not taxed their names were not enrolled on 
the national records. 

In the recital of their woes the butchers come to the climax 
in this expression. “It were much easier to endure the ignominy 
of going Jmtless, and mangenless but no amount of money loss 
could be compared to the grievous trial of being addressed in low 
talk by ‘boys.’ ” A bov in Korea is any one unmarried. Boys never 
wear hats and may be always distinguished by their hair which is 
worn in a plait hanging down the back. When married tlie hair 
is put up in a knot on top (»f the head, the hat is put on, and the 
Ikiv becomes a man. Men always use low talk in speaking to 
boys who must use the highest forms in reply. I have seen boys 
slapjxxl in the face and‘severely punished for addressing a man in 
middle form. It is an offence never tolerated except in the case 
of the butchers, where the usual custom of the boys using the 
honorifies as to his superior and the man replying in low talk is 
reversed. Boys of all other ranks address men of the butcher 
class in low talk as their inferiors and the butcher, married man 
tho lie be, must acknowledge his inferiority by replying in high 
talk. This it was above all else that msule sorrow penetrate 
“even to the bones” of the Korean butchers. But this paper 
would be incomplete without some reference to the iufiueuce of 


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thi; butcueus of kouka. 


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Cliristianity in the elevation ut tlie butchers. A book sold on 
the street found its way to the home of Mr. Piik, a butcher who 
was thus led to put his boy Pong Choolie into the Christian day 
school at Kou-Diing-kol. The boy asked for oilier books for 
his rather, who thus read a number of Christian books. Bv and 
by Mr. Piik was taken seriously sick with typhus fever when Dr. 
Avison went frequently to see him. This seems to have made 
quite an impression on him as he could not understand why the 
king’s phyician should condescend to call ou a butcher. After 
recovery he yielded to Pong Choolie’s repeated requests and ac¬ 
companied him to church. The trouble that immediately arose 
in this little church I will mentixi as an illustration of the way 
the butchers are despised. The custom is so deeply rooted in the 
Korean mind that even those who know something of the gos[x*l 
find it difficult to overcome. At that time the majority of the 
members of this little church were of the genteel class called 
Yang-bans. One Sunday shortly after Mr. Piik began coining 
to church most of these members were conspicuous by their absence. 
When the missionary enquired of one member as to the «uuse 
he replie !: “A very serious trouble has come to our church and 
you might as well know it. When we came here it was to wor¬ 
ship God and to believe in our Savior. We have east away a 
great deal of Korean custom and have allowed working men and 
those much below us in rank to sit down together with us. There 
is however, a little bit of Korean custom still remaining and to 
have a butcher come here and sit down with us is a little more 
than we can bear. We do not intend,” he said, “to forsake* 
Christ. Whether we will build another church or meet in some 
ones sariing I don’t know but we cannot con tin e dins.” Mr. 
Piik was a very earnest man and soon there were a half dozen 
butchers in the church. Then one day he asked the missionary 
if it would not be worth while to send in a petition to the govern¬ 
ment. This was done as above related. The butchers prayed 
much for a favorable reply. One copy of the petition was sent 
to Count Inoiiye, the Japanese Minister, who had great influence at 
that time, lleagmd to support the measure and this encoiuaged 
the butchers. The joy of the negroes on hearing of President 
Lincoln’s Emancipation Pn clamation was not greater than that 
of tlie comm butchers when the deem* went forth that thev 
should be allowed to wear hats. An some instanns they wore so 
elated that they wore their hats day and night. As I have *aid 
before the hat is, as it were, a badge of manhood. Those who 
wear hats are to be addressed in man talk. In many places the 
posters notifying the people of the new law were rot put up, and 
where they were the public sentiment in favor of the ancient 


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custom was so strong in many instances that the butchers did not 
dare to put on their hats. Mr. Pak, who was made the head of 
the butchers guild, and several Christian butcners went alxiut 
encouraging t. eir brethren and thus assisted them in donning 
th<ur hats. Everywhere they went thev scattered Christian 
books attributing the praise to G< d for this their great deliver¬ 
ance. At one of these butcher meetings at the city of Suvv jn 
fifty butchers were present. Mr. Pak, m addressi.ogt hem, told 
ot his own experiences and said that he had often felt a desire to 
run awav to so" e other country where he could bold up his 
head and he a man like others. In omparing their trials to 
those of the Israelites in Egypt he said, “The Israelites of 
course had no such oppression as we have had to endure, and 
still they had a prettv hard time and it was only the almighty 
power of God t h at delivered them. It is that same God who 
has now delivered us and there is not one cash worth of help to 
be looked for anywhere else hut in Him.” Of course it is not 
every butcher that repents and still it is only scriptural to ex¬ 
pect them to receive the gcspel more readily than many others 
lor, “Things that are despised hath God chosen.” Mr. Pak 
has given me a list of the believing butchers in this province 
who number with their families 132 souls. 

Among the Christian hutchers are several who have be¬ 
come successful teachers of others. I can mention several who 
have been instrumental in the formation of churches in their 
respective localities. One butcher has two wives both of whom 
have children. Theso have professed conversion and the 
husband upon taking a vow in their presence to regard number 
two as his “sister,” providing for her support, and to live 
henceforth only with number one, who had been for some time 
discarded, the whole family was received into the church. In 
my short missionary experience this is the only instance ol a 
polygamist who has been thus soundlv converted. 

S. F. Moore. 


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THE MONGOLS IN KOREA. 

T he condition of affairs in the Korean peninsula at ti e open¬ 
ing of the thirteenth century may be summed up as 1b.- 
lows. The Koryo dynasty which had been founded about 
three centuries befoie, had already developed those characteris¬ 
tics which finally led to her downfall Buddhism had honey¬ 
combed the state; the monks, the civil officials and the military 
officials formed three distinct factions, each bidding for the con¬ 
trol of the government Buddhism was a unit, the other two 
factions were not units; the result was that whichever faction 
held the reins cf government temporarily the monks sooner or 
later won back into power. A mild fe udalism existed T. Koryo, 
each of the hi^h officials ke -ping about his person a strong guard. 
One of the results of this was that the king did very little of 
the actual ruling of the land. Whichever party was m power 
its leader had the same authority as was exercised by the >ho- 
gun in Japan, but somewhat less in degne. It is not inexact, 
therefore, to say that at the beginning of the tliii Uenth "entury, 
or more exactly the year 120(1, A. 1\, King Heui-jong was tne 
figurehead and Gen. Choi Jung heuu, the leader of the n il‘- 
tary faction, was the actual ruler. 

The Kin dynastv bad occupied the throne of China for 
nearly a century and the relations of Koryo with the Kin Em¬ 
perors was fairly intimate. The Japanese had not as yet begun 
in earnest that series of piratical raids upon the shores of Koryo 
which disfigured the declining years of the dynasty. The popu¬ 
lation of the land at that time was approximately three millions, 
but rather less than more. From a military point of view she 
was in poor condition, but when pushtd to the bitter issue of 
war'she could put 200,000 men into the field. She suffered then, 
as Korea hac always suffered, from interior leadership. 

As is w 11 known, the Mongol power bad its inception m 
one of that congeries of tribes known collectively as the Nu-chen 
Tartars. These latter held the same relation to the Kin dynasty 
that Manchuria holds to the present ruling house in China. So 


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at the beginning of the thirteenth century we find Koryo r c- 
cupying the peninsula and bounded on the north, as now. by 
the Yalu River. Beyond that river lay the Nu-cheu Tartars 
and the remnant of the Kitan Tartars who had been conquered 
nearly a century before by the Kin power. 

Among the northern Nu-chen Tartars, who are known to 
Koreans as Yo-jin, arose the great chieftain Y r usukai whom the 
Koreans call Ya-sok-ha. He together with (Keui Ok-on) con¬ 
quered forty of the northern tribe- in quick succession. His son 
was the great Te much in or Genghis Khan, called by the Koreans 
Chul-mok chin. It was in 1200, the second year of King Reui- 
joug of Koryo, that the great conqueror proclaimed himself em¬ 
peror and named his empire Mong. 

It was not however lill six years later, 1212, that Kor'o 
wa* brought into direct contact with the Mongol power. In 
that year a Koryo envoy to the Kin court was intercepted by 
Mongol videttes, who bad by this time worked their way south¬ 
ward to a point which commanded the road between Koryo and 
the Kin capital. The dead body was recovered by the Kin 
people and sent back to Song-do, the capital of Koryo. In this 
same year the king attempted the life of the “Shogun’’ but 
failed, and the latter in retaliation promptly banished the king 
to Kang-wba and put Kang-jong on the throne He in turn 
was succeeded tw o years later by King Ko-jong whose reign was 
destined to be the longest an 1 by far the most eventful of the 
whole dynasty, for it lasted foity-five years and beheld the great 
Mongol invasion. 

In this year of King Ko-jor.g's accession, 1214, the Kin 
power was now trembling unchr the Mongol onslaught and 
envoys came in haste from China demanding aid from Koryo 
in the shape of rice and horses. The frequent dynastic changes 
in China had made Koryo very careful as to whrm she helped 
especially when there was a cliance of a change ot suzerain, bo 
row she refused the demand but secretly 1< t the envoys buy 
what they wanted. 

A dark cloud now’ hung on Koryo’s northern border. It was 
not as yet the Mongols but the remnant of the Kitan forces who, 
unable to withstand the northern hordes, were retreating south¬ 
ward into Koryo territory. At first tl c royal forces wire able 
to hold them in check, hut as they came in ever increasing 
numbers they broke like waves over the Koryo barriers and were 
soon ravaging the province of Whang-hai, with their headquar¬ 
ters at Pyeng-yang. There were large Military possibilities in 
Koryo but they had not been properly developed and at this 
time the king found himself practically without an army. Civil- 


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THE MONG )LS IN KOREA. 


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urns and monks were pressed into the service, but being raw 
recruits they were of no avail. They were cut down like stub¬ 
ble and Whang-ju fell into lvitan Hands. The startle g news 
reached Song-do that the enemy were only eighty h from the 
capital. Consternation reigned in the city and in a people armed 
themselves with swords or clubs and manned the wails, deter¬ 
mined to sell their lives as dearly as possible. 

To this outward danger was added the terror of civil strife, 
for the monks took this inopportune time to attack the old 
General Choi, the “Shogun,” who still ruled with a high hand. 
But be could not be taken off his guard, and, turning upon his 
would-be assassins, lie cut down three hundred of them. He 
then instituted an inquisition in which eight hundred more of 
the conspirators were killed. 

Such was the desperate position of Koryo; a powerful 
enemy d the door, the south rife with rebellion, in the capital 
itself “mountains ol dead and rivers of blood,” according to the 
chroniclers. Victorious Kitan came sweeping down on Song-do, 
hut hearing that the town was defended bv desperate men they 
made a detour, appearing next at the Im-jin River hall way be¬ 
tween Song-Jo and the present capital. By this time however 
the Koryo generals had succeeded in collecting a considerable 
lorce and on the banks of the Im-jin they scored asigual victorv r 
which sent the enemy scurrying hack northward as far as Myo» 
hyang Mountain, the ancient Ta-bak. 

Another cause of anxiety now appealed in the shape of 
certain Xu-chen allies of the Mongols who crossed the Yalu and 
took Eui-ju. But Koryo was now wide awake and threw upon 
them a well equipped lorce which destroyed rive hundred of 
their number and drove the remaining three hundred back 
across the river. The king built a place of retreat at Pa- 
gak San east of Song-do for he had been tol l by the monks 
that if he did so he would be able to hold the north in check. 

Myuu-gu-ha, chief of one of the East Xu-cheti trioes, being 
defeated by the Mongols, came in his Hight toward the Yalu 
hut was captured there by the Koryo general, Chum* Jong-su, 
who s~mt i.im captive to the Mongol headquarters. This pleased 
the Mongols hugelv and they declared “We must make a 
treat* of friendsaip.” Mongols, at war with the remnant of the 
Kitans. had driven the n south into Koryo hut at first had not 
puisued them further than the Yalu. However an army 
of 10,000 Mongols under Generals T^ap-cbin and Ch’al-ia crossed 
that river in pursuit. They were joined by Nu-chen allies 
to the number of 20,000 under Gen. Wan-an Ja-yun. As 
these allied forces were marching upon the doomed remnant of 


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Kitan which lay 50,000 strong at Kang-dong a great snow¬ 
storm came on and provisions ran low. Koryo was ordered to 
supply the deficiency, which she did to the extent ot l.OOu bags 
ot rice. This still more helped her into the good gra :es of the 
Mongols, hut we are told that the Koryo people could hardly 
endure the semi-savage manners of the Mongol troops and were 
unable to conceal their aversion. This the Mongols naturally 
resented. 

Kang-dong fell after a short siege, the leaders of the con¬ 
quered army were beheaded, and the whole north was nut under 
the control of Koryo. The Mongol envoy who was despatched 
to Song-do, acted in the most unconciliatory manner and did 
much to turn the conit from its previous purpose to make 
friends with the Mongols. The Mongol demand for an ex¬ 
change ot envo\ s was worded in so offensive a way that it seeme l 
almost, as if it were intended to stir up war. But the time had 
not yet come. 

The Mongols were not to be content with an empty friend¬ 
ship. In 1221 they sent a demand for tribute consisting of 
10,001) pounds of cotton, 3,000 rolls of fine silk, 2,000 pieces of 
gauze, 10d,00i > sheets of paper of the largest size. These de¬ 
mands were acceded to only in small part. 

It was becoming evident that a general invasion by the 
Mongols was to he expected at any time, so in the lol owing 
year, 1222, a wall was built from Wi-ju to Wha-ju in the mar¬ 
velously short, space of forty days which show's not only what 
power Koryo could exert when necessity demanded but how 
necessary this work seemed. 

The year 1223 marks the beginning of that long series of 
Japanese depredations which were destined to continue even 
until tne close of the dynasty, two centuries later 

The seeming friendship between Koryo and the Mongol 
power was rudely broken in 1225 and through no fault o' 
Koryo. A Mongol envoy on his way back to China was set 
upon by robbers and was killed a> d robbed. All friendly rei.i 
tions were thus terminated and another step was taken to¬ 
ward the final catastrophe. Mongols however were too busy 
elsewhere to attend to this matter at once and if was not until 
1231 that actual hostilities were commenced. As the spring 
opened a powerful Mongol army marched southward across the 
Ya-lu under the leadership of Gen. h>al Ye-t’ap and took the 
fortresses of Wi-ju and Ham-Sin. 

Hopeless as the prospect seemed the king determined not 
to give up without a struggle. He sent Generals Pak-so and 
Kim Gyong-sol with a strong force to operate against the in- 


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vaders. They rendezvoused with all their following at Ku-ju, 
the four gates of which were strongly barricaded. The Mongols 
began, the attack at the South gate, but after five brilliant 
babies the Koryo torces compelled the hesiegeis to retire. 
The Mongols who had no base of supplies but who made the 
country thro which they passed supply tlx m, now lelt this 
town untaken and marched loldly southward. Kwak-ju and 
Sung-ju tell in quick succession and from the latter place a 
Mongol messenger was sent forward with a letter ordering the 
king to submit at once and thus ward off further danger. This 
messenger was arrested by Koryo troops on the way and thrown 
into prison. Wh n the Mongols arrived at the place where he 
was m durance vile they razed the place to the ground and 
killed every living thing, including even the dogs and other 
domestic animals. No opposition was n et until the invading 
army, flush* d with victory, lay before the capital. Song-do. 

As the king was quite submissive the victors spared the 
town. It is probable that they lelt unwilling to attempt to 
storm the place, for they had not teen very successful when at¬ 
tacking a fortified place. So they madea detour and went south¬ 
ward into the rich province ol Chung-chong. Evidently plunder 
was their main motive iti the invasion of Korea. 

Meanwhile other Mongol forces were at work in the north. 
They found their n atch iD the valiant gatnson ot Ku-ju, which 
under the leadership of the pr» feet Pak-so, held the place against 
all comers and we>e compelled to evacuate inly alter the 
king had abjectly suriendeied and had twice sent messengers 
ordering the place to be given up. So ended the fir-t act of the 
tragedy, but it was not to be the last. A Mongol re-idency 
was established in Song-do and military governors were sta¬ 
tioned at vurious places throughout the country. 

That neither the king nor his courtiers believed the end of 
the trouble had come is evident, for no sooner had the tumult of 
war subsided than the question of removing the court to the isl¬ 
and of Kang-wha was raised. Some objected, but the ‘‘Shogun” 
silenced them by taking oft a few heads. The king was undecided, 
but not so the “Shogun.” He «e : zed the government carts and 
placing his household efleets upon them moved to the island 
leaving the king and the court to shift for themselves. But the 
people throughout the country were rising in revolt against the 
Mongol governors and driving them out. This was sure to bring 
down npon the land another invasion, so at last the king decided 
to follow the example of the “Shogun” and retire to Kang-wha. 
Palaces had been in prejtaration there for his reception and on the 
appointed day the roval cavalcade moved out the gates of the 


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prii, 


< :t|>iial. It happened to be in the midsl ul the rainy season and 
tla* roads were almost impassable and the whole paity soon tbund 
itself mired. Torrents of rain added mate 1 ially to tlieir discom¬ 
fort. Even noble ladies, so the records say, waded kuev deep in 
the mud with bundles on their beads. The wailing and crying of 
this fori rn multitude was audible for a long distance. 

Wlam at last the king reached the island he iuund that the 
palace was anything but competed and he * as< bliged to take up 
his quarters in a common house fur the time being. 

When the news of tin’s exodus reached the Mongol capital it 
created a sensation. The emperor in a white heat of pm on sent 
a messenger asking “Why have you tied to Kang-wl.a? Why 
have my governors been driven out of your towns?’* A well 
equipped army followed fast in the track of this messenger*. The 
king replied that Ids feelings toward his Mongol master were the 
same as they had always been, which was doubtless true. His 
acts, however, qw ke louder than words and the Me 1 gc 1 army 
without waiting for further orders fell upon the northern towns 
and put the people to indiscriminate slaughter. Yot until they 
reached Cho-im fortress did they receive a check. In attempt¬ 
ing to storm that place they met such stout resistance that they 
were forced to withdraw. A noted archer-monk is said to have 
killed Gen. fc?nl Ye-t’ap by a marvelously clever shot in this 
battle. It was probably the lateness of the season that made the 
Mongols retire beyond th° Ya-lu. 

The spring of 11:33 found the emperor’s anger somewhat 
abated and instead of-ending an army he sent four formulated 
charges against the king. (1) No envoy comes from Koryo. 
(2) Highway men have killed a Mongol envoy. (3) The king has 
ilccl to Kang-wha. (4, I have received lake estimates of the 
census of* Koryo. We are not told what the answer was. 

The year was spent in attempts on the part of the king to 
put down popular uprisings all over the country. The people 
were in a state of anarchy and w herever a man could get a small 
following he would turn bandit and harness the surrounding 
country. 

All this time the king was trying every means in his power 
to interest the heavenly powers in his behalf, Buddhist prayers 
were chanted on every mountain top and at every shrine. He 
turned sun-worshipper too, and from seven till twelve o'clock 
every morning the officials were compelled to stand in line and 
do obeisance to that useful but hardly divine luminary. 

With the opening of 1235 the actual occupation of Koryo 
by the Mongols commenced. They began a systematic settlement 
of the north and many of the prefects were seized or driven out. 


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By tiic < iid of 123G the Mongols lmd seventeen permanent camps 
in the provinces of Pyeng-an and Whang-hai. They also went 
southward to the very limits of tlie peninsula and formed num¬ 
erous stations along the way. 

By the year 1 *238 when the Mongols again flooded the coun¬ 
try the people had mostly found refuge among the mountains or 
on the thousands of islands which lie off* the western coast. It 
would be impossible to imagine the suffering and hardship entailed 
by these invasions of the Mongols. The records simply say that 
the jxiople left their homes and fields and fled to these places of 
refuge. But what d : d these hundreds of thousands of people live 
on as they fled, and after they reached their places of retreat? 
What breaking of old bonds of friendship and kindship, what 
rending of family ties and uprooting of ancient landmarks. It is 
a marv<d that the lai d ever recovered from the shock. These 
Mongols were fiercer and more ruthless than the Japanese who 
overran the country three or four centuries later and they were 
far more numerous besides. Plunder being their main motive, 
their marauding bands covered a much wider territory and mowed 
a much wider swath than did the soldiers of Hidcyoshi. Nor did 
these Mongols meet the opposition that the Japanese did. They 
made a clean sweep of the country, and they caused such a deple¬ 
tion of the people that we never hear again of those splendid 
armies of 200,000 men which Koryo had once been able to put in 
the field even when groaning under a corrupt court and a rampant 
priesthood. From that day dates the u.ter prostration of Korvo’s 
power wh’Yh left her an easy prey to any Japanese freebooter who 
had ten good men at his back. 

After ravaging to their heart’s content the Mongols withdrew 
in 1239 to their own country, but sent a messenger ordering the 
king to go to Peking and bow before the Mongol emperor. The 
king refused, and the next few years were spent in Mongol 
demands for the king to either go to Peking or to leave his island 
retreat and return to Song-do. 

Ogdai Khan died in 1212 and after a peaceful interval of 
four years Gayuk Khan came to ihe throne of China. This was 
the signal for a renewal of hostilities against Koryo. At first 400 
men came, ostensibly to hunt sea otters but really to spy out the 
mountain passes and make ready for a proposed invasion of the 
country. Gayuk’s plans, however, were interrupted by his death 
in 1248, but when Mangu Khan came to the throne of China in 
1251 they were again taken up and pushed. A swift messenger 
was despatched to the king of Koryo demanding that he come out 
of Kang-wha and return to Song-do. His acquiescence in this 
would mean his safety, but if he refused war was to be the alter- 


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native. W hen the envoy reached the court he acted ir the most 
insulting manner and without giving time for an hour’s consul¬ 
tation he rose from the table in the midst of a least and posted 
straight back to China. The people all .-aid, “1 his means war 
again.” 

When the lengthening vernal sun of 1203 had melted the 
northern snows this prophetic word was \eritied. A renegade 
Koryo general, Hong Bok-wun, told the Mongol emperor that 
the king was buildiivr a triple wall ab-nt Kang-ha and had no 
intention of leaving that safe retreat. W ar, ever welcome to these 
first Mongol emperor-, was now afoot. The first detac ment of 
Mongol troops was led by the emperor’s in other, Song-ju. With 
many allies from the Nu-chen, and other tribes, he crossed the 
Ya-lu. Following these came generals A Mo-gan and Ya Gol-ta 
with sixteen other chieftains in their train. 

The king convened a great council of war at Kang-wha. 
Many were for surrender, but one voice was raised in warning, 
“How much treasure have we already squandered on these insati¬ 
able barbarians, a: d how many good men have gone a* envoys 
and never been heard of since? Let the king go out now- from 
this place of safety and when we behold his dead body our con¬ 
dition will be no enviable one.” This voice startled the assembly. 
With one voice they applauded the sentiment and charged the 
king to stay in his island fortress and still defy the savages of the 
north. 

General Ya-gol-da now sent a messenger to the king, pur¬ 
porting to be from the emperor, saying “I have begun from the 
rising of the sun and I will conquer to its going down. All peo¬ 
ple rejoice at this but you. I now send General Ya gol-da. If 
you receive him well, I will leave you in peace, but if not I will 
never forgive you.” Immediately putting his troops in motion 
the redoubtable general approached the strongest fortress in 
Whang-ha province. It was surrounded by an almost perpen¬ 
dicular precipice, and the garrison, supposing they were safe, 
laughed at the besiegers and ate in their sight; but the Mongols, 
directing all their power at a single point, soon battered down a 
portion of the wall, set fire to the buildings with fire-arrows and 
with scaling ladders effected an entrance. Four thousand seven 
hundred of the garrison were put to the sword, the commander 
committed suicide, all the children over ten years old were killed, 
and the women were ravished. 

General Ya-gol-da, being at To-san in Whang-hai province, 
received a plaintive letter from the king asking him to retire 
from the country. He replied, “The emperor says the king of 
Koryo is too old to bow. I am going to see whether this is true 


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or not. I will give him just six days to get here.” Then the 
Mongols turned eastward and began destroying fortresses and 
looting * tore-houses, at the same time telling the king thro an¬ 
other messenger that if all the prelects in the country would send 
in a written surrender they would retire. This was so palpably 
impossible that the Koreans looked upon it as a grim sort of joke. 

The town of Chun-cbun was a rather formidable place and its 
siege and fall offer some interesting indications of the methods of 
Mongol warfare. First a double fence or stockade was built 
about the town and outside this a bank six feet high and a ditch 
correspondingly deep. Kre long the supply of water in the town 
gave out and the people were forced to kill their cattle and drink 
the blood. Cho Hyo-ip, a leading man, seeing that there was no 
escape, first burned his family and then killed himself. The 
prefect fought until he was exhausted and then threw himself into 
a burning house and expired. A party of the strongest of the 
remaining soldiers made a fierce attack toon one portion of the 
stockade and succeeded in breaking thro but the bank and ditch 
beyond proved too much for them. The enemy entered, razed the 
town, burned the grain and carried the women away. Meanw hile 
the king was using the only means left for turning the tide of 
war. He was worshipping ev ery spirit that he could think of 
and -acrificing before every large boulder. He raised all his an¬ 
cestors several rounds in the ladder of apotheosis, but it all seemed 
to have but little effect on the progress of events. 

At last General Ya-gol-da arrived in the vicinity of Kang- 
wha and sent to the king saving “If the king will come out and 
meet me here I will promise to return to China with my forces.” 
The king complied and with a heavy guard came across the straits 
and inet the Mongol general at Scung-ch 9 un-bu. The Mongol 
began the conference without ceremony: “After we crossed the 
Ya-Iu thousands of your people fell every day. Why should you 
think only of your own comfort while tens of thousands of your 
people are perishing? If you had consented to come out sooner 
many lives would have 1-een saved. We must now make a firm 
treaty.” One of t i <• conditions of this treaty was to be that a 
Mongol prefect be placed in each of the Koryo districts and that 
10,000 troops Ik* quartered on Koryo. The king agreed to leave 
Kang-wha “gradually” as fast as preparations could be made, 
and to destroy the palaces at Kang-wha. 

lu fulfillment of their promise t! «• Mongols then went 
back ncross the Ya In ..Iter placing Mongol prefects throughout 
the country, but no sooner had they disappeared than the King 
seized a Korean who had acted :sa guide to the Mongols 
and put him o death. This was a dangerous, course for it was 


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142 THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. [April, 

likely to exasperate the Mongols all tbe more. And so it proved, 
tor a sviffc messenger came bearing aloud complaint that tbe 
King had not kept his word to leave Kang-wha and that a man 
had been killed because he had helped the Mongols. Tbe em¬ 
peror now developed another plan. He sent. General Cha ra-da 
■with 5,000 troops to become governor-reneral cf Koryo. But 
the emperor little knew the kind of man he was letting loose 
upon Koryo. No sooner had this beast in human shape crosse 1 
the Ya-lu than he began a systematic course of extermination. 
He killed every living thing that crossed his path. Tbe records 
say that he carried into captivity 200,800 people and that the 
number that he left dead was never estimated. When the em¬ 
peror heard of this even his fierce heart was touched and in 
the following year he recalled the monster. But a year later 
he allowed him to come back and continue his work of devasta- 
t on. When he approached Kang-wha, the king, in great dis¬ 
tress, sent a letter to the emperor imploring him to recall the 
ruthless man, but the emperor replied to the envoy that be 
could not recall the troops until the. king obeyed and came out 
of Kang-wha. To this the envoy made the memorable reply, 
“The quarry cannot come forth from its hole while the wolf is 
near. The flower can not spring from the frozen sod.” Upon 
bearing this the emperor immediately gave command tha* the 
saDguiuary Cha-ra-da be recalled from Koryo 

The year 1258 beheld a new eruption of th • Mongols who 
crossedthe Ya-lu and fortified Wi-ju. G< neral Cbwa-da with 
a thousand men penetrated the country a long distance This 
shows how weak Koryo had become, that this general dared 
penetrate the country with so small a force as a thousand men. 
Asa mere strategem the king now came across from Kang- 
wha and took up his quarters at Tong-jin just across the straits, 
to make it appear that be was complying with the emperor’s com¬ 
mands. When General Cha-ra-da approached, however, he hur¬ 
ried back across the water to a place of safety. The Mongol 
now made a line of fortified camps all the way from Song-do to 
Tong-jin and settled down as if to av ait the fulfillment of the 
king's promise. They redoubled their demands and swarmed 
all about the island which was separated from them by . nly a 
narrow strip of water. But the Mongols, to whom the water 
was an unknown element, found this narrow tide-swept channel 
an effective barrier and the king was safe 

Meanwhile the king had been freed horn the ‘Shogun” 
who bad been killed. Making this an excuse, he Bent to tbe 
emperor saying that he had long desired to go b« ck to Song-do 
but had been prevented by the “Shogun.’’ He now', however, 


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THINGS IN GENERAL. 


143 


would listen to the imperial word and go back as soon as the 
Mongol soldiery should be reiroved, for, be said, “We are like 
mice when the cat is ab ut.” Ibis message never reached 
China for the messenger was way laid and killtd on the wav. 

The whole north was now completely in the Mongol hands 
and was being governed by K r\o renegades under Mot gol 
orders. Such was the unhappy condition of the land when the 
year 1258 came to a close. 

H. B. Hulbert. 


THINGS IN GENERAL. 

The Confucian Temple College. —This venerable and 
honored institution is situated in the eastern arrondissement of the 
capital near the Northeast gate. In volume II of The Reposi¬ 
tory, page 183, Hon. II. N. Allen gives some interesting par¬ 
ticulars concerning the institution. It is known variously' as the 
Song Kyun Kiran, and the Mun-myo. Probably the best rendi¬ 
tion of its name into English would he Temple of Literature. Its 
foundation was largely due to An-yu, a literary graduate of Kyeng- 
sang-do, w ho rose to the post of councillor to the prime ministry 
during the earlier years of the last dynasty. Oppressed .by sad¬ 
ness at the decay of learning in his day be made a pilgrimage to 
China and brought back portraits of the seventy (two?) worthies, 
vessels and musical instruments used in the ceremonies of worship, 
and copies of the classic w ritings. With these were founded the 
Tai Hak or “Great School” of the Korea dynasty. For the 
maintenance of this institution Au-yu presented to it 100 of his 
serfs, and he himself became its first head master. In the reign 
of Chung Suk (A.D. 131 -I—1343) of the Korea dynasty An-yu 
was canonized and his'tablet accorded a place in this institution 
W’ith the founding of which he was so prominently identified. 

The present site we are told was first built on in 1398, the 
last year of the first reign of the present dynasty. Since then it 
has had many vicissitudes. The first buildings were destroyed 
by fire in 1400 and were not rebuilt until 1407. In the first year 


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THE ivOISEAX EEiN/SITORV. 


[April. 

of the Japanese invasion, lo92, it was again destroyed by tiro but 
was restored in 1601, from which time it is probable that the 
present buildings date. 

The main temple, which gives the place it> sanctity anti 
power, contains the sacred tablets of the 1 32 worthies canonized 
by Korean Confucianism. These tablets are divided into two 
groups arranged respectively east and west of that to the Founder 
of the cult, Confucius. In the east group there are seventy-six 
tablets of which sixty-eight are Chinese, and fight Korean. Of 
the Chinese tablets fifty are to scholars of the Chu dynasty, six 
to the scholars of the Han dynasty, one to a Tang d^ nasty scholar, 
and eleven to scholars of the Song dynasty. The eight Koreans 
canonized in this group are (1) Sbl-jong of Sil-Ia; (2) Ai vu of 
Korea; (*) Kim Kwang-p’il, (4) Clio Kwaug-jo, (5 Yi Wi.ans, 
(6) Yi-I, (7) Kim Chang-saing, and (8) Song Chun-kil, «»| the 
present dynasty. In the west group we find fifty-five tablets, 
of which thirty-four are Chu scholars, six Han scholars, one- v bin 
scholar, five Song scholars, and one Won (Mongol) scholar. The 
eight remaining tablets are to the following Korean worthies: 
(1) Choi Ch’i-won of Sil-la; (2) Chong Mong-jo of Korea; and 
(3) Chong Yo-chang, (4) Song Si-yong, 5) Yi Yon-joh, (6) Pak 
S6-chai, (7) Kira In-hu, (8) Sbng Hon, of the present dynasty. 

Before these tablets services are performed and offerings 
made at the time of the middle spring and middle autumn festivals. 
At every magistracy there is a branch temple to this great in¬ 
stitution where sacrifices were offered at the same time. In its 
pristine days it was the conservator of learning and from it have 
risen many learned men. Its usefulness and that uf its branch 
institutes appears to have ended, for, during several generations 
no great scholar has been given by it to the state, neither has there 
appeared one among the ranks of the so-called literatti into whose 
degenerate hands the provincial institutions and their rites have 
fallen. 

Chinese Generals in the Late War. — I:, a recent issue 
The Naval and Military Magazine discusses the lives and career- 
of some of the leading Chinese generals in the late Japan-China 
war. The most distinguished and highest in rank was Sun- 
Ching who during the war first fort’fied Mot, Tienliru (Heaven- 
touching Pass) and commanded Port Arthui and neighbor ng 
places. He did not operate in Korea. The second general 
mentioned is Wu Te-cbong who wps nominally Sung’s colleague 
but failed to co-operate with him in the campaign in China, 
Cho Pao-kuei, a Mohammedan, a native of Shantung province, 
was for some twenty years in the southern province of Man- 


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things in general. 


145 


1898.] 


chnria, “wher* thousands of banditti were spreading terror and 
paralyzing trade in the districts.By sheer hard work and con- 
spicnous personal courage, he gradually broke no all the smaller 
gangs, nmil the country was once more restored f o security and 
tranquility. For these services he was promoted several times 
until he was,— 

••Rewarded with the red button of the first class, and the yellow tiding 
jacket. When the Japanese war broke out he was stationed : t Moukden, 
and was ordered to march overland with his brigade across the Yalu into 
Korea, and he was at P>eng-yang when that place was attacked by the 
Japanes . It is currently believed among his friends in Moukden, that, on 
the eve of the loss of Pyeng-yang. when some of ti e Chinese generals at a 
council of war gave it as their opinion that the pi ce was untenable, and 
that an immediate retreat was advisable, Cho turned upon them and said: 
••You may retreat if you will, but, even, if you all go, 1 will remain with 
my n en and resist to the death. Whatever truth may be attached to this 
belief, he acted literally as he is reported to have declared it to be his inten¬ 
tion to do, for on the day of the attack, whilst directing with his own hand a 
gun against the enemy, he was struck by a Japanese shell and was instan¬ 
taneously killed. He was about sixty-six years of age.*' 

The Japanese general in recognition of his rank, had the 
dead gener&l buried with the honors of war and a wooden tablet 
erected to mark the spot. This was a graceful tribute to a 
worthy foe. 

General Yeh Chi-chao had the honor to bring the first regi¬ 
ment of Ch nese soldiers to Korea and to c uss swords with the 
Japanese at A sail August, 1894. 

“Altho Ycb claimed a victory on tha‘ occasion—which, however,was 
afterwards strenuously denied by the Japanese- he evidently did not feel 
himself strong enough to advance upon the capital or to hold bis ground but 
withdrew; his small force, anu by a circuitous march thro a very difficult 
country, he eventually reached the distant nortl ern city of Pyeng-yang in 
time to join in the preparations against the Japanese attack on th t impor¬ 
tant stronghold. Ych’s conduct at the fall of Pyeng-\ang and afterwards 
during his retreat to the Yalu, was considered by the Government so blame¬ 
worthy that he was stripped of his rank and position, and actually, sen¬ 
tenced to be beheaded. 

The editor thinks the biographical details of the leading 
generals of the Chinese army 

Serve to elucidate a difficulty experienced by many in understanding how 
it came to pass that China, wth her oft-acknowledged splendid fighting 
material and practically boundless resources, could have failed so completely 
to resist the Japanese invasion. For, i will be seen that able, and in 
some respects di-tinguished, as some of the Chinese generals undoubtedly 
were, they were ail men of the old s hool capable enough to lead their troops 
to victory against the formidable but undisciplined hordes which ever and 
anon threaten their vast empire internally Of along its extensive frontiers, 
but altogether unprepared by previous training or experience to cope with 
armies Ions and carefully prepared for the contingency that actually arose, 
and drilled and armed and led according to the very latest of modern 
methods. 


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THE KOREAK REPOSITORY. 


[April, 


EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 

KOREA’S NEW RESPONSIBILITY. 

T HE important events of the last month brought npon Ko¬ 
rea a new responsibility—that of self government. For 
centur e<? Korea was happy to call herself the* small king¬ 
dom" it>. comparison wicli China, upon winch she bestowed tlie 
title ‘‘large kingdom." She leaned upon the supposed strong 
arm of her great western neighbor, which was used for her pro¬ 
tectin'! or subiect'on as the case might be. 

Four years a 'o the Tong Hak—that synonvm for revolt 
against oppression—arose and l>ecame a mighty factor in th** 
important events that succeeded. The war between Japan and 
China lollovved and by the treaty of Shimoneseki, Korea became 
an indep-nder t country. Japan had already begun, what the 
vernacular press called “The Reformation of Korea.” The new 
stite was to he led into new paths with a promprness and vigor 
lorn ol the urgency of the case. In less tha* - * two yeais Kor a 
slipped fro m uirUr her self-api ointed hade'-and teacher ami 
sought on asylum in the Russian Legation. 1 he need of help 
being still recognised, the friendship of ihe great m'rthen power 
was cultivated, imhury instructors invited to reorganize the army, 
and others to nsri-u. in advancing the interests of good govern¬ 
ment. Russian influence became supreme m the affairs of this 
land. Now, after h ss t 1 an two yean of supremacy, under some¬ 
what t mbarrassing circumstances, she withdraws from Kore-, 
For the first time in the history of this dynasty, the emperor is 
left fiee to carry on the g vernment according to his own will. 

W nut has Korea pained bv tlie even!8 of tbe past four 
years? What benefits have accrued to her as the result of the 
battles of Asan and Pyeng-yang? What advantages has she 
derived from the tutorship of Japan and Kussu? What has 
she learned and unlearned in the quadrennium that has brought 
her so much trouble and misery? To answer these questions 
would lequire more space than we have at our disposal and we 
cannot d j moie than answer them in a very general way. 

Korea pained her independence during the last four years, 


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147 


i yp.] 

a new form of government, and, what is infinitely more impor¬ 
tant, new life. She has now not only a sovereign whose 
power is virtually absolute, but a Cabinet and a Privy Council. 
The laws of tt e land have been ro codified that something like 
justice can be administered by officials who earnestly desire to do 
so. The excellent work begun by the Japanese in the reor¬ 
ganization of the army, and the discipline enforced, had a most 
wholesome effect upon both officer and private. be finances 
of the country have been reduced to something of a system. 
The Japanese introduced the budget, by which the expenditures 
are limited to the receipts from taxes and o her sources. The 
labors of Adviser McLeavy Brown in the finance Department 
have demonstrated to the world the solvency of the country— 
at immense gain to the empire And, be it specially noted, the 
foreign adviser did not exercise any authority in collecting the 
money; that was do e by the Korean officials. His wor\ came 
in after the money reached the national treasu y. Whether 
more money or less money than reached the exchequer was col¬ 
lected is not for us to discuss now. The pomt holds that the 
country is in a solvent condition now. 

The new life manifests itself in various ways. Business is 
increasing and efforts at oigainzation and consolidation of capital 
for the promotion and rx'ension of trade are visible on every 
hand. The farmer has found a marnet for his products, the 
tradesman has found a purchaser, and the capitalist has discov¬ 
ered n eans to invest Bis surplus money. 

Education has received a decided impetus as tire direct 
result of the ge eral upheaval four years age. Where tnere wis 
one boy indifferently pursuing a course of study, the object of 
wh'ch he knew little and seemingly cared less, there are now a 
dozen pursuing, with something bordering on enthusiasm, stu .ies 
that give bieadth and solidity to tbfi student. Youn- Koiea 
has still much to learn but be has learned, or at least thinks he 
has learned, a few things and he is anxious to impart Ins infor¬ 
mation to his fellows. As a natural result, since the opening of 
this year, Seoul has seen the birth of several weeklies and a 
daily, all under the management - f young men from' the schools. 
That some of these pap is will cease appearing before the end 
ol the yrar may lie safely predicted. We now note the fact that 
ycung Korea seem? to have found his brush again and instead 
of writing in the still d and unknown Chinese, be writes in the 
vernacular and the people read. He also, «»ftf*r an enlorced 
silence of centuries, has found his tongue and he will talk. 
Debating societies are the most popular organizations of the day. 
True, ‘‘talk is cheap” here as iu other lauds and much of it is 


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148 THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 

wide of the mark, but it if indicative of a new 
to be felt more and more as time goes on. 

Lastly we notice the remarkable change 
the people towards Christianity. In perhap 
there lieen sucn a rapid, and withal, such a s 
of Christian work as in Korea the last three 01 
are given up, ancestral tablets are suriendered 
stroyed The wor« is positive as well as nt 
books are bought and read; churches and chai 
porteurs and preachers, supported by the chin 
tosellbojks and “teach the doctrine." Tin 
being broken up and an abundant harvest 
reaped. We call attention to the vapid gain in 
olic church the last year—a gain of 3417— 
figures of Bishop Mu tel recently published by 

The political stream which for awhile wa 
the penin-ula seems to be deflected and no 
hanks of r l alien wan and Port Arthur. Kon 
at least, is not in the current: Japan even 
“some distance bom the shoie.” That our o 
pool wil. all of a sudden become as calm as tl 
of old White Heat! we are not ready to belie' 
mood to predict, hut as there will be a lull in 
without, it is hoped Korea will seiz“ the opp 
a strong and righteous government, foster edu< 
and advaiic 1 tiadeand internal improvement> 
have an op| ortunity to demonstrate her ability 


U. S. Gold Mine Concession. —We l 

the gold-mining concession in the Ping an ] 1 
an American company. The district covei 
f twenty-five miles and is reputed to lie one ol 
^ rea. The concession is for a period cf twei 
includes the right to n ine other minerals in 
Leigh Hunt is at Hie head of a sub-compa, 
begun by him about two years ago. Mr. 
president of the American Trading Comp;, 
moter of the Seoul-Chemulpo railioad receive., 
Irom the Korean government. 

\' Some ten years ago attempts were urn 
merit to open these mines as well as to p osj 
: metal in other parts of the country. The . 
j rious reasons. The present attempt seems t 
basis at d gives every promise oi success. Lb 


[April, 

force that is sure 

n the altitude of 
no country has 
bttantial growth 
ur years. Idols 
fetiches are de¬ 
rive. Christian 
is are built; col- 
. s, are sent out 
ill low ground is 
already being 
e Roman Cath- 
shown by the 

d the shores of 
beats ujion the 
for the preseut 
represented as 
political wbiri- 
ake on the top 
much less in a 
political storm 

• >it y to develop 
n and religion, 

Korea will now 
govern heiself. 

• already note,! 
nee granted to 
i area of some 
richest in Ko- 

-!ivn years and 
district. Mr. 
aid work was 
ms R. Morse, 
ind chief pro- 
i original grant 

'\y the govern- 

• >r the precoins 

failed for va- 
on a different 
, States Consul 


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1898.] 

Central Horace N. Allen in Consular report number 24 pub¬ 
lished Jan. 29, 1898, among other things says: 

As yet, not much has been done beyond what might be called pros¬ 
pecting on a lairre scale; but veins of medium-grade ore have been opened^ 
which give good prospects. 

The whole country has been, as it were, honeycombed by native min- » 
ers in the past, ai.d, to please the native miners and promote further pros¬ 
pecting. these people are given ininh.g rights for one year on new proper¬ 
ties. The Korean miners aie said to be entirely satis factory. They are 
patient, strong, enduring, and very easy to deal with. Their wages are 
about 40 cents per day in silver (equal to about 20 cents in gold) and the 
supph is ample. The company is on good terms with the people, and liie 
and property are perfectly safe at the mines. 

The placers have been well worked over upon the surface, but the na¬ 
tives have not been able to get down very deep, and bedrock has not been 
reached. The native method of working the quartz veins is to chip out the 
gold-bearing rock with their soft iron tools as much as possible, after which 
they till the hole with fuel and set tire to it. When the rock is as hot as it 
can be made, they pour in water, which cracks the surface so that they can 
chip it off. The on. thus obtained is then crushed on a flat rock by huge 
stone rollers worked by many men with poles. Water is the worst obstacle 
the native miners have to contend against, since their only way of emptying 
a shaft is by bailirg it nut with gourds, which are filled and passed up from 
man to ma 1. When permanent water is reached, the shaft has to l>e aban¬ 
doned; and, as the veins usually grow richer as this condition is approached, 
the natives declare that, if they only had some means of getting rid of the 
water, they would be quite satisfied. 

When the report was written there were eight. Americans 
•employed at the mines superintending the Korern workers and 
runtime the machinery. This force has been more than 
doubled sir.ee and additions are beint* made continually. 

By later grants, standing limber is allowed to the company at the rate 
of 60 cents silver (30 cents gold) per cord; and as there is an ample growth 
of sci ub trees on the mountains, the item of fuel for the mills is satisfac¬ 
torily settled. The company will introduce some rough forestry methods to 
protect the \oung trees, whit h are annually damaged very greatly by fires 
carelessly started by the country people. There is some large timber near by 
from which the company have finally obtained permission to cut trees for 
material for the new mill, thus saving them very great inconven ence in 
transportation, as they are about 150 miles from the port of entry'— Pyeng 
Vang. At piesent, everything has to be transported this distance upon the 
clumsy bull carts of the country; but some large American wagons are now 
ordered. 

The report continues by noting the concession granted tq 
a German ompany “lor a small portion of tin* district- adjoining 
the ore held i>v our own people.” The terms granted the Ger-} 
mans are substantially the same as those granted to the Amern, 
cans. A German mining engineer is in Korea now prospecting. 

The Consul-General concludes his repo t with the foil- wing 
observations on the development of the northern part of Korea. 

The concession for a railroad from Seoul to the northwest, granted to a 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[■April, 


French s\ndicate, gives them the right to ojen certain mines as veil; and, 
as it is generally hi own tl at Kusria is inteies ed in this pioj os«ed lailroac!, 
it is pretty sure to be built. The road will be something under 500 miles in 
'length and will run through this whole mining region, which lies on the line 
between Seoul and the border city of Wed-ju, where the proposed railroad 
will connect with those about to he built in Manchuria. The>e, with the 
American railroad row I uildin between the capital, Seoul, and its port. 
Chemulpo, willgixe Koiea and its chief port arc! capital, as well as these 
mining regions, direct connection with Europe. 

Hi I Sir I EE cie, M.r.— Dr. E. B. Landis, physic ianin 
cl large of the medical work of the C hutch of England Mission at 
Chemulpo, died of typhoid lever on Satuiday, Aptil 16th, at 
4:30. p. m. He had been si(k about three weeks and at first no 
danger was apprehended and every hope was entertained of his 
spttdy recovery. A telajk-e took place, however, followed by a 
collapse and tho every efloit was made to save him, both Dr. 
Ealncck and Dr. Laws being in attendanto on him, it proved of 
no avail and the doctor passed to his reward. 

Dr Landis was well known to the readers <f The De¬ 
pository. He was an indefatigable stndei t of all things Ko¬ 
rean, ai d the contributions which he made are of permanent 
■value. He was also a contributor to the China Review and lo 
other periodicals in the east. One of the first members of the 
Chmeh of England Mission, Dr. Landis had a fine nputation 
for ability to speak the Korean language. He devoted himself 
with all assiduity to acquiring it and a large measure of sncceas 
crowned his endeavors. Among foreigners he had the best com¬ 
mand cf conversational Korean of any European we know. He 
was also an industrious sludei t of Korean C hinese, and ninny an 
evening in ) assing the hospital we have bond him reading Men¬ 
cius or the Analects in tme Korean fashion. 

In connection with the hospital he conducted an orphanage 
in the boys of w hich he took an all absorbing interest. Without 
family ties himself liny were to him what a family might, have 
bee» aid to tlum he manifested himself as a wise, kind, cm re f n 1 
and loving jaient. Among the Ken cans of Chemulpo his mem- 
rry will !e long cherhhcd, for his Hie to them was lull of deeds 
cf Christian chanty. His death was a surprise and a shock and 
the universal rtniaik of the Koreans was, “We have lost a gra¬ 
cious friend.” 

'lhe iuneial e»f" Dr. Landis oceurred Tuesday, April lhth, 
at 4 p. m., from the English Church at Chemulpo. A heavy 
storm of wind and rain accompanied by thunder and hghMiing 
oceurred during the entire time, but in spite of this the little 
church was crowded with se;rrowing friends, every foreigner in 


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151 


1898.] 

Chemulpo who could get to the church being present The floral 
offerings were very numerous. The solemn rites of the Church 
of England were celebrated by Messrs. Trollope, Turner, Badcock, 
Hilary and Bridal, alter which the body wns taken thro a heavy 
storm of rain to the foreign cemetery on the river’s bank and 
committed to its last resting place. 

A memoir of Dr. Landis’ life will appear in our next issue. 
The editors of The Repository desire to express their sincere 
*oirow and sympathy with the family and colleagues of Dc. 
Laud is. The Church of England and the entire missionary com¬ 
munity has experienced a loss in this removal of a young man 
whose future was radiant with promise. 


OFFICIAL GAZETTE. 

Compiled from the Independent. 

March 26. Edict — The main duties of the officials who 
look after the national finance is not only to endeavor to increase 
the amount of income, hut to expend what is already in the treas¬ 
ury with care and judgment. Judicious expenditure always 
leaves comfortable surplus. In recent years the national finanoe 
has been in the most satisfactory condition, and it was all due to 
the diligence and careful maimer in which the finanoe advisers 
have discharged their duties. We thoroughly approve of their 
methods of administration of our Finance Department. Now the 
finance adviser has been relieved and it is time for our financial 
officials to be more careful in the discharge of their responsibilities. 
I/jt our wishes be known to the Finance Department. 

March 26. Edict —The essential point in the maintenance 
of efficiency of the army is to observe regularity in all matters re¬ 
lating to military organization. It is thro the unceasing efforts 
of the Russian military instructors that our soldiers have become 
familiar with tactics for which we are greatly pleased. The instruc¬ 
tors are now leaving our service and we desire that the officers 
of the different regiments be more diligent in observing the rules 
and systems which they have learned from them. Jjet our wishes 
be known to the War Office. 

March 2 o. Edict —Whenever there is a national celebra- 


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THE KOREAX REPOSITORY. 


[April, 

tion of presit importance it i- customary to inform the governments 
of the treaty powers of the fact. But after our assumption of the 
Imperial title the Foreign Office did not inform the governments 
of Italy and Austria. We feel greatly ashamed that the Foreign 
Office was so negligent in its duty. The Minister and Vice Min¬ 
ister and the Chief of the Diplomatic Bureau must be punished 
for th* offence of non-fnIHIment of their duties. The Minister 
and Chief of Diplomatic Bureau are hereby dismissed from the 
office and the Vice Minister i- hereby reprimands!. 


CORRESPONDENCE. 


Pv KNO-VANG, KOREA, APRIL 13. 189S. 

To the Editors of 

The Korean Repository: 

Dear Sms: 

Your fellow passengers of the Kycrg Chae on her late trip from Che¬ 
mulpo to P\erg-van”, impelled 1 y the 'ncor.sistency in \ ourseif manifested 
hy tne last nnmbei of 1 UK hi M*>iinRv. have determined upon the fol¬ 
lowing resolutions: 

Win i, eas: To our discomfort and uttet despair the Kyeng Chae, 
chose to ^ ti d Sunday at Chinan-po, the consternation in our minds being 
voiced t>\ the Editjr of The Repository, with man\ added invectives, 
and dire threats of revenge, and, 

\N hi reas: The editor of The Repository in the last issue of that 
paper refers to his enforced delay as a “pleasure.” therefore, l)e it 

J\cso!i ed, That his fellow passengers are at a loss to know whether 
he was sincerely mad at that time, < r th t *he pulling of his own hair w«.s a 
fine piece of acting; 01 whether the statement in The Rei’Ository is a 
joke and we are expected to laugh. 

The w riter of the above communication, no doubt still under 
the mental excitement incident and perhaps inseparable from a 
trip in the steamer he mentions, failed to sign his name. We, 
however, are familiar with the chirography and shall not consign 
it to the place where such productions usually go. As intimated 
we had the honor with our correspondent and several other 
equally excellent people to travel in the Kymg Chac from Che¬ 
mulpo to the Pyeng-yang landing. We have a distinct recollection 


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1898.] 

that the steamer was “late” in every sense of the word. Eighteen 
hours “late” in starting, “late” in getting out from anchoring 
behind the islands, because as the genial purser remarked, “plenty 
bad sea outside.” 

We venture to suggest that our correspondent is a day 
ahead ir. his reckoning of the unseemly tho possibly not unwar¬ 
ranted ebullition of temper so graphically and unstintedly at¬ 
tributed to us while the gallant steamer was riding at anchor in 
the harbor of Chinampo. Strong feeling sai l to lie indicative 
of strong character, but we are too modest to press the proposition 
to its natural and logical conclusion. TV re was occasion for 
concern at the delav of a whole day and it wao because of the 
intuitive feeling of dire results we feared would follow the delay 
that we ventured to expostulate with the master of the ship. 
Did not the Kyeng Chae stick in the ice-bergs at Posting? Did 
not our correspondent inform his fellow passengers with that 
meekness so characteristic of him that he “froze to death three 
or four times” during the night? If such conditions do not war¬ 
rant alarm, then we give up at once. If one cannot get "mad” 
and perlorm "a fine piece of acting” it is because lie is defi¬ 
cient in some qualities essential to travel with comfort between 
CLiemulp) and tne Pyeng yang landing. 

But notwithstanding aM that is said or implied by our cor¬ 
respondent we still stick to our assertion of having bad “pleas¬ 
ure” in the Snnda' we spent at the northern port. And why 
not? The sun shore bright and clear; the air was bracing, and 
there was a sple: did walk (as to length) from the anchorage to 
to the settlement; the courteous and generous hospitality of the 
acting commissioner of customs left nothing to be desired in that 
line; the shooting on the ruud flats was inviting and the noble 
hilh included in the foteign concession afforded an pie space to 
stretch one’s legs after the confined quart3rs of the single cabin 
of the Kyeng Chae, the firs and pines swayed in the wind and 
we could hear the whispers of tbe development of trade and the 
growth of the town of Chinampr, the mud flats redeemed, the 
low-land crowded with go-downs and business houses, the hills 
stuldedwith palatial residences, the streets filled with happy 
ch.ldren, a"d the church bells pealing forth a joyous sound on 
the Sabbath ca'ling together the people to divine worship. The 
firs and the pint's told us of thp electiic laihvav and cin ler path 
from the ] ort to the husv. booming, hustling capital, forty-five 
nr.hs beyond the lulls to the north; at d when we strained to tbe 
utmost we thought we beard the rumble of tbe “flyer” on the 
Seoul We-ju railway rolling into the depot at Cliuldn. "Who 
would not have “pleasure” under such circumstances? “The 


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154 THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. fApril, 

statement in The ^Repository” was not a “joke.” We were far 
too serious for iliat and our coi respondent is at liberty to reserve 
bis “laugh” until his well known equinimity is suffi.'iently dis¬ 
turbed when he can indulge in hilarity without asking permis¬ 
sion of us. 


To the Editors of 


Dear Sirs: 


The Korean Repository: 


Not in a spirit of criticism, but because of the fear that some of the 
readers of your appreci ited magazine may be misled, do I refer to the in¬ 
teresting results in the February number of your inteview with Mr. Fenwick 
about the prospects of fruit culture at Gensan. About mulching one there 
reads that *‘it sh mid be put on to keep the frost in. not to keep it out % and 
therefore should be applied after the ground is frozen hard.*’ Nat every 
one will undetstand this broad assertion, and that it has limitations. Some 
of our friends who are only beginning to interest themselves in these mat¬ 
ters will, perhaps, understand the situatio' better, and be able to steer be¬ 
tween frost and freezing, the Charybdis and Scvlla of the orchard, when in¬ 
formed that there are two principal objects in winter mulching; one is to pre¬ 
vent freezing and winter k lling; the other to prevent too e irly bud ling and 
trost killing. In a climate wher: there is so little danger ot winter killing 
that mulching need not usually be resorted to to preserve the lives of trees, 
vines and shrubs, mulching at any time during the winter serves to retain 
the frost in the ground and to retard t ie growth and opening ol the buds in 
the spring until all danger of bud-killing fronts has passed. This may bo 
noticed more especially with the peach, whose buds are inclined to expand 
under the influence of the first genial rays of the sun. Manifestly, it would 
not do to mulch the peach in the fall be tore freezing weather ha* set i;-, for, 
the effect of this mulching would be to keep the frost out of, and the warmth 
in the ground, and to start the buds out earlier than usual under the influence 
of the spring sun, and subject them to certain injury and probable killing by 
late frosts. Tender varieties of some other fruits, as the grape, may also 
be Lenefitted bv the mulching which keeps back the buds in the spring 

In this latitude some berries, as the currant, and other fruits which are 
late maturing, may be bene fitted by having a warm instead of a cold mulch, 
which will produce earlier and generally better and more abundant fruit, if 
the insects are taken care of. But, this is not all. There is a summer as 
well as a winter mulch. The object of the lormer is to protect the trees* 
etc, against drouth. And it is very effective, and saves much labor with the 
water-pot. 

Again; the statement that there is only about nne-half the rainfall at 
Gensan that there is here is based on what staistics? Referring to Mr. 
Waeber s brochure you will find that during 1 e period between 1887 and 
1890 inclusive the average annual precipitation at Gensan was 41 ; V inches. 
This is five or six inches in excess of the average fall here during that time. 
During the month of August of one of those \ears at Gensan more than 29 
inches fell 

Since my hand is in may I notice that in the same magazine you make 
the Tai Won Kun ten years older than he was. The Independent made 
a similar mistake. Was this the blind leading the blind? 

Yours, etc., 

Wm. Me E. Dye. 


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1S98. 


“that i-Ar am ay lakd of cbosek.” 


155 


“THAT FAK AWAY LAKD OF CHOSEN.” 

[Soire eight or ten yens ago the warships in these waters 
r oved about less rapdly then they did this last winter lor ex¬ 
ample. Officers and men bad time to come ashore and enjoy 
Chemulpo ard even I onor the capital with a visit. Ttny re¬ 
turned to their ships much impressed by what they saw, felt and 
heard. One of them expressed 1 ms sentiments in meter. There 
have been some changes iD the co n try since then but as a re¬ 
presentation of ante-bellum times the vers°s—whatever may be 
Baid of their merit as poetry—n ay not be without interest.— 
Ed. L. E] 


Thers’s a singular land far over the seas, 

Which is known to the world as Korea; 

Where there’s nothing to charm one and nothing to please. 
And of cleanliness, not an idea. 

Where a lucid description of persona and things 
Quite baffles the reddiest pen, 

And stirs up strange qualms in the poet who sings 
Of the far away land of Chosen. 

W here the houses they live in are mostly of dirt, 

With a tumble down roof made of thatch, 

Where soap is unknown, it is safe te assert 
And where vermin in myriads hatch. 

Where the streets are all reeking with odors more rife 
Than the smells from a hyena’s den. 

One visit is surely enough for one life, 

To that far away land of Chosen. 

Where the garments are made on a very queer plan, 

And are something quite out of the common ; 

The women war pantaloons just like a man. 

Young men braid their hair like a woman; 

The married man gathers his hair at the top. 

In a knot much resembling a wen ; 

The female coiffure is a huge ugly mop 
In that far away land of Chosen. 

WTiere the hats haye a crown much too small for the head, 
W’hile the brim measures several feet around ; 

W T here the principal fire is under the bed, 

And the chimney’s a hole in the ground. 


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[April, 


Where the coolies can’t work without singing a song 
And must stop for a rest now and then, 

While they snatch a few whiffs from a pipe three feet long, 
In that far si way land of Chosen. 

Where foreigners th»ck t'> improve the ideas 
Of the natives, and help them make money, 

Where hives arc well tilled by the Korean bees, 

But the foreigners get all the honey. 

Where shop-keepers ou- lit to be roiling in wealth, 

From the prices they charge one. but then, 

It is not at all likely they go for their health, 

To that far away land of Chosen. 

Where the ki g, in a manner becoming a prince, 

Is charmed **ith each fresli innovation, 

And plays with post-officer, steamers, and mints, 

At a grievous expense to the nation. 

\V 1 ere gullible strangers big contiacts have made, 

But find when they ask fur their yen, 

5 Tis a very cold day when employes are paid 
In that far away land of Chosen. 

Where mcn-of-vnr, fresh from some pleasanter clime. 

Look in for a few days or so ; 

Wh < re the I’alos alas ! spends the most of her time 
In the river ahnast Chemulpo 
\\ here tl use who escape never care to return. 

To that “Morning Cairn’’ country again, 

Where there’s nothing on earth that could cause one to yearn 
For that far awag land of Chosen. 


LITERARY DEPARTMENT. 

Problems of Tree tic a l Christianity in China Fy R' v Ernst Faber 
Theo. D. 'Iinmlatcd from the Ceiman by Rev F. Ohio ger and edited 
by Kev. John t tevens Lilt. D , D U. 121110. j p. 122. Shanghai:—Off.te 
of “The Celestial Empire” and “The Shanghai Mercury.” 

This book does not deni with Korea or Korean affairs directly. It is, 
ho wcver, such a frank and thorough discussion of ihe “Problems of Practical 
Christianity” by one so ;d 1111 l.intly competent to speak that we must be 
permitted to < 0 our co-woikcrs the service to call their attention to Jiis book. 
The translator whos, 1 ng missionary career in China and Korea and exact 
knowledge of ( cm an ar.d 1 nglish specially fitt cl him, has performed his 
important part ino-.t admirably. The papers first appeared in the Missions- 
zahehritt ar.d stLiCtjUtnl!) in The Messenger of which Dr. Stevens was 


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LITEtARY DEPARTMENT. 


157 


on * of the editors. Dr Faber discusses his subject in ten chapters * 

I "Chinese Customs and the churches." 2. "Symbolism and Reality.* 
3. "The Roman Catholic Mission.” 4 "The Protestant Missions." 5 "Lan¬ 
guage and Li it rature.” 6 "Questions Relating to the Cult.” 7. "Supersti¬ 
tions " 8. "Domestic Life ” 9 "Social Life.* 10 . "Government " 

The temptation is to make extracts. Dip into the book at random and 
the author states his views clearly, concisely and forcibly. "Many heathen 
customs cannot be converted, they must be simply abolished. A purely 
Christian evangelical standpoint must be taken and rigidly maintained from 
the outset.” . . . . "Up to the present tim - no Protestant missionary 

has frund employment at the Imperial court in Peking, either as court man¬ 
darin or court fool, alt ho thro the influence of the Inspector General of 
Customs and that of the Foreign Ministers res ding in Peking, several mis¬ 
sionaries have been employed to translate scientific works" . . . . 

‘‘Protestant missionaries might have leirned a few things from the 250 years* 
experience of their Romish colleagues. (We regret the translator ihrough- 
out the book used this incorrect and infelicitous term in speaking of the 
Roman Catholic missions ) That this has not be n clone to the present day. 
and that hardy one in a hundred Protestant mis ionaries has any close ac- 
<iu* intance with the Romish missions, is due to another sir. of negligence on 
the part of the missionary boards at home. It is for them to consider and to 
decide what is mo>t essential for each particular field; the experiences of 
early workers of all denominations should be gathered and sifted, and the 
icsult, uith notes appropriate to each society, should be handed to 
every young missionary as a guide and hand book." The translator in a 
footnote sns quite correctly, "Probably the greatest need of the missionary 
enterprise.” .... "1 an we in addition to healthy v. hristian instruction 

also impart Confucianism after the manner of the Chinese in our school*? 
1 am convinced mat we can iot.” .... "In tne higher schools the 
classics cannot be ignored ” .... "The Christi »n who in compliance 

with native customs seeks cither by 'mediums.’ or bv personal physical r 
psychical preparation tocornc into contact with spirits should be expelled front 
Christain fellowship with as dale hesitancy as the idolater.” On the preva¬ 
lent vices of lying and deception Dr. Faber’s opinion is worth repeating and 
with this \vc must reUic'antiy close these quotations. "He who insists upon 
honesty and truthlulness cannot keep hi? employes any length of time, an I 
is deceived .all the more in the end. What is to be done? Nothing! I also 
agree to that. Do not try to do it Conscience must first be aroused and 
quickened, and in order to accomplish this there must be a realization, a 
ciea sense, of the injuriousness and despicable nature of decep.ion. It is 
our Christian duty to awaken conscience and then to shield the weak from 
severe temptation. ” Sound counsel and applicable to Korea. A. 

utifi/rmfl'i 

Mr. T. Ll. ^ un has translated in an ahrid :ed and adipted form for usa 
by the v'rioLis deb.uinr societies in the capital anJ thro tne country, 
"Robeits Rules’ of Order ” No orean is lieite r able fora work of this 
kmd than Mr. Yun. The pamphlet contains twenty-nine pages, is written 
in the mixed character, /. e. Chinese and tninun, neatly printed on heavy 
white paper, and sells at five cents a copy. We predict the edition, which 
we understand is 1000, will be sold out in a very short time. Young Korea, 
takes t' ibis kind o. matter something in the way a dark take> to water 
Ket p the printing press going. 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[April, 


NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

American trade with Korea for 1897 amounted to about £500,000. gold 

Mr. Alexeieff has been appointed Russian commercial agent in Japan. 

The local agency of the Russo-Korean bank was closed and withdjawn 
on the 8th inst 

The Nippon Yuscn Kaisha is considering the idea of increasing the 
communicantn with Korea to five or six tripe monthly. 

In Korean romance Dame Rumor is represented under the guise of a 
“green bird.” Query : Do the Koreans know anything about parrots? 

The work of pushing the entrance of the railroad into Chemulpo is being 
hurried along as rapid as possible and the port is fkoded w ith coolies as a 

result. 

Serious trouble has occurred in the island of Quelpnert. As a measure 
of pacification the inland has been erected into an independent province so 
that the empire now consists of fourteen provinces. 

Yi Wan Yong, Ex-Minister of Foreign Affairs, was appointed governor 
of North Chulla province near the end of last month. Governor Yi is well- 
known among foreigners as one of the leading young men of the country. 

It is reported that Yuan who was Chinese minister in Seoul previous to 
to the w ar is to he appointed Chinese minister to the United States. If so it 
will be interesting to watch how he deals with the Chinese problem in 
America. 

Concerning Russia’s w ithdraw al from Korea, the North China Herald 
quotes from the Moscow Gazette of 21st March that “Russia was about 
to retire from the Derm it Kingdom and would henceforth consider Korea 
beyond her sphere of influence.*’ 

A missionary returning from two country' trips wrote to his secretary'. "I 
visited forty-five places where Christians meet on the Sabbath to woisbp 
God. I baptized 151 people and received 455 catechumens. At twenty of 
these forty five places the people have bought or built church buildings." 

The pressure on the English government to make a legation in Seoul 
succeeded finally. On March 8tli the present C< nsul-General, Mr. J. N- 
Jordan, was appointed Charge d’Affaiis, who is thus placed in direct diplo¬ 
matic relations with the Korean government. We congratulate Mr. Jordan 
on his promotion. 

The Japan Official Gazette of 4th inst. has the following: “In com¬ 
pliance w ith Article 15 of the Rinder Pest Prevention Regulations, no import 
for sometime to con e of cattle, hides, or bones from Korea to the following 
places is allowed: — Otaru, Shikami, Fushiki, Hakata, ltsukuhara, Sasuna 
and Shimonoseki.” 

Cur contemporary hopes that “the flogging of officials with whom re* 
spectable people have to associate will be abolished.” It does seem that to 
S’t with a minUtei of state one day and to see him ti e next paddled for 


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1898.] 

fail ire to accomplish that which is beyond his power, is a lowering of dignity 
th.u is hardly in keeping with the fitness of things. At the same time, if the 
corporal punishment can be bought off ft r twenty-eight dollars silver the 
a\ era^e official will see that that amount finds its way to the proper authority. 

On March 1st the Deer Island episode was the subject of an interpel¬ 
lation in the British Parliament by Sir Ellis Ashmead-Bartlett. In reply 
Mr. Curzon ^aid that while it was known that Russia was negotiating for a 
site lor coal go down? mere, no official communication had been received of 
a. Russian occupation of the island. 

The Korean students studying in Japan, having been deprived of the 
support allowed them by their government, and f iling to return when they 
were notified that the suppo't would no long.r be granted, seem to be reduced 
to actual want. Appeal was made to the several schools in the capital and 
a. subscription was taken up in their behalf. The young men wiU no doubt 
return as soon as means are piovided for them. 

Ex-Minister of the Imperial Household, Vi Chai Sim, has been acquitted 
of complicity in the attempt on the life of the Russian Legation interpreter, 
as were the otheis implicated by the policeman Yu, and the latter sentenced 
to ico biows and life impri>onment. Ex-Chief Commissioner. Vi Chung Ku, 
who was sentenced to loo blows for infringing the prerogatives of chik-im 
ortic:als has been p irdoned by His Majesty. This we suppose is the end of 
the Kun Hong Yuk incident. 

“Among the most interesting appointments in the Order of St. Michael 
arul St. George is that of Mr. McLeavy Brown to be « Companion of the Order. 
Mr. Brown has ..one a remarkable wo k in Korea as head of the Customs 
and Controller of Fm nee. Recently the news that R :ssia had inducted the 
Korean government to supercede Mr. Brown in favour of a Russian named 
AttexieiT created a good ileal of surprise and indignation in this country, where 
Mr. Brown’s able and upright administration is appreciated at its true value.’* 
— Times Weekly, January 7. 

The fair name and fame of the royal inspectors are in danger of suffer¬ 
ing if the reports of some of their doings are not exaggerated The object of 
the inspeaio 1 was intended originally to ! c an aid to the sovereign in 
promoting v r ood government and as a check to the rapacity of the official- 
T he reverse now seems to be the case The inspector does the tleecing and 
incurs the hatred of the people for w hose good he holds his high position. 
The governor of South Cin.lSa is luud in ms complaints of the arrests of 
wealthy citizens made in his province. These men had to sell th *ir farms 
in order to free themselves from the clutches of the inspector. From the 
north come similar reports. 

The withdrawal of Russia from Korea last month and the final episode 
connected therewith, namely the ultim-'lum of the Russian representative anct 
the sudden manifestation of some spirit on the part of the Koreans not only- 
surprised us here but the outside world as well. The letter uf the cx-for¬ 
eign minister was widely copied and various comments were made on it. 
The Japan Mail calls Mr. de Speyer’s note a “celebrated di-patch” and 
thinks “there is a good deal of significance in the wording” of the answer; 
that the minister could scarcely “have drifted by pure accident into the subtle 
sarcasm of the statement that his country’s resolve to dispense with the ser¬ 
vices of the Russian experts was due, in part to 'the enlightenment and in¬ 
dependent spirit which your government has so diligently inculcated among 
us/ and that he is 'sure that your Imperial Sovereign and your government 


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THE KOREAN* REPOSITORY. 


[April, 


will be glail to know that our people have become so progressive and en¬ 
lightened as to desire to maintain their own sovereignty.' The bland naivete 
of such language yenned in reply to >uch a t ispatch as that of Mr. de Speyer 
climbs to quite a pinnac e of artistic iiony, and must have exciied in the 
bosom of the placid and humane Mr. de Speyer an absorbing wish to lweek 
the nose of Min Jong Mtik.” This is taking the matter very seriously, in¬ 
deed. It is too bad to make invidious suggestions of ' artistic irony* m a 
document that has given such general satisfaction as the one in questic n. 

Hong Chong-u, whe attained notoriety in 1884 by the assassination of 
his friend Kim Ok-kuin at Shanghai lecently created something of a distur¬ 
bance by attempting to force a memorial of six propositions on the govern¬ 
ment. The memorial proposed the following: (1) an embargo on the export 
of rice; *2) that foreign legations be compelled to withdraw- their guards ; ( 3) 
that t assport obligations be more strictly enforced on foreigners; (4) that 
the Fusan foreign settlement he located on Deer Island; (5) that all foreign 
merchants be ejected from the ca r ual; (6j that the circulation of foieign 
currency be prohibited in the count y. Ue should designate this an anci- 
foreign crusade, iho not a dangerous one even tho Mr. Dong is a fairly good 
shot with a revolver. 

Life in the interior of Korea, compared with that in the capital, is quiet 
indeed. The farmer tills the soii and every' fifth day attends t* e country 
market. Here he sells or exchanges his products. He has little or no con¬ 
cern about the various phases and stages of politics in Seoul. He may have 
he aid ot the piesence ol certain foreigners there, of a change at the magis¬ 
tracy now and then, but ns long as he is n< t molested and not oppessed tc o 
heavily, he pursues the c\en te nor cf his way. A knowledge of the character 
is i.ot for him, hence he does not aspiie to anything higho than the legiti¬ 
mate work on his farm, h e takes his frugal meals, enjoys his poor tobacco, 
indulges cccasonaliy, it may be, in a cup ot makalie, lives comfortably with 
his family anci peaceably with the half dozen neighbors that make lush mler, 
and when his locks l ecome silvered be may be appointed elder of his \ illngr. 
and dies respected by his friends and neigh tors. There is a beauty in the 
simplicity of the quiet life of the Korean f rmer. 


BIRTHS. 


In Seoul, March 2nd the wife of Rev. K. S. Miller, of a son. 

In Pyeng-yang, March 8th the wife of Rev. Garham Let, of a son. 

In Pyeng-yang, March 13th, the w ife of Dr. E. D. Follwell, of a daughter 


DEATHS. 

In Chemulpo, April 16th Eli Barr Landis, M.D. of the English Church 
Mission. 


ARRIVALS. 


In Seoul, Febiuniy, Rev. \V. H. Embtrly, wife and three children to join 
the British and For tig Bible Society. 

In Seoul, March 151I1 from furlo in the United States, the Rev. S. A 
Mof.ctl of the Northern 1 icsbyicii.m Mission. 

In Chemulpo, April icth, Mis. Leigh Hunt and child from the United 

States. 

In Seoul, April 23th, the Rev. Wilbur C. Swearer from the United States 
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[Vol. V. No. ;■).] 


MAY, 1898. 


THE 


KOREAN EEP0S1T0RY 


H. G. Appenzfxler, 
Geo. Heher Jones, 


; z j f o l S} e — 


CONTENTS. 


KOREAN GINSENG, 


THE MONGOLS IN KOREA, II, 
ELI BARR LANDIS, M.D., 


Editors 


II. B. Ilrr.nKRT 


M. N. T. 


EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT:- 

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NOTES AND COMMENTS, 
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IV. 


ADVERTISEMENTS. 


“TP IjOPTlI] PPOSITOP”. 


Editors 


{ 


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G. H. Jones. 


As heretofore The Repository will aim to meet the wants 
of all its ieadeis in the thorough discussion of all topics of * 
permanent interest to Korea. Prominence will continue to be 
given to articles on the history, religion, folk-lore, commerce and 
customs of this land. The Editorial Department will deal in a 
full and impartial manner with current topics of practical in¬ 
terest. • Translations from the Official Gazette will be made and 
The Literary Department will review current literature on 
Korea. 

Terms : 

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80 cents a number. 

In Europe and America, two gold dollars a year: 15 cents 
a number. 

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Agents. 

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’ Tokyo. 

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Museum, London. 

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All communications should be addressed to 

"THE KOREAN REPOSITORY 

Seoul, Korea. 



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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


IMI-A.'sr, 3 898. 


KOREAN’ GIXSKXG. 

T JIE aim of this article is to compile the information of several 
writers who have given the subject attention. The olxer- 
vations made and facts collated we l>elieve are of |K n;iaiicnt 
value and we prefer to give them in the language of the writers. 
The long residence in Korea of the lion. H. X. Allen and Jus 
careful study of this subject gi ve weight to his report. Lieutenant 
Totilk w«is the first American, and possibly foreigner for aught 
•we know to the contrary, to investigate and visit the ginseng 
plantations in person. His description of the farms and this 
prepa ration of the plant are therefore invested with peculiar interest 
as being given first hand. 

The ginseng crop for 1896 amounted in round numbers to 
31,000 catties or about 41,300 |x>nnds. This was valued in Korea 
at 8600,000 (silver) or 8300,000 gold. The export duty on this 
Mas half its valuation in Korea or 8150,000 gold. China is 
Korea’s best and most constant customer. In 1896, according to 
the report of Consul-General Allen from M'liich we take theso 
figures, Korean ginseng as declnicd at the several Chinese ports, 
amounted to 11,240 catties (14,9'w pounds) valued at 889.19'2 
taeles or 8247,137 gold or about 816.50. It is notorious, how¬ 
ever, that much of this precious root is smuggled thro the customs 
and it is possible the above figures do not represent much more- 
than half the actual imjxirtation into China from this countrv. 
It is also worthy of note that American ginseng sent to China ii» 
3896 was rated bv the customs at 8L86 gold per pound or nlxmfc 
one-ninth of the value set upon the article imported from Korea. 


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162 


THE KOREAN' REPOSITORY. 


[May, 

“There is also a conisiderahle import of Korean ginseng into 
Hongkong, which, being a British port, is not included in the 
imports ot the Chinese customs.” 

'J he production ot ginseng hns been so increased of late that 
the crop fin-181)7, which was marketed early in 1898, amounted to 
SI,20';,000 silver or §600,00J gold, and met with a ready sale 
in China. This output is double what it was the year before 
■and shows not only and encouraging increase but the latent re- 
forces of this country in the production of this plant. 

The report of the Un : ted States Consul General from which 
we quote was published in Washington, March 5th, 1898. 

‘ 'J he American and Korean ginseng roots differ in appear- 
*noc, the American seems to be made up largely of fibrous roods 
-called “beard,” while the Korean root is more compact. The 
two arc given different names by botanists. The Chinese plant 
is called Amlin schinxciuj, while the American is called Aralia 
•f/uinqnefolut. There is certainly a difference in the effect produced 
by the use of these two roots. The American ginseng is con¬ 
sidered by our medical authorities to be ‘inert.’ This cannot 
be said of the Korean root I have seen the latter produce sup¬ 
puration in otherwise healthy wounds when surreptitiously given 
to hasten the slow process of healing. When the cause was 
•discovered and removed, the wounds gradually came into proper 
•condition again. 

“Ginseng is the panacea for most of the ills of the Chinese 
■and Koreans, and has held this reputation for centuries. It can 
not have attained and preserved this reputation among these 
mi 11 io. s of people without possessing at least some of the virtues 
ributed to it; at least it can not be said to be ‘inert.’ 

’ Tokvc “Ginseng * s regarded by these peoples as a strong aphrodisiac, 
■-rinine has been shown to be so much more efficacious iti the 
Avenu Jmcut ^ IC ^' ro( l uent malarial fevers of those countries that 
jgeng has lost some of its popularity iu these cases; but, wher- 
Museu a t0, “ c or a Seating medicine’ is needed, ginseng continues 
qc resorted to, and, by combination with quiuiue, its re- 
don will be enhanced rather than diminished. It is su;> 
AlH to owe its great popularity in China to its properties as an 
„disiac. It is mixed with the American root iu the Chinese 
i to cheapen the price. 

“Wild ginseng is supposed in Korea to possess almost magical 
"ties. Such roots are usually kept for the royal family. 

The cultivated ginseng requires seven yeais to mature. It 
xl in little plots of richly manured soil, composed of the 
— dy rich, disintegrated granite of the country, well mixed 

af mold. The beds are kept carefully covered by mats of 



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KOREAN GINSENG. 


168 


3898.] 


other protection, raised sufficiently to allow of cultivation and oF 
the free access of air. Constant care must be given to keep tho 
plants moist and free from weeds. Frequent transplanting* are 
also required. 

“dn the seventh moon (about September) of the seventh year,, 
the seeds mature and the crop is harvested, tho roots which 

{ ;row for a longer time, a* in the case: of the wild root, are more 
uglily prized than the the seven-yrar ones. The seeds must not 
be allowed to liecomc |x»rfeecly dry, as they will then lose their 
vitality. They are planted very soon after having been gathered* 
say in September or early October. They arc planted in little 
trenches for convenience in watering, whicii must be don 3 reg¬ 
ularly every three days. 

“At first the seed bed is covered with large, thin slalis of 
limestone to keep it moist. These stones are removed about the 
time of the winter 9olstie? (December 21), when the plants are. 
seen to have nppeare I above ground. These little rootlets are 
then earelully transplanted to a richly manured bed, made some¬ 
thing on the order of the ‘cold frame/ and covered with a 
mulch of leaves and straw to keep in the warmth —not heat—of 
the bed and to prevent freezing. The thermometer usually falls 
to zero, or a little below, every winter, and the severe cold lasts 
for some time; but the ginseng seems never to suffer, tho I 
am assured it is not allowed to freeze. In the second moon of 
the next year (say March 1), the lit*lc plants, having attained a 
height of ab.mt an inch, are again transp’anted.” 

Lieutenant George C. Foulk was Naval Attache in United 
States Legation in 1884. From September 22nd to October 8tli 
he made an extensive journey in the capital district which in¬ 
cludes the cities of Song-do, Kang-wha, Su won and Kwang-ju* 
It is on this journey he examined into the manner of growing anti 
preparing the ginseng rai.sed so successfully at Song-do and in the* 
vicinity. Our compilation includes the.whole report as published 
in “Foreign Relations of the United States, 1885.” 

“The ginseng of Korea is held by the Chinese to be the best in 
the world. They have used the root for many hundreds of years 
as a strengthening medicine, place the most extraordinary value 
upon it, and ser lc for it in all parts of the world they visit; view¬ 
ing its efficacy from their standpoint, they may, therefore, be well 
able to make this, comparative estimation. Ginseng is f< und in 
China, but that there produced is considered inferior to the com¬ 
mon marketable article in Korea. The sale of it is and has been 
a monopoly of the Korean government, but as might be supposed 
in the case ot medicine so highly necessary as it is to the Chinese* 
immense amounts of it have been smuggled out of Korea in all 


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164 THE KORE.VX REPOStTORY. [May, 

kinds of ingenious ways across the northwestern border and by 
Junks from the west coast. 

“The Korean name for the root is ‘Sam,’ used with the pre¬ 
fixes ‘In’ (man) and ‘San’ (mountain) respectively, to distiliguisii 
the variety cultivated by man from that found growing wild in 
-dark mountain recesses. San-sam is extremely rare; many native 
have never scon it, and it h said to lx; worth fully its weight in 
gold. This kind of ginseng is sold by the single root, the price 
of which is said to have reached in the past nearly §2,000 for an 
•extraordinarily fine large s|>ociiiien. The san-sam root is much 
larger than any cultivated variety, its length ranging from a font 
to three and four, with a thickness at the head of from one and one- 
half to two and one-half inches. At the top of the root projx;r and 
base of the stem of the plant is a corky section of rings, the lium- 
l*er of which shows the age of the root. The seed of san-sam, 
planted in the mountains under eireumstanecs similar to those 
under which the mother plant grew, will produce a root somewhat 
like true san-sam, and in this way imitation san-sam is produced; 
Imt an effort to sell it as san-sam is regarded as a swindle, ami it 
is said that cx|x;rts reudilv perceive that it lias been produced by 
the aid of of man. It is believed that the virtues of san-sam dn 
not lie in the material comj'osition of the plant, but nrc due to \ 
mysterious jiower attached to it by being produced wholly ajwrt 
from man’s influence, under the care of a beneficent spirit or god. 
True san-sam is supjxiscd never fo have been seen by men while 
it was attaining the state in which it was found. Twenty, 
thirty and forty years have l«cn named to me as the ages of cer- 
"lain san-sam plants when found. 

“The san-sam root is carefully taken from the earth when 
■found, carefully' washed and gently serajxxl, then thoroughly sun- 
■dried. In administering it the whole r<x>t is eaten as one dose, it 
may lie in two jiarts. The person then liecomes unconscious (some 
^ieople here say dies) and remains so three days. After this the 
whole Ixxly is full of ills for about n month, then rejuvenation 
liegius, the skin liecomes clear, the body healthy, and the jierson 
■will henceforward live, free from sickness, suffering from neither 
licat nor cold uutil he has attained the age of ninety or an hundred 
jears. 

“The extreme rarity of san-sam augments the superstilions 
repute in which it is held ; as an intelligent Korean told me much 
t hat is said of it is only words; nevertheless, he maintained tliat 
«an-.snm was a wonderful medicine in its strengthening effects. 

“Insum, the cultivated ginseng of Korea, is produced in large 
•xpiaiititv, and is a common marketable article. While it is nnsf. 
highly appreciated by the Chinese, it is also‘believed to be (lie 


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KOREAN GISSEXG. 


' 181)8.] 


10O 


best of medicine® by Koreans. It is nearly all produced in two 
•distiuct sections of Korea, viz, at Song-do (Kai-seng), about sixty 
miles to the north and westward of the capital, and at Yong-snn. 
in Kyeng-sang-do, the southeastern most province of Korea. The 
qualities produced in these two sections arc regarded as differing, 
and the ginseng is known as Songsatn, or Yongsam, according as 
to whether it comes from Song-do or Yong-san, in Kyung-sarg- 
<lu, respectively. The former place I visited recently, anil in the 
Company of a government official inspected several of the prin¬ 
cipal farms. 

“The area of the section at Song-do in which ginseng is cul¬ 
tivated is small, not more than eight miles in diameter, nnd the 
groat majority of the farms are in plain sight from the city, lying 
■about its walls and in the city itself, upon the sites of houses of 
the time when Song-do was the capital of Korea. They appear 
from the distance as r umbors of singular brown patches lying on 
the grassy slopes ris : ng from the rice paddies. In general the 
farms arc low, but a few feet above the level of the paddies, but 
several farms I observed were well up on the hillsides. 

“Kadi farm is a rectangular compound, one part containing 
the buildings inclosed l»v a wall, the rest by hedges. The buildings, 
tho built as usual of mud, stones, earthenware, nnd untrimmed 
timbers, and thatched, are strikingly sujierior to the other houses 
of the Korean people; they are built in right lines, interiors 
neatly arranged, nnd walks and hedges in good order. In each 
oomjiound arc one or more tall, little watch towers, in which a 
regular lookout is held o .er the farm to prevent raids of thieves, 
who might make oil with paying amounts in handfuls of ginseng. 

“Nearest the entrance to the compound, which is a gate in the 
buildings court, are guest rooms, where sales arc discussed am! 
inspections of the gin?eng produced held by officers, and a dry 
storeroom. Beyond these are two other buildings, in which the 
curing of the fresh root i> carried on; from here on to the end of 
the coni|>ound are paraded rows of low, dark, mat sheds, with 
roofs sloping downwards towards the south or southwest. These 
rows are from seventy-five to two hundred feet long and four feet 
apart, ami the mat sheds about four feet high at their front (north) 
sid<“s which arc closed by mats which swing from the top, thus, 
giving access to the farmer in his care of the plants. AVithin the 
shells are beds about eight inches high for the growing ginseng 
plants, which arc in rows extending across the beds, about two 
feet long. 

“The row (or shed) nearest the houses is the seid-bed for all 
the plants grown on the farm. The soil appeared to Ik? of medium 
strength as indicated by color, was soft and co tained fine gran.to 


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166 


THE KOBEA5* REPOSITORY. 


[Mar, 


sand in small proportion (dead leaves broken up finely arc used 
as manure). In the Korean 9th month (September—Oetolier) the 
seeds are stuck quite thickly in the seed-bed to a depth of three 
inches in little watering trenches about three inches apart. Once 
in each three days’ interval during its whole life the plant is 
watered, and the bed carefully inspected to prevent crowding, 
decay, and the ravages of worms and insects. The mat-shed is 
kept closely shut, for ginseng will only grow in the dark or a very 
weak light. 

“The mats of the sheds are made of round brown reeds and 
vines closely stitched together, admitting only the faintest light. 

“In the second month uf the second year alter planting, 
(February), the root is regarded as formed and the general shape 
of the plant above ground attained. The root is then tender and 
white, tapering off evenly from a diameter of tliree-sixtcenths of 
an inch at the top to a fire long point in a length of three and one- 
half inches; from it hang a number of fine, hair-like tendrils. 
From the ground stands a single straight reddish stem about two 
inches, and then spreads out into tiny branches and leaves nearly 
at right angles to the stem. The shape is nearly that of die 
matured plant. 

“In the following February (of the third year), the seed plants 
are transplanted to the adjoining beds, five or «-ix to each cross 
row, the watering trenches being here between the plant rows. 
In this second bed the plants remain one year, and are then trans¬ 
planted to the third bed and planted, still farther apart in their 
respective rows. A year later they are again transplanted, this 
time to their final b:d where they remain two and a half or three 
years. Generally speaking seven years are required from the 
time of planting until the plant is matured. After its life in the 
seed-bed, exacting care in keeping out the light is not so neces¬ 
sary, and I noticed the swinging mat was removed entirely from 
the fronts of sIkhIs of plants in the final beds. 

“In the autumn of the seventh year thf seeds ripen and aw 
gathered; these appear on a short stem standing upward from the 
ruaiu stem in continuation of it, where the branches turn off 
horizontally. The seed stem is broken oft an inch above the 
branches, the seeds sun-dried a little and stored away. Immedi¬ 
ately after this the harvest of the roots begins. The ‘•eeds are 
white, rather flat, and round, slightly corrugated, having» 
diameter of about one-sixteenth of an inch, and a thickness of 
one-eight to three-sixteenth inches. 

“The ripe root has a stem about fourteen inches long, standing 
nicely perpendicular to the ground. At this distance spread oat 
at a closely common point the branches, usually five, on which »t 


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KOREAN GINSENG. 


167 


1898.] 

a distance of about four inches from the main-stem top, is a group 
of five leaves, three large ones radiating at small angles and to 
small ones at right angles to the branch at their common base. 
The larger leaves are oval, edges shallowly but sharply notched; 
length and breadth, are two inches respectively; color, nearly a 
-chestnut green. The stem is stiff and woody, ribbed longitud¬ 
inally. The root is nearly a foot long, and is made up of four 
■different sections ordinarily; the first or upper one, a small 
irregular knot, forming a head to the main root below. From it 
•extends down over the main root a number of slender rootlets 
terminating in stringy points. The second section is the body of 
the root, w.iich is short, soon separating into a number of bulbous 
parts, four of which are prominently large. These four parts are 
■commonly called the Ugs and arms. The bulbous parts round 
suddenly and then taper off into small slender sections, from Avhich 
•extends a great number of hair-like feeders. The thickness of the 
main part of the root or body rarely reaches one inch. 

“Soon after the seeds have been gathered in October the plants 
and roots intact are carefully taken from the earth. The stems 
■are readily broken off, the roots washed, placed in small baskets 
with large meshes, and at once taken to the steaming-houses. 
Here are flat, shallow iron boilers over fire-places, over which are 
■earthenware vessels two feet in diameter and as many high with 
-close-fittings lids. In the bottoms of the earthenware vessels are 
five holes two inches in diameter. Water is boiled in the iron 
vessels, the steam rising and filling the upper vessels thro these 
holes. 

“The small baskets containing the roots having been placed in 
the earthen vessel and the latter tightly closed, the steaming pro¬ 
cess goes on for from one and a half to four hours, when the roots 
-are removed and taken to the drying-house. Th : s is a long 
building containing racks of bamboo poles, on which in rows are 
placed flat drying-baskets. Under the floor of the hoase, at inter¬ 
vals of three or four feet, are fire-places, the smoke from which 
passes out of small holes in the back of the houses under the floor 
level. In the baskets of the drying-houses the roots are spread 
4ind the fires kept going constantly for about ten days, when the 
roots are supposed to be cured. From here they are packed for 
the market in rectangular willow baskets closely lined with paper 
to exclude moisture. 

“During this process the roots become very toughly hard, awl 
their color changes from carroty white to nearly a cherrywood 
red. They break hard but crisply, exhibiting a shiny, glassy 
fracture, translucent, dark red. The ginseng resulting from this 
process is called hong-sam (red ginseng), and is the article pro-. 


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THE XOEEAN* HETOSITOIiT. 


[May, 


hibited from export from Korea in all the treaties made by Korea, 
with the western powers. It is the most common ginseng see- 
in Korea, and by far the majority of it is produced in the Song- 
do section. 

“ ‘Paksam’ is insam simply washed, scraped, and sun-dried 
after being taken from the earth. This kind is much used 
domestically, but not having been cured w ill not bear ex|K>rtatiou. 
It is regarded by many as better medicine than homy-nm, and is 
occasionally, depending upon form and quality, high in price 
consequently. 

“The ways of using insam are many. Most commonly, cut 
or broken into small pieces, it is nrxed with other medicines t>> 
form pills, tablets, decoctions to be drunk, etc. Sometimes the 
plain root is eaten dry. This is very common. 

“Old people make a warm decoction by boiling the simple 
root cut in pieces. It would seem to be regarded as a strengthell¬ 
ing medicine for every part of the system. The shn])e of the root 
is commonly likened to that of a man, a consequence of its four 
distinct shape sections. By some jieople each of these differeut 
parts of the man is believed to be adapted to a particular com¬ 
pliant; thus the bend to eye affections, the body to general de¬ 
bility, the arms and legs to stomach disorders, eolds and feni nil- 
disorders. This man slin|>e of the root figures largely in the pur¬ 
chase of certain kinds of ginseng, especially with that of sansam. 

“A rival of Korea in supplying ginseng for the Chinese 
market is Primorsknya, province of Siberia, in the vicinity of 
Yladivostock. About here great numbers of Chinese congregate 
in search of it. Near cnc place to the northeastward of Yladi¬ 
vostock, Souchan and on the Danbihe River it is cultivated quite 
largely by them. The various nomadic tribes in eastern Silieria 
seek for sansam in the mountains, and in its sale, together with 
that of sable-skins, find their living. 

“The method of cultivation given above is that explained to 
me at one of the ginseng farms at Song-do; I hnve been told, 
however, that there arc other slightly different methods followed 
in different places and by different farmers. Some roots arc fit 
for market in five and a half or six years after p'anting, but t-» 
produce the best article, seven years growth is necessary. Tm* 
jnarket price of red ginseng (hong-sum) is at present nearly .d 
per English pound.” 

Dr. Alien concludes his interesting report with a few observ¬ 
ations of a practical nature which we are sure will be read by 
those interested in the culture of ginseng. 

Numerous requests are received at this office from time to 
time for ginseng seeds. It will be seen from reading this lepuft 


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3898.] 


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that it is useless to send the seeds to America, ns they will dry 
out on the way and fail to germinate when planted. 

“Roots of the age of one, two, three, and four years have been 
on two occasions scoured with considerable difficulty and sent by 
express at considerable expense to the Department of Agriculture 
at Washington. The first shipment of these roots arrived in a 
rotten condition; the second lot must have survived, as no com¬ 
plaints have been received. If these roots are carefully handled, 
they should in a few years produced seeds for distribution.” 

We conclude this article by quoting a short extract on the 
same subject made in 1897 by R. Willis, Esq. of H. B. M’s 
Consul General at Seoul. Mr. Willis journeyed into the north 
of Korea ns far ns Pyeug-yang. He has the following remarks 
on the culture of ginseng at Song-do. 

“The chief industry of Songdo is however, the production 
of ginseng, a plant which is highly esteemed as a tonic by both 
Chinese and Japanese, as well as by the Koreans themselves. 
The country in the immediate vicinity of the city is given up al¬ 
most entirely to its cultivation. The seedl.ngs are planted in 
row’s in raised beds and are covered from wind and rain bv a 
reed that climbs some three feet in height. During the earlier 
stages of its growth, the plant requires to be frequently trans¬ 
planted, and it requires from six to seven years to reach maturity. 
The ginseng gardens, which arc from one to two acres in extent, 
are carefully fenced in, and in the center an elevated mat shed 
is raised for the watchman, who has to observe particular precau¬ 
tions as the plant reaches the later and more valuable stages of 
its growth. 

“The so-called ‘red’ ginseng, which is only made at Song¬ 
do, is especially prepared for the foreign market. The roots of 
the plant arc p’aced in wicker baskets, which are inclosed in 
cart hern war? pots with holes in the bottom and then set over 
boiling water and steamed for a period of from one to four hours, 
according to the age of the plant. It takes about two catties* of 
the white, or natural, ginseng to make one catty of the clarified 
product. The white ginseng is grown at various other places 
in the peninsula and is largely consumed by the Koreans, who 
have the greatest faith in it as a cure for all f rms of disease. 
It is generally eousumed by them in the form of broth. The 
roots having been well stewed, the Korean epicure wraps a 
napkin round them, squeezes it dry, and proceeds to drink up 
the juice. Quinine has, however, recently bten largely intro- 
ducal into the country, more especially by certain missionary 


* A catty equa’.s I ,' j pounds. 


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170 THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. [May, 

bod it's, who have a custom of rewarding the native disseminaton 
their religious literature by supplying them with this drug at 
-cost price, and thus enabling them to subsist on the profits of id 
sale. The drug, to which equally magical propel ties are gra¬ 
dually being attributed, has already to a large extent superseded 
the use of ginseng amongst the natives. 

“Up to 1894, the proceeds of the taxation of ‘red’ ginseng— 
the ‘white,’ as far as I am aware, pays no duties—formed a portion 
of the royal revenue; but the king at that time gave up this 
perquisite as well as others in exchange for a regular civil list, 
and the collection of the ginseng dues is now under the control of 
the foreign maritime customs. A license is still required by the 
•grower, and the annual production is limited to 15,000 catliea 
It pays export duty at the rate of cent per cent ad valorem, thil 
varying from about sixteen dollars to seventeen dollars per catty, 
the value of the ginseng being in proportion to the smallness of 
the numljcr of the roots taken to make up the catty. The mot 
expensive runs about six or seven sticks to the catty, while the 
average amount of duty on this quautity is reckoned at tea 
■dollars.” 


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TEE k-ONG 01/5 IN KOK IK. 


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THE MONGOLS IN KOREA. 

II 

W ITH the opening of 1259 the King of Koryo sent an 
envoy to the Mongol emperor with a view to putting: 
himself on a more friendly footing in that quarter, but 
un'ortunately this envoy was waylaid by Koryo renegades and 
killed. Thus it was that Koryo was ever discredited in the eyes 
of'China. The Mongols who had firmly established themselves 
in the north now begun to cultivate the fields about I 'yeng- 
yang with a view to permanent residence. They repaired the 
walls of the ti vn and constructed war boats to lie used on the 
waters of the Ta-dong. In view of this the king gave up the 
hope of ridding himself of the Mongol incubus except by send¬ 
ing the Crown Prince to China, When Gen.'Cha Ka-da beard 
of this be was highly pleased. Of course it would appear that 
he had brought about this happy result. This was in the third 
moon. Gen. Cha expected the anival of the prince the follow¬ 
ing month and was to escort him to China. When he heard 
that the prince was not to start till the fifth moon he was very 
angry, and therefore the kiug hurried the preparations and 
dispatched him in the fouith moon. His escort consisted of 
forty men and there wore three hundred hoiee loads of goods. 
In gool time all arrived at the court of the Mongol emperor. 
Gen. Cha however did not enjoy Lis triumph, for at this very 
time he sickened and died. 

The emperor happened to be away on nn expedition 
against the Sung Empire in the south so thepviici announced 
bin self to the officials in charge at the court. They asked if 
the king bad as yet gone back to Soug-do, to which the priuco 
replied in tlie negative. As a result of this embassy the order 
for extra trocps to be sent to Koryo was cancelled and instead 
an order was sent the king to pull down the palaces on Kang- 
wha. It is asserted that the king agreed to this m;d that 
when the paLccs were demolished the sound of the failing build- 


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•THE KOREA if REPOSITORY. 


[■May, 


ings could In heard man}' miles. The kins; survive! this cala¬ 
mity only a lew months, for he passed away in the latter part 
•of 1259. 

The Moneols continued to reiterate their demands that the 
people of Koryo should come hack to the uiuinlaud from the 
islands on which they had taked refuge but they answered that 
•the absence of the crown prince was a continued source of 
•uneasiness and fear and that eve.i if he came h ick it would ba 
impossible to get all the people ha ;k to their original homes in¬ 
side of three years. 

The whole noith was in a desperate state. Whenever 
the people of any district did not liki their prefect they would 
•drive him out and invite the Mongols ii'. and the government 
did not dare lo interfere for fear of bringing down upon thero- 
selves the renewed anger of the powerful couquerere of the 
north. 

It was in the following year, 12G0, that the crown print* 
•followed the emperor into t ie south of China, determined to 
lueet him and secure if possible some more friendly terms with 
him than Korvo had as yet enjoyed. No sooner had the prince 
•succeeded in reaching the camp of the emperor than the latter 
•died. A general named Aribalga (accotding to Korean promin- 
<iation) arbitrarily seized the reins of power nnd determined to 
leconie emperor. But the prince knew that the great Trince 
IKublsj, whom the Koreans call Hoi P’il-ryul, vould certainly 
lie able to rut down this pretender, so he left the camp of the 
latter at night pnd struck off ac oss the country towards the 
•camp of the }oung Kublai. He found Kublai Khan in Kang- 
nam and was the first to inform him of the emperoi’s decease. 
Together they hastened towards Peking where the prince for 
the first time beard the news of his fathei’s death. 

The new emperor, the renowned Kublai Khan, sent tbe 
prince back to Koryo with gerat honor 1 elieving that he bal 
•secured a faithful subject. The crown prince’s son who hd 
been at ting as regent until his father’s arrival came out with a 
.-treat retinue to welcome his return and to show honor to to 
Mongol gen« ra's who accompanied him, and together the wbol# 
party crossed the straits to the island of Kang-wha. It appeu* 
that alibo the Mongol demand that the palaces on Kang-vvb* 
should be destroyed had been complied with, some of them b«<j 
been lelt for use in future contingencies. The new king imro^i 
tely sent some of his officials back to Song-do so as to make >> 
appear that he intended to move the court back there. Ti fl 
Mongols took this to be tbe sign of eorapliar.ee and all troop 5 
'were ordered out of tbe country. The king himself went*) 


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•189?.] 


far as to cioss the water and take up bis station at Tong-jin, 
which corroborated the belief that Koryo was at last submis¬ 
sive. The young crown prince was seat as envoy to China 
but the treasury was so completely drained that in order to 
•cover the expenses of the embassy the officials bad to make up 
the sum out of their private incomes. An urgent request was 
preferred at the court of the Mongols, namely, that the em¬ 
peror should no longer listen to the statements of Koryo rene¬ 
gades. The emperor granted the request. 

But this period of friendship was brief for shen the em¬ 
peror demanded copper trom the king the latter sent to a Chi¬ 
nese port and bought it and thus complied with the demand, but 
the emperor charged him with bad laith and said lie was lying 
about the resources of the country and that he had givn false 
•estimates of the census of the country. A renegade Korean 
named Hong took advantage of this to poison the mind of the 
-emperor against the king, claiming that the latter intended to 
cast off the Mongol yoke at the first opportunity. 

In 12153 the king was ordered to repair to Peking. A 
long discussion followed. The monks said in effect “I told you 
^o.” for they had long ago promised the king that if he would 
but favor them he would not be forced to go again to the Chi¬ 
nese capital. But he went, leaving his son tc administer the 
government in his absence. There was at the Chinese capital 
-a renegade Korean named Sun who had married a Mongol 
piincess and had become a tboro Mongol in his sympathies. Ha 
made the emperor believe that there were in Koryo 80,000 sol¬ 
diers whom he might call to China to aid in his projected con- 
•quests. When the emperor broached the subject, how’ever, one of 
the courtiers in the king’s suite turned to this Sun aud said. “If 
this is true then the emperor should appoint Sun as a commis¬ 
sioner to go to Koryo and bring these troops.” This was a teil- 
ling blow, for Sun knew that if he once crossed the Koryo bor¬ 
der bis life would not be worth an hour’s ransom. So he dis¬ 
cretely dropped the subject. The king returned to Koryo ia 
December of the same year. 

In 1265 were sown the seed which bore as its fruit the at¬ 
tempted invasion of Japan by the Mongols. A Koryo citizen, 
•Oho I, found his way to Peking and there having gained the 
ear of the emperor, told him that the Mongol power ought to 
secure the vassalage of Japan. The emperor listened iavora- 
bly and determined to make advances in that direction. As a 
preliminary step he appointed Heuk Jok and Eun Hong as 
^envoys to Japan and ordered them to go by way of Koryo and 
lake with them from that country a Koryo envoy to Japan. 


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174 THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. [May, 

Arriving at the Koryo court they delivered their message, and 
two officials, Sun Gun-oi and Kim Cli’an, were appointed en¬ 
voys to accompany the Mongols. They all pioceeded by way 
of Ko-je harbor in Kyung-sang province and embarked safely 
from that place, but before they bad gone far they were swept 
by a fierce storm and were fain to hurry back to the Koryo 
shoie. The king* who probably did not fancy this action on 
the part of the Mongols, made this an excuse for giving the 
project up and sending the Mongol envoys back to their master. 
The emperor was ill satisfied with this outcome of his plan 
and send Heuk Jok straight back to Koryo with the order to 
the king to forward him immediately to Japan together with 
a Koryo envoy. The message which the Mongol carried to 
Japan read as follows: "The Mongol power is friendly dis¬ 
posed toward you and wishes to open comraunicaticn with you. 
She does not desire your submission but if you will accept her 
patronage the great Mongol empire will cover the entire earth.” 
Tho king, as in dutv bound, forwarded tbc envoy and sent 
word to the emperor that they had gone to Japan. 

Meanwhile the emperor was being worked upon by disign¬ 
ing men who were seeking to injure Koryo. They succeeded 
so well that an envoy was dispatched to Koryo bearing six spe¬ 
cified charges against the king (1) You have enticed Mongol 
people to Koryo. (2) You failed to feed our troops while there. 
(3) You persistentk refuse to return to your capital. (d) When 
our envoy went to Koryo you set a watch upon his movements, 
(o) Your tribute has not been nearly equal to our demands 
•-(6) You brought it about that the embassy did not get away tp 
Japan at first. The emperor’s suspicions contiuu» d to increase 
until at last he sent two powerful generals to brirg to Pe¬ 
king the two most influentiM men in Koryo. one of whom was 
Kim Jun the viceroy, or “Shogun.” Kim Jun.oti hearing of 
this, advised to put the two ge* erals to death and then defy the 
Mongols, but the king knew that this was suicidal and vetoed 
it. But the viceory took matters into his own hands and when 
tbe generals arrived t e promptly killed - them. The king and 
court were dumbfounded at his temerity, but dared not lav 
hands on him for he had a powerful hackirg. All felt sure that 
they would have to suffer for this rash act. Fortunately for 
them, however, other events of great importance were tnnspir- 
ing which distracted the att°ntion of the emperor and secured 
immunity from punishment for tbe time being. 

The Mongol and Koryo envoys upon reaching the Japan¬ 
ese capital were treated with marked disrespec t. '1 Lev were 
not allowed to enter the gates hut were lodged at a j Uce 


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called T’a-ja-bu, outside the west gate of the city. There they 
waited five months, and their entertainment was of the poorest 
qualitv. At last they were dismissed without receiving an an¬ 
swer either to the emperor or to the ki:ig. 

Kublai Khan was not the sort of man to relish this kind of 
treatment and he sent in haste to the king saying- “I have 
decided to invade Japan. You must immediately begin the 
building of one thousand boats. You must fuinish four thous¬ 
and bags of rice and a contingent of iO.OJO troops.” The 
king replied that this was beyond his power, for so many of the 
people had run away that it was impossible to get together the 
requisite number of workmen. The emperor was resolute how¬ 
ever and sent a commissioner to see that his orders were be¬ 
ing carried out and to make a survey of the 6traits between 
Koryo and Japan in the vicinity of Heuk-sau Island. The Em¬ 
peror could hardly believe that the Japanese would dare treat 
his envoy so disrespectfully and suspected that it was a ruse on 
the part of the King of Koryo; so he decided to send Heok.Jok 
once more to Japan. This envoy was accompanied by the 
Koryo envoy, him Sji-iun. 

Meanwhile Kim Jun the “Shogun” finding that his foul 
murder of the Mongol envoy remained unpunished, became 
proi'der and more headstrong. He went 60 far to steal provis¬ 
ions that were intended for the king’s table. The latter there¬ 
fore planned to kill him but darednot do so openly. A ooufc- 
tier, Itn Yun, was selected by the king fur the work in hand 
and one day while all the other officials were away the king 
arranged a plan whereby this Itn Yun fell upon the obnoxious 
viceroy and knocked his brains out. Im Yun in turn being 
carried away by the estimate of bis own improtauce de¬ 
posed tbe king an set up one Chang os king in bis stead. The 
emperor learned of it and after some considerable diplomacy 
succeeded in getting the king back on the thron^ where hesoon 
made way with the traitorous viceroy. The spring of 1268 
opened and still the envoys had not returned fiom Japan. The 
Koryo people succeeded in capturing some Japanese on the 
coast of Tsushima and sent them to the emperor, who was de¬ 
lighted. He showed them all the greatness of his treasure, 
review* d the array iu their presence and then sent them bade 
borne to tell their king that he Bbould make terms with such a 
powerful empire as the Mongol. The Korean accounts do not 
tell us when the embassy returned from Jap>an nor with what 
success but as to the latter we must of course conclude that it 
wasas fruitless the as the first had been. ; 

The Koryo troops were abusing the people and when the 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[May, 

lung ordered them to disband they went in a body to Kana¬ 
wha. After robbing ti ere at will they went into the south and 
raised a rebellion. The emperor hearing of this judged, and 
rightly, that the king was unable to govern the country; 
so he sent a commissioner to Song do to assume control ol of- 
lairs until the state of the country was more settled. 

Matters stood thus when, in 1270, the emperor deter¬ 
mined to send another envoy to Japan. Clio Yorg-p’il and 
Hong Du-ga were appointed to that important mission and 
they were joined in Ivoiyo by Yang Yun-so the representative 
of that country. This mission was charged with the somewhat 
dangerous task of demanding the submission of Japan. 

That the emperor did not anticipate success in tlisis 
shown by the fact that hecrdcicd rice fields to be nadein 
Pong-san, Korye, to raise rice for an army of invasion which 
he intended to launch upon Japan. For this wont lie ordered 
the king to furnish 6,0C0 plows, oxen, and sufficient Eeed grain. 
The king protested that this was quite beyond his power, but 
the emperor insisted, and so the unhappy monarch sent through¬ 
out the country and succeeded in getting together a fraction 
of the material demanded. The emperor also aided by send¬ 
ing 10,000 pieces of silk. 

The rebel array in the south bad been overcome and many 
of the soldiers had been carried ®\vay captive to China. They 
were now sent back to Song do lor punishment. A curious 
complication arose in connection with this. Many of these 
soldiers while looting in Kang-wha had earned away wives of 
officials, these accompanied their new lords to China. Flow 
that all were returned to Song-do many of these women met 
their former Lusbands. Some were received back gladlv while 
others were not wanted owing to new arrange nents which were 
satisfactory. But the king oidered all officials who fouad 
their former wives to receive them back. 

The commissioner whom the emperor had established at 
Song-do was a mild and careful ruler and the people appreci¬ 
ated him. He now fell ill und the king sent him medicine, but 
he replied: "If I should take this medicine and then die the 
emperor might suspect that I had beep poisoned and you 
would get into trouble.*' So ihe gen«rops man let the disease 
run its course and be expired amidst the lamentations of the 
people. Their high appreciation of his just government over¬ 
came their prejudice against his birth. 

It was in this same year, 1270, that Kublai Khan fno- 
claimed the name of his empire Yuan. 

The eventful year 1273 opened with a vigorous demand 


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on the part of ihe emperor that the kin" prepare 300 vessel*, 
lor which he was to supply not only the labor but the materials 
e8 well. At the same time the vanguard of the anny of inva¬ 
sion, 5.000 strong, came to Koryo, perhaps to see shat the oi- 
ders of the emperor were cat l ied out Tr ey brought 33.000 
pieces of silk to pay for the cost of their maintenance. Silk was 
the very last thing that the poverty-stricken people of Koryo 
want el, but it w>,s forced upon them and th°y had to wear 
silk while their stomachs went empty. The king, in obedience 
to the emperor’s commands, assembled 3,500 carpenters and 
oth-^r artisans necessary for the building of t' e boats and ttie 
work was begun. The emperor’s next demand wns along an¬ 
other line, lie wanted a hundred and forty women to distrib¬ 
ute among h s loyal generals. The king complied by sending 
tin wives of robbers and slaves together with many widows, 
and these unfortunates, as they went, gave vent to their grief 
by loud lamentations. 

.Famine stared the capital in the face and the emperor 
was obliged to send 20,000 bags of rice to relieve the distress, 
lest his plans should all fall to the ground. In spite of the 
inauspiciousness of the times, the crown prince, who had been 
betrothed to a Mongol princess was sent to Peking where 
the nuptials were celebrated with fi ring pomp. Immediately 
upon this the emperor sent to Korvo the main body of the 
army of invarion consisting of 25,000 men Thus slightingly 
did the gre.t Mongol gauge tne prowess of the Island Empire. 

The king died while his son was in China and the em¬ 
peror hastened to confer the royal title on him ard scud him back 
to take charge of affairs. The princes*, his wife, did not accom¬ 
pany him but remained behind to fellow at leisure. 

The events above recorded followed thick and fast upon 
each other and now the great aiul long expected invasion of 
Japan was about to become an accomplished fact. The entire 
army of invasion rendezvoused on the southeastern coast of 
Korea opposite the islands of Japan. It consisted cf 25,000 
troops under Generals Hoi Don, Hong Da-gu and Yu Bok- 
byung, and 15,000 Koryo troops under Gen. Kim Bmg- 
gyung. The flotilla which was to convey tbes 1 temps to Japan 
consisted of 900 boats. Sailing a -vay fro n the shores of Koryo 
the flee: made directly lor the island of Iki off the coast of 
Japan. Entering the harbor of Sim-nang (s>cil!ed by the 
Koreans) they found tlKre a little garrison. Generals Ki n 
and Hong attained this outpost an 1 returned to the fleet, it 
is arid with 1,000 heals. From this point they advanced to 
the mainland* landing at several points at once with the inteL- 


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THE KOI E\N BErOSiTORT. 


[May, 

tion of miking a g moral adv mce into the country along parallel 
litijs. Too J ip.in too a vac ted .them in a spiiMol mum *r and 
checkel th » alvinc 1 , b iz \v u*: th i nselve* checked by the Kor¬ 
yo Gen. P.ik, w;io n the M ingols pr.iisil high’y for his valor. 

It w is a forjgoee conolusion th at thci a’liol Mongol and 
Koryo fore; mint retire sooner or liter from lvforo the hardy 
Japanese. Forty thousuul mm could do nothing on the main- 
) md of Japan. Tnis soon lvcame evident and t he allies slowly 
withdrew to the c ia~t. Nature aided the Japanese, fjr a storm 
»ros3 whichivch d many ot tun boats ai d many n ore were 
scattered. We are told that the total loss of .‘lie allies was 
J3.U0 ) men. The remnants of the ll :et rendt zvoused as best 
they c mid aid shied hick to Koryo. So ei ded the first at¬ 
tempt to subdue the Land of the Idisipg Sun 

Meanwhile < vents veic 1 ot at a standstill i" the peninsula. 
The king went as !ar as 1\ yang-yang lo inert It's bride and escort 
her to tlie capita!. He gave her a palace ol her own fitted up 
according to Mi-, gol ideas. The records siv that the doors 
were lmng with sheepskins. This would doubtless be in aco r- 
dance with Mongol ideas. The king’s former wife was 
.lowered to the p« l ition of concubine. The Mnngolizing tendency 
had now gum- s • far that the order was given to cut the hair 
according io Mongol style. This proposition was hotly d-bated 
'but at last tiie 'userv.itives were voted di.wn and the coiffure 
and dress of th i Mongols were a opted, 

An amusii c incident occutr > 1 about this l in°. A cour¬ 
tier named Fa Gyu obsemAd lo ilie king: “The male popula- 
tion of the pollin' da 1ms Ix'en decimated but there are still plenty 
of women. This is why the Mong Is take so many of them. 
There is danger that the pure Koryo stock will become vitia¬ 
ted bv the admixture of the wild stock The king should let 
■each man take several wives and should remove the disabilities 
under which the sons cf concubines at present labor.” When 
this came to the ears of the women they were up in arms and 
■each one read her lord such a lecture that the matt re was 
■dropped as being too hot to handle. When the king passed 
thro the streets with Ta Gyu in his retinue, title women 
•would point to him and s iy, “There goes the man who wou'd 
make concubines of ns all.” 

In spite of the failure of the first attempt at invasion the 
emperor could not yet believe that the Japanese were serious 
in their opposition to his will; so he sent another envoy demand¬ 
ing that the king of Japan come to Peking and do obeiRauop, 
We may well imagine with what r.dicule this proposition wu 
greeted at the capital of the hardy island m. 


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THE MONGOLS IN KOREA. 


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The sporting proclivities of the Mongol Queen cl Ivciyo 
were an objeet of wonder and disgust to the people of that land. 
She always nccoo panied the king in his hunting expeditions 
and was ns geed a horseman ns any in the route. She was in¬ 
cited the “new woman’’ of the times. 

The finances of the country could not have linen in a worse 
shape. It was found necessary to reconstruct the whole finun- 
* ial system and for the first time in the history of Korea a 
general tax was levied of high and low, rich and poor alike. It 
W88 called to l o p’oor "house liren” as it was levied on that 
article. This shows that tho coin circulated, barter was aa 
yet thp common method of interchange of commodity's. 

The queen was a thrifty won an and let no small scruples- 
on the score of her dignity as Queen stand in the way of pro- 
ourirg pin money. She took a golden pagoda from one of the 
monasteries and incite 1 it down. The bullion lound a ready 
Fale. She also went into the ginseng business, stealing the reo- 
ple’s bird and forcing labor. She marketed tlie crop in Na:- 
king. She hud her ow n ideas, too, about women’s rights, for on 
one occasion when the king took piecedence of her in a proces¬ 
sion she turned back and refused to go. The king returned 
to the palace and tried to pacify her but she struck him >'ith a 
rod and gave him a round scolding. Meanwhile she was doing 
a strokj of business in sea otter skim, but her agents cheated 
her so that she was obliged to give it up. 

By the year Tj 79 the entire official class had adopted the 
Mongol dress and coiffure. Tire Mongol influence was now at 
its zenith in Koryo. Ju this year the whole royal fa nily ma le iu 
visit to Peking wh : oh was the sgml for grant festivities an that 
gay capital. It put an en l once for all to the suspicions enter- 
iaml by the emperor relative tr the loyalty of the King of 
Koryo, 

(To Le continued) 


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a? 


it 



LLT PARR LANDI-, M.D. 

HORN-DEC KM liEU ] 8, 1865. 

MED — APRIL 10, 1808. 

I T is no easy task for one who knew the good “little doctor” 
as intimately as I did to attempt to write anv thing like a 
me noir, or to give any appreciation of the many-sided and 
Kctive life, which was so unexpectedly brought to aclossin 
Uhemnlpo la«t Easter week. Panegyrics disgust and irritate by 
their unreality, while the use ol such perfect frankness in 
epeaking of a dead friend as one would not have hesitate 1 to em¬ 
ploy to his face in life is apt to wear (to outsiders at least) an 
appearance of invidious criticism, as many a recent biographer 
ha* found to his cost. But if intimacy imposes its disabilities, 
it imposes its r. sponsibi'ities too, and among these I cannot 
but count the task of attempting to put onreord.asl have 
Iteen asked to do, something about a life sc dear to many of us 
as that of Eli Barr Landis. 

And first for a few biographical notes. He was born Decem¬ 
ber 18, 1865, in the city of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, U. S. A, 
where for generations past his forefathers seem to have lived. He 
was one of several children of Mr. F. J. Landis of that city, who 
survives to mourn 1 is son’s loss, tho his mother seems ta 
have been some years dead. Like many other citizens of the 
United States and most other sensible people, “the litt'e d x*toi*' 
avas much interested in the h'story of ti e stock from which Ilia 
family sprang: and I well remember the g!-~e with which on his 
return from his hurried visit to Europe and America m 18<)(> f he 
produce 1 a description of the Landis coat of arms, which ho 
had ferreted out of the Ibdlean library at fix ford and which, 
-out of mv small stores of half-forgotten heraldic lore, I had to 
"“blazon’’ for him, trars’ating the jargon of the heralds into lan¬ 
guage undo stood by ordinary mortals. The Landis fami’y ap¬ 
pears 10 have hailed originally from Switzerland (or more proL- 
4ibly, Holland) and to have migrated i i the 17th century to 
-America, in tin hope of avoiding the persccutons to which it* 


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1898.] ELI BARR LANDIS, M.D. 181 

members wpre exposed in the land of their birth on the ground 
of their religious belief as Meniionites.* 

As we shall see by and by, Dr. Landis saw reason, when 
he reached years of discretion, to surrender the religious tenets 
•of his ancestors and relatives, in deference to the claims of the 
Church, of which until the day of his death he remained a de¬ 
voted son. But he never ceased to be a true Amercan in bis 
•sympathies, in spite of the very English atmosphere by which 
lie was surrounded in the mission which was proud to couut 
him among its members. From ns naturally he got quite 
-a fair share of teasing as a “ Yankee” (a name of which lie was 
not fond), and I doubt whether be ever appreciated at its real 
value the mischievous compliment we delighted in paying him 
that lie would almost pa-s muster as an Englishman! But his 
jjood humor was unfailing and if the truth must fcc told, I think 
that in the matter of chaff he generally gave as good as lie got. 

In 1883, at the age of eighteen, he matriculated at the State 
Normal School at Millersville. Two years later, after some pre¬ 
liminary study of medi title, he matriculated in HS-A, in the medi- 
•cal department of the University of Pennsylvania, where he 
•continued bis studies until 1888. After taking his degree as 
Doctor in Medicine Iroin the University of Pennsylvania in May, 
3888, he was appointed resident pbys’cian to the Lancaster 
■Gninty Hospital and Insine Asylum, a post which lie resigned 
in the autumn of 388.1, when he removed to New York as resi- 
•tle'.it physician to A.l Saints Convalescent Home. 

It was while here in 1890 that lie first met Doctor Corfe, 
who bad been recently consecrated Bishop in England and who 
was then on his way across the American continent, to take up 
liis new post iu Korea, t 

# An Anabaptist sect unknown (at hast by this name) in England, 
tho boasting a considerable following in Canada and the United States, 
rakes its name from Simon Menno, a Dutchman, who gathered together 
what was left of the Anabaptists in Hollan i, after the suppression of John 
<>f Lcvdcn and his "new Jerusalem," and formed them into a more spiiitual 
and less dangerous revolutionary body. Many of the Mcnnonites appear 
to have migrated to America on the invitation of W iliam Penn, in the latter 
part of the 17th century: and donbtlcss amongst these were the ancesrors of 
Dr, Landis, the greater number of whose relatives appear to be Mcnnonites 
to this day. 

T The Rev. C. J. Corfe, D. D., of All Soul's Col'ege, Oxford, for nrnnv 
•years a chaplain in the Koval Navy and honorary t hap um t<> His Royal 
Highness, the Duke of Edinburgh, was consecrated a Ihshop in Westtirn- 
stcr Abbey on All Saints Day, 1SS9, by His Grace, the Lord At, hhisi.op of 
Cantci bury, the Ihsho, s of London, Oxford and oilier assistant prela'es, he 
hav ing been selected to take charge of ti e new mission of the Church of 
l.ngland to Korea. The new Bishop spent a few months after his conse- 


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[May 


With charactej istic genercsity Dr. Landis threw himself 
heartily into the Bishop’s plan', offered his serv c?s for the 
medical work of the mission, and smarted almost then and then* 
for his rt'.v sphere, tho the Bishop had little enough to offer 
him in the way rf worldly advantages, lie arrived in Korea 
in the autumn of 1890 and from the date of his arrival un'il the 
date of Ins death—a period ol over seven years—he devote! 
himself unremittingly, except for ona short fuilo of under five 
months, to his work in this country of his adoption Be 
was of course most closely identified with Chemulpo, where tor 
fiveyears lie held the post of medical officer to the Customs, anil 
where in 1891 a small temporary hospital and dispensary, in Ko¬ 
rean style, were elected lor him hy ihe Bishop, just outside the 
limits (f the foreign settlement. Towards the close of 1^97 news 
leached r.s that a considerable sum < i money was to he placed 
at our disposal for the erection of a new and more suital le build¬ 
ing on the site of the old ora: and ll e doctor was entering with 
gieat zest into 1 he plans for the new hospital, which it wa* 
hoped to erect this spring. Now it will remain for his successor 
to enter into the woik which the late doctor created and also 
into the enjoy met t of the new 1 uildii gs, the erection of which 
lias bet n postponed until the autumn. 

For four cr five years the dtctoi’s life moved on the more 
or less even tenor rfits way in Chemulpo, his n edical woik 
being relieved by a variety of other inteiests. For neailv two 
yeais, 1891-92, he kept an Fngksh nigbt-scbooi lor Jajamse, 
thus laying the. foundations of work which was afterwards taken 
up and developed hy Mr. Small: and from 1^92 onwards Im 
added to his cares and interests hy gathering round him a little 
school of oipban Koiean hoys, of whom he adopted one as his. 
ton. All the while he was busy with his linguistic and liteiaiv 
studiep, of which I shall have moie to say bye-and-bje. 

The China-Japan war of 1894-0 interested and excited him 
greatly and for services rendered to the survivors from the 
wreck of the Chinese gun-boat Kicang-ju, at the time when the 
Kowahing was sunk, be received from the emperor the Order 
of the Double Dragon (third class first division.) 

cration in England, trying to raise a staff to accompany him. and started for 
Korea via Canada and the United States in the summer of 1890. He 
fortunate in securing at the outset, as volunteers for the medical department 
of his mission, two such men as the subject of this memoir and Dr. Julin* 
Wiles, whose memory is still green among us. The latter was a retired sur¬ 
geon general, who for three years placed his unrivalled skill and experience 
at tbe disposal of Bishop Corfe’s infant mission, without receiving any 9ortof 
remuneration for his pains. Indeed it is an open secret that the di-penwry 
and hospital buildings of the mission were largely erected by his generosity. 


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1SC8.] ELt BAER LAXDIS, M.I>. 183 

At Christmas, 18?5, he left Korea for a short and hurried 
fuilo, visiting Europe en route to his home in America, where, 
however, he staved only a very short time, returning early in 
May, 18 .“in, ro Chemulpo. Every letter written during his ab- 
serce testified to bis great impatience to get back again to Ko¬ 
rea, largely for the sike of his orphan boys. On his return he 
removed to Seoul, where for eight months he had charge of the 
English Mi ssion Hospital and Dispensary, during Dr. Baldock’s 
absence on furlo. And when Dr. Baldock leturned in March, 
J897, Dr. Landis was able to settle once more in Chemulpo. 
He bad, however, expressed a desire, before be started or. his 
iurlo, to be set free from tteatr port work, if the bishop could 
find some one to t ike his place, and to be set t away in the 
interior among mere pmely native sutroundings. When this 
proved impossible, lie stipulated that, if he reu ained at Chem¬ 
ulpo, the mission should build a house for him and his orphans 
■on a sire to be selected by himself at some short distance 
from the foreign settlement. He hoped by these means to 
•secure n ore uninterrupted quiet out of hospital hours for his 
studies, and also a more morally wholesome environment 
in which to bring up his Korean family. But it is to 
"be feared that he was not happy in his choice of site, and 
that his new bouse a£ S mg Ki n (into which he moved in 
the summer of 1891) Wu8 in some measure, at least, the causa 
of bis death: for not only s the si'e low and obnoxious to the 
malarial vapours rising from the neighboring ; add} fields, but 
the water supply, wh'ch h<- was taking steps to remeiy before 
his death, was bad even from i, Korean point of view. Here, 
however, be lived fiom the summer of 1897 until, dining his last 
illnes=, he was moved across to the English parsonage in the 
foreign settlement at Cuemulpo, where he died on April 16, 
181 M, aftpr an illness cfjust three weeks. 

Considerations of peisonal friendship apart, Dr. Landis was 
"known to us all in his three capacities of medical man, mission¬ 
ary and scholar. Of his medical skill and qualifications I have 
no right, because I have not the requisite knowledge, to speak. 
He was the last man in the world to say of bin self, or to ex¬ 
pect others to say of him, great things in this or any ether 
-connection; for he was a markedly modest man and very con¬ 
scious of his own limitations. And on this point T can say 
no more than that be more than fulfilled all our requirements, 
and that I know full well that it will be many years lx?fore 
Chemulpo will seem itself ^gain, either to the Koreans, without 
=the “Yak-tai in’’ at the top of the hill, or to the foreign residents, 
'without “the little doctor’’ to appeal to in all their ailments and 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[May, 


troubles. None can fail to recognize the unvarying good humor 
nnd eelf-forgetfulmss with which he placed his services at the 
disposal of all who called on him, and this even wh°n be felt 
that the demands made on him were not always reasonable 
Chemulpo is a small place or.d the total sum of fees to Ie 
earned in medical practice among foreigners during the greater 
part of his life there amounted to the merest pittance. Ashe 
used to say, if lie had wanted private practice among his fellow 
countrymen lie could have stayed at home and made his living 
by it. But he had chosen to throw up his professional prospects 
and to devote himself, without hope of remuneration, to the 
service of a mission to the people of this country. Being here 
he was clad to do what he could for such foreign residents as 
lived within liis reach, and thereby also to turn an honest jiennv 
for the support cf bis native hospital and dispensary. But he 
used to gTow pathetically resentful when he found this willing¬ 
ness on hi3 part construed into an obligation, which would give 
to others the right to dictate where and how he should live, and 
practically to decide whether he should do any native work at 
al*. It w'as not lor iliut, as he used to say, that he gave up bis 
home and profession in America. So much, at least, ou^ht to 
he said on his behalf, not because he was himself in the habit 
of complaining, but because I know that he was sometimes crit¬ 
icized tor inconsiderateness, when, for perfectly sound reasons 
connected with his lile as a missionary, he shifted his residence 
to a point about a mile distant irom the foreign settlement. I 
may add that, like the the ether members of the mission, he 
received no salary or remuneration beyond an allowance for his 
personal expenses, amounting to less than Sb'OO a year, pnv 
vided partly by a grant from the bocicty for Promoting Chris¬ 
tian Know ledge in England, and partly by the Customs Medial 
Officer’s fees. Out of this he entirely maintained himself as 
well as his adopted sen. a Korean boy who was christened I’.ar¬ 
il abas. All his other fees and earnings were devoted to the 
maintenance of his hospital and dispensary of St. Lula ia 
Chemulpo. 

As a missionary he frankly accepted the limitations pined 
upon him, and thoroughly appreciated the protection afforded, 
by the rule of ‘‘s'X years’ silence,” which Bislup Corfe imposed 
on the original members of the mission, tho not, of course 
on all subsequent additions to his staff. One I-nows all there 
is to be said against this system, how enthusiasm is apt to eva¬ 
porate and the like. But Dr. Landis had no difficulty in realiz¬ 
ing that an emotional enthusiasm is just the element which can 
be most easily spared from the moral equipment of one w r bo bas 


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ELI 1KARR LANDIS, M.D. 


185* 


to deal with the health of souls or bodies: and he was tio 
much of a scholar and a student not to be aware of It e truth 
that one must learn before one can teach, and that lb** greaur 
the pains spent over one’s preparation, the greater one’s capac¬ 
ity for solid work when the opportunity for it utrives. l>>ing 
ns he did within little more man a year of the close ol the 
“six years’ silence/’ and when plans were still immature, he ha*: 
but little chance ol nmkii £ proof of his ministry in this world.. 
And there will naturally he these who will regard the long 
delay lollovved by the premature death as equivalent to a lie 
thrown away. To us who believe in the Communion of Saints 
no slicit thought is | ossible. His capacity tor l>en dicent act vify t 
whatever form it may take lieyond the veil, differs from what it 
was here, wc are sure, only in being infinitely more prevailing- 
and more intense. The discipline and training w hich went to form 
his character here are bearing fruit iti another world than this. 
—a lruit of which not only he himself, but those for whom lie 
lived and worked here, reap the benefit ; n ways they little under¬ 
stand. "While he was with us he did what he could with his. 
orphans, with his patients, '•itli his fellow-missionaries, and all 
who came across his path. Now he has gone to finish his work 
elsewhere; and, while we arc selfishly sorry not to have him hero 
amongst us still, wc are sure that his activities arc not ended, his. 
life has not been wasted. But it is, jierhaps, ns a student, and 
especially as a student of Korean literature and other lore that 
“the litt'c doctor” will be longest remembered amongst us. Other 
interests, scientific, archaeological, etc., lie had in abundance, and 
it is pathetic to see the long list of learned societies of which lie 
had lieeii recently enrolled as a member, and to the “proceedings’* 
of which lie was contributing or hoping to contribute. But his 
chief interest lay, of course, in Korea and things Korean. He 
was a readv and fluent speaker of the colloquial, tho I very much 
doubt whether he (or for that matter any other foreigner) could 
l** said to speak like a native. He had also acquired a very con¬ 
siderable knowledge of the Chinese written clsaracte:s, and liad 
used this not only to obtain a passable acquaintance with tin* 
orthodox classics and text books, but also to enable him to explore 
all suits of curious by-paths of Korean life and literature. Bud¬ 
dhism. gcoinaner, nature and devil worship, the tenets of the 
Tong Hak, native medicine, native proverbs, serial customs, and 
national history — all alike was gri> f which came to his literarv 
mill, as t! : o n nders of r Tii!•; K<>k::an IirnosiTonv have go» d 
iea*on to know . But in one point, and that an important one, 
he tailed us. He had all the Korean's >//<//-/•< /** distaste for 
mere nnnumi, a distaste which, ol coins? greatly diminished his 


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"value to us as a translator, tho he was always willing to lend a 
hand in any translation work for the mission that was in hand. 
On Irs deathb°d he expressed wishes which were tantamount to 
■appointing me as lii.s “literary executor.” In the absence ot any 
will, therefore, the mission bought in (practically all) his hooks 
at the sale of his effects, to prevent the scattering of his library, 
'which, tho not extensive, contained a considerable collection ot 
native works and of foreign hooks and psi|K*rs on Korea and 
neighboring lands. It is proposed to keep these together and 
catalogue them as a “Landis Memorial Library,” which may be 
added to from time to time as opportunity offers. All MS. literary 
remains that could be discovered among his papers wore carefully 
-collected, and it is hoped that in process of time wo shall Ik* able 
to complete and prepare for publication the various documents 
on which he was at work, and perhaps also to collect into a single 
memorial volume such of his essays as had already appeared in 
print. 

Xo memoir of Dr. Landis would be complete without some 
reference to h s religious history. For there was in him a fund 
of very real iif unobtrusive) religion, which formed the main 
spring of his b'.isv and many sided life. Brought up (as we have 
seen) a Mennoiiite, he fell during his college days at Philadelphia 
under the influence of the clergy of the Society ot S. John Lvan- 
-geh’st, * at the Church of St Clement in that e.ty. There, as I 
learn from a not* in Ins own handwriting, he received Holy 
Baptism (having never been baptized in his youth) from Father 
Field ot the above-named society, and confirmation from the 
JBight Reverend Bishop Whittaker. And to his dying dav, “that 
good thing which was committed” unto him he kept, holding fust 
the profession of his faith “without wavering,” and with jjerhapa 
just that tinge of impatient intolerance for the opinions, whether 
Pupal or Protestant, of those with whom lie did not agree, which 
i>, I fear, thought a little characteristic of us Anglicans. Be that 
-as it may “the little doctor” remained a stauuc'i and consistent 
churchman to the last. Sunday after Sunday, and holy day by 
holy day, he might have been seen, often accompanied by one or 
more of his Korean orphans, kneeling before the altar of the little 
linglish Church of St, Michael in Chemulpo, at the celebration 
of the Holy Lueharist, which formed indeed the pivot of his active 

* An An dican monastic community, whose members are commonly 
known as thi 'Cowley Fathers,' from the fact that the mother-house is 
situated at Cowley, near Oxford The society, which was recently carica* 
tured as the 'Bishopsg ite Brothers' in Hall Caines notorious novel, " The hris* 
•tian,” has branch houses in India (Bombas) and South Africa (Cape Toati) 
as well as in America, md has done good and lasting work in all these place* 



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ELI DARK LANDIS, M.D. 


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.1898.] 


life. Farlv in his last sickness, when those around him antici¬ 
pated no danger, his thoughts turned to the death which in the 
event proved to be so near, and there lieing at that time 1:0 priest 
of the mission regularly resident in Cheinul]H>, he begged that, if 
he were going to lie seriously ill, lie might not bo left without 
one to minister to him—a request which was of course gianted. 
Falling sick on Lady Day—an anniversary already full ol memories 
to the English Mission in Korea—he was attended by the doctors 
of the British fleet then in port. Neither then, however, nor for 
many day afterwards, was anything serious anticipated, tho either 
I or Mr. T urn< r, as well as other mcmlicrs of the mission, w aited 
on him from the very first. I)r. Baldock, who had anxieties* 
enough in Sc* ul, came down twice to see him in the early (’ays of 
his thiee-weoks’ illness, and Dr. Benozet of H. I. K. M. S. 
Mamljour, attended him with great kindness and assiduity, after 
tlie departure of the British fleet. I saw him for a few moments 
as I passed thro Chemulpo on Maundy Thursday night. But 
it was not until Good Friday that the sudden change came w hich 
caused Mr. Turner to telegraph to Scud for Dr. Baldick and a 
nurse. Leaving Seoul on Easter eve they travelled overland all 
night and reached Chemulpo at 2 a.m. on Easter day (April 10th)* 
Early that morning Dr. Jjnnelis was able to receive the Holy 
Communion at Mr. Turner’s hand, but at about 3 p.m. lie all 
but passed away. In response to an urgent message, I bad left 
Kangboa as early as I could bo spared on taster morning and 
arrived in Chcnndjjo a Unit 4 p.m. to find that the invalid had 
just made a wonderful rally and that, tho verv weak, he was 
conscious and able to talk a little. On Easter Monday he asked 
for the Blessed Sacrament again, and, after I had communicated 
him, he begged that the cross which had Ixxm carried liefore it 
from the church, might lie loft standing at his bedside, as it was 
from then until the day of his death. On Tuesday he seemed 
stronger and gave hopes of recovery, tho he spoke but little. But 
from that dav onward he became more and more torpid and grad¬ 
ually sank, altho until midday on Saturday most of us had not 
realized how near the end was. He passed away verv quiet!v 
at aUmt 1:30 ]>.m., inst after I had finished leading the prayers 
for the dying. Until that very morning he had been con¬ 
scious enough to answer our questions by movements of the head, 
tho sjX'Oeh had tailed him ; and one seemed to see just the last 
flutter of consciousness on his face, w hen the crucifix, which for 
years he had worn suspended from a cord round his reek, was 
present'd to his dying lips for him to kiss, a few minutes before the 
spirit fled. 

In accordance with his own very urgent and repeated dying 


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188 THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. [Mjty t 

request, the Holy Eucharist was celebrated daily for the raposo 
of hi.s ®oul during the week following his death. On the Monday 
evening the coffin containing his body was placed in the church, 
■covered with the beautiful pall of the mission, and almost hidden 
by the wreaths sent as tokens of resjieet bv his sorrowing friends. 
The funeral itself which took place on Tuesday, April 15)th, was 
•n terrible elimax. The service had been fixed tor 4 p.m., to allow 
of the attendauee of the staff of tlie Imperial Customs. Bv t l, «t 
time all members of the mission who could l>c spared had nrriveil 
in Chemulpo and the little Citureh of St. Michael was packed to 
its utmost capacity with foreign and native mourners. No sooner 
was the congregation gathered in church than the weather, which 
had been threatening all day, burst into a furious tempest, which 
lasted far into the night. Thunder and lightning, torrents of 
rain, a wind of tremendous violence, n:ul mirv and slippery roads 
rendered the sad procession to the cemetery a doubly painful one. 
IV.it at last hr the willing aid of kind friends, in spite of the 
elements, lie was laid to rest in the Korean soil which he had loved 
so well and tie- many who assisted at the last sad offices had the 
satisfaction of knowing that, if the weather had robbed the funeral 
procession of some of its solemnity and dignity, it Imd also pro¬ 
vided a very rcai t-st of the loyal alhetion with which “the little 
■doctor’’ was regarded by his friends in Chemulpo. 

M. X. T. 


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1898.] 


EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 


18ft 


EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 


THE XISHI-ROSEX COXVEXTIOX. 

^ I HE crux of ill*? Far Eastern question as far as Japan is eon- 
I eerncd is Korea. More than a quarter of a century ago 
she selected the ]>cninsul:i as the arena in which to enact 
the role so successful and beneficially played in her own midst 
1)V the nations of the west. Conscious of the great ]>erils from 
which she has been sav<*d by the loud, vigorous and sometimes 
rough calls to her to awake, arise, and walk in the light of nine¬ 
teenth century opportunities and obligation*, Japan appeals to 
have realized how imminent those jK'rils are to her somnolent 
neighbors to the west, and whatever may be thought of the course 
of events in the past, all must confess she has trie<l to wake up 
Kcnea. Ever since she lupin to have a foreign policy of her 
own, its most prominent feature mav be spelled with the five 
letups—Korea; a |x.liey which has involved her not only in 
international but aho in internal complications; a policy which is 
the crystallized intensity of an intimacy which parallels the his¬ 
tory of both people*. Korea in the past has touched many of 
the distinguishing features of the national life of the sunrise em¬ 
pire. If we are to credit apparently reliabl* hi-tory it was from 
Korea that she obtained Buddhism, and the first Buddhist hier¬ 
arch and vice-hicrareh were Koreans. Haehiman, the god of 
war and the conservator of the Samurai spirit, was the emperor 
in, kiii of the emprcrs Jingu mid as an incarnation of mili¬ 
tarism is sup]>osod to have inspired his mother with the martial 
ardour, skill and success attributed to her in the invasion of Ko¬ 
rea, and to have thus come to Japan in connection with the 
events in the peninsula. As the result of invasions and raids, 
piratical and otherwise, Korean artisans were introduced among 
ihe Japanese and it is doubtful if we shall ever know the 
full extent of their influence on the Japanese. Medicine, li;era- 
mre, and the first coins likewise came from the peninsula. Dr. 
<iritlis snys: “Even the pronunciation of Chinese characters as 
taught by the Hiak sui teaeliers remains to this day. One of 


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390 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[Mar, 

them, the nun Homio, a learned ladv, made her system so popular 
ainoii" the scholars that even an impeiial proclamation against it 
could not banish it. She established her school in Tsushima 
A.D. G5o ami there taught tlmt system of Chinese pronunciation, 
f/o-on, which still holds sway in Japan, among the ecclesiastical 
literati, in opposition lo the Kan-on of the secular scholars.” 
All these facts, tho now the most ancient of ancient history, rein¬ 
force the interest naturally felt by Japan in Korea. .In modern 
times for the sake of Korea she endured the sacrifice of the 
Satsuma rebellion which cof*t her 20 , 11 00''lives, §50,000,000, and 
seven months of eiv : l strife. And on behalf of Korea, she con¬ 
vulsed the Far East in the Japan-China war, the corscqucmt> 

of which mav vet involve the whole world in bloodv strife. 

•» • 

By the treaty of Shimoneseki Japan eliminated the Chinese 
factor entirely from the Korean problem, only to find, however, 
that another factor had to be reckoned with, namely, Russia. 
'Illis fact became accentuated by the residence of His Majesty 
in tiie Russian Legation, and the status of Japan in Korea as 
evinced by her commercial expansion in the interior, her plans 
for development in the line ot railroads ami telegraphs, and toe 
presence of Japanese troops. This led to the series of conven¬ 
tions and treaties of which the Nishi-Rosen convention is the 
last. The first was the Komura-Waeber convention, signed 
in Seoul, the 14th of May, 1890. It dealt with the residence of 
His Majesty in the Russian Legation, pledging the two powers tr> 
advise him to return to his palace as early as would he compat¬ 
ible with safety; the control of Japanese the apj>ointment 

of liberal and moderate men to the Korean Cabinet and the mani¬ 
festation of clemency to subjects, the protection of tho Japanese 
telegraph-line by a force of 200 gendarmes scat torn] l>et\veen 
Seoul and Fusan; the protection of the Japanese settlements at 
Seoul by 4C0 troops and at Fusan and Wonsan by 200 at each 
place; and the protection of Russian Consulates and the Legation 
at these places by the same number <f tioops; also for the with¬ 
drawal of these troops when “tranquility* m the irteiW is cou¬ 
plet el y restored.” To this romemion the Ynmagata-LoUneff 
Agreement served as a protocol of four articles. r J lie first re¬ 
ferred to finance, and pledged the two governments to give Korea 
support in raising foreign loans; the second to leave to Koreans 
far as the financial and economical situation of the country will 
jiermit, the organization and maintenance of a national armed aid 
police force without foreign support; tlie third article continued 
to Japan her control of her telegraph lines, permits the erection of 
a Russian frontier, makes provision for tho purchase of both lines 
by Korea; tho fourth article provides for further negotiation, 


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] 808.] EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 191 

4< in a spirit of friends]lip.” In laying this Moscow Protocol 
Ixdim? the Diet, Count Oktima stated that it had been rendered 
necessary bv the conduct domestic parties in the jxmhiisuIh 
which tended to injure the amicable feelh g.sof the two countries, 
and it was intended by this protocol to compose distrust, and 
provent misunderstandinjs. 

Since then the two nations have puisued their ]X)licy in 
Kona under this agreement, with the result that a third con¬ 
vention has now been negotiated by the representatives of the 
governments. It lias been known that negotiations have been 
under way since last January but what the nature of the stipula¬ 
tions were lias been kept from the public with diplomatic re¬ 
set vc. This has led to the rise of absurd canards, one of which 
was that Japan would atone in the peninsula lor her losses in 
.1 Jno-tung and Shan-tung. If by that is meant personal indem¬ 
nification \vc lielieve it to be nut worthy of a moment’s serious 
thought for it is utterly inconsistent with that policy to which she 
has adhered at groat jxrsoiial loss stud sacrifice for more than a 
•quartet* of a exmtury, and for a deviation from which no osten¬ 
sible cruise exists. We copy from The Jajx.ni 'lime# concerning 
the new convention as follows: 

Wo underhand th t principal clauses in the new Russo-Japanese con¬ 
vention said to have bcei. already signed by the parties high contracting 
are two in number and as follows: 

1. Russia pledg.s hersell not to object to Japan's attempt to develop 
mannficunc and commence in the interior of Korea. 

2. In the event of Russia, in compliance with the request of the Ko¬ 
rean government, i .tending to supply the latter with drill instructors and 
advisers of various sorts, Japan should Ixa previously informed of the matter 
and her consent requested. Japan shall adopt a similar course in similar 
a return lances. 


In amplification of the clau cs we noticed in Thursday’s issue, the 
C/uw says that the new convention was signed on the 151I1 instant by Raion 
Rosen, Russian Minister, and Raron Nishi, Minister of Foreign Affairs; that 
the stipulations will not be publicly announced, t nt in the event of the ne¬ 
cessity arising to make them public the consent of the other party will be 
required; that judging from what the C/tuo understands thus lar, any eco¬ 
nomic enterprise undertaken by Japan in the interior of Korea, except tho e 
which may be calculated to infringe the independence of the latter will not 
l>e objected to by Russia, and the proposed Japan-Korea Rank, and the 
Kei-nin and Kei-fu Railways, with which Mr. Shibusowa’s recent tout was 
connected, may be expected to be carried out with lair success, as the 
result jl the stipu aiions in question. 

Of the relation of this new convention to the previous 01 cs 
-above quoted the Xichi Air hi says that it does not iv|K*ul and that 
their provisions will b? operative in so far as they do not conflict 
■with the new convention. The provisions thus made public are 


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Pj2 THE KOREAX REPOSITOBY. [May, 

of n most interest in" nature ami inure to the benefit of Japan and, 
we sincerely hope, to that of Korea also. By tl.e first article it 
is recognised that the law of ex-territorialitv is virtually non¬ 
existent and Korea is an open fiel i for com mere al exploitatior. 
The point which we would make is, that the convention by the 
two paities does not abobsh this law, hut the two gov. rmnents 
agree to recognise it as non-existent. And this is in accordance 
with a well known condition of affairs. During her struggle 
with China on behalf of Korea, Japanese subjects were per¬ 
mitted to enter the interior of Korea at will. Their contact 
w th the residents of the interior has served to modify the 
historic ill-ieelin” entertained by the Koreans so that Coutit 
Okuma in his address to the Diet two yeats ago rould say : 

"Whereas, at on- time, Japanese could not travel or trade outside Seoul. 
Fusan, Jinsan and Gensan, they are now welcomed throughout the ciyhL 
provinces of the kingdom. At Pveng vang, which was at one time entirely 
deserted by Japan, they can now trade in safety. They also carry on their 
business as far north as Wiju on the Yalu, the which marks the Chinese 
boundary.” 

Japanese subjects may be met with throughout, the interior 
of Korea, and their contact with the mass of the Korean peo¬ 
ple will he but an extension of their government’s “make-up" 
policy. This condition of affairs is thus maintained by Japan 
and agreed to by Russia. 

The reference to railroads, i.e.. Kei-uin or the Seoul-Chem- 
ulpo load, and the Kei-fu or Seoul-Fusan road is apparently an 
opinion advanced by the Cfmo. As to the Fusan line, that 
lias been conceded, we believe, to Japan, but the Chemulpo line 
having already been granted to ati American syndicate, it would 
lie necessary to arrange with them before it could come under 
Japanese auspices, which doubtless Japan intends to do. 

Dr. Philip Jaisohn.—Dr. Philip Jnisohn. Adviser to 
the Korean Government and editor of tlm Independent (Ei.glhli 
and Korean editions) left Seoul for the United States on tin* ! I 
i st. The Korean Govermmut decided, notwithstanding ware 
mid loud calls from the people to the contrary, to dispense with 
ins services and so concluded to pay him c if for the lul! 
term of the contract. In the two and half yea is since In? 
return Dr. Jaisohn has made a permanent impression on tl.e 
IvTfan p-ople for whose interests he labored Zf nlouslv ;ir • ’ 
judiciously. 11 is connection with the nncnU- in 1SS4 pi. .ml 
him at a disadvantage at hist, but the ] eopD have l«.i g 
’ since forgotten any ] ar; he had then and have learned t" 
trust him and so look to him for guidance and direction. 


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EDITjIIIaL department. 


ina 


XS98.] 


A mass-meeting held outside the South G tie in:] loved tlx? 
government to letain him. Some infhivi tial mer.-hants and 
fitizans t fibred to | tv vide a salary for him h he should lemain. 
O ae can leadilv see that this would hi neither wise nor feasible,, 
but it showed the tremendous hold Dr. Jaisuhn Lad or. the mind 
of the conmon reopl . 

The Independent Newspaper Corny any was formed and 
tlip two jnpeis will continue to he ] v.hhsiu d. The n antle of 
leliring editor has fnl en on the shruldets c f vr.r \oing. an.l 
scholarly friend, Mr. T. If. Yur. Mr. Yin is known to the 
readme of The Depository as a witty at d piacelul wiiter ai d 
we feel sure tint when once he has stea l i d I in self on the 
tvip:d 1 e wildelght his many veade»s wi:h hi illiant elucida¬ 
tions of affairs and things Korean. He is e .nservative tho r.ot 
to the <‘\t nt of lwheving that all good i- in t he past; he i» 
thorough v patriotic and enters upon his new ami aiduons 
duties with the conviction that he may in this way he able 
to serve his country and his Kmjeror. W e wish hi n every 
success 

Dr. Jiiisolm is the father of the vernac> tar papers of which, 
in addition to the one he published, there are now several week¬ 
lies and one daily. The latter is a d.rect r -suit ot the labors of 
Hr. Jahobn in one of the schools of the c«yvital. I le organized, 
and, tl 10 his s reng personality, coni rolled the actions of tho 
Indej evidence Club and it was tlira his elf its that Indepen¬ 
dence Arch was erected. We follow him with our be=t wishfs 
and indulge the hope he will as tin e goes find it in his heart to 
contribute to the pagis of The Depository. 

Oppression.—In our last issue we mentioned incidentally 
the high-handed actions of the secret ins|Hctors sent into the 
provinces. As the deeds of some of these gentry come to light 
they aio placed in very had odor. The office of secret royal 
inspector is one of the greatest power and highest responsibility. 
It has always Ik en the inle to place in this position only offi¬ 
cials of known probity and s|>oticss character, for, clnd in the 
power of the Throne itself it has been the duty of these officers 
to make known to the people the heart of the Eiiijktoi towards 
tliem. They are commissioned to examine or ins|Kct, an as- 
fiigued jurisdiction and to summarily punish ull officials who 
violate the law or misdirect justice, and to give redress to such 
cute s of private wrong as they might discover. This work of 
inspection is carried on ordinarily in secret. With a sufficiency 
«<t hinds and a large Ion* ot spies at his command he has always 
been abk.* when so disposed to bring to justice offenders and make 


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11)2 

of* a most intcTf 
we sincerely h« 
is ircognised 
existent and 
The point v 
two paitief 
agree to Y< 
with a v 
with Cb 
mitted 
w th t 1 
histori 
Okun 






/m 

u ia ii^ l/nvcrA wh °» 

T.*** IS HP** 11 nlUCl ' 

' (jp'rfanrh'.r of thus-. 

sSST^lS*? •"* l::H bswm& a 
. . th ** 

■' "" u'ffakw a«"»»ymir and vexing 
> j fas been the subject of both 

4f'*’ • • it* 




Fusa 

pro\ 

des< 

bus 

bo 


r 

rzjm iirz-abi** 

■' ^ji.hixl serfhood, Mr. \i by this i 
, penalties, ll.it aside from t 

** 1 A 


A** 


"jjjmftr eleven years old struck the 
Aef and sent her as a slave as a 
** v •* Lu.isniuch as His Majesty 

net 

I y tHfn" PvUUIlI\.ni Xf.lt. UOIUO 1| VIII i lie 

Mere is another aspect of it. When 
. - • " ifrc&nf wrong and injustice, underlying 
' ^ t 4 rfipti+ht that they will be able in lime to 
‘ ‘ ^ ;(ire J and friendless woman is the victim 
... aWmrrence of the crime and the criini- 

* . v . ■ ' T^ct, whether Christian or heathen, is a 
^ ^Ypgople but huruiiri-uis. And to steal the 
m , i is a deed which places the criminal in the 
a ' * .rrii stove raiders of darkest Africa. We are 
' : 1 l jr, ’NfajfSty learns how grossly the imjicriat 

i 1 < . I mill \Tv ^ i n 


i • ■■ 




tw 


J**** 9, . ' r r 


; l,1 4 ^ijed lie will hold Mr. Yi dcung-uk to 

t*- V* I 




v *- 


nrjric of ths Minchu Dynasty —Toe pages 
with ro mince scrangt-r than fiction. 
* " Lfjral co: csring of annals, traditions, 1 ntendg 

:i>'d critiques and collateral illustrative 


^ '.-'At-r-ai oo: listing of annals, traditions, 1 ?gendg 

^ ^ ^ |VS i h! critiques and collateral illustrative 

. • v ""’j \ t i preserved for the student and awaits clasrifica* 

- , i \“ M1 .. It certain tlia; inujh ot the material 

- _ - . . _ , _ L - . 


t*£t 


q S vv i|l not stxnd rhe test of Irs orical criticism be. 
' : '’’^/n'bly “e'-'wJtiwd ta'es of oriental fancy” toad- 

. «s (0 it' iracter. Between this material, con- 

u<tf ;* r interpret mons of re nark-able events, invented 
. . n ’ 1 yij. s ' tailed to fill up lacume i * the corns? of 

. -r jo disguise national disgrace and clumsy 

c.'eth’. £ ‘ J ' U Julit:' - t *e good name of foes,—between all this 
-.ttxiipt" 5 . tU |j-s"err : one li's a large amount ot debatable mat- 
•i.'ui c'i't l “‘ , v t > ; ' work of tin historical critic to classify it 
teC wiik* J , }i , u!1 . lunl with fieri ju or oa the o her with his* 
either o:> ^ 




J 


I DITORI A L DETARTMI NT. 


105 

y. To tHs c! a c s of debatable mitter ] dorg> H;c following 
iaim of a Korean oiigin icr the rei r.irp Marclm d\pasty 
which is found in a valuable histcr’cal woik Ki own as 
Index to the Annals i f (Korea) the Itastnn Land. 5 ’ 

In Itin er da\s \\1 en ti e teiiitoi:rs < f the were 

clividtd urdet tlie sway of tliree rei^nii g dvrastiis ai d the 
restlifs soil its of the day could exhil it tl tir al i!iii< s at t hire (lit- 
finer.: minis there arcse n in wl.ose an.hition found even the 
peninsula too oireurt scnl:ed an a?ei p, and they tinned to other 
bands in search of fame, 2*011 e of them, of wl.om were liota- ly 
Kcmn Am (-) and Che Chi-won turned to the Conit of the 
gre:.t lira .iron f J’hron.e aid won place and fane in the land o* Ko- 
r< a’s suzerain Othf is, h< wev'u, went among the batbariai s to the 
rtoith, the Mi chen and the Kitnn Taitais aid atten j ted to 
emulate li e deeds of Kija. Among tVie latter we are t(»hl was 
one rained Kejr.i Chyun (I) a I'uddhistie monk and Shsman 
of I*yenp-\anp. I!e went among the “raw’’ i e. snvaje I iiche.i 
(e) aid potfs:ed pcs=ib!y bv l is supernatural and medicinal 
chancier, al an.d< nd<d his vows and founded a family of much 
ir tl nonce among the 1'arbaiiai)?. On bis death lie v\:is succeeded 
in 1 1 io firstly cfbc* by bis son Ktieul Pai-sa. (ti) who continued 
to pxpr.-i.~e the superiority obtained by bis frtber and gave to it a 
political aspect. The next in succession was lb ai-’a (7) who 
tra' audited both the power and the title to bis eldest son Hai- 
Ki-l a). ( 8 ) The family thus by fortune transplunled from Koiea 
an.ore savages was leally enacting on a smaller scale the exploit 
of their own nations fiist sage Kija. Yonp-Ka ( l ) you' per bro¬ 
ther of 11 a : -Ni-bal ai.cl bis successor in chieftainship became a 
popular idol and was ically the fiist great chief of the family. His 
successor was bis nephew O a-s\ok (1() elder son of Hai-Ni-hal 
and who was recogrised by the Tartar dynasty (Kitau)then reign¬ 
ing in Liao and invested with a semi loyal title. On his death he 
was succeeded by hie younger brother A-gul-t’a ( 11 ) who raised 
the family to a prominent, place m birte.rv. He sucqrssfully threw 
off the yoke ol the Kitan and set up an independent kingdom. 
This was due, we are told, in resentment loan indignity offer'd 
him by the Kitan emperor who commanded him to dance for 
the imperial atnus- incnt.* He assumed the title of en peror 
and the dynastic homo of Keum (12) "Gold'’ and became the 
founder of the Gold Dynasty of the JSujen Tartars. He now 
turned bin arn 8 towards the destruction of bis old suzerain the 
Kitan wl o was overthrown by the aid of the imperialarmiee of 
Bung. The dynasty thus founded by the descendant of a K« rean 
adventurer lasted 120 years when it was overthrown by the 
# Ros'i Korcr—p. 238 . 


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the xo::ea:\ RZAisnvKtr. 


[‘'fay. 


li)4 



right triumph. To do this lie depended oil his f»> lowers who, 
disguised, traveled the district and would report all eas \s which 
<miu • t.» their notice. Of late, however, the diameter of tiles- 
inspectors has sadly fallen and their very name has become a 
stench in the nostrils of all right thinking people. O.ic of these 
in.S|K‘etors is Mr. Yi Seung-uk, who has been annoying and vexing 
South Chulla for some time past and has been the subject of both 
private and oilieial complaint, J/tst October he quartered him¬ 
self on the Myo-son-Am, a Buddhist nunnery in the (Jhang-song 
]>ref ctures. In this nunnery was an aged man, 8*5 years old, 
who lint 1 eight years previously adopted an orphan girl and bad 
brought her up. The little girl now eleven years old struck the 
fancy of Mr. Yi so he seized her and sent her as a slave as a 
present to one of his concubines. Inasmuch ns 11 is Majesty 
lias by imperial decree abolished serfhood, Mr. Yi by this act 
has made himself liable to severe penalties. II it aside from the 
legal phase of his crime there is another aspect of it. When 
young men become the objects of wrong and injustice, underlying 
our feelings there i< the thought, that they will tie able in time to 
liuJ redress, but when an aged and friendless woman the victim 
no words ran express our abhorrence of the crime and the crimi¬ 
nal. '[ he religious character, whether Christian or heathen, is u, 
protection among ad people* but barbarians. And to steal the 
child of one's old age is a deed which places the criminal in the 
sim n class as the negro slave raiders of da-kest Africa. Wo are 
certain that when Mis Majesty learns how grossly the imjierial 
confidence ha* been abused he will hold Mr. Yi Seung uk to a 
severe reckoning. 

Korean Origin of the Manchu Dynasty —Tne pagss 

of Iv Mean history an? tilled with ro nance atraiigor than fiction. 
A vast mass of matuval coexisting of annals, traditions, 1 agenda 
and f )lk-lore, essiys and critiques and collateral illustrative 
matter inis been preserved for the student and awaits classifica¬ 
tion and digestion. It is certain tha: nmdi ot the material 
tiius preserved will not stand the test of h s oiical criticism lac¬ 
ing too palpably <4 e nbroiderel taes of oriental fancy” toad* 
init of a doubt as to its character. Between this material, con¬ 
sisting of fanciful interpretations of re narkable events, invented 
fasts and hypothesis intm led to fill up lacunas i 1 the corns* of 
event*, their veneer to disguise national disgrace and clumpy 
attempts to belittle the good name of foes,—between all this 
and cert tin history there li?s a large amount of debatable mat¬ 
ter which, awaits the work of the historical critic tv> classify a 
cither on the one haul with lie tin or o:i the o her wi:h hi$* 


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ISO-.] 


FDITORIAL PEPAETMIXT. 


]0r> 


tory. To tl ^ c!a c s of debatable nutter 'olorg* the folk wing 
claim rf a Korean oiigm it r the reh ning Maichu dynasty 
which is found in a valuable histcrcal woik ki own as ‘*11.e 
Index to the Anna’s cf (Korea) the Kaston Land.” 

In former days xv 1 en ti e tenitoiifs of the jcnlrsnla were 
divided nndr-i the sway of three reigrii g d\nasties at d ti e 
restless st ints of the day could exhibit, tl tir al iliiu s at ihreedi?- 
ferenc cnr.its there arose n;en whose ambition found even the 
peninsula too cireun scuhcd an a’era, and they tun <d to other 
lands in search of fame. iOii.p of them, of whom were nota' ly 
Kniai Am (*2) and Che Chi-won tun e«1 to the Comt of the 
gre:.t Dragon Thror.e and won place and fan e in the lard o’ Ko- 
r< a* suzeiain Ot Iihs, 1 ,( v , went among the baibariai s to the 
noun, the >Ti chen and the hitan Taitais ai d atten ptrd to 
emulate the deeds of Kija. An ong the latter we are told was 
one named Keom Chyun (-!) a Fuddlistie monk and Shaman 
of I*yeng-\arp. He went among the “raw*’ i e. snvfHO I riche.i 
(■*■) and profes:ed pos c ib!y by l is supernatural and medicinal 
character, abandoned d bis vows and founded a family of much 
influence among the barbaiian®. On his death he was succeeded 
in the prnstly cflic? by bis son Koeul Pai-sa. (t5) who continued 
to exer. re the superiority obtained by b.is father and gave to it a 
political aspect. The next in succession was II< nl-!a (T) who 
tra» smitfed both the power and the title to Ins oldest son Hai- 
Ni-Lal. (8) The family thus by fortune transplanted from Koiea 
among savages was really enacting on a smaller scale the exploits 
of their own nations fiist sage Kija. Yor.g-Ka ( l ) younger bro¬ 
ther of 1 la : -Ni-bal ai d liis successor in chieftainship became a 
popular idol and was ipally the fiisr. great chief of the family. Hi* 
successor was his nephtw O a-s^ok (1C) elder son of Hai-Ni-bal 
and w ho w as recogrised by the Tartar dynasty (Kitau)tben reign¬ 
ing in Liao and invested with a semiioyal title. On his death he 
was succeeded by hi* younger brother A-gol-t'a (11) who Taised 
the family to a prominent place in hirtorv. He successfully threw 
off the yoke ot the Kitan and set up an independent kingdom. 
This was due, we are told, in resentment to an indignity offer'd 
him by the Kitan emperor who commanded him to dance for 
the imperial amusement.* He assumed the title of emperor 
and the dynastic home of Keum (12) “Gold'* and became the 
founder of the Gold Dynasty of the Nujen Tartars. He now 
turned bis am 8 towards the destruction of his old suzerain the 
Kitan who was overthrown by the aid of the iruperialarmies of 
Sung. The dynasty thus founded by the descendant of a K< rean 
adventurer lasted 120 years when it was overthrown by the 
• Bosri Korcr—p- 2 3& 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY". 


U1G 


fMir. 


Mongols. The family now parses from history until the time 
ol the lall of the Ming, when the d Bscndant of the last Gold 
emperor aruse to power, took the imperial title, adopted a year 
period styl» a»’d too d\nasty title of Hu-keu n “Posterior Gold 
Dynisty." The cipturc of Mukden led them to change thia 
title to Ghv d ig or Pure, which name tliev retained when they 
imposed their s.vny on the dominions of tin Ming. 

We have lim-e given the stoiv as it is trund substantially 
in t e 1C noun histories. At t e end of l his w r append the 
Gliines; for the proper names above in order to facilitate identi¬ 
fication. T ie interesting piitn will he the identification of 
Keum Ghvun t >e Koi\an founder of the line and possiblv some 
of our readers who have access to the odgiiial sources of Chinese 
history may he able to trace him. If found coned, it will be a 
noteworthy testimony to the activity and superiority of the Ko¬ 
rean of ancient times as computed with tli ir neighbors. 



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OFFICIAL GAZETTE. 


yin order to the /tend Deputy, the Counsellor and the Notary of Ko-sung • 
dong. Canton of' : 

An order has been received from the Governor of Kyong-Kcui province 
as follows: 

governor's proclamation. 

We arc in receipt of an order from the Department of Justice as follows: 

“Recently in the outlying prefectures companies of lawless people have 
hastened into the Western l eaching, and assuming the name of religious 
companies, have committed deeds of violence among the townships and 


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189S.] 


NOTES AND COMMENTS. 


197 


hamlet?;. They, without fear ot the law license to do the same, gather to¬ 
gether followers, dig up graves, and collec-. debts, and claiming to have a 
right to do this announce that no official of the government may interfere 
with them. What kind *»f talk is this! Even tho foreigners themselves should 
engage in such deeds of violence it has hut to he reported to their minister hav¬ 
ing jurisdiction over them and they would be judged and punished. This be ng 
the case with them shall it not he all the more so in dealing with our own 
people? Those who commit violence even tho they belong to ihe Western 
Teaching nr. our own peoj lc. and theiefore when they break our laws shall 
we not bring them to justice? 

Tho ti ere may be some differences between the Western Teaching and 
our teat hirg yet in their regard for goodness and their hate for evil they are 
one and the same. Th rtforc. those who arc sincere religionists are not 
given to deeds of violence, while the other kind only overturn law and or^er. 
The foreign teachers themselves will reg.ml with pleasure the detention and 
punishment of ail such and it w 11 in no wise affect our relations wit a foreign 
counties. It is tnerefbn ordered that all who engage in 'hese deeds of 
violenc\ j re to be reported to the prefecture having jurisdiction, who will 
imprison them, and having reported the matter to this department (Justice) 
will suspend judgment pending instructions. No distinction well be made 
in offenders who going outside this order, follow personal views or judgment 
i i this matter nd fail to put an er.d to this cot clition of affairs. They will 
find it impossible to justify them elves Ixdore this tribunal. 

Therefore on rec eipt of this order translate and pu lish it to the people 
so that there shall not he one person among them who has the nfsforiune to 
be ignorant of its instructions." 

GOVERNOR S MP.SSAC ,E OF TRANSMISSION. 

Recently this department has seen with pain and despair the way in 
which these lawless companies have been engagingin thc-e deeds of vi« lence 
and we have determined to early and speedily bring them to justice. This 
measure we now inaugurate by transmitting this ordei. On receipt of it vou 
will iv>ue toeverv township in each < f your cantons copies of it both in Chinese 
and the national script and will cause all your jcoplc to become acquainted 
with it. 

lSSl KI) 15V 1*RF.FF.CT OF KW WG WIJA. 

We no*.v publish this c py of the original order and should there be in 
anv of the townships of the cantons those who make the Western Teaching 
a pretence for committing deeds of violence the local authorities will not wait 
for further instructions, but immediately and speedily report the names of 
such offenders that they may bt forwarded to the Department of Justice and 
judged according to the law. You will therefore post this at all cro>s roads 
and road ides that it may be constantly before the eyes of the people to 
warn them to be careful. 

Dated this Second year of Kwa g mu, Fifth Moon (May) and day. 
Stamped with the title of Kang-wha Prefect and what appeared to be his 
seal. Countersigned by the township authorities 


NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

Reports reach us from time to time of persecution and oppressions of 
Christians in the interior. 

Mr. Pak of Kyong-sang province, having been very zealous in 1894 in 
suppressing the Tong naks has come to Seoul to sccute recognition of his 
personal worth in the form of an appointment to ottice. The causes urged 


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193 


THE KOREAN* REPOSITORY. 


[M.v 


J 


by the average Korean for an appointment to office are kaleidoscopic in their 
variety aud make up a mosaic a 5 humorous as it is ridiculous. 

The Korean government has made arrangements with the french 
Minister for the employment of a French instructor for an industrial school. 
A move in the right direction. , 

A farewell ovat on was tendered Dr. Philip Jaisohn at the river on hi* 
departure to Am rica by the members of the Independence Club, the Mutual 
Friendship Society and his many hiends. 

l A club for popular discussion and the interchange of views, on the 
jmodel of the Independence Club of Seoul has been organized in Kong ju, 
jloo miles south of the capital. 

The floods of last year have resulted in severe suffering among the 
people of south Chut-la and in the thiee prefectures of Na-ju. Kwang ju, and 
Nam-p’yeng, the governor reports that there are 15,000 people destitute. 

The Korean Religions Tract Society offers a prize of ro.ooo cash for the 
best tract of 20.00 words on “How can a man be a Christian and contiune 
in legitimate scular pursuits.” The tract is to be written in enmun and sent 
to the president of the society by the 15th of next September. We hope 
missionaries will persuade Korean Christians to write on this important 
subject. 

The new governor of the Metropolitan Province reports to the Ministrv 
of Finance that only seven ot the thirty-eight prefects of the province are 
resident at the seat of their administration. The other thirtv-one prefects 
spend their lime at their homes having a good time, or in Seoul trying to oust 
the governor. As a result the condition of affairs in the prefectures, surren¬ 
dered to the rule of the underlings, is indescribable. 

The Department of Agriculture has scored one over the Home Office in 
the fight concerning the Pedlar’s Guild. This pernicious institution was sup¬ 
pressed by Hon. Pak Yongho in 1896, but in the recent reaction an attempt 
was made to revive the organization. This was resisted bv the Agriculture 
Department which seems to have carried its point and the governors and 
prefects are under orders to immediately suppress the guild wherever i ( 
attempts to organize. 

Within the last few months there have been two cases of banishment 
to distant islands of no less than eight persons w ithout the form or sem¬ 
blance of trial. In the latter instance the Imperial Household Depaitment 
ordered the Law Department to banish the four men and they were xc • 
porcingly sentenced for ten years. There are elaborate laws on the statute 
books and the ignoring of these does not auger well for the progress 
of the country. 

Rev. Dr. Undorwocd pushes his excellent weekly. The Christian JVru’S, 
with that vigor we are accustomed to look for in him. A little irore than 
a month ago he enlarged it from eight to ten pages, now he is introducing 
wood cut illustrations—the first to use them in the country. Christian papers, 
of which there are two, are needed in Korea and we congratulate the Chris¬ 
tians of the country that they have a reliable and progressive newspaper in 
The Christian News . 

The "Sweat lessgangs” otherwise known as land pirates, which w e 
reported as operating in the districts teyond ihe capital have begun tbeir 
deeds of blood and violence n and about the capital. A young widow at 


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1808.] 


NOTES AND COMMENTS. 


]99 


the river who had a pawn shop was murdered by them and her place 
cleaned out. And the police mule 1 som: time a the lions j of an ex- 
member of the chain ganginside the walls of the capital, and secured the 
e x chain bearer and a large amount of spoil. 

Governor Vi Wan Yong of Norh Chullaio issued a procamation 
telling his people that there i> nothing objectionable in Christianity but that 
Those, who m thi mnu* of the Christian religion were found guilty of disor¬ 
derly .vW» unlawful deeds would he “punished without indulgence. “ This 
i.iterance is intended for those who under the cove of the new relig : on 
c all sorts of crimes against ign i.ant and innocent people. From 

t me to time rumors and in some instances definite stories reach us of 
the misdoings of thesj men. Wo know the governor personally and believe 
he w ill accord all due p. otection to honest and sincere believers of Chris¬ 
tianity; fur others we have no protection to ask if found guilty of crimes. 

The /.isshi (woman’s migazing) as quoted in The Jafhin 

r/rnz m s some time ago discusses “Ohristi mity and the Christian Church lor 
Japan.’* “ The present day decline of the church has been evident for a long 
tine," “ The warning was given by the thoughtful bit it was not heeded, 
by most of the church members.” The writer thinks “the church is nut the 
same thing as Christianity, it may contain Christianity and it mav not. 
Suggestion is mule that the absence of the element ol worship from denom¬ 
inations su*.h as the Presbyterian, Congregational and M thodist churches, 
is to «ome degree at least, icsponsible for the present condit on shows 
that people are thirsting alter prayer and other acts of worship, ar.d are 
Hied of listening to didactic preaching." 

The American “Bible Society Record” of March 17th, 189S, contains 
an interesting letter from Mr. A. A. Pieters on the work in Korea. He 
spoke f t veiling one village in which lived a man who when in Se ml bought 
at a book-store a Testament, catechism and hvmn-book. "On teaching 
home he read the hooks with the deepest interest and committed to memory 
Inc Ten Commandment*, the Ap >slles Creed and the J.ordN braver. He 
hadhistwo httle bovs learn them also Not being content to intlucnce his own 
household alone be began to preach to the villagers and to every one who 
wotiid listen to him. The consequence was that about 200 people enrolled 
themselves as desiious to became Christi ins. We st iyed there fr m Thurs¬ 
day nil Monday, having meetings for Bible study and prayer. On Sunday, 
we had two sevrices and 120 wtie present in the afternoon, we were obliged 
iho it was very cold, to meet in the open air. 

Various are the cxperienc v s of a memorialist in Korea and inscrutable 
arc his motives. We noted in our last the anli-foreign memorial ot Korea’s 
dead shot, Mr Hong Chong-u. In presenting this memorial he had to be 
rescued by 1 .is fello.v memorialists from the ban is of the p dice who having 
strict orders c incoming all memorials, were detmuned to convey M.. Hong 
to jail instead of the pa ace. It i 5 now reported tho toe accused denies it that 
his fello.v memorialists are a gang from the Kybng sing province who came 
tip last year for memorial purposes anion their return collected from the 
poor people of the section >2400. as “expenses.” The people having heard 
of the pre»ent memorial are anxiously awaiting the bill, asthi year is one 
of famine, and th v think i: hard on them that they should have to p iv for 
memorial a from which they derive no good and in the concocting oi which 
they had no part. 

The vernacular press during the month has exercised itself a greit deal 
about certain violent dee Is reporte 1 to have been commuted by foreigner* 


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£00 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[May* 

which resulted in the death of several Ko cans. The special cause for com¬ 
plaint is m the siow or non-action of the respective consuls in the matter. 
One editor \entities the opinion that if Korea had big guns and large war¬ 
ships the matte, might lie adjusted more promt tly Another grievance our 
young scribes have, is the desire of one or more of the “foreign friends," to 
ire then own words, to secure some islands and part of the mainland with¬ 
in th * limits at the treaty ports On ti is much feeling is manifested. These 
edi ors are only school bo\s, undergraduates at that; much that they write 
and more that they suggest in the way of reform is crude and impracticable, 
1 ut they are watchful; they record what is going on and are taking the pari 
of the common people and arc \ cry solicitous for ihe integrity of Korea. 
Tnev wi.I in all probability get into trouble s.nri their } apers rrav le sus¬ 
pended, but they represent a certain phase of the new life of Korea which 
will grow, unless violently strangulated and wl ich must he taken inti* ac¬ 
count by foreigners in their relations and dealings with Korea and Koreans 

We have in former issues al'tided to a pa-time which obtains among 
the low and especially the farm classes of Koieakown as the “packing 
off of widows." It consists of a raid by some disconsolate widower and his 
friends on some vbinge known to contain a young widow, the forcible abduc¬ 
tion of the lady in question, and her marriage to the w idower. In civilized 
countries a th ug of this kind would be punished with penalties commen¬ 
surate with the heinousness of the offence and this certainly should be the 
case in Korea. An instance ot tl is kind has recently come to our notice. On 
Feb. 2 1st a widower living in one ol the villages of Kangwha with eleven 
friends went to a hamlet close to the wa Is ot r angwhacity where a widow 
lived and, as tl.cy supposed, seized and can ied off after somewhat of a battle, 
a young lady. It so happened, however, that they h id mistaken the home* 
and unfortunately got bold of the wrong lady. Early the next morning an 
indignant posse of Dai Hai esc c .me in pursuit, but the men who had com¬ 
mitted the dastardly deed and for w hom we lack a proper adjective, unfortu¬ 
nately succeeded in eluding them and making their escape. The young lady 
however was rescued and after the house ot the widower and its contents 
bad been completed demolished she was escorted home in triumph by her 
husband and hU friends. This is a notoiious incident and \vc trust that the 
authorities will take the matter up and not only punish the wido.vcr, but also 
all those who assisted him, and with such severe penalties that it will be 
long before others will engage in Such a brutish enterprise. 

DEPARTURES. 

From Seoul, May 13, Miss Josephine O Paine, of the Methodist Mis¬ 
sion on furlo to the l-f.i.ed States. 

Fiom Seoul, May 13, Mis-. M. A. Gardelin of the Baptist Mission. 

From Chemulpo, May 27, Dr. and Mrs. Philip Jaisohn . nd clul *, for 
the United States. 

BIRTHS. 

In Seoul, April 30, the wife of Rev. E. C. Pauling, of a son. 

DEATHS. 

In Seoul, May 18, Miss Elizabeth Webster, nurse in the English Church 
Mission Hospital at Naktong. 

In Pyeng-yang, May 23, Edith Margaret, only daughter of Mrs. Rosettx 
hherwood Hall, age 3 years. 


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A DVERTISEMENTS. 


T • 

• _ 


THE XjIIFTE OIF 7 

REY. WM. JAMES HAH, M.D. 

Medical Missionary to the Slums of New York 
Pioneer Missionary to Pyong Yang, Korea 

ILLUSTRATED. 

EDITED BY HIS WIFE 

ROSETTA SHERWOOD HALL, M.D. 

INTRODUCTION BY 

WILLARD F. MALLALIEU, D.D. 

Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church 

This book presents the life and work of a most devoted man, and al;»o 
I mparis much interesting information about Korea. 12 mo. 421 pages. May 
t>e ordered from the Publishers, EATON is MAINS, 150 Filth Ave., New 
York City. $1.50 gold—Postpaid. 

Also for sale at the Chong-no book-store, Soul, price 15 yen. 


TIEHB 

JAPAN DAILY ADVERTISER, 

KOBE, JAPAN. 

Published Every Morning, Sundays and Holidays excepted. 

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. 

(Payable in Advance) 

One Month ... §1.00 One Year ... §10.00 

Postage Free throughout Japan and Korea. 

THE DAILY ADVERTISER has a larger circulation than 
auy other daily paper published in the English language in 
Japan, and is therefore without a rival ns an advertising medium. 

THE 

JAPAN WEEKLY ADVERTISER, 

KOBE, JAPAN. 

Consisting of from 24 to 32 pp., Published Every Saturday. 

TERMS OF SUBSCRIPTION. 

(Payable in Advance) 

Six Months v . $3.00 . One Year ... £5.00 

Postage Free Throughout Japan and Korea. 


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ADVERTISEMENTS. 


Second Edition. Price §2.50 

A KOREAN MANUAL OR 
RHRASE ROOK WITH 
INTRODUCTORY GRAM. 
31AR. 

By James Scott, M.A. 

On silo at the* Methodist Book-Store, Chong-No, or from 
the Key H. G. Appcnzeller, Seoul. 


NEW ROOKS! 


<( Jn Journeying* Ojt” Or, The Life and Tiavelsof Mary 


C. Kind, by Georgiaua Bancus, 1.92 

‘7 he Growth of Vie Kingdom?' Sidney L. Gull ok, 3.50 

*‘7hc Gid of Japan” P. P. Peery, 2.75 

“ Weaving of Character Volume of sermons by 

Geo. M. Meachaui, 2.00 

*‘7hc Expositor's Bible,” Complete Set, 110.00 

"Camtriage Bibles for Schools” kc., Complete Set, 50 00 

“Briiannica Encyclopedia,” Including American 

Supplement, cOrols. 7-5.00 


Funk and Vagiv.'.i’s Standard Dictionary, half Morocco 27.51 

Methodist Publishing House. 

.No. 2. S rite no:: e, Ginza, Tokyo. 


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THE M1II0DIST TRACT SOCIETY 

AND 

SUNDAY SGHOOL UNION. 

SDilOTJL, ICOBEA. 

■«1 IT 3. ^ ±. J£ $[ S| 2£ 

Daihan Hoi Po. 

A Religious Weekly Paper of six pages 
published in the interests of Sunday 
School and other Religious Work in 
Korea. 

Price per copy one cent, per month 
3 cents, per year 36 cents. Postage extra. 

new ed. per copy $.10 
“**1 ®T tt » n .04 

"i? ^ "fl „ „ .06 

M 6 1 °1-a ^ „ » -02 

CUSTODIAN:- 

Eev. H. G. .AvruxzKLT.KR, 

' t 

Choxg-Doxg Seoul. 


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A DVEKTISEMENT8. 


••• 

7111 


F. STANILAND, 

76 MAIN ST. YOKOHAMA JAPAN. 

CUSTOM HOUSE BROKER . 

SHIPPING, ItlVlllIIO, 

. AND 

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-4m*- 

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for SILK GOODS, EMBROIDERIES, ARTISTIC 
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ART PRODUCTIONS, and JAPANESE GOODS gene¬ 
rally, will be CAREFULLY ATTENDED TO. 


IDS! PUBLISHED. 

Demy 8vo. SUPERIOR PAPER. . 150 Pages. 

ZE^O^ZE-AHsT 
WORDS -A.15TJD 

A Handbook and 

Pocket Dictionary for Visitors and New Arrivals 
in the Country, 

Containing over 1,000 words and nearly 15,000 Korean Sentences 
(Romanized) with the Ernmouu Script. 

• Also with an Appendix containing Information respecting 
Korean Numerals and the Native Currency. 

Price: ONE DOLLAR [Postage extra]. 

Cojties of the above may he obtained from— 

Mr. J. W. Hodge/ Nak Tong, Seoul, or from 
Messrs. Steward, & Co., Chemulpo. 


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<?=— - s 

THE 

GENERAL C ATALOGUE 

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Issued Semi-Annually By 


MONTGOMERY WARD & GO. 

THE GREAT MAIL ORDER HOUSE 


CHICAGO, U S. A. 

Is The Most Complete In The World- 

It has mere than 14,000 illustrations, about 40,000 quotation % of 
prices, weighs 2 }A ]>oiinrts. and contains over 800 pages. Every¬ 
thing you wear or use is listed in it; and the price** quoted place you 
in a position to buy from us in large or small quantities, at wholesale 
prices. We do not sell this General Catalogue and Jiuyers’ GukL*; 
we *’ivc it awav. To introduce to \ou our immense facilities we will 

n ( - 0 

send kkf.i: of charge to you or any other foreign resident our 
“Hr vi*;ks’ Gum-:/* and our “Hand Hook for Foreign Hi yi rs,” 
which gives all information necessary to put you in touch with our 
methods. Send us your address ai.d we* 11 do the rest. 


MONTGOMERY WARD & GO., 

Ill to 120 Michigan Ave., Chicago, U. S. A. 



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A JVKli !'lSKtf£:ns 


JEW iUll revise i) muimnifti 

OF T1IE 

licv. 11. G. Underwood, D.D. 


NOW READY. 

Fourth Edition of the enlarged and improved, Con 

tains 1(54 Hymns (including all tlie popular ones) besides 
the Lord’s Prayer, ihe Creed, and the Ten Commandments. 

On heavy foreign paper, glazed cloth covers, per copy §0-14 

A smaller edition, containing lid hymns, with music, cloth 
covers, §1.0 each. 

The Three Principles. A translation of Dr. Martin's 
Three Principles. Foreign paper, glared covers, per 
100. §4.00. 

Questions and Answers to my Poul. A leaflet 
translated from an English tract, thirl edition, per 
100 .20 

The Lord’s Command, third edition, per 100 .30 

^1 al o) >;1 An Easy Introduction to Christianity. A tran¬ 
slation of Dr. McCavtee’s well-known tract. In Chinese 
and Korean. Glazed covers. 3d pp. Per 100, §4 00 

del i£f^ The Christian Catechism. Translated from 
the Chinese of Mrs. Nevius, (5th edition. 39 pp. Per 
100, §3.00. 

M.a ^ Catechism of Christian Doctiine. An abridged 
edition of the Christian Catechism. 

33 si The True Doctrine of Sang JL 3rd edition. 

Exhortation to Repentance. „ „ 

On Regeneration. 1st edition. 

These era translated from the Chinese of Dr. Griffith John. 

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[VOL. V. No. 6.] 


JUNE, 1898. 


THE 

KOEEA K EEPOSITOET 


H. G. Appenzeller 
Geo. Heber Jones, 


* [ Editors. 


CONTENTS. 


THE MONGOLS IN KOREA, 

HI, 

H. B. IICLBERT 

PAGE. 

201 

THE FOREIGNER, 


Naw 

207 

THE BEAUTY AND THE BEAST, 

X 

212 

A NEGLECTED METHOD 

OF 

MISSIONARY 


WORK,. 

• • • 

F. S. Miller 

226 


EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT 


He ls a Farmer,. 

Confession of a Tong Hak Chief, 

... •*• 

229 

• • • 

234 

Athletic Spirts, . 

• • • ft • • 

236 

Korea for the Koreans, 

•• • • • • 

236 

LITERARY DEPARTMENT, 

••• »!• 

237 

NOTES AND COMMENTS,. 

Price per Annum, §3.00 Per 

• • ♦ IM 

Copy, 30c. 

238 


Printed by The Trilingual Press, 
Korea, Seoul. . 



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ADVERTISEMENTS. 


HONGKONG & SHANGHAI 
BANKING CORPORATION. 


PAID UP CAPITAL 
RESERVE FUND 
RESERVE LIABILITY 
OF PROPRIETORS 


$16,000,000 

8,000,000 

10,000,000 


Head Office: —HONGKONG. 

Chief Manager — T. JACKSON, Esq. 


Branches and Agencies: 


London 

Calcutta 

Foochow 

Batavia 

Lyons 

Singapore 

Wangkok 

Sourabaya 

Ha-nburg 

Saigon 

Hankow 

Colombo 

New York Shanghai 

Amo) 

Yokohama 

San Francisco Manila 

Tientsin 

Nagasaki 

Bombay 

Iloilo 

Hiogo 

Rangoon 

Penang 

Peking 



Interest allowed on Current Accounts 2 °/o on Daily M 
ance over Yen 500, 

Money will be received on Fixed Deposit on the following 
terms:— 

For 12 months at 5 per cent, per annum. 

n ® »» ^ »* >» 

3 0 

H U » 99 


LOCAL BILLS DISCOUNTED. 

Credits granted on approved Securities, and every descrip¬ 
tion of Banking and Exchange Business transacted. 

Drafts granted on London and the Chief Commensal 

S laoes in Europe, India, Australia, America, China, md 
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Agent* 


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F. H. MORSEL 

Having returned from his trip ab'Otd doin > 
t*i inform the public generally and his ft»nn* # r 
pntmtis in particular that he is now at his old 
business in Chemulpo and is prepared to do 
all kinds of business as a 

Forwarding & Commission Agent. 

-ALSO- 

BROKER AND AUCTIONEER, 

CHEMULPO, KOREA. 


We have teeu honored with 
the Agency of the Society for 
the Diffusion of Christian 
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A full su ply of books of 
this Society is on hand. Prices 
are the aame as in Shanghai 
with the addition of 10 per 
cent for transportation. 


THE 



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BOOK STORE. 


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ADVER1ISEM l\N I>S. 


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The CHINESE 

RECORDER. 

ANU 

Missionary Journal 

Published by the Presbyterian Mission Press, Shanghai, China. 
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“TP WWW REPOSITORY”. 

Editors \ Jf' Apfenzeleeb, 

( G. li. Jones. 

As heretofore The Repository will ah: to meet the wants 
of all its readeis in the thorough discussion of all topics of 
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customs of this land. H e Editorial Department will deal in a 
full and impartial manner with current topics of practical in¬ 
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THE LIFE OH 1 

EEY. WM. JAMES HALL, M. D. 

Medic 1 Missiopary to the Slums of New York 
Pioneer Missionary to Pyong Yang, Korea 

ILLUSTRATED. 

EDITED BY HIS WIFE 

ROSETTA SHERWOOD HALL, M.D. 

INTRODUCTION BY 

WILLARD F. MALLALIEU, D.D. 

Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church 

This book presents the life and work of a most devoted man, and also 
imparts much interesting information about Kore . 12 mo. 421 pages. May 
be ordered from the Publishers, eaton & mains, 150 Fifth Ave., New 
York City. $1.50 gold—Postpaid. 

Also for sale at the Ckong-no book-store, Soul, price 3 yen. 


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A KOREAN MANUAL OB 
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MAR . 

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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


JUNE . ] 898. 


THE MONGOLS IN KOREA. 

T HIS M m '4 >1 -mvov who haJ bet'ii sent to Japm to demand 
that to** of that country go to Peking and do obei¬ 
sance, had Iwui promptly put to death by the Japanese. 
W! Jf >„ the Ion .’ of Korvo >ent this startling bit of news to the 
emperor a n. w nvisi n of the Japanese island was decided 
upon. This inm* if \va« lo be done in a manner which would 
leave no doubt as to tiie result. The government of Koryo was 
charged with the dutv of preparing Oi 0 boats to transport the 
army of invasion. Th** king was hardly prepared to undertake 
this work. He was sjvi di» g his time in revelrv and debauchery. 
All tl u* sorceresses, courtesa* s and female slaves belonging to 
the government were called to the capital and they there joined 
in singing obscene songs for the delectation of the king and 
the court. 

l'he king of Korvo desired to assume the position of gen- 
eral-in-chief of the great expedition to Japan and so the em¬ 
peror called him to Peking to talk the matter over with him. 
Put Gen. Hong Da-gu, whom we will remember as a renegade 
Korean in the Mongol service, talked the emperor over and 
secured t e position himself. He got together 40,' ! 00 regular 
troops and these were joined hv 100,000 more from the depend¬ 
ent tribes. The king advised that only the men from the 
tribes he sent hut that their number be increased. To this the 
emperor did not consent. After the plans had all been laid, 
the king was sent hack to Koryo to carry out the work of build¬ 
ing the boats, training 15,000 men as sailors, and 10,000 as 
marines, and the storing of 110,000 bags of rice together with 
such other things as should be needed. 

It was in the following year, 1282, that the army of inva¬ 
sion rendezvoused at Hap Harbor, now Ch’ang-wun, on the 
southeastern coast of Korea. The king went down to review 
the whole array before it set sail across the straits. There were 
1,000 boats iu all. Of Koryo troops there were 20,070 and of 


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202 the Korean repository. [June, 

Mongola there were 50,000. The soldiers from the dependent 
tribes had not yet arrived. Then the whole flotilla sailed away 
to the conquest ot Japan. They steered lor Tsushima where 
the first engagement with tlip Japanese took place. At first 
the allied troops were success.’ul and took three hundred Japan¬ 
ese heads, but as soon as the Japanese could rally they drove 
the allipg back to their camp. It was decided to wait there un¬ 
til the 100,000 troops from the tributary states arrived. This 
delay was a great mistake for it. tended to dampen the ardor of 
the troops and it practically broke the whole force of the inva¬ 
sion. In that camp 3,000 men fell from fever which naturally 
did not tend to encourage ti e remainder. Gen. Hong was 
■very anxious to beat a letreat but Gen. Kim, who led the Koryo 
contingent, said that as they had three months' rations and had 
been out a month it would not do to turn back yet, and advised 
that as soon as the large reinforcements arrived they should at¬ 
tempt a landing cn Japanese mainland, t^oon alter this the 
eagerly expected reinforcements arrived. 

The army of invasion new pulled itself together and sail'd 
away towards the mainland of Japan. As they approached it 
a slorin arose from the west and all were anxious to make the 
offing before it broke upon them. The boats bearing the JOU,- 
000 men from the tribes were i i the van. As it happened the 
mouth of the harbor was narrow and tide was running in with 
great force, and the boats were carried along irresistably in its 
grip. As the immense fleet cf boats converged to a focus at 
ti e mouth of the harbor a terrible catastrophe occurred. The 
tide sucked them in and the storm from behind pushed them 
on. Each boat tried to make the effing first and as «- conse¬ 
quence there occurred a terrific jam in the month of the harbor. 
Hundreds of boats were driven in upon each other aud a uni- 
veisal wreck was the instant result. The records tell us that a 
person could walk across from one point of land to the other on 
the solid mass of wreckage. The vessels thus destroyed con¬ 
tained the 100,009 men Iro n the dependent tribes and all of 
them perished thus horribly excepting a few who managed to 
get ashore. These afterwards told their story as follows: “We 
fled to the mountains and lay hidden there two months but the 
Japanese came out and attacked ub. Being in a starving con¬ 
dition we were obliged to surrender. Those of us who were in 
fair condition were reserved as slaves and the rest wen 
Butchered.” 

In this great catastrophe 8,000 of the Koryo soldiers also 
perished. But the remaining MoDgol and Koryo forces behold* 
ing the miserable end of so large a portion of the invading armj 


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203 


1898.] 

and already half inclined to retreat, turned their prows home¬ 
ward and furled their sails only when they had entered a Ko¬ 
rean pore. 

At first the emperor was determined to continue his ef¬ 
forts to subdue the Japanese and sent an order to the king to 
supply more boats and to furnish 3,C0D pounds of a substmea 
called tak soi * 

A Koryo citizen named Yu Ja advised the emperor to use 
only troops from the tributary tribes in his next invasion of 
Japan and to lay up 200,000 hags of rice in the peninsula in 
^reparation for it. The emperor thereupon called upon the 
king to set aside 40,000 bags. The latter replied that if hia 
officials could baldly set aside ten thousand bags how much less 
could they manage this larger number. The emperor then or¬ 
dered him to lay aside as many as he could. 

The following year, 1288, changed the emperor’s plan. 
He had time to hear the details of the hardships which hia 
troops had suffered in the former expedition; the impessinility of 
squeezing anything more out of Koryo and the delicate condi¬ 
tion of b )tne affairs caused him to give up the plan of conquer¬ 
ing Japan and he countermanded the order for the bui.ding of 
boats and the storing of grain in Koryc. 

The Mongol queen of Koryo had developed a strange pro¬ 
pensity for catching young girls and sending them to her friends 
m China where they were made concubines. A law was pro¬ 
mulgated that before a your.g man married he must notify the 
government. This was done with a view to ascertainin, where 
the young marriageable women lived so that they could be the 
more easily seized. One official cut off his daughter's hair 
when he found that it had been decided to take her away to 
Chine. For this the king banished him and severely punished 
the daughter. 

In 1290 a new element of danger appeared in the incur¬ 
sions of the wild tribe of the T’ap-dan across the northern 
border. More than 20,000 of them swarmed down from the 
north and penetrated the country. The government troops 
could do nothing with them. The invaders ate the flesh of 
men and dried thn flesh of women for future consumption. The 
king sent army alter army against them but to no effect. He wt»s 
at last obliged even to take refuge in K.»ug- wba. It was only after 
10,000 Mongol troops arrived that the invasion was broken and 

* The character for tak means a kind of wood from whose pulp paper 
is made and the character for soi is metal, especially such as is used in 
making coin. Some have conjectured that this refers in some way to paper 
money and others that it refers simply to some metal 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[June, 


the country was at peace. The crop? had been decoyed an 1 
fan line stared rbc p<M G in the fac^. The king asked the em¬ 
peror for help and it v as sent in the shape ot 1 <M0 Ings of 
rice, lmfc \vb n r mrhed the officials arid men ol influence 
divided it among 'G' «•*! ves and the peopleshifted tor tbem 5 elv»»s. 

The king m d qu'vn were both in China wh< n Kublai 
Khan died an 1 in*»v ’ *«:* 1 1 took part in the funeral riles although 
the Mongol law ibrb nG outsiders from participating in them. 
Timur Khin suee •»•!.*<( Kuhlai. He evidently had no intention 
of following up * -•iiiv-'H-i] of Japan for ho sent rice, that had 
been prepare.I f. .»• ( . i vision. to some of the northern tribes 
that were stiff • r !••.* ti-nine. He also gave back to Koryo 
the island of Q i »»; whic i bad been in Mongol hands fro n 
the time the r* v t »t t s ddiers bad been put down. From this 
time dates tie u< *!’ rmuie Che in for that island. It m can* 
“District across Wi.t-r,” au l by this name the island has 
ever since beer In -wi . 

The el* s • of r 1 irfenntli century beheld an old dotard 
on the thron. . lb* \ is incapable of ruling that the emperor 
sent a comm is donor t * •« 1 n ister tiie government. The aged 
King spent Ins ti ' o'Y r with mountebanks and ocurto-ans, 
and lost all seuiM r mi \ long. So say the records. One of 
the first acts ol IK* Mongol commissioner was to do away with 
slavery, it was ohvet i that if slaves could become officials 
they might turn an I tv m.jo themselves on their former masters, 
so the law was m t r* iu nn 1 that only the eighth generatio i of 
a manumitted -I iv ■ rnn!<l h. Id office. 

The record oft m next half century is one of utter corrup¬ 
tion in Koryo. Th* king used every means to induce the. em¬ 
peror to let them <i> n<l tlndr time at the Mongol capital rather 
than in the capital of Kory^ and the country was misgoverned 
in a most extnonbim maimer. The worst excesses of Home 
in her decline could hardly have exceeded the horrors that were 
perpetrated during this period. It culminated in the reign of 
King Ch’ung-hye, who ascended the throne in 1310. There is 
hardly a crime in tin calendar that he did not perpetrate. Mur¬ 
der, suicide, theft, rape, incest were thing? of constant tecurrence. 
Thousands of the people died ot starvation, thousands ran away 
to the islands, thousands took the cowl to escape the hand of 
oppression. It was one long carnival of blood. 

When this all came to the ejtrs of the emperor he was 
furious. An envoy was seat to Song-do to bring the wretch to 
Peking. The king as in duty bound came out to meet this 
envoy, but the Mongol greeted him with a brutal kick in the 
stomach which sent him sprawling on the ground. The king 


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HE MONGOLS IN KOREA. 


205 


■was then bound uul locked ap, and after matters had been 
somewhat straightened oat in tho Koryo capital, tie was sent to 
IVking to a»is\v- r to his suzerain. Ma.iv uf t !jo kind’s inti¬ 
mate- were killed and many more tied for their lives. A hun- 
<]|.*d ar.d tvu-ntN a t eubines were lilxnated ai:<l sent to theii 
homo*. 

When 'li“ bins; was brought lkf re the emperor the 
Jatter said * >•» von call youvselt a king! You were set over t ■« 
Kv/i'o p» j <»pl»* to r\o thorn, instead of whielj you loro off all their 
lli -;h ll . t.:;r k.ri J should boeomo itxal lor all the dogs in tlie 
■world ;nst» *«• w, id still b< ms-ubtied. lhi f I do not care to 
kill any mat . [ v\m place yon on a bier and send you to a place 
from wind: va n will r.ot so n return.” So he wns ] lac cl on a 
bier, thougm 1 \ i»■ •_* which was the u-ry refinementot humiliation, 
and was < n i\\ . . to Ke-yang 'twenty thousand li” according 
t > the r* co: :s. > n tin went with him save lus lvarers. lie 
was rimed ho v.!ia_m to village by relays ot bearers, like a 
dead man. lie «!;• d at Ak-yang, l>efore reaching his destina¬ 
tion. When r o ]• o ie of Korvo heard of tin’s there was gen¬ 
eral rejoicing o d i . made a pioverb which inns Aya Maigoji, 
Ay a refeis 10 the : ..w‘ where the king died and Mangbji means 
4 ‘dan;ned. ,> 

There seems to be little doubt that, at this time the em¬ 
press of China w < i Koryo woman, for the Kor\o records are 
full of the ditl'i *u!ii s winch arose in the Koryo capital because 
In r relatives t 1 .< re warned to have their own way in every thing. 
The grand* sr frstiv d ’hat Korvo ever saw was when the son of 
the Mongol < mi-n ss came to Song-do to visit his grandmother. 
It is siid tijr.t •' l ice’s of silk were used in making merely 
the mtificiai U<<weis t<- grace this feast. 

Ln 135-"> the!' \v-! 'in but brilliant leader ol the Ming forces, 
called Chu Vuan-chaiig by- the Koreans, crossed tlie Yang-tsi 
river at the head of the insurrectionary army and took ..p his 
quarters at Nanking. This was the beginnii g of the end of the 
Mongol power. J*’r.im that hour the Koryo people ceased to 
iear the Mongols, although at her demand Korvo made a pre¬ 
tense of sending 28,000 men to aid in rolling back the tide of 
insurrection. The following year a Mongol envoy came with 
incense, to burn on all the mountains of Koryo in order to secure 
the favor of all the divinities that could be thus approached. 
That the Koryo people no 1 mger feared the Mongols is seen in 
the fact that the governor of Chul-la province threw this in¬ 
cense bearing envoy into prison and killed his son. Yet nothing 
•was ever heard from Peking about it. The relatives of th& 
Mongol empress were also severely handled, for when tlrey 


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20G 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[Jane, 

found that the} 1 could not have their way in Koryo they prompt¬ 
ly planned an insum clicn and called upon the people to 
side with them in upholding the Mongol influence in the penin¬ 
sula. But the king summoned bis gieat general Yi Wan-jo, 
who was the father of the founder of the present dynasty, and 
soon put the seditious people down. They were killed or ban¬ 
ished and their property was confiscated. At the same time the 
Mongol commissioner was sent back home and many of the 
northern districts which the Mongols had seized were forcibly 
taken back. And yet the Mongols had not fled from Peking. 
The final breaking up of the Mongol power was foreshadowed 
in the act of the garrison of the town of Ha-yang in the north, 
which can e and volun tarily transferred their allegience from the 
Mongol to the Koryo king. 

The Mongol emperor bad of course lost all confidence in 
Koryo since the relatives of bis empress had beeu killed and 
their property confiscated in Koryo; so he pjoclaimed a new 
king for Koryo and sent an army of 10,000 men to make 
good the order. But Koryo was now’ enjoying the sc vices of a 
general cf the very first rank, Yi T’a-jo, the founder of the pres¬ 
ent dynasty, and there was no tear cf the Mongol army. They 
were met on the banks of the Yalu and put to flight. 

Ever since the attempted invasion of Japan by the Mon¬ 
gols the emperor had agents in the island of Quelpart to look¬ 
out for the breeding of the small but hardy Korean horse. 
These Mongol horse-breeders were an utterly unruly set of men 
and frequently the king was obliged to send treops to quell 
disturbances and show these men their proper place. The 
Koryo recr rds tell us a singular thing about this island of Quel¬ 
part. They affirm that when the Mongol emperor found him¬ 
self driven to despemtion and about to evacuate Peking he 
formed the plan of fii t ii g asrlum on this island of Quelpart. 
For this purpose he Bent a large amount of treasure and other 
necessary things for use in case this plan should be found the 
mc6t feasible. As it turned out it was not found necessary. 

The year 1368 beheld the demolition of the Mongol Em¬ 
pire. It had risen leF8 than a rentury befrre and incresard wilb 
remarkable rapidity and had threat* wd the whole eastern 
hen ispht le. Its decadei ee 1 ad keen ns ia) id hi d as tenihle 
as its lise. Ihe Mongols were peculiarly unlit to resist the 
seductiouB of the more refined civilizations which they encoun¬ 
tered. The Ming forces drove the Mongol court from Peking 
and the dethroned emperor betook himself northward into the 
desert to the town of Sa-mak. 

H. R Hulbebt. 


V 

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1898.] 


THE FOREIGNER. 


207 


THE FOREIGNER. 

M R. Clio and I were seated at the open door in an inn. Our 
rice had been brought. Mr. Cho had lifted his spoon 
when I asked what were his impressions of the relations 
of the foreigner to Korea. He paused with his spoon in Ins hand, 
looked up at the threatening sky; then into the yard at a hen 
scratching industriously for her brood. He paused so long that I 
almost forgot that I had asked a question; then he began: 

“My home was in Whang-hai province, in a village back 
among the mountains. So far from the main thorough fire and 
so secluded is the village that many people reach an old age with¬ 
out seeing persons from even neighboring towns. It was gener¬ 
ally understood among the people that there is such a city as 
Seoul where the king lives in splendor, but to travel there would 
be like making a journey to a foreign country. At the age of 
twenty I went to the capital to witness a gathering for the national 
examinations. The attractions of the city prevented my return 
to my old home but my language and habits were so peculiar that 
I had nearly as much difficulty in getting familiar with my neigh¬ 
bors as to get acquainted with the foreigner who came a little 
later. I was so afraid of the rebuffs and jeers that my country 
ways excited that it took me two years to make a round of the 
sights of the city. I witnessed with pleasure the expulsion of the 
Japanese. Following that incident the western foreigners came in 
large numbers. I think my impression of them was one held gen¬ 
erally. I thought they had come to help the Japanese.. We de- | 
spised the latter most heartily! They had been driven from the ' 
country several times. They are small of stature and, man for 
man, it was believed that the Koreans would be more than a 
match for them. But the westerners generally were great of stature 
with staring eyes, prominent nose, large ears, and broad mouths. 
We were all afraid of them. They did not engage in trade, but 
were often seen entering the palace and receiving visits from the. 
officials. 

“At that time I made a visit to a missionary’s compound and 
looked over the wall; while doing so a Japanese came into the 
yard with a basket of meat. It had been largely circulated that 
the foreigner caught children and ate them. 'Hie excitement had - 
been growing from day to day, in fact, the people were ready t<* 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 




rise in arms to drive out the cannibals. I was in doubt before re¬ 
garding the truth of the rumors, but tliut basket of meal convinced 
me that they were well founded. The Japanese went to the door, 
and to my amazement, a woman came out and bargained lor the 
meat. Now a Korean is satisfied with a small piece <>( beef for 
his table. The size of this particular piece convinced me of its 
terrible nature, and its being mvi ved by a woman convinced me 
of the tierce, cruel character of the western people, file fact that 
the Japanese did not receive anything at the door in exchange, 
convince.! me that the latter, of a race of Shylocks, h .<1 f«»r gain 
been led into this awful trade. I have, of course, loi ;j ago learned 
that the Japanese was selling an innocent leg of mutton. 1 have also 
learned that a lady may bargain for her dinner. lint other in¬ 
cidents have confirmed my first impressions that the western man, 
tho refined by a great civilization, is bv nature a fierce' living. 

U I have Irecpiently visited a missionarv whose conversation 
always seems naturally to lead to moral questions, which arc not 
uninteresting to me ; blit he gets excited and at some points 1 al¬ 
most fear he will leap over his desk at me, when suddenly he 
collects himself reminding one of a panting pony pulled suddenly 
on his haunch* s. lie then smiles in a way that is intended to lie 
winning. 

‘ £ I have travelled not a little with the foreigner in the in¬ 
terior. Ho ah' ays seems distressed and frequently irritated at 
the crowds of curious strangers that throng at the inns, in those* 
early days when passports were demanded at every town some 
amusing incidents occurred. Frequently the Yamen runnel's 
would announce to the curious crowds that the foreigner liked 
eggs and chickens and a)i who contributed liberally would be por- 
nntted for an instant to put their eves to holes in the paper doors 
for a glance at the strange creatures, J3y sueh exhibitions the 
Yamen runners would make a handsome sum. The people un¬ 
derstood tho squeeze but felt well repaid. At such time the 
traveller would seem to lx: exercising great self-restraint, and 
from his stand-point it was not perhaps unnatural to become fre¬ 
quently rude as he did not understand the innocence of our 
curiosity. 

“Some time ago I snt in a little room while a missionary 
was preaching. An old man came in who was too deaf to under¬ 
stand a word. He attempted to sjH*ak but was motioned to keep 
silent. His pipe was gently drawn from his hand. Finally we 
were requested to pray. When we lx'gan to kneel the old man's 
«yes, dim with age, sparkled with surprised curiceity. ‘What are 
they doing?’ he asked, but was motioned to kneel. ‘Why?’ he re¬ 
peated, w ith a deep chuckle suggestive of amusement hard to re- 


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THE FOREIGNER. 


209 


1898.] 

E re-*?, but dropped his head to the floor and looked dutifully at 
is hands until the close. I suppose the foreigner would have 
been as polite in his own country. 

“Many interesting things are being brought from the west to 
Korea. I may claim some advantage over many of my country¬ 
men. If I see anything new and strange I hold my peace. 
Whereas my companions often exhibit their ignorance by exclama¬ 
tions and remarks that are far from being shrewd. Mv friend 
Kim, for instance, while travelling, came up with a foreigner sit¬ 
ting bv the road-side, a bicvcle at his feet. Mv friend had never 
teen a wheel before and after staring a few moments, his face 
screwed into many wrinkles he exclaimed. ‘Does he carry tint 
thing on his back or does he ride it, and does he whip it with that 
stick in his hand.’ Of course it was a natural inference that the 
man carried the wheel on his back because he was sitting on the 
ground, his face flushed from violent exercise. Whereas, if he 
were riding he would have been neither sitting on the ground nor 
over-heated. The fault of my friend was, he spike before he 
weighed the logic of his inferences. 

O “ # 

“Mr. Kim was always unfortunate with foreigners. While 
travelling to Won-snn he was overtaken by a foreigner, who, he 
afterwards learned was an American. It was before the time of 
poTtical and social reforms, and, before the genteel class had laid 
aside their peculiar strut and pompous carriage. This man cer¬ 
tainly had no bearings of rank about him. In fact he walked in 
a loose indifferent stvle. Mv friend called out ‘Have vou eaten 

>r wt • 

vour dinner?’ He had hardly' gotten the words out of his mouth 
'before the foreigner had seized him somewhere, I could never just 
remember where and thrashed him fearfully with a cane. Of 
course my' friend should not have used the lowest terms to a 
stranger, and I admit lliat if such language had been used to a 
Korean gentleman, it would have deserved a severe rebuke, but 
how was he to know that the foreigner understood the difference, 
and even if he did, Mr. Kim was willing to hazard a rebuke in 
order to show the foreigner that he did not approve of his pres¬ 
ence. Now, a countryman of mine would have returned some¬ 
thing in the same measure that he had received, or at most would 
merely have pulled Kim’s topknot, which would not have been 
indifferent to my friends temper just at that moment, but the for¬ 
eigner pitched into him so fiercely that Mr. Kim thought that his 
clothes would be all thrashed off of him, and cal let! out, ‘Please 
stop.’ He hardly thinks he spoke in the highest terms but I fear 
he did. The stranger stopp'd, smiled, anti said lie was glatl to 
oblige him, but hoped that in the future he would avoid insulting 
strangers. 1 suppose the foreigner thought he had gained a point. 


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TilK KOREAN KEI'OSI'fOItV. 


' 2 10 


[JllIH', 


Supposing my i'riend in the highest terms did ask him to stop, 
lie gamed no concession of the heart. In tact he liad defeated his 
'own purpose; for Mr. Kim has ever since Jield all foreigners in 
-aversion. We Koreans have learned our lessons from Confucius 
better than any other people not excluding the Chinese and Jap¬ 
anese—you must win the heart in order toeonquer. In our own 
history how often it has been illustrated; the Chinese have come 
in from the north, scattered our people and driven them to the 
southern seas; the Japanese have come in from the south and with 
large slaughter have driven us over the borders to the north and 
•out ujkui the isles of the sea, yet when they had worn themselve* 
■out, we again gathered ourselves loyally under our king an un- 
•conquered people. As I think of the matter we are in greater 
danger to-day of losing our national characteristics than during 
Aliy previous period of our history. There is something fascinat¬ 
ing about the western learning and progress. It is wiuning the 
hearts of many. 

“My friend Kim has formed a habit when preoccupied in 
meditation of tracing imaginary characters with ..is finger on the 
palm ot his hand. A few days ago I noticed him repeating this 
habit with groat vigor. He paused a moment in his writing to 
crush a flea, glanced up, and again wrote with more zeal. I knew 
he had something on his mind and would soon make it known. 
He finally did by drawling out, ‘I don’t know but that the govern¬ 
ment reforms aiv all right iu a measure, for instance, the law 
might prohibit the use* of a pipe over six feet long, and the wear¬ 
ing of over three top knots at one time, for in either case they 
Mould be an inconvenience to the owner. Why should the govern¬ 
ment think any further.’ Mr. Kira wears a smile that shoots 
direct across his face and when he scores a point, it makes 
him look sinister; but my friend has known the Golden Rule, 
«>uly from the negative side as taught by Confucius, or he might 
-<ee reasons for prohibiting things that would not work good to 
others, even tho they did them no harm. My impression is, how- 
-ever, that the Westerner has customs that do other people little 
good, not least among them, are those of no less exclusive a type 
than our top knots, long pipes and large coat sleeves, are to us. 
T have studied the matter deeply, but have never been able to 
understand why a great people should start reforms among us by 
the use of a mirror and hair brush. I have tried to picture to 
myself a foreigner dressed with his coat and vest opened at the 
back instead of the front and his slices pointing behind. He might 
ieel something of our dismay at the loss of our top knots. He 
might from his own philosophy find some moral power in it, and 
Advancement in civilization; that is, if humiliation and indigna- 


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1898.] 


THE FOREIGNER. 


211 


tion are a step upward. If it were not for tin* continual declar¬ 
ation of disinterestedness that we hoar, I should be tempted to 
think that unkindness, in a disposition to ridicule on the part of" 
the foreigner, was intended. It certainly could not be a lack of” 
wisdom, tho the latter I sometimes call in question. Xot long 
ago a foreign^ remarked to me that knowledge of a fact is useless 
unless vou could give a reason for it. Ijater while we were travel- 

o' 

ling together, 1 pulled up a spear of grass and told him I knew 
the fact of its growth, but could not trace its channels from air, 
earth and sun; 1 noticed he was too much preoccupied to explain. 
If their wisdom is superior to ours, wo may patiently wait; for 
wisdom in the end, always triumphs. 1 don’t know but that I 
rather like their positive ways of assorting what they believe, 
however, much of a shock it gives me. If they make a mistake 
what a fall it must be. Xot half of the arable land of our coun¬ 
try is tilled, and one man cultivates during a season only abou- 
one acre; while we are told that a man in the west, can till a hunt 
dred acres and build good houses. A great purpose thro the use 
of our soil and other natural resources, to make us rich among 
the nations would be an effort worthy of any jieople. 

“Personally, I have received much good at the foreigners’ 
hands, tho I shall never understand him, and expect ever to stand 
a little in awe of his fierce ways. From him 1 learned a great 
truth that has made my life sweet, and 1 have a great hope for 
the land I love, a hope that follows me while I wake and while I 
sleep; that the same power within me will transform my country.” 

Big drops of rain were already falling. Mr. Clio watched 
the hen with her brood hasten to shelter; looked long into the 
distance; then turned to his rice, not noticing that it was already 
cold. 

N AW. 


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1211 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[June, 


THE BEAUTY AND THE BEAST. 

(A KOREAN VERSION'.) * 

O NCE upon a time perLaps burcireds of years ago—Pak He 
Sik lived in the eastern part of Korea, bis hun.Ue dwell¬ 
ing thatched with stiaw and of only two or thieekans, 
was situated in the celebrated Diamond mountains in a small 
steep valley which fronting to the south enabled the sun to 
shed -its rajs upon his little rice fields and mature his icanty 
cops. 

hese fields, mere patches, each cnly a few yards in area, 
terraced up with stone walls had been wring by the hard labor 
of Pak an t his ancestors fiotn the flints and rocks of the moun¬ 
t'd; 6 ; even the soil in which the grain grew was with much tcO 
brought trom a distance. 

His family consisted of only himself and bis wife; no child¬ 
ren had come to bless his household Bnd be was too poor to 
adopt as is almost always done in 6uch cases in Korea, a son. to 
worship after his death at his tomb and do reveience before his 
lm-nble ancestral tablets- 

* Fiom some recent publication it may be inferred that the Koreans 
a e very illiterate and that but few of the common people, and still fewer 
of the w omen of any class have any education. 

1 think this erroneous and that a large majority of the men and many, 
probably most of the women, can at least read and write unmun, the Korean 
phonetic alphabet, which Professor Griffis says “is one of the most simple 
and perfect in the world.’* 

Indeed I have been told that it is so simple and perfect and easy that 
any Korean can acquire it in a week or two and learn in that stv rt time to 
both read and write. I am further informed that there are a large number of 
books mostly containing stories, fables etc, printed in this native alphabet 
•which are extensively ci«ciliated and read. I have selected the following 
-story not that there is any particular point in it, but as a fair sample o( 
one class. 

As it was narrated to me from memory by a Korean who is somewhat 
famous for not sticking to the text and as I have transcribed it from 
.memory also, I do not pretend that it is a literal translation of the original. 


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1898.] THE BEAUTY AND THE BEAST. 213 

The patches furnished enough of that staple of life, rice, 
for himself and wife and a small garden made like them with 
great difficulty and toil yielded under the skillful and unremit¬ 
ting labors of the wife, sufficient vegetables including the cab¬ 
bage, the huge and highly scented cross between a raddish and 
turnip and known by foreigners under its Japanese name of 
dikon, and the cucumbers, onions and pepper necessary to con¬ 
coct that wonderful and fiery cond’ment and food called kim- 
chee and which is an indispensible dish at every Korean meal; a 
small flock of fowls industrious and energetic, contributed eggs 
and now and then a chicken to the larder, while a colony of 
bees hived in a hollow log set upright under the overhanging 
eaves of the straw roof of the bouse added some sweets, sugar be¬ 
ing then, and even now, I may say, unknown in Korea outside 
treaty ports. 

There was also hard by, a little mountain lake to which 
Pak was wont to resort and fish during all his spare time. 

Such of the catch a9 was not needed for home consump¬ 
tion he would take to the villages in the valleys many li dis¬ 
tant and exchange for cotton and hempen cloth, salt and the 
■other things necessary to supply his few and simple wants. 
From all this it will be seen that Pak while poor, was not 
destitute, or needy, indeed neither richer or poorer than a large 
majority of the common or lower class which compose most of 
the population of this country so bountifully favored by nature, 
if in no other way. 

Put one summer Pak found there was a scarcity of fish in 
the lake. While formerly he could fill his basket in a few 
hours now a whole day’s fishing only furnished a few little 
minnows. 

At last be could catch none altbo using the most cunning 
devices known to piscatorial art, baiting his hooks with the red¬ 
dest and liveliest of wriggling worms, or the fattest, most juicy 
and greenest of grasshoppers, which had always heretofore been 
snapped up most voraciously, he could not get even a feeble 
nibble. 

But his perplexities and troubles were greatly increased 
when he found that the lake was drying up—each dav the water 
receded ard diminished more • nd mere and poor Pak at last 
realized with consternation and horror that not only were his 
fishes gone but his lake was going. In a short time there was 
hut little of that beautiful sheet of water left and Pak who, we 
can understand, watched with wistful eyes the vanishing lake, 
repaired to it one morning hoping to catch in its last water* 
such fish as might be left. Be found none but instead an enor- 


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‘)A l 


THK IOBKaK KBPCHITORT. 


[June, 


nwvw frog, ,axt:rg in the puddle, nrt only the biggest iu that 
pnri‘i'i* hot tr,e :arge*t he liad ever dreamed of. 

T'r^ froth I oj Korean who told me this story said tbe an- 
eienc r. hroi.ieU-s only lecorded that th s frog's hind legs wen* 
f* :t 'W 1 silent as to his other dimensions and 

■* I ear. get r.o further particulars my readers must be coutent 

"l f "*«. w!;at tlie > - know ol a frog’s anatomy, an estii, ate 
(A u\n a/:Uul\ *\7j> and proportions. 

When Pak had recovered fn m bis astonishment lie began 
to h'frate the frog for eati. g up oil the fish and drinking down 
all the ’vatei of bis lake, cm sing him, his mother and father, bis 
grand-mother and indeed alibis ancestors, especially in the fem¬ 
inine line, after the Asiatic fashion and in choicest Korean which 
I am told is especially lich in expletives. The frog, with true 
jwitrachian patience, waited until Pali had exhausted himself and 
Ins vocabulary, and then almost paralyzed him by answerin'* 
with polished politeness excusing himself and winding up with 
the request that as his abiding place, the lake, w as gone Pale 
should extend to him the hospitalities ol h s home. After much 
talk Pak consented and they set out for the house, the frog 
moderating his hops as well as he could to the much lesser 
stride of his companion and, the tv.o chatted quite amicably on 
tbe way. J 

But on arrival a ser ous obstacle was encountered—the 
good wife put her foot down on the project, declaring that while 
she had never before objected to company, indeed had done 
what she could to entertain tbe time or four visitors who had 
come that way m the forty yeais of their married life, she must 
draw tbe line somewhere and that she drew it at fro-** Pak 
after exhausting every other argument at last with that diplo¬ 
macy only learned m long years of con jugal association suggested 
that the frog could talk and had a rich fund of news and gossip 
which be was willing to impart and then, good and true woman 
as she was, she consented and tbe frog hopped ir.. 

Not only this but she brought into the onl’y state room 
great armfuls of the leaves and weeds which bad been collected 
lor fuel and toured over tbe pile many tubfulls of water to 
make a nice damp bed for the frog, so that he might f te | a t 
Itotne and be comfortable. * 

After finishing their labors for tlx? d»y P»k ard his wife 
went to the frog s room for a social chat, who, drawing on his 
imagination as n oat fjogs will, related several arousing incidents 
and Pak then told all he knew in about twenty minutes after 
wbwh the wile took up tbe eonveisatioq, telling all she knew or 
♦bought she knew, consuming we may bp sure rather more time. 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



1898 .] THE BEAUTY AST> THE BEAST. 21 !> 

and as the frog was a most patient and appreciative listener the 
worthy couple, when they retired, were quite convinced that he 
was a most entertaining and bri'liant conversationalist. The 
next morning they were awakened by a terribie noise and rush¬ 
ing out loind the frjg calmly seated on the little veranda sing¬ 
ing his morning song, gieeting the rising 6un as its i*avs gilded 
the bare mountain peaks that towered above them. I cannot 
undertake to describe the volume or * loudness” of the song 
which was literally raising the nx)f and shaking every timber of 
the house but those of my readers who have been in the South¬ 
ern states and beard there the bellowing of the bull frogs with 
six inch legs, can form a di u dea of the noise this frog with legs 
three feet long was making. 

Wb n the song was ended and they had recovered some¬ 
what Irom their consternation and could look around they wen 
still more atsonished to see that the little yard that surrounded 
the house and which had always been so bare was now filled 
with all sons of things—piles of syces, the most valued currency 
in Asia, pure silver each cast in the form and a'mut the size of 
a horse’s hocf, also stacks of cash strung on strings, great bales 
of cotton, grass, and hempen cloth, and of silks and satins, long 
rows of hags of rice piled high, great jars of kim-chee, and pack¬ 
ages of dried fish and sea weed, and shoes and hats and mar- 
gens, robes, clothes, and fans, pipes and tobacco, and indeed 
everything necessary to supply the needs and gratify the desires 
of a Korean, A closer inspection developed beautifully inlaid 
boxes filled with ornaments, gold, silver and jade rings, amber 
buttons and gold and silver hair pins, in shape and size very 
much like a butcher’s skewer, with curiously carved and enam¬ 
eled beads, also tortcise shell and ivory combs; but what pleased 
Mrs Pak most wa9 a metal mirror. She had heard of such 
A thing but had never seen one; the only glimpse she had ever 
got of her fa e was in. some placid pool of vyater. 

I can imagine, but not describe, the pleasure and rapture 
with which she viewed her wrinkled visage, as well as the de- 
lighted and beaming countenance that was reflected Irom the 
highly polished surface of that wonderful mirror, as she gazed 
into it. 

Truly Pak and his wife v ere “rich beyond the dreams cf 
avarice” and blessed the day when they “took in” the frog. 

As I have intimated above, Mrs. Pak like some of her sex 
was fond of gossip, hut during the long period of her poverty 
had but few opportunities to indulge in it, now since she had 
chai's an ! chair liearers she became quite a “gad-about” visa¬ 
ing the good dames cl the villages exhibiting her finery and bet 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



214 THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. [JuDf, 

raous frog, squatting in the puddle, n>t only the biggest iu that 
paddle but the largest he had ever dreamed of. 

The truthful Korean who told me this story said tbe an¬ 
cient chronicles only lecorded that tlrs frog’s hind legs were 
three feet long hut were silent as to his other dimensions, and 
as I can get no further particulars my readers must be content 
to form, from wbat they know ol a frog’s anatomy, an estiu ate 
of bis actual size and proportions. 

When Pak had recovered frs nr his astonishment he began 
to berate the frog for eatir g up oil tbe fish and drinking down 
all the water of his lake, cursing him, his mother and father, bis 
grand-mother and indeed all his ancestors, especially in the fem¬ 
inine line, after the Asiatic fashion and in choicest Korean which 
I am told is especially rich in expletives. The frog, with true 
batrachian patience, waited until Puk had exhausted himself and 
his vocabulary, and then almost paralyzed him by answering 
with polished politeness excusing himself and winding up with 
the request that as his abiding place, the lake, was gone Pale 
should extend to him the hospitalities oth s home. After much 
talk Pak consented and they set out for the house, the frog 
moderating his hops as well as he could to the much lesser 
stride of his companion and, the two chatted quite amicably on 
the way. 

But on arrival a ser ous obstacle was encountered—the 
good wife put her foot down on the project, declaring that while 
she had never before objected to company, indeed had done 
what she could to entertain the time or four visitors who had 
come that way in the forty yea)8 of their married life, she must 
draw the line somewhere and that she drew it at fro^s. Pak 
after exhausting every other argument at last with that diplo¬ 
macy only learned in long years of conjugal association suggested 
that the frog could talk and had a rich fund of news and gossip 
which be was willing to impart and then, good and true womau 
as she was, she consented and tbe frog hopped in. 

Not only this but she brought into the only spate loom 
great armfuls of the leaves and weeds which bad been collected 
lor fuel and poumd over the pile many tubfulls of water, to 
make a nice damp bed for the frog, so that he might feci at 
home and he comfortable. 

After finishing their labors for tl*e day P»k ard his wife 
went to the flop's room for a social chat, who, drawing on his 
imagination as n ost fiogs will, related several amusing incidents 
and Pak then told all he knew in about twenty minutes after 
which tbe wife took up the conversation, tailing all she knew or 
t thought she knew, consuming we may bo sure rather more time. 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



1S0S.J THE BEAUTY ASP THE BEAST. 21 $ 

and as the frog was a most patient and appreciative listener the 
■worthy couple, when they retired, were quite convinced that he 
was a most entertaining and brilliant conversationalist. The 
next morning they were awakened by a terribie noise and rush¬ 
ing out fotnd the frjg calmly seated on the little veranda sing¬ 
ing his morning song, gieeting the rising sun as its rays gilded 
the bare mountain peaks that towered above them. I cannot 
undertake to describe the volume or ‘ loudness” of the song 
which was literally raising the roof and shaking every timber of 
toe house but those of my readers who have been in the South¬ 
ern states and heard there the bellowing of the bull frogs with 
six inch legs, can form a di u dea of the noise this frog with legs 
three feet long was making. 

Wh n the song was ended and they lmd recovered some¬ 
what from their consternation and could look around they wer-s 
still more atsonished to see that the little yard that surrounded 
the house and which had always been so bare was now filled 
with all sons of things—piles of syces, the most valued currency 
in Asia, pure silver each ca9t in tbe form and a*'out the size of 
a horsVs bocf, also stacks of cash strung on strings, great bales 
of cotton, grass, and hempen clolb, and of silks and satins, long 
rows of bags of rice piled high, great jars of kim-chee, and pack¬ 
ages of dried fish and sea weed, and shoes and bats and mar- 
gens, robes, clothes, and fans, pipes and tobacco, and indeed 
everything necessary to supply the needs and gratify the desires 
of a Korean. A closer inspection developed beautifully inlaid 
boxes filled with ornaments, gold, silver and jade rings, amber 
buttons and gold and silver hair pins, in shape and size very 
much like a butcher's skewer, with curiously carted and enam¬ 
eled beads, also tortcise shell and ivory combs; but what pleased 
Mrs Pak most was a metal mirror. She had heard of such 
a thing but had never seen one; the only glimpse she had ever 
got of her fa e was in. some placid pool of water. 

I can imagine, but not describe, the pleasure and rapture 
with which she viewed her wrinkled visage, as well as the de¬ 
lighted and beaming countenance that was reflected Irom tha 
highly pclished surface of that wonderful mirror, aa she gazed 
into it. 

Truly Pak and his wife were “rich beyond the dreams cf 
avarice’’ and blessed the day when they ‘‘took in” tbe frog. 

As I have intimated above, Mrs. Pak like some of her sex 
was fend of gossip, but during tbe long period of her poverlv 
had but few opportunities to indulge in it, now since she had 
chai's an! chair bearers she became quite a "gad-about” visa¬ 
ing the good dames cf the villages exhibiting her fiuery and bet 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



216 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY; 


[June f 

mirror and retailing from bouse to bouse all tbe news, scandal 
and gossip she could gather or invent, like the fine old lady she 
had become. 

Much of this news she brought home to tbe frog, but 
what interested him most was her gossip about the beauty and 
accomplishments of a daughter of Ye Do Sin, the most power¬ 
ful and richest Yangban in that part of the country. 

Mr. Ye in early life had passed the civil service exam'na- 
tions known as the quagga, and by hook and crook, which bo- 
ing interpreted means a liberal donation to some influential 
official at the capital had secured the magistracy of ODe of the 
richest districts. 

Here, being very inventive and active, he introduced many 
reforms or to put it plainly, many new ways of squeezing and 
getting money out of the people, and his success wa9 so great 
in the line of filling his own pockets that the envy and cupidity 
of all his brother officials was aroused to the highest degree. 
His office was sold to a higher bidder and his career of uubri- 
dled and unremitting robbery and oppression thus cut short, 
but be had, as was usual with magistrates made the most of his 
opportunities and left his district, preceeded by a long line of 
pack ponies, bearing his spoils of office and followed by the 
curses and maledictions of the people. 

Returning to his old home he had added largely to his 
ancestral lands and become as we have seen, a mighty Yang¬ 
ban, greatly feared and therefore greatly respected. 

He had three daughters, two were married and tbe young¬ 
est was the beautiful maiden who was the subject of Mrs Pak's 
laudations to the frog. 

One bright morning the frog fairly took Pak’s breath away 
by announcing that he intended to marry this daughter of Ye’s 
and appointing him as his ambassador to conduct the negotia¬ 
tions. As we can readily understand Pak had no stomach 
for this matrimonial mission. He was quite certain that Ye 
would beat him to death if he made such a proposition and on 
the other hand feared to offend the frog, realizing from whence 
all his good things had come, and that a frog which had given 
could take away, and so, while inwardly imprecating the wag¬ 
ging tongue of his wife which had brought him into this dilemma, 
he tried to make some excuse, but tbe frog was inexorable, and 
while promising that no harm should come to him, required 
that he start at once. 

When Pak, arrayed in all his finery, arrived at Ye’s bouse 
be was admitted without delay into the presence of bis high 
mightiness who, as it happened was just then in a receptive 


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THE BEAUTY AND THE BEAST. 


21 T 


1898 .] 

IBOod with respect to nuptial negotiations. His two sons-in- 
law, members of high but impoverished families being too 
proud to w ork and too poor to get an office, weie living cn his 
Dounty in unnmigaUd idleness, Rod his hop<s were centered cn 
his youngest daughter, the best beloved ot all, who lie had 
reserved for a brilliant mairage, certain that with her liewuty 
and accomplishments and his wealth he could catch some high 
official—a governor or the like,—but time was pas-ing. She- 
was now in her eighteenth year, much beyond the age when 
maidens are usually espoused in Korea, and so when Pak with. 
Briny misgivings and an indisposition to enter into detail® 
which I can easily appreciate, hesitatingly commenced the 
negotiations, Ye graciously undertook to help nim along and asked 
if the suitor was rich. PaK answered he thought so, as he bad 
recently given many valuable presents to a very worthy old 
gentleman in the neighborhood. This aioused the old magis¬ 
terial instincts of Ye and was very good. Then came the ques¬ 
tion as to rank. “Did behold any office?” PaK said, “He 
didn’t exactly know,” and as this was not satisfactory, Ye, to 
elicit furthei particulars on the important subject asked, “what 
kin 1 of buttons he wore behind his ears.’ 1 Now Pak had never 
seen any buttons or indeed any ears about his frog, and was- 
again forced to make an evasive answer. 

Ye then inquired as to the family and named some of tli& 
prominent families of the land. 

“Was he a Kim, or a Sim a Mid, or a Sin. a Ho, a Cbo 
or a Ko, a Quong ot Hong,” and so on. Poor Pak was com¬ 
pelled to say “No,” but confidently asset ted that bis family was- 
one ot the oldest and most numerous m the wcrld indeed 
“Was the first fan ily in the land.” 

Ye somewhat mystified, asked flatly for bis name and Pak 
who saw that further evasions and subterfuges were at &u end 
gave bi& name, “Frog He Hop," aud upon Ye’s expressing 
surprise at such a cognomen, Pak with much trepidation 
explained that Frog was the right name because his matri¬ 
monial candidate belonged to the great family of frogs and was 
in fact, a frotj. 

Ye’s indignation overrode even his asfonisbirent ard ha 
fairly roared with rage and when Pak by way of mollifying him 
said that his trog was the largest frog in the land, with legs 
three feet long and could talk and sing hke thin der Ye exclaimed 
that “He would listen to no frog talk, and the bigger the 
frog, the longer his legs, and the louder his song, the greater the 
insult,” and ordered out his whipping bench and beaters in or¬ 
der that Pak might be pounded to death. This bench was in 


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[June, 

those days, and I fear ‘.n more modern time*, an indispensibl- 
adjunct to every powerful Yangban’s establishment for the 
just adjustment-, from tue Yangban’s point of view, of all dis¬ 
putes in which he bad an interest. 

Pak was stripped, laid face downward and securely tied 
on the bench and tne beater bad just poised his high paddle in 
air when the sky suddenly became over-cast with blackest 
clouds, from which darted and flashed fiery tongues of forked 
ligntcing, with sharp pealB of thunder, rain poured in torrents, 
t‘<en came bad, at first small, but rapidly increasing in size until 
they were even larger U au the eggs laid by the most vicorota 
of Mrs. Pak's hens, then real t-tones, cracking and crushing the 
tiles of the bouses, were hurled down. 

The paddle did not descend on Pak but fell harmlessly from 
the nerveless bands of the affrighted beater and Ye, thoroughly 
demoralized, had him cast loose; instantly the tenible torrent 
ceased, the sun came out with smilling face, the angry clouds 
rolled away to th? west, with thunder muttering low hot 
ominously as they went, and the matrimonial negotiations were 
resumed. Pak pressed the suit of his suitor with renewed confi¬ 
dence and the haughty Yangban now cowed and in a state of 
utter coll&y se to!d him to bring on bis frog and the biide would 
ba prepared. 

The time for the ceremony was fixed and Pak wended 
h ; s way hon e, much shaken up by his experience, but quite 
con ten t^d over the success of his mission. 

When that appointed day came, the frog, accompanied by 
numerous attendants and astride *‘a gallant and prancing grav, 
rode to the bride’s house.* I have not the space to describe a Ko¬ 
rean wedding procession, so curious and interesting and often very 
gorgeous and grand, and can only say that in this case the frog 
omitted nothing and spared no expense; £ nor have I the space or 

* The Koreans are superior in many respects but is equestrians are not 
a success. I t’rii-k all foreigners who have seen a yang-ban humped on bis 
ridiculous saddle, built up to give him dignity, about two feet above the horse's 
back a*>d frantically clingi g with both hands to the iron bar put am»-> the 
pomn el to enable him to maintain his balance on his ex died I ut dangerous 
seat, will agree with me that the trog had but little difficulty in successfully 
imitating him. Indeed, long before 1 heard this frog story, whenever 1 sa* 
a wedding procession 1 was reminded ot that nursery song which my dear 
•and faithful old negro nurse used to sing to me in my infancy, and commencing, 
‘‘Th- trog went a courting an 1 lie diJ ride 
"With a sword and pistol by his side." 

t [Notwithstanding X’s idea as to want of space, we gladly make room 
for th following note on wedding processions which he has kindly furnish 
us at our special request.—E d. A’ ri? ] 

The Koreans are very conservative especially as to family and social 


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1898.] THE BEAUTY AND THE BEAST. 219 

even the heart to enter into the details of this wedding, so sad at 
least, to the bride and her family, but we may be quite sure that 
our frog went thro the many various and complicated ceremonies 
with all the dignity, decorum, grace and agility for which the frog- 
family have been ever famous. 

Fortunately for the bride, her eyes were closed, and sealed 
with wax atler the Korean fashion, during the ceremony; a Ko¬ 
rean bride going into matrimony literally—as her western sisters- 
sometimes do metaphorically—blindly, aDd she was thus spared 
the sight, of the hideous and grotesque ugliuess of her bride¬ 
groom. 

At the end of the ceremony and when the feast was finished 
the frog, much to the joy of the family, announced that he would 
not ask the bride to go to his house and holme to his parents and 
bow to his ancestral tablets as is usually done, and that he would 
leave her for the present at her father’s home, but asked that 
before departing he be accorded a few minutes private talk 
with her. 

This was of course granted, and when he went into her room 
and she saw him, her eyes being now wide open, sbe cast herself 
on the cushioned flooi and writhed in agony and in tears. The 
frog in his tenderest tones asked, “Why this grief and why these 
tears so unseemly on this their wedding day?” 

She retorted, “Why should she not weep. Her sisters had 
handsome husbands and she, far more beautiful and accom¬ 
plished, had waited to make a brilliant match—to marry a gov- 

matters and we may assume that a wedding procession, (that is, the bride 
groom going to the bribe’s house) of the frog’s time differed but little from 
those which can now be seen almost any day in the streets of Seoul. 

First are a number of women gaily dressed and marching in douhle line 
with enormous coils of hair as big as a ship's cable wound curiously and 
high around the tops ot their heads, on which are poised large boxes wrapped 
in bright silk clothes; these boxes I am to'd contain the cliches of the bride¬ 
groom and perhaps presents, and also food for the marriage feast. 

Then comes the bridegroom on the finest horse he c n procure, nearly 
always a “gallant gray** with its long flowing mane and tail tie 1 and festooned 
with ted ribbon and with nodding plume in head and taparisoned with that 
wonderfully useless and dangerous contrivance, a Korean saddle, its skirts as 
big as cart wheels with breech and breast straps ornamented with brass or 
silver buttons, and with many pendant strings ending in red and blue tassels 
which uaily swing to and fro with the motion of the horse. A Korean rider 
uses no reins, being too grand to guide his steed, and so a groom or ma-poo 
as he is called grasps the bit and holding the horse's head high in air makes 
him prance and dance in true Korean style. 

In marriage processions there is in addition a particolored rope or broad 
belt of white leather fastened to the bit stretched out in front and txrne hy 
three or four attendants and thus the bridegroom is literally led into matri¬ 
mony. An attendant walks beside the steed and holds over the b. idegroom 


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[June, 

ernor perhaps, at least she had expected to marry a mum, but here 
she was wedded to a cold blooded, clammy, croaking frog with 
warts all over him and his eyes on the top of his head.” 

The frog admitted that appearances were against him but 
-added that perhaps things “were not as bad as they seemed.” bhe 
with another flood of tears replied that “she did hit see how they 
could be worse,” and he to cut the painful matter short told her 
to take a pair of scissors, which lay conveniently near, and cut a 
slit in the skin of his back. 

Nothing loath—she would have been more glad to have cut 
his throat—she seized the scissors and viciously cut in his loose 
And flabby skin a long slit from his waist up to the uape of his neck. 

He commenced vigorously working at the skin and soon 
■emerged—a young man radiantly fair, dressed in finest and gaud* 
iest colored silks, and with a “pung-cham” in his head net, not 
the usual amber or tortoise-shell, but a hugh diamond that flashed 
like a star. 

In Korea women of her high class are kept in strict seclusion 
■and are not permitted to see, or lie seen by any of the masculine 
|>ersuasion except the nearest relatives. She had, ot course, seen 
her brothers-in-law, and on several occasion by slyly puncturing 
small peep holes in the ]>ang-moons (paper doors) got glimpses 
of her father’s guests, and in this way had seen three or four young 
men, all of whom she thought quite handsome, hut never in her 
wildest dreams had she fancied that anyone could be so beautiful, 
so graceful, and so charming as this young man proudly" stalking 
nround her in plain sight, swinging his legs and swaying his flow¬ 
ing sleeves and the long tails ot his coats in that grand yang-ban 
strut which cannot lie described but once seen can never be for¬ 
gotten. 

a huge paper umbrella eight or nine feet in diameter and with a handle 
twelve or fifteen Let long; sometimes there -re several umbrellas; there are 
two or more other attendants with large fans to cool the heated agitation of 
the bridegroom and seize his leg and restore his balance on his high and 
perilous scat in the not infrequent event cf his loosing if, while behind come 
a large number of followers which like the women in front are in two parallel 
lines far apart, in fact occupying the entire road; and lastly comes some old 
friend of the family, who has been prosperous and had several sons, bearing 
-a live wild goose which is indispensable in all Korean wedding ceremonies. 

The bridegroom is dressed in the picturesque court costume with its 
■curious belt and winged hat, he being for this brief occasion, and this alone, 
mo matter how humble his rank, equal to the highest official or noble. 

I have often asked what part this goose played in the matrimonial 
ceremonies and have been given several explanations; the most provable 
is that the Koreans think that geese are strict monogamists and that when 
-once mated they remain during their long liie true to their first and only love 
cmd when one dies the other does not mate again and that therefore the 
;goose i s used as a synvrol of conjugal constancy and fidelity. 


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1898.] THE BEAUTY VXD THE BEAST. 221 

Then he told his story—he was not a frog at all—not even 
so mean as a mortal, but was the son * of the King of the Stars, who 
becoming displeased with him for some slight offense had con¬ 
demned him to take the form of a frog and perform three appar¬ 
ently impossible tasks. 

He was first to catch and eat all the fish in Pak’s lake, then 
to drink it dry, and lastly to marry, while still in the guise or a 
frog, the most beautiful woman in the world, all of which, espec¬ 
ially the last, he added with a graceful and complimentary bow, he 
had now done. But he said there remained a few more days of 
probation during which he must play the frog, and after which, 
he would come and take her to his starry kingdom where she 
would become like him, immortal, and they would dwell together 
in matrimonial bliss forever. 

Then resuming his frog skin with the aid of his now enrap¬ 
tured spouse, who deftly and neatly but lovingly and most ten¬ 
derly stitched up the rent in his back, he, after charging her to 
strictly keep his secret, passed out and gravely kotowing to his 
respected father-in-law hopped on his horse and rode home. 

As I am somewhat interested in astronomical disturbances 
aL'd as the account which the Star Prince gave to his bride 
concerning his offences was meager, I made inquiries of the nar¬ 
rator and he said that it was not usual with Korean Benedicts, 
especially bridegrooms, to give their wives full particulars, of their 
ante-nuptials escapades. But from all the information he could, 
get he thought that the prince’s deviation from his true course 
was caused by the attractions of Venas with whose charms he 
had become enamored. That his father, the Star King, had given 
in his keeping the Milky Way, that great highway of the heavens, 
but that he had pledged and mortgaged it with all its tolls and 
other rights and privileges thereto appertaining, to a syndicate 
of usurious bankers, to raise money to buy from Saturn his brightest 
ring for his charmer, and that when this ring was seen on the taper 
finger of Venus, the gossips began to talk and this reached the 
ears of the Star King. Just here I realized that my narrator was 
drawing on things that he had read in his English studies and 
that none of this was Korean and I stopped him with a sharp 
rebuke and my readers so far as I am concerned must remain in 
ignorance as to the particulars of the peccadillos of the prince. 

After the frog’s departure from Ye’s house, the family 

* In ar. article entitled, “The Bird Bridge” and published in The Re- 
pository of February, 1895, l stated on what I then thought was gro<l 
authority that the only child o the Star King was a daughter; now we find 
that he had a son. The two statements are inconsistent and wholly irrccorw 
cilable and it is evident somebody is prevaricating. 


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[Jane, 

were greatly surprised to find that the bride was not at all 
cast down but on the contrary quite cheerful aud happy, in¬ 
deed rather buoyant, so to speak, and so some of them especi¬ 
ally the idle sons-in-law chided he r, saying tlret as she seemed 
so happy over her catastrophe she was none to good for a frog and 
was well mated, and they also made insinuating and sly remarks 
about polliwigs and tadpoles and the like which were under all 
the circumstances uncalled for and 1 think in bud taste, but the 
beautiful bride kept her equanimity, her temper, and her secret 
thro it all, knowing that soon her day of triumph would come. 

She was greatly sustained in her trials, aud the “weariness of 
waiting” softened by frequent visits from Mrs. Pak, who brought 
and took sweet messages between her and her frog, as also by the 
morning songs of the frog; she could detect among his deep fmse 
notes which grandly rolled over the ten or twelve miles of hills 
and dales that separated him from her, many tender tenor notes 
which she knew were lovingly intended for her. 

The Koreans consider the sixty-first birth day as a most im¬ 
portant event, it being regarded as the turning point in life, arid 
if a man is prosperous and in good health, he celebrates this natal 
day by a feast as grand as his purse will allow. 

Now Mr. Ye’s sixty-first birth day was approaching, and for 
the purpose of providing for the feast he ordeied his son’s-iu-law 
to organize a great hunting and fishing expedition to go to the 
mountains for game and fish, and also sent out invititions to all 
his kin and friends bidding them to the feast. 

But the frog, altho a son-in-law, got no invitation and was 
greatly chagrined and mortified at the slight put upon him; he 
was moreover mad over the taunts and insinuations and petty 
persecutions to which hi.- wife had been subjected by his worthless 
brotliers-in-law, and which had been duly reported to him by o)J 
Mrs. Pak, with all her additions and comments, and so he deter¬ 
mined to play them a trick which they would never forget, and to 
that end, hurried up into the mountains, clearing forty or fifty 
feet at a hop, and summoned the head tigers, which by their fero¬ 
city and cruelty and strength, had made themselves kings and 
masters, not only of all the other beasts in the mountains, bat of 
the fowls and fishes as well, and gave them strict injunctions to- 
gatlur up all the game and take them to places inaccessible to 
men; also to see that all the fishes hid in the deepest waters of 
the lakes and did not take a bite at anything. 

This was done and when the hunting party arrived they found 
nothing. The grass plots and fields usually alive with phea«atit4 
and othe*’ game birds were now lifeless: the glades and forests in 
which deer and wild hogs were wont to wander in droves veK 


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1898.] THE BEAUTY AND THE BEAST. 223 

•deserted, nothing—not even a sparrow—was seen except one or 
two white tailed eagles, circling high in air and lar beyond the 
range of the bows and rude match lock guns of the hunters, and 
which were in fact sentinels and spies for the tiger kings. 

Nor were the fishermen more successful—neither by hook or 
net could they catch a fish and so the whole party were forced to 
return empty handed, and utterly disheartened. 

The frog who had got from the tigers a goodly supply of game, 
arranged it so that when returning the party should encounter 
him as he ltd a long string of coolies loaded with his game. 
When his hroth'Ts-in-law saw this supply their astonishment was 
only equaled by thoir desire to get it; here were fat bears, razor- 
backed boars, with curved tusks eight or ten inches long, mild 
eyed and juicy deer, swans, geese, and ducks without number, great 
bustards—the wild turkey of the east— and pheasants, quails, wood¬ 
cocks, snipe and soon besides fish fresh from the mountain waters, 
and they at once commenced negotiations with the frog to obtain 
it. H * refused all pecuniary considerations but graciously cons- 
sented to let them have these good things for the feast of their 
common father-in-law if they would let him put his stamp on 
their legs. 

To this they agreed and the fmg duly stamped the calves of 
the legs cf each with his seal nnd they in turn took over all the 
things and proceeded home with great stories as to their prowess and 
skill in hunti 1 g and fishing, thinking but little and caring less 
about the stamps. 

The frog's term of probation having ended the skin was cast 
aside, nnd the prince came forth very much to the astonishment 
and equally to the regret of Mr. aud Mrs. Pak who were very 
sorry to loose their fn>g. 

The prince then proceeded to his bride’s house dressed in finest 
clothing, and in agiand tiger skin open chair, borne by sixteen 
bearers and accompanied by a large band of followers, as well as 
by the good old couple whose hospitality he had enjoyed in the 
days of his frogdom. On arrival he found the place crowded with 
guests ai.d the birthday feast in full blast, and Mr. Ye seeing that 
he bad r distinguished visitor invited him to come in and partake 
of the good cheer, and in the prince stalked with haughty yang- 
ban s rut, but said be had not come to the feast and would eat 
nothing but that he had come in search of his two slaves, who lie 
had heard were there. 

Ye indignantly replied that he had plenty of slaves of bis own 
and “did not harbor those of others” but that he, the stranger,, 
was at liberty to search and “take anything that belonged to him 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


224 


[June, 


and go as quickly as possible.” The prince answered that “all 
liis slaves bore his stamp oi seal iu silver color.” 

The sons-in-law hearing this, and remembering the stamps 
on their calves were seized with fear and were rushing out of the 
banquet hall, when the prince pointing them out, as his slaves, 
they were seized by his attendants and brought back and when in 
spite of their vehement protestations and violent struggles, their 
trousers were rolled up the fatal stamps shining like burnished 
silver were plainly seen by all and j>oor old Ye saw and realized 
with all its crushing and humiliating force that these husbands of 
his daughters, were the sealed slaves of n stranger. He roared 
and raved shouting that “it was bail enough to have a frog son-in- 
law, but that the degredatiou of slave sons-in-law was infinitely 
worse and that he had rather a daughter had married a thousand 
frogs, than a single slave and here there were two of them.” Tims 
lie continued to rave, and completely unmanned, hysterically tone 
Iris robes, and mangen and pulled at his top-knot until at last the 
prince pitying him and his top-knot, explained everything, adding 
that he would now take his bride to his starry home, and while 
they would never return to earth they could be seen as stars in the 
heavens. 

In the meantime the bride had been prepared by the faithful 
Mrs. Pak for her aerial journey, and having bid farewell to her 
mother and sisters, came out from the woman’s quarters. The 
prince led her into the open court-yard and as they stood band 
in hand bright rays of light illumined them for a moment, then 
they were hid by a mist which rapidly whirling caught them up 
as in a cloud and lo!—they were gone. 

The shades of night soon came and Ye and his guests savr 
high in the heavens new double stars, one bright and fiery, the 
other less brilliant but even moie beautiful, shining with a soft 
reflected light and hovering lovingly around the other, and they 
knew that these were the star prince and his terns-trial bride. 

And it is said that even at this late day Korean revellers 
reeling home late at night drunk, can see stars double in almost 
any part of the sky. 

While none were l>orn under h lucky star, Ye and Pak and 
his wife, found they were now under the hick of doublestars. Ye’s 
crops yielded a return of a hundred f hi, his flocks and lierth 
multiplies) bevorni precedent anet his riches currcspniiuingty iit- 
crcnsed. When it beetime known that he hail such “high” con¬ 
nections, honors ami office?, were showered upon him and when 
in olel age he departed this life he was the high prime minister 
of the left. 

Pak also got high rank with the much coveted right of wear- 


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" I S;)8 ] 


T1IE 15TATTY AND THE UTAsT. 


ing jade buttons behind Ms oar.* and died full of years and happinc ss. 
Mis. Pak smvivcd him lor a long time gazing into and exhibiting 
her mirror and dispensing out of her ample stores her cl arities 
and gossip with great satisfaction until at last her wagging tongue 
was stilled in death. 

dust hero my Irquaeious and veracious narrator paused, and 
x ventnpd to ask him, as all the worthy people of the st< ry had 
hern l applv disposed ci] what had become of the wiMth!<*« soi.s- 
in-lnw V ITe was not to law-aught, and replied that tiding the 
.disgrace of tin* slave stamps on their enlv<s, tin v tri<d (•» n uuiv* 1 
tin m hut the inoie tiny rublad and scrubbed the blighter and 
mo e like burnished silver the .stamps became and that alter nib¬ 
bing uarly into the boms hi d sons came with blew! jKiisoning 
and both died with the leek jaw. 

X. 




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THE KOREAX REPOSITORY. 


[June^ 


"1 ffi 


A NK(iLI'XTED method of missionary wcuk* 

I N leading reports of the multitudinous forms of inissioi ary 
woik oii ietlon in England, tne wiiier became impressed 
w Mi ihn amount of possible pood that prow fiotn the 
Misti ilxitiou of mallet?. ! liia form of work lias been too much 
neglected in the United S ate* and eonsequently American mis¬ 
sioning do not realize it* importance. 

So often one enters into a brief conversation with a Ko¬ 
rean ai d dislikes to leave him without a word concerning bis 
soul's talvation and yet las not time or opportunity for a talk 
of sufficient length to create much interest or do mush good. 
But if one hands him a leaflet with a few' words recommending 
it to his attention, not the recipient, alone but olten his whole 
household are instructed thereby. When a crowd gathers around 
one’s hie cle or chair duiing a few moinints’ vest nothing 
will reach t hem fo well as some leaflets handed around with a 
few words of introduction. 

I do not believe in giving away books but a leaflet costing 
one or two yen per thousand can he given away with no tear 
of doing harm. Kven they might be sold but it is so much bet¬ 
ter to give one thousand than to sell three hundred. And sup¬ 
posing half are not read each one of the remaining half is read 
and heard by one to ten pcrsoi s. 

Traveling to mil from bis field is often a barren portion of 
the missionary’s work, but if every traveler he passes gties on 
his way reading a tract or with one folded away in his pocket 
and intent on asking some one to lead it, the distributer feels 
that the day cannot lc barren, livery house and especially 
every tavern passed affords a rich field for work. Sometimes a 
faithful Korean Christian follows the missionary and is sure to 
be asked why the loreigner gives every one a hook and is given 
an excellt lit opportunity to say something to the point- A wait 
at the ferry and a trip acrcsB the liver in aciowded boat bocome 
a welco ncvopport .nty instead of a burden. One docs not al- 


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1S98.] A NEGLECTED METHOD OF MISSIONARY WORK. 22 T 

wayR think it beet to preach without some introduction and a. 
few tracts handed atounil give the introduction netded; thc 
bearers do not feel imposed upon, which is an important lactor 
in a good and'er.ce. The use of giving tinct* to a n an v bo¬ 
on not read might bo doubted but if you intense him he is the 
best man to give a tract to, for he gets srmeor.e else to read it 
to him and a crowd gathers around to bear and discuss, while 
the lettered man may nad it himself and show it to no one else. 

The market-places offer the best opportunities for such 
Work; with the. aid of several Korein brethren twelve hundred 
tracts have leen given out in two or three hours cn a largo 
market-place. Again at a smaller market, with like aid eight 
hundred were distiibuted. Tb? next day on offeiing a farmer- 
boy a leaflet, he said: “I received one of those yesterday and 
our whole household read it.” A friend told me he met men 
going from the fair who stumbled along the road and nearly fell 
into t ; e ditches from absorption in the tracts they held before 
thtir faces. So we know the tracts were read and with moire 
interest than they would excite at home. At another time at a 
soicaress’ and gamblers’ fair three hundred weie given out, the 
Sorceresses and gamblers receiving them with apparent interest. 

On a day’s spin of several hundred li to and from one’s, 
field, the bicyclist does not have much timecr breath for preach¬ 
ing. hut a tract stuffed into each pocket— r ro:n a supply arranged 
on a handy part of the bicycle—can b» pulled out just as one 
passes a resident or a wayfarer and if thrown at his feet he 
will be Burn to pick it up and give it a careful perusal if only to- 
see what it ssvs alxrnt that “demoniacal thing that goes faster 
than a mule.” Thus three hundred have been placed in a 
morning's ride, and on looking hack over a stretch of my road 
I have 8em two or three separate wayfarers going on their way 
reading about their souls’ salvation as they journeyed, or pei- 
haps groups cf five or six in a village gathered around those who 
were leading of the way of life. 

The distributer should n ever be without a few leaflets in 
his pocket, for a visit to the telegraph office or to a shop gwea 
an opportunity to band one to the man in chargp. Chance* 
present themselves most unexpectedly and leave only sadness if 
the worker is unprepared. Tne distiibuter must he careful not 
to pass by these near at hand, the servants, the chair coolies, 
the carpenters and laborers. And he must be especially careful 
not to make the leaflet an excuse for neglecting the testimony 
of his own heart experience. 

A number of small sized leaflets have been in use but some 
Of them too short or not enough to the point* The recipients. 


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22 S THE KOREAN' REPOSITORY. [Jline, 

of one’s tracts may never have another chance to hear the gospel 
and one like? to ie«T that they have instructions in their bands 
■clear and full enough to * nable them to lay hold on enternai h'e. 
A leaflet must l>e lengthy enough and yet not deal with Eden 
or Abiaham or anything else that will lead the reader to throw 
it away l>ecnu8e be cannot understand it. God, u an*s sin. 
Christ and his salvation, must t>*rm the body of the leaflet, and 
■so all leaflets will be. alike in their bodies but tact must be used 
in chosing an attractive head and introduction. Not all men 
care for their soul’s salvation so a fleshly head is often the b*st 
to attract to a spiritual body. The leaflet that has been most 
used is no doubt the "W'ml lan my 'iilmnan kun pon’’ sliest, 
ten thousand of which were disuibut d during the cholera sum¬ 
mer and probably forty thousand sir ce then. An abridged form 
•of the “Syong kyong mun tap” makes a good leaflet, giving a 
very satrdardoiy summary of Christian doctrine. Another that 
is early in its career, meeting large sales is called “Cli’akhsn 
ii:a ma otnan kun ponira.” 

Those baldest to rpach Rre the women, and so we trust 
depend on the ladies distributing to their meds—they take a 
good look at us draw their veils close and run away when we ofier 
them a tract. The d stributer does not neccessarily lequire a 
knowledge of the language to do his work, so newcomers or 
those not immediately engaged in missionary w jrk can u: 
their daily walks sow seed that must liear fruit. The places on 
the hillsides where the women do their washing offer tlie ladi-.s 
good opportunities to work in pleasant surroundings. 

If the distributer looks to known results for encouragement 
lie may find very little, but if lie looks to the promises he will 
always find assurwice: “It i-ball not return unto me void but it 
shall ac omplish that which E please and it shall prosi er in the 
thing whereto I sent it." 

F. S. Miller. 


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1898.] 


KDITJlJIA r. PF.IWKTMEXT. 


229 


EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 


1IE IS A FARMER. 

T HE typical Korean is a farmer. Rack of the yang-ban, tlio 
scholar, the yamnn runner, the “pauper and the “liar” who 
have been so prominently Indore the foreigner’s eyes since 
the opening of the country stand the great mass of tl.e people 
whose sole occupation is farming, and whose intellectual make-up 
has been shaped lamely by the oxpeiicnees attendent upon the 
tilling of the soil. Fully nine-tenths of the Korean nation are 
engaged in agriculture. There is no distinct manuliicturing class 
as such, w hich stands out in contrast to the farmer, forming a 
separate caste. The cotton, silk, linen and grass cloth used by the 
nation a»e produced by the wives of the farmers, who raise or 
gather the raw materials. The sandals, mats, willow and wooden 
ware are largely produced bv the larnirr in the leisure moments 
left him from bis work in the fields. The carpenter, the black¬ 
smith, the geonmnocr and the stone mason of the average hamlet 
is always one of the farmers who adds to his stock in hand skill 
along these lines. The schoolmaster is generally the son of a 
farmer of the I letter class. The fisherman generally has a small 
holding where lie raises some of his own foot!, and most of his 
parephenalia is made for him by farmers. The only classes who 
are distinctively not farmers are the officials, the yamun runners, 
and the merchants, and small bodies like the junk-men, miners, 
inn-keepers, and men who live by their wits, i.c., gamblers and 
fortune-tellers. Rut these do not number more than one-teutb of 
the population and even they are most closely oounecteel w ith the 
farmer; for the merchant who travels the rounds of the markets 
is often an ex-farmer and purveys nlnicst altogether for thrmers. 
The same thing may lie said of the inn-keepers, inns being a very 
modern institution in the laud. The Korean official goes into the 
provinces to govern farmers and the leading questions of internal 
state craft from time immemorial have been those of an agricul¬ 
tural folk. It will thus he seen that Korea has distinctively an 
agricultural people. Thfe government exists on the revenue raised 


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THE KOREAX REl'OSITORV. 


230 




t 

from agriculture ami the people live on the return* from the soil. 
Any estimate of the Korean people which approaches them from 
any other than this standpoint is necessarily imperfect and marred 
by blemishes. 

The first characteristic of the Korean farmer to impress a 
foreigner is lrs diligence. "With no labor saving appliances to 
assist him lie depends solely on his own strength and that of lib 
patient partner, the bull. The present time (middle of June) is 
the season for transplanting rice. For this purpose he leaves his 
house by break of day and will work hard until twilight drives 
him hence, spending the entire day barefooted and barelegged in 
water up to his knees in the back-aching process of placing the 
little tufts of grain into the muddy swamps. During the day he 
will be joined in this work by wife and daughters-in-law who are 
as clever at transplanting grains and weeding the swamps as the 
men themselves. The chief crops on which they spend their time 
are rice, barley, wheat, beans and the common vegetables, and in 
the cultivating and havesting of these crops most of the year i.s 
occupied. During the winter months lie becomes a manufacturer 
and products mats, sandals, screens, thatch, or gathers wood and 
brush on the hill-side which he sends, after reserving sufficient for 
his own use, in great loads to the nearest town. Two months of 
the year are known as the “idling time”—the first and the seventh 
moons. Tt is during these months he takes things easy and may 
then be found in his home ready to listeu to any passer-by who 
drops in. 

Another characteristic of the farmer is liis^inypjjcfty. We 
have given some attention to the question of illiteracymit must 
confess our inability to formulate at this time an accurate state¬ 
ment in the matter. We are of the opinion, however, that ex¬ 
cluding the women al>out sixty per cent of the farming class are 
unable to read either Chinese or the vernacular. If the women 
are included in the survey then possibly eighty-five per cent are 
illiterate. This, however, varies with the locality. The jpercent¬ 
age of illiteracy is probably lowest in Kyong-ki and Chung-cliong 
and highest in the northern provinces where the struggle to hold 
the wolf outside the door has left little time for study. Chris¬ 
tianity, however, which is spreading rapidly, is dealing roost suc¬ 
cessfully with the question of illiteracy and many, especially among 
the women, have learned to read after becoming Christians. This 
ignorance of the farmer has shut up to him the sources from 
which he might derive a knowledge of the world. Another thing 
i which has added to his simplicity has been his dislike to going 
I far from home. A vast amount of travel is done in Korea bnt 
\ it is done by other classes than the farmer, The best travelled 


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EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 


1808.] 


231 


class in Korea are the litoratti. Tlioir studies uive them an interest / 
in things of the world, and this was stimulated in ante-bellum ' 
days by the civil service examination which compelled the attend¬ 
ance of candidates at the prefectural cities, the provincial capitals 
and the metropolis. But the farmer hirusolf is averse to going 
far from home. One of the best farming regions in the empire 
is the island of Kang-wha with a ]>opulntion of of),000. Access 
to both Chemulpo and Seoul is very easy and yet inquiry revealed 
the fact that surprisingly few of the farming people had visited 
either places. The Koreans tell a fable of how a fish from the 
sea fell into a well where lived a frog. Said the frog to the fish, 
<r \Yliere did you come from?” "From the great ocean,” was the 
aus ver. ‘‘How big is it,” asked the frog—“is it as big as this 
well?” and he hopped across it! This fable was invented to 
describe the simplicity of the Korean farmer. Korea is the great 
land, “a thousand miles lo"g.” The Korean people the salt of 
the earth “three thousand years old,” and custom, custom, custom, 
the end of the law to him. 

The Korean farmer i spatk iatC He endures conditions which 
would drive other )>coples to desperation. But he holds on wait¬ 
ing for the better day. The present is a time of much distress 
throughout the land. AVe have several farmers among our 
acquaintance who arc living on one square meal once in two days, 
satisfying hunger the rest of the time with stewed greens which 
are picked wild on the mountain side. Yet they are doing this 
patiently waiting for the rice returns of the coining autumn which 
promise a good crop. They carry this patience into their rela¬ 
tions with the classes which have ruled them, and anyone familiar 
with their history must confess that they are among the easiest | 
peoples on earth to govern. Where an official is zealous for their T 
welfare they idolize him ; where he is oppressive and cruel they 
endure his misrule to the breaking point. They patiently put up 
with illegal taxes which in any other land would mean riots and 
rebellion. In a prefecture near Chemulpo it was the eustom to 
add ten per cent to the gross amount of the tax levy for the bene¬ 
fit of the yamtm runners. This was abolished four years ago but 
this year has been again put and the people ordered to pay not 
only the extra ten ]>er cent but the part remitted for three years 
past, and in all forty per cent extra is lxfing collected from jieople 
already on the verge of famine. And vet the people are paying, 
murmuring little, but still they pay. They apply pet names to 
the governor and the runners when they go by, such as “there go 
the pirates,” and kindred remarks. Sometimes the breaking 
1 x>int is reached and the farmer’s patience is exhausted and then 
corn's riots. With a clout around his head and a big club in his 


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I 


hand lie rails about 0,000 strong on the governor and 1 \l> umVr- 
lings and his wrath makes him a lien. These demnnstratieii irrn\v 
rarely into a rclxTion, fur rebcllionof tin cuiiinnni folk arealnn^t 
unknown to Korean historv but sometimes thev eonr*, as un- rl.e 


easo in J 89 o-tJ 4 , the Tom; Male uprising l>^*i 1114* a wide.^j 
movement among farmers. Since* then events have taught 



that he not only lias rights but that he has the power to pr« .r« rr 
them and it is doubtful if his patience will endure to the point it 
reached in the past. 

Tin* Korean farmer is superstitious. lie stands in terror of 
the demons whose dirty an<l grotesque fetiches decorate his liiuuhh 
al>od(‘. Confucianism and Buddhism are alike in his hands onlv 


the grossest of superstitions and when* any ill Iwlalls him he will 
1k.‘ found offering rice to a piece of paper, or whole boiled dog and 
vermicelli to a lionji of straw. In every community the vmilnnj/ 
"(sorceress) lives and thrives, getting a generous share of every 
harvest in return for her dances and songs and premier su|>erii>- 
tendency of the feast which offered to the demons alwavs finds its 
way into the capacious stomach of the farmer and his friends. 
This superstitious business, whether it is sacrifice to the dead, or 
offering to the demon, is not without its attractive features to a cal • 
dilating farmer, for while the feast is costlv vet it is not the dead 
who cut, after all. He himself enjoys the mental gymnastics 
which dnhs as an offering to his dead ancestors, or a propitiation 
to offended demons, that which is intended to tickle his own 
palate. It is quite probable that if his dead ancestors would 
coine and eat what is s]tread before them, or the demons carry off 
the savory viands of sacrifice, he would immediately change or 
modify his religion. When one realizes that the national hill 
for these offerings amounts to fully $12,000,000 a year, or three 
times the national revenue, it will be readily seen that the farmer 
could not endure it long were it not for the compensatory lecture 
above mentioned. The hold w .ieh Christianity obtains on the 
converts is a great mystery to him, explicable only on the ground 
of medicine. Tho it would seem that the story of “magic med¬ 
icine” ought to have disappeared by this time in Korea, yet only 
a few days ago one of our Christians was asked by a friend what 
kind of medicine had l>ecn given to make him a Christian and 
when he indignantly denied it, he was told it was no use to sav 
that, they knew that there was a certain ceremony in tho church 
in which a medicine wlr'ch looked and tasted like blood was given 
to the convert to make him a Christian. This was the farmer’s 


idea of Holy Communion. We might mention several other 
characteristics plainly found in his character. His hospitality; 
his liberality, which is remarkable when contrasted with liis 


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EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 


23a 


1898.] 


poverty; his reverence for learning ami for rank; his stupidity 
in the presence of an innovation; the childish jealousy which 
often ruptures his friendships; and his love of flowers and 
natural scenery. 

His chief diversion is going to market. Six hundred years 
ago one of the kings of the last dynasty to facilitate trade instituted 
market places where the people might meet periodically and barter 
and sell. This has grown until in every prefecture throughout 
the land there is one and often more places where every five days 
the people assemble to exchange goods and opinions. Here the 
farmer can meet his friends from a distance and the huckster who 
comes from the outside world with the news or the latest tid-bit 
of scandal. If he needs matches, a cheap umbrella, thread or 
cloth, lie can get it here, in fact he can buy anything from a pipe 
stem to a bull if he has the monev. He tries not to miss market 
day but assembles in force, succumbs to its seductions, sometimes 
gets drunk, and may even have a free fight and return home a 
physical and moral wreck. This is his diversion and is as much 
to him as a June circus to a farmer at home. 

Another diversion of the farmer is that of a grave fiacht. 
The ancestral graves are scattered all over the adjoining moun¬ 
tains. It is important that these graves should be preserved 
unmolested for they mean much to him—numerous jiosterity, 
freedom from trouble, and also good fortune. NVe once told a 
Korean farmer of the famous Brainerd family of the United States 
which in 200 years grew to number 30,000 memliers, and the 
first question he asked was, “What kind of a grave yard did they 
have?” So the Korean farmer has an idea that the very existence 
of his family’ depends on his ancestral grave sites and he is in hot 
water constantly in order to protect them. For the dead are buried 
daily in Korea as elsewhere, and mountain room has liecome ex¬ 
hausted so that nothing is left but to trespass on the limits of 
graves already occupied. These limits extend above and below 
and all around the grave to a preposterous extent and are the fruit 
of more that fifty per cent of the cases brought before the magis¬ 
tral es. These fights i uvol ve whole clans and are always very bitter 
and form one of the chief elements in the life of the average 
farmer. For not only relatives, but friends as well, join in. and 
sometimes they take the law into their own hands, dig up the in¬ 
truding corpse and throw it outside the limits. 

Another fruitful source of trouble to the Korean farmer is 
the protection of the water supply to his rice swamps. The nmn 
just ab we him will often dam up the water and prevent it flowing 
to the fields below, or the man below will drain it all off into the 


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234 the eobeax repogitoky. [June, 

fields on the lower level. In either cases there is always a row 
and often a fight. 

Another incident of farm life is the forcible abduction of 
widows, and we are informed that in the north sometimes even 
maidens are forcibly carried off and compelled to become brides. 
These occurrences, of course are not frequent, but when they do 
occur they form the topic of conversation for months afterward. 

The Korean farmer is generally a small holder of land. The 
farmers consist of four classes. (1) The farm bauds who have no 
holdings of their own but work by the day, by contract, or are held 
as serls by their more fortunate proprietors: (2) The farmers who 
own no lands themselves but work the lands of others on shares. 
They correspond to the tenant class of western lands but pay no 
stipulated rent. The arrangement is on a purely co-operative 
basis, the landlord furnishing the laud and seed, while the tenant 
furnishes himself with a house, implements and supplies the labor. 
The returns are divided equally and the taxes paid according to 
agreement specially entered upon. These two classes—the farm 
hands and farm tenants lorin the great mass of the farming popu¬ 
lation: (•>) The small owners. These possess a few “cheeks” of 
rice swamp and some fields. The total value of the holdings of 
a man of this class, including the animals and implements, will 
amount from $-500 for the p«x>rer classes to $-5,000 tor the richest. 
The members of this class will number probably three per cent of 
the farming population: (41 The last class are the landed pro¬ 
prietors—the aristocracy of the land. The richest member of this 
class, whose holdings probably amount to $4,000,000, with an 
annual income to the owner of fully $2.50,000. The members of 
tliis class are insignificant in numbers but they rule the laud. 

To return to our original proposition, the Koreans are an 
agricultural people and the typical Korean is an Asiatic farmer. 

Confession of a Tong Hah Chief. —The Tong Hak 
uprising in IS$4 lev! to the war between China and Japan. 
Ever since the Tong Hak stood for vigorous and successful opposi¬ 
tion to the government as well as for violence and lawlessness of 
all kinds. The police have at last captured (May 2$th ) one of 
the original leaders, Choi Sikyeng. He was arrested in his hid¬ 
ing place iu Won-ju, brought to Seoul, and on the 30th handed 
over to the Supreme Court with the following report which we 
quote from The Independent: 

“Some years ag \ the riotous Theg Hsks kept the two provinces 
Chcong-chuTK ar.g oh a:-La in disturbance by their robbery and violence. 




EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 


235 


1898.] 

When the insurgents were suppressed, one of their great chiefs, Choi Sih- 
yeng, eluded the ‘net of law’ and escaped the penalty of death. This excited 
the indignation of the whole country'. But fortunately, he and several of his 
followers were arrested in the district of Won-ju. According to their con¬ 
fessions, Choi Sihyeng was converted to the strange doctrine (literally sinister 
doctrine) in 1865. It is known all over the country that he raised the stand¬ 
ard of revolt in the year of 1893, pretending to serve a righteous cause. 
Barely escaping with his life, instead of forsaking his errors, he continued to 
deceive the foolish with his baneful charms. Considering the evil he lias 
done, he does not deserve a moment of indulgence. Of his conpanions. 
Whang and Song followed Choi Sihyeng everywhere, being fascinated by the 
seductive doctrine. Pak yuntai as a Tong Hak, came to Seoul to supply 
food to Choi Sihyeng during his imprisonment. As these perverse fellows 
ought to be severely punished, we transfer them to the Supreme Court." 

A confession was extorted from the prisoner for a translation 
of which we are under obligations to our morning contemporary. 
It is as follows: 

“Having long led a wandering life, I have no settled home. When 
young, I had a disease, but was too poor to receive medical attentions. 
Thirty-three years years ago (>865), I met Pak Chunsoh, a merchant in 
Kang-won-do, who taught me the incantations of thirteen characters, viz; 
Si-chun-ju-cbo-wha-jung-yung-sie- pul-mang-man-sa-chi. Another formula, 
chi-kui.-kum chi-wen*ui-tai-kang, was given me for conjuring up spirits. 
Five or six days after reciting these formulas, my body trembled involun¬ 
tarily, and I began to feel better tho I was not entirely cured of my complaint 
The ‘doctrine’ having made me whole, I propagated it gradually to many 
people. Those who believed in my tenets recognized me as their teacher, 
calling me by the name of Puphun or Law Porch . 

“In rS63 Choi Cheiou, the founder of the doctrine was executed, being 
mistaken tor a Catholic. His followers, desiring to avenge his death, came 
to Seoul in the spring of 1892. Several (?) thousands of them gathered in 
the city and memorialized the Throne. But failing to get answer to their 
petition, one of them moved that, disguising themselves as soldiers, they 
should first attack the residence of Mr. Min Yungjun. But the suggestion 
fell to the ground anl the assembled multitude dispersed, all returning to 
their respective homes. All this time I remained in Chun ju owing to sick¬ 
ness. Later on hearing that the government was going to send troops to 
arrest us, some of the followers, not more than ten or so, counselled that we 
should set up an anti-Japan flag, and making the fair ground of Po-un our 
rendezvous, we should start an insurrection along the Han river near Seoul. 
The counsel met with opposition and while we were discussing various lines 
of action, Mr. Wo Yungjung, in the capacity of a pacifier, came and per¬ 
suaded us to disband. At his second address, we dispersed. The revolt in 
the magistracy of Kobu began as a popular insurrection without being at first 
connected with Tong L/aks. But, Chun Bongjoon, a leader of the sect, 
availing himself of the movement made the rising both political and religions. 
His invasion of Choong-chung-do caused the Tong Haks of that province to 
f espond heartily to his calL I cannot from these facts, deny the charge that 
j have been a Tong Hak chief." 

In an article on “The Tong Hak” in The Repository for 
February, 1895, the Rev. W. JVT. Junkin says Choi Cheiou, the 
founder of the order was beheaded in 1865. This chief tell us it 


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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



23 




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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



1393.] 


LITERARY DEPARTMENT. 


237 


LITERARY DEPARTMENT. 


A Korean Tonic Dictionary .—A dictionary named 
“the character of the Chinese language arranged according to the tones," is 
so-called because the constellation kwei is supplied to rule over literature. 
This constellation consists of Mirac and several ot' er stars in Andro¬ 
meda. It is the constellation opposite to kio (Spica) and is the leader of the 
seven western nakshatras of which the Pleiades ar* the centre and Taurus 
and Orion lorm the fifth and sixth and seventh. 

The preface shows ho* de| endent Korea has been for literary training 
on her great neighbor. Rhymes are traced to the Chinese classics. In the 

Han dynasty scholars all used rhyme. Reference is made to the 
and 




two works of the Han dynasty composed in ihyme. The tat 

hei uen king is a philosopical treatise of Yangtse based on astronomy. In the 
time ot Shen\o, the four tones became known and the old words that in 
ancient times rhymed together ceased to do so. Time passed on and \Vu- 


yii in the Sung dynasty wrote his work, the yun pu, or "Supple¬ 

mental” Treatise on rhymes. This w>as made use of by Chu hi to explain 
the rhymes of the odes and of Li san, the volume containing the poems of 
Chuynen. The Tang dynasty, by their writings, give us the opportunity to 
test the rhymes of the age in which they lived 

The dictionary contains eighty-six double pages It registers the pro¬ 
nunciation and meaning of 13,345 characters. In the new edition 2,103 
characters have been added. They are arranged in 106 classes. 

The vowels taught in this work include sonants. Thus [q] is ^ 
dong. Many words words have two pronunciations. Thus is tu and 
tok, is kian and kak, & hia and ham, danger is hiam and ham, 

dzam, silkworm, is only to be read dzam. W circle, surround, is tsa or 
isap. May I note here in regard to this word that it is the Semitic sabab to 
surround. is muan or man ; at is hir. and hox, it joice. When two 

sounds are given in this dictionary the second is the older. For example 
is read chyan, chin. In this word tsin is certainly the old sound. But 

under dzien nothing is said except that it is hwa for kap ex¬ 

change (our word chap) and driuen fountain, spring^ * here and for drien 
* f° rm tsim. Korean saim, spring; Japanese urum 1 

ideinni a spring. The word saim shows that Korean pronunciation like the 
North China dialect favours surd initials. The Japanese ideumi a spring, 
shews that Japanese pronunciation like the Shanghai and Foochow dialect 
keeps the old sonants. Chinese immigration into Korea has been more from 
the northern than from the central provinces. 


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238 


NOTiS AND COMMENTS. 


[June* 


money. The common word ton for money, cash, was introduced from Soo- 
chow in the Han dynasty when Korea was a Chinese province. In Soochow 
at present dien is cash and this is the word. It is our word then. The cash 
is named from thinness. Doubtless at Soochow 2000 years ago when Korea 
was conquered cash were called don and the Koreans made theirs* into ton 
thro a fondness for the surd in preference to the sonant which they share 
with the w hole of North China. 


The character is read ngim. It should be nim. This is the Ger¬ 
man nimm and takes the same verb. The coloquial is chim, a wad. Another 
form is tarn, carry. The same root with guttaral initial is m kam^ 
to bear, generally of bearing mentally or in other senses such as make an 
estimate. 

I only give one more example give is read siang while ascend, 

is read ziang. Both are given in the rising tone. In this the Chinese tonic 
dictionaries are followed. At present Chinese, if we take Mandarin as a 


standard, has changed zh to sh and z to s; also has passed into the 

descending tone. This Korean dictionary recognizes the old state of things. 
Of Mandarin pronunciation in China, it takes no notice. In the same way 
this vocabulary has nothing to say on Korean native sounds and words. 


J. Edkins. 


NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

The rains at the beginning of the month were heartily welcomed by 
the farmers. 

The Board of Official Translators of the Bible began daily sessions on 
the 6th inst, on the Gospel of Mark. 

An absent quantity—the kind of man in official life for whom Diogenes 
is reported to have searched. This if letters from the people to the verna¬ 
cular papers may be relied upon. 

The clear sweet tones of the beautiful bell in the new Roman Catholic 
cathedral are among the pleasant sounds heard in Seoul now. The Ko¬ 
rean bell at Chong-no while not less sweet in tone has the great disadvant¬ 
age of inferior location. 

The Foreign Office proposes to provide government interpreters who 
shall be used in audiences; and that no Korean holding office shall be al¬ 
lowed to work in foreign legations and no one engaged as interpreter in a 
foreign legation shall be allowed to act as interpreter in the Imperial Palace. 
What this new Solonic enactment means is beyond our ken. 

At the regular meeting of the Permanent Executive Bible Committee on 
the 6th inst, the question of reducing the price of the Scriptures received 
much attention. A large number of letters from missionaries all over Korea 


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1898.] 


NOTES AND COMMENTS. 


239 


-was icad and the sentiment was nearly equally divided The Committee 
Aroted to leave the price as it is now. At the same meeting the Rev. C F. 
Reid D., D. wa s elected chairman in place of Rev. D. A. Bunker who re¬ 
signed The Rev. F. S. Miller was elected treasurer. The committee 
is bending all its energies to publish before the end of the year the whole of 
the New Testament. The prospects are fair that a popular Christmas 
present will be a New Testament in the vernacular. 

This is an age of fast travelling. Mrs. Underwood left Vancouvei, 
B. C., on May nth and arrived in Seoul the 31st thus making the distance 
in twenty days. Dr. Baldock covered the distance between the foreign 
-concession in Chemulpo and the U. S. Legation in Seoul in the short space 
•of two hours. Our excellent Mr. Yun of The Independent tells us that 
recently on a rainy day travelling in the good old way of the Korean,—the 
sedan chair—he made ten miles in six hours. Little wonder young Korea 
takes kindly to the bicycle. 

Mr. F. H. Morsel, a frequent contributor to the pages of The Repos 
iotrv, made a well earned and long delayed trip to his native land, Ger¬ 
many, the past winter. He returned the beginning of this month after an 
absence of about nine months. Captain Morsel is one of the oldest foreign 
residents in Korea. We are pleased to learn that during his visit to Europe 
he received for meritorious services in piloting Russian ships in and out 
the haibor of Chemulpo a gold medal with the ribbon of St. Stanilan from 
the Czar of Russia. The honor is well bestowed and we congratulate the 
recipient. 

The largest and and most conspicuous building in Seoul is the Roman 
Catholic cathedral on Chong-hyen or Bell Hill. Its proximity to the Yung- 
hui temple, the place where the portraits of the war kings of this dynasty are 
preserved, kept Koreans from building on the place and the lot was there¬ 
fore vacant. The Catholic Mission, after some difficulty of which we have 
recollecticn, secured the ground and commenced to build on it. In 1892 the 
corner-stone of the cathedral was laid. The cathedral is 202 feet long and 
from sixty to ninety feet wide, while the vaulting in the transept measures fifty- 
seven feet. The cost is $ 60,000. This beautiful cathedral was conse¬ 
crated on Sunday, May 29th, with elaborate and imposing ceremonies by the 
Right Reverend Bishop Mutel assisted by French and Korean priests. 

One of the chief dialectic differences in Korea is found in the Pyeng 
an province. It consists in giving the initial ch the sound of /. Thus chyo 
ta "good” is pronounced in that section ti-o-ta. Many curious '‘freaks” in 
pronunciation are the result and this habit of clipping the sound always be¬ 
trays the northern man and excites a smile among his southern compatriots. 
A parallel to this existing in the Foochow and Amoy dialects of China has 
given to the English language one of its most useful words—tea. As is well 
knowm cha is the universal word throughout the Far East for the fragrant 
drink and was adopted by the Portugese at Macao at first as the commer¬ 
cial name for tl e commodity. It is said however that the English traders 
heard it at Amoy as t'ia or t'a and this was adopted and has been corrupted 
into the modern tea . 

The Japan Times is authority for the statement that "Mr. Nobuyuki 
Masuda of Osaka, acting under contract with the Korean authorities has 
made arrangements to mint Korean coins. The process of moulding and 
striking the coins is to be carried out at the Osaka Copper Manufactory 
(Osaka Scide Kaisha), the metal to be obtained from the moulded Japanese 
sliver yen. The work of the factory has been limited to copper and nickel 


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[June, 

pieces, and this being the first occasion on which silver coins are to be strorfc 
the installation of machinery has been necessitated. The 5 ryo (Yang) 
pieces, equal in value to the Japanese yen are to be composed of 9 pans 
silver and 1 copper, while the 1 ryo pieces which are equal to the Japanese 
20 sen pieces will be made up or 8 parts silver and 2 copper. The value 
of the coins struck per month will, it is said, be about 200.000 or 300,000 
yen.'’ 

The Torpedo Boat McKee. Two of the new torpedo boats of the 
U. S. navy have been named respectively the Talbot and the McKee after 
two naval heroes. Lieut. McKee fell fighting in Korea while Lieut Taibot 
his cousin, met his death by drowning in the Hawaiian Blands altei travers¬ 
ing 1,500 miles of ocean in an open boat to bring news of and secure relief 
for the survivors of the wrecked Narragansett. The following appreciative 
note of Lieut. McKee is going the rounds of the American papers: The 
death of Lieut. Hugh McKee while not as tragic in some respects as 
that of his cousin, was as desperate and as courageous as that of his father, 
who fell at the head of his regiment in Mexico, at the battle of Buena. 
Vista. Lieut. McKee was killed in July, 1871, while leading a vicious as¬ 
sault on the citadel, now known as **Fort McKee,” on Kang wha Island, 
Korea. He was then the same age as Talbot — 26 - of fine physique, heroic 
features and splendid courage. He had been carefully educated and had 
visited the European courts in company with Admiral Farragut. The 
citadel was located upon an eminence, and the fighting between the 
inmates and the marines had been incessant for some hours. There 
was no artillery within it, but the enemy fought wiih reckless courage, 
mounting the walls and discharging their weapons rapidly, while the marines 
from their resting places picked the Koreans ott with great precision. Final¬ 
ly the order was given to storm the fort, and the assault began with McKee 
in the lead. The occupants of the fort fired upon the approaching men as 
fast as they could without checking their rapid advance, and, as the Ameri¬ 
cans rushed up the hill, the Koreans mounted tl e parapet and cast stones 
upen the men below. McKee was the first to mount the top of the enclo¬ 
sure, and no sooner did he reach the summit than he was surrounded by a 
howling, savage band of Koreans. They expected no quarter from the in¬ 
vaders and gave none. McKee, altho quickly followed by many of his 
men, was for a moment engaged, single-handed, with a dozen warriors, and 
then succumbed in the face of overwhelmin' odds, pierced by both spear 
and bullet. McKee's death but redoubled the fury efthe Americans' as¬ 
sault, and many a Korean paid the penalty with his life. McKee's body was 
returned to Kentucky and buried in the cemetery of Lexington. 

DEATHS. 

In Chenrnpo,on the 23d inst at H. IL M,’s Consulate H. Eencraft Joly. 

BIRTHS. 

In Chemulpo, on Jins iSth. the wife of Herr Carl Wolter, of a daughter. 

In Fusan, May 22ed the wife of Rev. J. Adamson, of a danghter. 

M ARR I AGES. 

In Seoul. June 9th, by the Rev. \V. D. Reynolds, Fev. W. B Harrison 
of ( hur.-ju to Miss Linn.e F. Davis of Ki nsan, all of the Southern Leri))- 
terian mission. 


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HI ASH REVISED MBIIUTIOSS 

OF THE 

llev. H. G. Underwood, D.D. 


NOW READY. 

Fourth Edition of the #<2-4 enlarged and impiov- d- Con 
tains 164 Hymns (including all the popular ones) besid-.s 
the Lord’s Prayer, the Creed, and the Ten Comm and rretu. 

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covers, $1.0 each 

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Three Principles. Foreign paper, glazed covers, pr 
100, $4.00. 

Questions and Answers to my Foul. A leafet 
translated from an English tract, third edition, rer 
100 .20 

The Lord’s Command, third edition, per lOO 

*1 * 1 6 1 *1 An Easy Introduction to Christianity. A traifr 
slation of Dr. McCartee’s well-known tract. In Chinese 
and Korean. Glazed covers. 35 pp. Per 100, SW' 

ne| £.Sl^ The Christian Catechism. Translated'from 
the Chinese of 'Mrs. Nevius, 6th edition. 39 pp. l'w 
100, $3.00. 

Catechism of Christian Doctrine. An abridged 
edition of the Christian Catechism. 

The True Doctrine of Sang Je. 3rd editk>n. 

Exhortation to Bepentance. „ „ 

On Regeneration. . 1st edition. 

These a translated from the Cun rseofPr. Griffith John. 

e . ., .. . .. 2 c;'igb each. $2 QP perJdd 


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ADVERTISEMENTS. 


E. H. MORSEL 


Having returned from In's trip abro.--.-l d. sires 
to inform the public generally and his former 
patrons in particular that he is now at his old 
business in Chemulpo and is prepared to do 
all kinds of busine® as a 

Forwarding & Commission Agent. 

-ALSO- 

BROKER AND AUCTIONEER, 

CHEMULPO, KOREA. 




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The CHINESE 

RECORDER. 

AND 

Missionary Journal- 


Published by the Presbyterian Mission Press, Shanghai, China. 

Price, including postage to Korea, S3.i>(> jior annum. 

A monthly Magazine, having a wide circulation, issued 
primarily in the interests of Mission work in China, but including 
also Japan and Korea. Valuable for all missionaries, everywhere. 
Orders for the same will be received by the publishers of 
The Korean Repository, or may be sent direct to The Pub¬ 
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IV. 


ADVERTISEMENTS, 


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, f H. G. Appenzelt.er, 

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As heretofore The Repository, will aim to meet the wants 
of all its leaders in the thorough discussion of all topics of 
permanent interest to Korea. Prominence will continue to be 
given to articles oa the history, religion, folk-lor.?, commerce and 
customs of this land. The Editorial Department will deal in a 
full and impartial manner with current topics of practical in¬ 
terest. Translations from the Official Gazette wilt be made and 
The Literary Department will review current literature on 
Korea. 

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England: Messrs. Ldzac & Co., Opposite British 
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Germany: Otto Harrassowitz, Buchhandlur.g, Leipsig. 

All communications should be addressed to 

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[Vol. V. No. 7.] 


THE 


JULY, 1898. 


KO REA N REPOSITORY 

H. G. Apprnzeller,) ™ 

Geo. Heber Jones, } JiuITORS - 


CONTENTS. 

THE TAIWON RUN, ... Geo. Heber Jones 

KA8A CAVE, ... . Graham Lee 

PYENG-YAXG FOLKLORE, E. Douglas Follwell 

HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE KOREA MIS¬ 
SION OF M. E. CHURCH, W. B. Scranton 

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT:— 

The Independence Club and Vice-President 

or the Privy Council, . 

The Seoul-Chemulpo Railroad, . 

Bureau of Land Survey, . 

OFFICIAL GAZETTE, . 

LITERARY DEPARTMENT, . 

NOTES AND COMMENTS, . 


PAGE. 



251 


253 


250 


270 

272 

273 

270 
277 
27 S 


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Per Copy. 30c. 




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Seoul. Korea, 1 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


J ULY, 189 8 . 

THE TAIWOX KUX. 

O N the twenty-second day of February, 1898, there passed from 
this life one of the most remarkable Koreans of the century. 
Yi Ha-eung, Frince of Heung Song, was probably best 
known by his title of Taiwon Kun, which may be translated 
Prince Parent. Never a monarch himself he belonged to that rare 
class of men who thro the process of adoption havegiven a son to a 
throne, and have lived to enjoy some of the honor and much of 
the trouble of a crown without being its actual owner. 

Born in Seoul on the twenty-second day of January, 181], 
his life paralleled and was a contrast to that of England’s Grand 
Old Man, Gladstone, and at the time of his death he had reached 
the ripe age of eighty-eight years and one month. He saw four 
monarclis occupy the Korean throne and pass away, and lived to 
watch his own son’s reign for thirty years. Our great regret is 
that he has left no book of memoirs for they would consist of 
troth stranger than fiction. About eighteen months before his 
death we met him one day and had a short conversation with 
him. He showed few signs of his advanced age. He was erect 
and vigorous, few wrinkles on his face, hair tinged with grey and 
eyes wonderfully bright and clear. About five feet six inches in 
height he impressed the beholder as a man of more than ordinary 
power and looked a leader of men. We were impressed as we 
called to mind that he was the grandson of a great and unfor¬ 
tunate Crown Prince, the great-grandso” of a famous king, the 
nephew of another king and the father of still another king. He 
Was the embodiment of all the traditions of Korean royalty. By 
his strength of character, his ambition and his ability he became 
the leader of the small remnant of the imperial clan left and 
really preserved it from extinction. 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


{[June, 


We have already indicated his high descent. His line is 
traced from His Majesty', Yong-jong, who occupied the Korean 
throne from 1724 to 1776, a period of fifty-two years, being the 
longest reign of the present dynasty. The old prince came from 
long lived ancestry. On the death of his first son, King Yong- 
jong nominated his second son Prince Chang-hon as Heir Appar¬ 
ent. A feud broke out between the royal father and son and the 
latter was put to death as insane by the King’s orders.* But the 
old king was without other male issue so the descent had to be 
taken from the executed Crown Prince from whom three lines of 
monarcks are descended. The first line is from the second son of 
Prince Chang-hon, who succeeded King Yong-jong, and from 
whom are descended Kings Syun-jo, Ik-jong and Hon-jong. The 
latter dying without issue recourse was had to the line of Prince 
Chang-hon again whose great grandson was adopted by the con¬ 
sort of King Syun-jo as the latter’s sou, and who ascended the 
throne as the brother of Ik-jong and reigned asChol-jong (1849- 
1868). But Chol-jong also died without issue and again the suc¬ 
cession fell to the line of Prince Chang-hon, the descent being as 
follows: 

Crown Prince 

J 

Prince Yam Myon 

I 

The Taiwon Kun 

I 

His Imperial Majesty. 

Tho the Taiwon Kun’s father Prince Yarn Myon was the 
brother of a reigning king, it does not appear to have helped the 
family very much and in those early years the prince was appar¬ 
ently without either wealth or influence. He early married Cady 
Min, a daughter of Min Chi-ku, and a second cousin of the late 
empress. They spent over sixty years of happy married life to¬ 
gether and the death of the prince occured only one month and 
three days after that of the princess. They resided in the Un- 
hvon Palace in the northern part of the city and here their family 
which consisted of three sons and two daughters grew up. The 
sons were Hon. Yi Chai-myon, ex-Minister of the Imperial House¬ 
hold; His Im]>erial Majesty; and Yi Chai-son who died. The 
eldest daughter married Hon. C'ho Pyong-ho, who was at one time 
Minister of War. She died some years ago. The younger daughter 
married Clio Chung-ku, also a high official of the government. 

For the history of this see Repository, Vol. IV, p. 127. 



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1898,] 


THE TAIWON KUN. 


243 


Among tbe grand children in addition to the children of His 
Majesty, may be mentioned Yi Cbung-yong at present study¬ 
ing in England; Mr. Cho Han kuk, and the wife of Mr. Earn 
Heung-kiu, Lady Cho. 

While the relatives of the Taiwon Kun, both by law and 
by birth, were engaging more or less in the political game of 
the times, he either would not or could not appear on the scene. 
Of the details of his life up to 1864 little is known and if it were 
known it is probable there would be little t:> record. From lt>34 
to 1864 the royal clan was shorn of much of its power, all offices 
were in the hands of the Kim clan whose head, Kim Pyong-gi, 
was virtual ruler of the land lor the years ending that epoch. 
The Kims were really the head of a great party of Yangbans in 
whose interest the government was run. Tbe old ideal of a 
Yangban which represented him as a man returning from a 
term of office as a Prefect poorer than when he went away from 
the capital, had disappeared, and in his place the boodler en¬ 
riched with the spoils of the people was the common type. It 
seems certain that in this period many of the abuses ot Yang¬ 
ban sm took acute and permanent form which culminated in 
the Tong bak outbreak so many years afterward. The com¬ 
mon people were leduced to the condition of serfs. The Yang¬ 
ban was permitted to levy on the coolie’s rice and money, and 
that which in civilized lands was theft and robbery in Ko¬ 
rea was perfectly proper and legitimate when done by a Yang¬ 
ban. At the head of the aristocratic party were the Kim clan 
who held their influence thro the Queen and in whose hands 
the King was simply a Marshall of State pageants and a Regis¬ 
trar cf state documents. When King Hon-jong dbxl, it was the 
Kims who hastily sent to Ivangwha and brought Prime Tok- 
wan from there and placed him on the Throne by a decree of 
Dowager Queen Kim. One of the ladies of their Louse became 
bis consort and so completely was be under their control that at 
their instigation ha refused the literary decree of chin sa to his 
old tutor on Ivangwha. Under such circumstancis it is doubt¬ 
ful if any opportunity presental itself to the Taiwon Kun to en— 
ter the political arena. The death ol (Jhol-jong, however, changed 
all this. That monarch had but one child, a daughter who 
was married to Mr. Pak Yong-hyo. Dying thus without male 
issue, and without having legally settled the succession, things 
were thrown into great confusion and it was at this moment 
that Prince Heung-SoDg determined to take part in the scene.. 

The Taiwon Kun now came forward as the advocate of 
the claims of his children and as a result his second son, Prince 
Ik-Song, was adopted as her own son by the senior Dowager. 


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244 


THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[June, 

Queen Cho and placed on the Throne by her decree. This adop¬ 
tion abolished the legal relations of His Imperial Majesty and his 
father, the former becoming the son of King Ik-jong, who had 
died moie than thirty years previously aDd reigning a9 a 
successor to him. But while the relation theoretically, of father 
and son came to an end, the power and influence of the old 
prince was limited only by his own ambition and ability. This 
has given rise to the myth industriously circulated that he was 
appointed Begent during his son’s minority. No stich appoint¬ 
ment was necessary nor was it made. The legal authority was 
in the hands of Queen Cbo whose powers as the senior Dowager 
•were ample in the premises, and the position of Prince Heung 
Song as Taiwon Kun, or Trince-Parent, was sufficient to give 
him a controlling influence in national affairs, as long as he 
maintained harmony with Queen Cho and the Ministers of her 
creation. 

It is certain, however, that the prince for the first ten yeare 
of his son’s reign (until 1873) was the director of national affairs. 
He found much to oppose him at the outset and bis life politi¬ 
cally was a constant battle. The Kims were shorn of their 
power and with them fell the great northern and southern fac- 
tairs of Yanghan, the prince identifying himself with the “South¬ 
erners” and the “Little Northerner.” He soon took hold with 
10 gentle hand o: the Yangbans of bis date and made them feel 
the lullweight of bis powers. The first two acts after be came into 
pow er were sign ficant of his future policy. The fiist act was 
to pardon Yi Sei-bo, Prince K) dng-pyong, who was King 
ChuljoDg’s nearest relative. This prince had incurred the en¬ 
mity of the Yanghan faction and had been driven into exile, and 
just before the King’s death, in spite of his exalted station tbey 
had secured a royal decree for his death. The King died before 
the sentence was carried out and a pardon promptly reached 
him. By this act the Taiwon Kun served notice on the Yang- 
hans that the days when they could turn down even the royal 
clan were ended. This aot was but the preliminary of a strife 
with Yangbanisnr in which the prince succeeded in inflicting 
some humiliating blows upon bis opponents and at the same time 
d rg good to the nation at large. 

The aristocracy proved their claim to consideration by the 
Konorary tabletB to illustrious ancestors wi ich vindicate their 
pedigrees. These tablets w ere of tw o classes. The first class was 
composed of tablets erected to deceased Master* by disciples and 
followers. The second class com posed of official tablets enshri¬ 
ned as the reward of meritorious services by the government in 
ere of tbe Ten pie8 of Fan e in the provinces. Now in the pro- 


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1898;] XAS TAJ WON KUN. ^46 

cess of time these tablets had greatly increased in number while 
the name of their descendants was legion. But worse still 
many abuses had crept in. Frauds had been perpetrated and 
even unworthy and dishonorable names were found enshrined 
on these altars, while their multitudinous off-spring annoyed the 
people w ith their pretensions and were guilty of all sorts of evil 
and pernicious practices. In 1868 the Taiwon Kun abolished 
the private tablets and in 1872 just before he retired from the 
political arena, he demolished all the Temples of Fame except 
iorty-eight and suppressed their tablets. In this year he struck 
another blow in favor of the common people by abolishing the 
old military tax. By this tax, which was levied on all found oh 
' the military rolls of the nation and their descendents, the social 
status of the “low’' man was fixed. He became subject to all 
sorts of disabilities and was reduced to virtual serfhood. It was 
a proud boaBt of the Yangban that he was exempt from the dis¬ 
abilities of this tax, but the Taiwon Kun abolished the tax and 
the disabilities with it and in its place established the present 
Ho-po or house tax which fell on Yangban and coolie alike. Only 
a Korean can fully appreciate the. indignation of the disgusted 
aristocrat when he found himself in the same category with his 
chair coolies as regards the cost of government. He bad to pay 
for some of the protection afforded him. 


The Taiwon Kun was doing in those days what is popu¬ 
larly known as "playing to the galleries." He gave the common 
people permission to wear black shoes, thus abolishing another 
distinction between the aristocrat and the masses, and ordered 
all alike to reduce the size of their sleeves. He made an on¬ 
slaught on the hat and cut down the size of the brim. In the 
earlier days of this century these hats were bo big it is said only 
four persons could sit in an eight foot square room with them on. 
This would give sixteen square feet necessary to accommodate 
each hat. They wore smaller in the prince’s day' but he cut 
them down to something nearer the present size. The dress 
reforms of 1894 were a continuation of this work and by his 
•whole course towards the Yangbans he was to a certain extent 
a blundering anticipator of the reformers of that year and to 
him they turned for his influence and it was given them. 


The second significant inaugural measure was the perse¬ 
cution of the Tonghaks. It is said that "Choi Pok-sul of Kyeng- 
'-ia and his followers organized societies and claimed to worship 
Tyon-chu (God). By the influence of their God they could 
dance the Sword Dance and ascend into the air. They took the 


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246 


THE EOBEAN BEP08IT0BY. 


[July^ 

came of Tonghak, deluded the common folk and deceived the 
world.” They were “investigated” and suppressed. This was 
preliminary to that anti-foreign, anti-Christian policy of which 
we shall speak more at length later. 

The Taiwon Kun was a great builder. In 1865 he began 
tbe restoration of the Kyeng-bok Eung on the ancient site of 
dynastic palace, and for three years it was the great work of the 
realm. He very soon emptied tbe government treasury and 
then he made an appeal tc the public in general for voluntary 
contributions. His agents went everywhere and always secured 
a contribution. Those among the rich Yangbans who would 
not contribute were induced to make loanB to the enterprise. 
Honors and offices were sold and a great harvest of coin reaped. 
No estimate has been made of the amount contributed by the 
people but it must have reached several millions of dollars. This 
palace cccupies a beautiful park stretching around Puksan and 
up cn the flanks of Puk han, while its buildings are labyrinthine 
in extent. Tragedy has driven its occupants elsewhere and to¬ 
day it lies deserted. The many buildings about it were also 
built and the streets improved somewhat. Repairs were under¬ 
taken on tbe public buildings in tbe provinces, and tbe walls of 
8dul and some of the provincial cities were patched. This era of 
buildiog inaugurated by the prince has proved a marked feature 
of the reign even to the present day. 

The whole history of the Taiwon KuU has been blighted 
by tbe massacre of the Roman Catholic Christians. His mem¬ 
ory cannot he exonerated from tbe guilt of that terrible crime. 
A man of blood he was, and the story of the wholesale mw- 
der of innocent men, women and children is a tale of the black- 
. est heathenism. It is said he afterwards regretted it We hope 
he did for the story still rings with tbe cries of slaughtered babes 
and the anguished lament of brutally murdered maidens. It 
was the greatest blunder of his life and no adequate explana¬ 
tion has been offered of tbe reasons for engaging in it. Tbe 
reader is referred for a full account to Dallet’s History. This 
persecution involved the murder of several foreigners and put 
the prince in a confirmed antagonism to all things foreign. He 
even went so far as to erect in the city of Sdul tablets of stone 
. inscribed with these anti-foreign sentiments. One of these tab- 
. lets stood in front of tbe Confucian Temple College and the 
, other before the great bell at Chong-no. The following was the 
inscription and translation: 


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THE TAIWOK EON. 


n 

n 

i 

«±tt 

M®± 


“The barbarians from beyond the BeaB have 
violated our borders and invaded our land. If 
we do not fight we must make treaties with 
them. Those who favor making a treaty sell 
their country. 

Let this be a warning to ten thousand gen¬ 
erations. Decree dated year Pyong-in (1866). 
Tablet erected year Sin-mi (1871).” 


These tablets did not remain many years and were finally 
Ternoved, being buried, it is said at the places where they stood. 
How ridiculous this tablet reads in the light of the course cf 
events, and yet it once dominated the policy of the land! Korean 
progress will be measured from that tablet and even the develop¬ 
ment at this early day when compared with the sentiments of 
-the tablet are a marvel. 

But the foreigner while the object of aversion was felt to be 
A menace and the prince set himself diligently to prepare the 
defenses of the land against their onslaught. The inscription on 
the tablet above given shows clearly the utter absence of any idea 
whatever concerning the real meaning of the foreigner’s purpose 
in seaking treaty relations, but the preparations made for his 
repulse show a pitiful degree of ignorance concerning his prowess, 
A few battalions of jiggie coolies, farm hands, actors, mounte¬ 
banks and gamblers were rendezvoused in the garrison towns and 
especially at Kangwha, and at these places a vast store of arms 
was laid up including jingals, cannon, machines, swords, spears, 
bows and arrows, helmets and armour. Quite a number of can¬ 
non were cast of bell and other metal some of them weighing as 
high as 600 pounds. Many of these were scattered along the Han 
and may be met with to-day all the way from Chemulpo to Seoul. 
A bullet proof coat was also invented composed of seventy-two 
thickness of cotton cloth and clad in these the Koreans believed, 
themselves able to repel the combined assault of all Europe. But 
tho unable to make them invincible to the foe, the prince never 
trifled with his soldier’s stomachs and in this he wag a vast im¬ 
provement on his predecessors, and on some even of his successors 
as they found out to their cost. He made full provision for the 


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348 

commissariat, levying grain on the entire realm and his soldiers 
never suffered for lack of food. But this was all in vain. Both 
before the French and the Americans the Koreans were crushed 
as tho they .. ere eggshells. Seventy-two thickness of cotton cloth, 
instead of checking the enemies’ Dullets, were found simply to 
impede flight, so the armoui was voted a failure. 

The prince’s lease of power come to an end in 1873. His- 
Majesty had reached an age when he was capable of directing 
affairs himself and his brilliant consort, Queen Min, was anxious 
that he should do so. The retirement of the Taiwon Kun was 
determined upon. In accordance with the memorial of Yi Sei-n 
the title of Tai-to, literally Great Elder, and corresponding to the 
popular title of Grand Old Man by which Gladstone was known, 
was conferred upon him. Two measures of his were abrogated. 
The 100 cash pieces were abolished and the coin of China was 
declared no longer legal tender. In regard to the introduction oF 
Chinese coin, it is said that the prince undertook the repair of the 
tablet house of the tablet to the Manchu conquest near Nara-han 
and this measure was regarded with such favor in China, that a 
large amount of coin which popular report has exaggerated into 
many junk loads in amount was sent over to aid him. This coin 
,he put iuto circulation. In the second moon of the following year, 
1874, His Imperial Highness the Crown Prince was born and & 
■decree of His Majesty immediately confirmed the succession to 
him. This resulted in a large access of power to Her Majesty, 
whose brother Air. Min Seung-ho became all-powerful. The Tai¬ 
won Kun was shorn of all power and driven into retirement, and 
thus began that feud which for twenty-five years has convulsed 
Korean national life, involved neighboring nations, which has 
been the spectacle of the world and can be designated by but one 
word—tragedy. On the merits of the quarrel only divine justice 
can pass. 

A few of the incidents of this great feud have become public 
property and a brief sketch of them is appended. The prince 
angered at the success of his opponents sought revenge. One day 
when Min Seung-ho was offering sacrifice to his ancestors there 
came a box presumably from the palace. It was from the old 
prince. The family gathered around to see it opened. It was an 
infernal machine and exploding killed the new favorite, his 
mother and his son. Other incidents of the same tenor and effect 
followed each other until 1882. In this year His Imperial High" 
mess the Crown Prince began his studies, performed the “crown- 
-ing” rite as the donning of a hat is called, appeared for the first 
time in the Temple of the Imperial ancestors, and took as his con¬ 
sort Lady Min, a daughter of Min Tai-ho, In the sixth n^oon. 


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(July 23d) however, the soldieis ro6e in revolt and after an un¬ 
successful attempt to sieze the person of His Majesty while lie was 
praying for rain, carried the palace. Much blood was shed and 
terror reigned in Seoul. The Taiwon Kun was placed in [rower 
again, and the Japanese who hud just secured an entrance into 
Seoul, made u heroic fight and march to Chemulpo from whence 
they managed to gel out to H. B. M’s. Flying Fish. A determined 
effort was made to kill Her Majesty a~d it was supposed to have 
succeeded. The nation was ordered into mourning and actually 
put on the white hatfor several months. But Her Majesty was not 
dead. In the confusion of the attack on the palace on July 23d, 
Hong Chai-heui, one of His Majesty’s household servants, ttok 
Her Majesty on his back and made his way thro the wild crowd 
outside the palace. He was stopped several times but represent¬ 
ing the lady as his sister passed safely all obstructions and delivered 
her into the hands of her friends at the home of Yun Tai-clmn. 
From here she went to the country home of Min Yong-wi at 
Yo-jn. She was carried in a two-man chair, the front bearer 
being Yi Youg-ik, then a water carrier in the capital, and famous 
for his ability to walk. She was attended by Min Eung-sik and 
Miu Keung-sik. From Yo-ju she went to the home of Min 
Eung-sik in Chung-ju. Here she remained and here it is said 
the npjical to China which resulted in the exile of the Taiwon 
Kun was decided ujx)n. 

Sometime in 1881 Kim Yuu-sik and O Yun-chung had gone 
to China as envoys and were at Tientsin. They had l>een await¬ 
ing an opportunity to pounce on the old prince, for he had l>oen 
plotting to destroy seventeen of the leading families of the aristo¬ 
crats because they were taking up with western civilization. 
When the news came of the outbreak, the restoration of the Taiwon, 
ar.d the difficulties with Ja]»an, Kim induced Li Hung Chang to 
send troops and ships to Korea. Tin sc came to Mam Yang, 
forty miles south of Seoul, and the Chinese under General O 
Chang-kvong marched to the capital and went into camp outside 
the South gate. The general early called on the prince who re¬ 
turned his call the nextday. This was China’s opportunity. The 
Taiwon Kun was no sooner in the Chinese camp, than he and his 
followers were seized and bound, and while all outside thought 
they were hasting in the camp, they were being hurried to Nam 
Yang under n strong Chinese escort whence they were taken to 
China. General O placarded the city the next day to the eflect 
that the Taiwon Kun, being guilty of an attempt to murder the 
Queen, insult the king and disturb things generally, had been 
taken to China to be tried by the emperor. The Chinese court 
adjudged him guilty of the crimes charged and sent him into exile 


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[J uly 

near Tientsin, where he remained for five years, returning to Korea 
in J 887. His Chinese sojourn had a good effect on him for it 
opened his eyes to the fact that there was a great world beyond 
Korea of which lie knew nothing. Of those connected with this 
incident Hong met his death the night his imperial mistress was 
killed, being cut down in front of the palace gate. Yun Tai-chun 
was one of the victims of the emute of 1884, and O Yun-chung 
was assassinated at the time the king took up his residence in the 
Russian legation. 

Geo. Heber Jones. 




180 c .1 


HAS A CAVE. 


->1 


KASA CAVE. 

T N Juno Dr. Write, Mr. Noble, and I went on a cave exploring - 
I expedition. There is a large cave about twenty miles to tho 
east of Pyeng-yeng which we had heard about, so one day 
we took a run out on rur wheels. It was well worth the trip. 
Part of the cave the Koreans were familiar with, i ut there waa 
one place where they said no one had ever been down, and that 
was just the place we wanted to go. We traveled through 
several immense fine chambers, in some of which the roof vvaa 
fully thirty feet above our heads, and at last came to the plnce 
where the Koreans didn't go down. I didn’t blame them much 
for it was a dark forbidding looking hole that led straight down 
like a well to no one knew where. We had a short rope with 
us, and this we tied mound Mr. Noble, and let him down until 
he got fooling on a rock below and was able to discover that 
there were fine chambers to be investigated. With this we 
pulled Noble back. Went out to the mouth, ate our dinner, 
got a longer rope, and then went back to find out where that 
hole went to. We fastened our rope to a rock at the top. and 
then all three went down hand over baud about fifteen feet 
until we reached a sloping ledge which let us down another 
fifteen feet, and from here we were able to get to the bottom 
without the rope, some sixty feet from where we started down. 
Our first find was interesting enough for we hadn’t gone far un¬ 
til we ran across the skeK ton ol some poor fellow, who found 
his grave down there in the darkness. Every vestige of clothing 
had disappeared, also not a sign of hair was left and the bones, 
which looked intact crumbled to powder when we touched 
thpm. We also found the remains of three brass dishes, one of 
which was in a fair state of preservation, hut two had almost 
entirely disappeared, only small puces remaining. How long 
this poor fellow had been there no one knew. He had been 
there a long time, maybe a century or two. Down in tins lower 
explored three galleries, and at the very end of the last 
found a most beautiful stalagmite formation. It was & 
" formation, some ten feet across and six feet high, 


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which looked like the most delicate oral and was of a pink 
white heie, which fairly glistened in the light of onr caudles. 

Afier we had finished these galleries we went back to our 
rope and then up hand over hand to the top of the hole. When 
we were all safelv up we discovered that one strand of our rope 
had given way under the strain, and we congratulated ourselves 
that we had taken the extra precaution to double that r:q>e, for 
if we hadn’t, some missionary would doubtless have smashed 
his hones on the rocks Iwlow. From here we went to the re¬ 
maining gallery on the other side uf the cave, which we had not 
yet investigated. Here we were also well repai I for our trouble. 
After crawling thro quite a small passage, we came out into au 
immense gdlery and he»e we discovered the most lvautifulecho 
1 have ever heard. I first trie l sounding a single note, and it 
would re echo back and forth gradually growing .ainter, and fain¬ 
ter, until at last it died away. I then tried sounding three notes, 
and I got in return a most beautiful chord, that reverberated 
hack and forth, until it too gradually died away. It sounded 
like the note of a great organ. I never heard anythh g like it 
before but I suppose it must be something like ihe acted echo 
on Echo river in Mammoth Cave. We investigated all the gal¬ 
leries we coull find, but I think there must be more, and some 
time soon am hoping to go again. Graham Lee. 

We asked Prof. Hulbert to examine the Yoyi Seng-mm 
in order to obtain more information of tins interesting cave. 
Mr Fulbert writes us the cave is not mentioned in the Gazet¬ 
teer, but he adds the following nites: 

The cave of Ka-sa, or Ka-su as it is more properly called, 
is in the prefecture of Sang wuu, iust east of Pyeng-yang. It 
is in the side of Ko-ryung mountain, sixty li from T yeng-yang. 
The Koreans say it is celebrated for a peculiar sort of ware 
which is made from the stalactites which hang from its roof. 
This material, which is described as of a yellowish white color, 
is soft at first and can be easi'y worked into various shapes, but 
when it has been brought from the cave and exposed to dry air 
for a time it hardens and becomes suitable for vases or other 
ornaments. These ornaments are much affected by the wealthy 
people of that province. In this cave are shown stalagmite for¬ 
mations representing to the imagination the &hape of men and 
animals, trees and fields, ard a hundred other forms «-f real life. 
The stalactites when ground into a powder are considered a 
wonderful remedy for the ills that man is heir to. 

it is said that during the Japanese and Manchu invasions 
this was a place of hiding for many of the peopb. 


\ 


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P YEXO-VAXes FOI.KPORE. 


253 


PYEKG-YAXG FOLKLORE. 


T HE war which occurcvl here in 1580 when Pyeng-yang was 
the capital anti things were happening, is so clouded in the 
mists of legend and lietion that a strictly accurate account 
of the doings in those days is impossible, 

At best, Chinese characters describing past events are so 
ea c y of practical interpretation that when we take the natural 
inclination of the Korean to exaggerate and tell the storv as the 
hearer would hear it, into consideration, we can see that the facts 
would Ik; very largely distorted. And yet, it is just these 
features of Herodotus’ histories which give them their charm. 
Taking then, what a Korean reads in Chinese, and what results 
from the tradition he knows of, and the translation he makes, I 
proceed to report what one here told me of the Japan-Korean 
war of some 300 years ago. 

Pyeng-yang, as usual, was the place of the most important 
occurrences. It was so then, it is so now. The last world-known 
event was the battle between the Japanese and the Chinese in 
which the latter were routed completely but since then small 
happenings which will have their effect on the whole country are 
taking place. The following paragraphs, however, are a brief 
recital of the few' items concerning the war of some 300 years ago 
and from the standpoint of a Korean without comment or com- 
mantary: 

During the Japan-Korean war of 1580 the conflict raged 
fiercely in and around Pyeng-yang as well as in other parts of 
the country, compelling the king, together with many of his high 
officials, to flee north to We-ju for safety. The Japanese were 
greatly superior iu strength to the Koreans for they were armed 
with guns while the latter had only bows and arrows. The Ko¬ 
reans entrenched themselves behind the wall ot the city which 
answered the purpose of a fort. One day they hit upon a ruse. 
They cut down hundreds of trees, made them into the shape of 
gun barrels pointed at the Japanese thinking they could shoot 


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[Juk, 

down their enemies. The Koreans had never seen a gun before 
and imagined what the Japanese had in their possession was only 
a round stick of wood that in some mysterious way was able to 
carry death into the ranks of the enemy. As the Korean soldiers 
approached, the Japanese feigned illness and inability to light. 
They lay down on the ground very still, and when the Koreans 
drew near with swords and pointed cudjels, rose up and shot down 
hundreds before escape was possible. A large number fled by 
way of the river to Wc-ju closely followed by tne Japanese. Some 
thirty li from Pyeng-yang is a large idol, the got! of war. !>o 
enraged did His Majesty become when he found so many Korean 
soldiers had been killed that when the Japanese passed by the 
temple on their return from pursuing their enemies, he took an 
axe and marched out alone to meet them, sla ving many hundred.*, 
the rest escaping to Pyeng-vang for safety. 

Among the Japanese soldiers was one of great strength. One 
of the Pyeng-yang dancing girls who knew him asked permission 
to visit her brother who lived outside the city gate. This was 
but an excuse in order to call a Korean giant of great strength, 
and after consulting together it was agreed the girl should make 
the Japanese giant drunk and while he slept, should call in her 
brother ami assassinate him. This was done and his head cut off’. 
The girl then asked her brother to take her out of the city with 
him for fear that when the Japanese discovered their idol had 
Ixx'ii killed they would illtreat her. This was not possible and 
the girl liegged to have her life taken. The Korean giant fled 
from the city after assassinating the hero, for such she was looked 
upon by her country women, and a monument was erected to her 
memory which remained until it was destroyed by the great tire 
which occurred in Pyeng-yang in 1803, laying more than half 
the citv in ruins. 

When the Japanese found their hero had been killed they 
lost heart, but in the meanwhile the Korean giant hastily travelled 
to We-ju and reported what lie had done to the king who then 
called over from China a large army to help defeat once and for 
all the Japanese. Nearly 100,000 responded to the call for help. 
Not long after their arrival in Korea one of the soldiers found a 
spent bullet from the Jajjanesc guns and came to the conclusion that 
there was some force behind it. He also noticed that tire issued 
from the gun when the bullet came forth from the barrel and 
thought if the powder became wet it would lie useless. After a 
council of war it was decided the allied armies should engage in 
battle, with the Japanese on the first rainy day. This they did, 
scaling the city walls and sprang upon the now defenoeless soldiers 
whose guns were rendered useless. Thousands were slain, the 


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remainder fled out of the city thro the East gate, were driven into 
the river and drowned. So great was the slaughter that the river 
became blocked up by the dead bodies of the Japanese soldiers. 
A large ]>art of the allied army pursued the Japanese nearly 100 
mdes and then returned to Pyeng-yang. The king soon followed 
with members of his cabinet and saw that the city was too large 
for the soldiers who remained to guard securely against their 
enemies, so gave orders to have a new wall built around, enclos¬ 
ing^ in a much smaller area than hitherto, which wall remains 
until the present day. 

E. Douglas Follwell. 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[July, 


HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE KOREA MISSION 
OF METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. * 

I have been asked by the Committee of the Decennial Celebra¬ 
tion to present an historical sketch of our mission. I shall 
confine myself entirely to the work of our Parent Board Soc¬ 
iety as the work of tire Woman’s Foreign Missionary Society t<» 
have a sketch of its own. 

Looking at this sketch from our standpoint, may it not be 
something as tho the Reubenites, Gadites and half the tribe of 
Manasseh had sat down to count up results on the far sides of the 
Jordan with the main battles uutought and most of the territory 
of Canaan as yet unoccupied? 

Ten years ago last tall, in the year 1884, our mission was 
actually set on toot. I quote: “At the close of the year Hcv. 
Wm. B. Scranton, M. D., was put under appointment, and at a 
later date Rev. H. G. .Appenzeller. The Woman’s Foreign 
Missionary Society also np|Kiintcd, for the opening of woman's 
work in this land of woman’s almost entire seclusion, Mrs. Mary 
F. Scranton, the mother of Dr. Scranton,” 

Twelve years ago (1882), the entrance of Korea by our church 
was being agitated in Japan by our brethren there and advocated 
to our Mission Rooms. In 1883 a sum of money was asked t<> 
begin the work. Rev. John F. Goucher, of Baltimore, onnie 
forward and materially strengthened the General Missionary Com¬ 
mittee in their decision to oja-n Korea by the donation of §2,000 
to that end. 

In 1884 this money was partially used by a visit of Rev. 
Dr. R. S. Maclav, the then Superinteudent of the Japan Mission 
H is visit nml the report of same were most encouraging. He was 
entertained al the United Shuts legation by the Minister, Gen¬ 
eral Lucian R. Foote, who used his kindly offices as far as it was 
in his power in assisting Dr. Maclay in his investigations. Dr. 
Maclay prepared a paper for presentation to His Majesty, putting 
forth his plans, mentioning school and medical work prominently. 

* Paper read at Decennial celebration of tbe founding of Protestant Mis¬ 
sions in Korea October 9th, 1895 .—Ed. K. /?.] 


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His Majesty replied with courtesy and encouragement, expressing 
gratification, provided Dr. Maclay was a Protestant. Such open 
good will was shown to Dr. Maclay at the time of his visit that 
he made recommendation to our church that we had “better begin 
iu education: 1 and medical work, using no disguise as to the ulti¬ 
mate object being evangelization,” to quote bis own words. 

While Dr. Maclay was making liis investigations in Korea, 
the church at home was being canvassed for suitable missionaries 
to send to open the work, and later the appointees were studiously 
pouring over the few books on available, Korea to tatter prepare 
themselves for the proposed change of abode. The writer pictured 
for himself and prepared for residence in a straw hut such as 1 n 
has never been called upon to occupy except on country tr ps: and 
this is but one demonstration that the way has always been mar¬ 
vellously cleared at every point. 

At this date Korea was opening itself generally to outside 
influences; advance was the order of the day; treaties wore being 
made with the other nations, and schemes were legion—which 
term legion is used advisedly and with references, and to-day they 
are mostly legendary. 

December 4th, 1884, while the writer of this paper was 
receiving his authority to preach the glorious gosjrcl of pence to 
them that are afar off, and was taing ordained in New York city, 
Seoul was the scene of events of bloodshed which have set back 
the rapid progress of so-called civilzatiuii for just these ten years 
we have in review to-day. 

In April, 1885, as I went to the steamer in Japan for my 
passage to Korea, the Rev. H. N. Loomis, agent for the American 
Bible Society, gave me a small package of books to bring with me 
to Korea, provided I could pass them thro the customs. If failing 
in this their size and value was not so great but what they could 
be abandoned on shipboard or thrown over. Others, no doubt, 
had similar commissions from the Bible Society! 

Anel so we landed that year—1885—Rev. II. G. Underwood, 
“the Methodist preacher” of the Presbyterian Mission they called 
him, Rev. H. G. Appenzeller and his wife, Dr. W. B. Scmntou 
and his wife and baby, and Mrs. M. F. Scranton. We were all 
greeted with, “go slow,” “be cautions,” “no rights,” and the like 
expressions, and these were continued until the time of the ‘‘baby 
riot,” so-called in 1888, after which date the subject, being worn 
out, was dropped. 

We, therefore, went to work cautiously but without apology, 
and in the spirit in which every later comer has since that date 
been minded on his arrival if even he has not so expressed him¬ 
self, now “something is going to be done.” 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY, 


[July, 


Before the close of 1885 the doctor had patients and a tem¬ 
porary dispensary in his residence. The school teacher had two 
pupils who graduated themselves early. The king was advised 
of t,ur presence and of the purpose to open a school for which he 
expressed gratitude. 

1885 and 1886 were spent in land purchases and specula¬ 
tions on the pr liable location of the future foreign settlements: 
we were builders and architects; especially, wc were students of 
the language and nearly every one was also a lexicographer in 
embryo, working at the simpler parts of an unabridged dictionary 
which lias not as yet materialized. 

Our mission work began with the arrival of the doctor in 
Korea. He was for the first month associated with Dr. Allen in 
the Government Hospital, but as soon as the rainy season—a very 
heavy one that year—was passed, the work was formally opened 
September 10th in his home. From that, dale until the next fol¬ 
lowing June 522 patients were treated. In the spring of 1886 the 
hospital site in Chong Dong was purchased and remodeled and its 
wards r< a ly for use June 15th. Their first occupant w as a patient 
delirious with the native fever whom we found dcsi: ted and ex¬ 
pos'd on the city wall near the West gate. With her w as her four 
years old daughter. Weal!, remember “Putty” who died this last 
year, and her daughter is still in the school known as Prl-inn-i. The 
native teacher gave the doctor his first unsolicited introduction to 
the public as follows:—“Old and young, male and f inale, every 
body with whatsoever disease, come at ton o’clock any day, bring 
an empty buttle, and see the American doctor.” This was unbe¬ 
known pasted on the door post. What more could the doctor ask? 
That year the cholera, scourge came. Our first experience with the 
dread toe of the east, and fear of the west. Our neighbors came 
and asked us for contributions for sacrifice to heaven. This year 
again, ten years after, they came in time ot a similar epidemic, 
making a similar request, saying, “You worship Heaven :ml so 
do we. It is all the same.” “How is it,” I ask, “that in ten 
yearn wc have had so little influeuc over our ncig}J>ors? 

For other occupants the hospital wards had the first pupils 
in the school who used them for dormitories for a time. We very 
cautiously, as we worked then, left scriptures in Chinese, and the 
Unmun Mark, and Ross’ New Testraent in these rooms, that no 
time be lost and no place ineffective, the results of which rashness 
(!) I shall give in a native letter further on. 

Our school places its opening date in this year. Its property 
—the present site—was purchased and dormitories and recitation 
rooms were prepared for use in the fall. I quote from the intro¬ 
duction to its catalogue issued in 1888-98 : “The first steps toward 


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the organization of tlie were taken in the fall f/ 

of 1885. The purposcTor placing within easy reach of Korean 
youth the essentials of American educational institutions and 
methods was laid before His Majesty, the King of Korea, who 
graciously approved of it. At a later date the Hon. Kim Yun 
Sik, President of the Korean Foreign Office, as a further token of 
His Majesty’s favour, presented the school with its sign and most 
appropriate name — u I he Hall for the Training of Useful Men.” 

Id June of 1886 a preparatory school was opened by liev. Jl. G. J 
Apje izeller with s^yenjxuiPgHiien in attendance. Scon afterward (I 
seven of the students in attendance were called by the government 
to fill important positions in the civil service. 

As lime passed the preparatory school grew into an academic 
department, and in a year we hope to announce the opening of a 
collegiate school. The influx of students from different parts of 
the kingdom soon rendered larger and moie convenient quarters 
necessary and a new and a commodious brick structure in foreign 
style of architecture was erected in the western part of the city. 
Into this new home the school lemoved November 1st, 1887, and 
the old school building was changed into dormitories. The aim 
ol the l J ai Cliai Hak Tang is to give to Korean students thoro 
training in the curriculum of western science and literature, unit¬ 
ing with it the essential features of the native school system. 

Our year closed with nil the mission in good health in spite 
of cholera abounding; we were safely housed; the work in both 
departments was well under way and we had one probationer on 
the church rolls. 

1887. Pai Chai School enrolled during this year sixty-three 
students with an average attendance of forty. This year also 
maiks the dedication of our brick school building of which our 
vidting Bishop Warren said, “It is the gift of the American people 
to Korea.” During this year also favorable notice having come 
to the ears of the king of our girls* school especially, and also the 
boys’ school and hospital, thro the many officials who had visited 
our work, His Majesty sent to each department a name chosen by 
himself and inscribed, by which name these institutions are known 
to this day. 

At the dispensary during the year ending July 1st, 1887, 
over 2,000 patients were treated, and during the last tour months 
of that time the hospital had an average o! four inmates continu¬ 
ally. I find in the reports of that year that which I can repeat and 
recall with pleasantest recollections, namely:—“I am pleased to 
acknowledge my extreme indebtedness to Dr. Heron of the Pres¬ 
byterian Mission Board, for his great kindness and assistance often, 
furnished at our hospital.” 


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[July, 

October 9th Brother Appenzeller held the first public religi¬ 
ous Korean service, very quietly, at the chapel called “Bethel” in 
the south section of the city, at which place the first woman 
baptized by a Protestant missionary, received the r.te from him; 
and one week later the Lord’s Supper was celebrated there with 
two native Christian helpers present. Iu April and May Brother 
Appenzeller made his first of several long trips into the interior, 
to Pyeng-yang. 

Here we introduce a suggestion for the older missionaries to 
contrud.ct, if they see fit, and I will address it to new comers. 
Do not talk of pioneering in Korea any longer. Pioneering be¬ 
longs to a time when there was little knowledge of the language; 
no interpreters generally available; and no foreign predecessors 
who had travelled all the main roads north and south in every 
province. During the first five years members of onr mission—to 
say nothing of our Presbyterian brethren—travelled repeatedly from 
Seoul to Pyeng-yang and We-ju and across country from Seoul 
and Pyeng-yang to Wonsan and from Seoul to Fusan; also in the 
interior of Pyeng-an province and Ham-kyeng-do. Every prov¬ 
ince had been visited and the capital of every province. One 
member alone has visited seventy of the 360 magistracies. Another 
member made trips in one year of 1,830 E iglish miles, visiting 
six of tin eight provinces. The southern provinces, tho not receiv¬ 
ing like attention, have l>een repeatedly visited and the overland 
trip to Fusan taken by more than one member. 

We must bow our heads in acknowledgement of the heroism, 
and patience, even to martyrdom, which made our first dictionary 
—the French—available to us. Nor must we forget the Rev. 
John Ros«, who taught several of us our Korean alphabet thro 
his primer; who gave us several of our helpers as the result of his 
Bible work from Manchuria, and who with the Rev. John 
MacIntyre, pioneered in Scripture translation and gave us that 
foundation in Biblical Korean for which I take pleasure here in 
registering my lasting gratitude. 

That year was one of great growth and encouragement 
It closed with the arrival at Christmas time of Rev. F. Ohlinger 
who entered into the school work. Our church membership 
registered at this time four probationers. 

1888. Up to this year not only did the church work prosper 
with “caution” so strongly recommended, but even the government, 
too, seemed to be opening out progressively with a conservative 
party in power. But it beenme a year of crisis. The position of 
the Roman Catholic Cathedral which overlooks a royal ancestral 
Gablet house, aud matters of some slighter importance, brought oat 


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edicts not against them only, but we all were included under the 
royal displeasure. Brothers Appenzeller and Underwood who 
were making a trip ; n the north were recalled thro our legation, 
by the government’s request; and all missionaries were required 
to desist from teaching the foreign religion. I believe native 
sinking in our religious services was stopped for a lime, the dire 
effects iif which I imagine can be seen to the present day. 

It all culminated in the “baby riot” of 1888 which threatened 
us so seriously, when phetographers were viewed with su>pieion 
and foreign doctors’ rncdicije was not well understood; and our 
new brick school building was looked upon as the probable deposi¬ 
tory of the babies and must, therefore, come down. This summer 
for the first and la<t time the numbers of the mission lost sleep 
be cause of supposed impending riots. They took turn about one 
night watching for the outbreak, and had the monotony broken 
\r m the kindlv call of the United States Minister who hastened 
ovt r to announce that the gun which was to he the signal to call 
us to the legation in case of need had gone off by mistake while 
being cleaned ! We had not heard it!! In spite of all, the new school 
building was completed this year and the school had an enrollment 
of t>3. Our mission press was set on foot or rather preparatory 
steps taken towards it as an industrial department of the school. 

The annual session licensed two native brethren as local 
preacher-. Rev. George Hebcr Jones came to re-enforce us in 
Ma v and engaged in educational work with Brother Ap;>onz dler. 
Our medical work was started at Aogi in the fall. Total number 
of patients seen for the year in the two dispensaries by one doctor, 
was a steady gain, quarter by quarter, and amounted to a total 
of 4,930. A price for medicin e, more or less nominal, has always 
been charged at all our hospitals and dispensaries. This in spite 
of free medicine at the government hospital and later at the Eng¬ 
lish mission. Our year closed with full members, li; proba¬ 
tioners, 27; total membership, 37. 

1889 . This twelve months can be summed up as oue of 
earnest hard work in all departments. Eighty-two students were 
registered at the school. Brother Appenzeller made his long trip 
into the interior this year. Our mission press work was begun 
under the auspices of Brother Ohlinger to whom we are under 
lasting obligation. 

Dr. W. B. McGill came to enter the medical work and took 
it up at Aogai. The total number of patients this year was a 
decrease, by reason of separation of woman’s medical work on 
the arrival of Miss Meta Howard, M. D., and we treated only 
3,939. This number, however, completed a total of patients seen 
up to date of 12,200 for four years. 


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THE KOBEAX BEPOSITOEY. 


[July, 


1890 . Our fifth year. I was interested to note that in this 
year our serious attempts at translation into Korean l*egsn to 
have formal recognition. Our Discipline, Article's of Religion, 
and General Rules, the Lord’s Prayer, Tea Commandments, and 
Apostles’ Creed, date from this year. 

The Bible translation work was more systematically beeun 
and Dr. Scranton of our mission and Rev. Dr. Underwood of the 
Presbyterian Mission were appointed to prepare a translation of 
the whole >iew Testament. Alter some hard work they wore both 
compelled to return to the UnitedStates in consequence of zer'wus 
illness in both families. 

Dr. McGill began medical work at Sang Dong, from which 
labor we take pleasure in believing much ol the success of the 
church in that section of the citv is now due. A^ain, in this vear, 
the woman’s medical work fell to the Parent Board hospital by 
reason of Miss Dr. Howard’s return to the United States. 

The school work prospered greatly and marked interest was 
shown. The number enrolled was sixty. In this year Brother 
Ohlinger began work at Chemulpo. \Ve closed another twelve 
months with full members, 9; probationers, 36; total member¬ 
ship, 45. 

1891 . This year brought the first of inevitable breaks, as 
has been intimated, by the return to the United States of Dr. 
Scranton aDd family on account of serious illness of one of his 
children. During the preceding winter aud this year special direct 
efforts at evangelization had been made at the hospital and dis¬ 
pensary. Books and tracts were sold and distributed at the dispen¬ 
sary' alone to the number of 800. Daily and systematic teaching 
of all the patients at the dispensary and among the inmates was 
carried on. This was, too, the year of greatest number of patients, 
a total of 7,533. Our wards were always full of native fever 
patients. Tne Christian teaching was a wide sowing. Coming, 
as the patients do, from such a wide area it has always been dif¬ 
ficult lor the medical work to show the direct fruit of its labor. 
Such interest as is repeatedly displayed cannot in the end be lost 
even tho it disappears entirely from our call. 

Just before the writer’s return to the United States h’s 
helper in the hospital of several years standing, with the aid if 
bis friends in the school, prepared a paper on our work, wi icli 
tho somewhat lengthy, will perhaps be of general interest in 
spite of the personality which it would !>o difficult to eliminate. 
The books referred to were those we left in the hospital ward 
when they were used as dormitories for the students of Pai cbai 
School. He wrote as follows:— 

“Two or three words to his respected hearers from Han 


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Yong Kyciig:—[ early studied English at the Foreign Office. 
Hearing that Appenzeller, teacher from Great America, who 
lived ir. Chong lhong, taught English, I came and studied 
a \ **:« t\ When I watchirg saw the teacher’s work, habits 
and iimviiers, Hi:d when I saw that because he was an upright 
man l. conduct was orderly, I thought withi • myself that iuan 
has s udiod and uses some great doctrine. Before t! is time I 
had I,- - *ri cnlv of the Chun Ja Halt, but not having s.em its do¬ 
ings L regarded it not a little wrong. In the mi 1st of my many 
suspicions n y fe’low students said: ‘Look p.t this New Testa¬ 
ment which Dr. Scranton the teacher has given us/ It was the 
Jesus Jot trine hook. They all said, ‘we will not stilly it/ and 
had ;l mind to leave the school. But as for me I h id great 
doubts, for I hai not seen any bad conduct in the teacher. I 
ask«\d the students for the booK and altho I did not distinctly 
know its meaning, yet because there were no wrong words I 
wantNl to see it and know it some. I asked the teacher, Ap- 
per.z^ller, about it and he gave me a book ‘Shin Tok Fong 
Non/ Besides many oth *r things it had some of the doctrines 
taught by Confucius, and it tol 1 of God’s grace and Jesus’ merit. 
Be *aus • uf these things and finallv by following the tea-her, Dr. 
Scranton, and seeing his work, I decided to study their mean¬ 
ing. Tic doc*or teacher day and night gathered beggars pos¬ 
sessed with foul sores and dangerous diseases; gathered them a 
the they were the friends of his fl-sh and gave life to many ais 
their dying breath, besides other things. This year all men have 
beard that he has put an eye in a blind man [a case of catarhcn 
a id they sav; ‘Even wood, stones, and animals ha\e had tnet] 
feelings aroused/ All the me" of C-hos n sav, 4 If all foreigeirs- 
did as the doctor teacher, we would believe what they tell usr 4 
Formerly Jesus by His power to cure disease and to do wonder! 
ful things inspired the hearts of His twelve disciples. By degrees 
as the hearts of men are touched, they expsess them grati¬ 
tude. I, as they, beforetimes did not. hav* a firmly believing heart, 
but beholding this work my heart is moved from within. I am 
afraid to forget for a moment the goodn.ss of God and merit of 
Jesu3, but my body is weak and besides, more, I have no skill. 
My former unclean customs had permeated me, and my sins 
were many. In the universe among professions and duties med¬ 
icine seems to be the chief, first. This is not my word but all 
the world says the same. Were there only in Chosen many such 
firm hearts as those of the doctor teacher’s naturally our hearts 
would bvi broken open/’ During this year, 1890-91, a vocab¬ 
ulary in Korean was made of most of our foreign drags and 
chemical compounds. On the departure of Dr. Scranton for the 


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2G4 THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. [July, 

United States Dr. McGill was put in charge of the entire medi¬ 
cal work. He reported from Sang Dong the beginning of a 
Sunday gathering of from ten to thirty persons. Dr. Wiles of 
the English Minion most kindly attended to the work at our 
Hospital in Chong Dong throughout the year without remuner¬ 
ation of any 6ott for w'hich our gratitude has before been 
expressed. 

Our work in Chong No was opened by Brother A ppenzeller. 
Bishop Goodsell created the appointment at Chemulpo and put 
Brother Appenzeller in charge. Rev. W. J. Hall, M. D., came 
late in the year to help in the medical work. 

The school enrolled this year 52. It stands recorded that 
the New Testament was foimally incorporated in the school 
curriculum this year, and also that from this time no students 
were given financial support who did not earn it in some way. 
Brother Jones made a long trip in the interior of some 700 
miles or more, in Pyeug An province with most encouraging 
results. This year closed with full membeis in church 15; 
probationers, 53; total membership, 63. 

1892 . In January was issued the first number of the Korean 
Repository under the editorship of Dev. E. OhliDger. It is the 
first foreign periodical published in English in Korea. Dr. 
Scranton and family returned to Korea from the United Sstates 
in March and he resumed work at the hospital. 

Rev. H. G. Appenzeller who had served acceptably as 
Superintendent of the Mission up to this time left for bis vaca¬ 
tion in the United States and Bcv. W. B. Scranton, M. D.. was 
appointed by Bishop Mallulien Superintendent in his stead. 
Rev. G. H. Jones was put in charge of the educational interests 
which post he ably filled. 

Rev. W. A. Noble and wife came in the fall and he entered 
upon his course of faithful service in the school work with 
Brother Jones. 

This year a small edition of only thirty copies of the Gospel 
of Matthew was printed from a manuscript prepared by Under¬ 
wood, Scranton and Appt nzeller, che largest part of which was 
translated by Brother Appenzeller. 

This was a year of progress in experience in human nature, 
species Korcunus, in which our membership was overhauled and 
some old names lopped off. The West alone cannot boast of 
reformations. There have been likewise in Korea distinct stages 
which we all have been able to observe and in which we have 
rejoiced. This year brought us nearer to cur native brethren. 
Several broke over the long maintained restraint and may be said 
to have yielded their hearts iu sincerity to their foreign teach- 


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2C5 


era and paster?. It was a great step toward wiping out racial 
prejudice and bringing in a reign of mutual Christian trust born 
of a keemr ins’gbt into our common hofes and a participation 
therein. This work began in the school and Brother Jones 
seems to have been largely instrumental in this new aud n ost 
gratifying phase of the work. 

Dr. McGill continued this year bis established reputation 
as a book-seller. II * was appointed by Bishop Mallalieu to 
open work in Wonsan and the wide territory in east Korea. 

Bishop Mallalieu created the Baldwin chapel and Ewa 
Hak Tang charge and pi a red W. B. Scranton in charge. The 
work began with much promise and the new chapel was for¬ 
mally opened with appropriate services on Christinas day of 
that year. This, you see, was a year of scattering ot our forces 
but our work has been strengthened and not weakened thereby. 

Brother Jones was appointed to continue the work begun 
at Chemulpo and he has developed the Kang Wha circuit which 
promises so much todav. 

Dr. Hall was appointed to the Pyeng Xang Circuit. He 
had made a seven hundred mile tour thro that place and 
on to We-ju, in the company of Brother Jones, and on his 
return was most urgent that Pyeng Yang should be opened. 
Brother Appenzeller had previously established a most iuterest- 
ing work in both places and Brothers Jones and McGill had also 
visited the work and helped it on. Great things were hoped 
fiom these little bands of probationers but the rapidly increasing 
work in 86ul prevented such shepherding as they should ba\e 
had. Seeing the grand opportunities Dr. Hall urged the ap¬ 
pointment of some one to Pj erg Yang and offered to be responsi¬ 
ble for one-half the salary of the appointee lor two years. He 
wrote: “We are trusting in the work of the Holy Ghost tor 
great results and in Him we are never disappointed.” Thus 
did he so veil exemplify a wholesome union of faith and works. 

This year the two local preanbers licensed by the animal 
meeting were pupils of the school as was also one of the exhort- 
ers. Tli3 school enrolled 63. 

The press developed under Brother Ohlinger, fulfilling 
our best hopes with »n output of 1,130,860 pages printed in 
English, Uninun, and Chinese. 

1893 . This year’s summary proved that our scattering of a 
year previous was wise, for our church membership became 
doubled. Bishop Foster appointed Brother Noble to the new 
charge at Aogi. The Christian stamp of the school became 
more marked and their evident desire for Christian knowledge was 
a matter of great encouragement. Prayer meetiu'gs, conduc- 


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266 THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. [July, 

ted bv the boys, set their hearts to work and brought forth 
n good fruitage. The enrollment was 49. 

A theological class was started by Brother do lies of which 
I have beard repeated desire that it might have been continued 
longer. 

Rev. H. G. Appenzeller returuel this year and again as¬ 
sumed charge of the school work and G. H. Jones was moved 
to Chemulpo to give his entire t.me to evangelization. Being 
the first of what I hope will be an ever increasing number so 
set apart. J. B. Busteel, M. L)., came in tne lull and entered 
into medical work at the Si Pyeug Won. Rev. H. B. Hulbert 
came late in the year to ta‘ e the management of the Mission 
Press, vvL ich pest was made vacant by the return of Rev. F. 
Ohlinger to the United J-tstes. 

W. B. Bcrauton and H. G. Appenzeller were continued as 
translators of the Scriptures ou the reorganized boaid of five ap¬ 
pointed for that work. * 

The dispensary registered a total of 5,0 >7 patients. In the 
spring tho average monthly distribution of tracts and gospels 
was 120. Three religious services were held daily in the hospi¬ 
tal or dispensary. Inmates averaged eight per month. It was 
our belief no man could attend the dispensary without hearing 
of the Jesus who alone saves aud cures. 

Our year closed with a full membership of G8; probationers, 
173; total mernbeiship, 242. 

1894 and its events are familiar to lieaily all of you and 
will take but a word of ref renc c. It was one ot anatchy and po¬ 
litical disturbance which is by no means as yet settled. A Ko¬ 
rean said to me itr October after the Tong Hak uprisings and 
the war wave had passed over us: “The Government's blood 
circulati m is broken open, and the life blood is flowing out.” 
Even tho a physician I am in greatest doubt; hard to diagnose 
the case even at this day of writing. 

Dr. Hall had to hold his faith in working or Ter in Pyeng 
Yang Brother Kim Chang Sik Rtood the fire of persecution 
•even to the stocks and has come off grandly. But Pyeng Yang 

*. Up to date of this writing 1895 Matthew has been revised and Mark 
further translated by Brother Appenzeller ; Re mans has been translated and 
submitted to the Board by Dr. Scranton and besides these each translator 
has such an amount of manuscript tr »nslation prepared toward the further¬ 
ance ot the work both in Old and New Testament as will probably much 
exceed in amount that already submilte 1. 

Our Mission has done its fair share also in the translation and prep¬ 
aration in the Urnmun including catechisms, Bible story books, and 
Sunday lessons and hvmns, the result of labors of the members of both 
the Parent Koad and Woman’s Missionary Socities of onr church in Korea, 


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1893.] 


is a Bal deplorable picture to behold. How are the persecutor* 
fallen! Two avenging armies passed over and trampled her 
down. Thro all this our few Christains remained firm, kept 
the Sabbath; prayed together ; and received no harm more than 
hard work and difficult living. After the war Dr. Hall returned 
to his post in Pyeng Yang to encourage and strengthen his little 
band. He found many opportunities for usefulness to sick souls 
and bodies. But in some mysterious providence it seemed best 
that bis cherished plans should not be all carried out by himself 
and he was called to lay down his life. He left this home for 
his eternal one in November after having undergone sharper 
tests of bis trust in God than those who bad been here longer 
and in ;t all he kept the faith. 

During the days of July and August our hospital had its 
most interesting prriod, perhaps, front a professional standpoint 
and the battle field came to us with many of its wounded. Dr. 
Busteed was in the United States at the time. Dr. Hall gave 
very material assistance at the Si Pyeng Wttn, wlnre we bad 
plenty of work for a goodly sized surgical corps. Except for 
this period Dr. Busteed had the main burden of the medical 
woik during the year, and the routine continued in general 
as durirg the previous years. 

The mission press under Brother Hulbert continued its 
struggle with the problems of the West in the terms of the East, 
and closed his twelve months’ record with a much impioved 
plant, stock and good will in trade, and a showing cf l, p 01,440 
pages printed in the three languages. 

The Bcliool enrolled 104 with Rev. H. G. Appenzeller and 
Rev. W. A. Noble in charge. The new turn in politics showed 
probability of making special demands upon this department. 
“Pupils and students are all sel^supporting,' , they report. “Some 
are employed to take care of the school buildings, others work 
in the Press of the nvssior, and some do literary work or serve 
as personal teachers.” We find the followii g is recorded of the 
curriculum:—‘‘Instruction is given in the three languge«: the 
Unmun, Chini.se, and English. The Methodist Catechism was 
in the course and taught in the vernacular. We had several 
boys who committed the whole to memory. The Chinese clas¬ 
sics are taught in the Chinese language and form a prominent 
part of the course. In English instruction was given in the 
common branches, ancient history, physics, chemistry, political 
rconon y, vocal music and the Bible Several of the older boys 
have united with the church and all are in regular attendance 
at the Sabbath and the weekly prayer meetings.” 

Day schools were opened in several places but the atteu- 


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[July, 

<lar ce has been unsatisfactory, due mostly to prejudice against 
the Christian religion taught there “A theological class was 
held in the winter and also again in the late Bpring. Our 
total inembeiship shows a Ja.k of five fioin that of preceding 
year due to purging the rolls. 

1835. For the year which closes our decade all departments 
report not lack of work but woikmen. They are surrounded 
by opportunities on every hand, and more openings than can 
possibly be filled. We have eight charges where evangelistic 
work is regularly carried on. Four of these are in and about 
Soul and four at ports ahd in the interior. Besides these we 
have a school, hospital, and mission pres9 and a book store, and 
how to man all the. c e posts with oar force of eight and one of 
them in the United Statrs has been a most perplexing problem. 
Bev. D. A. Bunker, for so many years in the government school, 
has joined our forces and works this year with Brother Appenzel- 
ler in currying on our school work. Today the'school stands 
with every advantage on its side, the Government support¬ 
ing the undertaking with its approval, and by recognizing 
one of the boys who now acts as instructor with the rank of a 
professor. The enrollment is at 169. All the teachers are 
Christians. Eighteen students united with the chuich during 
1395. From the beginning of its history to the present thirty- 
three men can be counted who have gone forth to take positions 
in one and another department of the government. To quote 
from my recent annual report to our mission:—"I see no reason, 
and quite the contrary, why the school should not by its work 
exceed the Government school in usefulness not only from the 
true standpoint but also from the Koreun standpoint as well. 
The school has grand opportunities, among many others, of pre¬ 
paring Christian secular teachers lor Koiea. The country will 
soon demand them. It has a grander work in training Chris¬ 
tian workers for our lay and full ministry. 

In Chong Dong we are rejoiced at the prospect of a new 
church. Its comer stone was laid September last The good 
will of the people in their contributions amounting to over 500,- 
000 cash is in stiiking contrast to the day in which we bfgau 
work and were urged to so much caution. The Word of God 
will not be bound and it biingeth forth fruit here even as it 
does in all the world when it is heard. 

The Press haB been once more contending with obstacles 
in the way of a western enterprise in an eastern setting, as we 
mentioned ior last year, but gives every evidence of ult’mate 
success, in the excellent output of the past twelve months 
and the support the public has given it The working force has 


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3898.") 


been increased from ten to Bixteen and the pay list 80 per cent 
The plant and stock has been much enlarged and the work in 
hand is encouraging. 

Tne hospital has at last accomplished its plans of eight years 
since in moving to Kang Dong and at the present writing the 
removal proves to have been a wise one. Under the faithful 
management of Dr. Busteed it has long since passed the 40,000 
patients treated at the dispensary since the beginning. 

Our book store in Chong No is climbing up and wi 1 soon 
prove it has been long a necessity to the missionary work. I 
hope to soon see it of such proportions that it will be a reposi¬ 
tory of all our tracts and publication?, and native brethren 
thus easing the foreign ones in a task they can very easily ac¬ 
complish. Soul must have a Christian book store of such pro¬ 
portion -i that its purpose cannot be misunderstood, nor its loca¬ 
tion a mutter of doubt. Steps are being taken towards this end. 

Truly the blessing that has been upon our work is evidsi.t 
to all. 

It may seem in the foregoing that too much emphasis has 
been laid on the institutions and too little on the individuals. I 
wish it were possible to have estimated the amount cf work 
each member of the mission has contributed to its prosperity 
and that I could have weighed nicely in a balance the influence 
which each bas brought to hear. Yet how little rrally of the 
Father’s lead the child lifts! and how unwise with a miser’s 
heart to sit down to hear what has been accumulated, rather 
than up and at work the harder. 

We brethren, one and all, have been participating in the 
Father’s plans, some in one way and some in auother. In war¬ 
fare some shoct with guns aud some with bows and some wield 
lance and sword, but the object is the same—the overcoming 
the enemy and rescuing those ready to die from the enemies’ 
hands. Today we cannot boast for we are told when we have 
done all we are unprofitable servants. We cannot count too 
much on school and hospital for God works by slighter as well 
as by mightier me? ns. Nor can we mourn localise our toroe 
is so small for it is the same with our Lord to conquer by many 
or by few. Bather in the midst of our encouragement we can 
rejoice that thro our instrumentality over 400 of this nation 
have passed from death unto life, and we can believe this is but 
a lithe of whai He wants to accomplish and wbat He can bring 
about thro us during this coming year, making one year 
easily outstrip a decade by His blessing on tbe seed already 
sown. 

W. B. SoRAuroN. 


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THK KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[July, 


EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT. 

THE INDEPENDENCE CLUH AND VICE-PRESIDENT 
OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL. 

R EADERS of The Repository will remember the prominent 
part this club took in the discussion which led to the re¬ 
moval of Russian advisers and military instructors in the 
employ of the Korean government. The Hon. Cho Pyeng-sik 
who then filled several cabinet positions, and at one time 
represented no less than three portfolios, was prominent in some 
transactions wbijh compromised the government and gave offense 
to the people. Plis course was not approved by the Independence 
club. At the beginning of this month the Hon. Cho was-ap¬ 
pointed Vice President ot the Privy Council. This was the op¬ 
portunity of the club to give expression to its lerlings. It did 
so in a letter to the Vice President asking him in simple but 
plain language to resign. The latter did not see the necessity 
and told the club so. The club determined to wait on Mr. 
Cho, but he was not at home. He asked to make an appoint¬ 
ment and agreed to me* t a committee the next day at four 
o’clock. Hut he had an “important engagement in the Imperial 
Palace” and suggested the club write out the questions on 
which information was wanted. The reply cf the club to this 
was the appointment of a committee of five to Bee the vener¬ 
able statesman somehow and somewhere. 

In the meantime the quarrel between the two parties 
reached the ears of the Emperor and he summoned the Hon. 
T. H. Yun, the president of the club, to give an account of tbe 
proceedings of the body over which he presided. The address 
of Mr. Yun, who is already well known to our readers, to Ilia 
Majesty is so full of patriotic sentiments that we feel sure we 
can do them no better service than to reproduce it in its entirety 
as it appeared in the columns of the Independent of the 26th inst. 
Mr. Yun, addressing his Majesty said: 

“The Independence Club was started under the gracious 
patronage of Your Majesty. H. I. H. the Crown Prince wrote 


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the board bearing tbe name of the society, now' adorning the 
ball of the cl ib. As the institution owes its existence to Your 
Majesty it is quite within Your august pierogatives to dissolve 
it if You deem it necessiry. But if Your Majesty considers the 
discussions and petitions of the club as indulgent parents regard 
tbe importunities of their children; if Your Majesty, being con¬ 
vinced of the loyalty and patriotism of the club, is unwilling to 
disband tbe association, the best thing that may be done is to 
instruct Your Majesty’s ministers and officers to cariy out faith¬ 
fully your benevo'ent intentions for the good of the people, thus 
giving to the club no cause for complaint. 

“When it was known that the club bad the gracious ap¬ 
probation of Your Majesty, the high and influential officials of 
the realm and tbeit subordinates filled the club. B it no sooner 
was there a rumor that a certain Legation disliked the institu¬ 
tion than they all deserted the club like autumnal leaves, vacat¬ 
ing their seatB lo be occupied by private persons more or less 
dissatisfied with the ruling class. Thus it came to pass that the 
difficulties and perplexities of the government were unknown to 
the people while the distresses and grievances of the populace 
were unippreciatcd by the officials. This estrangement de¬ 
stroyed mutual sympathies and gave rise to distrust and suspicion 
until to-day the government and club stand opposed one against 
tbe other. For this regrettable state of things the officials are 
responsible. From this day on, let the officers of the govern¬ 
ment rejoin the club, giving as well as receiving the benefit of 
opinions, establishing a "ordial understanding between the gov¬ 
ernment and tl:n populace. This will disarm mutual distrust. 
The knowledge of the needs of the people will enable the Minis¬ 
ters to discharge their duties more intelligently, while the appre- 
ciation of the circumstances of the government will keep ihe 
people from needlessly suspecting and disliking the officials. 
The friction between the two parties will thereby be reduced 
to a minimum, pjomoting the welfare of the whole nation. 

“When we lived in seclusion with our doors shut, tbe ideas 
of foreign lands did not affect us. But now that our intercourse 
with other nations is becoming more and more intimate, the 
progressive ideas of Japan, Europe and America concerning tbe 
relations between the government and the people are daily per¬ 
meating the various strata of our society. Whether good or 
bad, the opinions and sentiments of our people of 1893 are quite 
different from those of the first year of Your Majesty’s reign (35 
years ago). The government ought to take in the new situation 
in leading the people, and formulating and executing laws. This 
alone will insure success to the government and the welfare of 


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[July 

the people. Beyond this I have no more to say to Your 
Majesty.'’ 

Hia Majesty graciously assenting to the co»rectnes9 of the 
views said : ‘‘Even if there were no detrands on the part of the 
Independence Club, the affairs of the government ought to be 
conducted aright. We shall instruct the officials of the govern¬ 
ment to discharge their respective duties faithfully. Tell the 
members of the club to work on in quiet and orderly ways, 
steering clear of rashness and giving no occasion lor foreign 
interference.” 

This address was reported in detail to the club and pro¬ 
duced that greatest effect. Men wept, and the cry, “Long live 
the Emperor’’ went up over and over. The noise was heard 
in the Palace grounds and a messenger was despatched to S 2 e 
what the uproar meant. It is easy to believe this manifestation 
of loyalty on the part of the Independence Club was an agree¬ 
able surprise to the Emperor. 

We may state that Vice President Cho was unfortunate 
enough in not being given time to resign but was dismissed in 
disgrace from the office by Imperial order and has since then 
gone to the country. 

The Seoul-Chemulpo Railroad. —The Times correspond¬ 
ent from Peking in a letter to that paper as reproduced in The 
Nagasaki Tress of the 11th inst., has given the following infor¬ 
mation to the public on this enterprise. We are not in a posi¬ 
tion to confirm or question the information herein given. As 
Americans, however, we confess disappointment that American 
capitalists were unwilling to invest the mono): 

It has now become known that the first railway built, or rather build¬ 
ing, in Korea—viz., the railway from Chemulpo to Seoul—will pass into the 
possession of a Japanese company immediately after completion. The con¬ 
cession was originally obtained by Mr. J. R. Morse, representative of the Amer¬ 
ican Trading Company in the Far East. It was a private speculation, and 
Mr. Morse believed that he could easily obtain funds in the United States 
for the construction of the road, and that the enterprise would prove very 
lucrative. In the former forecast he was mistaken. Only a million yen—a 
hundred thousand pounds sterling—were needed, but, for reasons that need 
not be set forth here, American capitalists weie unwilling to advance the 
money. The line had been already contracted for, and the concessionaire, 
finding himself in some embarrassment, had recourse to Japanese business 
men. An agreement was concluded, Mr. Morse pledging himself, under 
forfeiture ol thirty thousand yen, to hand over the line when completed, and 
. the Japanese engaging to supply the necessary funds. The work proceeded 
steadily, and had made great progress when, a few months ago, a French 
syndicate appeared in the field and offered Mr. Morse two million yen for 
the line—a clear gain of a million yen. Mr. Morse must have been greatly 
-tempted to accept the offer, especially-as -difficulties had arisen between 


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him and the Japanese capitalists with regard to technicalities, about which 
the latter were not altogether reasonable, apd he could scarcely have been 
blamed had he taken advantage of the forfeiture clause. But, as a mar otj 
high integrity, he considered himself morally bound to those w ho had ori- 
ginally assisted him financially, and the road will consequently [ ass into' 
Japanese possession. It is now believed that the Government will be the 
ultimate purchasers, and that a Bill sanctioning the transaction w ill be intro¬ 
duced in the next Session of the Diet. The French syndicate is th t same 
that has obtained the concession to build a railway from Seoul to the Chi¬ 
nese frontier at Wi-ju, on the Yalu river. No one sees w here die concession¬ 
aires expect to find their account in such an enterprise, tor the traffic from 
the Yalu soutl wards is insignificant, and the line will traverse unprosperous 
regions. It was supposed when the French obtain d the concession that 
they were really working in Russia’s interests, and that the latter’s trans- 
Asian railway was to be carried to an ice free port via Wi-ju and Seoul. In 
Japanese « facial quarters no doubt is entertained that such was the pro¬ 
gram. Russian statesmen would, of course, have preferred the Liao¬ 
tung route, but, not knowing when an opportunity to make the selection 
would present itself, they laid all their plans to suit the Korean alternative. 
Suddenly and unexpectedly, however, the Kiao chau incident opened the 
dcor for a Russian approach to Liao tung, and Korea was then abandoned— 4 -^ 
without hesitation That appears to be the simple explanation of M. de 
Speyer’s precipitate action, when with regard to the recall of the military I 
and financial experts in Seoul, and of Russia's voluntary withdrawal from a ! 
field where she had taken so much trouble herself. Her self effacement was 
practical enough, but not very artistic, for, altho there was no icason j 
why she should remain in Korea after she had ceased to have any im¬ 
mediate purpose there, she might at least have contrived that the occasion 
of her retreat should not expose so palpably her motive in going there ori-/ 
ginally. In leaving the Korean peninsula became si e had practically 
gained possession of the Liao-tung, she confessed, in effect, that her aim 
throughout had been to gain possession of the latter That Ie>son has not 
been lost on Japanese politicians. Steps will probably be taken to put a 
speedy end to Korean shilly-shallying about the concession for the Seoul- 
Fusan road, but the concessionaires will be a private company, and the 
enterprise will not at present be carried to the north of Seoul. 


Bureauof Land Survey. —Foreigners who have attempted 
to make a study of Korean matters have lamented the lack of 
maps and charts showing the prefeetnral and provincial bound¬ 
aries, the direction of the roads and the lay of the land in general* 
The native maps are notoriously inaccurate and tho there may 
be stored away in the archives of the government much of the 
information which would be elicited by a land survey, yet it has 
never boon placed at the sev\iee of the public. On July £tli His 
Majesty issued a decree, a translation of which is appended, organ¬ 
izing n Bureau of Land Survey, and clothing it will full and al¬ 
most extraordinary powers. While it is nominally subject to tho 
Ministeries for Home Affairs and for Public Works, the high 
rank of its personnel and their powers render them virtually 
independent. 

With the object of this Bureau we are in the heartiest accord* 


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\v e congratulate the government upon undertaking a work which 
if at all thoro will have its results widely published. The 
Chief Surveyor and his ten assistants should be employed immedi¬ 
ately and the work pushed vigorously. It should result in an 
accurate map of Korea and subdivision maps of every province 
and prefecture. It should locate the roads and furnish us with 
information concerning the towns along them, aud the products 
of the various sections. The matter of distances should be settled, 
the course; character and distances navigable of all the rivers; tin* 
lay of the mountains, and such information concerning mineral 
deposits as the go N eminent may deem wise to make public. When 
the results have been made public may we not hope that a per¬ 
manent and beneficial impulse will be given to the matter of in¬ 
fernal improvement. For the projier performance of the work 
the force suggested apjK'ars very inadequate. One Chief Surveyor 
with ten assistants and twenty students will find the five years 
allotted pass before one-tenth of the work which will have to be 
done has been accomplished. 

IMPERIAL DECREE NO. 25. 

The |K.Tsonnel and duties of the Bureau oi Land Survey: 

I. The Bureau oi Land shall perform its duties under the 
direction of the Ministry for Home Affairs and the Ministry for 
Agriculture, Commerce and Public Works. 

II. The personnel of the Bnreati of Land Survey shall con¬ 
sist of three Directors, two Vice Directors, three Secretaries and 
six Clerks. 

(a) The Directors and Vice Directors shall be ap¬ 
pointed by the Throne. 

(b) The directors shall nominate the recorder one 
each from among the ehu-im officials of the Ministries of Ilona 1 
Affairs, Finance, and Agriculture. 

(c) The directors shall nominate the clerks who shall 
be taken, two each from among theprw-im officials of the above 
named three Ministries. 

(d) Among the secretaries and clerks there must he at 
least one who speaks English and one who speaks Japanese. 

III. The Directors shall have full oversight aud control of 
the affairs of the Bureau; they shall be entitled to present matters 
to the President of the Gmneil of State for His Majesty 7 .-* sanction 
and in signing official documents shall do so in the order of their 
rcspecti ve rauks. 

IV. The Vice Directors shall assist the Directors and ad¬ 
minister the affairs of the Bureau. 

V. The secretaries and clerks shall be under the command 


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of the Directors and Vice Directors and shall follow their in¬ 
structions. 

VI. In order to avoid inexperienced men the officers of the 
Bureau from Director down shall, after the organization is a fleeted, 
continue to serve until the work of survey is completed, tho they 
may lie relieved of other appointments. But this regulation shall 
not affect the promotion of secretaries and clerks. 

VII. The salary of a Director shall U 1 that of a Minister 
of State: the salary of a Vice Director shall he that of a Vice* 
Minister of State, second class; the sa'aries of sen claries and 
clerks shall be that of their respective grades in rank. 

VIII. When Directors and Vice Directors are appointed 
to other offices they will still continue to hold their posts at the 
Bureau of ljand Survey. 

IX. The Chief Surveyor shall lx* a foreigner and he shall 
be assisted by assistants to the number often who shall he under 
the direction of the Chiet Surveyor. Twenty students from the 
English and Japanese schools shall also be attached to the Bureau 
to learn the business. The assistants shall Ik 1 selected by the 
Chief Surveyor either from foreigners or Koreans. 

X. The salaries of the Chief Surveyor and his assistants 
shall be determined by the directors. 

XI. The Cbiel Surveyor shall work under the direction 
of the director and vice-directois. 

XII. There shall be attached to the Bureau tl ree mes¬ 
sengers, nine servant®, and three porters, who stall be sent from 
the three ministries of Home Affairs, Finance and Agricul¬ 
ture, and their wages shall be paid by tl esc three, departments. 

XIII. The Bureau shill poeess proper seals under which 
it may communicate with the various d^paitironts of the gov¬ 
ernment and the provinces. 

XIV. The dhectors of the Bureau of Land Survey, being of 
the same rank as Ministers of State, shat be entitled to direct and 
oversee the Chief Ccmmis ioner of Pc lice, the Governor of Soul, 
the various provincial governors and th< sa under them, tefacili- 
tate the affaiis of the Bureau, and in case these disobey the direc¬ 
tions given they shall be reported to the proper authorities to 
be oensured, 6ned, or dismissed, according to the gravity of the 
offense. 

XV. Men familiar with the work of the Bureau shall hi 
sent as governors and prefects in order to facilitate the work. 

XVI. The Chief Surveyor shall be employed for a period 
of fiv> years, but this shall not effect his term of employment in 
any oth department. 


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271) THE KOREAN REPUSIToRY. [July, 

XVn. The survey shall Vgin with the five wards of Soul 
■and shall be gradually extendpcl to distant plac-e 

XVIII. The surveyors in tb^ir work throughout the 
country shall have the protection of a force of policemen. 

XLX. The appropriation to the Bureau of Lind Survey, 
until the work gets well under way, shall be fixed by the Privy 
(louned 

XX. The sil iries, expenses for instruments, booltR, imple¬ 
ments and wage-of the Hure.au of Lind Survey s jail be de¬ 
frayed bv the finance Department. 

XXI. The expenses of the Surveyor shall be collected by 
him from the prefecture in which he may l>e at work. He shall 
give a voucher for all money bo collected and this voucher, when 
presented ;o the Finance Department, shad be honored and 
paid. 

XXII. The offers for the Bureau and the residence of 
the Ohio: Surveyor shall be arranged for by the Department of 
Finance. 

XX I ll. The regulations for the affairs of the Bureau shall 
h.‘ Dternnncd by the Directors. 

V S [ V. • This decree goes into force from to-day. 

Dited, »nly Stn, H l Jd. 


OFFICIAL GAZETTE. 

(Compilled from the Independent) 

June 20th. An extra of the Gazette published on Imperial decree 
which declares tliat. according to the prevai ing custom in other countries. 
His Majesty is to be the Commander in-t'hicf of the army and navy, that 
t ie Crown Prince is the Adjutant Commander (next only to His Majesty) ; 
and that no prince of the blood imperial shall hold the office of a general 
in times of peace. 

July 1st. By a special Decree, Gen- Le Gendro, the adviser to the 
Household Department, has been made the adviser to the Council of 8tate, 

July 2nd. In regulations for the Household Department an amend- 
Hunt wai introduced by virtue of which the ginseng monopoly and the 
mines belonging to the Department have been transferred to the Bureau 
of Crown Lands. 

Inrxtrtant Appointments :—Superintendent of the Crown mines in 
Pyengando, \ i Juiigtoo; Superintendent of the Crown mines in Gbullado 
siiul Kyengsangdo, Han Sangwna ; Superintendant of the Crown mines of 
.North Haiukyengdo, liDoocho; Director of the Ginseng Monopoly, Yi 
Clioiyeng ; Police Inspector of Ginseng Mouo]*oly, Pak Kuo wen. 

Edict : —No. 2d publishes the regulations for the Railroad Bureau, 
AVe append the roost important articles: 


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I. As railroads are to he constructed in the country a Bureau of Rail¬ 
roads is hereby organized with the following others : one superintendent; 
one manager; two engineers; two husas ; rtive .assistant engineers. 

II. The superintemiant shall control all the affairs relative to rail¬ 
roads, under the direction of the Minister of Agriculture and Public 
W orks. * * * 

1 Y. The duties of the Bureau sliall be :— 

1. T he construction, preservation, and operation, etc., of state 
railroads. 

2. 'I he permission or refusal of sanction to private roads. 

li. The yearly estimates and the management of finance in general 
for state mil roads. 

X. The minor rules and regulations for the Bureau shall ho made 
and published from time to time by the Minister of Agriculture and Works. 

Edict: —No. 27 creates anev magistracy called Sungjin. One of the 
new treaty ports— Sungjin— is in this new magistracy. 


LITERARY DEPARTMENT. 


"Sfr*tv Xofes on Korean History and Literature." By James Scoff 
H B. M.’s Consi.br Service. Journal of the China Branch of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, Vol XXVIII, 1893-94. 

Mr. Scott duiing his long residence of nine years in Korea was a busy 
student of the language and history of the people. His "Manual of the Lan¬ 
guage” passed into the second edition and has been a boon to many a !>c- 
ginner in the study of this pccu.iar and somewhat difficult language. 

In these "Stray Notes” Mr. Scott tells us the Mohammedan traders were 
the first foreigners to visit the southwest coa t of the peninsula towards the 
dose of the eighth century. "Their presence in the country is proved by a 
philological factor peculiar to Korean euphony whereby shinra—zenra of 
Japanese and shinlo of the Chinese—passes into s/ita of the Korean.* 1 

The next foreigners to visit Korea were the Dutchmen who were ship¬ 
wrecked and held captive for years. Henri Hamel tells the story wi iiten 
towards the close ol tl e seventeenth century, and so faithful is the account 
and so few have been the changes among the people, that place after place 
has been identified and "every scene and every feature can be recognised 
as i; it w re a tale told of to-day." Two Dutch vases were unearthed in 
Seoul in 1886. The figures of Dutch farm life told their own story and the 
well worn rings of the handles bore evidence of constant use for years. Mj\ 
Scott suggests that the presence of these Dutchmen might perhaps explain 
the anomaly noticed h~re, namelv blue eyes and fair ha r. If so, how docs 
lie explain the distinct Jewish face so clearly marked on some Koreans? 

7 he third period of contact Korea had with the foreigner dates from the 
attempt of the Jesuit Fathers to enter the country in the early par: of this 
century. 

The language, the author thinks "both as regards its €>wn intrinsic pecu¬ 
liarities as a distinct tongue, ami especially in respect t<» ancient Chinese 
sounds »s uell worthy ifce serious study of sinologues and philologists.” 

Torem civilization dates from the advent of kija, who with 5,000 fob 


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lowers founded the city of Rye ng-yang. His grave, carefully kept. lies to 
the north of the city and is "venerated as the rc^tk-g place of Korea’s patron 
saint.” Mr. Scott accounts for the u\<> ila^o of j ooj Ic, one fall of stature 
with well cut features; and the other, Japanese, with its distinctive individu¬ 
alities of build and physiognomy, to the invasions from the noith. Up to the 
second century "the peninsula was occupied by a convene* <>| mile tribes 
tinder petty chieftains warring and fighting with each other, but ah the time 
being driven farther and farther south as the hardy inhabitnn's of die north 
forced their way into the country and settled in the plains to die south of the 
Yalu river. The aborigines, driven from their homes by the e i nuder* from 
the north, sought refuge in the Kiushu Islands in J man ncr -v, t l :<* T-.us 1 nnj 
Channel." The tall angul.tr Korean of t i-d. : y t:nce- his .-'.nrcstois 1 a- !; to 
valleys of the Sungari river; while the short, stocky Korean w.is the ahong- 
ineb who fleeing to Japan, and minding with the people of low stature the* e, 
returns to his native heath smaller than his northern cor pieror. 

"And recent researches asciTe the Japanese laiK ii.iyo to Aino oiigm 
based on Korean grammatical constitu tion and the remarkable parallelism 
and similarity of Korean and Japanese synt ix can only be explame l by race 
identity in j re-historic ages. The < xplana i- :i offered is, that the Amos im¬ 
pressed th.cir vocabulary un the immigrants Iran the pen-a si da, but d.a: these 
immigrants were unable to abandon their own peculiar gr mimtical con- 
stiuctinn. Certain v, inFubscquenthistoric.il >ears, art and irerilme have 
always be:n intimately associated between the two countries: Korea imports 
and borrows from China, and in her turn passes on her new civilization to 
Japan, where the pupil, more apt than the master, and U Mated in more 
favorable surroundings, has long outstripped Korea in the man h of progress,** 

We should like to notice further these interesting * Stray Notes" and 
may refer to them again in a succeeding number. 


NOTES AND COMMENTS. 

The Seoul Post Office transmitted 55,713 letters and packages last 
month, an increase of 10,349 over May. 

The Glorious Fourth was spent with much enthusiasm in the capital 
icd, white apd blue were much in vogue that day. 

The city statutes we understand caution the people not to cat green 
fruit. This law is a dead letter if one may judge from the qu; ntity of unripe 
fruit exposed for *alc. Yet you hear people groan and wonder why they 
art not perfectly well. 

General Dye leads off with a f ne crop of early apples Early H u vest 
and Red June. Larger Early Havests and more delicious Red Junes it has 
never been our good fortune to eat. The Red Astrnchan trees are well 
loaded tft}s year, the flavor excellent, but the fruit is a under size. 

ThfC United States Consul General in a report to his government says 
there a tt over ipo bicycles in use in Korea. "Nearly all the wheels used in 
Korea are made r in'ftieTJnited States. Japan comes next as an exporter of 
wheels tj) this countiy.” He thinks a repair shop is the "great thing needed 
to popularize” the bicycle in Korea and that “ladies’ wheels are the best 


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1838.] 


adapted lor use by the natives here, as the men wear long skirts," an opinion 
in v hich we agree. 

The Government language Schools closed the middle of this month. I 
The educational system in Korea is still in its infancy. Apart from the 
schools mentioned above, there is a normal school with some 30 pupils I 
enrolled; 9 primary schools in Seoul with 818 boys. The annual estimate \ 
allowed for these 10 schools is 514, 416. There are 21 primary schools \ 
throughout the count!y. This is better than nothing, but it cannot be said 
j he government is making itself poor in advancing the cause ol education /./ 

It looks as tho Korea were about to have two political parties. The 
Independence Club has become a free lance in politics and to a certain ex¬ 
tent stands fo* popular rights and seemingly free speech it thedai'y sessions 
held the latter part of die month may be taken as a criterion. The Pedlcrs 
guild, a compact and powerful organization before the w ir, was abolished 
during the period of reformation. On the 3 ult. some of its leading mem¬ 
bers formed a new society known as the Whang kook or Imperial Society. 

H I H. the Crown Prince subscribed $1,000. to the Society and it th:is 
s aris off under imperial sanction and encouragement. It is consei vative in 
spirit and the Pedlers inay be called the “lories.* 1 

In the advance sheets No. 135 of Consular Reports we no.ice the declin¬ 
ation of neutrality by Korea J his fact should have been recorded by us 
last month. Under date of April 28, 1S98, Minister Allen sends Irom heoul 
the following copy of a note received from the Fo sign Office: 

Foreign omo, Seoul, April 27, 1898. 

Chyo jyengjik, Minister tor foreign . Iff airs, to the Hon . H. A’. Alien, 

On iteii States . Minis/, r. 

Sir: l have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of Your Excellency’s 
dispatch of to-day 's date, concerning the -tr.c of war now existing between 
the United Slates and Spain. 

In reply thereto, I have the honor to assure Your Excellency that my 
Government will observe the strictest neutrality in tins affair. 

1 beg Your Excellency 10 convey this message to your Government. 

We are indebted to Mr. Alex. Kenmure. Agent of the British and 
Foreig 1 Bible Society for Korea for a copy of the June number of The 
Jiihfe Society Reporter, of t e anniversary of the Society held in Exeter 
Had. on Mav 4'h the report was made that the issues for the year of Bibles. 
Testaments and Portions of Sciipttires amounted to the magnificent sum of 
4. 3$7, 1 5- copes, ' or 181. 120 ey*"»nd the largest ever announced at any 
previous anniversa.y, and more than 611. 019 copies than the total of last 
year.” In the report on translation and revision we do not see any mention 
of the work in Korea. I tit we hope at the anniversary next May, Korea in 
this respect may occupy a due proportion. Thro the earnest and constant 
efforts of their agent here, the work of this Society in Korea is growing 
encouragingly Bishop Ingham in his sermon at St. Pau ’s declared "the 
Bible will survive all the books that are written about if, and that are written 
against it. 1 ’ 

A writer signing himself "Grenon" in the Peking and Tientsin Times 
of June 25th descr ibes his visit to Seoul. The mudflats at Chemulpo im¬ 
pressed him as "unspeakably dreary and ugly” and he thinks it a “matter for 
congratulation that such freaks of nature are not nvre common. 11 Coming 
to tlic Hermit capital he says the app-orch is “steep ami picturesque in a 
way of is own." a remark we fail to understand, the streets for their width 
and cleanliness impressed him and he ventures to remark: "How Pe- 


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[July. 


king folks would revel in these roads! Fancy biking in the Celestial capital* 
Yet yonder were a party o! missionaries pedalling it merrily.*’ Seoul * 
proud and justly so of its streets. Let Peking follow our good example. 

lie vLitcd the royal palace at tin too; ot Imperial Soil n.otiM.iin and 
"entering the park-like grounds in which it stands we fill templec. to quott* 
Tt» omson's line* from the "Castle of Indolence- 
A pleasing land of drowsyhed it was, 

Of dreams that wave belcre the half-shut eve. 

And of gay rasllvs in tire clouds that p iss, 

For ever flush ng round a summer skv : 

There eke the soft delights, tin t wiudiingly 
Instil a wanton sweetness thro the breast, 

And the calm pleasures, always howi’d nig*!; 
ih.it whate’er smacked of romance, c : unre-t, 

W as far, far off expelled from this deli ions nest. 

“Far, very far indeed wc seemed fiom the madding crowd and eveiy 
eaithly thing: alone with nothing 1 tit the memories of a tragic fate woikcti 
out in such fair scene. It was inieiC'ting to pass U.»o the mar.woonied 
Palace where the murdered Queen, and :he strong-willed Empress-Dowager 
had once held ^way, and recall tic cinious impulse which had made the 
poor bewildered Emperor thro those Mil ring da\s cling like a child to foreign 
friends." 

The Emperor he thinks “a quiet simple minde I, kindly mar.; if not 
possessing brilliant paits, at least no star.ling vices. 

"And what of the people! Can one attem.pt to d-stribe them? Tcrliaps 
good-natured indolence comes near the mark; that irdolcnce which accipts 
vice instead of virtue, not by preference or deliberate choice, but imply lo¬ 
calise its acceptance saves the trouble of conflict. We fancy tins is somewhat 
the unspoken creed of the country; to do as well as is possible with a mini¬ 
mum of effort. The Koreans did not strike us as people who would be un¬ 
cleanly, dishonest, untiuthful or revengeful from deliberate love of those 
characteristics, but because the tiend of human nature lies that way, and 
tin s *tis easier. 

"But we did not study: we had conic to c’yjcy, not write a book or 
elaborate critique on Korea, past or future; and we did enjoy everything. 
The clear, limpid atmosphere and delicate colouring which made even thins 
to us who knew Japan, appear like some dainty water colour sketch in com¬ 
parison to some warm-tinted cil painting. It was a pity the women swathed 
themselves from head to foot in odious, misshapen garments, but it was 
K orean; it was a ihing apart, unique. The country and its surroundings 
was utterly and entirely new, unlike cither China or Japan, and it was a 
bright new dream, the charm of which accompanied us back all the way 
to the little oasis in Mud Flat Noith which wc call ‘home.’ 


ARK I VALS. 

1 i Seoul, July 15th, F. Reinsdorf, Esq., the new German Consul. 

In Scold, July 15, Dr. and Mrs. K. A. Haidie and four children, to join 
the mission of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 

In Wonsan, June 15th, the Rev. J. S. Gale and family, from furloin 
Canada. 


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A DVERTISEMENTS. 


*XGBlIEj TjIIFIE OIF 1 


KEY. TO JAMES HALL, M. D. 

Medical Missionary to the Slum* of New York 
Pioneer Missionur) lo Pyor.g Yang, Korea 


ILL VST RATI D. 


EDITED BY IJIS WIFE 

ROSETTA SUERAVOOD HALL, M.D. 

INTRODUCTION BY 

AV1LLARD F. MALLALIEU, D.D. 

Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church 

This book presents the life rnd woik of a most devoted man, and also 
mp arts much interesting information a! out Koic . 12 n o. 421 pages. May 

be ordered from the Publishers, eaton & mains, 150 FtUh Ave., New 
York C ity. ^1.50 gold— Postpaid. 

Also for sale at the Chong-no bock-stoic, Soul, price I.'* yen. 


THE 

JAPAN DAILY ADVERTISED, 

KOBE, JAPAN. 

TuLlis-hed Ever)' Morn in", Sundays r.nd Holidays exc'optcd. 

TEIUIS OF SFJisCFJFTJOy 

\ Payal 1 c in Ad\viuvi 

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Post nee Frce t h. i < n:. J r ut J.; t ; i r. r d K r r e i. 

THE DAILY ADVERTISE It l/s a !:•;!-< r rin-ulnti-ii than 
any ether daily paper punished in the Etrjidi language in 
Japan, and is therefore v*it!n vt si rival ;.s an advertising lutdium. 

■PIECES 

JAPAN WEEKLY ADVERTISES, 

KOBE, JAPAN. 

Consisting of from l l to 3:2 j p., Published Every Saturday. 

tkiijis of xriisciUFTiox. 

(Payable in Advance) 

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Postage Free Throughout Japan and Kore.u 


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ADVERTISEMENTS. 


Sfookd Edition. Price $2.50 

A KOREAN MANUAL OR 
PHRASE BOOK WITH 
INTRODUCTORY GRAM. 
MAR . 

By James Scorr, M.A. 

On sale at the Methodist Book-Store, Chong-No, or from 
the Rev H. G. Appenzeller, Seoul. 


NEW BOOKS! 


“In Journeying* Ojt” Or, The Life a id T avels >1 Mary 


C. Kind, by Georgiaua Bancus, 

1.92 

7 he Groicth of the Kingdom,' 

S:Ji cy L. Gu'iek, 

1,50 

The Gist of Jajxm" 

R. C. Peery, 

9.75 

Weaving of Characb r,” 

Volume of sermons 

by 

Geo. M. Meacharn, 

2.C0 

Jhe Expositor's Bible,' 1 

Complete Set, 

110.00 

Cambridge Bibles for Schools” 

ic., Complete Set, 

50.00 

Britar.nica Encyclopedia,” 

Including American 

Supplement, oOvole. 

75.00 


Funk and Wagna’.l’s Standard Dictionary, half Morocco 27.50 

Methodist Publishing Ilouse. 

No. “2. Sutc.toii^ Gisz-, Tokyo. 


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YH 


“?l(e $8bp«le8l.” 


The cnly English Newspaper published in Korea. 


The Independent possesses unique facilities for obtaining 
the latest aud most reliable news from all parts of the country. 
Strictly non-partisan in politics, it endeavours to present to the 
public the idlest, most impartial aid tl oroughly accurate 
acooonts of all matters of public interest. 

s 

Published Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday. Circulates 
throughout Korea, Japan, China, Russia, Siberia aud America. 
Hence the very best paper for Advertisers. 

Subscription: $6.00 per Annum. 

Office of “The Independent,” Seoul, Korea. 


“THE TOKNIP SHINMUN.” 

A Korean paper for the Koreans. Written throughout in 
the native script, l’as h laiper circulation than any oihex 
newspaper published in t’o er, ai d is ext- n lively read by aS 
classes of fie coumm'y. Special arrangements have been 
made for speedy delivery by post and hoise cturiers. 

A unique opportunity for Advertsers. 

For rates, A;c., apply to The Business Manager, Office 
oI/Thb Independent, Seoul, Korea. 


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\lll 


A DV EOTKEM ENTS. 


F. ST ANIL AND, 

7G MAIN ST. YOKOHAMA JAPAN. 

.CUSTOM HOUSE BROKEE. 

SHIPPING, FOliWARDIlU, 

AND 

GENERAL AGENT. 

-- 

TCUBISTS IUR1 ETA SIS PACEEd AND 
SHIPPED 10 AiL PARIS. 

■ — >< ■ 

C OMMISSIONS from Amiiuca, Canada, and Kikope 
for SILK GOODS, KMB1IOI1 TRIPS, ARTISTIC 
DRAWN WORK, CLOISSONNP A'. A1:P, 1YORI1S, 
ART PRODUCTIONS, r.nd JAPAXFSK GGOIXS gene¬ 
rally, will be carefully attended to. 

JUST P If B LIS!! [ i;. ~ 

Demy 8vo. SUPERIOR PAPER- 150 Pages. 

KOREAN 

WORDS AITD PHRASES. 

A Handbook and 

rocket Dictionary for Visitors and New Arrivals 
in the Country, 

Containing over 1,000 words and nearly 15,000 ICoivnn Sentences 
(Romanized) with the Prnmoun Script. 

Also with an Appendix containing Information respecting 
Korean Numerals and the Native Currency. 

Price: ONE DOLLAR [Postage extra). 

Copies of the above may lx; obtained from— 

Mr. J. W. Hodge, Nak Tong, Seoul, or from 
* Messrs. Steward, & Co., Chemulpo. 


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A D V ERTISEM ENTS. 


THE 


GENERAL CATALOGUE 


-AND- 


BUYERS’ GUIDE 


Issued Semi-Annually By 


MONTGOMERY WARD & GO. 


THE GREAT MAIUORDER HOUSE 


CHICAGO, 


A. 


Is The Most Ceaplete li The World- 


It has more than 14,000 illustrations, about 40,000 quotations of 
prices, weighs 2 l / 2 pounds, and contains over 800 pages. Every¬ 
thing you wear or use is listed in it; and the prices quoted place you 
in a position to buy from us, in large or small quantities, at wholesale 
prices- We do not sell this General Catalogue and Buyers Guide; 
we give it away. To introduce to you our immense facilities we will 
send free of charge to you or any other foreign resident our 
“Buyers’ Guide/’ and our “Hand Book for Foreign Buyers/* 
which gives-all information necessary to put you in touch with our 
methods. Send us your address at.d we’ll do the rest. 

MONTBOMERY WARD & CO., 

Ill to 120 Michigan Ave., Chicago, U. S. A. 


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AJVTUmSKMEN'IS. 

11 w »jii i: £ vi s£» rEiiiriTiois 

OF TflE 

ltev. H. G. Underwood, 1X1). 


NOW READY. 


Fourth Edition of the enlarged and improved. Con 

tains 104 Hymns (including all the popular ones) besides 
the Lord’s Prayer, the Creed, and the Ten Commandments. 
On heavy foreign paper, glazed cloth cover's, per copy $0.14 


A smaller edition, containing lid hymns, with music, cloth 
covers, $1.0 each. 

« 

4.M- The Three Piincipks. A translation of Dr. Martin’s 
Three Principles. Foreign paper, g’azed covers, p«cr 
. 100, $4.00. 

Questions and Answers to my Soul. A leaflet 
translated from an English tract, third edition, ] er 
100 .20 

The Lord’s Command, third edition, per 100 .20 


*1 el *1 *1 An Easy Introduction to Chiist'anity. A trans- 
slation of Dr. McCartte’s well-known tract. In Chinese 
and Korean. Glazed covers. 3) pp. Per 100, $4.00 

.n.el.i.s-S’a- The Christian Catechism. Translated from 
the Chinese of Mrs. Nevius, t'th edition. 39 pp. Per 
100, $3.00. 


Catechism of Christian Doctrine. An abridged 
edition of the Christian Catechism. 


\ 



The True Drctrim of Fang dth 3rd edition. 

Exhortation to Rf| entar ca. „ „ 

On Regeneration 1st edition. 

These a tmnolated from the Chinese of Dr. Griffith John. 

2 cents each. $2.00 per 100. 


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[Vol. V. No. 8 AND 9.] AUGUST AND SEPTEMBER, 1898 . 

THE 

KOEEAK EEP0S1T0EY 


H. G. Appenzeller, 


Geo. Heber Jones, 


xer. ) 
NES, j 


Editors. 


L 


CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 


THE INDEPENDENCE CLUB,.Editor 281 

KOREAN FARMING,.Malcolm C. Fenwick 288 

SIX OLD PALM LEAVES,..Bunyiu Nanjo 293 

GRACE'S WEDDING,.Mrs. M. F. Scranton 295 

GLIMPSES OF MISSION WORK,... 298 

SANSCRIT IN KOREAN LITERATURE,.. 301 

EDITORIAL DEPARTMENT:— 

Trade Rkport of United States Consul-Generai. 305 

Annual Meeting of Methodist Episcopal Mission,. 308 

MISSION\r.Y WORK AMONG WOMEN,.M. r. Schantms 313 

SKETCHES OF A IIERO, ...Geo. Hebei: J<>ne< 3E> 

THE KOREXN VERB ‘TO BE/’...W. M. Baird 328 

ETYMnE'VJY OF KOREAN NUMERALS,..... J. Eoictn- 339 

EDI TO RIA L O KPARTM E NT 


Ari'UATIuN, An I.AMATIuX, A>>As-1NATI«*N, 

Murder, . ... 

MaItoin Korea,. 

A New Mission.. 

The Foreign Imperial Body Guard,. 

LITERARY DEPARTMENT,. 

NOTES AND COMMENTS,. 


3-12 
349 
35 < ► 
352 
352 

354 

355 


Price per Annum, $3.00 Per Copy, 30c. 

Printed by The Trilingual Press, 

Seoul, Korea. 



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ASWawnWaMBSTS. 


HONGKONG & SHANGHAI 
BANKING CORPORATION. 


PAID UP CAPITAL 
RESERVE FUND 
RESERVE LIABILITY 1 
OF PROPRIETORS/ 


$16,000,000 

8,030,000 

10,030,000 


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Chief Manager — T. JACKSON, Esq, 


Branches and Agencies: 


London Calcutta 

Lyons Singapore 


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New lork Shanghai 
San Francisco Manila 
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Penang 


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L hi now 
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Tientsin 
11 logo 

Peking 


Batavia 
Sourabaya 
( -.'Iti, I h> 
Yokohama 
Nagasaki 
Rangoon 


Interest allowed on Current Accounts on Daily Bal 
ance over Yen 500, 

Money will be received on Fixed Deposit on the following 
terms:— 

For 12 months at 5 per cent, per annum. 

6 4 

>> >> ^ » » 

>i 3 »» 3 » ii 


LOCAL BILLS DISCOUNTED. 

Credits granted on approved Securities, and every descrip¬ 
tion of Banking and Exchange Business transacted. 

Drafts granted on London and the Chief Commercial 
places in Europe, India. Australia, America, China, and 
Japan , and CLRCULAR NO 1’ES issued for the use of Travelers. 


Chemulpo- 


Holme, Ringer & Co., 

Agents. 


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ADVERTISEMENTS. 


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Having relume I from liis trip abroad desires 
lo inform the public generally and his former 
patrons in paiticular that lie is now at his old 
business in Chemulpo and is prepared to do 
all kinds of business as a 

Forwarding & Commission Agent. 

-ALSO- 

BROKER AND AUCTIONEER, 

CHEMULPO, KOREA. 




We have leen honored with 
the Agency of the Society for 
the Diffusion of Ciirist an 
Knowledge. 

A full supply of books of 
this Society is on band. Prices 
are the same as in Shangliai 
with the addition of 10 per 
cent for transportation* 


B 


w s ssacsssassss ggssasss srg 


THE 

CHONG-NO 

BOOK STORE. 


English School Books 

Published by The American Book Company 

ALSO KEPT ON HAND. 


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©Y^e at S^etai? 


© 


‘H 


PROVISIONS 

Groceries 
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#n ©J\nij Quantity 

Wall Paper 

Kitchen Articles 

WOODENWARE 

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Neckwear 

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«Jor Ec^.poiT 

Stationery 
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figpert pacRii^ 1 

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©aloft tne l^teamai* < ©or pfea/ure \f fo pfeaye 


One order to our house 
secures practically ev¬ 
erything you need at 

lo~j prices and least ex¬ 
pense. 


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A DVEU riSI2M2.VW. 


m 


The CHINESE 

RECORDER. 

A XI) 

Missionary JournaL 


rt:Islislicd by the Presbyterian Mission Press, Shanghai, China. 

Price, including postage to Korea, S3.36 per annum. 

A monthly Magazine, having a wide circulation, issued 
primarily in the interests of Mission work in China, but including 
ad so dapan ar.d Korea. Valu:tb r c for all missionaries, everywhere. 

Orders h,i the same will be received bv the publishers of 
Tr • K Kohkan lim'o-i rouv, or may lx^ sent direct to The Pub- 
i. j.us, The Presbyterian Mission Press, Shanghai. 


^•BEYEBLEY *B0U8E + 


Jizzb 


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2 Bi.uff, Yokohama. 

TERMS MOD ERA TE. 

F. STANILAND, 

PnoriMKTou. 

Formerly eor.ductcd by 

H. G. Bri itax. 


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IV. 


ADVERTISEMENT?. 


“fp ^ORE^R REPOSITORY”. 

j H. G. Appenzeller, 

Editors | jj. JoKEF . 

As heretofore The Repository will aim to meet the wants 
of all its readers in the thorough discussion of all topics of 
permanent interest to Korea. Prominence will continue to be 
given to articles on the historj', religion, folli-Iora, commerce and 
customs of this land. The Editorial Department will deal in a 
full and impartial manner with current topics of practical in¬ 
terest. Translations from the Official Gazette will be made and 
The Literary Department will review curnnt literature on 
Korea. 

Terms: 

In Korea, Japan, and China, three silver dollars a year. 
30 cents a number. 

In Europe and America, two gold dollars a year: 15 cents 
a number. 

Postage in all cases extra. 

Agents. 

China : Messrs. Kelly sc Walsh, Ltd., Shanghai. 

Japan: Rev. J. W. Wadman. No. 2 Sbichome, Gniza, 
Tokyo. 

United States: Messrs. Eaton & Mains, 150 Fifth 
Avenue, New York. 

England: Messrs. Lczac fc Co., Opposite Pritish 
Museum, London. 

Germany: Otto Hairassowitz, Buchhandlung, Leipsig. 

All communications should ’ne addressed to 

“THE KOREAN REPOSITORY,” 

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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


AUGUST, 1898. 


THE INDEPENDENCE CLUB. 

T HIS organization which has of late lias taken a prominent part 
in examining the official conduct of high Korean officers- 
was the legitimate outcome of the fir^t clause of the Shimonoeeki 
treaty made between Japan and China in April, 1895. Tlie clause 
leads: 

China reccpnizes definitively the full and complete independence ar.d 
-autonomy of Korea, and in comcqucrec t< e payment ot ui 1 "»e and the per¬ 
formance of ceremonies ard foimalities cf Kcrca to C hina in derogation of 
such independence and auioncroy, shall wholly cea^ for the future. 

By this treaty Korea, thro no wish or exertion of her own, 
censed to be a dependency of China and became an independent 
slate. There nre many anomalous tilings in this country and the 
freedom of Korea must be classed among them. There was 
no -independence party either before the war in 1894 or immedi¬ 
ately after it. The people, under the leadership of Tonghak chiefs, 
rose in rebellion against the almost uuprceedent'd oppression of 
tbe unscrupulous officials then in power. But they were loyal to 
the king; they were satisfied with the liur.dship and protection 
promised them by the suzerainty of China. Give them a decent 
government Mid they would core for nothing mere. Freedom 
from any restraint, however mild, they were not long.it g for. There 
was no popular uprising to drive the foreigner from her shores; 
there was no popular uprising to welcome the power that secured 


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282 THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. [August, 

the independence. The “ins” in the government got out as fast 
and as unceremoniously as possible at the opening of the war awl 
the “outs” took their places with a promptness born—let us hope 
•of an ardent patriotism. 

The reformation of the government under the leadership of 
Japan was the work that occupied the sole attention ol the Korean 
loaders nnd foreign advisers during 1S95. With what success the 
■vVorld has long had abundant information to form an opinion. 

Towards the close of 1895 a young Korean returned to the land 
of his birth after having been away eleven years. During his 
-absence he had become a naturalized American citizen, but the 
love he bore for his native country had not decreased, but if any¬ 
thing had become more intensified than ever. Philip Juisohn is 
his foreign name; f?oh Jaypil is the name he is known by among 
the Koreans. Dr. Jaisohn was connected with the cmeute in 1884 
and with 1 he other leaders had to flee for his life. He did not 
stay long in JapaD, but went on to Snn Francisco. He was in 
a strange ci.y, among a strange people of whose language and cus¬ 
toms he was ignorant. He sought work. “VVliat can you do?” 
■*‘1 have two hands and with these I am willing to do anything 
that you give me,” was his reply ns he held up his hands in ex¬ 
planation. From that day until he graduated with honor in tho 
Scientific Course in La Fayette College, Pennsylvania, this young 
Korean by indomitable perseverance tought his way single handed 
nnd alone. After graduation he entered the Civil Service of the 
United States government, continued his studies and in due time 
received the degree of Mxdical Doctor from Johns Hopkins 
University. When he came to Korea in the fall of 1895 he was 
a praet’sing physician in Washington, D. C., and lecturer in two 
medical schools. 

Such a man was needed in Korea at this time. When three 
associated with him in the zealous tho foolish efforts to introduce 
western civilization into the country in 1884 returned after an en¬ 
forced ab6er.ee of a decade it was but natural that Dr. Jaisohn 
should return also. When (hey were pardoned for their part of 
offences he was included among them. Thus freed from any wrong 


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3898.] THE INDEPENDENCE CHUB. 28? 

that might he charged ag.inst him, he was at liberty to enter the- 
service of his country and he was made an Adviser to the govern¬ 
ment and to the Privy Council. Placed into positions of influence^ 
Dr. Jaisohn early in 1896, with almost perfect abandon threw him¬ 
self into the various reforms then before the government. 

On April 7 th of this year he started 7 he Independent, a modest 
little sheet of four pages, issued three times a w eek. '1 he first page 
was written in English and the other three pages in the vernacular. 
'Ihe paper met with a hearty reception by both foreigners and 
Koreans. At the close of the year the paper was changed and 
issued in two parts, both being much enlarged. The Korean edi¬ 
tion, we may note in passing, on July 1st of this year began to ap- 
pear as a daily. 

The position of adviser to the government and that of editor 
of two papers may to some seem incongruous and in some coun¬ 
tries, probably would nut be allowed, but Korea is an exception 
in many things and for nearly two years Dr. Jaisohn was able to 
carry on the joint duties of adviser and editor. 

The Gate of Welcome and Blessing stood in Mo-wha-kwan, 
the western suburb of Seoul. To the north of it was the famous 
Peking Pass, the road thro it up to within a few years, answered 
well the description applied so frequently by Mrs. Bishop to Ko¬ 
rean roads—“infamous.” To the east of the valley the city wall 
winds lazily like a huge boa-constrictor up over the knolls aud 
crags ending in Pulpit rock; on the west it is bounded by turn 
Toong-koo-cha* or Circular ridge of mountains on the highest point 
of which was the last bea'xm fire to signal to the Nam-sau beacons 
the state of the kingdom. The valley stretches southward under 
different names and widening constantly to the western slopes of 
Nam-san and to within a mile of the river. At the head of this 
valley stands the “House of Illustrious Thoughtfulness.” Here 
was erected the gate of Welcome and Blessing, the gate to welcome 
and to receive the blessings of the ambassador from China. Iu 
this house the ambassador tarried before the king went out to meet 
him. In this place, during the “piping times of peace,” the Wil¬ 
liam Tells of the past assembled, not to meet their Geslers or to 


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284 


THE K OCEAN KEPOSITOKY. 


I>h: u t, 

•shoot apples from the heads of their own fa ns, but to indulge in 
•the ple-asant diversion of harmless target practice. 

The reformers thro whose hands the country was fa_-t brok¬ 
ing loose Irom its past traditions, removed all outward emblems 
of subjection to C hina. 'J'he Gate of Welcome* and Klcsyng »as 
tom down in February, 1895; the Red Arrow Gute inside tliedty 
marking the entrance to the Nam-pycl-koung—the Southern 
Detached Puluce—the building occupied by the Chinese eniba;®- 
«lor during his stay in Seoul, was removed: the monument at 
•Song-pa, eight miles east of tire city, erected at tlie close of tlie 
Munchu invasion, was thrown down. 

Dr. ’Taisohn, with that progressive spiiit so charncierisiicof 
the people of bis adoption, “suggested to the cabinet,” to quote his 
-own words, “the advisability of establishing a public park near the 
-city for experimenting in the cultivation of fruit trees, forestry, 
flowering plants and various foreign shrubs. A pait of tlie park 
to be reserved lor out-door games such as tennis, loot-ball, cricket, 
■baseball, etc., a part for the use of tlie government officials who 
may get fresh air exercise after their eflieial duties arc over. He 
further suggested chat a part of the park bo reserved for t' e pub¬ 
lic, when* all classes can come and sit down once or twice a week 
-and listen to instructive lectures or addresses on timely subjects. 7 ’ 
The scheme was a comprehensive one, and involved llie outlay of 
much money, but it was favoiably rcceivid by the cabinet ami the 
•officials then in power, and Dr. Jnisolm, having learned that it 
was liest to strike the iron while it was hot, i rgid the formationof a 
-society to carry out the suggestions offered to the cabinet. We 
■quote again, “About a dozen or so «*f the prominent offieialp laid 
■a meeting in the Privy Council building on the 7th of June awl 
-organized a society with the name ol 'J'he Independence Club’’ 
They cicctoel Gen. An Kycrg Su, President; Hon. Yi "Wan Yung, 
Vice President; Hon. Yi Clin Yun, Secretary, and Gen. Kwon 
•Chui Hciig, Truism cr. 1 bus was fumed in the quiet of a room 
in the building where the Privy Con cil l.elel ts meetings an or¬ 
ganization thnt for two years has cxciciscel r ccmmanding influence 
'Upon Korean affairs. 

t 


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THE INDEPENDENCE CLUB. 


285 


1898.] 

It was at tliis same meeting that Dr. JiuaoIih further suggested 
that it would be “a grand thing for the society to build an arch 
nearby or on the site where theGa»e of Welcome and Blessing stood 
to indicate to the world that Korea no longer looks upon the com¬ 
ing o r the Chinese ambassadors ns a blessing. The erection of 
such iui inch would impress the people and future generations of 
the reality of the inihjiendencc of their country.” The scheme 
met with general favor and arrangements were made for carrying 
out the same. The funds fer the erection of the arch were raised 
by voluntary subscription. The formation of the society and the 
plans for erecting an arch had the sanction of the Kiug and His 
Koval Highness, the Crown Prince, graciously donated 011 c thou¬ 
sand dollars for the furtherance of these objects. 

D . Jaisohn was requested to draw the design for the arch 
which he did with the assistance of Mr. Sabntin, a Russian archi¬ 
tect then living in Seoul. Wc are able thro the courtesy of a 
friend to present in this number of The Rei-ositoey a good pic¬ 
ture of this beautiful ir.eli. It is built of solid granite, forty-two 
feet high, th rty-three feet wide, and twenty-one feet deep. The 
tunnel is seventeen foot wide. Inside the towers on the west side 
is u spiral staircase leading to the top of the arch. On the south, 
cr side to wauls the city, above the arch are the words “Independ¬ 
ence Anh” in Kiinnin while the same w'ords arc on the north side 
but written in Chinese. This reversal of the languages may be 
taken as one of the iundamcntal principles of the promoters of the 
reforms, narmly the exaltation of the vcri aeular and the relega¬ 
tion into the background of the Chinese. 

The corner-stone was laid with appropriate ceremonies on the 
21st of November, 1896. We give the program in full: 

Song— ‘Korea," - - . Student Chcrus. 

Laying ot the Corner-stone. 

Prayer, - - Rev. H G. Apcenzelleu. 

Address by the Resident, - - Gi-n An Kyeng So. 

Add.ess—"How lo Perpetuate our independence,” 

Hon. Ye Cha Yon. 

Song—"Independence," - Si cdent Chorus. 

Address—"The Future of Our Country," Hon. Ye Wan Yong. 

Address—''Foreigners in Korea," Da. Pmur Jaischn. 

Song— "March," - - Student Cl i rous. 

Drill by th: Students of the Royal English School. 

Refreshments. 


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28 ‘j 


A year later the arch was completed and stood forth in grace 
aud simplicity. But uo one knew anything of it or seemingly 
cared the least about it. On the day the corner-stone was laid 
there was the greatest interest and enthusiasm. Thousands of 
Koreans aud nearly all the foreigners in Seoul were present. There 
was music in the air, banners were flying, boys from the several 
schools attended in bodies and congratulations were heard on 
every side. The contractor pegged away at his job and when lie 
got (hro he left it and nobody manifested, ns far as we know, tbe 
least concern about the enterprise that was liegun under Mich auspi¬ 
cious circumstances. Some day the historian will perhaps givens 
the reason for this very marked change of feeling on the subject of 
the independence of this country. 

The cost of the erection of the arch was over four thousand 
dollars and it stands in a beautiful place and in silence proclaims 
the independence of the land. 

The Independence Club spent some two thousand dollars in 
repairing the hall where its meetings are held and in entertainments 
on public occasions. Owing to the lack of funds the scheme of 
making a park has been abandoned for the present. The main 
object of the original promoters of the Independence Club was, to 
quote once more the words of Dr. Jaisohu, “to discuss matters 
concerning national improvements and customs, laws, religions 
and various pertinent affairs ot foreign lands. The main object of 
tbe Club is to create public opinion which has been totally un¬ 
known in Korea until lately. The Club is really the eentcr of 
distributing useful information. It is therefore more of an educa¬ 
tional institution than a political wigwam as is supposed by some. 
These weekly meetings produce wonderful effects upon the thoughts 
of the members. They begin to realize the superiority of western 
civilization over that of eastern civilization; they are gradually 
becoming imbued with the spiiit of cohesion, nationalism liber¬ 
ality of views and the importance of education.” 

These woids written at our special request by the f» under of 
the organization on the eve of his departure from Korea indicate 
the lines upon which the Club was running while he was present 


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189S ] THE INDEPENDENCE CLUB. 287 

and along which it was his hopes it would continue to run. The 
last three or four months marked a change in the attitude of the 
Club. The present presiding officer said in his address to the 
Emperor, as published in our last number, there has been an 
“estrangement” between the ruling classes, which at first were 
promim ut in the discussions of the Club and the common people. 
“This estrangement destroyed mutual sympathies and gave rise to 
di~triist and suspicion until to-day the Government and the Club 
stand opposed one against the other.” That the Club has drifted 
from the purpose for which it was originally formed seems reason¬ 
ably clear. That the discussion of principles in the abstract will 
naturally if not inevitably lead to applications in the concrete 
seems also a well established law. 

At present the Independence Club, composed largely of the 
middle class of intelligent and earnest men, is a potent factor in 
Korean politics. It has for some time been devoting its energies 
to asking awkward questions of cabinet ministers and officials. It 
insisted on the resignation of one of the oldest and most influential 
Kotean statesman and succeeded; it has called others to its bar 
and publicly examined and impeached them. Its discussions are 
public. The common people can attend the sessions. Judging 
from nttci ances and printed reports some one is giving close study 
to laws now on the statute Ixoks, notes carefully whether they 
are enforced or not, and when their enforcement is proposed the 
membtrs give a hearty second. It is not within the province or 
aim of this article to discuss what effect this Club will have upon 
the future of the country; whether its present policy is calculated 
to be productive of the greatest good or not. .If we have given a 
correct account of the origin, growth, work and present status of 
this organization our aim has bcc r accomplished. 

Editor. 


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THE KOREAN REPOSITORY. 


[August, 


KOREAN FARMING. 

T HERE are a number of farming p» actiers among tl« 
peaceful peasantry of Korea that presumably have been 
born of our common mother—necessity. Primitive tbeir farming 
certainly is; but in this very primitiveness we have customs 
that are worthy of note, if not of adoption. Tbeir practice of 
mixing manures with ashes is an admirable one except that it 
sbou'd be done at the time of planting instead of continuously; 
as mixed continuously it looses much available ammonia which 
evaporates. The Korean, however, not only twice lemoves the 
manure, but after this mixing has decomposed and the liquids 
are absorbed, he pulverizes it fine with a hard hoc and sw* 
with the seed. It is only recently that agricultural scientists 
have found cut the value of applying manure with the seed in 
an available form for the plants to assimilate it, while Koieans 
have presumably practiced this method for centuries. JtisLi 
be hoped he will soon add to this practice a knowledge of what 
constitutes good manure, that he mav avail himself of many 
sources for increasing the quantity cf £ rtilizera made ready to 
his hand. 

Sowing—some advantages of their practice. The 
Korean farmers’ practice of ribbing rather than broadcasting 
has many things in its favoi—especially in this country with its 
rainy season and primitive customs. It will answer all kinds 
of crops. It permits band-hoeing or horse-hoeing, When only 
using a limited amount of manure it is more productive of grain, 
especially when it is apt to lodg\ and in all cases it will produce 
as much straw. In a wet season, which is always the caw 
here, libbing is more favorable to haivesting. because the epa» 
between the ribs admits the air freely and the grain dries much 
so 'lier. The water also passes off the grrund much n ow 
quckly than it would <ff ’arge lands, thus preventing washouts. 
The reapers can cut, i> ore and take it up cleaner Wintei crops 
are better covered with snow and 1> ss apt to kill when ribbed. 

1 have been tes;ing large land farming in Wonsan, but 
have not yet had sufficient success to warrant mein advising 
the Korean to drop his practice of ribbing except for clover ard 


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possibly such grains as prodace soft straw which will not stand 
when very tal'. I can, however, heartily rrcjminenl to them 
the “Planet .lr.” horse hoes and cultivators to further their 
planting in ribs. One of these implements will do the work cf si'c 
men and do it better. They cost about twenty three silver dol¬ 
lars each, laid down in any of the Korean ports. It costs about 
$1 60 silver to weed an acre. The best Korean farmers weed 
a millet crop, for instance, six times in one season at a cost of 
$9.60 if he has it done. An average farmer in Wonsan has 
annually say, two acres of millet, one of potatoes, one of beans* 
one of melons and one of turnips and cabbages, besid* s his rice 
fields. In this calculation we can only consider the mi let* 
beans, potatoes and turnips. This will give five acie3 of crops 
that can be weeded and these implements, which, in the ordi¬ 
nary way would cost $56.00 silver, for the wages of a cow *nd a 
man say $16.00. I can think of nothing that will better teach 
this country the value of time than thesi effective implements. 

The Korean fanner knows and practises one thing well that 
is by no means universally heedel by our western farmers—be 
keeps down the weeds and loosens the soil. He knows that “if 
you tickle the soil with a hoe it will laugh with a harvest." 

There is enough plant food locked up in most soils to last 
a millennium without exhausting the soi!. Sin, however, has 
locked this plant food in the soil and the word of the Eternal 
still remains unhroken: “Cu’.sed is the ground fcr thy sake. In 
the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread till thou return unto