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THE   TUTORIAL    PRAYER    BOOK 


First  printed,  September  1912,  5,000  copies. 
Second  impression,  revised  July,  1913,  5,000  copies. 


FOR   THE   TEACHER,   THE    STUDENT, 
AND   THE   GENERAL    READER 


Edited  by 

CHARLES    NEIL,  M.A. 

VICAR    OF  ST.    MARY'S,   STAMFORD    BROOK 
and 

J.  M.  WILLOUGHBY,    D.D. 

VICAR  OF  ST.  LUKE'S,  HAMPSTEAD 


LONDON 

THE     HARRISON     TRUST 
57,  BERNERS   STREET,   W.    . 
1913 


frrt& 

3n   jQ 

IOANNIS    HARRISON,   S.T.P., 

(MDCCCXIV— MDCCC1XXXIII), 

PRESBYTERI     ECCLESI/E    ANGLICANS, 

QUI, 
VERBIS    F.DEI    ET    BON^    DOCTR.N^    ENUTR!TUS,    . 

OPERARIUS    INCONFUSIBILIS, 
VERBUM    VERITATIS    RECTE    TRACTANS, 
IDONEUS     FACTUS     EST     M.NISTER     NOVI     TESTAMEf 

ATQUE    PR^ECIPUE    LABORAVIT, 

SCRIPTURAS    PATRUM    ASSIDUE    SCRUTATUS, 

QUUM      ANTIQUORUM,      TUM      ANGL1CANORUM, 

ILLORUM    DOCTRINAM 

DE    CENA     DOMINI 

CUM      SCRIPTURIS     SANCTIS      CONGRUERE, 

APERTE    ET    PERITE    DEMONSTRARE ; 

•ITAQUE    'ERGO 

DEFUNCTUS  ADHUC  LOQUITUR 


PREFACE 

SINCE  the  appearance  in  1832  of  Palmer's  '  Origines  Liturgi- 
cse,'  an  ever-increasing  amount  of  valuable  information  has  been 
published  respecting  the  history  of  the  Prayer  Book  :  its  relation 
to  Eastern  Liturgies,  to  Latin  Service  Books,  and  to  the  Books 
of  the  Continental  Reformers  :  the  structure  of  its  Offices :  the 
exposition  of  its  contents  :  the  principles  upon  which  it  is  com 
posed  :  and  the  spirit  in  which  it  is  to  be  interpreted.  The 
knowledge  thus  accumulated  has  in  great  measure  to  be  sought 
for  in  separate  works,  written  for  specialists,  and  confined  to 
particular  fields  of  inquiry.  In  those  treatises  which  attempt  to 
cover  the  whole  ground,  the  tendency  has  been  to  the  production 
of  volumes  either  too  bulky  and  diffuse,  or  too  meagre  and  super 
ficial.  A  need  exists,  therefore,  which  has  found  expression  in 
influential  quarters,  of  a  comprehensive  and  yet  concise  manual 
harvesting  the  fruits  of  previous  liturgical  research. 

The  aim  of  the  present  undertaking,  as  the  title  indicates,  is 
to  act  in  the  capacity  of  a  private  tutor,  whose  duty  it  is  to  help 
the  reader  over  difficult  stiles,  to  furnish  him  with  essentials,  to 
elucidate  the  subject  in  a  systematic  manner,  to  keep  him  well 
abreast  of  the  latest  investigations,  and  throughout  to  consider 
his  interests  as  a  student. 

The  following  description  of  some  of  the  features  of  this  book 
will  serve  to  show  how  it  is  proposed  to  attain  this  end. 

Tables  have  been  prepared,  systematically  drawn  up  to  tell 
their  own  tale  in  a  simple  yet  striking  manner.  Such  tabular 
presentation  will  prove  more  helpful  than  pages  of  matter,  which 
often  tend  rather  to  bewilder  than  to  enlighten. 

v 


vi  PREFACE 

Sc'entifleally-constructed  Analyses  have  been  introduced 
wherever  serviceable.  By  their  aid  the  structure  of  the  various 
Offices  is  given  in  a  manner  which  renders  their  study  easy,  and  the 
lines  of  thought  in  the  Canticles,  longer  prayers,  and  other  parts 
calling  for  such  treatment,  are  clearly  exposed  to  view.  Frequently 
writers  fail  to  furnish  analyses,  possibly  because  they  do  not 
sufficiently  realize  their  paramount  importance  for  the  majority 
of  students.  The  new  feature  of  inserting  brief  historical  notes 
into  the  analyses,  will,  it  is  believed,  prove  a  welcome  combination. 

The  Structural  Display  of  the  Text  itself,  as  already  used  by  one 
of  the  Editors  in  elucidating  St.  Paul's  Epistles,  has  been  adopted 
for  those  long  sentences  and  intricate  paragraphs  which  require 
to  be  so  exhibited  that  their  meaning  and  the  relation  of  their 
parts  may  at  once  be  manifest  to  the  eye  and  readily  grasped  by 
the  mind.  '  The  Preface,'  for  example,  seems  especially  to 
demand  such  treatment.  Owing  to  its  antiquated  style  it  is 
far  too  little  read  ;  its  structural  display,  it  is  hoped,  therefore, 
will  induce  the  reader  to  make  it  a  matter  of  careful  study. 

Exposition  has  been  carried  out  as  concisely  as  is  consistent 
with  clearness.  Care  has  been  taken  to  avoid  being  on  the  one 
hand  Apostles  of  the  obvious,  and  on  the  other  hand  Avoiders  of 
the  obscure.  When  needed,  as,  for  instance,  in  the  case  of  the 
Athanasian  Creed,  a  running  comment  has  been  introduced, 
which  strikes  the  happy  mean  between  a  paraphrase  and  a  formal 
exposition. 

The  difficulty  and  discouragement  experienced  in  Comparing 
the  Various  Editions  of  the  Prayer  Book  are  universally  known. 
For  these  editions  are  not  readily  accessible,  and  even  when  they 
are  to  hand,  it  is  a  very  tedious  process  to  mark  their  differences, 
though  one  has  the  practised  eye  of  a  technically  trained  reader. 
By  the  method  here  adopted  all  variations  of  any  importance  are 
at  once  brought  to  the  reader's  notice,  and  he  can  leisurely  exam 
ine  them.  The  following  example  will  suffice  to  show  the  sim 
plicity  and  suggestiveness  of  the  method : — 
1549.  '  An  order  for  Matins  daily  through  the  year.' 
1552.  '  An  order  for  Morning  Prayer  daily  throughout  the  year.' 
1662.  '  The  Order  for  Morning  Prayer,'  etc. 


PREFACE  vii 

The  General  History  of  the  Prayer  Book  is  outlined  in  a 
separate  section  ;  and  to  each  Office  when  necessary  there  is  a 
historical  introduction. 

Brief  Biographical  Sketches  are  given  of  those  whose  writings 
have  been  laid  under  contribution  in  the  compilation  of  the  Book 
of  Common  Prayer. 

For  the  usual  Glossary  have  been  given  Classified  Lists  in 
cases  where  the  technical  terms  are  sufficiently  numerous,  e.g., 
in  connection  with  the  Trinitarian  controversy  and  the  'Orna 
ments.' 

A  consideration  of  the  above  features  of  the  Book  will  show  its 
utility  for  all  classes  of  readers.  The  Clergy  will  have  notes 
suitable  for  much-needed  lectures  on  the  Book  of  Common 
Prayer  ;  the  Student  will  have  material  which  will  enhance  the 
value  of  the  lectures  he  attends  and  the  books  he  consults  ;  the 
Sunday  School  Teacher  will  be  able  more  effectively  to  impart 
instruction,  having  before  him  a  logical  and  historical  presentation 
of  facts  ;  while  the  intelligent  layman  will  be  able  to  find  new 
beauties  in  the  Services  in  which  he  takes  part. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  portions  assigned,  in  whole  or  in 
part,  to  other  writers  by  the  Editors  : — 

Act  of  Uniformity. 

Benjamin  Whitehead,  B.A.,  of  the  Middle  Temple,  Barrister- 

at-Law.    Author  of  Church  Law,  etc. 
Notes  on  the  Prefaces. 

and 

Rules  concerning  Psalter  and  Lectionary. 
Rev.  C.  S.  Wallis,  M.A.,  Vice-Principal  of  St.  John's  Hall, 

Durham. 

Titles  and  Rules  for  the  Moveable  and  Immoveable  Feasts,  etc. 
Rev.  A.  W.  Greenup,  D.D.,  Litt.D.,  M.R.A.S.,  Principal  of 
St.  John's  Hall,  Highbury,  Dean  of  the  Faculty  of 
Theology  of  London  University.  Co-editor  of  The  Revised 
Version  of  the  N.T.  with  Fuller  References  ;  Editor  of  The 
Yalkut  ha-Mokiri  on  the  Minor  Prophets,  etc. 

The  Collects,  Epistles,  and  Gospels. 

Walter  A.  Limbrick,  Diocesan  Reader  for  London,  etc. 


via  PREFACE 

A  History  of  Confirmation. 

Rev.  Canon  Dyson  Hague,  M.A.,  Rector  of  Bishop  Cronyn 
Memorial  Church,  London,  Ontario  ;  Lecturer,  Wycliffe 
College,  Toronto,  and  Examining  Chaplain  to  the  Bishop 
of  Huron.  Author  of  The  History  of  Confirmation,  etc. 

Introduction  to  the  Forms  of  Prayer  to  be  used  at  Sea  ; 

Introduction  to  the  Ordinal ; 

Forms  of  Prayer  with  Thanksgiving ; 

and 
Introduction  to  the  XXXIX  Articles. 

Rev.  F.  S.  Guy  Warman,  D.D.,    Principal  of   St.  Aidan's 

College,  Birkenhead. 
Classified  Lists. 

Rev.  G.  E.  Weeks,  B.D.,  LL.D.,  Vicar  of  St.  John's,  Lowes- 
toft. 

Exigencies  of  space  compelled  a  reluctant  abandonment  of 
certain  work  prepared  for  the  Editors,  notably  a  fuller  treat  ment 
of  the  Articles  from  the  pen  of  the  Rev.  Bernard  C.  Jackson,  M.A. 

The  Editors  desire  to  acknowledge  the  assistance  of  several 
others,  amongst  whom  gratitude  demands  the  mention  of  the 
Revs.  F.  J.  Hamilton,  D.D.,  F.  B.  Heiser,  M.A.,  Chas.  Werninck, 
Messrs.  F.  T.  Peachey,  Edwin  W.  Fletcher,  and  Charles  Higham. 
It  is  pleasant  to  record  the  courteous  and  readily  granted  ser 
vices  of  Mr.  Alfred  R.James  and  the  remainder  of  the  Staff  in  the 
Office  of  the  Harrison  Trust. 

It  remains  to  add  that  the  full  responsibility  for  each  part  of 
the  book  must  rest  upon  the  Editors,  more  especially  as  the  desire 
to  preserve  uniformity  of  plan  compelled  a  somewhat  free  hand 
ling  of  the  various  contributions. 

September  2nd,  1912. 


PREFACE 
TO   THE   SECOND  IMPRESSION 

THE  gratifying  call  for  a  second  impression,  within  ten  months 
of  the  issue  of  the  first  5,000  copies,  offers  an  opportunity  to 
acknowledge  criticisms,  public  and  private.  Our  critics  have 
been  of  two  kinds. 

Many,  actuated  by  sympathy  with  the  work  as  a  whole,  have 
contributed  both  corrections  and  suggestions  of  improvement, 
which  have  been  thankfully  received  and,  as  far  as  feasible, 
adopted.  Amongst  these  criticisms,  those  of  the  Rev.  Harold 
Smith  and  Mr.  J.  T.  Tomlinson  deserve  a  special  expression  of 
deep  obligation.  The  Editors  are  glad  to  be  able  to  announce 
that  the  alterations  which  they  have  made,  although  technically 
important,  do  not  affect  the  main  teaching  of  the  book. 

Others  have  offered  criticism  which  amounts  to  a  condemna 
tion  of  the  principle  upon  which  the  book  is  produced,  i.e. 
the  principle  of  strict  adhesion  to  the  meaning  of  the  Book 
of  Common  Prayer  as  intended  by  its  Compilers  and  Revisers, 
and  as  accepted  by  the  Church  of  England  until  the  rise  of  the 
Tractarian  School  of  interpretation.  Such  criticism,  expressed 
sometimes  in  terms  of  kindly  regret,  sometimes  in  tones  of  cold 
disapprobation,  was  not  altogether  unexpected  ;  and  does  not  call 
for  any  lengthy  refutation.  The  Book  has  been  charged  with 
narrowing  the  wise  inclusiveness  of  the  Church  of  England,  a  charge 
which  can  only  justify  itself  by  a  fanciful,  though  common  idea 
as  to  the  extent  of  that  inclusiveness.  The  liberty  granted  by 
the  Church  of  England  includes  such  matters  as  the  following, 
namely  that  no  more  is  to  be  demanded  of  a  layman  seeking 
admission  into  the  Church  than  belief  in  the  fundamental 

ix 


x  PREFACE  TO  THE  SECOND  IMPRESSION 

articles  of  the  Christian  Faith,  as  expressed  in  the  Apostles' 
Creed :  that  no  private  theory  of  the  Inspiration  of  Holy 
Scripture  and  the  Second  Coming  is  to  be  enforced  upon  any 
member,  clerical  or  lay  :  and  that  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer 
itself  allows  of  latitude  (often  grievously  transgressed)  in  regard 
to  the  saying  or  singing  of  portions  of  the  Offices,  and  the 
frequency  of  the  administration  of  the  Lord's  Supper.  Upon 
these  and  similar  points  The  Tutorial  Prayer  Book  cannot 
justly  be  accused  of  ignoring  the  Church's  inclusiveness.  Un 
fortunately,  since  the  first  appearance  of  Tract  xc.,  and  es 
pecially  during  the  last  twenty  years  of  reluctance  to  interfere 
with  the  spread  of  Tractarianism,  the  idea1  has  become  com 
mon  that  the  Prayer  Book  is  framed  for  an  inclusiveness  which 
the  history  of  its  compilation  emphatically  and  expressly  rejects. 
Hence  we  find  that  the  Offices,  particularly  the  Communion 
Office,  are  interpolated  :  vesture  once  discarded,  and  still  illegal, 
is  re-introduced  :  and  those  very  dogmas,  for  the  denial  of  which 
its  chief  Compilers  were  burnt  at  the  stake,  are  boldly  asserted 
to  be  the  teaching  of  the  Prayer  Book. 

The  welcome  extended  to  the  work  by  Irish  Churchmen  has  led 
to  an  additional  article  in  the  Appendix,  upon  the  distinctive 
features  of  the  Irish  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  from  the  expert 
pen  of  the  Rev.  T.  J.  Pulvertaft. 

July  2nd,  1913. 


CONTENTS 


PAGE 

STORY  OP  THE  PRAYER  BOOK x'ii 

INTRODUCTORY  MATTER          .......  1 

MORNING  AND  EVENING  PRAYER    ......  76 

ATHANASIAN  CREED       .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .  122 

LITANY         .         . 137 

PRAYERS  AND  THANKSGIVINGS        ......  144 

COLLECTS,  EPISTLES,  AND  GOSPELS          .....  149 

HOLY  COMMUNION       -.         .         .         .         .         .         .         .  210 

PUBLIC  BAPTISM  OF  INFANTS 370 

PRIVATE  BAPTISM  OF  CHILDREN 393 

BAPTISM  OF  ADULTS                .         .         .         .         .         .         .  400 

CATECHISM    .         .         .         ...         .         .         .         .         .  403 

CONFIRMATION       .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .  426 

MATRIMONY  ..........  438 

VISITATION  OF  THE  SICK        .......  447 

COMMUNION  OF  THE  SICK       .         .         .         .         .         .         .  458 

BURIAL  OF  THE  DEAD   ........  469 

CHURCHING  OF  WOMEN          .......  484 

COMMINATION       .          .          .         .         .         .         .         .         .  489 

SERVICE  AT  SEA    .........  494 

ORDINAL ••     .  •         •         •         •  497 

ACCESSION  SERVICE       . 534 

THIRTY-NINE  ARTICLES.         .......  536 

TABLE  OF  KINDRED  AND  AFFINITY         .....  574 

APPENDICES  : — 

A.  ENACTMENTS,  ETC.,  IN  REIGN  OF  HENRY  VIII    .         .  576 

B.  OATHS  OF  SUPREMACY         .         .         .         .         .         .591 

C.  SERVICE  BOOKS  IN  REFORMATION  TIMES    .         .         .  593 

D.  CLASSIFIED  LISTS  OF  TERMS        .....  596 

E.  LIST  OF  BOOKS  FOR  FURTHER  STUDY.         .         .         .  609 

F.  CHRONOLOGICAL  TABLE 622 

G.  DISTINCTIVE  FEATURES  OF  THE  IRISH  PRAYER-BOOK    .  639 
INDEX  653 


TABLES 


PAGE 

Puritan  suggestions  of  1603   .          .          .          .          .         .         .    xxii 

Puritan  objections  at  the  Savoy  Conference    ....    xxvi 

Concessions  offered  at  the  Savoy  Conference   .          .         .    xxviii,  n. 
Chief  alterations  in  B.C. P.  of  16G2  ....        xxix,  n. 

Prefaces,  Calendar,  etc.  ........         1 

Contents  of  this  Book  compared  with  those  of  Previous  Books   .     4.  5 
Ornaments  of  the  Church       .......       89 

Connexion  of  Morning  Prayer  with  Matins,  Lauds,  and  Prime     90,  91 
Connexion  of  Evening  Prayer  with  Vespers  and  Compline          .      115 
A  Scriptural  Account  of  the  Lord's  Supper     .          .          .          .212 

Ancient  Liturgies  .........     230 

Communion  Service  of  1549  and  the  Sarum  Missal     .          .       256-2f>I 
Changes  made  in  the  Communion  Office  of  1552     .          .       262,  263 
Changes  made  in  the  Communion  Office  of  1662     .          .       266-2^8 
Communion  Offices  of  Sarum  Missal,  1549,  1552,  1662    .          .     281 
Changes  in  the  Exhortations  in  the  Communion  Office    .          .     319 
Baptismal  Offices  of  1549  and  1662  (Public)  .          .          .          .378 

Baptismal  Offices  of  1549  and  1662  (Private)  .          .          .393 

Confirmation  Offices  of  1549  and  1662    .....     430 

Burial  Services  of  1549  and  1662 472 

Ordinals  of  1552  and  1662 .514 

Subject-Index  to  the  Articles         ......      536 


STRUCTURAL   DISPLAYS 

'The  Preface'       .          .                   .....  11-16 

'  Concerning  the  Service  of  the  Church  '          .          .         .  18-22 

'  Of  Ceremonies  ' 27-30 

Answer  to  'What  meanest  thou  by  the  word  Sacrament  ?'  .     419 

Preface  to  the  Order  of  Confirmation      .          .                  _,  .     432 
Preface  to  the  Ordinal  ........     506 

Bishop's  Address  to  Candidates  for  the  Priesthood     .         .  522-524 


Xll 


THE   STORY  OF  THE  PRAYER   BOOK 

IN  OUTLINE 

THE  Book  of  Common  Prayer  cannot  be  historically  separated 
from    the  Reformation.     Every    sound    investigation  into   the  E^nbt°(llj" 
preludes,  causes,    and   consequences  of  the  Reformation  must  the  R-tor- 
illuminate  a  book  which  is  its  devotional  and  doctrinal   exposi-  m 
tion.     Nevertheless,  the  Book  has  a  story  of  its  own,  the  details 
of  which  lie  ready  to  the  student's  use  in  the  treatment  of  the 
various  documents,  services,  etc.,  which  forms  the  bulk  of  this 
Manual ;  here  it  is  proposed  to  set  forth  the  outlines  of  the  story, 
disregarding  as  far  as  possible  both  the  intricacies  of  historical 
disputation,  and  such  minutise  as  make  it  difficult  to  '  see  the 
wood  for  the  trees.' 

The  story  has  a  very  early  beginning ;  for,  apart  from  such  "9o 
justification  of  the  use  of  a  liturgy  as  may  be  derived  from  Old  N.T. 
Testament  precedents,  the  Hymnology  of  the  Prayer  Book  is 
chiefly  drawn  from  that  source,  the  Decalogue  is  its  standard  of 
piety,  and  it  follows  the  Lord  and  His  Apostles  in  honouring  the 
revelation  unto  the  fathers  by  the  prophets.  The  absence  of 
liturgical  regulations  in  the  New  Testament — while  it  justifies 
the  claim  of  Article  XXXIV,  that  every  particular  or  national 
Church  has  the  right  to  make  its  own  arrangements  for  public 
worship — must  not  be  understood  as  excluding  the  duty  of  making 
some  provision  for  such  worship  under  the  New  Covenant.  The 
old  controversy  between  precomposed  forms  of  prayer  and  what 
is  called  '  extempore  prayer  '  has  practically  spent  itself.  The 
recognition  of  the  need  and  utility  of  both,  according  to  circum 
stances,  has  become  so  prevalent  as  to  cause  wonder  at  the  vigour 
of  language  once  used  to  defend  or  attack  either  practice.  All  are 
now  ready  to  see  in  the  Lord's  Prayer,  and  the  legitimate  deduc 
tions  from  such  passages  as  Acts  iv.  24  ;  Eph.  v.  14,  19  ;  1  Tim. 
iii.  16,  divine  sanction  of  set?  forms  of  prayer  and  praise  as  aids  to 
public  worship  ;  while  the  universal  desire  to  include  in  prayer 
the  special  needs  of  time  and  place,  has  transformed  this  question 
from  one  of  controversy  to  practical  attempts  to  meet  those  needa. 
Such  attempts  are  quite  in  keeping  with  the  records  of  the  e.irlieit 


xiv  THE    STORY    OF    THE   PRAYER    BOOK 

sub- Apostolic  times,  as  is  clear  from  the  Didache,  where  forms 
are  provided  to  protect  public  worship  from  ministerial  ineffi 
ciency,  while  freedom  is  given  when  no  such  inefficiency  is  to  be 
suspected.* 

its  Dis-  In  the  long  period  which  divided  the  Primitive  Church  from 

criminating  ^e  Church  of  the  sixteenth  century,  amid  many  changes  marking 
vatisni.  sad  declension  from  scriptural  purity  of  worship,  there  were  many 
rich  contributions  to  the  devotional  worship  of  the  Church  as  a 
whole,  and  it  is  the  peculiar  glory  of  the  Church  of  England,  that, 
in  the  rejection  of  unscriptural  ceremonial  and  doctrine,  that  which 
was  pure  and  serviceable  was  carefully  conserved.  Perhaps  in 
sufficient  justice  is  done  to  the  compilers  of  the  1549  Prayer  Book, 
in  the  failure  to  recognize  adequately  the  admirable  historical 
temper  which  could  patiently  sift  out  and  retain  forms  of  prayer 
worthy  of  perpetuation,  at  a  time  when  their  use  was  associated 
with  pernicious  error,  and  the  temptation  therefore  offered  itself 
to  make  a  complete  breach  with  the  past.  Illustrations  of  this 
discriminating  judgment  will  readily  occur  to  every  one,  and  how 
ever  sharp  may  be  the  discussion  as  to  the  wisdom  of  retaining 
this  or  that  detail,  no  one  will  regret  that  such  an  ancient  hymn 
as  the  Gloria  in  Excelsis,  or  such  prayers^as  the  Collects,  were 
left  to  link  the  very  expression  of  our  public  worship  with  that  of 
bygone  generations  of  Christians. 

However,  when  due  regard  has  been  paid  to  the  preservation 

tion  Prin-     of  ancient  elements,  it  remains  to  acknowledge  that  largely  in 

substance  and  still  more  in  form,  the  Prayer  Book  is  the  outcome 

of    the  Reformation,    intimately  bound   up    with    its    guiding 

principles. 

i)  Liberty.  (])  The  principle  of  local  independence  runs  through  every  age 
of  the  English  Church,  and  that  without  any  desire  to  separate 
from  the  Body  of  Christ.  The  Celtic  Church  was  not  more  keenly 
resentful  of  the  attempts  of  Augustine  to  introduce  Roman  cus 
toms  as  law,  than  was  William  the  Conqueror  chary  of  admitting 
the  growing  claims  of  the  Papacy  ;  the  Saxon  Church  was  as 
really  opposed  to  the  policy  of  Wilfrid,  as  any  Norman  or  Plan- 
tagenet  monarch  to  the  ecclesiasticism  of  an  Anselm  or  a  Becket. 
The  succession  of  Statutes  in  the  fourteenth  century,  restraining 
the  papal  hand  in  English  affairs,  was  but  the  concise  and  con 
crete  expression  of  a  feeling  which  animated  all  classes  of  English 
men  who  were  not  identifying  their  own  advancement  with  papal 
aggression.  The  mean  selfishness  of  a  John,  or  the  political  exigen 
cies  of  a  Henry  IV,  might  postpone  the  final  repudiation  of  the 
Pope's  claims  to  domination,  but  could  not  finally  overcome  a. 

*  See  pp.  224,  225 


THE   STORY   OF    THE    PRAYER    BOOK  xv 

purpose  which  Wyclif  had  openly  shown  to  be  right  and  proper, 
and  which  the  instinct  of  the  nation  ever  held  firm.  When 
the  breach  at  last  came,  whatever  the  immediate  cause  might 
happen  to  be,  even  if  it  were  the  matrimonial  troubles  of  one  man, 
the  real  cause  was  the  indefeasible  right  of  England  to  govern 
itself  in  matters  of  religion  as  well  as  of  state.  The  Prayer  Book 
is,  therefore,  the  nation's  assertion  of  its  own  right  to  regulate  its 
public  worship. 

(2)  If  the  first  principle  was  that  of  religious  freedom,  the  other  (2)  suprcma 
was  an  even  more  sacred  one,  the  principle  of  the  authority  of  of 'HOI"** 
Holy  Scripture.  While  the  arrogant  claims  of  the  Popes  were  Sor'Pture- 
being  undermined  by  the  spiritual  bankruptcy  of  their  ecclesias 
tical  system,  as  well  as  by  resentment  against  their  political 
demands,  while  the  successive  failures  of  monasticism  and  of  the 
orders  of  friars  to  revive  true  religion  were  casting  a  lurid  light 
upon  the  spiritual  value  of  the  novel  dogmas  grafted  upon  Chris 
tianity,  a  force  was  gradually  being  called  into  existence  which 
would  complete  that  disgust  with  Romanism,  already  founded 
upon  experience.  It  would  be  difficult  to  exhaust  the  names  of 
even  the  known  contributors  to  the  revival  of  learning,  commenc 
ing  really  long  before  the  period  usually  associated  with  that 
title.  But  the  name  of  \Vyclif  stands  out  pre-eminently  as  that 
of  one  who  began  to  see  that  the  reform  of  faith  and  morals  in 
the  Church  was  only  to  be  achieved  by  a  return  to  the  one  authori 
tative  rule  of  faith,  and  that  the  whole  Church,  ministry  and  laity 
alike,  must  possess  that  source  of  light,  if  anything  permanent 
were  to  be  achieved.  In  God's  providence  it  was  not  yet  decreed 
that  the  Printing  Press  should  be  introduced  to  make  copies  of 
His  Word  an  easily  acquired  possession.  Nevertheless,  so  many 
copies  of  Wyclif's  Version  have  survived  not  only  the  ravages  of 
time,  but  the  eager  and  vigorous  efforts  of  more  than  a  hundred 
years  to  get  rid  of  them,  that  one  can  understand  both  why  the 
Lollards  managed  to  persist,  and  why  Reformation  views  spread 
still  more  rapidly  when  the  Bible  was  printed.  It  was  as  impossible 
then,  as  it  is  now,  to  read  that  Book  as  the  one  authoritative  reve 
lation  of  God  and  His  salvation,  without  at  once  perceiving  the 
incongruity  of  the  whole  papal  system,  doctrinal  and  hierarchical, 
with  what  is  there  revealed.  The  Book  of  Common  Prayer  is  the 
direct  outcome  of  the  Bible  in  English;  its  doctrine,  its  wording, 
its  very  contents,  are  mainly  drawn  from  that  Book ;  and  its  place 
in  the  hearts  of  the  bulk  of  those  who  have  ever  used  it,  is 
assured  by  its  manifest  acknowledgment  of  that  only  source  of 
authority  in  matters  of  faith. 

Under  these  two  principles,  the  right  to  national  and  local  ^"g"7 
f  i-eedom,  and  the  sole  authority  of  Holy  Scripture,  may  be  grouped 


xvi  THE    STORY    OF    THE   PRAYER    BOOK 

all  the  subsidiary  events,  which,  tending  to  the  support  of  one 
or  other,  ushered  in  the  Reformation,  and  the  Prayer  Book  as 
its  devotional  manifesto.  It  is  possible  to  find  fault  with  one 
and  another  of  those  who  figured  prominently  in  the  tangled 
and  tortuous  policies  of  the  Reformation  period  :  it  is  often 
justifiable  to  criticize  the  method  in  which  things  right  in  them 
selves  were  done.  In  a  word,  it  is  true  to  say  that  the  giants 
as  well  as  the  pigmies  of  the  Reformation  were  no  more  sin 
less  than  the  participators  in  the  transactions  of  any  other  age  ; 
but  it  is  not  possible,  save  at  the  cost  of  true  insight,  to  attribute 
the  Reformation  to  the  errors  of  its  promoters.  He  who  is  able 
to  understand  from  his  own  knowledge  of  Holy  Scripture,  that 
the  Roman  system  could  not  survive  the  dissemination  of  Bible- 
truth,  can  afford  to  smile  at  the  attempts  to  explain  away  the 
Reformation  by  Henry's  efforts  to  obtain  a  divorce  from  Cather 
ine,  or  to  narrow  it  down  to  a  mere  solution  of  the  bonds  which 
bound  England  to  the  Vatican.  The  Prayer  Book  constitutes 
a  sufficient  answer  to  all  such  theories,  however  learnedly  ad 
vanced  ;  that  product  of  England's  freedom  from  any  but  God's 
authority,  written  in  the  English  tongue  for  the  English  people, 
witnesses  to  a  spiritual  movement  in  which  the  presence  of  acci 
dental  accompaniments  of  lower  origin  only  teaches  the  oft-taught 
lesson  of  the  over-ruling  goodness  of  God.* 

pTecureors  Direct  anticipation  of  the  issue  of  an  English  Book  of  Common 
of  B.C.P.  Prayer  was  not  wanting  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  Mediaeval 
Primers,  containing  some  devotions  in  the  vernacular,  offered 
both  a  model  and  a  name  to  the  reformers  who  desired  a  means 
of  providing  for  the  spiritual  needs  of  the  commonalty.  Setting 
aside  those  published  in  foreign  lands,  the  first  Primer  printed 
in  England,  Marshall's  'Primer,  dates  from  1534,  though  it  is  best , 
known  from  the  1535  Edition.  Its  attack  upon  the  papacy  and 
upon  superstitions  inherent  in  that  system,  occasioned  its  partial 
suppression,  and  the  issue  of  something  more  authoritative  to 
take  its  place,  the  Bishops'  Book  of  1537,  which  represented  gener 
ally  the  moderate  amount  of  reform  contained  in  the  Ten  Articles 
of  1536,  the  first  doctrinal  symbol  of  the  Church  of  England.  But 
Hilsey's  Primer,  arranged  under  the  supervision  of  Cranmer,  1539, 
more  literally  took  the  place  of  the  earlier  Primers,  being  more 
suitable  for  popular  use.  The  reactionary  Six  Articles  of  1530  arc 
somewhat  reflected  in  th >  King's  BooJc,^  1543,  which  supersede*? 

*  On  pp.  576  ff .  is  given  a  summary  of  the  enactments  and  publications 
which  contributed  to  the  religious  and  political  breach  with  Rome. 

•f  Notwithstanding  the  rcact'cviary  tendency  observable  in  the  King's 
Bool:,  it  is  well  to  recollect  that  it  was  in  1543  that  the  English  Bible  made 
its  way  for  the  first  time  into  public  worship,  a  chapter  being  read  aft«r  the 
Te  Deum  and  Magnificat  at  Mattins  and  Evensong. 


THE    STORY   OF    THE   PRAYER    BOOK  xvii 

the  Bishops'  Book,  but  Cranmer  had  succeeded  in  preventing  pub 
lication  of  the  Rationale  prepared  by  the  reactionaries  in  1540. 
Meanwhile,  the  Sarum  Use  itself  was  being  submitted  to  revision. 
The  Breviary  had  been  newly  edited  in  1516  and  in  1531,  and 
the  Missal  in  1533.  In  1542  the  Breviary  was  again  issued,  in  a 
considerably  expurgated  form,  and  was  ordered  to  supersede  all 
others.  In  1543  Archbishop  Cranmer  told  Convocation  that  it  was 
the  King's  will  that  '  all  mass-books,  antiphoners,  portuises,  in 
the  Church  of  England,  should  be  newly  examined,  reformed,  and 
castigated  from  all  manner  of  mention  of  the  Bishop  of  Rome's 
name,  from  all  apocryphas,  feigned  legends,  superstitious  oraisons, 
collects,  versicles,  and  responses  ;  that  the  names  and  memories 
of  all  saints  which  be  not  mentioned  in  the  Scripture  or  authentical 
doctors  should  be  abolished  and  put  out  of  the  same  books  and 
calendars  ;  and  that  the  services  should  be  mad'3  out  of  Scripture 
and  other  authentic  doctors.'  The  connexion  of  the  work  done 
by  the  Committee  appointed  to  carry  out  this  command,  with  the 
issue  of  the  Prayer  Book  in  1549,  is  an  abandoned  idea.  The  same 
year,  1543,  saw  translations  of  the  Lord's  Prayer  and  the  Angelical 
Salutation  laid  before  the  House,  and  in  1544  the  English  Litany 
was  ordered  for  immediate  use,  and  inserted  in  the  new  Primer 
of  1545,  published  with  the  avowed  intention  of  giving  '  to  our 
subjects  a  determinate  form  of  praying  in  their  own  mother 
tongue.' 

On  the  accession  of  Edward  in  1547,  the  Reformers  were  in  The  First 
the  ascendancy,  and  the  first  Royal  Injunctions  *  of  the  reign  were  Book* 
issued,  being  an  advance  upon  those  of  1538.     The  First  Book  &  nf 

•7  •  i  •  i  i  •  Enactment 

of  Homilies,  already  prepared,  was  issued  at  the  same  time,  to 
explain  the  doctrinal  bearing  of  the  Injunctions,  and  the  Para 
phrase  of  the  New  Testament  by  Erasmus  was  ordered  to  be  pro 
cured  for  the  instruction  of  the  clergy.  In  December,  1547, 
Parliament  decreed  Administration  in  both  kinds,  but  it  was 
not  until  March.  1548,  that  any  alteration  of  the  Service-Books 

*  These  injunctions  ordered  : — 

1.  The  clergy  to  preach  foil;'  ti  nes  a  year  against  the  pretended  power 

of  Rome. 

2.  The  removal  of  images  and  the  use  of  only  two  lights  on  the  altar. 

3.  A  copy  of  the  English  Bible  of  largest  size  and  of  Erasmus  Paraphrase 

to  be  placed  within  each  Parish  Church. 

4.  On  every  holy  day  when  there  was  no  sermon,  the  Pater  Noster,  Creed, 

and  Ten  Commandments,  be  recited  from  the  pulpit,  after  the  Gospel, 
in  English. 

5.  One  chapter  of  the  New,  and  one  of  the  Old  Testament,  to  be  read  at 

Mattins  and  Evensong,  respectively,  on  every  Sunday  and  holy  day. 

6.  The  Epistle  and  Gospel  at  High  Mass  to  be  in  English. 

7.  Processions  before  High  Mass  to  cease,  and  the  Litany  sung  in  English, 
kneeling,  not  chanted  in  procession. 

b 


xviii  THE   STORY   OF   THE   PRAYER   BOOK 

appeared,  and  then  only  the  Order  of  Communion,  to  be  used  with 
the  Missal.*  In  December,  the  First  Prayer  Book  was  laid  before 
the  Commons,  passing  into  Law  in  January,  1549,  just  before  the 
completion  of  the  King's  second  regnal  year.  The  Act  enforcing 
the  use  of  this  Book  was  the  first  of  the  four  Acts  of  Uniformity 
in  English  History.f 

(2) its  'The  issue  of  the  First  Prayer  Book  was  tentative,  and  in  a 
ter'  sense  provisional.'  Thus  Bishop  Boyd  Carpenter  sums  up  the 
Book  in  his  Popular  History  of  the  Church  of  England,  p.  191,  and 
some  of  its  Rubrics  expressly  recognized  this  tentative  and  pro 
visional  character.  Nevertheless,  it  is  easy  to  note  the  advance 
upon  anything  hitherto  known  in  English  public  worship.  Be 
sides  the  all-important  change  from  Latin  to  English,  a  thorough 
doctrinal  emendation  of  the  portions  retained  from  the  old  Service- 
Books  preceded  their  incorporation  into  the  Prayer  Book,  the 
Lectionary  was  cleared  of  Mediaeval  substitutes  for  Holy  Scrip 
ture,  and  such  accompaniments  of  the  Roman  Mass  as  Elevation, 
Adoration,  etc.,  were  either  omitted,  or  definitely  forbidden.  A 
Gardiner  might  taunt  Cranmer  with  the  possibility  of  so  inter 
preting  the  Book  as  to  bring  it  into  line  with  the  Missal,  but  in 
practice  the  Romanists  found  it  impossible  to  do  so  without  sur 
reptitiously  supplementing  it  with  Romanist  ceremonies  not 
to  be  found  in  the  Book.  The  Reformers  might  be  impatient 
at  the  caution  which  the  compilers  had  used,  but  they  could  not 
pretend  that  its  doctrinal  features  resembled  those  of  the  old 
Breviary,  Missal,  etc.  In  fact,  although  how  many  and  important 
the  subsequent  alterations  have  been  a  glance  at  comparative 
tables  in  this  volume  will  show,  yet  the  examination  of  any 
single  portion,  a  Collect,  for  example,  will  also  show  that  the 
.utmost  pains  had  been  taken  to  exclude,  speaking  generally,  all 
that  savoured  of  scriptural  inaccuracy,  f 

*  This  Order  was  an  English  supplement  to  the  Mass,  for  the  use  of  the 
laity,  until  a  complete  Service-Book  should  be  provided. 

f  The  introduction  of  the  Book  into  the  House  of  Lords  had  been  precede.' 1 
by  a  Parliamentary  Debate  in  December,  designed  to  facilitate  the  passim 
of  the  Book.  The  publication  in  English,  in  1532,  of  Bertram's  Treatise 
on  the  Lord's  Supper,  against  the  teaching  of  Paschasius,  had  been  the  means 
of  weaning  Ridley,  and  through  him  Cranmer,  from  both  Transubstantiation 
and  from  the  doctrine  of  the  Real  Presence,  and  the  Debate  is  most  import 
ant  as  displaying  Cranmer  as  the  champion  of  the  reformed  teaching  on  tho 
Lord's  Supper  against  those  who  held  both  those  dogmas.  That  the  1549 
B.C.P.  in  three  places  contained  wording  capable  of  being  interpreted  in 
the  sense  of  the  '  real  Presence,'  must  not  be  supposed  to  imply  that  Cran 
mer  altered  his  views  between  1548  and  the  revision  of  the  1549  Book,  but 
that  the  latter  was,  and  was  meant  to  be,  a  compromise. 

J  Even  in  the  Communion  Office,  where  traces  of  Mediaeval  doctrine  and 
ceremonial  chiefly  lingered,  the  vast  gulf  between  the  Sarum  Mass  and  the 
English  Communion  Office  may  be  seen  in  tabular  form  on  pp.  256-261. 


THE   STORY   OF    THE    PRAYER    BOOK  xix 

Though  the  Book  scarcely  obtained  anything  like  general  (£]^ 
recognition  in  the  three  years  of  its  existence  as  an  authorized 
liturgy,  yet  it  forms  the  substratum  of  our  present  Book,  and  its 
sources  are  of  deepest  interest.  As  already  noted,  every  effort  was 
made  to  conserve  the  old  Service-Books,  where  it  was  possible 
without  doing  violence  to  truth.  In  this  effort  the  compilers 
derived  great  assistance  from  Quignon's  reformed  Breviary,  pre 
pared  at  the  instigation  of  one  Pope,  Clement,  and  dedicated  to  his 
successor,  on  its  publication  at  Rome  in  1535.  We  are  not  left 
(o  conjecture  as  to  Cranmer's  use  of  Quignon's  reformed  Breviary, 
for  the  British  Museum  contains  Cranmer's  draft  of  a  reformed 
Latin  Breviary  much  on  Quignon's  lines,  and  the  1549  Book  exhi 
bits  incontestable  proofs  of  its  influence.*  The  second  source  of 
many  a  valuable  devotional  element  was  the  Consultation  of  Arch 
bishop  Hermann,  of  Cologne,  composed  with  the  assistance  of 
Bucer  and  Melancthon,  and  published  in  German  in  1543,  with 
a  Latin  Edition  in  1545,  English  1547.  It  is  noteworthy  that 
where  there  are  variations  between  the  German  and  English, 
the  B.C. P.  follows  the  German  more  closely.  The  Church  Order 
of  Nuremberg,  issued  in  1533  by  Brcntz  and  .Osiander  (whose 
niece  Cranmer  married,  and  with  whom  he  was  staying  in  1532), 
exercised  an  influence  both  direct,  through  Cranmer,  and  indirect, 
through  Bucer's  use  of  it  in  his  contribution  to  the  Consultation. 
By  Osiander's  use  of  Luther's  liturgical  productions,  the  great 
Reformer  himself  is  represented  in  B.C. P.  Quite  a  different 
source,  and  one  more  sparingly  used,  was  the  Greek  Liturgy  of 
St.  Chrysostom,  known  to  have  been  in  Cranmer's  hands  in  1544  ; 
apart  from  direct  contributions  from  such  a  source,  its  serviceable- 
ness  as  a  test  of  the  antiquity  of  the  Western  Service-Books  must 
have  aided  the  attempt  to  return  to  primitive  models.  More  open 
to  doubt  is  the  influence  exerted  by  the  Mozaralic  Liturgy  of 
Spain,  compiled  in  1500  by  Ximenes  ;  much  formerly  attributed 
to  this  source  has  been  found  to  be  in  the  German  Church-Orders, 
which  may,  it  is  true,  have  borrowed  from  the  Mozarabic  Liturgy. 
It  has  been  the  custom  to  dwell  upon  the  supposed  foreign  influ 
ences  at  work  upon  the  Second  Prayer  Book,  of  1552,  with  a  view 
of  disparaging  that  Book ;  Bishop  Dowden  remarks,  however, 
that  '  in  truth  we  have  less  historical  evidence  for  the  influence 
of  external  agency  on  the  second  book,  than  we  have  for  such 
influence  on  the  first.'  f 

The  year  1550  was  marked  by  several  events  which  bear  upon  p5jJ|?C 
the  history  of  the  Prayer  Book,  directly  or  indirectly.     The  order  Book. 

*  For  details  regarding  the  evidences  of  the  influence  of  foreign  sources  Gl 
upon  the  B.C.P.,  see  Dowden's  Workmanship  of  the  Prayer  Book,  cc.  1-3. 
t  Dowden's   Workmanship,  p.   16. 


xx        THE  STORY  OF  THE  PRAYER  BOOK 

to  replace  stone  altars  with  wooden  tables  might  seem  liturgically 
unimportant,  were  it  not  that  in  the  same  year  Cranmer's  famous 
Defence  of  the  True  and  Catholic  Doctrine  of  the  Sacrament  of  the 
Body  and  Blood  of  our  Saviour  Christ  was  issued,  demolishing  the 
corrupt  dogmas  which  the  stone  altar  tended  to  illustrate.  At 
or  about  the  same  time,  a  revision  of  the  1549  Book  was  com 
menced,  and  another  object,  dear  to  Cranmer's  heart,  the  prepara 
tion  of  Articles  which  might  refute  the  decisions  of  the  Council  of 
Trent,  was  prosecuted  with  vigour.  These  two  engrossing  (asks 
were  pursued  in  1551,  and  both  completed  in  1552,  the  revised 
Prayer  Book  being  accompanied  by  a  revised  Ordinal,  and  pub 
lished  that  same  year,  the  Articles  in  1553. 

(2)  its  The  general  trend  of  the  revision  is  not  disputed.     While  no 

thing  of  the  former  work  was  sacrificed,  the  ambiguities  discovered 
by  keen  eyes  were  removed,  the  practices  shown  by  experience 
to  be  inseparable  from  superstitious  abuse  were  shorn  away,  and 
defects  remedied.  It  is  unnecessary  to  do  more  than  utter  a  direct 
negative  to  the  extravagant  assertions  that  the  1552  Book  merely, 
or  chiefly,  reflected  the  suggestions  of  foreign  reformers.  It  is  far 
more  true  to  say  that  the  revision,  so  far  as  it  owed  any  doctrinal 
modifications  to  external  sources,  was  influenced  by  a  determina 
tion  to  avoid  the  dangerous  ambiguities  of  the  vague  teaching  of 
Lutheranism  upon  the  Holy  Communion.  It  is  far  more  import 
ant  to  remember  that  this  Book,  though  so  speedily  overthrown 
by  the  early  death  of  the  King,  and  the  subsequent  accession  of 
Mary,  is  so  far  in  form  and  substance  the  Prayer  Book  -of  to-day, 
that  the  examination  of  subsequent  modifications  would  be  a 
work  of  supererogation  but  for  attempts  to  read  into  them  a 
meaning  expressly  denied  by  their  authors.* 

The  Elizabethan  Act  of  Uniformity,  to-day  a  part  of  the  Book 

tion  in*~559.  of  Common  Prayer,  received  the  royal  assent  on  May  8,  1559.  It 
named  the  Prayer  Book  of  1552,  with  three  specified  alterations, 
'  and  none  other  or  otherwise,'  as  the  one  revived  by  the  Act. 
But  no  standard  copy  of  the  1552  Prayer  Book  was  annexed, 
and  amongst  some  unimportant  variations  between  that  Book 
and  the  printed  copies  of  1559  there  is  one  conspicuous  change, 
namely,  the  alterations  in  the  Rubrics  preceding  Morning  Prayer,  f 
We  are  not  here  concerned  with  the  efforts  necessary  to  be  made 
to  introduce  the  Prayer  Book  into  general  use  ;  suffice  it  to  say 
that  despite  opposition  from  both  sides,  Roman  and  Puritan,  the 
Book  steadily  made  its  way.  It  is  liturgically  important  to  note 
that  the  same  year  saw  the  birth  of  congregational  hymnody  in 

*  For  alterations  in  1552,  see  Analyses  of  separate  Offices,  and  especially 
tables  on  pp.  262-3,  and  281. 

t  For  comment  upon  these  altered  Rubrics,  see  pp.  76  ff. 


THE    STORY    OF    THE   PRAYER   BOOK  xxi 

K upland,  one  of  the  famous  Injunctions  giving  permission  for  a 
'  hymn  or  such  like  song  '  at  the  beginning  or  end  of  Common 
Prayer,  a  permission  eagerly  used  by  the  returned  exiles  of 
Mary's  reign. 

Jewel's  Apology,  published  with  the  permission  of  the  Queen  Final 
and  the  consent  of  the  Bishops,  in  1562,  constituted  a  semi-  j^reaft  of 
authoritative  challenge  to  the  Council  of  Trent,  which  was  again  Articles, 
sitting.  But  the  revision  of  the  42  Articles,  and  their  authorita 
tive  publication  as  the  38  Articles,  were  as  definitely  and  more 
authoritatively  the  Church's  reply  to  the  Council.  They  appeared 
in  1563.  and  seeing  that  they  lend  their  weight  to  the  Second  Book 
of  Homilies,  these  last  must  have  been  already  composed,  though 
one,  the  21st,  dates  from  1571.  Foxe's  Acts  and  Monuments, 
most  unjustly  assailed  by  interested  parties  in  later  days,  also 
appeared  in  1563,  and  copies  were  established  in  many  churches 
for  general  reading.*  The  Puritan  difficulty  led  io  the  issue  of 
another  famous  document  in  1566,  the  Advertisements,^  declared 
by  the  latest  legal  interpretation  to  be  the  present  law  as  to 
ministerial  vesture  in  the  Church  of  England.  The  final  revision 
of  the  Articles  in  1571,  then  made  39,  and  subscription  to  them 
enforced,  concluded  the  Elizabethan  enactments  touching  the 
liturgical  and  doctrinal  documents  of  the  Prayer  Book,  though 
the  practical  difficulties  of  regulating  obedience  thereto  continued 
to  the  end  of  the  reign.  { 

*  For  a  succinct  vindication  of  Foxe,  see  Hole's  Manual  of  Church  History, 
pp.  246-8. 

f  See  pp.  83,  84. 

|  Towards  the  close  of  Elizabeth's  reign  the  predominating  Calvinism, 
already  becoming  marked  by  certain  dogmas  with  which  the  name  is  now 
associated,  found  full  expression  in  the  Lambeth  Articles,  a  document  drawn 
up  under  Whitgift,  and  at  his  palace,  in  1595.  The  propositions  were  : — 

1.  God  from  eternity  hath  predestinated  some  to  life,  some  He  hath 

reprobated  to  death. 

2.  The  moving  or  efficient  cause  of  predestination  to  life  is  not  the  pre 

vision  of  faith,  or  of  perseverance,  or  of  good  works,  or  of  anything 
which  may  be  in  the  persons  predestinated,  but  only  the  will  of 
the  good  pleasure  of  God. 

3.  Of  the  predestinated  there  is  a  fore-limited  and  certain  number  which 

can  neither  be  diminished  nor  increased. 

4.  They  who  are  not  predestinated  to  salvation  will  be  necessarily  con 

demned  on  account  of  their  sins. 

5.  A  true,  living  and  justifying  faith,  and  the  Spirit  of  God  sanctifying, 

is  not  extinguished,  does  not  fall  away,  does  not  vanish  in  the  elect 
either  totally  or  finally. 

6.  A  truly  faithful  man,  that  is  one  endowed   with  justifying  faith,  is 

certain  by  the  full  assurance  of  faith,  of  the  remission  of  his  sins 
and  his  eternal  salvation  through  Christ. 

7.  Saving  grace  is  not  given,  is  not  communicated,  is  not  granted  to  all 

men,  by  which  they  might  be  saved  if  they  would. 

8.  No  man  can  come  to  Christ  except  it  be  given  to  him,  and  unless  the 


xxii  THE    STORY   OF    THE   PRAYER    BOOK 

rr.impton  T^e  accession  of  James  I  found  all  ecclesiastical  parties  in  a 
fcrence.  perturbed  state.  The  Romanists  even  ventured  to  hope  some 
thing  from  the  son  of  the  executed  Mary  Queen  of  Scots,  though 
their  hope  was  probably  greater  than  their  expectation,  and 
disappeared  entirely,  for  the  time,  with  the  Gunpowder  Plot. 
The  Puritans  had  better  reason  to  expect  consideration  at  the 
hands  of  the  Presbyterian  Stuart,  and  their  failure  is  only  to  be 
explained  on  the  grounds  of  (1)  the  Stuart  policy,  to  retain  and 
even  increase  the  arbitrary  power  of  the  throne,  for  which  the 
support  of  the  Church  was  of  more  value  than  that  of  the  Puritans 
was  likely  to  be,  and  (2)  the  intemperate  demands  of  a  section 
of  the  Puritans.  Nevertheless,  the  Millenary  Petition,  signed  by 
750  Ministers,  was  far  from  intemperate  in  our  eyes,  however 
it  may  have  appeared  to  those  with  whom  feeling  ran  high  in 
1603.  Indeed,  its  moderation  of  tone  seems  to  have  frightened 
the  conservatives  amongst  Churchmen.*  The  petitioners  sub- 
Father  draw  him.  And  all  men  are  not  drawn  by  the  Father  tha 
they  may  come  unto  the  Son. 

9.  It  is  not  placed  in  the  will  or  power  of  every  man  to  be  saved. 

The  opposition  of  Elizabeth  and  Cecil,  and  the  influence  upon  Whitgift 
of  Andrewes  and  Overall,  sufficed  to  prevent  these  Articles  obtaining 
anything  like  authority,  but  they  show  the  doctrinal  tendency  of  the  period. 

*  Perry's  Student's  English  Church  History,  p.  359  ;  the  Petition  is  there 
given  in  extenso,  Note  (A),  p.  372.  Hole,  Manual  of  English  Church  History, 
p.  274,  characterizes  many  of  the  objections  as  a  whole  as  'of  an  extremely 
sensible  character,'  and  such  as  '  might  still  interest  the  serious  Church 
reformer.'  The  following  is  a  complete  list  of  the  suggestions  of  these 
more  moderate  Puritans  : — 

(1)  In  the  Church  Service: — 

The  Cross  in  Baptism,  interrogatories  ministered  to  infants,  Baptism 
by  women,  Confirmations,  enforcement  of  cap  and  surplice,  to  cease. 

Examination  to  precede  Communion,  and  Sermon  always  to  accompany 
administration. 

Terms,  such  as  '  priest,'  'absolution,'  to  be  corrected. 

The  ring  in  marriage  to  be  no  longer  used. 

The  longsomeness  of  the  service  to  be  abridged. 

Church  tongs  and  music  to  be  moderated  to  better  edification. 

The  Lord's  Day  not  to  be  profaned  ;  holidays  not  to  be  so  strictly  urged. 

Uniformity  of  doctrine  to  be  prescribed,  and  no  popish  opinion  taught. 

Bowing  at  the  Name  of  Jesus  not  to  be  taught. 

The  Canonical  Scriptures  only  to  be  read  in  church. 

(2)  Concerning  Church  ministers : — 

Only  '  able  and  sufficient '  men  to  be  ordained,  and  they  to  preach  '  dili 
gently  and  specially '  on  the  Lord's  Day  ;  those  unable  to  preach 
either  to  be  removed  and  charitably  provided  for,  or  themselves  to 
provide  for  the  maintenance  of  preaching. 

Non- residency  to  be  forbidden. 

King  Edward's  Statute  for  the  lawfulness  of  ministers'  marriages  to  be 
revived. 

Ministers  not  to  be  urged  to  subscribe,  but  according  to  the  law,  to  the 
articles  of  religion  and  the  King's  supremacy  only. 


THE    STORY    OF    THE    PRAYER    BOOK  xxiii 

scribe  themselves  as  '  The  ministers  of  the  Gospel  that  desire 
not  a  disorderly  innovation,  but  a  due  and  godly  reformation.* 
The  vested  interests  touched  by  their  suggestions,  including  the 
Universities,  skilfully  opposed  the  whole  movement  for  reform, 
by  playing  upon  the  foible  of  the  King  for  absolute  monarchy  ; 
but  returns  were  made  of  the  number  of  ecclesiastical  irregu 
larities  in  the  matter  of  livings,  pluralities,  etc.,  and  the  King 
arranged  for  the  Hampton  Court  Conference  to  be  held  in  January, 
160i.  It  is  generally  admitted  that  a  Conference,  in  which 
the  King,  as  moderator,  was  '  offensively  jocular '  and  unfairly 
argumentative,  and  of  which  the  members  were  nominated  by 
the  King  in  the  proportion  of  19  on  the  one  side  as  against  4  on 
the  Puritan  side,  was  little  likely  to  satisfy  the  latter.  The 
proceedings  lasted  three  days,  some  few  alterations  resulting.* 


(3)  For  Church  living  atd  maintenance  : — 

Livings  held  by  Bishops  in  commendam  to  be  given  up. 

Pluralist  incumbents  to  cease. 

Impropriations  annexed  to  bishoprics  and  colleges  to  be  demised  to  the 

'preachers'  incumbents,  for  the  old  rent.' 
Impropriations  of  laymen's  fees  to  be  charged  with  a  sixth  or  seventh 

part  of  their  worth,  to  the  maintenance  of  the  preaching  minister. 

(4)  For  Church  discipline : — 

Excommunication  to  be  administered  according  to  Christ's  own  institu 
tion,  e.g.,  not  through  lay  chancellors,  etc.,  not  'for  trifles  and 
twelvepenny  matters,'  not  without  the  pastor's  consent. 

Unreasonable  fees  to  be  forbidden. 

Jurisdiction  and  registers'  places  not  to  be  farmed. 

Popish  Canons,  as  that  restraining  marriage  at  certain  seasons,  to  be 
reversed. 

The  '  longsomeness '  of  suits  in  ecclesiastical  courts,  '  which  vary  some 
times  two,  three,  four,  five,  six,  or  seven  years,'  to  be  restrained. 

The  oath  by  which  men  were  forced  to  accuse  themselves  to  be  more 
sparingly  used— commonly  called  the  ex  officio  oath. 

Marriage  Licences  to  be  more  cautiously  granted. 

*  The  alterations  were  : — - 

(1)  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer: — 

1.  After  '  Absolution  '  '  or  Remission  of  sins  '  added. 

2.  Prayer  for  Royal  Family  added,  with  corresponding  petition 
in  the  Litany. 

4.  Thanksgivings  for  Ram,  Fair  Weather,  Plenty,  Peace  and 
Victory,  and  Deliverance  from  the  Plague,  added  to  occasional 
prayers. 

(2)  Private  Baptism : — 

1.  Restricted  to  lawful  minister. 

2.  Alteration  of  Title  to  suit  this  requirement. 

3.  '  That  they  procure  not  their  children  to  be  baptized '  instead 
of  '  that  they  baptize  not  their  children  '  hi  second  Rubric. 

4.  Third  and  fourth  Rubrics  altered  to  suit  restriction  to  '  lawful 

minister.' 
6.  The  inquiry  '  whether  they  called  upon  God  for  grace  and 


xxiv  THE    STORY   OF   THE   PRAYER   BOOK 

Their  legality  need  not  concern  us,  as  they  were  adopted  in  the 
legal  revision  of  1662.  The  really  substantial  results  of  the 
Conference  were  the  addition  to  the  Catechism,  the  diminution 
of  the  use  of  the  Apocrypha,  and,  far  the  greatest  of  all,  the  under 
taking  of  the  revision  of  the  English  Bible.*  '  It  is  evident,' 
says  Canon  Perry,  '  from  the  sort  of  answers  made  to  the  objec 
tions  that  no  real  trouble  was  taken  to  investigate  the  points 
which  they  raised.'  Neal  complains  that  '  the  Puritan  ministers 
were  insulted,  ridiculed,  and  laughed  to  scorn,  without  either 
wit  or  good  manners.'  For  good  or  evil,  perhaps  for  both, 
'  Anglicanism  '  was  coming  into  being,  marking  a  tendency  to 
separate  from  foreign  reformed  bodies,  and  to  force  Puritanism 
r'toe  canons  m^°  ^e  condition  of  a  sect. 

The  Canons  of  1604,  numbering  161,  and  including  several 
passed  in  Elizabeth's  reign,  had  considerable,  permanent  effect 
upon  the  use  of  the  Prayer  Book,  though  not  altering  its  text. 
They  were  subscribed  by  Convocation,  but  not  ratified  by  Par 
liament.  They  are  thus  in  no  sense  binding  on  the  laity,  and 
even  for  clergy  they  have  no  validity  except  when  not  invalidated 
by  conflict  with  Statute  Law,  or  by  disuse.  They  endorsed 
the  Advertisements  as  the  standard  of  ministerial  vesture,  main 
tained  the  Royal  Supremacy,  introduced  a  form  of  Bidding 

succour  in   that   necessity '    omitted,   and   caution   inserted 
'  And  because  some  things  .  .  .  times  of  extremity.' 

(3)  Confirmation : — 

'  Or  laying  on  of  hands  upon  children  baptized,  and  able  to 
render  an  account  of  their  faith,  according  to  the  Catechism 
following '  added. 

(4)  Catechism  :— 

The  concluding  portion  added  on  the  Sacraments. 

(5)  Calendar : — 

Aug.  26,  Prov.  xxx.  instead  of  Bel  and  the  Dragon. 

Oct.  1,  2,  Exod.  vi.,  Josh,  xx.,  xxii.  instead  of  Tobit  v.,  vi.,  yiii. 

(6)  Gospels: — 

Second  Sunday  after  Easter,  and  Twentieth  Sunday  after  Trintiy, 

the  words  '  unto  His  disciples  '  omitted,  and  '  Christ  said ' 

'  Jesus  said  '  printed  in  type  differing  from  the  actual  text. 

*  The  demands  of  the  Puritans  at  the  Conference  differed  somewhat 

irom  those  put  forward  in  the  Millenary  Petition,  the  more   important 

additions  being  : — 

1.  A  Protest  against  the  assertion  in  Art.  XVI    that  '  we  may  depart 

from  grace  given  and  fall  into  sin.' 

2.  A  request  for  the  embodiment  in  the  Prayer  Book  of  the  Calvinistic 

Lambeth  Articles  of  1595. 

3.  The  proposal  of  an  addition  to  the  Articles  against  the  doctrine  of 

Intention. 

4.  A  request  for  addition  to  the  Catechism  (granted). 

5.  Demand  for  better  observance  of  the  Lord's  Day  (promised). 

6.  Proposal  for  revision  of  the  English  Bible  (adopted). 

7.  Objection  to  Churching  of  Women. 


THE   STORY   OF   THE   PRAYER   BOOK  xxV 

Prayer  (in  which  '  Christ's  Holy  Catholic  Church  '  is  defined  as 
'  the  whole  congregation  of  Christian  people  dispersed  throughout 
the  whole  world,'  and  prayer  is  demanded  for  the  Presbyterian 
Church  of  Scotland),  enforced  bowing  at  the  Name  of  Jesus, 
defended  the  cross  in  Baptism,  and  inserted  restrictions  as  to 
marriage. 

The  outstanding  feature  of  this  reign,  from  the  point  of  view  Laudianism, 
of  the  Prayer  Book  student,  is  the  growth  of  what  is  called  (*) lts  1Use- 
Laudianism,  though  much  besides  the  personality  of  Laud  is 
included  in  what  comes  under  that  title.  James'  undisguised 
hatred  of  Puritanism,  born  of  his  chafing  under  Presbyterian 
restraints  when  King  o"  Scotland,  was  nourished  by  his  experience 
in  England  of  the  impossibility  of  obtaining  support  in  Puritan 
circles  for  his  theories  of  divine  right.  The  too  often  servile 
adulation  of  prominent  ecclesiastics  would  commend  itself  more 
to  a  mind  of  his  type.  Moreover,  questions  of  policy  moved 
him  to  lend  a  ready  ear  to  anything  like  a  modus  vivendi  with 
Roman  Catholicism,  especially  Roman  Catholic  powers.  It  is 
strange  to-day  to  imagine  such  a  dread  of  world-wide  Roman 
power  as  was  provoked  by  the  Counter-Reformation,  and  its 
success  in  the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth  century,  but  it  is 
intelligible  when  the  twelve  years  of  Roman  success,  1618-1630, 
in  The  Thirty  Years'  War  is  borne  in  mind,  with  the  fearful 
massacres  in  the  Valteline  in  1620,  and  Magdeburg  in  1631. 
In  Holland  Romanism  was  growing,  in  France  Protestantism 
was  decaying.  Small  wonder  that  a  ruler  of  James'  shiftiness 
should  look  about  to  find  security  in  a  policy  not  too  plainly 
linked  with  Protestantism.  But  the  great  occasion  of  Laudianism 
was  neither  royal  favour,  nor  personal  genius  ;  the  rise  of  Armi- 
nianism  was  the  prime  factor  in  altering  the  Stuart  Church  from 
the  Elizabethan.  Strict  Calvinism,  that  is  to  say,  Augustine's 
teaching  carried  to  its  logical  consequences,  leaves  no  loophole 
for  hierarchical  pretensions  at  any  rate,  and  Laud  found  in 
Arminianism  a  ready-made  banner  for  the  party  which  followed 
his  teaching  of  Apostolical  Succession,  and  the  exaltation  of  the 
visible  Church. 

Though  not  much  in  favour  with  James  himself,  Laud  was  (2)  it* 
supported  by  Buckingham,  and  became  the  dictator  of  Charles'  B 
policy,  and  whatever  we  may  think  of  his  intentions,  he  involved 
himself,  his  King,  and  his  Church,  in  one  common  ruin.     To 
the  majority  of  English  Christians  Arminianism  logically  under 
mined  Justification  by  Faith,  and  therewith  the  Reformation  ; 
Laud's  attempts  to  reviv.e  Roman  ceremonial,  when  consecrating 
the  church  of  St.  Catherine  Cree  in  1631,  threw  a  sinister  light 
upon  his  enforcement  of  the  altanvise  position  of  the  Holy  Table, 


xxvi  THE   STORY   OF   THE    PRAYER    BOOK 

and  his  inculcation  of  bowing  to  that  Table  on  entering  and 
leaving  Church  :  his  Scottish  Prayer  Book,  1637,  and  his  abortive 
Canona  of  1640,  all  pointed  the  same  way  ;  add  to  these  things 
the  absurd  sermons  printed  by  his  authority  to  exalt  the  power 
of  the  King,  even  teaching  the  King's  absolute  right  to  legislate 
and  levy  taxes  :  the  known  leanings  of  Laud  away  from  the  re 
formed  Churches,  and  towards  the  unreformed,  both  manifest 
in  such  events  as  his  tyrannous  refusal  to  allow  foreign  congre 
gations  to  worship  in  England  save  after  conforming  to  episco 
pacy,  and  the  offer,  twice  made,  of  a  Cardinal's  Hat ;  and  all 
this  at  a  time  when  the  aggressiveness  of  Rome  by  war  and  by 
the  Jesuits  was  stirring  men  as  they  had  not  been  stirred  since 
the  Armada  : — surely  it  is  not  difficult  to  account  for  the  deplor 
able  alienation  of  the  nation  from  the  Church  of  England  and 
from  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  as  illustrated  and  interpreted 
by  Laudianism. 

Savoy  con-  Unfortunately,  that  alienation  was  only  partly  cured  at  the 
Restoration.  The  Savoy  Conference,  summoned  in  1661  to 
deal  with  objections  to  the  Prayer  Book  on  the  part  of  the  Puri 
tans,  largely  consisted,  on  the  Church  side,  of  Bishops  too  much 
imbued  with  Laudian  aims.  It  is  easier  to  understand  than  to 
condone  the  spirit  on  both  sides  which  made  the  Conference 
abortive.  The  English  Church  has  never  recovered  from  the 
sectarianism  in  which  Laud  involved  it,  nor  can  it  recover  on 
Laudian  principles  of  Churchmanship.  The  demands  of  the 
Puritans  appeared  in  a  long  list  of  suggestions,  containing  unim 
portant  matters  as  well  as  objections  worthy  of  consideration. 
The  Puritan  objections  at  the  Savoy  Conference  were  : — 

(1)  General: — 

1.  Nothing  doubtful,  or  questioned  by  orthodox  persons,  to  be 

retained. 

2.  As  the  first  Reformers  had  retained  all  they  could  to  win 
over  Romanists,  so  now  the  winning  over  of  all  Protestants 
should  be  the  aim. 

(2)  Divine  Service  generally : — 

1.  '  Repetitions  and  responsals,'  and  alternate  reading  in  Psalms 
and  Hymns  to  be  omitted. 

2.  The  Litany  to  be  changed  to  one  solemn  prayer. 

3.  The  gift  of  prayer  to  be  allowed  in  Divine  Service. 

4.  Old  and  New  Testament  only  to  be  read  as  Lessons. 

5.  Portions  of  Acts  and  Old  Testament  not  to  be  called  Epistles. 

6.  To  use  the  1611  Version  only. 

7.  To  substitute  '  Minister  '  for  '  Priest,'  and  '  Lord's  Day  '  for 

'  Sunday.' 

8.  One  long  prayer  instead  of  short  Collects. 

9.  To  abandon  the  use  of  the  Surplice. 

10.  To  cease  religious  observance  of  Saints'  Days,  and  the  Lenten 
Fast. 


THE   STORY   OF    THE    PRAYER   BOOK  xxvii 

(3)  Morning  ard  Evening  Prayer,  etc.  :— 

1.  The  Lord's  Prayer  not  to  be  so  often  used,  and  the  Doxology 

always  added. 

2.  Gloria  Putri  to  be  used  only  once  Morning  and  Evening. 

3.  A  Psalm  or  Scripture  Hymn  to  be  substituted  for  the  Bene- 
dicite. 

4.  '  Deadly  sin,'   '  sudden  death,'  and  '  all  that  travel,'   to  be 
altered. 

5.  '  This  day  '  to  be  omitted  in  the  Christmas  Collect,  and  Proper 
Preface  for  Whitsuntide. 

(4)  Communion  Office:— 

1.  Rubric  respecting  notice  of  communicating  to  be  altered  so 

as  to  compel  longer  notice. 

2.  Minister  to  have  full  power  to  admit  or  refuse  communicants. 

3.  Kneeling    during    Commandments,    and    Kyrie,    to    cease ; 

Minister  to  conclude  the  reading  with  a  suitable  prayer. 

4.  Preaching  to  be  more  strictly  enjoined. 

5.  '  Homilies  hereafter  to  be  set  forth '  to  be  omitted. 

6.  Two  Offertory  Sentences  from  the  Apocrypha  to  be  omitted. 

7.  Collection  to  be  made  at  or  just  before  the  communicants 

depart. 

8.  General  Confession  to  be  made  by  the  Minister  only. 

0.  Words  of  the  Saviour  to  be  used  in  administering,  as  nearly 
as  possible. 

10.  Minister  not  to  be  required  to  deliver  into  each  one's  hand. 

11.  Minister  not  to  have  to  repeat  the  words  to  each  recipient. 

12.  Kneeling  at  reception  to  be  left  free,  and  the  Black  Rubric 

to  be  restored. 

(5)  Baptismal  Office  :— 

1.  Use  of  the  cross  to  disappear. 

2.  Sponsors  only  to  be  used  if  parents  desire. 

3.  Promising  in  the  name  of  the  child  deprecated. 

4.  Private  Baptism  only  to  take  place  with  competent  minister, 
and  in  presence  of  a  sufficient  number,  with  no  public  reitera 
tion. 

(6)  Catechism  and  Confirmation: — 

1.  Opening  questions  to  be  altered,  there  having  been  no  god 

parents  for  several  years. 

2.  '  Wherein  I  was  visibly  admitted  into  the  number  of  the 
members  of  Christ,  the  children  of  God,  and  the  heirs  of  the 
kingdom  of  heaven  '  to  be  made  the  third  answer. 

3.  In  the  Duty  towards  God  '  particularly  on  the  Lord's  Day  * 

to  be  added  at  the  close. 

4.  The  former  part  of  the  Catechism  to  be  enlarged  on  the  lines 

of  the  latter  portion  on  the  Sacraments. 

5.  Faith,  Repentance,  the  two  Covenants,  Justification,  Sancti- 

fication,    Adoption,    and    Regeneration,    to    be    particularly 
treated. 

6.  The  entering  of  infants  into  God's  Covenant  to  be  more  warily 
expressed,  the  promise  of  repentance  and  faith  not  being 
taken  for  their  performance,  and  infants  not  being  asserted 
to  perform  these  by  their  sureties. 

7.  More  requirements  to  be  asked  of  candidates  for  Confirmation. 

8.  Prayer  before  the  Imposition  of  Hands  to  be  altered. 

9.  Practice  of  the  Apostles  not  to  be  alleged  as  a  ground  of 
Confirmation. 


Jcxviii  THE   STOJRY   Of   THE   PRAYER   BOOR 

10.  Confirmation  not  to  be  made  a  necessary  condition  of  aumis- 
sion  to  Holy  Communion. 

(7)  Marriage  Service:  — 

1.  The  ring  to  be  left  indifferent. 

2.  Other  words  to  be  substituted  for  '  worship  '  and  '  depart  ' 

(now  '  death  us  do  part  '). 

3.  Declaration  in  the  name  of  the  Trinity  to  be  omitted,  ns 
favouring  the  idea  of  Matrimony  as  a  Sacrament. 

4.  Change  of  place  and  posture  to  be  omitted. 

5.  'Consecrated  the  state  of  Matrimony  to  such  an  excellent 
mystery  '  to  be  omitted,  because  Matrimony  preceded  the 
promise  of  Christ,  and  the  words  savour  of  the  sacramental 
idea. 

6.  Direction  for  Communion  on  the  wedding-day  to  be  omitted. 

(8)  Visitation  of  the  Sick:— 

1.  Greater  liberty  in  prayer  and  exhortation  to  be  permitted. 

2.  '  I  pronounce  thee  absolved  '  to  be  put  for  '  I  absolve  thee,' 
and  '  if  thou  dost  truly  repent  and  believe  '  added. 

3.  Minister  not  to  be  enjoined  to  administer  the  Lord's  Supper 
as  desired  by  the  sick,  but  as  thought  expedient  by  the 
minister. 

(9)  Burial  :— 

1.  Rubric  to  be  inserted  declaring  the  service  to  be  for  the  living. 

2.  Permission  to  be  given  to  use  the  whole  service  in  Church. 

3.  '  In  sure  and  certain  hope  '  to  be  altered. 


ofUti!c%on-  ^^e  preparation  of  this  complete  list  was  an  error  in  tactics, 
fvjr.nco.  adopted  by  the  12  Puritan  Divines  at  the  suggestion  of  the 
12  Episcopal  members  of  the  Conference.  Baxter  is  reputed 
to  have  swallowed  the  bait,  and  he  also  prepared  a  Prayer  Book 
of  his  own  at  the  same  time  !  How  their  time  had  been  thrown 
away  was  brought  home  to  the  Puritans  when  they  learned  that 
the  other  side  was  intending  not  to  suggest  any  alterations  on 
their  part,  but  to  express  full  satisfaction  with  the  Book  as  it 
stood.  The  Church  party  concluded  a  long  general  criticism 
of  the  Puritan  suggestions  (containing  one  important  piece  of 
information,  viz.,  that  the  word  'priest'  was  retained  to  dis 
tinguish  a  '  presbyter  '  from  a  '  deacon  '),  with  concessions 
obviously  not  intended  to  meet  the  case.  '  The  Savoy  Confer 
ence  took  the  form  of  a  battle  between  opposing  forces.  The 
Puritan  party  were  so  unreasonable  that  agreement  was  hopeless 
however  conciliatory  the  Episcopalians  might  have  been  ;  while 
the  Episcopalian  party  were  so  unconciliatory  that  the  Puritans 
could  not  have  been  won  however  reasonable  they  had  been.' 
So  Hole  (p.  312)  sum  up  the  situation,  and  the  accuracy  of  his 
summary  is  exhibited  by  the  nature  of  both  the  Puritan  demands 
and  the  episcopalian  concessions.* 

*  The  concessions  offered  at  the  Conference  were  :  — 

1.  Epistles  and  Gospels  to  be  taken  from  the  1611  Version. 

2.  '  For  the  Epistle  '  to  be  used,  when  taken  from  O.T.  or  Acts. 


THE    STORY    OF    THE   PRAYER    BOOK  xxix 

The  abortive  Conference,  for  which  four  months  were  ap- Th?  Re- 
pointed,  came  to  an  end,  and  Convocation  undertook  a  serious  IGOI. 
Revision,  which  somewhat  discredits  the  assertion  of  the   12 
Episcopalians  at  the  Conference,  that  they  desired  no  alterations. 
However,  that  must  have  been  known  to  be  nothing  but  a  tactical 
trick,  for  there  were  in  existence  proposals  for  altering  the  Book 
in  the  direction  of  Edward's  First  Book  and  the  Scottish  Book 
of  1637.     Further,  Convocation  proved  much  more  willing  to 
see  the  reasonableness  of  some  of  the  Puritan  suggestions,  and 
sturdily  rejected  the  proposals  of  divines  of  the  Laudian  school.* 

3.  Psalters  to  be  collated  with  the  former  translations. 

4.  '  This  day  '  to  be  altered  to  '  as  at  this  time '  save  on  the  actual 
day. 

5.  '  At  least  some  time  the  day  before  '  to  be  made  the  requirement 
for  notice  of  communicating. 

6.  Rubric  concerning  not  admitting  wicked  to  Holy  Communion  to 
be  set  forth  according  to  Canons  26  and  27. 

7.  Preface  to  be  prefixed  to  the  Commandments. 

8.  Second  Exhortation  to  be  read  some  Sunday  before  Celebration. 

9.  General  Confession  in  Communion  Office  to  be  said  by  a  minister, 
the  people  repeating  it  after  him. 

10.  Manner  of  consecrating  the  elements  to  be  made  more  explicit. 

1 1 .  Font  to  be  placed  conveniently  for  hearing. 

12.  '  Perform  '   to  be  altered  to   '  promise  '   ('  by  their  sureties ')   in 
Catechism. 

13.  Rubric  at  close  of  Baptismal  Office  to  be  verbally  altered. 

14.  'Or  be  ready  and  desirous  to  be  confirmed  '  added  to  rubric  after 
Confirmation. 

15.  '  Worship  '  to  be  changed  to  '  honour '  in  Marriage  Service. 
Hi.  '  Depart '  to  be  altered  to  '  do  part.' 

17.  '  Sure  and  certain  '  to  be  omitted  in  Burial  Office. 

*The  more  important  alterations  were  : — 

(1)  New  Material  :— 

1.  The  Preface,  the  former  Preface  being  made  a  separate  chapter 

2.  '  Rebellion  and  schism  '  added  in  Litany. 

3.  Seven  Occasional  Prayers  and  Thanksgivings. 

4.  First  Anthem  on  Easter  Day. 

5.  Collect  for  Easter  Even. 

6.  Clause  of  thanksgiving  for  '  saints  departed.' 

7.  Rubrics  for  presenting  Alms,  and  placing  the  elements. 

8.  Rubric  for  ordering  the  bread  and  wine  for  consecration. 

9.  Rubric  regarding  consecration  of  additional  bread  or  wine. 

10.  Rubric  for  covering  surplus  consecrated  elements. 

11.  Black  Rubric. 

12.  Inquiry  of  Obedience  addressed  to  sponsors. 

13.  Reference  to  Canon  30,  explaining  the  sign  of  the  cross. 

14.  Ministration  of  Baptism  to  such  as  are  of  Riper  Years. 

15.  Form  for  Banns  of  Marriage. 

1C.  '  If  he  humbly  and  heartily  desire  it '  added  to  rubric  on 
Absolution  of  the  sick. 

17.  Occasional  Prayers  added  to  Visitation  Office. 

18.  Directions  for  shortened  form  in  Communion  of  the  Sick. 

19.  First  Rubric  in  Burial  Office,  regarding  unbaptized,  etc. 


THE  STORY  OF  THE  PRAYER  BOOK 


Subsequent 
Attempted 
Revisions. 


nsjcn-  Much  ill-directed  ingenuity  has  been  expended  upon  attempts 

to  find  in  these  alterations  a  bias  towa:  'o  a  less  reforming  type 
of  Churchmanship.  As  the  revisers'  Preface  plainly  says,  if 
their  words  do  not  redeem  them  from  any  such  intention,  the 
changes  themselves  will  be  sufficient  for  that  purpose  to  any 
unbiassed  mind.  Indeed,  without  any  change  of  a  doctrinal 
bent,  the  revision  was  quite  effective-  enough  for  the  times  ; 
more  than  2000  ministers  were  lost  to  the  Church  of  England 
when  the  Book  as  revised  became  law  in  1662.  It  was  inevit 
able  ;  the  deprivations  of  a  few  years  before,  when  more  than 
2000  clergy  were  as  unjustly  deprived,  explain  those  of  1662. 
Nothing  could  have  saved  the  situation  but  the  presence  of  a 
spirit  of  love  sadly  absent  in  either  party  to  the  dispute. 

The  story  of  the  Prayer  Book  since  1662  includes  no  further 
revision  save  the  small  alterations  caused  by  the  changes  of 
sovereign,  but  it  is  not  a  finished  tale  even  now.  In  1668  Tillotson 
and  Stillingfleet  entered  into  negotiations  with  leading  Non 
conformists  for  a  method  of  inclusion,  but  Parliament  stood 
hopelessly  in  the  way.  The  temper  of  the  times  destroyed 
a  similar  effort  of  Stillingfleet  in  1681.  In  1689  a  powerful 
Commission  actually  prepared  a  revision,  meeting  the  genuine 
d  fficulties  of  the  Puritans,  but  this  time  Convocation  was  an 
insuperable  obstacle,  and  the  effort  came  to  nought. 
The  Oxford  Movement,  initiated  by  the  Tracts  for  the  Times, 

Mo\emont.  nas  ma(je  fae  nineteenth  century  memorable  in  the  story  of  the 
Prayer  Book,  the  novel  methods  of  interpretation  suggested 
by  that  School  of  Thought  called  Tractarian,  and  later,  Ritualistic 

20.  Forms  of  Prayer  for  those  at  Sea. 

21.  Forms  of  Prayer  for  Jan.  30  and  May  29. 

(2)  Re-arrangennnt : — 

1.  Portions  used  at  both  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer  printed 
in  both. 

2.  Exhortations  in  Communion  Office. 

3.  Catechism  separated  from  Confirmation. 

4.  Rubric  on  Confirmation  made  into  a  Preface   to  the  Office. 

5.  Psalms  and  Lesson  appointed  to  be  read  in  Ch  urch  at  burials. 

(3)  Changes  :— 

1.  '  Bishops,  priests,  and  deacons '  for  '  Bishops,  pastors,  and 

ministers  of  the  Church.' 

2.  New  Collects  for  the  Third  Sunday  in  Advent,  and  for  St. 
Stephen's  Day ;  Collect,  Epistle,  and  Gospel,  for  a  Sixth 
Sunday  after  Epiphany  provided. 

3.  '  Then  shall  begin  the  Communion,'  at  end  of  Marriage  Service, 
omitted,  and  compulsory  order  for  newly-married  to  receive 
on  the  wedding-day  altered  to  a  suggestion  of  its  suitable 
ness  cither  on  the  day,  or  soon  after. 

4.  The  name  of  the  deceased  omitted  in  Prayer  at  the  grave. 


Oxford 


THE    STORY    OF    THE    PRAYER    BOOK  xxxi 

having  effected  in  many  cases  a  revision  of  the  Prayer  Book  as 
used  in  public  worship,  far  more  drastic  than  any  actual  revision 
would  have  been.  Appeals  to  Law  have  discredited  the  claims 
of  the  Tractarians,  so  far  as  their  legality  is  concerned,  but  they 
have  skilfully  cast  discredit  upon  the  Courts,  as  unfit  to  legislate, 
and  episcopal  reluctance  to  interfere  with  men  of  acknowledged 
zeal,  especially  with  the  knowledge  that  imprisonment  is  the 
penalty  for  breach  of  the  law,  has  allowed  generations  to  grow 
up  to  whom  the  true  meaning  of  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer 
is  utterly  unknown.  History  is  repeating  itself,  and  the  loss 
of  a  large  part  of  the  nation  suffered  by  the  Church  during  the 
Laudian  Movement,  is  being  experienced  under  the  episcopal 
toleration  of  the  Oxford  Movement.  There  is  this  difference  to 
day,  that  the  nation  no  longer  expects  to  see  one  school  of  thought 
exclusively  dominant,  and,  the  day  of  persecution  having  ceased. 
Nonconformity,  doctrinal  or  Virtual,  is  fast  alienating  the  people 
from  the  Church  and  its  teaching  in  the  Prayer  Book.  Yet  the 
true  interpretation  of  that  Book  would  convince  the  honest 
student  of  its  truly  scriptural  basis,  and  display  the  latent  dis 
regard  of  its  principles  and  teaching  inherent  in  the  new  Anglican 
ism.  Such  honest  study  is  alone  able  to  preserve  both  the 
National  Church,  and  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer  as  its  devo 
tional  and  doctrinal  expression.* 


*  The  additions  to  the  CatecKism,  passed  by  Canterbury  Convocation 
Lower  House,  in  1887,  though  dealing  with  a  felt  need,  failed,  and  happily 
failed,  because  their  tendency  was  to  disturb  the  doctrinal  balance  of  the 
Church's  formularies.  The  attempts  at  revision  of  the  present  time  are 
doomed  to  a  similar  failure,  until  it  is  recognized  that  the  obvious  need  of 
revision  for  adaptation  of  the  Prayer  Book  to  modern  needs,  must  not.  be 
made  an  excuse  for  doctrinal  innovation. 


ABBREVIATIONS 

A.V.    .         .         .         .         .          .         .  Authorized  Version. 

R.V.  .         .          .          .          .          .          .  Revised  Version. 

B.C.P.          .......  Book  of  Common  Prayer. 

Herm.  Con.          .....  Hermann's  '  Consultatio. ' 

Sac.  Gel.     .         .          .          .          .          .  Sacramentary  of  Gelasius  I. 

Sac.  Greg.  ......  Sacramentary  of  Gregory  I. 

Sac.  Leo      .          .....  Sacramentary  of  Leo  I. 

Sar.  Brev.  ......  Sarum  Breviary. 

Sar.  Man.    .          .         .         .          .          .  Sarum  Manual  or  Ritual. 

Sar.  Miss.    .          .         .         .          .          .  Sarum  Missal. 

Sar.  Pont.  .         .         .         .  .  Sarum  Pontifical. 

Sar.  Proc.    .          .         .         .          .          .  Sarum  Processional. 

S.L.  .         .         ...          .          .  Scottish  Liturgy,  1637. 

Dates  are  all  A.D.  unless  stated  to  be  otherwise. 

1549  is  used  for  First  Prayer  Book  of  Edward  VI. 

1552  „  „    Second  Prayer  Book  of  Edward  VI. 

1559  „  „    The  Prayer  Book  of  Elizabeth. 

1604  „  ,,    The  Prayer  Book  of  James  I. 

1637  „  „    The  Scottish  Prayer  Book  of  Charles  I. 

1662  „  „    The  Prayer  Book  of  Charles  II. 


XXXll 


INTRODUCTORY  MATTER 

ANALYTICAL  SUMMARY. 

PAGE 

1.  TITLE  PAGE 2 

2.  CONTENTS  OP  THIS  BOOK    .         . 4 

3.  ACT  OF  UNIFORMITY .        .        6 

4.  PREFACES 

i.  'The  Preface'  11 

ii.  'Concerning  the  Service  of  the  Church  '    .         .         .         .18 

iii.  '  Of  Ceremonies '     .          .         .          .         .  .         .27 

6.  RULES  CONCERNING  PSALTER  AND  LECTIONARY 

i.  '  The  Order  how  the  Psalter  is  appointed  to  be  read  '  .32 

ii.  '  The  Order  how  the  rest  of  Holy  Scripture  is  appointed  to  be 

read '     .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .35 

iii.  Tables  of  Proper  Lessons  and  Psalms 

(1)  'Lessons  proper  for  Sundays'          ....       38 

(2)  'Lessons  proper  for  Holy -Days'     ....       39 

(3)  Proper  Psalms  on  certain  Days       ....       39 

6.  TBALES  AND  RULES  MALNLY  CONCERNING  FEASTS 

i.  '  Rules  to  know  when  the  Moveable  Feasts  and  Holy-Days 

begin '..........       40 

ii.  '  A  Table  of  all  the  Feasts  that  are  to  be  observed  in  the  Church 

of  England  throughout  the  year '    .          .          .          .          .43 

iii.  'A  Table  of  the  Vigils,  Fasts,  and  Days  of  Abstinence  to  be 

observed  in  the  Year '    .          .          .          .          .          .          .49 

iv.   '  A  Solemn  Day  for  which  a  Particular  Service  is  appointed '       57 
v.  Tables  to  find  Easter  and  other  Moveable  Feasts        .         .       5y 

For  Limited  Periods. 

(a)  Two  Tables  'to  find  Easter  till  the  year  2199  inclusive'    .         .       59 

(b)  'Tables  of  the  Moveable  Feasts' 

(a)  'For  fifty-one  years'       .          .          .          .          .          .61 

(b)  'According   to    the    several    days    that    Easter    can 

possibly  fall  upon '    .          .          .          .          .          .61 

(c)  Table  to  find  Easter  Day  from  the  year  2200  to  2299  inclusive .        62 

For  any  Period. 

'General  Tables  for  fin  ling  the  Domiiical  or  Sunday  Letter, 
and  the  pi  ices  of  the  Golden  Number  Numbers  in 
the  Calendar' 62 

7.  'THE  CALENDAR,  WITH  THE  TABLE  OF  LESSONS'.         .         .       64 


1.  THE  TITLE  PAGE. 

THE    Book    of    Common    Prayer    and    Administration    of    the 
Sacraments  and  other  Kites  and  Ceremonies : — 
1549.  of  the  Church  :  After  the  use  of  the  Church  of  England. 
1552.  in  the  Church  of  England. 
1604.  of  the  Church  of  England. 

1662.  of  the  Church,  according  to  the  use  of  the  Church  of 
England,  Together  with  the  Psalter  or  Psalms  of  David,  Pointed 
as  they  are  to  be  sung  or  said  in  Churches :  and  the  form  or 
manner  of  making,  ordaining  and  consecrating  of  Bishops, 
Priests,  and  Deacons.' 

(London. 

Printed  by  His  Ma.ties  Printers. 
Cum  Privilegio. 
M.DC.LXII.)  * 

From  the  Title  Page  we  learn  that  the  B.C. P.  consists  of  : 
(1)  Common  Prayer ;  (2)  Administration  of  the  Sacraments  ; 
(3)  Other  Rites  and  Ceremonies  ;  (4)  the  Psalter ;  and  (5)  the 
Ordinal. 

Common  Prayer,  i.e.  Public  Prayers  intended  for  all.  A 
Book  of  Devotions  to  be  used  by  Clergy  and  people, 
as  distinguished  from  private  devotions.  The  words 
'  Common  Prayer '  more  particularly  refer  to  the  Morning 
and  Evening  Service  together  with  the  Litany. 

This  portion  of  the  B.C.P.  corresponds  to  the  Breviary. 

The  Sacraments,  i.e.  Baptism  and  Holy  Communion. 

Baptism  formed  part  of  the  Manual ;  Holy  Communion 
with  the  Collects,  Epistles,  and  Gospels  took  the  place  of 
the  Missal. 

Other  Rites  and  Ceremonies,  i.e.    Confirmation  (including  the 
Catechism),    the   Marriage   Service,    the   Burial   Service, 
Churching  of  Women,  etc. 
These  Offices  (with  Baptism)  formed  the  Manual. 

*  The  words  within  the  brackets  are  found  in  the  early  editions  of  the  1662 
B.C. P.,  but  they  were  erased  in  the  Sealed  Book,  as  not  being  found  in  the 
MS.  which  it  represents. 


THE    TITLE   PAGE  3 

The  word  '  Rite,'  strictly  speaking,  refers  to  the  Form 
of  Words  used,  as,  for  instance,  in  the  Marriage  and  Burial 
Services,  etc.  '  Ceremonies '  are  the  accompanying  actions, 
as  the  putting  on  the  ring  in  Marriage,  or  the  cross  in 
Baptism.  Here,  however,  the  two  words  are  used  almost 
synonymously. 

According  to  the  Use  of  the  Church  of  England. 

Prior  to  1549  there  were  several  Uses,  e.g.  Sarum,  York, 
Lincoln,  Hereford  ;  but  by  the  Act  of  Uniformity  of  that 
date  it  was  enacted  that  the  B.C. P.  was  to  be  the  only 
one  used  in  Churches.  Similarly  by  the  Act  of  Uni 
formity  of  1662  our  present  B.C.P.  is  the  only  Service 
Book  authorized  to  be  used.  Thus  since  1549  the  B.C.P. 
has  been  the  national  Use. 

The  Psalter,  or  Psalms  of  David. 

This  description  is  used  because  David  is  the  best  known 
of  the  Psalmists  ;  it  does  not  imply  that  he  is  the  author 
of  all  the  Psalms.  At  first  the  Psalter  was  not  printed 
in  the  B.C.P.,  but,  like  the  old  Psalterium,  was  bound  by 

itself.* 

Pointed  as  they  are  to  be  sung  or  said  in  churches ;  i.e. 
divided  by  a  colon  to  mark  the  division  of  the  verse 
which  corresponds  to  the  same  in  the  chant. 

Making,  Ordaining,  and  Consecrating  of  Bishops,  Priests,  and 
Deacons  ;  i.e.  The  Making  of  Deacons,  the  Ordaining  of 
Priests,  and  the  Consecration  of  Bishops.  The  word 
'  making  '  is  used  of  Deacons  to  emphasize  the  difference 
in  status  between  them  as  members  of  the  '  inferior 
Order,'  and  the  Presbyterate. 
This  answers  to  the  Pontifical. 


N.B.— The  books  called  'the  Sealed  Books'  are  copies  of  the  original 
B.C.P.,  annexed  to  the  Act  of  Uniformity,  1662.  They  were  printed  by 
the  King's  Printer,  and  certified  by  Royal  Commissioners.  These  'Sealed 
Books  '  were  deposited  at  each  of  the  Law  Courts,  at  Westminster,  the 
Cathedrals,  the  Tower,  and  other  leading  centres. 

*  As  early  as  1604,  the  Psalter  was  printed  in  B.C.P.,  James  Parker, 
First  P.  B.  of  Edward  compared,  p.  408.  The  book  of  1636  used  by  the 
1661  Revisers  had  bound  up  with  it  a  psalter,  uniform  in  type  with  the  rest, 
though  of  later  date,  1639, 


INTRODUCTORY 


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CONTENTS  OF   THE    VARIOUS   EDITIONS 


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3.  THE  ACT  OF  UNIFORMITY. 

AN  ACT 

FOR  THE  UNIFORMITY  OF  COMMON   PRAYER  AND  SERVICE   IN 
THE  CHURCH,  AND  ADMINISTRATION  OF  THE  SACRAMENTS. 

PRIMO  ELIZABETHS. 

Many  students  will  be  surprised  to  find  that  Queen  Elizabeth's 
Act  of  Uniformity  forms  part  of  our  Prayer  Book,  stands 
in  the  forefront  of  it,  and  is  numbered  1  in  the  Table  of  Con 
tents.  This  surprise  is  increased  by  the  fact  that  many  per 
sons  have  never  seen  a  Prayer  Book  containing  this  Act,  inas 
much  as  the  authorized  printers  for  many  years  illegally 
omitted  the  Act,  and  altered  the  numbers  of  the  statutory  Table 
of  Contents,  making  the  preface  No.  1.  Why  this  was  done 
cannot  now  be  ascertained.  It  is  true  that  the  '  Annexed  Book,' 
that  is,  the  actual  book  annexed  to  the  Act  of  Uniformity  of  1662, 
was  lost  for  many  years,  but  copies  known  as  the '  Sealed  Books  ' 
were  accessible  all  the  time,  and  in  all  of  these  the  Act  of  Queen 
Elizabeth  appeared  as  No.  1  in  the  Table  of  Contents.  The 
books  issued  as  Books  of  Common  Prayer  must  not  vary  from  the 
statutory  Annexed  Book  except  that  the  spelling  may  be  modern 
ized,  and  of  course  subsequent  statutory  modifications  must  be 
incorporated.  An  exact  copy  of  the  Annexed  Book  as  it  stands, 
has  been  printed,  and  may  be  used  by  students  for  the  purpose 
of  comparison.* 

Acts  of  Uniformity  were  rendered  necessary  by  the  peculiar 
constitution  of  the  Church  of  England  after  the  date  of  the  re- 
jpction  of  the  authority  of  the  Pope  and  Church  of  Rome  (see 
Baker  v.  Lee).  The  Church  of  Rome  was  and  is  a  free  Church, 
i.e.  it  makes  its  own  rules,  commonly  known  as  the  canon  law, 
and  with  these  rules  no  State  or  country  interferes,  unless  they 

*  By  the  King's  Printers.  The  student  should  also  refer  to  '  The  Statutory 
Prayer  Book,  as  enacted  by  the  Act  of  Uniformity,  and  amended  by  Sub 
sequent  Statutes,  or  by  Orders  in  Council,  with  a  Preface  showing  the  un 
authorized  changes  corrected  in  this  Edition,'  by  J.  T.  Tomlinson  and 
Charles  H.  H.  Wright,  D.D. 

R 


.THE  ACT  OF   UNIFORMITY  [> 

clash  with  the  temporal  laws  of  the  particular  country.  England 
was  no  exception  to  this.  Up  to  the  breach  with  Rome,  the  State 
never  interfered  with  matters  purely  spiritual. 

The  canon  law  having  been  abrogated,  and  considerable  differ 
ence  of  opinion  existing  among  the  principal  ministers  of  religion 
in  England,  the  most  learned  of  whom,  including  Archbishop 
Cranmer,  were  gradually  feeling  their  way  towards  the  true  Pro 
testant  faith,  there  was  from  the  date  of  the  breach  with  Rome 
•till  the  date  of  the  first  Act  of  Uniformity  (2  &  3  Edward  VI)  ^^m 
no  settled  authority,  and  no  legal  standard  of  religion.     The  Lord  ity  of  EJ 
Protector  and  the  Privy  Council  of  Edward  VI  had  done  their  best  w< 
to  '  stay  innovations  or  new  rites,'  but  not  with  much  success. 
The  task  was  the  more  difficult  as  there  had  been  in    Roman 
Catholic  times  in  the  realm  of  England  and  Wales  diverse  forms 
of  common  prayer  such  as  the  Uses  of  Sarum,  York,  Bangor,  and 
Lincoln.      Of  course,  these  involved  no  differences  of  doctrine. 
The  doctrine  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  was  uniform,  but  the 
existence  of  these  slightly  diverse  forms  of  prayer  made  it  the 
more  easy  for  much  more '  diverse  and  sundry  forms  and  fashions ' 
to  be  used  in  cathedral  and  parish  churches.     To  remedy  this 
and  restore  the  uniformity  which  the  rejection  of  the  Papal  author 
ity  had  destroyed,  it  was  resolved  to  have  a  statutory  Prayer 
Book  and  enforce  it  upon  the  whole  nation.     The  book  was 
naturally  in  the  nature  of  a  compromise.     It  was  (by  the  King's 
appointment)  drawn  up  by  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  and 
certain  bishops  and  other  learned  men  of  diverse  views.      The 
framers  were  directed  to  have  '  eye  and  respect '  as  well  to  '  the 
most  sincere  and  pure  Christian  religion  taught  by  the  Scripture,' 
as  to  the  usage  of  the  primitive  Church.     It  was  in  itself  a  '  godly  ' 
form,  but  provided  alternatives,  so  that  those  attached  to  Roman 
Catholic  forms  of  worship  should  not  be  too  much  offended. 
Hence  its  failure  as  a  '  Uniform  '  Book.     The  alternatives  were 
made  the  most  of  and  '  coaches  and  horses '  driven  through  some  of 
its  provisions,  so  that,  as  the  nation  was  now  advancing  in  Protest 
antism,  it  soon  became  necessary  to  have  a  new  book.     This,  the 
second  book  of  Edward  VI  (which  is  practically  the  Book  we  now 
use),  was  established  by  authority  of  Parliament  in  1552  (5  &  ^tofvn\- 
6  Edward  VI,  c.  1).    It  recites  that  a  godly  order  had  already  been  formity  of 
set  forth,  but  that  there  had  arisen  in  the  use  of  it  doubts  as  to  the 
fashion  and  manner  of  conducting  the  services,  caused  by  the 
ministers  and  mistakers  of  the  forms ;  therefore  the  words  of 
the  former  book  had  been  '  faithfully  and  godly  perused,  ex 
plained  and  made  fully  perfect.'     There  was  added  thereto  an 
Ordinal,  which  in  like  manner   was   an   explanation   and  per- 
feting  of  the  transition  Ordinal  of  1550. 


8  INTRODUCTORY 

f  The  Third  Act  of  Uniformity,  the  statute  1  Eliz.  c.  2,  forms 
part  of  our  present  Prayer  Book,  and  was  passed  after  the  inter 
regnum  of  Roman  Catholicism  in  the  reign  of  Queen  Mary,  and 
its  object  was  to  restore  the  status  quo  of  the  '  latter  year '  of 
King  Edward  VI.  It  repeals  Mary's  Acts  of  Parliament  which 
had  resulted  in  great  decay  of  the  due  honour  of  God,  and  (as  it 
is  mildly  put)  in  '  discomfort '  to  the  professors  of  the  truth  of 
Christ's  religion. 

The  Act  directs  the  second  Prayer  Book  of  Edward  VI  to  be 
used  with  one  alteration  in  certain  Lessons,  the  omission  of  the 
reference  to  the  Pope  and  '  his  detestable  enormities/  and  two 
sentences  only  added  in  the  delivery  of  the  Sacrament  to  the 
communicants  and  the  alterations  were  to  be  '  none  other  or 
otherwise.' 

The  Act  then  directs  with  great  particularity  the  various 
penalties  and  punishments  for  non-user  of  the  Book,  and  for 
speaking  in  derogation  of  it. 

Then  at  the  end  of  the  Act  comes  the  well-known  proviso 
containing  the  reference  to  the  second  year  of  Edward,  the  mean 
ing  of  which  has  been  settled  by  the  Privy  Council  and  is  referred 
to  later  on ;  and  lastly  all  laws  prescribing  other  services  are 
declared  to  be  utterly  void. 

Present  The  last  Act  of  Uniformity  (13  &  14  Car.  II,  c.  4)  proceeds  on 

formity.  BQUch  the  same  lines  as  the  preceding  ones,  the  idea  being  that 
all  English-people  should  hold  a  uniform  faith.  It  recites  that  a 
Prayer  Book  had  been  ordered  by  Queen  Elizabeth's  Act  of  Uni 
formity  agreeable  to  the  Word  of  God  and  usage  of  the  primitive 
Church  ;  that  many  persons  nevertheless  refused  to  come  to  their 
parish  church ;  and  that  the  King  had  directed  the  Convocations 
to  revise  the  Prayer  Book,  which  they  had  done.  This  book  was 
annexed  to  the  Statute,  which  enacts  that  all  ministers  must 
.  use  it,  and  a  form  of  declaration  is  given  by  which  they  were  to 
declare  their  unfeigned  assent  thereto.  (This  form  has  since  been 
altered.)  Severe  punishments  were  prescribed  for  such  ministers 
as  might  refuse. 

The  Act  then  proceeds  to  enact  the  clause  which  led  to  the 
secession  of  about  2000  of  the  clergy,  that  is  :  that  every  incum 
bent  not  Episcopally  Ordained  must  procure  himself  to  be  or 
dained  deacon  according  to  the  form  of  Episcopal  Ordination  before 
St.  Bartholomew's  Day,  1662  (Black  Bartholomew)  or  be  de 
prived.  This  new  departure  was  followed  up  by  another  clause 
which  provided  that  no  person  could  be  admitted  in  future  to  a 
living  or  be  allowed  to  consecrate  and  administer  the  Lord's  Sup 
per  unless  a  priest  by  Episcopal  Ordination  under  the  forms  given 
in  the  new  or  old  Prayer  Books.  The  penalty  for  each  offence 


THE  ACT  OF   UNIFORMITY  g 

was  fixed  at  £100,  a  very  large  sum  in  those  days,  but  it  was  not 
to  apply  to  foreigners  or  aliens  of  the  foreign  Reformed  Churches. 

The  Act  further  contains  regulations  as  to  subscription  to 
Articles,  lecturers,  licences  to  preach,  the  use  of  the  Prayer  Book 
in  Welsh  and  Latin,  the  alteration  of  royal  names  therein,  school 
masters,  with  very  heavy  penalties  for  breaches  thereof.  Much 
of  this  remains  law  to  the  present  day,  but  much  has  been 
altered,  especially  by  the  Acts  of  Toleration.  The  Act  also  con 
firmed  the  several  good  laws  and  statutes  then  in  force  for  estab 
lishing  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer,  and,  as  we  have  seen,  the  Act 
of  Elizabeth  was  made  part  of  the  annexed  Prayer  Book. 

For  300  years  no  deviation  from  the  order  and  form  in  the  Act  of  um. 
Prayer  Book  was  allowed,  in  fact,  until  about  the  year  1840,  fprmity 

,    J       . ,       ,.   , .  f          .,       ,  -f,  ,       J  Amendment 

when  ritualistic  non-conformity  began.     It  was,  however,  con-  Act,  1372. 
sidered  that  this  ancient  form  of  service,  especially  at  Morning 
Prayer,  was  rather  too  long,  so  in  1872  an  Act  was  passed,  called 
the  Act  of  Uniformity   Amendment  Act,  by  which  a  shortened 
Order  of  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer  was  introduced. 

'  This  form  may  be  used  on  any  day  except  Sunday,  Christ 
mas  Day,  Ash  Wednesday,  Good  Friday,  and  Ascension  Day ; 
if  in  a  cathedral,  in  addition  to,  and  if  in  a  church,  in  lieu  of,  the 
usual  form  (sect.  2).  This  shortened  form  comprises  what  is 
known  as  the  "  Order  for  Morning  Prayer,"  or  "  Evening  Prayer," 
with  the  omission,  at  the  minister's  discretion,  of  all  or  any  of  the 
following  portions,  viz. : — All  the  appointed  Psalms,  except  one  ; 
one  of  the  Lessons  (unless  there  are  two  proper  Lessons  for  the  day, 
when  both  must  be  read) ;  the  Lesser  Litany  and  the  Lord's 
Prayer  following  the  Creed  ;  the  prayers  for  the  Bang's  Majesty, 
the  Royal  Family,  the  clergy  and  people.  Each  section  of  the 
119th  Psalm  is  deemed  to  be  a  separate  Psalm.  The  Act  also 
directs  that  upon  any  special  occasion  there  may  be  used  in 
any  cathedral  or  church  a  special  form  of  service  approved  by 
the  ordinary,  but  there  must  not  be  introduced  into  it  anything 
(except  anthems  or  hymns)  which  does  not  form  part  of  the  Holy 
Scriptures  or  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer  (sects.  3, 4).  *  The  Order 
for  Morning  Prayer,  the  Litany,  and  the  Communion  Service 
may  be  used  as  separate  services,  either  together  or  in  varying 
order,  and  the  Litany  may  be  said  after  the  third  collect  at  Even 
ing  Prayer,  either  in  lieu  of  or  in  addition  to  the  use  of  the  Li'cany 
at  Morning  Prayer,  but  without  prejudice  to  any  legal  powers 

*  '  Form  part  of '  has  always  been  taken  to  mean  '  form  part  of  the 
text  of."  But  Archbishop  Temple  broached  the  opinion  that  it  excludes 
only  such  a  service  as  'expresses  any  doctrine  which  you  cannot  find  the 
substance  of  either  in  the  Bible  or  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer.'  See 
Letter  of  Sir  William  Harcourt  to  The  Times,  August  15,  1898. 


to  INTRODUCTORY 

vested  in  the  ordinary  ;  and  any  of  the  said  forms  of  service  may 
be  used  with  or  without  a  sermon,  lecture,  or  homily  (sect.  5)< 
A  sermon  or  lecture  may  be  preached  without  a  previous  Prayer 
Book  Service,  but,  if  so,  it  must  be  preceded  by  a  service  author 
ized  by  the  Act,  or  by  a  bidding  prayer  (see  p.  309),  or  by  a  Prayer 
Book  Collect,  with  or  without  the  Lord's  Prayer  (sect.  6).  An 
additional  form  of  service  varying  from  any  Prayer  Book  form 
may  be  used  at  any  hour,  on  any  Sunday  or  Holy  Day,  in  any 
cathedral  or  church  in  which  the  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer, 
the  Litany,  and  the  ante-Communion  Service  are  duly  read  at 
some  other  hour  or  hours,  so  that  there  be  not  introduced  into 
such  additional  service  any  portion  of  the  Communion  Service, 
or  anything  (except  anthems  or  hymns)  which  does  not  form  part 
of  the  Holy  Scriptures  or  Prayer  Book,  and  so  that  such  form  of 
service,  and  the  mode  in  which  it  is  used,  is  for  the  time  being 
approved  by  the  ordinary ;  provided  that  nothing  in  this  section 
shall  affect  the  use  of  any  portion  of  the  Prayer  Book  as  otherwise 
authorized  by  the  Act  of  Uniformity  or  this  Act  (sect.  4).' — White- 
head's  'Church  Law,'  3rd  edition,  pp.  258-259. 

Alterations  have  also  been  made  by  Statute  in  the  Calendar 
and  in  the  Table  of  Lessons. 


THE 

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4.  THE  PREFACES 

i.  THE  [GENERAL]  PREFACE, 

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STRUCTURAL  DISPLAY  OF  TEXT,  WITH  HEADING 

I.  abe  Cburcb  ot  jEnglanD's  (Buioing  principle 

I.  TAe  Principle  stated. 
The  Avoidance  of  Extremes  ;  The  Adoption  c 

been  the  wisdom  of  the  Church  of  England, 
•  since  the  first  (a)  compiling  (6)  of  her  Public  Liturgy,  [1] 
the  Mean  between  the  two  Extremes, 
oo  much  Stiffness  in  refusing,  and 
oo  much  Easiness  in  admitting  any  variation  from  it. 

2.  The  Wisdom  of  the  Primipl 

the  one  side  common  Experience  sheweth, 
where  a  change  hath  been  made  of  tilings  advisedly  est 
(no  evident  necessity  so  requiring) 
fc  1  sundry  inconveniences  have  thereupon  ensued  ;  and 
•.  those  many  times  more,  and  greater  than  the  evils,  that  were 

the  other  side, 
particular  Forms  of  Divine  Worship,  and 
Rites  (c),  and  Ceremonies  (d)  appointed  to  be  used  therein, 
>eing  things  in  their  own  nature  Indifferent,  and  alterable,  a 
b  reasonable, 

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ion  weighty  and  important  considerations, 
cording  to  the  various  exigency  of  times  and  oc 
changes  and  alterations  should  be  made  thereii 
to  those  that  are  in  place  of  Authority  (/)  [2]  i 

either  necessary  or  expedient. 

3.  Examples  of  Adherence  tc 

we  find, 
the  reign  of  several  Princes  of  blessed  memory 
(  upon  just  and  weighty  consideration! 
Church  |  hath  yielded  to  make  such  alterations  : 
(  as  in  their  respective  times  were  tho 
/the  main  Body,  and  Essentials  of  it 

(as  well  in  the  chief  est  materials,  as  in  tl 
have  still  continued  the  same  unto  this  daj 
do  yet  stand  firm  and  unshaken, 
notwithstanding  all  the  vain  attempts  ar 
bv  such  men  as  are  given  to  change,  i 

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II.  Gbe  Circumstances  wbicb  le& 

1.  The  Discontinuance  during  the  Commons 

due  means,  and  for  what  mischievous  purposes 
•ijoined  by  the  Laws  of  the  Land,  and  those  La 
y  the  late  unhappy  confusions,  to  be  discontinu 
'nown  to  the  World,  and  we  are  not  willing  her 

le  Opposition  of  the  Presbyterians  to  the  restituti 

MI  his  Majesty's  happy  Restoration  it  seemed  p 
of  the  Liturgy  also  would  return  of  course 
e  same  having  never.  been  legally  abolished) 
9  some  timely  means  were  used  to  prevent  it  ; 

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ender  the  people  disaffected  thereunto, 
nselves  in  point  of  reputation  and  interest  cone 
less  they  would  freely  acknowledge  themselves  t 
hich  such  men  are  very  hardly  brought  to  do) 
•heir  utmost  endeavours  (k)  to  hinder  the  restitl 
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ions  therein,  and  Additions  thereunto  made, 
be  thought  requisite  for  the  ease  of  tender  Cons 

3.  The  Concession  made  by  His  Majesty 
eclaration  concerning  Ecclesiastical  Affairs  was 
/  out  of  his  pious  inclination  to  give  satisf 

it  I  (so  far  as  could  be  reasonably  expec 
to  all  His  Subjects  of  what  persuasion 
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is  now  become  necessary,  and  may  be  alway 
of  Natives  in  our  Plantations,  (o)  [5]  and  ot 

5.  Invitation  to  the  Reader  to  note  the  Cha 

man,  who  shall  desire  a  more  particular  Accou 
1  take  the  pains  to  compare  the  present  Book 
u  not  but  the  reason  of  the  change  may  easily 

vi.  Expression  of  tbe  1bopc  tbat 

ing  thus  endeavoured 
ischarge  our  duties  in  this  weighty  affair,  as  ir 
pprove  our  sincerity  therein  (so  far  as  lay  in  u 
gh  we  know  it  impossible 
(in  such  variety  of  apprehensions,  humours,  a 

if 

of'" 

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0    C 
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e  have  good  hope, 
!,  .  fis  here  presented,  and 
\  hath  been  by  the  Convocations  of  both  Pr 
will  be  also  well  accepted  and  approved 
by  all  sober,  peaceable,  and  truly  conscient 

'  >. 

>*e"  -° 

>"Ccsp      Jjhtsis        -*1 

THE  PREFACE  17 


NOTES. 

Paragraph  I. 

The  first  compiling  of  her  publick  Liturgy  [1].  This  refers  to  the  first 
Prayer  Book  of  Edward  VI.,  1549.  Before  this  the  Church  of  Eng 
land  as  a  whole  had  no  public  liturgy,  for  different  dioceses  had  dif 
ferent  '  Uses,'  e.g.,  those  of  Hereford,  Bangor,  Lincoln,  York  and 
Sarum.  The  word  '  Liturgy  '  is  here  applied  to  the  whole  Prayer 
Book.  It  is  technically  used  by  ecclesiastical  writers  for  the  office 
of  the  Holy  Communion  only. 

Those  that  are  in  place  of  Authority  [2] .  The  work  of  revision  was 
accomplished  by  a  Committee  of  Members  of  Convocation,  and  then 
the  result  was  submitted  to  Convocation.  When  it  was  approved, 
it  was  submitted  to  Parliament  and  the  King. 

Paragraph  III. 

We  [3]  :  i.e.,  the  Committee  of  eight  Bishops  appointed  by  the  Upper 
House  of  Convocation  after  the  Savoy  Conference  to  revise  the 
Book — Cosin  of  Durham,  Henchman  of  Salisbury,  Morley  of  Wor 
cester,  Nicholson  of  Gloucester,  Sanderson  of  Lincoln,  Skinner  of 
Oxford,  Warner  of  Eochester,  and  Wren  of  Ely. 

Paragraph  IV. 

Anabaptism  [4]  :  i.e.,  the  belief  of  those  who  deny  the  validity  of 
Infant  Baptism.  The  sect  of  Anabaptists  originated  in  Germany 
and  was  introduced  into  England  early  in  the  sixteenth  century, 
but  their  tenets  embraced  many  things  besides  what  is  here  meant 
by  '  Anabaptism.' 

During  the  period  of  the  Commonwealth  there  was  much  neglect 
of  the  rite  of  Baptism  and  a  large  number  of  adults  were  unbaptized. 

In  Our  Plantations  [5]  :  i.e.,  Colonies.  During  the  latter  half  of  the 
seventeenth  century  England's  possessions  in  the  Western  Hemi 
sphere  rapidly  increased.  Old  colonies  were  developed  and  new  ones 
established,  e.g.,  Virginia,  Jamaica,  the  Carolinas,  etc.  This  refer 
ence  is  one  of  the  earliest  indications  of  the  Church  of  England 
realizing  her  possibilities  as  a  Missionary  Church. 

Paragraph  V. 

The  Convocations  of  both  Provinces  [6].  The  Prayer  Book  of  1662 
(which  is  the  only  one  binding  on  the  Church  of  England)  received 
the  fullest  sanction  the  Church  could  give.  The  Book  was  sub 
mitted  to  the  Convocations  of  both  Provinces — representatives  of  the 
Convocation  of  York  sitting  with  the  Convocation  of  Canterbury. 


:S 


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CONCERNING    THE   SERVICE  OF   THE   CHURCH      23 


NOTES. 
Paragraph  I. 

They  so  ordered  .  .  .  that  all  the  whole  Bible  (or  the  greatest  part 
thereof)  should  be  read  over  once  every  year  [1]. 

This  refers  to  the  primitive  arrangement  for  the  reading  of  the 
Scriptures.  The  Lessons  were  not  definitely  appointed,  but  the  books 
to  be  read  were  assigned  to  different  parts  of  the  year. 

To  Cassian,  who  founded  two  monasteries  in  Marseilles  (ob.  circ. 
440  A.D.)J  the  introduction  of  a  regular  system  of  daily  Lessons  is 
probably  due  (cf.  Burbidge,  '  Liturgies  and  Offices  of  the  Church,' 
p.  119). 

Paragraph  II. 

Planting  in  uncertain  Stories,  and  Legends  [2] :  i.e.  by  reading  spurious 
'  Acts  of  Saints  and  Martyrs.'  '  Proper  Lessons,  which  were  not 
commonly  taken  from  Holy  Scripture,  were  provided  for  so  many 
saints'  days,  that  the  ordinary  course  of  the  ^Sunday  and  week-day 
Lessons  must  have  been  continually  interrupted  '  (Burbidge,  p.  127, 
note  2). 

Responds,  Verses,  vain  Repetitions  [3].  These  Responds  were  com 
plicated  repetitions  of  words  which  referred  to  the  contents  of  the 
Lesson  and  were  supposed  to  give  the  keynote  of  the  Lection. 
Verses  were  versicles  following  the  Responds  ;  and  the  '  vain  Repeti 
tions  '  refer  to  the  words  of  the  Lesson  being  repeated  again  in  the 
Respond  and  in  the  Verse.  For  example,  on  Advent  Sunday  the 
First  Lesson  was  Isa.  i.  1,  2 ;  the  reader  adding,  '  Thus  saith 
the  Lord  God,  Turn  ye  unto  Me,  and  ye  shall  be  saved.'  This  was 
followed  by  a  Respond,  '  Looking  from  afar,  behold  I  see  the  power 
of  God  coming,  and  a  cloud  covering  the  whole  earth.  Go  to  meet 
Him  and  say,  Tell  us  if  thou  art  He  who  shall  rule  Thy  people  Israel.' 
Then  various  verses  were  said,  and  parts  of  the  respond  were  repeated, 
concluding  with  the  Gloria.  Then  followed  Isa.  i.  3,  4,  with 
another  respond  and  verse  (cf.  Brev.  Sar.  fol.  ii, '  The  Matin  Offices  '). 

Commemorations  [4]  :  i.e.,  the  forma  of  service  commemorating  the 
Virgin,  or  those  in  honour  of  local  saints,  which  were  introduced  into 
other  festal  or  non-festal  services. 

Synodals  [5]  :  i.e.  Canons  of  Synods,  or  notices  of  special  festivals 
prescribed  by  a  provincial  or  diocesan  synod,  read  after  the  Lessons. 

The  Service  in  this  Church  of  England  these  many  years  hath  been  read 
in  Latin  to  the  people,  which  they  understand  not  [6].  The  earliest 
Liturgical  Services  of  the  Western  Church  were  in  Greek,  but  as 
Latin  became  the  -common  language  the  Services  were  translated 
into  it.  During  the  Middle  Ages  there  seems  to  have  been  little  or 
no  attempt  to  give  the  peopla  a  service  in  their  own  tongue.  It 
was  not  until  the  sixteenth  century  that  the  need  of  the  Services 
in  the  vernacular  was  attempted  to  be  met  (cf.  Hermann's  'Con. 'in 
German,  1543).  The  phrase  '  this  Church  of  England  these  many 
years'  well  proves  that  the  Reformers  viewed  their  work  as  the 
reforming  of  the  Old  Church  of  England,  and  not  the  founding  of 
a  new  one. 


24  INTRODUCTORY 

The  ancient  Fathers  have  divided  the  Psalms  into  seven  portions,  whereof 
every  one  was  called  a  Nocturn  [7]. 

'  Nocturn '  was  originally  the  name  of  a  night  service,  but  it  became 
applied  later  to  the  portions  of  Psalms  read  at  that  time.  Probably 
here  the  word  covers  the  whole  of  the  Psalms  for  both  Mattins  and 
Vespers. 

The  Psalms  were  divided  among  the  daily  Hour  Services.  '  Those 
for  Prime,  Tierce,  Sext,  Nones  and  Compline  were  all  fixed,  i.e.  the 
same  Psalms  were  used  at  these  hours.  Those  for  Mattins,  Lauds 
and  Vespers  were  read  in  course '  (E.  Daniel). 

This  system  was,  however,  never  adhered  to  in  detail.  There 
were  many  interruptions  through  the  occurrence  of  festivals  and  the 
general  practice  (outside  Monastic  houses)  of  combining  the  eight 
Hour  Services  into  three,  completely  broke  up  the  order  of  reading 
on  ordinary  days. 

The  number  and  hardness  of  the  rules  called  the  Pie  [8]. 

The  Pie  (Latin  pica,  '  a  magpie,'  and  hence  applied  to  the  largo 
black  letters  at  the  beginning  of  a  fresh  order)  was  a  book  which 
contained  the  order  of  the  service  of  the  day. 

The  Responds  and  Verses  varied  from  day  to  day,  and  the  service 
varied  according  to  the  relative  importance  of  Saints'  Days.  Thus 
it  came  about '  that  to  turn  the  Book  only  was  so  hard  and  intricate 
a  matter,  that  many  times  there  was  more  business  to  find  out  what 
should  be  read,  than  to  read  it  when  it  was  found  out.' 

Paragraph  III. 

Anthems  [9]  or  Antiphons,  were  originally  Psalms  or  hymns  recited 
by  alternate  voices.  Later  they  became  largely  mutilated  by  the 
reduction  of  the  Psalm  to  a  single  verse  with  or  without  a  Gloria  or 
with  a  refrain.  They  were  sung  before  and  after  the  Canticles  of 
the  Daily  Services  to  emphasize  the  teaching  of  the  day  or  season 
(see  Burbidge,  '  Liturgies  and  Offices  of  the  Church,'  p.  130,  foot 
note  4). 

Invitatories  [10]  were  verses  introduced  before  the  Venite  and  re 
peated  hi  whole  or  part  after  every  few  verses. 

Paragraph  IV. 

Nothing  is  ordained  to  be  read,  but  the  very  pure  Word  of  God,  the  holy 
Scriptures,  or  that  which  is  agreeable  to  the  same  [11]. 

The  phrase  '  that  which  is  agreeable  to  the  same  '  probably  applies 
to  the  Apocrypha  which  was  largely  read  according  to  the  rules  of 
the  Calendar  of  1549.  (For  the  use  of  the  Apocrypha,  cf.  Art.  VI, 
and  Hooker,  '  Eccles.  Pol.'  Bk.  V,  ch.  20.) 

Few  and  easy  [12].  After  these  words  in  the  Prayer  Book  of  1549. 
the  following  sentence  occurred  :  '  Furthermore,  by  this  order,  the 
Curates  shall  need  none  other  books  for  their  public  service,  but  this 
book  and  the  Bible  ;  by  the  means  whereof,  the  people  shall  not  be  at 
so  great  charge  for  books,  as  in  time  past  they  have  been.'  It  was 
expunged  in  1662. 

Paragraph  7. 
All  the  whole  Realm  shall  have  but  one  Use  [13]. 

Prior  to  the  Reformation  the  Uses  were  varied.  Besides  those 
mentioned  in  this  paragraph  there  were  special  Uses  at  Lichfield, 
Exeter,  Wells,  St.  Asaph,  St.  Paul's,  etc. 


CONCERNING    THE   SERVICE   OF   THE   CHURCH      25 

Attempts  were  made  from  time  to  time  to  secure  greater  uni 
formity,  e.g.  St.  Paul's  Use  was  ordered  to  be  discontinued  in  1415, 
and  the  Sarum  Use  replaced  those  of  Exeter  and  Wells.  The  intro 
duction  of  printing  tended  to  produce  uniformity,  for  many  editions 
of  the  Sarum  Breviary  and  Missal  were  issued  in  the  early  part  of  the 
sixteenth  century.  In  1542  the  Convocation  of  Canterbury  ordered 
the  Sarum  Use  to  be  employed  throughout  the  whole  of  the  Southern 
Province. 

After  the  words  '  one  Use '  in  the  Prayer  Book  of  1549  there  was 
inserted  the  following  paragraph.  '  And  if  any  would  judge  this 
way  more  painful,  because  that  all  things  must  be  read  upon  the 
book,  whereas  before  by  the  reason  of  so  often  repetition,  they  could 
say  many  things  by  heart ;  if  those  men  will  weigh  their  labour 
with  the  profit  and  knowledge,  which  daily  they  shall  obtain  by 
reading  upon  the  book,  they  will  not  refuse  the  pain,  in  considera 
tion  of  the  great  profit  that  shall  ensue  thereof.'  This  was  omitted 
in  1662. 

The  Appendix. 

1.  In  the  English  Tongue  [14].  For  the  edification  of  the  congrega 
tion  the  vernacular  must  be  used  in  public  worship.  In  private 
devotion  men  may  use  any  language  they  understand. 

The  Act  of  Uniformity  of  1662  allows  the  use  of  Lathi  at  colleges 
of  the  universities,  and  those  of  Westminster,  Winchester,  and  Eton, 
and  in  the  Convocations  of  the  Clergy.  It  also  orders  the  Bishops 
of  Hereford,  St.  David's,  St.  Asaph,  Bangor,  arid  Llandaff,  to  see 
that  the  Book  be  truly  and  accurately  translated  into  Welsh. 
2.  AH  Priests  and  Deacons  are  to  say  daily  the  Morning  and  Evening 

Prayer,  etc.  [15]. 

The  two  concluding  paragraphs  relating  to  the  daily  use  of  Morning  and 
Evening  Prayer  take  the  place  of  one  paragraph  in  1549,  which  limited 
rather  than  enforced  that  use  :  '  Neither  that  any  man  shall  be  bound  to  the 
saying  of  them,  but  such  as  from  time  to  time,  in  Cathedral  and  Collegiate 
Churches,  Parish  Churches,  and  Chapels  to  the  same  annexed,  shall  serve 
the  congregation.'  This  concession  to  the  predilections  of  those  who  re 
garded  the  Prayer  Book  as  new-fangled  in  1549' was  removed  in  1552,  the 
present  directions  being  substituted.  All  Priests  and  Deacons,  Bishop ; 
being  curiously  excepted,  were  now  enjoined  to  say  the  services  daily,  either 
publicly  or  privately,  parish  clergy  being  compelled  to  their  public  use. 
Exception  was  expressly  allowed  for  '  preaching,  studying  of  divinity,  or 
some  other  urgent  cause,'  in  the  case  of  clergy  generally  :  while  parish 
clergy  were  allowed  to  forego  public  use  if  absent  from  home,  '  or  otherwise 
reasonably  letted.'  In  1662  the  mention  of  '  preaching  '  and  '  studying 
of  divinity '  was  excluded,  '  sickness '  being  substituted.  The  quaint 
direction  to  the  Curate  to  toll  the  bell  was  also  altered  to '  cause  a  bell  to  be 
tolled.' 

In  regard  to  the  practical  interpretation  of  the  conditions  attached  to  this 
regulation,  there  is  some  difference  of  opinion.  The  substitution  of  a  com 
pulsory  cause  like  '  sickness  '  for  the  expedient  causes  '  preaching  '  and 
'  study,'  is  thought  to  point  to  a  greater  stringency.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  S.L.  of  1637,  which  was  before  the  Revisers  in  1662,  mentioned  no  ex 
ceptions  at  all,  and  made  the  Bishop  or  Archbishop  the '  Judge  and  Allower  ' 
if  the  '  urgent  cause  '  was  '  frequently  pretended.'  This  example  was  not 
followed  in  1662,  and  therefore  the  individual  is  left  to  judge  for  himself, 
both  with  regard  to  the  public  and  private  use,  whether  there  is  urgent  cause 
to  pretermit  the  daily  morning  and  evening  service.  To  try  to  define  that 


26  INTRODUCTORY 

which  has  been  deliberately  left  undefined,  is  an  unwarrantable  intrusion 
into  the  domain  of  private  judgment ;  it  may,  however,  be  pointed  out  that 
the  changes  since  the  rule  was  made  have  contributed  '  urgent  causes  '  which 
are  none  the  less  urgent  that  they  could  not  have  been  in  the  minds  of  the 
Revisers — (1)  the  impossibility  in  many  parishes  of  the  people  coming  to 
public  worship :  (2)  the  provision,  through  the  great  development  of 
parochial  organizations,  of  other  and  more  convenient  opportunities  of 
common  prayer  :  (3)  the  progress  of  education  which  allows  of  private 
reading  and  prayer  to  an  extent  undreamed  of  in  1662.  In  regard  to  the 
ministerial  aspect  of  the  question,  moreover,  it  must  be  added  that  the  far 
greater  demands  made  upon  the  time  of  the  '  Curate,'  the  result  of  a  far 
higher  conception  of  the  responsibilities  of  his  office,  both  in  regard  to  men 
tal  equipment,  and  the  actual  cure  of  souls,  together  with  the  enormously 
increased  range  of  thought  to  dictate  to  him  the  nature  and  extent  of  h's 
private  devotions,  must  tend  to  multiply  the  causes  which,  upon  the  strong 
est  and  most  spiritual  grounds,  should  be  deemed  '  urgent.' 

'  It  is  manifest  that  as  the  conditions  of  life  to-day  are  so  vastly  different 
from  those  of  the  sixteenth  century,  it  is  impossible  to  observe  this  rule 
universally  throughout  all  the  parishes  of  the  land.  Not  only  is  life  in 
finitely  more  hurried  and  fuller  of  engagements,  but  Church  life  is  entirely 
different  in  its  multiplicity  of  meetings  and  opportunities  for  united  gather 
ings  for  prayer  and  work.  The  latter  fact  should  be  ever  borne  in  mind. 
The  consequence  is,  that  even  where  Daily  Prayer  is  the  rule  there  are  very 
few  Churches  where  both  Morning  and  Evening  Prayers  are  said,  and  even  in 
these,  moreover,  the  relaxation  afforded  by  the  Act  of  Uniformity  Amend 
ment  Act  of  1872  is  utilized,  whereby  the  shortened  Form  is  used.  The 
matter  is  clearly  one  which  will  depend  entirely  on  local  and  congregational 
circumstances,  and  the  "  reasonable  hindrance  "  must  be  left  to  the  con 
science  and  decision  of  the  clergyman  in  charge.  In  a  lubric,  the  obser 
vance  of  which  is  essentially  connected  with  such  changes  and  even  trans 
formations  of  conditions  as  obtain  to-day,  compared  with  the  sixteenth 
century,  the  clergy  and  people  cannot  fairly  be  called  disloyal  to  the  Prayer 
Book,  if  for  any  personal  or  local  reasons  Daily  Prayer  in  Church  is  found 
impracticable.  At  the  same  time,  it  is  impossible  to  over-estimate  the 
spiritual  blessing  to  a  parish  where  minister  and  people  meet  day  by  day 
for  praise  and  prayer  and  intercession.' — '  The  Catholic  Faith,'  W.  H. 
Griffith  Thomas,  pp.  241,  242. 

'  From  the  wording  of  the  directions,  the  order  about  Daily  Prayer  in  the 
Church  is  clearly  associated  with  the  gatherirg  of  a  congregation.  The 
idea  is  not  that  of  solitary  prayers  by  the  clergy,  but  the  union  of  pastor 
and  people  in  Daily  Prayer.  He  is  to  "  cause  a  bell  to  be  tolled  thereunto 
a  convenient  time  before!  e  begin,  that  the  people  may  come  to  hear  God's 
Word  and  to  pray  with  him  "  '  (ibid.,  p.  241). 


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moreover, 

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Z 
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4* 

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9 

^3 

d 

g  -P  o  o  -P  2 

!S    d  +»  -P    c8    a 

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— 

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c 

z  * 

OF  CEREMONIES  31 


NOTES. 

Paragraph  I, 

Such  Ceremonies  as  be  used  in  the  Church,  and  have  had  their  beginning 
by  the  institution  of  man  [1]. 

The  Reformers  drew  a  very  strong  line  of  distinction  between 
ceremonies  derived  from  the  Bible,  e.g.  use  of  water  in  Baptism, 
and  bread  and  wine  in  Holy  Communion,  and  those  introduced 
on  man's  authority,  e.g.  making  the  sign  of  the  Cross,  and  kneeling 
to  receive  the  elements. 

The  word  '  Ceremony  '  is  here  quoted  in  the  same  sense  as  in  the 
Title  of  the  Prayer  Book ;  it  includes  all  the  actions  used  in  the 
different  Offices. 

In  the  Mediaeval  Service  Books,  and  even  in  the  English  Prayer 
Book  of  1549,  there  were  many  ceremonies  prescribed  which  were 
not  retained  in  later  revisions,  e.g.  exorcism  and  anointing  in  the 
service  of  Baptism ;  tokens  of  spousage,  gold  or  silver,  given  in 
Matrimony ;  a  sick  person  was  anointed  on  forehead  or  breast  and 
the  sign  of  the  Cross  made  in  the  Visitation  of  the  Sick ;  the 
Churched  woman  was  to  offer  her  chrisom,  etc. 
By  undiscreet  devotion,  and  such  a  zeal  as  was  without  knowledge  [2]. 
This  is  well  illustrated  by  the  introduction  of  images,  the  veneration 
of  relics,  and  undue  honouring  of  saints. 

Paragraph  II. 

The  wilful  and  contemptuous  transgression  ...  is  no  small  offence 
before  God  [3]. 

For  the  principles  on  which  all  Ceremonial  ought  to  bo  judged,  cf. 
Hooker's  '  Ecclesiastical  Polity,'  Book  V,  c.  6-10  ;  and  Art.  XXXIV. 

Paragraph  IV. 

Saint  Augustine  in  his  time  complained  [4].  The  reference  is  to  Augus 
tine's  '  Epis.  65  ad  Januarium,'  cap.  xix.  35 :  'I  cannot,  however, 
sanction  with  my  approbation  those  ceremonies  which  are  depar 
tures  from  the  custom  of  the  Church,  and  are  instituted  on  the  pre 
text  of  being  symbolical  of  some  holy  mystery ;  although,  for  the 
sake  of  avoiding  offence  to  the  piety  of  some  and  the  pugnacity 
of  others,  I  do  not  venture  to  condemn  severely  many  things  of  thia 
kind.  But  this  I  deplore,  and  have  too  much  occasion  to  do  so,  that 
comparatively  little  attention  is  paid  to  many  of  the  most  whole 
some  rites  which  Scripture  has  enjoined ;  and  that  so  many  false 
notions  everywhere  prevail,  that  more  severe  rebuke  would  be  ad 
ministered  to  a  man  who  should  touch  the  ground  with  his  feet  bare 
during  the  octaves  (before  his  baptism)  than  to  one  who  drowned 
his  intellect  in  drunkenness.  My  opinion  therefore  is  that,  wher 
ever  it  is  possible,  all  those  things  should  be  abolished  without  hesi 
tation,  which  neither  have  warrant  in  Holy  Scripture  nor  are  found 
to  have  been  appointed  by  Councils  of  bishops,  nor  are  confirmed 
by  the  practice  of  the  universal  Church,  but  are  so  infinitely  various, 
according  to  the  different  customs  of  different  places,  that  it  is  with 
difficulty,  if  at  all,  that  the  reasons  which  guided  men  in  appointing 
them  can  be  discovered.  For  even  although  nothing  be  found,  per 
haps,  in  which  they  are  against  the  true  faith,  yet  the  Christian 


32  INTRODUCTORY 

religion,  which  God  in  His  mercy  made  free,  appointing  to  her  Sacra 
ments  very  few  in  number,  and'  very  easily  observed,  is  by  these 
burdensome  ceremonies  so  oppressed,  that  the  condition  of  the  Jewish 
Church  itself  is  preferable  :  for  although  they  have  not  known  the 
time  of  their  freedom,  they  are  subjected  to  burdens  imposed  by 
the  Law  of  God,  not  by  the  vain  conceits  of  men.  The  Church  of 
God,  however,  being  [meanwhile  so  constituted  as  to  enclose  much 
chaff  and  many  tares,  bears  with  many  things ;  yet  if  anything  be 
contrary  to  the  faith  or  to  holy  life,  she  does  not  approve  of  it  either 
by  silence  or  by  practice." ' 

Paragraph  V. 

Neither  dark  nor  dumb  Ceremonies  [5].     '  The  tenor  of  the  Common 
Prayer  is  openness  '  (Archbishop  Benson). 


5.  RULES  CONCERNING  PSALTER  AND  LECTIONARY. 

i.  THE  ORDER  HOW  THE  PSALTER  is  APPOINTED  TO  BE  READ. 

Prior  to  1662  there  was  placed  above  this  Order  the  following 
Headings  : — 

1549.  The  Table  and  Kalendar,  expressing  the  Order  of  the 
Psalms  and  Lessons  to  be  said  at  Matins  and  Even 
song  [the  Morning  and  Evening  prayer,  1552],  throughout 
the  year,  except  certain  proper  feasts,  as  the  rules  follow 
ing  more  plainly  declare. 
Paragraph  No.  1. 

1549.  The  Psalter  shall  be  read  through  once  every  Month, 
and  because  that  some  Months  be  longer  than  some 
other  be,  it  is  thought  good,  to  make  them  even  by  this 
means. 

To  every  Month,  as  concerning  this  purpose,  shall  be 
appointed  just  xxx  days. 

And  because  January  and  March  hath  one  day  above 
the  said  number,  and  February,  which  is  placed  between 
them  both,  hath  only  xxxviij  days,  February  shall  borrow 
of  either  of  the  Months,  (of  January  and  March),  one 
day,  and  so  the  Psalter,  which  shall  be  -  ^ad  in  February, 
must  begin  the  last  day  of  January ,  •-  1  end  the  first 
day  of  March. 

1662.  The  Psalter  shall  be  read  through  once  every  Month, 
as  it  is  there  appointed,  both  for  Morning  and  Evening 
Prayer.  But  in  February  it  shall  be  read  only  to  the 
twenty-eighth  or  twenty-ninth  day  of  the  Month. 
Paragraph  No.  2.  Prior  to  1662  the  following  clause  stood  at 
the  end  of  this  Paragraph :  '  Now  to  know  what  Psalms 
shall  be  read  every  day,  look  in  the  Calendar  the  number 


RULES   CONCERNING   PSALTER  AND  LECTIONARY     33 

that  is  appointed  for  the  Psalins,  and  then  find  the  same 
number  in  this  Table,  and  upon  that  number  shall  you 
see  what  Psalms  shall  be  said  at  Matins  and  Evensong 
[at  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer,  1552].' 

Paragraph  No.  3.  Prior  to  1662  the  following  clause  stood  at 
the  end  of  it :  '  As  you  shall  perceive  to  be  noted  in  this 
Table'  ['following'  added  1552]. 

Paragraph  No.  4,  5  together  with  the  Doxology  added  1662. 

Paragraph  No.  5. 

1549.  And  here  is  also  to  be  noted,  that  in  this  Table,  and 
in  all  other  parts  of  the  Service,  where  any  Psalms  are 
appointed,  the  number  is  expressed  after  the  Great  Eng 
lish  Bible,  which  from  the  ix.  Psalm  unto  the  cxlviij.  Psalm 
(following  the  division  of  the  Hebrews)  doth  vary  in 
numbers  from  the  common  Latin  translation. 
1662.  Note,  that  the  Psalter  followeth  the  division  of  the 
Hebrews,  and  the  Translation  of  the  great  English  Bible, 
set  forth  and  used  in  the  time  of  King  Henry  the  Eighth, 
and  Edward  the  Sixth. 

Prior  to  1662  there  was  here  added  the  Table  for  the  Order  of 
the  Psalms,  to  be  said  at  Matins  and  Evensong  [Morning  and 
Evening  Prayer,  1552]. 

In  the  Mediaeval  Church  there  existed  elaborate  arrangements 
of  the  Psalter  for  Divine  Service.  It  was  ordered  to  be  read 
through  once  a  week,  but  this  was  largely  disregarded  through 
festivals,  etc.  ;  consequently  Cranmer  devised  an  entirely  new 
plan,  viz. : — 

To  every  month  there  were  appointed  thirty  days,  and  the 
Psalms  were  divided  into  sets  correspondingly.  A  clause  in  the 
next  section  provided  that  in  Leap  Year  the  Psalms  for  the 
twenty-fifth  day  were  to  be  repeated  on  the  twenty-sixth. 

This,  however,  proved  unworkable  and  was  abandoned  by  the 
Revisers  of  1662,^110  adopted  the  present  arrangement,  which 
is  peculiar  to  the  English  Church. 

The  Psalter  shall  be  read  through  once  every  month. 

By  the  Act  for  the  Amendment  of  the  Act  of  Uniformity, 
1872,  it  was  enacted  that — 

(i)  On  all  week-days — Christmas  Day,  Ash  Wednesday,  Good 
Friday,  and  Ascension  Day  excepted — a  shortened  form 
of  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer  might  be  used  in  Parish 
Churches,  and  in  this  only  one  Psalm  or  one  portion  of 
the  119th  Psalm  need  be  read. 

(ii)  The  Ordinary  should  have  power  to  appoint  '  Proper ' 
Psalms  to  supersede  the  regular  Psalms  of  the  day  on 

p 


34  INTRODUCTORY 

special  occasions,  or  to  be  used  at  a  third  service  on 
Sundays. 
'  At  the  end  of  every  Psalm  .  .  .  shall  be  repeated  this  Hymn.' 

The  Gloria  Patri  is  of  ancient  origin,  for  forms  of  it  may  be 
traced  in  the  writings  of  Athanasius  and  Clement  of  Alexandria. 
The  words, '  As  it  was  in  the  beginning,'  were  added  about  the 
sixth  century. 

The  American  Prayer  Book  gives  directions  that  the  Gloria 
may  be  sung  at  the  end  of  each  Psalm,  and  shall  be  sung  at  the 
end  of  the  whole  portion. 

The  Psalter  followeth  the  division  of  the  Hebrews,  and  the 
Translation  of  the  great  English  Bible. 

The  division  of  the  Hebrews  is  in  contradistinction  to  the 
division  of — 

(i)  the  Septuagint,  by  which   Psalms  ix.   and   x.,    and  cxiv. 
and  cxv.  are  joined  ;  and    Psalms  cxvi. 
and  cxlvii.  each  divided, 
(ii)  the  Vulgate,       by  which  Psalms    ix.  and  x.  are  joined  ; 

and  Psalm  cxlvii.  is   divided. 

The  English  text  follows  the  numbering  of  the  original  Hebrew 
and  so  is  in  advance  of  the  LXX  and  Vulgate. 

The  Translation  of  the  great  English  Bible. 

This  version  was  issued  in  1539  and  was  called  the  Great 
Bible,  or  Cranmer's  Bible,  because  the  Archbishop  wrote  a 
preface  to  it.  It  was  a  new  edition  of  Matthew's  Bible,  revised, 
and  compared  with  the  Hebrew,  by  Coverdale  and  others,  and 
published  with  the  sanction  of  Cranmer.  Copies  of  it  were 
ordered  to  be  set  up  in  all  the  churches,  and  these  were  chained 
to  a  lectern  to  ensure  their  safety.  (Hence  the  phrase  '  Chained 
Bibles.') 

Owing  to  the  familiarity  of  the  people  with  it,  this  translation 
of  the  Psalter  was  retained  when  the  A.V.  of  1611  was  substituted 
for  the  Great  Bible  translation  in  the  Church  Services  in  1662. 
It  is  much  more  rhythmical  and  suitable  for  singing  purposes, 
although  in  places  it  partakes  of  the  nature  of  a  paraphrase 
rather  than  of  an  exact  translation. 

Westcott  says  that  '  Coverdale,  like  Luther  and  the  Zurich 
translators,  on  whose  model  his  style  was  formed,  allowed  him 
self  considerable  freedom  in  dealing  with  the  shape  of  the  original 
sentences.  At  one  time  a  word  is  repeated  to  bring  out  the 
balance  of  the  two  clauses  ;  at  another  time  the  number  is 
changed  ;  at  another  time  a  fuller  phrase  is  supplied  for  the 
simple  copula,  now  a  word  is  resolved  ;  and  again  a  particle, 
or  an  adverb,  or  a  pronoun,  or  even  an  epithet,  is  introduced 


RULES  CONCERNING   PSALTER   AND   LECTIONARY   35 

for  the  sake  of  definitenesa.  .  .  .  The  execution  of  the  version 
undoubtedly  falls  far  below  the  conception  of  it :  the  Authorized 
Version  is  in  almost  every  case  more  correct ;  but  still  in  idea 
and  tone  Coverdale's  is  as  a  whole  superior,  and  furnishes  a 
noble  type  for  any  future  revision.'  * 

'  Attention  may  here  be  called  to  an  injustice  done  to  Cover- 
dale's  Psalter  by  the  neglect  of  the  printers  of  the  Prayer  Book 
to  indicate,  as  he  had  done,  words  and  phrases  which  he  embodied 
in  his  text,  although  he  regarded  them  as  either  not  forming 
part  of  the  original,  or  as,  at  least,  of  doubtful  authority.  We 
are  familiar  with  the  use  of  italics  in  the  Authorized  Version 
for  a  like  purpose.  In  the  Psalter  as  used  for  purposes  of  devo 
tion,  it  is  perhaps  as  well  that  questions  of  textual  criticism 
should  not  be  presented  ;  and  I  do  not  complain  of  a  usage  that  has 
come  down  to  us  from  the  Sealed  Books  of  1662. f  ButCoverdale 
is  not  to  be  blamed.  As  examples  of  what  is  referred  to  we 
may  cite  Psalm  i.  5,  where  Coverdale  has  placed  (in  1539)  the 
words  "  from  the  face  of  the  earth  "  within  the  marks  of  paren 
thesis,  and  Psalm  xiii.  6,  where  the  words  "  yea,  I  will  praise 
the  name  of  the  Lord  most  Highest "  are  treated  in  a  similar 
way.'  J 

ii.  THE  ORDER  HOW  THE  REST  OF  HOLY  SCRIPTURE  is 

APPOINTED    TO    BE    READ. 

1549.     The  Order  how  the  rest  of  holy  Scripture  (beside  the 

Psalter)  is  appointed  to  be  read. 
1662.     '  Beside  the  Psalter '  omitted. 

1st  Paragraph. 

1549.     The  Old  Testament  is  appointed  for  the  first  Lessons, 
at   Matins  and  Evensong  [Morning  and  Evening  Prayer, 
1552],  and  shall  be  read  through  every  year  once,  except 
certain  Books  and  Chapters,  which  be  least  edifying,  and 
might  best  be  spared,  and  therefore  are  left  unread. 
1662.     The  Old  Testament  ...  so  as  the  most  part  thereof 
will  be  read  every  year  once,  as  in  the  Calendar  is  ap 
pointed. 
3rd  Paragraph. 

1662.     The  words  '  Except  only  the  Moveable  Feasts,  which 

*  Westcott's  '  A  General  View  of  the  History  of  the  English  Bible," 
p.  264. 

f  Those  concerned  in  the  issue  and  correction  of  these  Books  were,  as 
guardians  of  the  legal  text,  certainly  blameworthy  in  not  adhering  to  the 
text  of  the  MS.  Prayer  Book  attached  to  the  Caroline  Act  of  Uniformity. 

J  Dowden's  'The  Workmanship  of  the  Prayer  Book'  (1002),  pp.  179, 
180.  The  whole  chapter  xvii.  pp.  175-191,  entitled,  '  The  English  Prayer- 
Rook— Its  literary  Style— The  Psalter— Coverdale,'  is  worthy  careful  svudy. 


36  INTRODUCTORY 

are  not  in  the  Calendar,  and  the  Immoveable,  where  there 
is  a  blank  left  in  the  Column  of  Lessons,   the  Proper 
Lessons  for  all  which  days  are  to  be  found  in  the  Table 
of  Proper  Lessons '  were  added. 
5/A  Paragraph. 

1549.  Ye  must  note  also,  that  the  Collect,  Epistle,  and  Gospel, 
appointed  for  the  Sunday,  shall  serve  all  the  week  after, 
except  there  fall  some  feast  that  hath  his  proper. 

1662.  Note  also,  that  the  Collect,  .  .  .  the  week  after,  where 
it  is  not  in  this  Book  otherwise  ordered. 

The  following  paragraphs  were  in  previous  editions,  but  were 
omitted  in  1662 : — 

1549.  This  is  also  to  be  noted,  concerning  the  leap  years, 
that  the  xxv.  day  of  February,  which  in  Leap  year  is 
counted  for  two  days,  shall  in  those  two  days  alter 
neither  Psalm  nor  Lesson ;  but  the  same  Psalms  and 
Lessons  which  be  said  the  first  day,  shall  also  serve  for 
the  second  day. 

Also,  wheresoever  the  beginning  of  any  Lesson,  Epistle, 
or  Gospel,  is  not  expressed,  there  ye  must  begin  at  the 
beginning  of  the  Chapter. 

1552.  The  paragraph, '  And  wheresoever  is  not  expressed  how 
far  shall  be  read,  then  shall  you  read  to  the  end  of  the 
Chapter,'  was  added  to  those  of  1549. 

1604.  When  the  years  of  our  Lord  may  be  divided  into  four 
even  parts,  which  is  every  fourth  year ;  then  the  Sunday 
letter  leapeth,  and  that  year  the  Psalms  and  Lessons 
which  serve  for  the  xxiij  day  of  February,  shall  be  read 
again  the  day  following,  except  it  be  Sunday,  which  hath 
proper  Lessons,  of  the  Old  Testament,  appointed  in 
the  Table  serving  to  that  purpose. 

Also,  wheresoever  ...  of  the  Chapter. 
And  wheresoever  ...  of  the  Chapter. 
Item,  so  oft  as  the  first  Chapter  of  Saint  Matthew  is 
read  either  for  Lesson  or  Gospel,  ye  shall  begin  the  same 
at  (The  birth  of  Jesus  Christ  was  on  this  wise,  &c.). 

And  the  third  Chapter  of  Saint  Luke's  Gospel  shall  be 
read  unto  (So  that  he  was  supposed  to  be  the  Son  of  Joseph,  &c.). 
This  section  was  altered  to  its  present  form  in  1871,  when  the 
New  Lectionary  was  issued. 

Analysis. 
1.  The  Lessons. 

(a)  The  First  Lessons  are  so  arranged    that  practically 
all  the  Old  Testament  is  read  through  once  a  year, 


RULES  CONCERNING   PSALTER   AND   LECTIONARY      37 

(b)  The  Second  Lessons  ensure  that  practically  all  the 

New  Testament  is  read  twice  a  year. 

2.  Directions  for  finding  the  right  portions  to  read. 

Reference  is  made  to  the  Tables  of  Proper  Lessons  for 
Festivals  and  to  the  Calendar  for  ordinary  days. 

3.  Rules  for  exceptional  cases. 

(a)  At  a  second  Evening  Service  a  Second  Lesson  from 

the  Gospels  may  be  chosen  at  the  discretion  of  the 

Minister. 
(6)  The    Ordinary  may  substitute  '  Proper '    Lessons  and 

Psalms,  which  shall  take  the  place  of  those  ordinarily 

appointed. 

(c)  Proper  Lessons  for  the  First  Sunday  in  Advent,  Easter 

Day,  Whit-Sunday,  and  Trinity  Sunday  precede  those 
of  a  Holy  day.  On  all  other  Sundays  the  Minister 
has  the  option  of  reading  either  the  ordinary  Lessons 
for  the  day  or  those  specially  appointed  for  the 
Holy  day. 

4.  The  Collect,  Epistle,  and  Gospel  appointed  for  the  Sunday 
shall    be    used    throughout   the   week,    except   when   otherwise 
ordered,  e.g.,  The  Collect,  Epistle  and  Gospel  for  '  The  Circumcision* 
are  to  serve  till  the  Epiphany. 

The  public  reading  of  the  Scriptures  is  a  custom  of  great 
antiquity  (cf .  Justin  Martyr's  '  Apology  ').  At  first  a  Lesson  seems 
to  have  been  chosen  at  will,  but  by  the  fifth  century  four  Lessons 
were  read  in  an  appointed  order.  In  the  Mediaeval  period  this 
number  was  considerably  increased — both  by  portions  of  Scrip 
ture,  and  by  extracts  from  Homilies  of  the  Fathers  or  from 
Lives  of  the  Saints. 

In  1549  a  Lectionary  was  inserted  in  the  Prayer  Book,  which 
reduced  the  lessons  at  each  service  to  two  in  number,  but  increased 
the  quantity  of  Scripture  read,  and  made  the  reading  intelligible 
by  ordering  it  to  be  continuous. 

In  1871  a  revised  Lectionary  was  added.  Its  chief  features 
are  : — 

(a)  The  New  Testament  is  read  through  twice  a  year,  instead 

of  three  times,  as  before  ;   the  Gospels  at  Morning  Prayei 

for  the  first  half  of  the  year,  and  at  Evening  Prayei 

during  the  latter  half. 

(6)  The  week-day  Lessons  have  been  shortened,  and  the  division 

into  chapters  were  not  rigidly  observed, 
(c)  The  Proper  First  Lessons  for  Sundays  were  a  good  deal 
altered,  and  alternative  lessons  appointed  for  use  at  a  second 
Evening  Service  ;  the  Second  Lesson  for  each  such  service 


38  INTRODUCTORY 

may   be  any  chapter  from  the  four   Gospels   (when  an 

alternative  is  not  provided). 
(d)  The  Ordinary  may  sanction  the  use  of  Proper  Lessons 

on  any  day. 
(c)  The  amount  of  the  Apocrypha  read  is  much  reduced,  all 

Lessons  proper  for  Sundays  being  taken  from  the  Holy 

Scriptures. 
(/)  The  list  of  Lessons  for  Holy  Days  is  made  more  complete. 

iii.  TABLES  OF  PKOPER  LESSONS  AND  PSALMS. 

1549.     There  was  no  heading. 

1552.     Proper  Psalms  and  Lessons  for  divers  feasts  and  days, 

at  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer. 
1559.     Proper  Lessons  to  be  read  for  the  first  Lessons,  both 

at  Morning  Prayer  and  Evening  Prayer,  on  the  Sundays 

throughout  the  Year,  and  for  some  also  the  second  Lessons. 
1662.     Proper   Lessons  to  be  read   at  Morning   and  Evening 

Prayer,  on  the  Sundays,  and  other  Holy-days  throughout 

the  year. 

(1)  Lessons  Proper  for  Sundays. 

1549.  There  was  no  separate  Table  of  Proper  Lessons,  but 
proper  Lessons  were  attached  to  the  respective  Sundays 
and  Holy -days  to  which  they  were  appropriated,  under 
the  head  of  '  The  Introits,  Collects,  Epistles,  and  Gospels,' 
etc. 

1552.  There  was  still  no  separate  Table  of  Proper  Lessons, 
but  with  the  exception  of  those  for  certain  Feast  Days, 
they  were  given  in  the  Calendar. 

1559.     A  separate  Table  of  Proper  Lessons  was  appointed. 

1871.     The  New  Lectionary  made  compulsory. 

In  1549  there  were  no  Proper  Lessons  appointed  for  ordinary 
Sundays  for,  with  three  exceptions — Easter  Day,  Whit-Sunday, 
and  Trinity  Sunday,  the  continuous  daily  reading  of  the  Scriptures 
was  unbroken.  The  table  of  '  Lessons  Proper  for  Sundays ' 
was  first  added  in  1559,  and  remained  almost  untouched  by  the 
later  revisions.  In  1871  a  new  Table  of  Lessons  was  issued,  and 
in  it  the  First  Lessons  appointed  for  Sundays  form  a  consecutive 
yearly  course  of  chapters  selected  from  the  Old  Testament  alone. 
Its  dominant  idea  is  that  of  Regularity.  The  course  begins  in 
Advent  with  Isaiah  :  Genesis  is  commenced  on  Septuagesima, 
and  then  the  selection  passes  through  the  Historical  and  Propheti 
cal  Books  (with  some  exceptions)  in  order. 

On  all  ordinary  Sundays  the  Second  Lessons  are  taken  from 
the  continuous  order  fixed  by  the  Calendar.  Proper  Second 


RULES  CONCERNING  PSALTER  AND  LECTIONARY    $g 

Lessons  are,  however,  provided  for  six  occasions — Septuagesima, 
the  Sixth  Sunday  in  Lent,  Easter  Day,  the  First  Sunday  after 
Easter,  Whit-Sunday,  and  Trinity  Sunday,  alternatives  being 
provided  for  all  except  Septuagesima  and  the  First  Sunday  after 
Easter. 

(2)  Lessons  Proper  for  Holy  Days. 

1549.  There  was  no  separate  Table,  but  the  Lessons  were  found 
under  the  head  of  '  Introits,'  etc. 

1552.  There  was  still  no  separate  Table,  but  with  the  exception 
of  those  for  a  few  certain  Holy-days  they  were  given  iu 
the  Calendar. 

1559.     A  separate  Table  appointed. 

A  fairly  complete  list  of  Lessons  for  Holy-days  was  included 
in  the  Prayer  Book  of  1549  (attached  to  the  Collect,  Epistle, 
and  Gospel  for  each  day). 

In  1559  this  list  was  inserted  separately,  and  additions  were 
made  to  it  of  passages  from  the  Apocrypha.  In  1662  it  was 
slightly  altered,  and  in  1871  it  underwent  a  complete  revision. 

The  Lessons  now  are  chosen  from  passages  which  are  specially 
appropriate  for  the  Commemoration.  '  The  principle  of  selection 
is  clearly  that  of  speciality  '  (Bp.  Barry).  Among  the  Apocryphal 
Books  only  those  of  Wisdom,  Ecclesiasticus,  and  Baruch  are  laid 
under  contribution,  and  neither  of  these  more  than  once. 

(The  American  Prayer  Book  has  an  enlarged  Table  of  Proper 
Lessons — including  some  for  the  season  of  Lent,  and  Kogution 
and  Ember  Days.) 

(3)  Proper  Psalms  on  certain  Days. 

1549,  1552.  There  was  no  separate  Table  of  Proper  Psalm? 
in  either  of  the  Prayer  Books  of  these  dates.  But  Proper 
Psalms  for  Christmas  Day,  Easter  Day,  Ascension  Day 
and  Whit-Sunday  were  appointed  in  1549,  and  placed 
under  the  head  of  '  Introits '  and  in  1552  placed  with  the 
Proper  Lessons. 

1559.     A  separate  Table  appointed. 

1662.  Proper  Psalms  provided  for  Ash  Wednesday  and  Good 
Friday. 

Note. — The  morning  Psalms  for  Whit-Sunday  have  been  vari 
ously  altered  in  the  different  Editions.  In  1549  they  were 
48,  67,  145.  In  1552  the  145th  Psalm  was  omitted  as  it  already 
formed  one  of  the  evening  Psalms.  In  1604  they  were  changed 
to  45  and  47,  the  latter  believed  to  be  a  mistake  for  67  (xlvii.  for 
Ixvii.).  And  in  1662  both  were  replaced  by  48  and  68. 
The  third  Psalm  for  Ascension  Day  evening  in  1549  was  the 


4o 


INTRODUCTORY 


148th  ;  this  was  in  1552  changed  for  the  108th,  which  has  re 
mained  ever  since. 

In  1549  Proper  Psalms  were  assigned  to  Christmas  Day,  Easter 
Day,  Ascension  Day,  and  Whit-Sunday.  Those  for  Ash  Wednes 
day  and  Good  Friday  were  added  in  1662. 

The  American  Prayer  Book  contains  a  much  larger  selection 
of  Proper  Psalms  and  has  also  ten  '  Selections  of  Psalms,  to  be 
used  instead  of  the  Psalms  for  the  day,  at  the  discretion  of  the 
Minister  '  ;  and  '  Portions  of  Psalms  to  be  sung  or  said  at  Morn 
ing  Prayer,  on  certain  Feasts  and  Fasts,  instead  of  the  Venite 
exultemus,  when  any  of  the  foregoing  Selections  are  to  follow 
instead  of  the  Psalms,  as  in  the  table.'  These  '  Portions  '  are 
formed  of  verses  culled  out  of  certain  named  Psalms  ;  and  are 
invitatories  for  Christmas  Day,  Ash  Wednesday,  Good  Friday, 
Ascension  Day,  and  Whit-Sunday. 


1662 


1662 

1604 

1662 

j* 


6.  TABLES  AND  RULES  FOR  THE  MOVEABLE  AND 
IMMOVEABLE  FEASTS  ;  TOGETHER  WITH  THE 
DAYS  OF  FASTING  AND  ABSTINENCE,  THROUGH 
THE  WHOLE  YEAR. 

i.  RULES  TO  KNOW  WHEN  THE  MOVEABLE   FEASTS  AND 
HOLY-DAYS  BEGIN.    1662. 

Easter-Day  (on  which  the  rest  depend)  is  always  the  first 
Sunday  after  the  first  full  moon  which  happens  next  after 
the  one  and  twentieth  day  of  March.  And,  if  the  Full  moon 
happens  upon  a  Sunday,  Easter-day  is  the  Sunday  after. 

Advent-Sunday  is  always  the  nearest  Sunday  to  the 
Feast  of  St.  Andrew  (November  30)  whether  before  or 
after. 


Septuagesima  } 
Sexagesima 
Qmnquagesima 
Quadragesima 

Rogation-Sunday 
Ascension  Day 
WhitSunday 
Trinity  Sunday 


Nine 
Eight 
Seven 
Six 


Weeks  before  Easter. 


1     fFive  weeks 
j.is  |  Forty  days 
j    1  Seven  weeks 
J     l^Eight  weeks 


,.      ,-, 

after  Easter' 


Septuagesima  and  Ash  Wednesday  are  63  and  56  days  respec 
tively  before  Easter  Day.  Rogation  Sunday,  Ascension  Day, 
Whit-Sunday  and  Trinity  Sunday  are  35,  39,  49  and  56  days 
respectively  after  Easter.  From  Septuagesima  to  Trinity  is 
.therefore  63  +  56=119  days. 


MOVE  ABLE   FEASTS  AND   HOLY   DAYS  41 

Easter. — By  the  early  Christians  Christ's  death  and  resurrection 
were  celebrated  at  the  time  of  the  Jewish  Passover ;  and  the 
word  TracT^a  (from  the  Aramaic  pischd=He\).  pesach),  though 
a  common  name  for  Easter  from  the  second  century  onwards, 
was  employed,  when  first  used  as  a  Christian  term,  to  denote 
the  celebration  of  the  Fast  of  Good  Friday.*  There  is  no  mention 
of  Easter  in  the  writings  of  the  Apostolic  Fathers,  and  the  earliest 
trace  of  its  observance  in  the  West  is  c.  120,  in  the  time  of  Pope 
Xystus.  A  controversy  arose  early  as  to  the  date  of  its  obser 
vance.  The  Asiatics  celebrated  the  Christian  Passover  on  the 
14th  of  Nisan,  the  day  on  which  the  Lord  was  believed  to  have 
suffered,  and  were  thus  known  as  Quartodecimans  or  Teo-o-apecnccu- 
SeKaTirai ;  and  as  the  14th  of  Nisan  might  fall  on  any  day  of  the 
week,  so  might  also  the  commemoration  of  the  Resurrection. 
On  the  other  hand,  the  Roman  Church  commemorated  Friday 
as  the  day  of  the  Crucifixion,  and  the  following  Sunday  as  the 
Feast  of  the  Resurrection.  For  a  history  of  the  controversy 
the  student  is  referred  to  works  on  Church  History,  f  It  must 
suffice  here  to  say  that  the  Roman  practice  was  affirmed  at  the 
Council  of  Nicsea,  325,  though  Sozomen  $  speaks  of  Quarto- 
deciman  practice  as  still  going  on  in  a  few  communities  in  440. 

The  fact  that  the  conditions  for  determining  Easter  involve 
both  the  solar  and  the  lunar  year  necessitates  the  employment 
of  cycles  for  the  determination  of  its  date.§  The  Metonic  cycle 
(named  after  Meton,  an  Athenian  astronomer,  c.  433  B.C.)  of 
nineteen  years  was  finally  adopted,  as  we  learn  from  a  letter  of 
St.  Ambrose  ('  Oper.,'  ii.,  ep.  xxiii.)  written^about  sixty  years  after 
the  Council  of  Nicsea ;  and  the  Paschal  Tables  of  Dionysius 
Exiguus,  a  monk  at  Rome,  settled  in  525  the  question  for  both 
Eastern  and  Western  Churches.  The  determination  of  Easter 
was  finally  settled  by  these  rules  : — 

(1)  Easter  to  be  kept  on  a  Sunday, 

(2)  which  must  be  the  next  after  the  14th  day  of  the  Paschal 

moon ;    though  should  the  14th  be  a  Sunday,  Easter  to 
be  kept  on  the  following  Sunday. 

(3)  The  Paschal  moon  is  the  calendar  moon  whose  14th  day 

falls  on,  or  follows  next  after,  the  day  of  the  vernal  equinox. 

*  See  Wordsworth,  '  Ministry  of  Grace,'  p.  355. 

•)•  The  stages  are  (i)  discussion  between  Anicetus  and  Polycarp,  c.  150 ; 
(ii)  dispute  at  Laodicea,  between  170  and  177 ;  (iii)  Victor  and  Polycrates, 
c.  190.  See  Eusebius,  '  H.  E.,'  iv.  26,  v.  23-25. 

|  Sozomen,  '  H.  E.,'  vii.  19. 

§  The  student  may  refer  to  the  well-known  work  of  Seabury,  '  Theory 
and  Use  of  the  Church  Calendar,  etc.'  (1872),  for  an  account  of  the  various 
cycles.  Considerations  of  space  prevent  any  account  being  given  in  this 
handbook. 


4*  INTRODUCTORY 

(4)  The  vernal  equinox  is  to  be  taken  invariably  as  March  21. 

The  Metonic  cycle  had  defects — it  assumed  the  solar  year  to 
consist  of  365£  days,  whereas  the  true  solar  year  is  11'  10" 
shorter  than  the  tropical  year  ;  and  also  assumed  that  at  the 
close  of  the  cycle  of  nineteen  years  solar  and  lunar  time  coincide, 
which  is  not  the  case.  The  errors  which  of  necessity  crept  into 
the  calculations  were  rectified  by  the  adoption  of  the  Gregorian 
Calendar  or  '  New  Style  '  in  England  by  Act  of  Parliament, 
1752,*  and  the  tables  and  rules  now  prefixed  to  the  Prayer  Book 
are  those  then  drawn  up  by  Bradley,  the  Astronomer  Royal. 
The  equation  between  the  Julian  solar  year  and  the  tropical 
year  is  not  quite  exact,  and  will  necessitate  further  revision  unless 
it  should  be  determined,  before  such  necessity  arises,  to  keep 
Easter  on  a  fixed  day. 

Advent. — This  season,  commemorating  the  first  coming  of 
Christ,  is  regarded  as  preparatory  for  the  Festival  of  Christmas. 
The  history  of  its  observance  is  obscure,  our  first  notice  of  it 
being  in  the  canons  of  Saragossa  in  Spain,  c.  380,  and  it  is  there 
mentioned  as  a  preparatory  season  of  church-going  beforeEpiphany. 
Possibly  its  institution  was  due  to  imitation  of  Lent  as  preparatory 
to  Easter.  The  Ambrosian  and  Mozarabic  rites  included  six 
Sundays  in  it ;  so  too  the  Council  of  Macon  (581).  In  Rome 
there  were  originally  five,  but  these  were  reduced  to  four  under 
Gregory  the  Great. 

The  rule  for  determining  Advent  does  not  appear  to  contemplate 
the  falling  of  Advent  Sunday  on  St.  Andrew's  Day.  The  Scottish 
Prayer  Book  of  1637  added  to  the  rule  the  words,  '  or  that 
Sunday  which  falleth  upon  any  day  from  the  twenty-seventh 
of  November  to  the  third  of  December  inclusively.' 

Septuagesima,  Sexagesima,  Quinquagesima,  and  Quadragesima 
denote  in  round  numbers,  70,  60,  50,  and  40  days  before  Easter. 
Quadragesima  denoted  anciently  the  first  Sunday  in  Lent;  the 
term  is  used  in  the  Prayer  Book  only  here  under  the  '  Tables 
and  Rules.' 

Rogation  Sunday. — So  called  in  relation  to  the  Rogation-day  s.f 

Ascension  Day  is  also  called  Holy  Thursday  in  the  table  of 
Days  of  Fasting.  We  have  no  mention  of  its  observance  till 
the  middle  of  the  fourth  century,  but  Augustine  speaks  of  it 

*  Though  a  Bill  for  its  introduction  was  twice  read  in  the  House  of 

4 
Lords,  158^,  but  did  not  go  further.     By  Gregory's  time,  1682,  there  was 

a  discrepancy  of  ten  days.     Hence  the  old  English  rhyme— 
'  Barnaby  bright, 
The  longest  day 
And  the  shortest  night,' 
the  Feast  of  St.  Barnabas  falling  on  June  11. 

t  See  below,  p.  55. 


MOVE  ABLE   FEASTS  AND  HOLY  DAYS  43 

as  universal  and  therefore  of  Apostolic  institution  ('  Ep.  ad 
Januarium,'  liv.  1).  In  Cappadocia  *  the  name  eVto-w^o/xevT; 
was  given  to  it,  indicating  that  it  was  a  day  which  marked  a 
festival  over  and  above  the  already  acknowledged  great  festivals. 
Whit-Sunday  commemorates  the  first  manifestation  of  the  Holy 
Ghost  to  the  disciples  (Acts  ii.).  The  word  means '  White  Sunday.' 
Dr.  Skeat  ('  Etymol.  Diet./  p.  708)  says  :— 

'  It  is  tolerably  certain  that  the  English  name  White  Sunday 
is  not  older  than  the  Norman  Conquest  ;  for,  before  that 
time,  the  name  was  always  Pentecoste.  We  are,  therefore, 
quite  sure  that,  for  some  reason  or  other,  the  name  Pentecost 
was  then  changed  for  that  of  White  Sunday,  which  came  into 
common  use,  and  was  early  corrupted  into  Whit-Sunday, 
proving  that  white  was  soon  misunderstood,  and  was  wrongly 
supposed  to  refer  to  the  wit  or  wisdom  conferred  by  the  Holy 
Ghost  on  the  day  of  Pentecost.' 
In  confirmation  of  this  we  may  compare  the  old  lines — 

'  This  day  Witsonday  is  cald, 

For  wisdom  and  wit  seuene  fold 
Was  given  to  the  apostles  at  this  day.' 

The  earliest  notice  of  the  festival  is  in  Irenseus  ;  but  it  is  implied 
in  early  Christian  writings,  even  if  not  explicitly  mentioned. f 
Trinity  Sunday. — The  festival  first  made  its  appearance  in 
the  tenth  century  in  the  Low  Countries,  and  it  was  not  till  the 
time  of  Pope  John  XXII  (1316-1334)  that  the  Eoman  Church 
adopted  it  and  fixed  it  in  its  present  place. 

ii.  A  TABLE  OF  ALL  THE  FEASTS  THAT   ARE   TO  BE    OBSERVED 
IN  THE  CHURCH  OP  ENGLAND  THROUGH  THE  YEAR. 

1604.     The  heading  stood  '  These  to  be  observed  for  Holy-days 

and  none  other.' 

1662.     St.  Barnabas  was  added  to  the  Table. 
Omitting  those  dealt  with  above,  we  may  classify  thus  : — 
I.     All  Sundays  in  the  Year. 

II.     Commemorations  of  the  Lord  : — Circumcision,  Epiphany, 
Christmas. 

III.  Festivals  of  the  Virgin  : — Purification,  Annunciation. 

IV.  Apostles,  Evangelists,  etc.,  of  the  New  Testament  : — Con 

version  of  St.  Paul,  St.  Matthias,  St.  Mark,  SS.  Philip 
and  James,  St.  Barnabas,  Nativity  of  John  the  Baptist, 
St.  Peter,  St.  James,  St.  Bartholomew,  St.  Matthew,  St. 
Michael  and  All  Angels,  St.  Luke,  SS.  Simon  and  Jude, 
St.  Andrew,  St.  Thomas,  St.  Stephen,  St.  John. 

*  See  a  Sermon  of  Gregory  of  Nyssa  in  Migne,    '  Patrol.  Grec.,'  xlvi. 
f  See  Duchesne,  '  Christian  Worship,'  hi.  p.  240. 


44  INTRODUCTORY 

V.    Miscellaneous  :  —  All  Saints,  Holy  Innocents,  Mondays  and 

Tuesdays  in  Easter  and  Whitsun-weeks. 
I.  Sunday.  —  The  expression  '  Lord's  Day  '  first  occurs  in  Rev. 
1.  10,  cyevd/xiyv  (.v  irvf.vfjia.rL  ev  rf)  KvpLaK-fj  rj/Afpa,  where  it 
probably  means  the  first  day  of  the  week.*  The  substitution 
of  Sunday  for  the  Sabbath  had  already  taken  place  in  Apostolic 
times  (Acts  xx.  7  ;  1  Cor.  xvi.  2),  though  at  first  its  observance 
was  supplemental  to  that  of  the  Sabbath.  We  find  early  refer 
ences  to  the  observance  of  the  day  in  the  Didache  (xiv.),  the 
Epistle  of  Barnabas  (xiv.),  Ignatius  ('  Ad  Magn.,'  vii.-x.),  Justin 
Martyr  ('  Apol.,'  i.  67,  where  the  Christians  are  described  as 
assembling  rfj  TOV  rj\iov  Aeyo/xeV?; 


II.  Circumcision  (January  1).  —  The  Byzantine  Calendars  give 
the  anniversary  of  St.  Basil  also  on  this  day.  The  festival,  as 
now  understood,  was  not  of  Roman  origin,  for  in  the  early  calen 
dars  its  designation  is  merely  the  Octave  of  Christmas  (Octavo, 
Domini}.  '  It  was  a  sort  of  renewal  of  the  solemnity  of  Christmas, 
with  a  special  consideration  of  the  Virgin  Mother.'  f  The  heathen 
festivities  of  the  Saturnalia  on  January  1  caused  the  day  to  be 
observed  as  a  fast  day  in  some  places,  as  e.g.  in  Spain  (Fourth 
Council  of  Toledo,  canon  xi.). 

Epiphany  (January  6).  —  In  the  East  the  festival  marked  origin 
ally  the  manifestation  (eVi^civeta)  of  the  Son  of  God  at  His 
baptism,  or  rather  of  the  Trinity  then  ;  and  on  January  6  there 
was  a  combined  celebration  of  Christ's  Nativity  and  Baptism. 
The  Roman  festival  marks  the  visit  of  the  Magi  to  the  infant 
Christ.  The  feast  found  its  way  into  the  West  through  Southern 
Gaul.t  '  It  is  probable  that  while  on  the  one  hand  the  Eastern 
Church,  at  first  commemorating  the  Nativity  and  Epiphany  as 
one  festival,  afterward  in  compliance  with  Roman  usage  fixed  the 
former  on  a  separate  day  ;  so  too,  the  Western  Church,  at  first 
celebrating  the  Nativity  alone,  afterwards  brought  in  from  the 
East  the  further  commemoration  of  the  Epiphany,  but  with  the 
special  reference  somewhat  altered.  '§ 

Christmas.  —  As  said  above,  Christmas  and  Epiphany  were 
originally  one  festival  meant  to  commemorate  the  Nativity. 
In  the  early  Church  there  was  some  divergence  of  opinion  as 
to  the  date  of  the  birth  of  Christ.  In  the  East  the  date  assigned 
was  January  6,  possibly  from  the  Montanists,  who  celebrated 

*  For  a  discussion  of  other  interpretations  —  Day  of  Judgment,  Easter 
Day,  Sabbath  —  consult  the  Commentaries. 
f  Duchesne,  '  Christian  Worship,"  iii.  p.  273. 
J  Ibid.,  pp.  257-260. 
§  Sinker  in  '  Diet.  Chr.  Antiq.,'  i.  618. 


MOVE  ABLE   FEASTS   AND   HOLY   DAYS  45 

the  Passover  on  April  6  if  it  fell  on  a  Sunday,  otherwise  on  the 
following  Sunday,  and  who  thought  our  Lord  died  on  April  6 
(Sozomen,  '  H.  E.,'  viii.  18).  But  in  the  fourth  century  the 
Easterns  generally  adopted  the  Western  date,  December  25, 
which  was  fixed  by  Hippolytus,  c.  220.*  The  earliest  mention 
of  December  25  as  a  festival  occurs  in  the  Philocalian  Calendar, f 
transcribed  in  354.  The  theory  that  the  festival  was  suggested 
by  the  heathen  festival  of  the  birth  of  the  sun  on  that  day — 
the  Christians  transforming  it  into  a  celebration  of  the  birthday 
of  the  Sun  of  Righteousness — has  little  to  commend  it.  We 
may  note  that  the  Armenians  still  retain  January  6  as  the  festival 
of  the  Nativity. 

III.  Purification  (February  2). — This  is  dated  forty  days  from 
Christmas   (Luke  ii.  22 ;  Lev.  xii.  2,  4),  and  is  regarded  by  our 
Church  rather  as  a  festival  of  our  Lord  than  of  the  Virgin.     It 
came  into  the  West  through  Constantinople,  and  is  mentioned 
as  being  observed  at  Jerusalem  in  the  '  Pilgrimage  of  Silvia,'  a 
document  of  c.  385,  discovered  by  Dr.  Gamurrini  in  1884,  and 
published  by  him  in  1887.  J    We  have  no  trace  of  it  then  till 
the  sixth  century,  when  we  meet  it  under  the  name  'YTraTraj/Tr; 
(late  form  of  ^ai/T^o-is)  or  Meeting,  of  our  Lord  and  Simeon. 
The  festival  is  called  Candlemas  from  the  blessing  and  procession 
of  candles  which  was  introduced,  either  as  symbolically  setting 
forth  the  words  of  Simeon  (Lukeii.  32),  or  as  taking  the  place  of 
a  heathen  ceremony  of  lustration. 

Annunciation  (March  25). — Its  history  is  obscure.  It  appears 
to  have  been  observed  in  some  districts  in  the  East  as  early  as 
the  fifth  century,  but  was  not  introduced  into  the  West  till  the 
seventh.  It  was  instituted,  like  the  Purification,  in  honour  of 
our  Lord,  and  in  the  Ethiopian  Calendar  is  called  the  Conception 
of  Christ. 

IV.  Conversion  of  St.  Paul  (January  25). — A  festival  of  late 
introduction.     There  was  at  an  early  date  in  Rome,§  at  least  in 
the  fourth  century,  a  joint  Festival  of  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul  on 
June  29  ;  and  the  feeling  that  St.  Paul  in  this  way  did  not  receive 

*  Com.  on  Daniel  (ed.  Bonwetsch,  p.  244). 

|  Known  also,  from  the  name  of  the  Pope  at  the  time,  as  the  Liberian 
Calendar ;    and,  from  its  first  editor    (1634),  as  the  Buch.erian  Calendar. 
I  See  Duchesne,  'Christian  Worship,'  iii.  pp.  547  ff. 
§  Cf.  Hymn  of  Prudentius  : — 

'  Plus  solito  coeunt  ad  gaudia ;  die,  amice,  quid  sit ; 

Romam  per  omnem  cursitant  ovantque. 
Festus  apostolici  nobis  icdit  hie  dies  triumphi 
Pauli  atque  Petri  nobilis  cruore.' 


46  INTRODUCTORY 

sufficient  recognition  led  to  the  commemoration  of  his  conversion 
on  January  25.  In  the  present  Roman  Calendar  there  is  a 
commemoration  of  St.  Paul  on  June  30. 

St.  Matthias  (February  24). — The  name  does  not  occur  in  the 
Gelasian  Sacramentary,  and  it  is  uncertain  when  the  festival 
first  came  to  be  celebrated. 

St.  Mark  (April  25). — The  day  is  of  late  appearance,  towards 
the  end  of  the  eighth  century.  In  the  Gregorian  Sacramentary 
he  is  mentioned  in  the  Collect. 

St.  Philip  and  St.  James  (May  1). — The  origin  of  the  festival 
is  to  be  sought  in  the  dedication  of  a  church  originally  founded 
by  Pope  Julius  (337-352)  in  their  honour  at  Rome,  561.  No 
explanation  is  forthcoming  as  to  the  conjunction  of  the  names. 
In  the  Greek  Church  St.  Philip  is  commemorated  on  November  14. 

St.  Barnabas  (June  11). — Tradition  says  that  he  was  stoned 
to  death  at  Salamis  in  Cyprus,  and  that  his  tomb  was  discovered 
there  about  478.*  The  festival  commemorates  this  discovery. 
When  it  passed  into  the  West  is  uncertain,  probably  not  before 
the  eighth  century.  In  the  Eastern  Church  the  day  was  kept 
in  honour  of  Bartholomew  as  well  as  Barnabas. 

St.  John  Baptist  (June  24). — A  festival  of  early  Western  origin,f 
well  recognized  in  Augustine's  time  (Sermons  196,  287).  It  is 
the  birth,  and  not  the  death,  of  the  Baptist  that  is  commemorated, 
and  so  Augustine  says,  '  The  Church  celebrates  two  birthdays 
only,  John's  and  Christ's.'  The  date  is  fixed  on  the  inference 
drawn  from  the  Gospel  (Luke  i.  36)  that  John's  birth  took  place 
six  months  before  that  of  Christ.  Augustine  sees  in  the  dates 
a  fulfilment  of  the  words '  He  must  increase,  but  I  must  decrease  ' 
(John  iii.  30)4 

St.  Peter  (June  29).— On  the  joint  Festival  of  St.  Peter  and  St. 
Paul  on  this  day  see  above  (Conversion  of  St.  Paul).  The 
festival  commemorates  the  day  on  which  the  remains  of  these 
Apostles  were  translated,  in  258,  to  the  place  called  ad  Catacumbas 
on  the  Appian  Way,  and  has  no  reference  to  their  deaths,  which 
were  probably  not  at  the  same  time.  '  It  is  to  be  regretted  that 
the  English  Reformers  should  have  altered  this  feast  of  the 
universal  Church  into  one  of  St.  Peter  only,  perhaps  from  thinking 
that  St.  Paul  was  represented  by  the  festival  of  his  Conversion  ' 
(Sinker). 

St.  James  (July  25). — Obtained  general  observance  quite  late, 

*  See  Duchesne,  '  Christian  Worship,"  iii.  p.  27. 

t  Ibid.,  p.  271,  note. 

I  Sermon  287.  '  In  nativitate  Christi  dies  crescit,  in  Johannis  nativitate 
decrescit :  natus  est  hodie  Johannes,  ab  hodierno  die  minuuntur  dies ; 
natus  Christus  viii.  Kal.  Jan.,  ab  illo  die  crescunt  dies,' 


MOVEABLE   FEASTS   AND   HOLY   DAYS  47 

though  in  the  Carthaginian  Calendar  (c.  500)  *  we  have  under 
December  27  the  entry  '  Sanct.  Joanis  Baptistse  (Evangelistae 
should  probably  be  read)  et  Jacobi  Apostoli,  quern  Herodes 
occidit.'  In  the  canons  of  the  Council  of  Oxford,  1222,  it  is  not 
named  amongst  the  chief  festivals  to  be  observed  ;  but  we  find 
it  established  at  the  Synod  of  Exeter,  1287.  The  date,  July  25, 
is  a  difficulty,  as  we  learn  from  Acts  xii.  2-4  that  St.  James  was 
put  to  death  shortly  before  Passover.  Possibly  there  may  have 
been  a  desire  to  omit  the  celebration  of  a  martyrdom  in  Lent 
and  Eastertide,  or  the  date  may  have  reference  to  some  transla 
tion  of  the  saint's  remains. 

St.  Bartholomew  (August  24). — Probably  to  be  identified  with 
Nathanael.  We  have  no  certain  references  to  the  festival  till 
the  eighth  century,  and  great  diversity  existed  as  to  the  day  of 
its  celebration.  It  is  said  to  have  been  a  festival  of  considerable 
importance  in  England  before  the  middle  of  the  tenth  century. 

St.  Matthew  (September  21). — A  festival  of  late  origin,  wanting 
in  the  Leonine,  Gelasian,  and  Galilean  liturgies.  In  the  Greek, 
Russian  and  Armenian  Churches  it  is  kept  on  November  16. 

St.  Michael  and  All  Angels  (September  29). — The  Sarum  Calen 
dar  has  simply  '  Michaelis  Archangeli '  ;  the  addition  '  and 
All  Angels  '  appearing  for  the  first  time  in  the  Prayer  Book  of 
1662.  Mr.  Staleyt  thinks  it  not  improbable  that  the  addition 
is  due  to  the  influence  of  Hooker's  '  Ecclesiastical  Polity  '  (1594), 
much  read  in  the  early  part  of  the  seventeenth  century,  whicli 
has  a  fine  passage  (Book  V.  ch.  iv.  §§  1,  2)  on  '  The  law  which 
angels  do  work  by.'  J  St.  Michael  is  the  only  angel  commemorated 
before  the  ninth  century,  and  Duchesne  says  that  festivals  of 
this  kind  can  be  attributed  only  to  the  dedications  of  churches, 
— in  this  case  of  a  church  in  the  suburbs  of  Rome  at  the  sixth 
milestone  on  the  Via  Salaria.§  It  is  not  likely  that  the  festival 
of  September  29  took  its  rise  in  a  commemoration  of  the  mani 
festation  in  Monte  Gargano  of  Michael  to  the  Bishop  of  Sipontum, 
which  event  was  specially  connected  with  the  date  May  8.|| 

St.  Luke  (October  18). — The  earliest  mention  of  the  festival 
is  in  the  Carthaginian  Calendar.  In  the  Hieronymian  Martyro- 
logy  it  marks  a  translation  of  relics  in  the  East. 

St.  Simon  and  St.  Jude  (October  28). — The  reason  for  the 
association  of  these  names  is  unknown  ;  probably  because  of 
the  dedication  of  some  church  in  their  joint  names,  or  from  the 
belief  that  they  were  brothers,  or  from  the  legend  that  they 

*  Wordsworth,  '  Ministry  of  Gr  ice'  p.  65. 

f  '  The  Liturgical  Year,'  p.  125  (London,  1907). 

f  See  too  Hooker,  '  Eccles.  Pol.,'  Book  V.  ch.  Ixx.  §  9. 

§  Duchesne,  '  Christian  Worship,'  iii.  p.  276. 

||  See  'Diet.  Christ.  Antiq.,'  ii.  1176-1181. 


48  INTRODUCTORY 

suffered  martyrdom  at  the  same  time.  In  the  East  St.  Simon 
is  commemorated  on  May  10,  St.  Jude  on  June  19. 

St.  Andrew  (November  30). — A  festival  of  early  date.  It  is 
found  in  the  Carthaginian  Calendar  and  the  Leonine  Sacramen- 
tary  ;  also  in  Boniface's  list  of  festivals,  where  the  only  other 
Apostles  named  are  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul.  It  is  the  only  festival 
of  an  Apostle  claiming  to  commemorate  the  actual  day  of  his 
death. 

St.  Thomas  (December  21). — This  appears  first  in  the  East  at 
Edessa  in  the  fifth  century  ;  and  was  not  recognized  in  the  West 
till  a  comparatively  late  date.  It  is  found  in  the  Gelasian  Sacra- 
mentary,  but  not  in  the  Carthaginian  Calendar,  nor  in  the  Leonine 
Sacramentary.  In  the  Greek  Church  the  commemoration  is  on 
October  6. 

St.  Stephen  (December  26). — The  Sermons  of  Gregory  of  Nyssa 
show  that  the  festival  was  kept  in  the  fourth  century  ;  *  and 
the  discovery  of  his  tomb  in  415  f  gave  great  impulse  to  the 
existing  commemoration. 

St.  John  (December  27). — Originally  the  name  of  St.  James 
was  joined  to  that  of  St.  John  in  the  festival  of  December  27, 
and  so  we  find  in  the  Carthaginian  Calendar  ;  J  but  in  the  Roman 
service  books  we  have,  for  some  reason  unknown,  only  St.  John 
commemorated  on  this  day. 

V.  All  Saints  (November  1)  was  one  of  the  holy-days 
ordained  by  Convocation,  1536,  to  be  kept  in  term  time.§  The 
Festival  originated  in  the  dedication  by  Boniface  IV  (608-614) 
of  the  old  .Roman  Pantheon  as  a  Christian  church,  and  its  date 
was  at  first  May  13.  It  is  not  in  the  Gregorian  Sacramentary, 
though  we  have  evidence  of  its  observance  in  France,  Germany, 
and  England  in  the  eighth  century.  In  the  Metrical  Martyrology 
of  Bede  it  occurs  (?  a  later  addition)  on  November  l.||  The  old 
English  designation  of  the  day  was  All  Hallows  (A.S.  halge— 
saints). 

Holy  Innocents  (December  28). — At  first  this  festival  was 
associated  with  the  Epiphany  (Prudentius,  Cath.  xii.  de  Epiph.), 
and  is  of  early  date,  being  found  in  all  Latin  Calendars  from  the 
sixth  century.  In  the  Greek  Church  it  is  commemorated  on 
December  29.  An  old  English  name  for  the  festival  is  Childermas, 

*  Migne,  '  Patrol.  Grec.,'  xlvi.  701,  721. 
t  For  the  legend  see  '  Diet.  Chr.  Antiq.,'  ii.  1929. 
j  See  above  under  '  St.  James,'  p.  46. 

§  The  others  are  Ascension  Day,  the  Nativity  of  the  Baptist,  and  Candle 
mas. 

||  '  Multiplici  rutilat  gemma  ceu  in  fronte  November, 
Cunctorum  fulget  Sanctorum  laude  decoris.' 


FEASTS    TO   BE   OBSERVED  49 

and  the  processions  of  children  which  took  place  on  the  day 
were  forbidden  by  Henry  VIII,  1540.  To  mark  the  mournful 
character  of  the  day  muffled  peals  were  rung  and  black  vestments 
worn. 

N.B. — The  following  information  respecting  the  six  Law 
Terms  was  given  in  1604 : — 

In  1604  there  was  given  after  the  '  Table  of  all  the  Feasts '  a 
brief  declaration  where  every  Term  beginneth  and  endeth. 

Be  it  known  that  Easter  Term  beginneth  always  the  18th  day 
after  Easter,  reckoning  Easter-day  for  one  ;  and  endeth  the 
Monday  next  after  the  Ascension  day. 

Trinity  Terra  beginneth  12  days  after  Whitsunday,  and  con- 
tinueth  19  days. 

Michaelmas  Term  beginneth  the  9th  or  10th  day  of  October, 
and  endeth  the  28th  or  29th  day  of  November. 

Hilary  Term  beginneth  the  23rd  or  24th  day  of  January,  and 
endeth  the  12th  or  13th  day  of  February. 

In  Easter  Term,  on  the  Ascension  day  ;  in  Trinity  Term,  on 
the  Nativity  of  S.  John  Baptist ;  in  Michaelmas  Term,  on  the 
feast  of  All  Saints  ;  in  Hilary  Term,  on  the  Feast  of  the  Purifica 
tion  of  our  Lady,  the  King's  Judges  of  Westminster  do  not  use 
to  sit  in  Judgment,  nor  upon  any  Sundays. 

This  '  declaration '  was  omitted  in  1662. 

iii.    A  TABLE  OP  THE  VIGILS,  FASTS,  AND  DAYS  OP  ABSTINENCE 

TO   BE   OBSERVED  IN  THE   YEAR.      1662. 

(1)    Evens,  or  Vigils. 

Vigils  were  originally  the  nights  before  the  great  festivals, 
and  the  transition  of  this  observance  to  the  day  before  the  festival 
is  obscure.  They  were  called  by  the  Greeks  n-ai/vuxi'Ses,  by  the 
Latins  pefnoctationes  et  pervigilia,*  and  are  of  great  antiquity, 
the  observance  of  the  Easter  Vigil  being  mentioned  by  Tertullian 
(192),  though  they  are  of  rare  occurrence  in  the  oldest  Calendars. 
Early  in  the  history  of  the  Church  the  Festivals  of  martyrs  had 
their  Vigils,  and  these  seem  to  have  been  kept  in  the  cemeteries 
where  their  remains  lay,  since  we  have  a  canon  of  the  Council 
of  Eliberis  (305)  forbidding  women  to  spend  the  night-watches 
in  such  places  owing  to  the  excesses  committed.f  No  fast  was 
attached  to  vigils  earlier  than  the  ninth  century.  J 

*  Bingham,  '  Antiq.,'  xiii.  9,  4. 

t  '  Placuit  prohiberi,  ne  faeminae  in  cemetoris  pcrvigilent  (  eo  quod  ssepe 
sub  obtentu  orationis  latenter  scelera  committunt.'  (Can.  35.) 

+  Honorius  of  Autun  (1130)  connects  the  change  from  night  to  day, 
from  vigil  to  fast,  with  the  popular  excesses.  (See  Dowden, '  Church  Year 
and  Calendar,'  p.  74.) 


INTRODUCTORY 


The  Vigils  to  be  observed  by  our  Church  in  the  year  are  thus 
set  forth  in  the  table  *  : — 


The 
Evens 
or  Vigils 
before 


The  Nativity  of  our 

Lord. 
The   Purification   of 

the  blessed  Virgin 

Mary. 
The  Annunciation  of 

the  blessed  Virgin 
Easter-day. 
Ascension-day. 
Pentecost. 
.St.  Matthias. 


The 

Evens 

or  Vigils 

before 


St.  John  Baptist. 

St.  Peter. 

St.  James. 

St.  Bartholomew. 

St.  Matthew. 

St.  Simon   and    St. 

Jude. 

St.  Andrew. 
St.  Thomas. 
All  Saints. 


'  The  reason,'  says  Wheatley,  '  why  the  other  holy-days  have 
no  Vigils  before  them,  is,  because  they  generally  happen  either 
between  Christmas  and  the  Purification  or  between  Easter  and 
Whitsuntide  ;  which  were  always  esteemed  such  seasons  of  joy, 
that  the  Church  did  not  think  fit  to  intermingle  them  with  any 
days  of  fasting  and  humiliation.'  This  would  not  account,  how 
ever,  for  the  omission  of  Vigils  on  the  Eves  of  St.  Barnabas,  St. 
Michael  and  All  Angels,  and  St.  Luke.  In  the  case  of  St.  Barnabas 
and  St.  Luke  the  reason  is  probably  that  these  festivals  were 
considered  to  be  of  a  secondary  character,  and  Bishop  Beveridge 
says, '  To  distinguish  St.  Paul  and  St.  Barnabas  from  the  Twelve, 
the  Eves  or  Vigils  of  these  days  are  not  appointed  to  be  observed 
as  those  of  the  others  are.'  Wheatley  f  suggests  as  a  reason 
for  the  omission  of  a  Vigil  of  St.  Luke  that  the  Feast  of  St.  Ethel- 
dreda,  formerly  a  celebrated  holy-day  in  the  Church  of  England, 
fell  on  October  17.  But  this  explanation  is  not  as  reasonable 
as  the  former,  since  in  the  Sarum  Calendar  St.  Etheldreda  is 
twice  commemorated,  on  October  17  and  June  23,  the  latter  of 
which,  the  Eve  of  St.  John  Baptist,  is  nevertheless  a  Vigil.  The 
omission  of  a  Michaelmas  Vigil  is  '  that  those  ministering  spirits, 
for  whose  protection  and  assistance  we  return  God  thanks,  were 
at  first  created  in  full  possession  of  bliss,'  whereas  the  saints 
passed  from  affliction  to  joy,  and  this  we  commemorate  in  a  Vigil. 

Ascension  Day  obviously  falls  between  Easter  and  Whitsun 
tide  :  and  the  Vigil  before  it  may  have  some  connexion  with 

*  In  the  P.B.  of  the  American  Church  this  table  does  not  occur.  The 
P.B.  of  the  Church  of  Ireland  adds  to  the  table  a  note:  '  The  Archbishops 
and  Bishops  may  appoint  Days  of  Humiliation  and  Days  of  Thanksgiving, 
to  be  observed  by  the  Church  of  Ireland  ;  and  may  prescribe  special 
Services  for  the  same.' 

f  '  Rational  Illustration,'  p.  194  (ed.  London,  1825). 


FEASTS    TO   BE   OBSERVED  51 

the  fast  of  the  Rogation-days.*    So  too  with  the  Vigil  of  Pente 
cost,  f 

All  Sundays  in  the  year  being  appointed  to  be  observed  as 
feasts,  it  is  ordered  '  that  if  any  of  these  Feast-days  fall  upon  a 
Monday,  then  the  Vigil  or  Fast-day  shall  be  kept  upon  the 
Saturday,  and  not  upon  the  Sunday  next  before  it.' 

(2)    Days  of  Fasting,  or  Abstinence. 

In  the  Jewish  Church  there  was  but  one  fast  day  commanded 
in  the  Law,  the  Day  of  Atonement  (Lev.  xvi.  29 ;  cf.  Acts 
xxvii.  9).  After  the  Captivity  four  public  fasts  were  introduced 
(Zech.  viii.  19).  J  Frequent  private  fasts  were  observed  by  the 
pious  (Luke  ii.  37 ;  xviii.  12). §  In  the  New  Testament  there  is 
no  command  to  fast,  Jesus  deliberately  refusing  to  enjoin  fasting 
on  His  disciples  (Mark  ii.  18-22  and  parallels),  but  teaching  that 
whenever  fasting  was  undertaken  it  must  be  with  purity  of 
motive  and  intention  (Matt.  vi.  16-18). ||  We  find  in  the  early 
Church  fasting  mentioned  as  taking  place  before  solemn  appoint 
ments  were  made  (Acts  xiii.  2,  3  ;  xiv.  23)  :  and  that  an  increas 
ing  value  was  set  upon  it  may  be  gathered  from  later  additions 
to  the  true  text  of  the  New  Testament  (e.g.  Matt.  xvii.  21 ;  Mark 
ix.  29 ;  Acts  x.  30 ;  1  Cor.  vii.  5). If 

The  purposes  of  fasting  are  thus  described  in  the  first  part 
of  the  Homily  of  Fasting  **  : — 

(1)  To  chastise  the  flesh,  that  it  be    not   too    wanton,  but 

tamed  and  brought  in  subjection  to  the  spirit. 

(2)  That  the  spirit  may  be  more  earnest  and  fervent  to  prayer. 

(3)  That  our  fast  be  a  testimony  and  witness  with  us  before 

God,  of  our  humble  submission  to  his  High  Majesty,  when 
we  confess  our  sins  unto  Him,  and  are  inwardly  touched 
with  sorrowfulness  of  heart,  bewailing  the  same  in  the 
affliction  of  our  bodies. 

The  same  Homily  also  guards  against  the  notion  of  any  merit 
being  attached  to  fasting  : — 

'  Some  [good  works]  are  of  themselves,  and  of  their  own 
proper  nature,  always  good  .  .  .  other  works  there  be  which, 

*  Bp.  Sparrow  says  ('  Rationale,'  p.  148) :  '  The  fast  of  Rogation  week 
is  voluntary ;  for  there  is  no  fast  commanded  betwixt  Easter  and  Whit- 
Sunday.' 

f  See  '  Diet.  Christ.  Antin.,'  ii.  p.  1619. 

j  On  Purim  see  Paton,  '  Com.  on  Esther  '  (1908),  pp.  77-94. 

§  See  Edersheim,  '  Life  and  Times  of  Jesus,'  i.  662  ;    ii.  291. 

||  A  careful  study  of  the  passage  is  given  in  Lyttelton,  '  Sermon  on  the 
Mount '  (1905),  pp.  264-274. 

If  The  student  should  compare  the  A.V.  and  R.V.  of  these  passages. 
**  In  this  connexion  Hooker,  '  Eccles.  Pol.,'  Book  V,  ch.  Ixxii.  should  be 
studied.  So  too  Bingham,  '  Antiq.,'  xxi.  1,  H. 


52  INTRODUCTORY 

considered  in  themselves,  without  further  respect,  are  of  their 
own  nature  merely  indifferent.  ...  Of  this  sort  of  works 
is  fasting  ;  which  of  itself  is  a  thing  merely  indifferent,  but 
is  made  better  or  worse  by  the  end  that  it  serveth  unto.  For 
when  it  respecteth  a  good  end,  it  is  a  good  work ;  but,  the 
end  being  evil,  the  work  itself  is  also  evil. 

'  To  fast,  then,  with  this  persuasion  of  mind,  that  our  fasting 

and  other  good  works  can  make  us  good,  perfect,  and  just 

men,  and  finally  bring  us  to  heaven,  is  a  devilish  persuasion  ; 

and  that  fast  is  so  far  off  from  pleasing  of  God,  that  it  refuseth 

His  mercy,  and  is  altogether  derogatory  to  the  merits  of  Christ's 

death,  and  His  precious  blood-shedding.' 

The  Church  of  England  does  not,  like  the  Roman  Church,* 

distinguish  fasting  and  abstinence  :    for  although  in  the  title 

of  the  table  of  Vigils,  etc.,  there  is  separate  mention  of  'Fasts, 

and  Days  of  Abstinence,'  yet  in  the  table  following  the  heading 

is  '  Days  of  Fasting  or  Abstinence.' 

The  Prayer  Book  lays  down  no  rules  for  fasting,  nor  indeed 
is  it  enjoined  as  binding  on  members  of  our  Church.  In  1548 
'  A  Proclamation  for  the  abstaining  from  Flesh  in  Lent  Time '  f 
was  issued,  the  motive  of  which  may  be  gathered  from  the  inten 
tion  '  also  for  worldly  and  civil  policy  certain  days  in  the  year 
to  spare  flesh,  and  use  fish,  for  the  benefit  of  the  commonwealth 
and  profit  of  his  majesty's  realm;  whereof  many  be  fishers, 
...  so  that  hereby  both  the  nourishment  of  the  land  might  be 
increased  by  saving  flesh,  and  specially  at  the  spring  time,  when 
Lent  doth  commonly  fall,  and  when  the  most  common  and 
plenteous  breeding  of  flesh  is.'  % 

The  following  letter  of  the  late  Bishop  Perowne  of  Worcester 
(1891-1901)  to  a  clergyman  who  sought  from  him  a  dispensation 
from  fasting  in  Lent  on  the  ground  of  illness,  is  of  interest  as 
showing  the  position  of  our  Church  in  the  matter  : — '  As  I  am 
not  aware  that  our  Church  has  prescribed  a  fast  during  Lent, 
much  less  laid  down  any  rules  for  its  observance,  I  think  every 
individual  is  free  to  exercise  such  abstinence  as  he  may  deem 
best  for  his  own  spiritual  welfare.  A  fasting  which  is  profitable 
to  one  man  would  be  injurious  to  another.  Common  sense,  to 

*  '  In  the  Church  of  Rome,  Fasting  and  Abstinence  admit  of  a  distinc 
tion.  On  their  days  of  fasting,  they  are  allowed  but  one  meal  in  four 
and  twenty  hours :  but  on  days  of  abstinence,  provided  they  abstain  from 
flesh,  and  make  but  a  moderate  meal,  they  are  indulged  in  a  collation  at 
night '  (Wheatley,  '  Rational  Illustration,'  p.  199). 

f  Given  in  Wilkin's  '  Concilia,'  iv.  p.  20. 

J  This  proclamation  is  alluded  to  in  Part  II.  of  the  Homily  quoted  above 
(ed.  of  P.B.  and  Homily  Soo.,  p.  2f>3).  (See  too  Tomlinson,  '  The  Prayer 
Book,  Articles,  and  Homilies,'  pp.  248,  249.) 


EVENS   OR    VIGILS  53 

say  nothing  of  right  Christian  feeling,  should  lead  those  who 
are  in  a  weak  state  of  health  to  take  such  food  as  they  require, 
or  as  a  doctor  prescribes.  Certainly,  I  do  not  see  how  I  am  to 
grant  a  dispensation  (even  if  I  possess  the  dispensing  power) 
from  a  law  of  the  very  existence  of  which  I  am  ignorant.  In 
the  Homily  of  Fasting  (first  part)  it  is  said  to  be  "  of  itself  a  thing 
merely  indifferent."  I  earnestly  wish  that  good  people,  who 
are  troubled  about  this  matter,  would  carefully  study  Isa.  Iviii. 
1-9.'  * 

The  '  days  of  fasting  or  Abstinence '  f  named  in  the  B.C.P.  are 
as  follows : — 

1.  The  Forty  days  of  Lent. 

2.  The  Ember-days,  at  the  Four  /the  First  Sunday  in  Lent. 

Seasons,  being  the  Wednes-jthe  Feast  of  Pentecost, 
day,  Friday,  and  Saturday  ]  September  14. 
after  vDecember  13. 

3.  The  three  Rogation-days,    being  the  Monday,  Tuesday, 

and  Wednesday  before  Holy  Thursday,  or  the  Ascension 
of  our  Lord. 

4.  All  the  Fridays  in  the  Year,  except  Christmas-day. 

I.  Lent. — The  name  is  derived  from  the  Anglo-Saxon  lencten, 
'  spring,'  and  merely  indicates  the  season  of  the  year  when  the 
fast  occurs.  We  have,  no  traces  of  Lent  before  the  Council  of 
Nicaea  (325)  J  ;  and  it  is  clear  that  the  fast  had  its  origin  in  the 
preparation  of  candidates  for  Baptism  (which  usually  took  place 
at  Easter).  We  must  distinguish  between  the  Lenten  and  the 
Paschal  fasts.  From  the  letter  of  Irenaeus  to  Victor  of  Rome 
we  gather  that  a  fast  preliminary  to  Easter  was  observed,  but 
that  there  was  a  variety  of  observance  as  to  its  duration,  and 
that  this  was  a  matter  not  only  of  his  own  time  but  of  earlier 
date.§  At  Alexandria  in  the  middle  of  the  third  century  we 
find  it  the  custom  to  fast  the  whole  week  before  Easter.  ||  In  the 
West  the  Lenten  and  Paschal  fasts  ran  concurrently  :  but  in 
the  East  they  were  conterminous ;  so  we  find  Chrysostom  in 

*  The  Times  for  March  18,  1892,  p.  5,  col.  6. 

f  In  the  P.B.  of  the  American  Church  under  the  table  of  fasts  only 
Ash  Wednesday  and  Good  Friday  are  included.  Then  follows  a  table 
(identical  with  our  '  Days  of  Fasting  or  Abstinence ')  headed,  '  Other 
Days  of  Fasting,  on  which  the  Church  requires  such  a  measure  of  abstinence 
as  is  more  especially  suited  to  extraordinary  acts  and  exercises  of  devotion.' 

J  Can.  5  :  cu  8£  vvvodoi  y<.vt<rdw<ra.v,  -fj.ia  fj-tv  irpb  r^s  TeffffapaKotrrris, 

§  Eusebius,  '  H.  E.,'  v.  24,  ol  [j.tv  yap  oiovrai  fj.lav  rjfjLfpav  beiv  avrous 
vqcTtveiv,  ol  5f  5vo.  ol  5£  Kal  TrXetocas'  oi  oe  Teaav.paKOVTa.  upas  y/Aepivas  re  Ko.1 
vuKTtpiv&t  ffv/Liufrpovtn  Ti)v  Tj/j.cpav  CLVTUV  (cd.  Bright,  p.  1(>9). 

||  Diouysius  Alex.,  '  Letters,'  Migne,  x.  p.  1277  (or  ed.  Feltoe,  pp.  94  /.). 


54  INTRODUCTORY 

one  of  his  sermons  saying,  '  We  have  at  length  come  to  the  end 
of  Quadragesima,  and  we  are  now  about  to  enter  on  the  great 
week  (Holy  Week).'  *  The  historian  Socrates  ('  H.  E.,'  v.  22) 
tells  us  that  in  his  time  there  was  great  variety  in  different 
countries  in  the  length  of  the  fast,  that  at  Rome  being  for  three 
weeks,  f  excepting  Saturdays  and  Sundays.  Soon  after  this  we 
find  a  lengthening  of  the  fast  to  thirty-six  days,  perhaps  as 
forming  a  perfect  number,  one-tenth  of  the  whole  year ;  and 
finally,  in  the  seventh  century,  four  days  were  added.  J 

The  connexion  of  the  Lenten  fast  with  the  forty  days  of  our 
Lord's  fast  in  the  wilderness  was  an  afterthought. 

II.  Ember  Days. — The  derivation  of  the  word  '  ember '  is 
uncertain.  Many  take  it  to  be  a  corruption  of  the  Latin  quatuor 
tempora  into  quatember  and  ember  (cf.  the  German  Quatember 
Dutch  Quatertemper).  Others,  with  but  little  reason,  connect 
it  with  embers  in  the  sense  of  ashes,  formerly  used  in  connexion 
with  mortifications.  Others  identify  it  with  the  Anglo-Saxon 
Ymbren=a,  round  course,  a  circuit ;  §  and  this  last  view  is  almost 
certainly  the  correct  one  (cf.  canon  16  of  the  English  Council 
of  Aenham,  1009—'  et  jejunia  quatuor  temporum,  quae  Imbren 
vocant  et  csetera  omnia  prout  sanctus  Gregorius  imposuit  gent 
Anglorum  conservantur '). 

The  first  mention  of  Ember  days  in  connexion  with  the  four 
seasons  is  in  he  sermons  of  Leo  I  (440-461),  and  we  have  no 
trace  of  their  being  at  this  time  anything  but  a  local  Roman 
custom.  We  find  them  well  established  in  Churches  in  the 
West  dependent  on  Rome  by  the  eighth  century  :  and  in  England 
their  observance,  as  has  been  noted  from  the  quotation  above, 
was  attributed  to  Gregory  the  Great  (590-604). ||  As  to  their 
origin,  Duchesne  ^[  is  of  opinion  that  they  are  '  none  other  than 
the  weekly  fast,  as  observed  at  the  beginning,  but  made  specially 
severe,  as  well  by  the  retention  of  the  Wednesday,  which  had 

*  '  Horn,  in  Gen.,'  xxx.  1. 

f  In  the  Mozarabic  rite  preparation  for  Baptism  lasted  three  weeks. 

}  The  addition  of  four  days  is  frequently  attributed  to  Gregory  the 
Great  (Bingham, '  Antiq.,'  xxi.  1,  6):  but  his  writings  show  that  he  was 
acquainted  with  a  thirty-six  days'  fast  only  (see  Gunning, '  The  Lent  Fast.' 
pp.  64,  /.). 

§  '  Our  Ember  days,  the  Scandinavian  Imbrudagar,  appear  for  the  first 
time  [in  the  Ancren  Riwle,  c.  1220]  in  the  guise  of  umbr  dei ;  this  and 
umquhile  are  the  sole  survivors  in  English  of  the  many  words  formed  from 
our  lost  preposition  umbe,  the  Greek  amphi '  (Oliphant,  '  Old  and  Middle 
English,'  p.  278). 

[|  Ember  fasts  were  ordered  to  be  kept  by  the  Council  of  Cloveshoo  (747), 
can.  18. 

Tf  'Christian  Worship,'  iii.  pp.  233,  285. 


DAYS  OF  FASTING   OR   ABSTINENCE  55 

disappeared  early  from  the  weekly  Roman  use,  as  by  the  sub 
stitution  of  a  real  fast  for  the  semi-fast  of  the  ordinary  Stations.'  * 
Their  purpose,  Bingham  suggests,  may  have  been  '  to  beg  a 
blessing  of  God  upon  the  several  seasons  of  the  year,  or  to  return 
thanks  for  the  benefits  received  in  each  of  them,  or  to  exercise 
and  purify  both  body  and  soul  in  a  more  particular  manner  at 
the  return  of  these  certain  terms  of  stricter  discipline  and  more 
extraordinary  devotion.'  f  There  was  much  irregularity  as  to 
the  time  of  their  observance,  the  present  rules  being  laid  down 
by  the  Councils  of  Placentia  (can.  14)  and  Clermont  (can.  27) 
held  in  1095,  but  even  as  late  as  the  Council  of  Oxford,  1222,  we 
find  a  canon  (can.  8)  ruling  on  the  matter. 

Our  thirty-first  canon  wrongly  states  that  the  Ember  seasons 
were  originally  instituted  for  Ordinations  : — 

Forasmuch  as  the  ancient  Fathers  of  the  Church,  led  by 
example  of  the  Apostles,  appointed  prayers  and  fasts  to  be 
used  at  the  solemn  Ordering  of  Ministers  ;  and  to  that  purpose 
allotted  certain  times,  in  which  only  sacred  orders  might  be 
given  or  conferred ;  we,  following  their  holy  and  religious 
example,  do  constitute  and  decree,  that  no  Deacons  or  Ministers 
be  ordained  and  made,  but  only  upon  the  Sundays  immediately 
following  Jejunia  quatuor  temporum,  commonly  called  Ember 
Weeks,  appointed  in  ancient  time  for  prayer  and  fasting — 
purposely  for  this  cause  at  their  first  institution — and  so 
continued  at  this  day  in  the  Church  of  England. 
In  the  early  Church  there  were  at  first  no  fixed  times  for  Ordina- 
ton,  Gelasius  (492-496)  being  the  first  to  fix  definite  seasons, 
these  being  chosen  from  the  solemnity  attaching  to  them. 

III.  Rogation  Days. — These,  on  the  three  days  immediately 
preceding  Ascension  Day,  had  their  rise  in  Gaul  in  the  middle 
of  the  fifth  century,  being  instituted  by  Mamertus,  bishop  of 
Vienne  in  Dauphine,  c.  470.  The  story  of  their  institution,  as 
told  by  his  contemporary  Sidonius,  is  that  the  city  of  Vienne 
was  terrified  by  calamities,  and  to  atone  for  the  sins  which  were 
thought  to  have  occasioned  them  Mamertus  ordered  a  three 
days'  fast  with  processions  and  rogations.  The  example  of 
Mamertus  was  followed  by  other  bishops,  and  the  practice  soon 
spread  throughout  Gaul ;  and  by  the  Council  of  Orleans,  511, 
was  enjoined  on  the  whole  Gallican  Church  (canon  27)4  From 

*  The  term  '  Statio  '  is  applied  by  Tertullian  ('  De  Jejun.,'  14)  to  the 
fasts  of  Wednesday  and  Friday.  See  below,  p.  56. 

|  '  Antiq.,'  xxi.  2,  1. 

I  '  Bogationes  id  est  litanias  ante  ascensionem  Domini  ab  omnibus  ecclesiis 
placuit  celebrari.' 


56  INTRODUCTORY  .    ., 

Gaul  it  evidently  spread  early  to  England,  since  at  the  Council 
of  Cloveslioo,  747,  it  is  ordered  that '  the  Litanies,  that  is  Roga 
tions,  be  kept  .  .  .  according  to  the  custom  of  our  ancestors, 
on  the  three  days  before  our  Lord's  ascension  into  heaven.'  * 

The  Rogation  Days  were  not  introduced  into  Rome  till  the 
time  of  Leo  III  (795-816). 

By  the  Injunctions  of  Siizabeth,  1559,  the  Litany  was  sub 
stituted  for  all  processions  save  at  the  beating  of  the  bounds  f ; 
and  in  the  Second  Book  of  Homilies  there  is  a  homily  by  Arch 
bishop  Parker  for  the  Days  of  Rogation  Week,:}:  followed  by 
'  An  exhortation  to  be  spoken  to  such  parishes  where  they  use 
their  perambulation  in  Rogation  Week  for  the  oversight  of  the 
bounds  and  limits  of  their  town.' 

There  is  no  office  for  Rogation  Days  in  our  Prayer  Book.  At 
the  revision  of  1661  Cosin  proposed  the  following  Collect : — 

Almighty  God,  Lord  of  heaven  and  earth,  in  whom  we 
live,  move,  and  have  our  being,  who  doest  good  unto  all  men, 
making  thy  sun  to  rise  on  the  evil  and  on  the  good,  and  sending 
rain  on  the  just  and  on  the  unjust ;  favourably  behold  us  thy 
people,  who  do  call  upon  thy  name,  and  send  us  thy  blessing 
from  heaven,  in  giving  us  fruitful  seasons,  and  filling  our  hearts 
with  food  and  gladness  ;  that  both  our  hearts  and  mouths 
may  be  continually  filled  with  thy  praises,  giving  thanks  to 
thee  in  thy  holy  Church,  through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord.  Amen. 

with  James  v.  13-18  as  Epistle,  and  Luke  xi.  1-10  as  Gospel. 

IV.  The  Friday  Fast.— Amongst  the  Jews  the  special  days 
of  the  week  devoted  to  fasting  were  Monday  and  Thursday 
(Luke  xviii.  12).  For  these  days  Christians  substituted  Wednes 
day  and  Friday,  and  .to  this  practice  there  is  reference  in  the 
Didache  (viii.  1) — '  Let  not  your  fasts  be  together  with  the 
hypocrites,  for  they  fast  on  the  second  and  fifth  days  of  the  week  ; 
but  keep  ye  your  fast  on  the  fourth  day,  and  the  preparation 
(Friday)/  In  the  Pastor  of  Hermas  §  mention  is  made  of  fasts 
under  the  name  of  '  stations,'  and  Tertullian  ('  De  Jejun.,'  14) 
applies  this  term  to  the  Wednesday  and  Friday  fasts,  which  were 
semi-jejunia,  or  '  half  fasts '  lasting  till  the  middle  of  the  after 
noon.  The  term  '  stations '  may  have  been  taken  from  military 

*  Similar  Rogations  existed  in  the  Mozarabic  rite  in  Sept.,  Nov.,  and  Jan. 

f  Gee  and  Hardy,  '  Documents,  etc.,'  p.  420. 

j  The  homily  is  divided  into  three  parts,  the  first  of  which  sets  forth 
'  the  goodness  of  God  in  the  creation  of  this  world,  with  all  the  furniture 
thereof,  for  the  use  and  comfort  of  man.' 

§  V.  1.  BXeVw  rbv  Troifj.€va  irapa.Ka.drni.fvov  /xoi  KO.I  \eyovra'  rl  dpOpivbs  d>5e 
s,  'On, 


SOLEMN  DAYS  57 

language,  St.  Ambrose  in  one  of  his  sermons  saying;  '  Our  fasts 
are  our  encampments  which  protect  us  from  the  devil's  attack  ; 
in  short,  they  are  called  stationes,  because  standing  (stantes) 
and  staying  in  them  we  repel  our  plotting  foes '  *  ;  or  it  may  be 
that  the  fast  was  called  '  statio  '  from  being  kept  on  stated  days 
(statis  diebus).  It  is  said  that  the  Wednesday  and  Friday  fasts 
were  introduced  into  the  Northumbrian  Church  by  St.  Aidan, 
635.J  We  preserve  a  trace  of  the  Wednesday  fast  in  our  P.B. 
in  the  recitation  of  the  Litany  on  Wednesdays. 

iv.    A  SOLEMN  DAY  FOR   WHICH  A   PARTICULAR   SERVICE  is 

APPOINTED. 

The  Sixth  day  of  May  being  the    day  on  which    his  Majesty 
began  his  happy  reign. 

There  is  no  Act  of  Parliament  enjoining  the  observance  of 
the  Days  of  Accession  ;  but  they  have  been  observed  with  special 
Prayers  in  every  reign  since  the  Reformation.  No  mention  of 
the  observance  of  such  a  day  was  made  in  the  Prayer  Book  until 
late  in  the  eighteenth  century. 

The  three  Offices  given  below  were  in  the  1662  P.B.  But 
they  were  not  in  the  Book  when  enacted  by  Parliament,  and 
were  annexed  only  by  the  sanction  of  Convocation  and  the 
Crown.  They  were  all  removed  in  1859  by  a  Royal  Warrant, 
that  is  to  say,  by  the  same  authority  which  originally  inserted 
them. 

[CERTAIN  SOLEMN  DAYS,  FOR  WHICH  PARTICULAR  SERVICES  ARE 
APPOINTED. 

1.  The  Fifth  day  of  November,  being  the  day  of  the  Papists' 

Conspiracy. 

2.  The  Thirtieth  day  of  January,  being  the  day  of  the  Martyr 

dom  of  King  Charles  the  First. 

3.  The  Ninth  and  twentieth  day  of  May,  being  the  day  of  the 

Birth  and  Return  of  King  Charles  the  Second.] 

v.     TABLES  TO  FIND  EASTER  AND  OTHER  MOVEABLE  FEASTS. 

1549.     None  were  given. 
1552.     An  Almanack  for  xix  years. 
1559.     An  Almanack  for  xxx  years. 
1604.     An  Almanack  for  xxxix  years. 

To  find  Easter  for  ever. 
1662.    A  Table  of  the  Moveable  Feasts  calculated  for  forty  years. 

To  find  Easter  for  ever. 

*  Serm.  25.     See  too  Tertullian,  '  De  Corona,'  xi. 
t  Bright,  '  Early  Eng.  Ch.  Hist.,'  ii.  p.  146. 


58  INTRODUCTORY 

Since  1751,  by  the  authority  of  24  George  II.  c.  23,*  the  present 
eight  Tables  for  finding  Easter  were  substituted  for  the 
above-named  two  Tables  of  1662. 

By  '  Full  Moon '  is  meant  the  14th  day  of  the  calendar  moon. 
Here  it  will  be  convenient  to  define  certain  technical  expres 
sions  which  are  necessary  for  the  elucidation  of  the  tables  for 
finding  Easter  Day. 

(i)  The  Golden  Number,  so  called  from  the  great  value 
attached  to  them,  signifies  the  year  of  the  Cycle  of  the 
Moon.  This  cycle  extends  for  a  period  of  19  years,  the 
number  of  each  year  being  indicated  by  the  Roman 
numerals  I,  II,  III,f  etc. 

(ii)  The  Sunday  or  Dominical  Letters  are  the  first  seven  of 
the  alphabet,  viz.  A,  B,  C,  D,  E,  F,  G,  which  embrace  the 
space  of  a  week,  and  they  are  used  in  the  Calendar  for  the 
purpose  of  determining  the  Sundays  of  every  year.  The 
Letter  for  January  1  is  always  A  ;  January  2,  B  ;  January 
3,  C,  and  so  on ;  the  seven  letters  being  repeated  every 
week.  Therefore,  if  January  1  be  a  Sunday,  as  it  was  in 
the  year  1911,  the  Sunday  letter  is  A  for  the  whole  year. 
If  January  2  be  a  Sunday,  then  B  is  the  Sunday  Letter 
for  the  year,  etc. 

N.B. — In  leap  years  there  are  two  Sunday  Letters  (see  below). 

(iii)  The  Epact :  the  number  indicating  the  excess  of  the  common 
solar  year  above  the  lunar  one.  The  lunar  year  is  shorter 
than  the  solar  one  by  eleven  days,  and  this  difference 
runs  through  every  year  of  the  lunar  cycle.  It  follows 
that  if  a  new  moon  fall  on  January  1  in  any  year,  on  the 
first  of  January  in  the  next  year  the  moon  will  be  eleven 
days  old.  The  number  11  is  therefore  the  epact  of 
that  year;  for  the  following  year  it  would  be  22,  and  for 
the  succeeding  year  it  would  be  33  if  the  moon  could  be  so 

*  The  following  is  the  quotation  from  the  Act :  '  Be  it  therefore  further 
enacted  by  the  authority  aforesaid,  That  the  said  feast  of  Easter,  or  any 
of  the  moveable  feasts  thereon  depending,  shall,  from  and  after  the  second 
day  of  September  [1751],  be  no  longer  kept  or  observed  in  that  part  of 
Great  Britain  called  England,  or  in  any  other  the  dominions  or  countries 
subject  or  belonging  to  the  crown  of  Great  Britain,  according  to  the  said 
method  of  supputation  now  used,  or  the  said  Table  prefixed  to  the  said 
book  of  common  prayer ,-  and  that  the  said  table,  and  also  the  column 
of  golden  numbers,  as  they  are  now  prefixed  to  the  respective  days  of  the 
month  in  the  said  calendar,  shall  be  left  out  of  all  future  editions  of  the 
said  book  of  common  prayer ;  and  that  the  said  new  calendar,  tables  and 
rules,  hereunto  annexed,  shall  be  prefixed  to  all  such  future  editions  of 
the  said  book,  in  the  room  and  stead  thereof.' 

t  In  the  Calendar  (from  March  21  to  April  18)  the  notation  is  Arabic. 


EASTER   AND   OTHER   MOVE  ABLE   FEASTS          59 

old  ;  but  as  it  cannot  go  beyond  30  the  epact  is  33 — 30  =  3. 
The  epact  of  the  following  year  is  14  ;  and  so  on  till  the  last 
year  of  the  cycle,  the  epact  of  which  is  18.  As  only 
29  days  are  to  be  reckoned  for  the  last  month  of  the  last 
year  of  the  cycle,  tne  next  cycle  begins  with  0  as  before. 

N.B. — This  is  the  general  Rule  for  finding  the  Epact.  But 
owing  to  the  Solar  and  Lunar  Equations  the  Epacts  are, 
in  the  course  of  centuries,  subject  to  change. 
(iv)  The  Paschal  limits  are  the  earliest  and  latest  dates  (March 
21  and  April  18)  upon  which  the  Paschal  Full  Moon  occurs : 
consequently  the  earliest  day  on  which  Easter  Day  can 
fall  is  March  22  and  the  latest  April  25. 

FOR  LIMITED  PERIODS. 

(a)     Two  Tables  to  find  Easter  tUl  the  year  2199  inclusive. 

A  TABLE  TO  FIND  EASTER  DAY  FROM  THE  PRESENT  TIME 
TILL  THE  YEAR  2199  INCLUSIVE  ACCORDING  TO  FOREGOING 
CALENDAR. 

This  table,  as  will  be  seen,  is  divided  into  three  columns.  The 
first  column  contains  the  Golden  Numbers ;  the  second,  the  days 
of  the  month  from  March  21  to  April  25  inclusive ;  the  third 
column  contains  the  Sunday  letters.  The  following  is  the 
explanation  as  to  how  to  use  the  Table. 

1st.  Find  the  Golden  Number  or  Prime. 
Rule- 
Add  1  to  the  Year  of  our  Lord,  and  then 
Divide  by  19  : 

The  remainder,  if  any,  is  the  Golden  Number; 
but  if  nothing  remaineth,  then  19  is  the  Golden  Number. 
Ex.    Find  the  Golden  Number  for  A.D.  1912. 

1912  +  1      1AA       ,   . 
— _ —  =  100  and  13  over. 
iy 

Therefore  13  is  the  Golden  Number. 

2nd.  Find  the  Dominical  or  Sunday  Letter. 

Rule — 

Add  to  the  Year  of  our  Lord  its  Fourth  Part,  omitting  Frac 
tions,  and  also  the  number  6. 

Divide  the  sum  by  7. 

And  if  there  is  no  Remainder,  then  A  is  the  Sunday  Letter. 

But  if  any  number  remaineth,  then 
the  Letter  standing  against  that  Number  in  the  annexed 
Table  is  the  Sunday  Letter. 


INTRODUCTORY 


0 

A 

1 

G 

2 

F 

3 

« 

4 

D 

5 

C 

6 

B 

Ex.    Find  the  Sunday  Letter  for  A.D.  1912. 
1912  +  ^(omitting  fraction)  +_6  1913  +  478  +  6        23% 

~7~  7  7 

=  342  and  2  over. 

As  in  the  above  Table,  2  is  in  line  with  F, 
therefore  F  is  the  Sunday  Letter. 

3rd.  Find  by  the  Table  the  Date  of  Easter  for  A.D.  1912. 

Rule — 
Look  for  the  Golden  Number  of  the  year  in  the  first  column 

of  the  Table,  against  which  stands  the  day  of  the  Paschal 

Full  Moon  : 
Then  look  in  the  third  column  for  the  Sunday  Letter,  next 

after  the  day  of  the  Full  Moon, 
and  the  day  of  the  Month  standing  against  that  Sunday 

Letter  is  Easter  Day. 
If  the  Full  Moon  happens  on  a  Sunday,  then  the  Sunday 

after  is  Easter  Day. 


Golden 
Number. 

Day  of 

the  Month. 

Sunday 
Letter. 

XIV 

March  21 

C 

* 

* 

XIII 

April      1 
2 

G 

A 

3 

B 

4 

C 

6 

D 

6 

E 

7 

F 

*     * 

*      8 

G 

*     * 

*      9 

A 

EASTER  AND  OTHER  MOVE ABLE  FEASTS     61 

Ex.     The  Golden  Number   for    1912  being  13  (XIII)  and  the 

Sunday  Letter,  F. 
Therefore  by  rule  above  April  7  is  the  date  of   Easter 

for  1912. 

N.B. — Had  April  2  been  a  Sunday  then  Easter  Day  would 
have  fallen  a  week  later,  namely,  April  9. 

Note. — That  in  all  Bissextile  or  Leap  Years  the  letter  found,  as  above, 
will  be  the  Sunday  Letter  from  the  intercalated  day  (i.e.the29th  of  February) 
exclusive  to  the  end  of  the  year. 

Ex. — The  above  year  1912  is  a  leap  year.  If  it  had  been  an  ordinary 
year  the  letter  would  be  G,  but  owing  to  its  being  a  leap  year  an  extra  letter 
has  to  be  used,  and  G  F  are  the  Sunday  letters,  G  being  the  letter  up  to  and 
including  February  28  and  F  from  February  29  (the  intercalated  day)  to 
the  end  of  the  year. 

ANOTHER  TABLE  TO  FIND  EASTER  TILL  THE  YEAR  2199 

INCLUSIVE. 

This  Table  does  not  give  (like  the  other  one)  the  date  of  the 
Paschal  Full  Moon,  but  simply  that  of  Easter  Day,  and  is  easily 
formed  from  the  above  Table. 

In  order  to  work  this  Table  : — 

(1)  Find  by  aid  of  foregoing  Table  the  Golden  Number  and 

the  Sunday  Letter,  and  then 

(2)  Look  for  the  Date  of  Easter  Day,  and  in  doing  so  be  careful 

to — '  Note,  that  the  Name  of  the  Month  is  set  on  the  Left 
Hand,  or  just  with  the  Figure,  and  followeth  not,  as  in 
other  Tables,  by  Descent,  (i.e.  vertically),  but  Collateral 
(i.e.  horizontally).' 
Thus  if  the  Golden  Number  is  V,  and  the  Sunday  Letter  F, 

then  April  7  is  Easter  Day. 

If  the  Golden  Number  is  XVII,  and  the  Sunday  Letter  F,  then 
Easter  Day  is  not  March  21  but  April  21. 

(b)  Tables  of  the  Moveable  Feasts. 

(a)    A  TABLE  OF  THE  MOVEABLE  FEASTS 

FOR  FIFTY-ONE  YEARS 
ACCORDING  TO  THE  FOREGOING  CALENDAR. 

This  Table  speaks  for  itself  and  saves  the  reader  the  trouble 
of  working  for  himself  the  dates  when  the  Moveable  Feast  will 
fall  for  a  period  of  fifty  years. 

(6)    A  TABLE  OF  THE  MOVEABLE  FEASTS, 
ACCORDING  TO  THE  SEVERAL  DAYS  THAT 
EASTER  CAN  POSSIBLY  FALL  UPON. 

The  Note  at  foot  of  the  Table  is  of  importance,  as  the  effect 
produced  by  the  intercalated  day  (February  29)  explains  the 


62  INTRODUCTORY 

reason  of  the  alterations  notified  to  be  made  in  the  Table  in 
Leap  Year ;  for  until  March  1  each  day  is  one  farther  removed 
from  Easter  than  would  be  the  case  in  the  year  of  365  days. 

(c)    TaUe  to  find  Easter  from  the  year  2200  to  2299  inclusive. 

TABLE  TO  FIND  EASTER  DAY 

FROM 
THE  YEAR  2200  TO  THE  YEAR  2299  INCLUSIVE. 

This  Table  is  worked  in  the  same  way  as  that  of  '  A  Table  to 
find  EasterDay  from  the  present  time  till  the  year  2199  inclusive.' 

FOR  ANY  PERIOD. 

GENERAL  TABLES  FOR  FINDING  THE  DOMINICAL  OR  SUNDAY 
LETTER,  AND  PLACES  OF  THE  GOLDEN  NUMBERS  IN  THE 
CALENDAR. 

TABLE  I. 

By  the  aid  of  this  Table  you  can  find  the  Sunday  Letter  not  only 
as  in  foregoing  tables  up  to  2199,  but  from  1600  for  ever. 
Rule — 
Add  to  the  year 

Its  Fourth  Part,  omitting  Fractions,  and  also 
The  Number  which  standeth  at  the  Top  of  the  Column, 
wherein  the  Number  of  Hundreds  contained  in  that 
given  Year  is  found ; 
Divide  the  sum  by  7,  and 

If  there  is  no  Remainder  then  A  is  the  Sunday  Letter,  but 
If  any  Number  remaineth, 

Then  the  Letter,  which  standeth  under   that  Number 
at  the  Top  of  the  Table,  is  the  Sunday  Letter. 

(a)  Ex.     Find  the  Sunday  Letter  for  A.D.  2300. 
2300  4-2300 

-T  +  3    2878 

— n —     ~  =     -     =411  and  1  over. 

Therefore  the  Sunday  Letter  is  G. 

(6)  Ex.     Find  the  Sunday  Letter  for  A.D.  3723. 

0790 
3723  +  £~  (omitting  fraction)  +  0 


7  7 

=  664  and  5  over. 
Therefore  the  Sunday  Letter  i«  C. 


EASTER  AND   OTHER  MOVE  ABLE   FEASTS  63 

TABLE  II. 

Tables  II.  and  III.  enable  one  to  find  the  Month  and  Days  of 
the  Month  to  which  the  Golden  Numbers  ought  to  be  prefixed  in 
the  Calendar,  in  any  given  Year  of  our  Lord. 
Rule— 

For  the  given  Year  consisting  of  entire  Hundreds, 
Look  in  the  second  Column  for  the  given  Year  consisting  of. 

entire  Hundreds,  and 
Note  the  Number  or   Cypher  which  stands  against  it  in 

the  third  column. 

Ex.  What  is  the  Adjusting  Number  for  A.D.  3723  ? 
3723  comes  in  the  entire  hundreds  of  3700,  against  which 
9  stands  in  the  third  column.  Therefore  9  is  the  '  adjusting ' 
number,  owing  to  the  Solar  and  Lunar  equations,  by  which 
with  the  aid  of  the  next  table  the  date  may  be  found  to  which 
the  Golden  Number  is  to  be  prefixed. 

TABLE  III. 

This  table  is  now  easily  worked. 
Rule — 

Look  for  the  '  adjusting  number '  in  the  Column  under  any 
given  (or  required)  Golden  Number,  which  when  you 
have  found, 

Guide    your  eye  sideways   to  the  Left  Hand,  and  in  the 
first  column  you  will  find  the  Month  and  Day  to  which 
that  Goden  Number  ought  to  be  prefixed  in  the  Calendar 
during  that  period  of  One  Hundred  Years. 
Ex.     Find  the  Month  and  Day  of  the  Month  to  which  the 
Golden  Number  ought  to  be  prefixed  for  A.D.  3723. 
First,  find  the  Golden  Number. 

_ — =196,  and  nothing  over, 
i  y 

Therefore  19  is  the  '  Golden  Number.' 

And  as  we  found  above 

C  is  the  Sunday  Letter,  and 
9  is  the  '  Adjusting  Number '. 

We  have  now  to  look  for  the  Golden  Number  19  in  the  top 
line,  and  run  our  eye  down  till  we  find  9,  and  guiding  our  eye 
sideways  we  come  to  April  3. 

Therefore  April  3  will  be  the  date  of  the  Paschal  Full  Moon 
in  A.D.  3723,  and  so  this  is  the  date  to  which  the  Golden 
Number  XIX  must  be  prefixed.  And  as  C  is  the  Sunday  Letter 
we  find  by  aid  of  the  second  vertical  column  that  April  4  will 
be  Easter  Day  in  A.D.  3723. 


64  INTRODUCTORY 

7.    THE  CALENDAR, 
WITH  THE  TABLE  OF  LESSONS. 

The  word  '  Calendar  '  is  derived  from  the  Latin  calendarium, 
meaning  an  account  book  of  interest  due  to  a  money-lender, 
and  was  so  called  from  the  interest  being  due  on  the  calends 
(calendce)  of  each  month.  In  ordinary  language  it  means  a 
register  of  the  days  of  the  year  by  weeks  and  months  showing 
the  various  civil  and  ecclesiastical  holidays,  festivals,  etc. 

In  early  Christian  Calendars  we  find  that  the  saints  com 
memorated  were  almost  entirely  those  of  local  martyrs  * ;  and 
the  commemoration  was  on  the  date  on  which  they  had  actually 
suffered  (cf.  Cyprian,  '  Epp/  xii.  2).  Each  Church  and  each 
district  had  its  own  Calendar,  and  as  time  went  on  there  were 
added  to  the  list  of  local  martyrs  names  of  others  who,  though 
not  belonging  to  the  particular  district  or  Church,  had  attained 
pre-eminent  distinction. f  In  this  way  the  Calendars  were  con 
tinually  being  added  to  ;  in  many  the  same  day  would  often 
commemorate  several  saints  ;  and  in  our  own  land  the  number  of 
minor  saints'  days  before  the  Reformation  had  become  excessive, 
interfering  with  agriculture  and  trade,  and  tending  to  the  im 
poverishment  of  the  labourers.  J 

From  early  times  candidates  for  ordination  were  required  to 
have  a  knowledge  of  the  Calendar,  and  in  the  Capitulare  Interro- 
gationis  of  Charlemagne  (811  A.D.)  we  find  it  enjoined,  with  a 
view  to  the  due  supply  of  qualified  candidates,  '  ut  scholse 
legentium  puerorum  fiant,  psalmos,  notas,  cantum,  computum 
.  .  .  discant.'  § 

The  Roman  Calendar  was  adopted  in  England  by  the  Council 
of  Cloveshoo,  747  A.D.  But  the  English  Church  added  from 
time  to  time  the  names  of  her  own  saints,  and  at  Cloveshoo 
itself  the  names  of  Augustine  of  Canterbury  and  Gregory  were 
added.  It  was  not  till  1161,  when  Edward  the  Confessor  was 
canonised,  that  the  papal  authority  was  exercised  when  new 
additions  were  proposed. 

With  the  exception  of  two  names,||  Evurtius  and  Bede,  our 

*  From  Eusebiiis,  '  H.  E.,'  iv.  15,  we  gather  that  the  anniversaries  of 
martyrs  were  kept  from  the  first. 

f  Cp.  e.g.  the  inclusion  of  Perpetua  and  Felicitas  in  the  Liberian  Martyr- 
ology  (the  earliest  Roman,  c.  354  A.D.).  In  the  Carthaginian  Calendar 
(c.  500  A.D.)  several  Roman  martyrs  are  commemorated. 

J  See  Tomlinson,  '  The  Prayer  Book,  Articles  and  Homilies,'  pp.  1-3. 

§  See  Maskell,  '  Monumenta,'  i.  pp.  cxx.  cxxi.  ;  also  Hi.  pp.  xvi.  224, 
for  examples  of  verses  on  the  Calendar  meant  to  assist  the  memory. 

1|  See  below,  p.  66. 


THE   CALENDAR   AND   TABLE  OF  LESSONS  63 

present  Calendar  is  identical  with  that  issued  in  1561,  the  source 
of  which  was  the  Calendars  of  the  Sarum  Missal  and  Breviary  ; 
and  with  three  exceptions  (Alban,  Mary  Magdalene,  Cyprian 
of  Carthage)  the  commemorations  common  to  both  are  identical 
in  date.  In  the  Sarum  Calendar  we  find  Roman  influence  pre 
dominant  ;  many  additions  to  be  traced  to  Gallican  influence, 
and  many  also  to  English  local  interest.* 

History  of  the  Calendar  since  the  Reformation. 

The  main  facts  are  brought  together  here  under  their  respective 
dates. 

1532.  A  petition  of  the  Commons,  drafted  by  Cromwell,  is 
presented  to  the  King,  complaining  of  the  excessive  number 
of  holy-days  and  praying  that  they- '  might  be  made  fewer 
in  number.'  f 

1536.  Convocation  declared  that  the  number  of  holy-days 
was  '  the  occasion  of  much  sloth  and  idleness  .  .  .  per 
nicious  to  the  souls  of  many  men  who  ...  do  upon  the 
same  commonly  use  and  practice  more  excess  riot  and 
superfluity  than  upon  any  other  days,'  and  many  were 
consequently  abolished.  No  feasts  were  to  be  kept  in 
harvest  time  except  feasts  of  the  Apostles  and  Our  Lady ; 
and  the  feast  of  every  church's  dedication  was  to  be 
observed  on  the  first  Sunday  in  October. 

1549.  In  the  first  Prayer  Book  of  Edward  VI.  all  the  black- 
letter  saints  were  swept  away  except  Magdalen  (July  22), 
which  was  made  a  red-letter  day  with  Collect,  Epistle  and 
Gospel. 

1552.  In  the  second  Prayer  Book  of  Edward  VI.  the  names 
of  George,  Lawrence  and  Clement  are  added,  together 
with  '  Lammas,'  the  '  Dog  Days '  J  and  '  Term '  days. 
Mary  Magdalene  as  a  red-letter  day  disappeared. 

1559.  '  Barnabe  Ap/  which  had  been  omitted  per  incuriam 
in  the  Calendar  of  1552,  though  recognized  in  the  body 
of  the  Prayer  Book,  reappears. 

1561.  Elizabeth  directed  the  Royal  Commissioners  for  Ecclesi 
astical  Causes  to  draw  up  a  new  Calendar.  The  black- 
letter  days  contain  all  but  three  (Bede,  Alban,  Evurtius) 
of  our  present  list.  The  Calendar  was  preceded  by  a 
table  of  feasts,  headed  '  these  to  be  observed  for  holy 
days,  and  none  other.'  § 

*  See  Frere,  '  Graduale  Sarum,'  pp.  xxii.-xxx. 

f  See  Gee  and  Hardy,  '  Documents  illustrative  of  Eng.  Ch.  Hist.,'  p.  150. 
j  i.e.  the  period  during  which  the  dog-star  rises  and  sets  with  the  sun. 
§  See  '  Liturgical  Services  (Elizabeth),'  Parker  Society,  pp.  435-455. 

V 


66  INTRODUCTORY 

1604.  Eunurchus  (Evurtius)  was  added  on  September  7, 
taking  the  place  formerly  occupied  by  the  birthday  of 
Queen  Elizabeth. 

1661.  Two  names  were  added,  Bede  (May  27)  and  Alban 
(June  17).  These  came  from  the  Preces  Privatae,  a  de 
votional  manual  issued  in  1564.*  The  fuller  descrip 
tions  (in  some  cases  erroneous)  were  taken  possibly  from 
Cosin's  '  Devotions '  (1627). 

Saints'  Days  and  Calendar  Holidays. 

In  the  Calendar  certain  days  are  marked  in  red,  and  these 
'  red-letter  days,'  which  are  dealt  with  above, f  are  those  which 
are  kept  holy  by  a  special  service  for  which  Collect,  Epistle  and 
Gospel  are  provided.  The  principles  on  which  these  days  are 
selected  seem  to  have  been 

(1)  the  desire  to  commemorate  no  person  or  event  unrecorded 
in  Holy  Scripture ; 

(2)  the  desire  to  celebrate  those  festivals  only  which  were 
of  known  antiquity. 

The  tests  were  not  carefully  applied,  and  it  is  difficult  to 
understand  why  certain  central  events  of  the  Gospel — even  if 
their  celebration  was  comparatively  late — were  not  included. { 

Other  days  in  the  Calendar  are  marked  in  black,  and  are  known 
as  '  black-letter  days.'  They  may  be  grouped  thus  §  : — 

A.  BIBLICAL  : — 

(i)  Visitation  of  the  B.V.M.  (July  2).  Commemorates  the 
visit  of  Mary  to  Elizabeth  before  the  birth  of  the  Bap 
tist.  Instituted  by  Urban  VI,  1389,  and  again  estab 
lished  by  the  Council  of  Basle,  1441.  Adopted  in 
England  in  1480. 

(ii)  St.  Mary  Magdalene  (July  22).  '  The  Ointment-Bearer 
and  equal  of  the  Apostles '  (Byzant.  Cal.).  Com 
memorated  by  the  Greek  Church  also  on  this  day. 

(iii)  The  Transfiguration  (August  6).  Was  observed  locally 
from  an  early  date,  but  its  general  observance  was 
not  enjoined  till  1457  by  Calixtus  III  after  the  victory 
over  the  Turks  at  Belgrade. 

*  See  '  Private  Prayers  (Elizabeth),'  Parker  Society,  pp.  209-428.  The 
Calendar  prefixed  to  these  was  a  very  full  one,  only  six  days  in  the  year 
being  vacant. 

t  pp.  43,  ff. 

J  In  the  Book  Annexed  of  the  American  Protestant  Episcopal  Church 
the  Transfiguration  of  Christ  is  replaced  as  a  red-letter  day  (August  6)  with 
Collect,  Epistle  (2  Pet.  i.  13-18),  and  Gospel  (Luke  ix.  28-36). 

§  For  this  classification  are  indebted  to  a  16  pp.  pamphlet,  '  Minor 
Holy  Days  of  the  Church  of  England,'  without  date,  name  of  author  or 
publisher.  The  latest  literature  mentioned  is  dated  1901. 


THE   CALENDAR   AND    TABLE   OF   LESSONS  67 

(iv)  Beheading  of  John  the  Baptist  (August  29).  A  festival 
of  early  date,  found  in  the  Gelasian  and  in  some  forms 
of  the  Gregorian  Sacramentaries.  * 

B.  ROMAN  : — 

(a)  Those  belonging  to  Rome  itself: — 

(i)  Prisca  (January  18).  Legendary,  about  the  time  of 
Claudius.  Said  to  have  been  a  child  martyr ;  but  legend 
rejected  as  untrustworthy  by  Pope  Gelasius  in  494. 
Possibly  reminiscent  of  Priscilla,  wife  of  Aquila  (Rom. 
xvi.  3). 

(ii)  Fabian  (January  20).  The  well-known  Bishop  of  Rome 
(236-250),  martyred  in  the  Decian  Persecution.  His 
epitaph,  in  Greek,  is  in  the  Catacomb  of  Calixtus. 
One  of  the  four  popes  commemorated  in  our  Calendar, 
the  others  being  Gregory,  Clement,  and  Silvester. 

(iii)  Agnes  (January  21).  Martyred  304.  Jerome  writes  of 
her,  '  In  the  writings  and  tongues  of  all  nations  the 
life  of  Agnes  is  praised  in  the  Churches  .  .  .  who  over 
came  the  tyrant  and  consecrated  her  chastity  by  martyr 
dom.' 

(iv)  Gregory  (March  12).  Known  as  '  the  Great.'  '  Aposto- 
lus  Anglorum.'  Pope,  590-604.  Added  to  English 
Calendar  747  (Council  of  Cloveshoo). 

(v)  St.  John  Ev.  ante  Port.  Lat.  (May  6).  Commemorates 
the  story,  as  old  as  Tertullian  ('De  Prsesc.,'  xxxvi),  of 
St.  John's  having  been  thrown  before  the  Latin  Gate 
at  Rome  into  a  cauldron  of  boiling  oil  by  order  of 
Domitian,  and  escaping  unhurt.  A  Church  was  at  a 
later  period  erected  on  the  site.  In  an  old  English 
Calendar,  printed  by  Maskell  (iii.  188,  ff.)  the  entry 
reads  '  St.  John  at  brason  gate,'  a  curious  mistranslation 
of  Latina,  latten  being  a  soft  mixed  metal  well  known 
in  the  Middle  Ages. 

(vi)  Nicomede  (June  1).  Said  to  have  been  martyred  under 
Domitian.  The  date  marks  the  dedication  of  a  Church 
to  his  memory  at  Rome. 

(vii)  Laurence  (August  10).  A  Spaniard,  archdeacon  to 
Sixtus  II  and  as  such  gained  a  great  reputation  as 
the  administrator  of  the  charities  of  the  Church  at 
Rome.  Martyred  in  258,  three  days  after  Sixtus,  by 
being  slowly  roasted  to  death. 

(viii)  Clement   (November  23).      The  early  Church  Father, 

*  For  some  interesting  information  on  the  Baptist's  place  in  the  Calendars 
BCO  a  letter  of  Dr.  C.  L.  Feltoe  in  the  Guardian,  August  26,  1910. 


68 

author  of  the  letter  to  the  Church  at  Corinth.  '  Greek 
in  speech,  Jewish  in  training  and  patriotic  memories 
Roman  in  world-wide  sympathy,  in  love  of  law  and 
order,  and  in  tact  of  ruling.'  It  is  doubtful  if  he  is  to 
be  numbered  among  the  martyrs.* 

(ix)  Silvester  (December  31),  Bishop  of  Rome,  314-335, 
His  name  is  inseparably  connected  with  the  conversion 
ri  Constantine.  '  Silvester  has  become  a  kind  of  hero 
of  religious  fable '  (Milman). 

(&)  Those  connected  with  Italy  or  provinces  adjacent: — 

(a)  Vincent  (January  22).  A  deacon  of  Saragossa,  martyred 
at  Valentia,  304.  Story  of  his  martyrdom  much  mixed 
with  legend. 

(ii)  Agatha  (February  5).  Martyred  at  Catana  in  Sicily 
in  the  Decian  persecution. 

{iii)  Valentine  (February  14).  Bishop  of  Interamnis,  where 
he  was  martyred  c.  273.  In  the  Gregorian  Sacramentary 
there  is  commemorated  on  the  same  day  a  Valentine, 
priest  and  martyr  at  Rome  under  Claudius. f 

(iv)  Perpetua  (March  7).  Martyred  with  Felicitas  under 
Severus,  202.  '  Perpetua  and  Felicitas,'  companions 
in  perpetual  felicity '  (Augustine).  The  Acts  of  Per 
petua  one  of  the  earliest  authentic  records  of  martyrdom. 

(v)  Ambrose  (April  4).  Bishop  of  Milan,  374-397.  Com 
memorated  on  December  7  in  the  Byzantine  Calendar, 
as  also  in  Quignon's  Breviary  (1535). 

(vi)  Augustine  (August  28).  Bishop  of  Hippo,  died  in  430. 
The  most  famous  of  the  Fathers  of  the  West. 

(vii)  Cyprian  (September  26).  Archbishop  of  Carthage, 
martyred  under  Valerian,  258.  Inserted,  or  rather 
the  description,  on  this  date  by  the  revisers  of  1661 
through  an  error.  In  the  Sarum  Calendar  the  Cyprian 
commemorated  on  this  day  is  the  converted  magician 
of  Antioch.  The  date  of  the  martyrdom  of  Cyprian 
of  Carthage  is  September  14, J  which  in  our  Calendar 
is  marked  off  as  Holy-Cross  Day. 

(viii)  Lucy  (December  13).  Said  to  have  been  martyred 
at  Syracuse  in  the  Diocletian  persecution.  Her  day 
regulates  the  December  Ember  Days. 

*  See  Lightfoot,  '  Clement  of  Rome,'  i.  54. 

t  Mr.  Simpson,  in  his  '  Minor  Festivals  of  the  Anglican  Calendar,'  p.  52, 
takes  this  Valentine  to  be  the  one  commemorated  in  our  Calendar.  But 
we  have  no  evidence  that  he  was  a  Bishop. 

J  See  Wordsworth,  '  Ministry  of  Grace,'  pp.  397,  398. 


THE   CALENDAR   AND   TABLE  OF  LESSONS          69 

C.  FKENCH. 

The  presence  of  these  is  explained  when  we  remember  that 
the  English  Calendar  proper  came  from  Rome  by  way  of  France.* 

(a)  Those  connected  with  St.  Denys  and  his  time ;•— 

(i)  Evurtius  (September  7).  Appears  correctly  in  the  Sarum 
Calendar  as  Eunurchus.  The  present  form  is  the  per 
petuation  of  printers'  mis-spelling,  f  Said  to  have 
laboured  for  twenty  years  as  Bishop  of  Orleans,  where 
he  died  c.  340. 

(ii)  Faith  (October  6).  Martyred  at  Agen  in  Aquitaine 
towards  the  end  of  the  third  century.  The  crypt  in 
St.  Paul's  Cathedral,  London,  is  dedicated  to  her. 

(iii)  Denys  (October  9).  The  patron  saint  of  France, 
martyred  at  Paris,  c.  286.  The  legend  identifying  him 
with  Dionysius  the  Areopagite  was  widely  accepted  and 
led  to  the  quarrel  of  Abelard  with  the  monks  of  the 
convent  of  St.  Denys  in  the  twelfth  century. 

(iv)  Crispin  (October  25).  Martyred  at  Soissons  in  the 
Diocletian  persecution  together  with  Crispinian.  Both 
were  sent  from  Rome  to  bring  about  the  conversion 
of  the  Gauls,  providing  for  their  own  necessities  by 
following  the  trade  of  shoemakers. 

(&)  Those  connected  with  the  conversion   of   the   Kelts   by   St. 

Martin : — 
(i)  Hilary  (January  13).     '  Hammer  of  the  Arians.'     Bishop 

of  Poitiers,  died  367. 
(ii)  Martin  (November  11).     Bishop  of  Tours,  died  397.     His 

translation  to  a  Basilica  dedicated  to  his  honour  (473) 

is  commemorated  on  July  4. 
(iii)  Britius  (November  13).     Succeeded  Martin,  by  whom 

he  had  been  trained,  as  Bishop  of  Tours  (397-444). 
(c)  Those  connected  with  the  conversion  of  the  Franks : — 
(i)  Remigius  (October  1).     Bishop  of  Rheims,  died  c.  530. 

'  The  Apostle  of  the  Franks.'     Baptized  Clovis,  '  the 

new  Constantine '  (Gregory  Turon, '  H.  F./  ii.  31),  who  at 

the  time  of  his  conversion  was  the  only  Christian  King 

in  Europe, 
(ii)  Leonard  (November  6).     A   disciple    of  Remigius,  and 

founder  of  the  monastery  of  Noblat,   near  Limoges. 

Died  c.  560. 

*  Dr.  Collins,  late  Bishop  of  Gibraltar,  advocated  the  reform  of  the  Calendar 
on  the  ground  that  as  it  stands  it  is  too  pre-eminently  Gallican  (Preface 
to  Granger,  '  Black-letter  Saints,'  1910). 

|  See,  however,  Staley,  '  Liturgical  Studies,'  pp.  58-65. 


TO  INTRODUCTORY 

(d)  Those  connected  with  the  later  evangelization,  especially  of 

Eastern  France: — 

(i)  Boniface  (June  5).  '  The  Apostle  of  Germany.'  Arch 
bishop  of  Mentz.  Born  at  Crediton  in  Devonshire. 
Martyred  in  Friesland,  775. 

(ii)  Giles  (September  1).     Abbot  in  Languedoc,  died  c.  725. 
(iii)  Lambert  (September  17).     Bishop  of  Maestricht,  mar 
tyred  at  Liege,  c.  709. 

D.  ENGLISH. 

(a)  British : — 

(i)  David  (March  1).     The  patron  saint  of  Wales,  died  601. 

(ii)  Alban  (June  17).  The  protomartyr  of  Britain  (303). 
The  date  is  probably  an  error  for  June  22  (see  Bede, 
'  H.  E.,'  i.  6, 7),  which  is  the  date  assigned  in  the  Calen 
dars  of  the  Hereford  Missal  and  the  York  Missal. 

(iii)  Machutus  (November  15).  A  Welshman  who  became 
Bishop  of  Aleth  in  Brittany,  died  c.  630. 

(b)  Saxon : — 

(i)  Chad  (March  2).  '  The  Apostle  of  the  Midlands.'  Bishop 
of  Lichfield,  died  672.  See  Bede,  '  H.  E.,'  iv.  3. 

(ii)  Edward,  King  of  West  Saxons  (March  18).  Murdered 
at  Corfe  Castle  by  order  of  his  step-mother  ^Elfthryth, 
978.  His  translation  in  980  from  Wareham  to  Shaftes- 
bury  is  commemorated  on  June  20. 

(iii)  Alphege  (April  19).  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  mar 
tyred  by  the  Danes,  1012. 

(iv)  Dunstan  (May  19).     Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  960-988. 

(v)  Bede  (May  27).  The  only  festival  not  in  the  proper  Sarum 
Calendar.  He  led  '  the  scholar's  uneventful  life,  spent 
in  a  round  of  religious  service  and  of  quiet  study.'  His 
'  Ecclesiastical  History  'was  completed  in  731,  four  years 
before  his  death.  The  title  '  Venerable  '  was  given 
about  a  hundred  years  later. 

(vi)  Swithun  (July  15).  Bishop  of  Winchester,  852-862. 
The  date  commemorates  his  translation  into  the  Cathe 
dral,  971. 

(vii)  Edward  the  Confessor  (October  13).  The  title  '  Con 
fessor  '  is  the  general  title  for  an  ascetic  in  the  old 
Eoman  service-books.  He  was  canonised  in  1161. 
His  first  translation  took  place  on  October  13,  1163  ; 
the  second  in  1269. 

(viii)  Etheldreda  (October  17).  The  first  canonised  English 
woman.  Founder  of  the  great  convent  at  Ely.  Died 
679. 


THE   CALENDAR   AND    TABLE   OF  LESSONS  71. 

(ix)  Edmund   (November  20).     Last  King  of  East  Anglia. 

Murdered  by  the  Danes,  870,  and  his  body  translated 

in  903  to  Berdericswortha  (Bury  St.  Edmund's), 
(x)  Gregory  (March  12).*     Bishop  of  Kome,  590-604.     Sent 

Augustine  in  596  to  evangelize  England.    M.  after  his 

name = Magnus, 
(xi)  Augustine  (May  26).  f    Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  597- 

604. 

(c)  Mediceval : — 

(i)  Hugh  (November  17).  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  1186-1200. 
Born  in  Burgundy,  1140,  brought  to  England  in  1182 
to  take  charge  of  the  Carthusian  monastery  at  Witham. 
Canonised  in  1220. 

(ii)  Richard  (April  3).  Bishop  of  Chichester,  1245-1253. 
The  latest  saint  of  our  Calendar,  canonised  in  1260. 

E.  EASTERN. 

Most  of  these  came  into  the  Calendar  during  the  MiddleAges, 
and  probably  owed  their  popularity  to  the  Crusades. 

(i)  Blasius  (February  3).  Bishop  of  Sebaste  in  Armenia, 
martyred  c.  316.  To  be  identified  with  the  St.  Blaise, 
patron  of  Pladay,  in  the  Scotch  Calendar. 

(ii)  George  (April  23).  A  native  of  Cappadocia,  martyred 
in  the  Diocletian  persecution,  303  (?).  Traditionally 
the  patron  saint  of  England.  In  the  time  of  the  Cru 
sades  Eichardl.took  him  as  his  patron,  but  he  was  not 
formally  adopted  as  patron  saint  of  England  till  the 
time  of  Edward  III .,  when  from  1349  he  replaced  Edward 
the  Confessor  as  patron. 

(iii)  Margaret  (July  20).  Said  to  have  suffered  at  Antioch 
in  Pisidia  towards  the  close  of  the  third  century.  Com 
memorated  by  the  Greeks  under  the  name  of  Marina 
on  July  17. 

(iv)  Anne  (July  26).  Her  name  appears  as  the  mother  of 
the  Virgin  first  in  the  Protevangelium  Jacobi.  Her 
festival  became  popular  in  England  under  the  influence 
of  Richard  II. 's  queen,  Anne  of  Bohemia. 

(v)  Catherine  (November  25).  Said  to  have  been  martyred 
at  Alexandria  under  Maximin  (308-312). 

(vi)  Nicolas  (December  6).  Bishop  of  Myra  in  Lycia  at 
the  time  of  the  Diocletian  persecution. 

In  addition  there  are  some  entries  in  the  Calendar  which  do 
not  admit  of  classification  under  any  of  the  above  heads  :— 

*  See  p.  67.  |  See  p.  68. 


7*  INTRODUCTORY 

(i)  Invention  of  the  Cross  (May  3).  An  old  festival,  of  Pales 
tinian  origin,  appearing  in  the  Gelasian  Sacramentary  on 

v  this  day.*  The  word  '  invention '  means  '  finding '  (La  t. 
inventio),  and  the  name  describes  the  tradition  of  the 
finding  of  the  Cross  by  the  Empress  Helena  in  326  (Cyril, 
'Ep.  ad  Const./  iii.). 

(ii)  Lammas  Day  (August  1).  The  word  '  Lammas  '  is  Anglo- 
Saxon  meaning  '  Loaf-mass,'  and  the  day  takes  its  name 
from  the  offering  on  August  1  of  loaves  made  from  the 
new  corn.f  The  festival  is  also  called  St.  Peter  ad  Vincula, 
commemorating  the  release  of  the  Apostle  (Acts  xii.), 
the  date  August  1  having  reference  to  the  dedication  of 
a  Komasi  church  in  memory  of  it  and  where  the  chains 
of  St.  Peter  were  said  to  be  preserved.! 

(iii)  Name  of  Jesus  (August  7).  Origin  of  the  festival  unknown, 
but  it  was  already  in  use  in  England  when  specially 
sanctioned  by  Alexander  VI.  (1493-1503). 

(iv)  Nativity  of  Virgin  Mary  (September  8).  Said  to  have  been 
established  by  Sergius  I.  in  695.  It  is  unknown  how  the 
date  September  8  was  arrived  at. 

(v)  Holy  Cross  Day  (September  14).  The  dedication  festival 
of  the  two  churches  built  at  Jerusalem  by  Constantino 
in  335.  The  day  was  believed  in  Jerusalem  to  be  that 
of  the  discovery  of  the  true  Cross  by  Helena.  The  festival 
was  not  introduced  into  the  West  till  the  seventh  century, 
and  celebrates  the  restoration  of  the  relic  of  the  cross  by 
Heraclius  in  629.  The  day  regulates  the  September  Ember 
Days. 

(vi)  Conception  of  Virgin  Mary  (December  8).  Seems  to  have 
originated  in  the  East.  Appears  in  the  West  about  the 
beginning  of  the  twelfth  century.  § 

(vii)  0  Sapientia  (December  16).  The  words  represent  the 
opening  words  of  the  first  of  a  series  of  seven  antiphons 
to  the  Magnificat  sung  in  the  West,  in  connexion  with 
the  Spanish  Festival  of  the  Annunciation,  from  this  day 
to  Christmas  Eve.  The  antiphons  each  begin  with  '  0,' 
and  the  one  under  consideration  runs,  '0  Sapientia  quse 
ex  ore  Altissimi  prodisti,  attingens  a  fine  usque  ad  finem, 
fortiter  suaviterque  disponens  omnia  ;  veni  ad  docendum 
nos  viam  prudentise.'  (Ecclus.  xxiv.  3 ;  Wisd.  viii.  1.) 

•  See  Duchesne,  '  Christian  Worship,"  iii.  pp.  274,  /. 
t  See  Oliphant,  '  Old  and  Middle  English,'  pp.  122,  /. 
j  The  festival  of  the  pre-Christian  martyrs,  the  Maccabees,  was  univer- 
•aUy  observed  about  the  fifth  century  on  August  1. 

|  See  Dowden,  '  Church  Year  and  Calendar,'  pp.  52-56. 


THE   CALENDAR   AND    TABLE   OF  LESSONS  73 

The  Irish  Church  and  the  Protestant  Church  of  America* 
have  abolished  all  black-letter  days.  The  motives  which  under 
lay  their  retention  in  our  Calendar  may  be  gathered  from  the 
declaration  of  the  Bishops  at  the  Savoy  Conference — '  the  other 
names  are  left  in  the  Calendar,  not  that  they  should  be  so  kept 
as  holy  days,  but  they  are  useful  for  the  preservation  of  their 
memories,  and  for  other  reasons,  as  for  leases,  law  days,  etc.'  f 
The  Church  of  England  does  not  consider  these  days  as  *  minor 
festivals,'  for  they  are  deliberately  excluded  from  '  the  table  of 
all  the  feasts  to  be  observed  in  the  Church  of  England  throughout 
the  year,'  and  there  are  no  special  services  appointed  for  them. 

The  student  will  have  gathered  from  what  he  has  read  above, 
that  the  Calendar  of  the  English  Church  contains  the  names  of 
many  legendary  saints,  of  many  who  have  no  particular  connexion 
with  the  history  of  our  Church,  of  many  who  attained  no  more 
than  local  celebrity,  and  that  the  omissions  of  names  who  have 
exercised  a  beneficent  influence  on  English  religious  life  and 
thought  are  a  serious  drawback  if  we  are  to  continue  to  com 
memorate  persons  and  events  outside  Holy  Scripture.  Various 
proposals  have  been  suggested  from  time  to  time  for  the  reform 
of  the  Calendar,  the  most  important,  of  recent  years,  being  that 
of  Dr.  John  Wordsworth,  who  lays  down  the  following  considera 
tions  for  guidance  and  has  himself  drawn  up  a  Calendar  in  accord 
ance  with  the  suggestions  J : — 

(1)  '  The  desire  to  bring  out  any  prominent  points  in  the 

mystery  of  Redemption  that  may  have  been  omitted. 

(2)  To  introduce  or  re-introduce  commemorations  which  may 
emphasize  and  foster  the  sentiment  of  true  Catholicity. 

(3)  To  add  what  may  be  necessary  to  keep  in  memory  the 

blessings  of  our  own  branch  of  the  Church. 

(4)  To  omit  commemorations  which  are  of  little  or  no  import 

ance  or  necessity,  so  as  to  make  what  remain  of  greater 
interest  and  to  insure  that  they  should  be  taken  seriously.* 


*  But  see  note  *  on  p.  50. 

t  Cardwell, '  Conferences,'  p.  341.     See  also  Wheatley,  '  Rational  Illustra 
tion,'  pp.  55,  ff.  (ed.  1825). 

t  Wordsworth,  '  Ministry  of  Grace,'  pp.  421-438. 


74  INTRODUCTORY 

DATES  WHEN  NAMES  WERE  PLACED  IN  THE  CALENDAR. 


January. 

February. 

March. 

1.  Circumcision  .      1549 

2.  Purification  of 

1.  David,  Abp.   .      1604 

6.  Epiphany        .      1549 

Mary.       .      .      1549 

2.  Chad,  B.   .      .      1604 

8.  Lucian,  P.  &  M.    1604 

3.  Blasius,    B.    & 

7.  Perpetua,  M.  .      1604 

13.  Hilary,  Bp.  &  C.  1604 

M  1604 

12.  Gregory,  M.B.      1604 

18.  Priaca,  V.  &  M.    1604 

5.  Agatha,  V.   & 

18.  Edward,  King 

20.  Fabian,  Bp.&M.    1604 

M.       ...      1604 

of  West  Sax.       1604 

21.  Agnes,  V.  &  M.    1604 

14.  Valentine,    B. 

21.  Benedict,  Ab.      1604 

22.  Vincent,  Mart.     1604 

&  M.  .      .      .      1  :i04 

25.  Annunc.      of 

25.  Conv.    of    St. 

24.  St.  Matthias  .      1549 

Mary.      .      .      1549 

Paul   .     .      .      1549 

30.  K.  Charles,  M.     1662 

April. 

May. 

June. 

3.  Richard,  B.     .      1604 

1.  St.  Philip  &  St. 

1.  Nicomede,  M.       1604 

4.  Ambrose,  B.  .      1604 

James      .      .      1549 

5.  Boniface,  B.  .      1604 

19.  Alphege,  Abp.      1604 

3.  Invent,  of  Cross  1  604 

11.  St.   Barnabas, 

23.  St.  George,  M.     1552 

6.  St.  John,  E.    .      1604 

A  I      1549 

25.  St.  Mark,  Evan. 

19.  Dunstan,  Abp.     1604 

17.  St.  Alban,  M.  .      1662 

&M.  .      .      .      1549 

26.  Augustine,  Abp.  1604 

19.   Xat.     of      K. 

27.  Ven.    Be'de, 

James      .      .      1604 

Presbyter      .      1662 

20.  Transl.  K.  Ed 

29.  Charles  II,  Nat. 

ward  of  West 

&Ret.      .      .      1662 

Sax.    .      .      .      1604 

24.  St.  John  Bap 

tist     ...      1549 

29.  St.  Peter,  Ap. 

&  M.  .      .      .      1549 

July. 

August. 

September. 

2.  Visit,     of     V. 

1.  Lammas  Day       1552 

1.  Giles,    Ab.    & 

Mary.      .      .      1604 

6.  Transf.  of  our 

.  Conf.        .      .      1604 

4.  Transl.   of   St. 

Lord  .      .      .      1604 

7.  Enurchus,  B.  .     1604 

Martin,  B.&C.    1604 

7.  Name  of  Jesus     1604 

8.  Nat.      of      V. 

15.  St.  Swithun,  B.    1604 

10.  St.   Lawrence, 

Mary.      .      .      1604 

20.  Margaret,     V. 

M.       ...      1552 

14.  Holy  Cross  Day   1604 

&M.  .      .      .      1604 

24.  St.    Bartholo 

17.  Lambert,  B.   .      1604 

22.   St.MaryMagd.    1549 

mew,  A.  &  M.     1549 

21.-  St.    Matthew, 

25.  St.  James,  A. 

28.  St.  Augustin,B. 

A.,  Evan.  &  M.   1549 

&  M.  .      .      .      1549 

of  Hippo.      .      1604 

26.  St.     Cyprian, 

26.  St.  Anne  .      .      1604 

29.  Beheading    of 

Abp.  &  M.     .1604 

St.  John  Bap 

29.  St/  Michael  & 

-  !  - 

tist     .      .      .      1604 

All  Angels     .      1549 

•  '...:-       -: 

30.  St.  Jerome      .      1604 

October. 

November. 

December. 

1.  Remigius,  B.  .      1604 

1.  All  Saints'  Day    1549 

6.  Nicholas,  B.   .      1604 

6.  Faith,  V.  &  M.     1604 

6.  Leonard,  Conf.    1604 

8.  Concep.  of  V. 

9.  St.  Denys,  Abp.    1604 

11.  St.  Martin,  B.     1604 

Mary.       .      .      1604 

13.  Transl.     King 

13.  Britius,  B.       .      1604 

13.  Lucy,  V.  &M.     1604 

Ed.     ...      1604 

15.  Machutus,  B.       1604, 

16.  OSapientia    .      1604 

..1-7.  Etheldreda.V.     1604 

17.  Hugh,B.  .      .      1604 

"21.  St.  Thomas,  A. 

18.  St.  Luke,  Evang.  1549 

20.  Edmund,  King    1604 

&M.  .      .      .      1549 

25.  Crispin,  M.      .      1604 

22.  Cecilia,  V.  &  M.    1604 

25.-  Christmas  Day    1549 

28.  St.  Simon  and 

23.  St.  -   Clement, 

26i  St.  Stephen,  M.    1549 

St.  Jude  .      .      1549 

B.  &M.    .      .      1552 

27.  St.  John,  Evang. 

25.  St.   Katherine, 

&  A.  .      .      .      1549 

V.  &M.    .      .      1604 

28.  Innocents'  Day   1549 

30.  St.     Andrew, 

31.  Silvester,  B.   .      1604 

A.  &  M.    .      .      1549 

THE   CALENDAR   AND    TABLE   OF  LESSONS  75 

USE  OF  CALENDAR  IN  FINDING  THE  FEASTS. 

In  the  second  column  the  Calendar  (or  Sunday)  letter  is  given  ; 
and  in  an  outside  line  to  the  first  column  in  the  Months  of  March 
and  April  the  Golden  Numbers  appear,  the  positions  of  which 
change  in  the  course  of  centuries.  Their  present  positions  will 
continue  until  2199  inclusive.  Consequently  for  this  period 
by  "the  aid  of  this  Calendar  both  the  Paschal  Full  Moon  and 
Easter  Day  and  all  the  other  Moveable  Feasts  can  readily  be 
fixed. 


THE  ORDER  FOR  MORNING  AND 
EVENING  PRAYER 

DAILY  TO  BE  SAID  AND  USED  THROUGH 
OUT  THE  YEAR 

PREFATORY  RUBRICAL  DIRECTIONS 

THESE  two  rubrics,  with  a  special  heading,  appeared  first  in 
1552,  and  present  grave  problems.  They  relate  to  the  place 
where  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer  are  to  be  read,  and  to  the 
'  ornaments  of  the  Church,  and  of  the  Ministers  thereof '  to 
be  used  at  all  times  of  their  ministrations,  and  not  only  at  Morn 
ing  and  Evening  Prayer.  They  were  not  printed  on  a  separate 
page  in  1552. 

Heading. 

1552.  The  Order  where  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer  shall 
be  used  and  said.  Scottish  Book,  1637  :  '  where  and 
how  '  :  '  said  or  sung.' 

1662.    The  Order  for  Morning  and  Evening    Prayer  daily 

to  be  said  and  used  throughout  the  Year. 
The  substitution  of  '  for  '  for  '  where  '  makes  the  heading 
slightly  more  general,  but  the  directions  in  all  editions 
cover  other  services  besides  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer. 
The  addition,  'daily  .  .  .  throughout  the  Year,'  refers 
rather  to  the  services  than  to  the  minister,  whose  duty  in 
respect  of  their  daily  use  is  found  in  the  penultimate  clause 
of  the  '  Preface  concerning  the  Service  of  the  Church '  (see 
p.  25). 

First  Rubric,  concerning  the  place  where  Morning  and  Evening 
Prayer  are  to  be  read. 

[1549.  Though  there  was  no  corresponding  rubric  until 
1552  the  '  priest '  is  directed  at  the  commencement 
of  *  Matins '  to  begin  that  service  '  in  the  quire.'] 


PREFATORY   RUBRICAL   DIRECTIONS  77 

1552.  The  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer  shall  be  used  in 
such  place  of  the  Church  [i.e.  the  body  of  the  Church], 
chapel,  or  Chancel,  and  the  Minister  shall  so  turn  him, 
as  the  people  may  best  hear.  And  if  there  be  any  con 
troversy  therein,  the  matter  shall  be  referred  to  the 
ordinary,  and  he  or  his  Deputy  shall  appoint  the  place, 
and  the  Chancels  shall  remain,  as  they  have  done  in 
times  past. 

1559.  The  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer  shall  be  used  in 
the  accustomed  place  of  the  church,  chapel,  or  Chancel ; 
except  it  shall  be  otherwise  determined  by  the  Ordinary 
of  the  place  ;  and  the  chancels  shall  remain,  as  they 
have  done  in  times  past. 

1662.  The   last   clause,   already  separated    by  a  colon  in 
1559,  became  completely  separate,  a  full  stop  being  put 
after  '  place,'  and  '  and  '  f-.omTnp.Tip.iTig  with  a  capital, 
while  the  statutory  comma  after  '  remain  '  dropped  out, 
doubtless  owing  to  its  unauthorized  absence  from  the 
printed  folio  copy  of  1636,  employed  in  the  1662  revision. 
This  rubric  enshrines  the  history  of  a  division  of  opinion 
amongst  the  Reformers  as  to  the  wisdom  of  retaining  the  chancels, 
i.e.  the  part  of  the  church  behind  the  screen  (cancelli).     Bucer 
and  Hooper  argued  strongly  for  their  removal,  but  Cranmer 
found  them  useful  as  a  place  where  the  communicants  might 
gather,  to  the  exclusion   of  non-communicants.     He  therefore 
counselled  their  retention,  explicitly  directing  their  use  at  Morn 
ing  and  Evening  Prayer  to  be  no  longer  the  rule,  as  in  1549, 
but  contingent  upon  convenience  for  hearing. 

The  omission  in  1559  of  this  regulation  as  to  convenience  for 
hearing  is  in  conflict  with  1  Eliz.  c.  2  (3),  which  re-enacted  the 
1552  Book  with  three  specified  exceptions,  which  included  neither 
this  rubric  nor  the  one  which  follows.  The  author  of  the  altera 
tions  is  unknown,  but  it  is  conjectured  that  Elizabeth  herself 
was  responsible.  The  alterations,  by  whomsoever  made,  were 
disregarded,  many  Episcopal  Visitation  Articles  being  extant 
dating  from  1571  to  1622,  in  which  the  question  is  asked  : 
'  Whether  your  Minister  so  turn  himself  and  stand  in  such  place 
of  your  church  or  Chauncell  as  the  people  may  best  hear  the 
same  *  :  the  very  words  of  the  1552  rubric  being  used.  The 
substitution  of  the  vague  phrase  '  the  accustomed  place '  is 
intelligible  as  characteristic  of  Elizabeth's  temporizing  policy, 
but  its  applicability  after  the  suspension  of  the  Prayer  Book 
during  the  reign  of  Mary  is  hard  to  see.  The  same  criticism 
applies  to  its  re-enactment  in  1662,  when  the  still  longer  super 
session  of  the  Prayer  Book  had  left  no  '  accustomed  place  ' 


78  MORNING   AND    EVENING    PRAYER 

for  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer.  The  omission  of  the  { deputy,' 
in  1559,  is  more  intelligible  ;  it  was  not  Elizabeth's  way  to 
commit  authority  to  many  hands,  especially  in  matters  involving 
ecclesiastical  disputes. 

The  curious  separation  of  the  last  clause  of  the  rubric,  until 
in  1662  it  became  a  separate  sentence,  has  led  some  to  suppose 
that  it  referred  to  the  condition  of  the  chancels  and  not  to  their 
existence.  Apart  from  the  history  of  the  case,  which  makes 
such  an  interpretation  impossible,  the  original  comma  after 
'  remain '  shows  that  the  emphasis  is  upon  that  word,  and  not 
upon  the  '  as  '  which  follows.  In  1662  that  comma  was  omitted, 
but  at  that  time  there  was  no  desire  that  the  chancels  should 
remain  in  the  condition  in  which  they  had  been  '  in  times  past,' 
when  the  whole  liturgy  had  been  banished. 

(See  Tomlinson,  '  Historical  Grounds  of  the  Lambeth  Judg 
ment,'  6th  Edn.,  p.  24  :  also  Tracts  on  Ritual  :  No.  192.) 

Second  Rubric,  concerning  the  '  Ornaments  of  the  Church, 
and  of  the  Ministers,'  i.e.  the  articles  and  vesture  requisite  to 
the  performance  of  the  prescribed  Services  of  the  Church. 

The  prevalence  of  divergent  opinions  and  practices  in  the 
Church,  based  almost  exclusively  upon  the  interpretation  of 
this  rubric,  necessitates  that  even  a  brief  comment  shall  contain 
some  reference  to  the  historical  documents  concerned,  the  legal 
decisions  pronounced,  and  the  various  views  propounded.  As 
being  the  more  prominent  part  of  the  subject  under  discussion, 
and  as  involving  to  a  large  extent  the  whole  question  as  to  Orna 
ments,  the  vesture  of  the  Minister  will  be  first  considered,  a 
brief  summary  of  the  legal  position  in  regard  to  the  Ornaments 
of  the  Church  being  appended. 

ORNAMENTS  OF  THE  MINISTER. 

I.    Historical  Documents. 

1549.  The  directions  as  to  vestments  in  1549  B.C.P.,  put  forth 
'  by  the  authority  of  Parliament  in  the  second  year  of  the  reign 
of  King  Edward  the  Sixth,'  are  the  earliest  of  their  kind  after 
the  repudiation  of  Papal  authority.  They  are  to  be  found  : 

(1)  At  the  end  of  the  Book,  the  first  of  '  certain  notes  for  the  more  plain 
explication  and  decent  ministration  of  things  contained  in  this  book' — 
In  the  saying  or  singing  of  Matins  and  Evensong,  Baptizing  and  Burying, 
the  Minister,  in  parish  churches  and  chapels  annexed  to  the  same,  shall 
use  a  Surplice.  And  in  all  Cathedral  Churches  and  Colleges,  the  Arch 
deacons,  Deans,  Provosts,  Masters,  Prebendaries,  and  Fellows,  being  Gradu 
ates,  may  use  in  the  quire,  beside  their  Surplices,  such  hoods  as  pertaineth 
to  their  several  degrees,  which  they  have  taken  in  any  university  within 
this  realm.  But  in  all  other  places,  every  Minister  shall  be  at  liberty  to  use 


ORNAMENTS  OF   THE   MINISTER  79 

any  Surplice  or  no.    It  is  also  seemly,  that  Graduates,  when  they  do  preach, 
should  use  such  hoods  as  pertaineth  to  their  several  degrees. 

And  whensoever  the  Bishop  shall  celebrate  the  holy  Communion  in  the 
Church,  or  execute  any  other  public  ministration,  he  shall  have  upon  him, 
beside  his  rochette,  a  Surplice  or  albe,  and  a  cope  or  vestment ;  and  also 
his  pastoral  staff  in  his  hand,  or  else  borne  or  holden  by  his  chaplain. 

(2)  In  the  fourth  Rubric  at  the  beginning  of  the  Communion  Office, — 
Upon  the  day,  and  at  the  time  appointed  for  the  ministration  of  the  holy 
Communion,  the  Priest  that  shall  execute  the  holy  ministry,  shall  put  upon 
him  the  vesture  appointed  for  that  ministration,  that  is  to  say,  a  white  Albe 
plain,  with  a  vestment  or  Cope.    And  where  there  be  many  Priests,  or 
Deacons,  there  so  many  shall  be  ready  to  help  the  Priest,  in  the  ministration, 
as  shall  be  requisite  ;  and  shall  have  upon  them  likewise  the  vestures  appointed 
for  their  ministry,  that  is  to  say,  Albes,  with  tunicles. 

(3)  In  the  first  Rubric  at  the  end  of  the  Communion  Office. — Upon  Wednes 
days  and  Fridays . . .  though  there  be  none  to  communicate  with  the  Priest, 
yet  these  days  (after  the- Litany  ended)  the  Priest  shall  put  upon  him  a  plain 
Albe  or  surplice,  with  a  cope,  and  say  all  things  at  the  Altar,  (appointed  to  be 
said  at  the  celebration  of  the  Lord's  supper)  until  after  the  Offertory.  .  .  . 

And  the  same  order  shall  be  used  all  other  days,  whensoever  the  people 
be  customably  assembled  to  pray  in  the  Church,  and  none  disposed  to  com 
municate  with  the  Priest. 

Explanatory  Summary  : 

i.  Bishops  are  to  wear  a  '  vestment '  (i.e.  chasuble)  or  cope, 
and  an  alb  or  surplice,  at  all  '  public  ministrations.'*  The  sacrificial 
vestment  is  thus  made  permissible  and  not  obligatory,  and  its 
special  connexion  with  Holy  Communion  is  no  longer  regarded 
so  far  as  Bishops  are  concerned. 

ii.  The  officiating  Priest  at  Holy  Communion  is  allowed  to 
wear  cope  or  chasuble,  but  must  wear  an  albe  and  not  a  surplice. 
When  there  is  no  celebration,  the  Priest  must  wear  a  cope  at 
Ante-Communion,  over  either  an  alb  or  a  surplice.  Assistant 
ministers  at  Holy  Communion  are.  allowed  no  alternatives  to 
the  alb  and  tunicle. 

iii.  At  Matins,  Evensong,  Baptizing  and  Burying,  a  surplice 
must  be  worn,  the  same  vesture  being  prescribed  for  the  use  of 
Archdeacons,  Deans,  etc.,  '  in  the  quire  '  of  Cathedral  Churches 
and  Colleges,  the  hood  being  permitted  also,  and  recommended 
as  '  seemly '  for  all  Graduates  when  they  preach. 

iv.  The  vesture  for  Holy  Communion  is  distinctive,  save  for 
Bishops,  but  the  chasuble  ceases  to  be  obligatory. 

v.  There  is  no  prescribed  vesture  for  any  ministers  (except 
the  Bishops)  at  the  Litany,  Matrimony,  Commination,  or  Church 
ing  of  Women  ;  unless  indeed  the  statement  that  '  in  all  other 
places  (but  Cathedral  Churches  and  Colleges)  every  Minister 

*  The  Ordinal,  which  followed  the  1549  B.C. P.,  carried  the  idea  of 
indifference  to  the  chasuble  so  far  as  to  abandon  its  use  in  the  Ordination 
of  Priests.  The  accipe  vestem  sacerdolalem  of  the  unreformed  ordinal  was 
entirely  abandoned. 


8o  MORNING   AND   EVENING   PRAYER 

shall  be  at  liberty  to  use  any  surplice  or  no,'  regulates  the  vesture 
at  these  services. 

1552.  These  directions  were  superseded  in  the  Second  Prayer 
Book  of  Edward  VI  by  the  following  rubric,  placed  at  the  head  of 
Morning  Prayer  * : — 

And  here  is  to  be  noted,  that  the  Minister  at  the  time  of  the  Communion, 
and  at  all  other  times  in  his  Ministration,  shall  use  neither  Alb,  Vestment, 
nor  Cope  ;  but  being  Archbishop  or  Bishop,  he  shall  have  and  wear  a  rochet ; 
and  being  a  priest  or  deacon,  he  shall  have  and  wear  a  surplice  only. 

Explanatory  Summary  : 

All  distinction  between  services  is  removed,  and  the  dress 
of  both  Bishops  and  other  clergy  simplified  by  the  direction  of 
the  use  of  the  rochet,  a  lawn  surplice  with  sleeves  gathered  in 
at  the  wrist,  by  the  Bishop,  and  the  surplice  by  a  priest  or  deacon. 
The  1549  vestments,  alb,  chasuble  and  cope,  are  expressly 
forbidden. 

1559.  On  the  accession  of  Elizabeth  the  1552  B.C.P.  was 
restored  by  the  Act  of  Uniformity,  1  Eliz.  c.  2,  which  directs  : 

That  all  and  singular  Ministers  in  any  Cathedral,  or  Parish  Church,  or 
other  place  within  this  Realm  ...  be  bounden  to  say  and  use  the  Mattins, 
Evensong,  Celebration  of  the  Lord's  Supper,  and  Administration  of  each 
of  the  Sacraments,  and  all  their  common  and  open  Prayer,  in  such  order 
and  form  as  is  mentioned  in  the  said  Book,  so  Authorized  by  Parliament 
in  the  said  fifth  and  sixth  Years  of  the  Reign  of  King  Edward  the  Sixth  : 
with  one  alteration,  or  addition  of  certain  Lessons  to  be  used  on  every  Sunday 
in  the  Year,  and  the  Form  of  the  Litany  altered  and  corrected,  and  two 
Sentences  only  added  in  the  delivery  of  the  Sacrament  to  the  Communicants, 
and  none  other,  or  otherwise. 

Explanatory  Summary  : 

The  careful  language  of  the  last  sentence,  not  only  specifying 
the  three  alterations  in  the  1552  B.C. P.,  but  excluding  all  other 
alterations,  gives  the  same  authority  to  the  1552  Ornaments 
Rubric  as  to  the  rest  of  the  1552  Book.  It  should  be  borne  in 
mind  that  there  was  no  Elizabethan  Prayer-Book,  strictly 
speaking  ;  the  Act  simply  re-established  the  1552  B.C.P.  But, 
in  the  same  Act  are  two  provisos,  §§  25  and  26,  the  former  directly, 
and  the  latter  indirectly,  bearing  upon  the  Ornaments  of  the 
Church  and  its  Ministers  : 

*  These  two  rubrics  appear  on  a  separate  page  for  the  first  time  in  printed 
copy  of  1636,  in  which  Bancroft  notified  the  alterations  in  1661.  In  his 
Durham  Book,  Cosin  wrote  a  direction  to  the  printer :  '  Set  the  first  title 
and  ye  2  orders  following  on  the  other  side,  retro,  with  a  fayre  compartment 
before  it,'  to  which  is  added  in  Bancroft's  writing :  '  and  in  Italic  letters.' 
The  appropriateness  of  this  severance  from  the  Orders  for  Morning  and 
Evening  Prayer  is  obvious,  seeing  that  the  same  vesture  was  ordered  for 
'  all  times  of  their  ministration  '  alike. 


ORNAMENTS   OF   THE   MINISTER  81 

§  25.  Provided  always,  and  be  it  Enacted,  That  such  Ornaments  of  the 
Church  and  of  the  Ministers  thereof,  shall  be  retained,  and  be  in  use,  as  was 
in  this  Church  of  England,  by  Authority  of  Parliament,  in  the  second  Year 
of  the  Reign  of  King  Edward  the  Sixth,  until  other  Order  shall  be  therein 
taken  by  the  Authority  of  the  Queen's  Majesty,  with  the  Advice  of  her  Com 
missioners  appointed  and  authorized  under  the  Great  Seal  of  England  for 
Causes  Ecclesiastical,  or  of  the  Metropolitan  of  this  Realm. 

§  26.  And  also,  that  if  there  shall  happen  any  Contempt  or  Irreverence 
to  be  used  in  the  Ceremonies  or  Rites  of  the  Church,  by  the  misusing  of  the 
Orders  appointed  in  this  Book,  the  Queen's  Majesty  may,  by  the  like  advice 
of  the  said  Commissioners  or  Metropolitan,  ordain  and  publish  such  further 
Ceremonies  or  Rites  as  may  be  most  for  the  advancement  of  God's  Glory, 
the  edifying  of  his  Church,  and  the  due  reverence  of  Christ's  holy  Mysteries 
and  Sacraments. 

Explanatory  Summary  : 

i.  The  Authority  of  Parliament  in  the  second  year  of  Edward 
VI  is  contained  in  the  first  B.C.P.  of  Edward,  1549.  Either, 
therefore,  this  proviso  contradicts  the  earlier  provision  of  the 
Act,  viz.  the  restoration  of  the  1552  Book,  including  its  Orna 
ments  Rubric  ;  or  the  words  '  shall  be  retained,  and  be  in  use  ' 
do  not  bear  their  surface  meaning,  but  merely  forbid  the  destruc 
tion  or  sale  of  albs,  chasubles  and  copes  till  authoritative  direc 
tions  shall  be  forthcoming.  This  latter  was  the  interpretation 
of  the  proviso  put  forward  by  Bishop  Sandys  at  the  time  of  the 
passing  of  the  Act. 

ii.  Both  provisos  foreshadow  possible  changes,  made  by  the 
specified  authority  of  the  Queen  acting  by  advice  of  her  Com 
missioners  or  the  Metropolitan,  the  former,  §  25,  particularly 
promising  '  other  order  '  in  regard  to  vestments  ;  the  latter,  §  26, 
more  generally  leaving  a  way  open  for  the  addition  of  '  further 
ceremonies  and  rites.' 

iii.  In  the  printed  B.C.P.  of  this  date,  1559,  the  1552  rubric 
was  altered,  without  any  authority,  ostensibly  to  accommodate 
the  rubric  to  the  proviso  : 

And  here  is  to  be  noted,  that  the  Minister  at  the  time  of  the  Communion, 
and  at  all  other  times  in  his  Ministration,  shall  use  such  ornaments  in  the 
Church,  as  were  in  use  by  authority  of  Parliament,  in  the  second  year  of 
the  reign  of  King  Edward  the  Sixth,  according  to  the  Act  of  Parliament  set 
in  the  beginning  of  this  book. 

Explanatory  Summary  : 

i.  The  rubric  does  not  profess  to  possess  any  authority  save 
as  being  a  digest  of  the  Act.  It  is  omitted  in  the  Latin  Prayer 
Book,  published  1560. 

ii.  As  such  it  is  inaccurate,  for  the  Act  does  not  necessarily 
say  that  the  Ministers  shall  use  such  Ornaments,  but  that  they 
shall  '  be  retained  and  be  in  use,'  and  the  Act  says  '  as  was  in 
this  Church,'  etc.,  not  'as  were  in  use.'  Moreover,  it  omits  all 
reference  to  the  promise  of  '  other  order.' 


82  MORNING   AND   EVENING   PRAYER 

iii.  As  a  contemporary  interpretation  of  what  was  understood 
by  '  shall  be  retained  and  be  in  use,'  this  unauthorized  rubric  of 
1559  might  be  valuable,  were  it  not  that  there  is  no  record  of 
any  obedience  to  such  a  rule,  but,  on  the  contrary,  abundance 
of  evidence  that  from  1559  onwards  the  vesture  of  the  second 
year  of  King  Edward  was  forbidden.  Indeed,  in  the  very  year 
in  which  this  printed  rubric  first  appeared,  the  Queen  sent  Com 
missioners  through  the  country  with  certain  Injunctions,  to 
which  the  clergy  were  compelled  to  subscribe.  Two  of  these 
Injunctions  relate  to  Ornaments  : 

30.  Item.  Her  Majesty  being  desirous  to  have  the  Prelacy  and  Clergy 
of  this  Realm  to  be  had  in  outward  reverence  as  otherwise  regarded  for  the 
worthiness  of  their  ministries,  and  thinking  it  necessary  to  have  them  known 
to  the  people  in  all  places  and  assemblies,  both  in  the  Church  and  without, 
and  thereby  to  receive  the  honour  and  estimation  due  to  the  special  messengers 
and  ministers  of  Almighty  God ;  willeth  and  commandeth  that  all  Arch 
bishops  and  Bishops,  and  all  other  that  be  called  or  admitted  to  preaching 
or  ministry  of  the  Sacraments,  or  that  be  admitted  into  vocation  ecclesiastical, 
or  into  any  society  of  learning  in  either  of  the  Universities,  or  elsewhere, 
shall  use  and  wear  such  seemly  habits,  garments,  and  such  square  caps  as 
were  most  commonly  and  orderly  received  in  the  latter  year  of  the  reign 
of  King  Edward  the  Sixth,  not  thereby  meaning  to  attribute  any  holiness  or 
special  worthiness  to  the  said  garments,  but  as  St.  Paul  writeth,  Omnia 
decenter  et  secundum  ordinem  flant.  1  Cor.  14  cap. 

47.  That  the  churchwardens  of  every  parish  shall  deliver  unto  our  visitors 
the  inventories  of  vestments,  copes,  and  other  ornaments,  plate,  books, 
and  specially  of  grayles,  vouchers,  legends,  processionals,  hymnals,  manuals, 
portuasses,  and  such  like  appertaining  to  the  Church. 

Explanatory  Summary  : 

i.  Injunction  30  might  seem  to  refer  merely  to  the  outdoor 
dress  of  the  clergy,  if  it  were  not  for  the  words  '  both  in  the 
Church  and  without '  and  '  such  seemly  habits,  garments,  and 
such  square  caps  as  were  most  commonly  and  orderly  received 
in  the  latter  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Edward  the  Sixth.'  There 
was  no  rule  as  to  ordinary  clerical  dress  in  the  '  latter  year '  of 
Edward  VI,  but  it  was  in  that  year  that  the  1552  B.C.P.  be 
came  compulsory,  with  its  definite  prescription  of  the  rochet  and 
surplice.  Moreover,  amongst  other  similar  phrases  in  his  visita 
tion  articles,  Archbishop  Parker  uses  the  expression  (1563)  '  a 
surplice  prescribed  by  the  Queen's  Majesty's  Injunctions.' 

ii.  In  regard  to  -the  inventories  demanded  by  Injunction  47, 
it  is  generally  admitted  that  the  Injunction  '  clearly  indicates 
that  all  these  things  were  to  be  taken  away  for  the  use  of  the 
Crown  '  (Perry,  '  Student's  History,'  p.  266).  This  is  in  accord 
with  Sandys'  famous  letter  to  Parker  :  '  Our  gloss  upon  this 
text  (i.e.  the  proviso  to  retain  the  ornaments  of  1549)  is  that 
we  shall  not  be  forced  to  use  them,  but  that  others  in  the  meantime 
shall  not  convey  them  away ;  but  that  ,they  may  remain  for 


ORNAMENTS   OF    THE   MINISTER  83 

the  Queen.'  It  is  also  in  accord  with  what  actually  happened,  as 
at  Grantham,  at  that  time  :  '  Item,  the  vestments,  copes,  albs, 
tunicles,  and  all  other  such  baggage  was  defaced,  and  openly 
sold  by  a  general  consent  of  the  whole  corporation,  and  the 
money  employed  in  setting  up  desks  in  the  Church,  and  making 
a  decent  Communion  Table,  and  the  remnant  to  the  poor' 
(Peacock,  '  Church  Furniture,'  p.  87).  This  is  one  of  many 
similar  records. 

1566.  In  spite  of  the  Injunctions,  much  irregularity  prevailed, 
especially  due  to  a  widespread  unwillingness  to  wear  any  ecclesi 
astical  dress  at  all.  The  intrusion  of  the  printed  rubric,  seeming 
to  authorize  the  vestments  of  1549,  disregarded  and  episcopally 
banned,  could  only  add  to  the  confusion.  The  Advertisements 
of  1566,  sometimes  dated  1565,  the  year  in  which  the  Queen's 
mandate  for  their  composition  was  issued,  were  intended  to  cope 
with  this  irregularity.  The  three  which  relate  to  the  Ornaments 
of  the  minister  are  : 

Item. — In  ministration  of  the  Holy  Communion  in  the  cathedral  and 
collegiate  churches  the  principal  minister  shall  use  a  cope  with  gospeller 
and  epistoller  agreeably,  and  at  all  other  prayers  to  be  said  at  the  Communion 
Table  to  use  no  copes  but  surplices. 

Item. — That  the  Dean  and  Prebendaries  wear  a  surplice  with  a  silk  hood 
in  the  quire  ;  and  when  they  preach  to  wear  their  hood. 

Item. —  That  every  minister  saying  any  public  prayers,  or  ministering 
of  the  Sacraments  or  other  rites  of  the  Church,  shall  wear  a  comely  surplice 
with  sleeves,  to  be  provided  at  the  charges  of  the  parish  ;  and  that  the  parish 
provide  a  decent  table  standing  on  a  frame  for  the  Communion  Table. 

Explanatory  Summary  : 

i.  The  surplice  is  ordered  for  all  ministrations  in  all  churches, 
with  one  exception,  viz.  the  three  copes  for  celebrant,  gospeller 
and  epistoller  at  Holy  Communion  in  cathedral  and  collegiate 
churches.  This  novel  use  of  the  cope  bears  some  superficial 
resemblance  to  the  alternative  prescription  of  1549,  but  differs 
from  it  in  being  confined  to  certain  churches,  and  prescribed  for 
the  gospeller  and  epistoller,  as  well  as  for  the  celebrant. 

ii.  The  direction  to  dignitaries  in  the  quire  and  when  preaching 
is  identical  with  the  direction  of  1549. 

iii..  The  suppression  of  the  1552  Rubric,  not  in  set  terms 
remedied  by  the  Injunctions,  is  atoned  for  by  these  direct  and 
explicit  regulations.  Henceforth  the  Bishops  commonly  refer 
to  both  the  Injunctions  and  the  Advertisements  in  their  Visita 
tions,  the  former  to  dispose  of  the  discarded  vestments,  the 
latter  to  compel  the  wearing  of  the  surplice.  It  cannot  be  said 
that  the  order  to  wear  copes  was  generally  obeyed,  or  ever,  so 
far  as  is  known,  enforced  ;  the  Bishops  really  carried  out  the 


84  MORNING    AND   EVENING    PRAYER 

requirements  of  the  1552  Rubric,  appealing  to  the  Injunctions 
and  Advertisements  as  their  authority. 

1604.  The  Canons  of  1603-4  were  adopted  with  '  the  most 
formal,  solemn,  concurrence  possible  of  the  Crown  and  the 
Convocations.'  The  Canons  relating  to  vestments  are  : 

24.  Copes  to  be  worn  in  Cathedral  Churches  by  those  that  administer 

the  Communion. 

In  all  Cathedral  and  Collegiate  Churches  the  Holy  Communion 
shall  be  administered  upon  principal  feast-days  ...  the  principal 
minister  using  a  decent  cope,  and  being  assisted  with  the  gospel 
ler  and  epistoler  agreeably,  according  to  the  Advertisements  pub 
lished  anno  7  Eliz. 

25.  Surplices  and  hoods  to  be  worn  in  Cathedral  Churches  when  there  is 

no  Communion. 

In  the  time  of  Divine  service  and  prayers,  in  all  Cathedral  and 
Collegiate  Churches,  when  there  is  no  Communion,  it  shall  be 
sufficient  to  wear  surplices,  saving  that  all  deans,  masters,  and 
heads  of  collegiate  churches,  canons,  and  prebendaries  being  gradu 
ates,  shall  daily  at  times  both  of  prayer  and  preaching  wear  with 
their  surplices  such  hoods  as  are  agreeable  to  their  degrees. 
68.  Ministers  reading  Divine  service  and  administering  the  Sacraments, 
to  wear  surplices  and  graduates  therewithal  hoods. 

Every  minister  saying  the  public  prayers,  or  ministering  the  Sacra 
ment  or  other  rites  of  the  Church,  shall  wear  a  decent  and  comely 
surplice  with  sleeves,  to  be  provided  at  the  charge  of  the  parish  ;  and  if 
any  question  arise  touching  the  matter,  decency,  or  comeliness  thereof, 
the  same  shall  be  decided  by  the  discretion  of  the  ordinary.  Further 
more,  such  ministers  as  are  graduates  shall  wear  upon  their  surplices, 
at  such  times,  such  hoods  as  by  the  orders  of  the  Universities  are 
agreeable  to  their  degrees,  which  no  minister  shall  wear  (being  no 
graduate),  under  pain  of  suspension.  Notwithstanding  it  shall  be 
lawful  for  such  ministers  as  are  not  graduates  to  wear  upon  their 
surplices,  instead  of  hoods,  some  decent  tippet  of  black,  so  it  be 
not  silk. 

Explanatory  Summary  : 

i.  These  regulations  are  merely  a  recapitulation  of  those  in 
the  Advertisements,  save  that  the  '  tippet,'  a  scarf  which  is 
now  frequently  miscalled  a  stole,  is  permitted  for  non-graduates, 
and  the  triple  cope  wearing  in  Cathedrals,  etc.,  is  limited  to  prin 
cipal  feast-days. 

ii.  The  Advertisements  are  cited  as  the  received  standard 
regarding  vestments. 

iii.  Laud's  Visitation  Articles  of  1628  suffice  to  show  the 
practice  of  the  period  :  Whether  doth  your  minister  wear  the 
surplice  while  he  is  saying  the  public  prayers,  and  administering 
the  Sacrament,  and  a  hood  according  to  his  degree  of  the  Uni 
versity  :  Whether  there  be  in  your  parish,  who  are  known  or 
suspected,  to  conceal  or  keep  hid  in  their  homes  any  Mass  books, 
Breviaries,  or  other  books  of  Popery  or  superstition,  or  any 


ORNAMENTS   OF   THE    MINISTER  85 

chalice,  copes,  vestments,  albs,  or  other  ornaments  of  superstition, 
uncancelled,  or  undefaced,  which  is  to  be  conjectured  they  keep 
for  a  day  as  they  call  it. 

1662.  At  the  Restoration  the  present  Ornaments  Rubric  was 
substituted  for  the  unauthorized  rubric  of  1559.  It  runs  : 

And  here  is  to  be  noted  that  such  ornaments  of  the  Church,  and  of  the 
Ministers  thereof,  at  all  times  of  their  Ministration,  shall  be  retained,  and  be 
in  use,  as  were  in  this  Church  of  England  by  the  authority  of  Parliament, 
in  the  second  year  of  the  reign  of  King  Edward  the  Sixth. 

Explanatory  Summary  : 

i.  The  great  and  all-important  change  from  the  1559  printed 
rubric  was  the  substitution  of  the  exact  words  of  the  Act  of 
Uniformity,  1  Eliz.  c.  2,  for  the  paraphrase  of  it  inserted  without 
authority  in  1559.  With  the  exception  of  the  more  grammatical 
'  were  '  for  '  was,'  the  rubric  is  now  identical  with  the  proviso. 

ii.  The  introduction  of  that  Act  into  the  Prayer-Book,  numbered 
1  in  the  list  of  Contents  of  the  Prayer-Book,*  permitted  the 
omission  of  the  words  referring  to  the  Act,  it  being  perfectly 
obvious  that  the  words  of  the  rubric,  being  the  actual  words 
of  the  Act,  could  mean  neither  more  nor  less  than  the  Act  intended 
them  to  mean. 

iii.  There  is  abundance  of  evidence,  dating  from  the  time  of 
the  last  revision,  1662,  and  furnished  by  the  Visitation  Articles 
of  Bishops  engaged  in  that  revision,  to  show  that  the  contem 
poraneous  interpretation  of  the  revised  rubric,  construed  with 
the  Act,  was  that  the  surplice  was  to  be  worn,  and  not  the 
vestments  of  1549. 

Summary  of  the  above  requirements. 

1549.  Vestment  or  Cope,  Alb  or  Surplice  at  Holy  Communion 
with  Albs  and  Tunicles  for  the  assistant  ministers  ; 
Surplice  only  at  other  services. 

1552.  Rochet  for  Bishops,  Surplice  for  other  clergy,  at  all 
ministrations. 

*  The  omission  to  print  the  Act  in  the  ordinary  Prayer-Booka  sold 
for  public  use,  is  much  to  be  regretted.  It  is  strange  that  with  so  much 
depending  upon  the  actual  words  used,  even  in  the  Quarto  Editions  sold 
for  Churches,  the  Act  is  sometimes  incorrectly  printed,  and  not  divided 
into  sections.  For  example,  the  Quarto  Editions  printed  '  cum  privilegio ' 
by  the  Oxford  University  Press,  and  published  by  the  S.P.C.K.,  since 
the  death  of  Queen  Victoria,  present  both  these  defects,  the  error  in  printing 
being  no  mere  misplacement  of  a  word,  but  a  misrepresentation  of  the 
critical  words  of  §  25  of  the  Act,  '  used  '  for  '  be  in  use.'  Further,  even 
in  so  careful  a  work  as  that  of  Keeling,  the  Act  is  suppressed,  only  its 
opening  words  being  cited,  though  all  other  such  Acts,  some  of  which  have 
only  an  antiquarian  interest,  are  given  in  full. 


86  MORNING   AND   EVENING    PRAYER 

1559.  By  the  Act  of  Uniformity,  §  3,  1552  Rubric  restored. 
By  the  same  Act,  §  25,  1549  vesture  to  '  be  retained  and 

be  in  use.' 
By  the  printed  rubric,  the  minister  to  use  the   1549 

vesture. 
By  the   Injunctions,    1552   vesture  to   be   worn,    1549 

vesture  inventoried  for  Visitors. 

1566.  Advertisements  :  Cope  in  Cathedrals  for  Holy  Com 
munion,  otherwise  Surplice  and  hood  at  all  minis 
trations. 

1604.     Canons  :  repetition  (with  certain  limitations)  of  Ad 
vertisements,  with  tippet  added  for  non-graduates. 
1662.  By  the  Act,  as  above,  under  1559,  the  Rubric  being 
brought  more  into  verbal  agreement  with  sec.  25  of 
the  Act  of  Elizabeth. 

n.  Legal  Decisions. 

The  fact  that  the  regulations  as  to  vesture  are  now  confined 
to  an  Act  of  Parliament  would  seem  to  suggest  that  the 
proper  interpreters  of  those  regulations  are  the  King's 
Judges,  however  assisted  by  the  historical  investigations  of 
others.  There  is,  however,  a  tendency  in  some  quarters  to 
dispute  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Church  courts,  and  especially 
that  of  the  Final  Court  of  Appeal,  the  Judicial  Committee  of 
the  Privy  Council.  Attempts  are  being  made  to  discover  another 
Court  which  shall  command  the  approval  of  all  Churchmen  ; 
meanwhile  there  is  no  other  lawful  interpretation  save  that  fur 
nished  by  this  Court,  whose  latest  pronouncement  upon  the 
Ornaments  Rubric  was  given  in  the  Folkestone  Case,  1878.  It 
was  then  laid  down  that  : 

i.  The  Rubric  is  subordinate  to  the  Statute  1  Eliz.  c.  2,  from 
which  it  is  a  quotation,  the  whole  Statute  being  now  part  of 
the  B.C.P. 

ii.  Its  application,  therefore,  turns  upon  the  question  as  to 
whether  the  '  other  order '  promised  in  that  Statute  has  ever 
been  taken. 

iii.  The  Advertisements  of  1566  were  such  '  other  order.' 

In  the  course  of  their  pronouncement,  the  judges  delivered 
other  important  decisions  upon  details  : 

i.  The  printed  rubric  of  1559  '  was  not  inserted  by  any  autho 
rity  of  Parliament ' ;  it  '  claimed  no  intrinsic  authority  for 
itself.1 

ii.  The  Injunctions  of  1559  are  not  the  'other  order,'  as  not 
being  proved  to  refer  to  the  vestments  now  in  controversy,  and 
not  issued  with  the  advice  required  by  the  Statute.  It  will  be 


ORNAMENTS   OF   THE   MINISTER  87 

noted  that  the  former  of  these  reasons  for  rejecting  the  authority 
of  the  Injunctions  in  this  connection,  is  open  to  correction  by 
historical  discovery  ;  the  latter  is  fatal  to  any  idea  that  the 
Injunctions  are  the  '  other  order '  foreshadowed  by  §  25  of  the 
Act. 

iii.  The  '  authority  of  Parliament  in  the  second  year  of  King 
Edward  the  Sixth  '  is  interpreted  as  excluding  everything  prior 
to  the  1549  Book. 

iv.  It  is  pointed  out  that  the  phrase  '  at  all  times  of  their 
ministrations  '  is  incongruous  with  a  return  to  the  1549  vesture, 
seeing  that  no  provision  was  made  in  1549  for  Matrimony,  the 
Litany,  etc. 

v.  It  is  also  pointed  out  that  the  introduction  of  that  phrase 
into  the  rubric  in  1662  is  inappropriate  to  the  reintroduction 
of  vesture  which  would  distinguish  the  Holy  Communion  from 
'  all  other  times  of  ministration.' 

vi.  The  suggestion  being  made  that  the  omission  in  1662  of 
the  words  '  according  to  the  Act  of  Parliament  set  in  the  beginning 
of  this  book,'  necessitates  the  interpretation  of  the  Kubric  without 
reference  to  that  Act,  it  was  replied  that  the  omission  could 
not  be  so  regarded,  seeing  that  the  Act  was  then  (for  the  first 
time)  constituted  by  the  two  Convocations  part  of  the  B.C.P., 
and  that  '  other  order '  having  been  already  taken  (viz.  1566) 
the  words  omitted  were  simply  unnecessary. 

III.  Other  Views. 

i.  The  contention  that  the  authority  of  Parliament  in  the 
second  year  of  Edward  VI  refers  to  the  period  preceding  the 
issue  of  the  1549  B.C.P.,  and  therefore  legitimizes  all  pre-Reforma- 
tion  ornaments,  still  occasionally  appears  in  publications  and 
speeches,  but  was  abandoned  by  its  foremost  defenders  under 
examination  in  the  recent  Royal  Commission  upon  Ecclesiastical 
Discipline.  Much  of  the  ritual  introduced  within  the  last  fifty 
years  ultimately  depends  upon  this  untenable  position  ;  the 
regulations  of  the  1549  Book,  even  if  legal  to-day,  omitted  much 
of  the  ceremonial  in  question,  and  in  the  '  Notes '  at  the  close 
of  the  Book  stated  why  these  omissions  were  made. 

ii.  The  more  frequently  avowed  contention  is  that  '  other 
order  '  was  never  taken,  and  that  therefore  the  requirements  of 
1549  as  to  ornaments  are  still  in  force.*  The  Report  of  Five 
Bishops  of  Canterbury  Convocation,  1908,  practically  advances 
this  contention,  by  its  effort  to  demonstrate  that  the  Advertise 
ments  were  not  the  '  other  order '  required  by  the  Act. 

*  To  eke  out  those  reduced  requirements,  it  is  often  further  contended 
that  what  is  not  expressly  forbidden  is  enjoined,  in  spite  of  the  explanation 
of  omissions  above  noticed. 


88  MORNING   AND   EVENING   PRAYER 

iii.  That  same  Report  notices  another  contention,  viz.  that 
the  Advertisements  were  a  minimum  requirement,  enacted  to 
combat  the  Puritan  objection  to  the  surplice,  and  not  to  exclude 
the  vesture  of  1549.  .  .  .  This  is  a  mere  conjecture,  not  only 
entirely  without  historical  support,  but  at  variance  with  the 
strict  '  uniformity '  demanded  at  that  time  and  for  many 
years  later. 

iv.  The  contention  that  the  Injunctions  were  themselves  the 
'  other  order,'  and  that  the  Advertisements  were  promulgated  under 
§  26  of  1  Eliz.  c.  2,  and  not  §  25,  is  vitiated  by  the  lack  of  proof 
that  the  Injunctions  were  issued  by  the  authority  required  by 
the  Act.  Nevertheless,  this  theory  has  the  merit  of  calling 
attention  to  the  weak  point  in  the  judgment  of  the  Privy  Council, 
viz.  that  the  Advertisements,  issued  in  1566,  cannot  explain 
the  continuous  and  official  enforcement  of  the  surplice  from 
1559  to  1566. 

v.  Another  view,  recognizing  both  the  untenableness  of  the 
theory  that  the  Injunctions  were  themselves  the  '  other  order,' 
and  also  the  necessity  of  accounting  for  the  enforcement  of  the 
surplice  at  Holy  Communion,  and  prohibition  of  the  1549  vest 
ments  before  the  issue  of  the  Advertisements,  is  that  the  re- 
enactment  of  the  1552  rubric  by  1  Eliz.  c.  2,  sec.  3  is  the  sole 
and  sufficient  explanation  of  the  immediate  enforcement  of  the 
surplice  in  1559,  and  that '  other  order  '  as  regards  the  1549  vest 
ments  and  other  ornaments  was  taken  by  the  Queen's  Visitors, 
who  in  1559  went  through  the  country  with  the  Injunctions, 
disposing  of  those  ornaments.  This  view  alone  seems  to  account 
for  the  facts  (1)  that  the  1549  vestments  were  at  once  suppressed 
and  the  surplice  enforced  ;  (2)  that  the  printed  rubric  was  abso 
lutely  ignored  save  by  the  Puritans,  who  at  a  later  date  used  it 
to  attack  the  Bishops  for  trying  to  enforce  the  surplice,  and 
(3)  that  the  very  words  of  the  companion  rubric  which  had  also 
been  suppressed  in  the  printed  books,  were  quoted  as  authorita 
tive  in  Visitation  Articles  just  as  they  stood  in  the  1552  B.C. P. 
(see  p.  77)  Bishop  Sandys'  contemporary  explanation  of  the 
words  '  be  retained  and  be  in  use,'  as  referring  not  to  ministerial 
use  of  the  ornaments  but  to  their  retention  for  the  use  of  the 
Queen,  corroborates  this  view,  which  is,  however,  independent 
of  that  explanation,  and  equally  valid  if  the  words  of  the  Proviso 
contemplated  a  temporary  toleration  of  those  ornaments,  a  tolera 
tion,  it  is  fair  to  add,  of  which  there  is  no  trace  of  historical  evi 
dence.  That  the  Visitors  of  1559  were  themselves  '  Commissioners 
under  the  Great  Seal  for  causes  ecclesiastical '  who  took  '  other 
order  '  in  the  Queen's  name  by  destroying,  defacing  or  confis 
cating  the  ornaments  of  1549  is  shown  in  detail  in  Tomlinson's 


ORNAMENTS  OF   THE   CHURCH  89 

'Koyal  Visitations  of  1547-1559.'  The  first  Prayer  Book  did- 
not  permit  a  surplice  to  be  worn  at  Holy  Communion  :  the 
Second  Book  of  Edward  did  not  permit  the  celebrant  even  to 
'  have '  any  other  dress  than  the  surplice  at  Holy  Communion. 
By  that  simple  test  the  rival  theories  may.be  weighed.* 

ORNAMENTS  OF  THE  CHURCH. 

(1)  Articles  legally  required. 

Bible.  Font. 

Lord's  Table  with  proper  coverings,  Alms  chest. 

including  the  fair  white  linen  Alms  basin. 

cloth,  plate  or  paten,  cup,  fair  Bell. 

linen  cloth  to  cover  elements.  Bier. 

The  Table  must  be  of  wood  and  Registers. 

easily  movable.  Tables  of  Degrees  of  Kindred  and 
Bread  and  Wine.  Affinity. 

Book  of  Common  Prayer.  Ten  Commandments  over  Lord's 
Book  of  Thirty-nine  Articles.  Table. 

Book  of  Homilies.  Sentences  of  Scripture  or  Apostles' 
Book  for  Banns.  Creed. 

Pulpit.  Ordinary  furniture  of  Church  and 
Reading  Desk.  Vestry. 

(2)  Articles  legal,  but  not  compulsory,  and  in  some   cases   not 
desirable. 

Organs  and  musical  instruments.       Credence  Table. 
Clocks.  Second  Lord's  Table. 

Chimes. 

(3)  Articles  allowable  as  '  decorations,'  but  not  for  use. 

Images.  Regimental  colours. 

Crosses.  Painted  windows. 

Flowers.  Holly,  etc.,  at  Christmas. 

Flower  vases.  Harvest  decorations. 

Royal  arms.  Monuments  and  brasses. 
Banners. 

(See  Whitehead's  'Church  Law,'  tit.  'Ornaments.') 

*  The  so-called  '  Interpretations  of  the  Injunctions,'  of  unknown  origin, 
but  apparently  dating  from  about  1560,  has  been  designedly  ignored  in  the 
above  investigation  ;  there  is  no  evidence  that  they  were  ever  authorized 
or  even  published,  much  less  enforced. 


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1 

THE  ORDER  FOR  MORNING  PRAYER. 
DAILY  THROUGHOUT  THE  YEAR 

ANALYSIS  AND  HISTORICAL  NOTES. 

1.  Penitential  Introduction.*    1552. 

The  Sentences,  etc.,  ending  with  the  Absolution. 

2.  The  Lord's  Prayer  and  Versicles.    1549. 

[The  Doxology  to  the  Lord's  Prayer  and  the  Response,  '  The 
Lord's  name  be  praised,'  -added  1662.] 

3.  Psalmody,  Reading  of  the  Scriptures,  and  Singing  of  the 

Canticles.     1549.     Except  Jubilate.    1552. 
The  Venite,  etc.,  ending  with  the  Jubilate. 

4.  The  Confession  of  Faith,    1549. 
The  Apostles'  Creed,  or 

The  Athanasian  Creed  on  thirteen  special  occasions. 

5.  Concluding  Prayers  and  Thanksgiving. 

(1)  The  Suffrages,  '  The  Lord  be  with  you,'  etc.,  ending  with 

the    Collect  for  Grace.     1549. 

(2)  Intercession  for  the  State  and  the  Church. 

Prayer  for  the  King's  Majesty,  f    1559. 
Prayer  for  the  Royal  Family,  f     1G04. 
Prayer  for  the  Clergy  and  People. f     1559. 

(3)  Prayers  and  Thanksgivings  upon  several  occasions. 

i.  PRAYERS. 

For  Rain.     1549. }    For  fair  Weathcr.J     1549. 

In  the  time  of  Dearth  and  Famine  (two  forms).     1552. 

In  the  time  of  War  and  Tumults.     1552. 

In  the  time  of  any  common  Plague  or  Sickness.     1552. 

In  the  Ember  Weeks  (two  forms).     1662. 

A  Prayer  that  may  be  said  after  any  of  the  former.  1559. 

A  Prayer  for  the  High  Court  of  Parliament.     1662. 

A  Collect  for  all  Conditions  of  men.     1662. 

*  This  section  was  added  by  the  Reformers  and  takes  the  place  of  Private 
Confession  which  still  remained  in  1549. 

f  Printed  at  the  end  of  the  Litany  until  1662. 
j  Printed  at  the  end  of  the  Communion  until  1552. 

92 


THE   OPENING    SENTENCES  93 

ii.  THANKSGIVINGS. 

A  General  Thanksgiving.     1662.  [1604. 

For  Kain.    1604.    For  fair  Weather.    1604.    For  Plenty. 

For  Peace  and  Deliverance  from  our  Enemies.  1604. 
For  restoring  Public  Peace  at  Home.     1662 
For  Deliverance  from  the  Plague,   or   other  common 
Sickness  (two  forms).     1604. 

(4)  Prayer  of  St.  Chrysostom.*    1549. 

(5)  The  Grace.*     1559. 

The  Title.  EXPOSITION. 

15  i9.     An  Order  for  Matins  daily  throughout    the    year. 
1552.     An  Order  for  Morning  Prayer  daily  throughout  the  year. 
1662.     The  Order  for  Morning  Prayer,  etc. 
The  Rubric  before  the  Sentences. 

1552.     At  the  beginning  both  of  Morning  Prayer  and  like 
wise  of  Evening  Prayer,  the  Minister,  etc. 

1662.     At  the  beginning  of  Morning  Prayer  the  Minister,  etc. 
The  sentences  are  directed  to  be  read  '  with  a  loud  voice.'    This 
was  so  stated  as  formerly  the  priest  frequently  read  in 
an  undertone  ('  secreto '). 

The  Opening  Sentences.     1552.    Eleven  in  number,  eight  from 
the  Old  Testament,  three  from  the  New  Testament. 

The  Old  Testament  sentences  (except  Dan.  ix.  9,  10)  were 
taken  from  the  old  Lenten  Capitula,  and  from  the  peni 
tential  Psalms  daily  read  during  Lent. 
The  New  Testament  sentences,  as  well  as  Dan.  ix.  9,  10,  were 

selected  by  the  Reformers. 
The  sentences  until  1662  were  taken  from  Cranmer's  Bible 

(1539),  commonly  called  '  The  Great  Bible.' 
Verse  9  of  1  John  i.  was  added  to  the  last  sentence  in  1662. 
The  sentences   are  of  a  penitential  character  and  designed 
for  different  classes.     The  spiritual  counsel  they  afford 
may  be  thus  stated  f  : — 

(1)  Support  to  the    fearful.     Ps.    vi.   1  ;    li.  9  ;    cxliii.   2 ; 

Jer.  x.  24. 

(2)  Comfort  to  the  doubtful.     Ps.  li.  17  ;    Dan.  ix.  9,  10 ; 

Luke  xv.  18,  19. 

(3)  Instruction  to  the  ignorant.      Ezek.  xviii.  27  ;    1  John 

i.  8,  9. 

(4;   Admoni'ion  to  the  negligent.     Ps.  li.  3  ;  Matt.  iii.  2. 
(5)  Caution  to  the  formal.     Joel  ii.  13. 

*  Printed  at  end  of  Litany  until  16G2. 

f  Comber,  Companion  to  the  Temple,  in  Iocs. 


94  MORNING    PRAYER 

The  following  additional  sentences  are  found  in  the  American 
B.C.P.  of  1792  :— 

Hab.  ii.  20  ;  Mai.  i.  11  ;  Ps.  xix.  14,  15  (Psalter). 

Others  chiefly  adapted  to  special  seasons  of  the  Christian  Year 
were  added  in  1889. 

The  earliest  daily  Service  to  open  with  Scripture  was  the  Stras- 
burg  Liturgy,  which  commenced  with  the  Ten  Commandments.* 

The  Exhortation.f  1552.  Grounded  on  the  preceding  sen 
tences.  The  idea  may  have  been  suggested  : — 

(1)  By  portions  of  a  Homily  of  Leo  read  in  Lent  (Sar.  Brev.). 

(2)  By  the  Gallic  and  Spanish  Liturgies,  in  which  an  address 

was  given  after  the  departure  of  the  Catechumens  and 
before  the  administration  of  the  Holy  Communion. 

(3)  By  the  short  Exhortations  in    the    Strasburg   Liturgy, 

published    by    Valerandus    Pollanus    (Pullain).     1552 
(February). 

(4)  By  Hermann's  '  Consultatio.' 

Analysis. 

I.  Address  respecting  confession  of  sin. 

1.  The  Source  of  Authority :    the  Holy  Scriptures. 

2.  The  Spirit :    penitential. 

3.  The  Purpose  :    forgiveness. 

4.  The  Occasion  :    always,  and  especu  lly  at  Public  Worship,  when 

we  meet  for  : — 

(1)  Thanksgiving. 

(2)  Praise. 

(3)  Hearing  God's  Word. 

(4)  Prayer. 

II.  The  Invitation  to  the  performance  of  this  duty. 

Rubric  before  the  Confession : — To  be  said  ['  made/  1604] : — 

1.  By  the  Minister  and  the  whole  congregation. 

2.  Not  with  but  after  the  Minister  (not  necessarily  clause  by 

clause). 

3.  Kneeling,  as  becometh  penitents  (cf.  Ps.  xcv.  6  ;  Luke  xxii. 

41  ;  Acts  vii.  60 ;  ix.  40). 

*  '  However,  according  to  the  rites  of  many  Western  Churches,  a  verse 
or  capilulum  was  read  before  the  Office  of  Compline  or  the  latest  Evening 
Service ;  a  custom  which  is  at  least  as  ancient  as  the  time  of  Amalarius, 
A.D.  820,  for  he  mentions  it  (Amalarius  '  de  Eccl.  Offic.',  lib.  iv.  c.  8).  The 
nocturns  have  for  many  ages  been  accounted  one  office.'  (Palmer.  '  Originc 8 
Liturgicae'  vol.  i.  210,  ed.  1839.) 

f  Notice  the  rhetorical  reduplication  of  words,  such  as :  '  acknowledge 
and  confess,'  '  sins  and  wickedness,'  '  assemble  and  meet  together,'  '  not 
dissemble  nor  cloke." 


THE   ABSOLUTION  95 

General  Confession.    1552.    Based  on  Rom.  vii.  8-25. 

It  was  probably  suggested  by  the  Confession  in  the  Strasburg 
Liturgy ;  though  there  is  in  foreign  Service  Books  nothing  which 
can  be  fairly  regarded  as  the  model  of  this  Confession. 

'  St.  Basil  mentions  Confession  of  Sin  as  coming  at  the  beginning 
of  Divine  Service  '  (Cornford). 

It  is  called  '  General '  as  being  suitable  for  all  persons  and  all 
occasions. 

The  Confession  in  the  Mediaeval  Offices  differed  much  from  our 
form  : — 

1.  It  was  of  the  nature  of  mutual  and  alternate  Confession. 

2.  It  contained  Confession  to  the  Virgin  and  the  Saints  as  well 

as  to  God. 

N.B. — It  was  called  Confiteor,  and,  with  the  Absolution, 
Misereatur,  placed  towards  the  end  of  Prime  and  Compline. 


Analysis. 

I.  An  address  to  God. 
II.  Confession  of  Sin. 
III.  Prayer  for  Spiritual  Blessings,  viz.  : — 

1.  For  Mercy  and  Pardon. 

2.  To  live  rightly  (Godward,  manward,  selfward). 

Amen.  When  printed  in  Roman  characters  to  be  pronounced  :— 

(1)  By  the  Minister  and  people,  if  both  repeat  the  preceding  words. 

(2)  By  the  Minister  only,  if  he  only  repeat  the  preceding  words. 
When  printed  in  Italics  it  is  the  response  of  the  people. 

The  Rubric  before  the  Absolution. 

1604.     The  words  in  the  Rubric, '  or  Remission  of  sins,'  were 

added. 
1662.     '  Minister  '  altered  to  '  Priest,'  and  the  clause  '  The 

people  still  kneeling  '  was  added.* 

The  Absolution.  1552.  Matt.  xvi.  19  ;  xviii.  18  ;  John  xx. 
22,  23  ;  cf.  Acts  ii.  38 ;  2  Cor.  ii.  10  ;  v.  18. 

It  is  adapted  from  '  An  order  of  Service  in  Latin,  and  after 
wards  in  French  '  (being  the  version  of  Calvin's  form  1545),  used  by 
the  Walloons  under  John  a  Lasco,  a  Polish  noble  who  took  refuge 
in  England  from  1548  to  1550,  and  was  Minister  to  the  Dutch 
and  German  Protestants  living  in  London  in  the  reign  of 
Edward  VI. 

*  In  the  Scottish  Service  Book  (1637)  the  rubric  is:  '  The  absolution  or 
remission  of  sins  to  be  pronounced  by  the  Presbyter  alone,  he  standing  up 
and  turning  himself  to  the  people,  but  they  still  remaining  humbly  upon 
their  knees.' 


96  MORNING   PRAYER 

The  Priest  *  pronounces  the  absolution  alone,  and  standing,  as 
God's  ambassador.  The  alteration  from  '  Minister '  to  '  Priest '  in 
1662,  to  the  exclusion  of  the  Deacon,  is  due  to  the  tendency  to 
regard  the  diaconate  as  rather  a  probationary  office  than  a  dis 
tinct  order.  There  is,  of  course,  nothing  save  ecclesiastical  fit 
ness  to  prevent  a  Deacon,  or  a  layman,  exercising  the  ministry 
entailed  in  the  pronouncement  of  this  form  of  Absolution,  which, 
it  is  to  be  noted,  still  retains  the  word  '  Ministers.' 

The  former  portion  of  the  Absolution  is  somewhat  involved 
and  obscure,  and  has  consequently  given  rise  to  interpretations 
which  the  words  do  not  warrant.  In  order  to  see  the  meaning  of 
the  passage  it  is  necessary  to  understand  the  capacity  in  which  the 
Minister  speaks.  It  is  as  a  Minister  of  the  Gospel  he  utters  the 
words,  and  in  that  capacity  he  is  authorized  to  make  the  pro 
clamation  that  pardon  is  given  to  penitent  sinners.  His  words 
do  not  convey  pardon,  but  the  assurance  of  pardon  to  the  truly 
penitent.  The  following  interpolations  in  the  passage  will  help 
to  elucidate  it, '  and  hath  given  power,  and  commandment,  to  His 
Ministers  (as  preachers  of  the  Gospel  and  His  ambassadors)  to 
declare  and  pronounce  to  His  people,  being  penitent,  the  absolu 
tion  and  remission  of  their  sins  ;  (for  in  that  Gospel  it  is  declared 
that)  He  f  (i.e.,  God)  pardoneth  and  absolve th  all  them  which 
truly  repent,  and  unfeignedly  believe  His  holy  Gospel.' 

The  warrant  for  the  pronouncing  of  the  Absolution  rests  upon 
our  Lord's  words  in  which  He  intrusted  the  proclamation  of  par 
don  to  the  members  of  His  Church  assembled  on  the  evening  of 
the  first  Easter  Day  (John  xx.  22,  23  ;  Luke  xxiv.  36).  But  the 
words  in  St.  John  are  to  be  interpreted  by  Luke  xxiv.  47,  48,  and 
the  practice  of  the  Apostles  (Acts  ii.  38  ;  iii.  19  ;  x.  43  ;  xxvi.  18  ; 
1  John  ii.  12).  They  plainly  mean,  '  Whosesoever  J  sins  ye  (as 
Ministers  of  the  New  Covenant)  remit  (i.e.,  declare  to  be  remitted) 
are  remitted,  and  whose  sins  ye  retain  (i.e.,  declare  to  be  retained) 
are  retained. '§ 

There  are  two  other  forms  of   Absolution  in  the  B.C.P.  : — 
(1)  In  the  Communion  Office,  which  is  precatory,  and  ex 
pressive  of  an  earnest  and  assured  wish  that  God  '  will 

*  For  explanation  of  the  term  '  priest '  see  pp.  515-20. 

f  Observe  the  grammatical  construction  of  the  sentence.  The  pronoun 
'  He '  is  introduced  so  as  to  emphasize  the  declaratory  nature  of  the 
Absolution. 

|  In  the  original  Greek  '  whosesoever '  is  plural.  The  Lord  does  not 
guarantee  infallibility  of  judgment  as  to  the  applicability  of  remission  or 
retention  of  sin  in  individual  cases. 

§  The  figure  of  speech  by  which  what  is  said  to  be  done  is  put  for  what  is 
declared,  or  permitted,  or  foretold  to  be  done,  is  frequently  used  in  the  Holy 
Scriptures.  (See  Gen.  xli.  13;  Lev.  xiii.  6,  8,  11  ;  Isa.  vi.  10;  Jer.  i.  10; 
Ezek.  xliii.  3;  cf.  Acts  x.  15.) 


THE   RUBRIC   BEFORE    THE   LORD'S    PRAYER          97 

pardon  and  deliver '  the  communicants  '  from  all  their 
sins.' 

(2)  In  the  Visitation  of  the  Sick,  where  the  form  is  directly 
personal,  although  the  clause  '  by  His  authority  '  makes 
it  clear  that  the  authority  is  ministerial.  The  retention 
of  this  direct  form  for  the  sick  and  dying  was  a  con 
cession  to  this  accustomed  mode  of  consolation  in  the 
hour  of  death.* 

If  the  Service  is  performed  by  a  Deacon  he  ought  to  omit  the 
Absolution  and  pass  on  to  '  the  Lord's  Prayer.'  There  is  no 
Rubrical  authority  for  substituting  the  prayer  for  pardon,  '  0 
God,  whose  nature  and  property,'  etc.,  as  is  sometimes  done. 

Analysis. 

I.  A  Declaration  respecting  God,  viz.  : — 

1.  His  desire  for  the  salvation  of  men. 

2.  His  committal  of  authority  to  Ministers  to  declare  and  pro 

nounce  that  the  truly  penitent  are  pardoned,  f 

II.  A  Declaration  by  the  Minister  of  God's  Pardon   on   the  conditions 

of  Repentance  and  Faith. 

III.  A  Call  to  Prayer  based  on  the  assurance  of  pardon,  for : — 

1.  Holiness  at  the  present  time,  and  for  the  rest  of  our  life. 

2.  Attainment  of  eternal  joy. 

Rubric  at  the  end  of  the  Absolution. 

1552.  The  people  shall  answer,  Amen. 

1662.  The  people  shall  answer  here,  and  at  the  end  of  all 

other  prayers,  Amen. 

It  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  Absolution  is  here  definitely 
and  distinctly  described  as  a  Prayer. 

The  Rubric  before  the  Lord's  Prayer. 

v  1549.  The  Priest  being  in   the   quire    shall  begin  with  a   loud 

voice  the  Lord's  Prayer,  called  the  Paternoster. 
1552.  Then  shall  the  Minister  begin  the  Lord's  Prayer  with 

a  loud  voice. 

1662.  Then  the  Minister  shall  kneel,  and  say  the  Lord's 
Prayer  with  an  audible  voice  ;  the  people  also  kneel 
ing,  and  repeating  it  with  him,  both  here,  and  where 
soever  else  it  is  used  in  Divine  Service. 

Prior  to  1549  the  Minister  was  directed  to  repeat  it  '  secretly ' 
('  secreto  '),  or  in  an  undertone,  to  himself,  down  to  the  sixth  peti 
tion,  when  the  people  responded  with  the  seventh  petition. 
The  words  '  and  wheresoever  else,'  etc.,  have  caused  difference 

*  For  further  particulars,  see  Visitation  of  the  Sick,  pp.  453-5. 
t  The  succeeding  context  shows  that  this  is  the  extent  of  the  priest's 
authority. 


98  MORNING    PRAYER 

of  opinion  as  to  whether  they  govern  the  case  of  the  opening  Lord's 
Prayer  in  the  Communion  Office  or  not.  On  the  one  hand,  besides 
this  general  direction,  the  rubric  frequently  states  on  its  recur 
rence  that  both  the  people  and  the  Minister  shall  say  it,  whereas  at 
the  beginning  of  the  Communion  Service  the  rubric  merely  says, 
'  the  Priest  standing  at  the  north  side  of  the  Table  shall  say  the 
Lord's  Prayer,  with  the  Collect  following,  the  people  kneeling.'  On 
the  other  hand,  since  the  rubric  does  not  state  that  the  Priest 
alone  is  to  say  it,  this  rubric  may  hold  good,  and  as  such  both  the 
Priest  and  the  people  should  repeat  it.  (See  Dowden,  '  Further 
Studies  in  the  Prayer  Book,'  pp.  82-88.) 

The  Lord's  Prayer.  1549.  Sar.  Brev.  Taken  chiefly  from 
the  rendering  in  the  King's  Book  of  1543,  which  did  not,  however, 
contain  the  Doxology,  but  the  Ave  Maria  followed. 

It  was  here  that  in  1549  the  Service  commenced,  and  in  1662 
two  lines  were  drawn  across  the  page  to  mark  the  point. 

The  Lord's  Prayer,  as  being  the  form  given  for  disciples,  now 
furnishes  the  connecting  link  between  the  Penitential  Introduction 
and  the  offering  of  praise.  The  suitability  of  this  arrangement  was 
enhanced  by  the  addition  of  the  Doxology  in  1662.  This  is  an 
ancient  Liturgical  adjunct,  and  was  adopted  by  the  Greek  Church, 
but  omitted  by  the  Latin.  In  the  A.V.  it  is  only  found  in  St. 
Matthew's  Gospel,  and  in  the  R.V.  it  is  altogether  wanting. 
It  mostly  occurs  in  our  Prayer  Book  where  that  portion  of  the 
Service  is  associated  with  praise. 

The  Lord's  Prayer  *  is  given  to  us  as  : — 

(1)  A  Form  to  be  used  (Luke  xi.  2). 

(2)  A  Model  by  which  we  are  to  frame  our  petitions,  as  to 

their  order  and  proportion  as  well  as  their  substance 
(Matt.  vi.  9). 

The  Versicles  and  Responses.  1549.  Sar.  Brev.  Matins.  Ps. 
li.  15  ;  Ixx.  1. 

They  are  found  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  Offices  from  the  sixth 
century,  and  also  called  '  antiphonal  suffrages,'  or  '  preces.' 

1549.     My  lips,  My  mouth  ;  Save  me,  Help  me. 

1552.     Our  lips,  Our  mouth  ;    Save  us,  Help  us. 

The  Rubric  before  the  Gloria  was  added  1662,  adapted  from  the 
Scotch  Service  of  1637. 

Gloria  Patri.    1549.     Sar.  Brev.  Matins. 

This  is  one  of  the  earliest  primitive  doxologies  and  is  sometimes 
called  the  lesser  doxology,  as  distinguished  from  the  Gloria  in 
excelsis. 

*  For  '  Expository  Analysis  '  see  Catechism,  p.  413. 


THE    VENITE  g$ 

In  substance  it  is  as  old  as  the  fourth  century,  the  words,  '  As 
it  was  in  the  beginning,'  etc.,  having  been  added  in  the  sixth 
century.  The  Arian  Version  was  '  Glory  be  to  the  Father,  by  the 
Son,  and  in  the  Holy  Ghost.'  There  were  several  doxologies  in 
the  Early  Church.  The  form  in  the  Mozarabic  Liturgy  was, 
'  Glory  and  Honour  to  the  Father,  and  to  the  Son,  and  to  the 
Holy  Ghost;  world  without  end.  Amen.' 

The  Call  to  Praise.    1549.    Sar.  Brev.  Matins. 

1549.     '  Praise  ye  the  Lord  '  was  followed  by  '  Hallelujah  ' 

from  Easter  to  Trinity  Sunday. 
1552.     '  Hallelujah  '  was  omitted. 
1662.     '  The  Lord's  Name  be  praised  '   (from  the    Scotch 

Prayer  Book  of  1637)  was  added. 

The  Rubric  before  the  Venite. 

1549.  Then  shall  be  said  or  sung  without  any  Invitatory, 
this  Psalm,  Venite,  exultemus,  etc.,  in  English,  as  fol- 
loweth.  Psalm  xcv. 

1552.     Then  shall  be  said  or  sung,  this  Psalm    following. 

1662.  The  words,  '  Except  on  Easter  Day,  upon  which 
another  Anthem  is  appointed  ;  and  on  the  Nineteenth 
day  of  every  month  it  is  not  to  be  read  here,  but  in  the 
ordinary  Course  of  the  Psalms'  were  added. 

The  Venite,  exultemus  Domino.  (Ps.  xcv.)  1549.  Great  Bible. 
Sar.  Brev.  Matins. 

From  very  early  times  it  has  been  usual  to  intermingle  the 
reading  of  Scripture  in  Church  with  Psalms  and  Canticles,  and 
this  was,  indeed,  enjoined  by  the  Council  of  Laodicea,  about 
360.  With  the  exception  of  the  Te  Deum  and  Benedicite, 
they  are  taken  from  the  Holy  Scriptures.  The  Venite  was 
formerly  termed  '  the  Invitatorium,'  or  the  '  Invitatory  Psalm.' 
In  the  Primer  of  Henry  VIII  its  title  was  '  A  Song  stirring  to  the 
Praise  of  God.'  It  touches  '  the  highest  and  lowest  notes  of  the 
scale  in  the  spiritual  life.' 

In  the  Western  Church  it  was  sung  from  early  times.  An 
ciently  it  was  read  while  the  congregation  war:  assembling.  In 
the  Sar.  Brev.  '  a  short  versicle,  called  an  '  I;/,  itatory '  inciting 
to  praise,  and  suited  to  the  season  of  the  ecclesiastical  year,  was 
sung  before  the  Venite '  (Evan  Daniel). 

The  pointing  of  the  Psalm  was  assimilated  to  the  rest  of  the 
Psalter,  so  that  it  could  be  sung  to  the  ordinary  Psalm  tunes, 
instead  of  its  own  peculiar  chants. 

In  the  Eastern  Church  a  shortened  form  of  it  is  used. 

In  the  American  Prayer  Book  the  Venite  consists  of  the  first 
seven  verses  of  Ps.  xcv.,  with  Ps.  xcvi.  9  and  13 


loo  MORNING   PRAYER 

Analysis. 

I.  A  Call  to  Worship  God  publicly,  viz.  : — 

1.  To    praise   and   thank    the  Supreme    Sovereign  (v.   3)      vers. 

and  Upholder  (v.  4)  and  Creator  (v.  5)  of  the  Universe        1-5 

2.  To   bend   before   God's   Throne   in   prayer,    because    of 

His  own  personal  relationship  to  us  . .          . .        6,  7 

II.  An  Entreaty    not    to    harden    our    hearts  and    slight    the 

Word  of  God  lest,  like  Israel  of  old,  we  forfeit  the 
promised  rest  . .          . .         . .         . .         . .     8-11 


B.C.P.,     Corners  of  the  Earth. 

A.V.,     Deep  places  (lit.,  '  depth  of  earth  '). 
B.C.P.,     Strength  of  the  hills. 

R.V.,     Heights  of  the  mountains. 
B.C.P.,     To-day  if  ye  will  hear  His  voice. 

R.V.,     To-day,  oh  that  ye  could  hear  His  voice. 
R.V.  renders  second  clause  of  ver.  8  '  as  in  the  provocation,  and 
as  in  the  day  of  Massah  in  the  wilderness.' 

The  Rubric  concerning  the  Psalms. 

1549.     Then   shall   follow  certain  Psalms  in  order,  as  they 

been  ['  be,'  1552]  appointed  in  a  table  made  for  that 

purpose,  except  there  be  proper  Psalms  appointed  for 

that  day. 

1662.     Then  shall  follow  the  Psalms  in  order  as  they  are 

appointed. 

In  accordance  with  the  title  page  of  the  B.C.P.,  the  Psalms 
are  to  be  sung  or  said.  Both  practices  have  the  sanction  of 
Scripture  (cf.  1  Sam.  ii.  1  ;  2  Chron.  xxix.  30  ;  Ps.  cxviii.  2  ; 
Luke  i.  46,  67  ;  ii.  28  ;  Eph.  v.  19  ;  Eev.  vii.  10  ;  etc.). 

The  Psalms.  1549.  Sar.  Ps.  (but  sung  on  a  different  system). 
The  Prayer  Book  version  is  that  of  Tyndal  and  Coverdale,  1535, 
and  Rogers,  1537,  revised  in  '  The  Great  Bible  '  called  Cranmer's, 
1539.  It  is  somewhat  more  rhythmical  and  suitable  for  song  than 
that  of  the  A.V.  The  Prayer  Book  version,  being  a  translation 
of  a  translation,  cannot  have  anything  like  the  claim  to  accuracy 
which  the  A.V.  and  R.V.  possess. 

The  Psalms  are  '  pointed  as  they  are  to  be  said  or  sung  in 
Churches,'  i.e.,  they  are  divided  by  a  colon  to  mark  the  break 
in  the  chant. 

1549.     Special  Psalms  were  appointed  for  the  four  great  festi 
vals  (Christmas  Day,  Easter  Day,  Ascension  Day,    and 
Whit-Sunday). 
1662.     Special  Psalms  for  Ash  Wednesday  and  Good  Friday 

were  added. 

The  seven  penitential  Psalms  were  chosen  for  Ash  Wednes- 
dav,  one,  the  fifty-first,  being  in  the  Commination  Service 


THE  RUBRIC    CONCERNING    THE   LESSONS  101 

The  Psalter  was  in  ancient  times  divided  into  five  books  : — 
(1)  Pss.  i.-xli.  ;  (2)  xlii.-lxxii.  ;  (3)  Ixxiii.-lxxxix. ; 
(4)  xc.-cvi. ;  (5)  cvii.-cl. 

Some  were  used  by  David  and  Solomon  in  the  Temple  Service 
(1  Chron.  xvi.  8  ;  2  Chron.  vi.  41,  42),  and  in  the  Synagogue  wor 
ship  after  the  return  from  Captivity.  Our  Lord  Himself  quoted 
and  referred  to  some  of  them  (Luke  xx.  42 ,  43  ;  xxiv.  44  ;  cf . 
Acts  i.  20).  It  is  generally  supposed  that  Pss.  cxiii.-cxviii. 
formed  the  great  Hallel,  which  was  probably  the  '  hymn  '  which 
our  Lord  sang  with  His  disciples  after  the  Last  Supper  (Matt, 
xxvi.  30  ;  Mark  xiv.  26). 

The  early  Christians  used  them  by  selection  as  we  use  a  hymn 
book.  The  continuous  use  of  the  Psalms  in  Public  Worship  began 
with  the  Monastic  Orders.  In  the  Sar.  Brev.  there  were  fixed 
Psalms  appointed  for  certain  services,  the  remainder  being  sung 
'  in  course  '  every  week.  The  Antiphonal  singing  of  Psalms,  origin 
ally  an  Eastern  custom,  rapidly  spread  in  the  Western  Churches, 
owing  to  Gregory  the  Great  setting  up  the  first  singing  school  in 
Rome.* 

There  is  no  Rubrical  authority  for  the  Psalms  being  repeated 
verse  by  verse  alternately  by  the  minister  and  people.  But  this 
method  is  plainly  alluded  to  by  Tertullian,  and  it  was  introduced 
into  the  Christian  Church  by  St.  Ignatius  among  the  Greeks,  and 
St.  Ambrose  among  the  Latins.  The  practice  prevailed  in  the 
Jewish  Temple. 

The  Rubric  concerning  the  Doxology. 

And  at  the  end  of  every  Psalm  throughout  the  Year,  and 
likewise  at  the  end  of  Benedicite,  Benedictus,  Magnificat, 
and  Nunc  dimittis,  shall  be  repeated  [Gloria  Patri]. 

The  Doxology. 

It  was  used  in  the  Eastern  Church  after  the  last  Psalm  only, 
but  in  most  of  the  Churches  of  the  West  after  every  Psalm.  It 
serves  to  connect  the  Unity  of  the  Godhead  as  known  to  the  Jews 
with  the  Trinity  as  known  to  Christians. 

The  Rubric  concerning  the  Lessons. 

1549.  Then  shall  be  read  two  Lessons  distinctly  with  a  loud 
voice,  that  the  people  may  hear.  The  first  of  the 
Old  Testament,  the  second  of  the  New ;  like  as  they 
be  appointed  by  the  Calendar,  except  there  be  proper 
Lessons  assigned  for  that  day ;  the  Minister  that 
readeth  the  Lesson,  standing  and  turning  him  so  as 
he  may  best  be  heard  of  all  such  as  be  present. 
And  before  every  Lesson,  the  minister  shall  say  thus :  The 

*  For  further  details  about   (be  P?alter,  see  pp.  32  ff. 


102  MORNING   PRAYER 

first,  second,  third  or  fourth  Chapter  of  Genesis  or 
Exodus,  Matthew,  Mark,  or  other  like,  as  is  appointed 
in  the  Calendar.  And  in  the  end  of  every  chapter, 
he  shall  say,  Here  endeth  such  a  Chapter  of  such  a 
Book. 

1604.  The  following  clause  was  added  : '  And  to  the  end  the 
people  may  the  better  hear,  in  such  places  where 
they  do  sing,  there  shall  the  Lessons  be  sung  in  a 
plain  tune,  after  the  manner  of  distinct  reading ;  and 
likewise  the  Epistle  and  Gospel.'  This  clause  was 
omitted  in  1662. 

1662.  Then  shall  be  read  distinctly  with  an  audible  voice 
the  First  Lesson,  taken  out  of  the  Old  Testament 
as  is  appointed  in  the  Calendar,  (except  there  be 
proper  Lessons  assigned  for  that  day) :  He  that 
readeth  so  standing  and  turning  himself,  as  he  may 
best  be  heard  of  all  such  as  are  present. 
Note,  That  before  every  Lesson  the  Minister  shall  say, 
Here  beginneth  such  a  Chapter,  or  Verse  of  such  a 
Chapter,  of  such  a  Book :  And  after  every  Lesson, 
Here  endeth  the  First,  or  the  Second  Lesson. 

The  Lessons. 

The  first  mention  of  reading  the  Scriptures  in  public  is  in  Neh. 
viii.  8  ;  but  cf.  2  Chron.  xvii.  7-9.  Lessons  from  the  Law  and  the 
Prophets  were  read  by  the  Jews  each  Sabbath  in  their  synagogues 
(Luke  iv.  17-19  ;  Acts  xv.  21  ;  cf.  Col.  iv.  16 ;  1  Thess.  v.  27). 
The  method  was  to  have  two  stated  lessons,  one  from  the  Law  and 
the  other  from  the  Prophets.  The  Lectionaryis  specially  marked 
in  our  Hebrew  Bibles.  Before  the  settlement  of  the  Canon  of 
Scripture,  portions  from  the  Epistles  of  St.  Barnabas  and  St. 
Clement  were  read.  Later  on,  Traditions  of  the  Apostles,  Acts 
of  Martyrs  and  Confessors,  etc.,  took  the  place  of  the  Holy  Scrip 
tures  on  several  occasions.  Until  the  time  of  St.  Augustine  of 
Hippo  the  Lessons  were  chosen  by  the  Minister,  afterwards  Lec- 
tionary  Books  (Lectionaria),  containing  appropriate  Lessons  for 
certain  days,  began  to  make  their  appearance. 

The  Keformers,  following  the  practice  of  the  early  Christians, 
appointed  two  Lessons  to  be  read  at  each  Service,  one  from  the 
Old  Testament  and  the  other  from  the  New  Testament. 

N.B. — One  of  the  beauties  of  the  Liturgy  is  its  variety.  Thus 
after  the  active  devotion  of  Psalmody  there  comes  a  refreshing 
repose  in  listening  to  the  Lessons.  '  He  which  prays,'  as 
Hooker  remarks,  '  in  due  course  is  thereby  made  the  more 
attentive  to  hear  ;  and  he  which  heareth  is  the  more  earnest 
to  pray.' 


RUBRIC   CONCERNING    THE   TE   DEUM  103 

1549.  Daily  Lessons  were  appointed. 

1552.  Proper  Lessons  for  Holy  Days,  Christmas  Day,  Easter 

Day,  Ascension,  and  Whit-Sunday  were  added. 
1559.  Sunday  Lessons  were  added. 
1871.     A  Revised  Lectionary  was  introduced,  by  which  : — 

(1)  The  Old  Testament,  with  certain  omissions,  is  read  once 

during  the  year,  and  the  New  Testament  twice.  In  the 
first  six  months  the  Gospels  are  read  in  the  Morning 
Service,  and  the  remaining  New  Testament  Books  in  the 
Evening ;  and  vice  versa  in  the  last  six  months. 

(2)  The  Lessons  were  shortened,  and  not  made  coincident 
with  the  division  of  the  Bible  into  chapters  (see  Isa.  Hi. 
and  liii.  ;  Actsxxi.  and  xxii.;  Heb.  ii.  and  iii.;  iv.  and  v.). 

(3)  A  second  First  Lesson  provided  for  Evening  Service  on 

Sundays. 

(4)  Other  Lessons  upon  special  occasions  to  be  approved  by 

the  Ordinary,  may,  with  his  consent,  be  substituted  for 
those  appointed.  The  following  direction  respecting 
the  selection  of  Lessons  in  cases  of  Saints'  Days  when 
they  fall  on  Sunday  is  useful : — 

If  any  of  the  Holy-days  for  which  proper  Lessons 
are  appointed  in  the  table  fall  upon  a  Sunday  which 
is  the  first  Sunday  in  Advent,  Easter  Day,  Whit-Sun 
day,  or  Trinity  Sunday,  the  Lessons  appointed  for 
such  Sunday  shall  be  read  ;  but  if  it  fall  upon  any 
other  Sunday,  the  Lessons  appointed  either  for  the 
Sunday  or  for  the  Holy-day  may  be  read  at  the 
discretion  of  the  Minister. 

In  the  old  Lectionary,  44  out  of  the  132  chapters  of  the  Apocry 
pha  were  selected  to  be  read.  But  in  the  new  Lectionary  the 
only  books  from  which  selections  are  taken  are  Wisdom,  Ecclesi- 
asticus,  and  Baruch.  These  are  read  on  week-days  from  October 
27  to  November  18,  and  on  certain  Holy-days,  '  with  a  view  to 
instruction  in  virtue  and  holiness  of  life  '  (see  Art.  VI). 

Before  the  Reformation  in  England,  several  Lessons,  sometimes 
as  many  as  nine,  were  read  in  the  Services  ;  but  as  each  consisted 
only  of  a  verse  or  two,  the  nine  Lessons  together  were  probably 
shorter  than  any  of  ours,  and  the  Lessons  were  invariable. 

The  Rubric  especially  directs  that  the  Lessons  '  shall  be  read 
distinctly  with  an  audible  voice.'  * 

Rubric  concerning  the  Te  Deum.    1549. 

1549.     After  the  first  Lesson*shall  follow  Te  Deum  laudamus, 
in  English,  daily  throughout  the  year,  except  in  Lent,  all  the 

*  For  fuller  particulars,  see  pp.  35  5. 


104  MORNING    PRAYER 

which  time,  in  place  of  Te  Deum  shall  be  used  Benedicite 
omnia  opera  Domini  Domino,  in  English  as  followeth. 
1552.     After  the  first  Lesson  shall  follow  Te  Deum  laudamus, 
in  Eng'ish,  daily  throughout  the  whole  ['  whole  '  omitted 
1604]  year. 

1662.  And  after  that,  shall  be  said  or  sung,  in  English,  the 
Hymn,  called  Te  Deum  laudamus,  daily  throughout 
the  Year. 

N.B. — From  1552  onward  the  Benedicite  is  given  as  an  alter 
native  without  restrictions. 

Te  Deum  Laudamus.  1549.  Sar.  Brev.  Matins  (Sundays  and 
Festivals). 

1545.     Called  in  the  Primer  of  Henry  VIII  '  The  Praise  of 

God  the  Father,  the  Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost.' 
1549.     Prescribed  for  use  '  except  in  Lent.' 
1552.     This  exception  removed. 

This  Hymn  has  been  called  '  a  Creed  in  the  form  of  adoration/ 
It  is  included  in  the  Form  of  Prayer  to  be  used  at  Sea,  after 
Victory  or  Deliverance  from  an  Enemy ;  and  also  in  the  Corona 
tion  Service. 

The  history  of  this  famous  Hymn  is  obscure.  The  earliest 
mention  of  it  is  in  the  '  Kule  of  Caesarius,'  Bishop  of  Aries  (470- 
542),  while  portions  of  it  are  to  be  found  in  old  Greek  Liturgies. 
A  well-known  tradition,  without  historical  support,  makes  it  the 
extempore  joint  production  of  St.  Ambrose  and  St.  Augustine 
at  the  baptism  of  the  latter.  Conjectures  have  credited  it  to 
Hilary  of  Poictiers  (355)  and  Hilary  of  Aries  (440).  Modern 
scholarship  inclines  to  the  suggestion  that  the  author  was  either 
Niceta,  Bishop  of  Kemesiana  in  Dacia  (370-420),  or  Nicetius  of 
Treves  (535). 

Variations  in  the  MSS.  in  regard  to  the  eight  concluding  verses 
have  given  rise  to  the  suggestion  that  they  are  no  part  of  the 
original  Hymn,  but  borrowed  from  the  Gloria  in  excelsis,  with 
the  use  of  which  in  the  West  similar  verses  were  associated  at 
the  time  when  the  Te  Deum  took  the  place  of  the  Gloria  as  the 
morning  hymn.*  Viewed  in  this  light  the  Te  Deum  may  be 
analysed  as  (1)  a  Hymn  to  the  Holy  Trinity,  w.  1-13 ;  (2)  a  hymn 
to  God  the  Son  as  Redeemer,  vv.  14-21 ;  (3)  versicles  added  as  a 
conclusion.  The  analysis  given  below  is  based  upon  the  sense 
of  the  Hymn  as  it  stands. 

Some  instances  of  departure  from  the  original  Latin  in  the 
English  translation  are  worthy  of  note,  e.g. — 

*  See  '  The  Workmanship  of  the  Prayer-Book,'  by  Dr.  Dovvden,  pp, 
83-94  :  Church  Quarterly  Review,  October,  1885,  p.  20. 


THE   BENEDICITE  103 

Te  Deum  laudamus  :  '  we  praise  Thee  as  God.' 
Laudabilis    numerus  :     '  the    praise-worthy    number '     (of    the 
prophets). 

Candidatus  exercitus  :  '  the  white-robed  army.' 
Venerandum  :  '  adorable,'  which  is  the  rendering  of  the  American 
P.B.  and  is  perhaps  nearer  the   original  than  our  '  honour 
able.' 

Mortis  aculeo  :    '  death's  sting '   (cf.   1  Cor.  xv.  55,  56). 
Non  confundar   in   aeternum  :    this   can  be  finely  rendered  as 

an  indicative,  '  I  shall  never  be  confounded.' 
An  important  various  reading  is  munerari  for  numerari :  '  make 
them  to  be  rewarded  with  Thy  saints.'  * 

Analysis. 

I.  Praise  (w.  1-9).  vers. 

1.  From  the  Assembled  Worshippers           . .  . .  . .  1 

2.  From  Heaven  and  Earth  . .         . .         . .  . .  . .  2-6 

3.  From  Apostles,  Prophets,  and  Martyrs  .  .  .  .  .  .  7-9 

II.  Confession  of  Faith  (w.  10-19). 

1.  In  the  Blessed  Trinity 10-13 

2.  In  the  Divine  Redeemer    . .         . .         . .          . .          . .     14-19 

III.  Prayer  (w.  20-29). 

1.  For  eternal  salvation,  eliciting  praise     .  .          . .          . .     20-25 

2.  For  present  and  future  preservation  from  sin  .  .          .  .     26-29 

Benedicite  omnia  Opera.  1549.  Sar.  Brev.  (sung  on  Sundays 
and  Festivals  at  Lauds,  among  the  Psalms). 

This  Hymn,  which  is  an  alternative  for  the  Te  Deum,  is  found  in 
the  Septuagint  between  the  23rd  and  24th  verses  of  the  3rd  chapter 
of  Daniel,  and  in  the  English  Apocrypha  between  the  Books 
of  Baruch  and  Susannah  in  a  much  expanded  form.  Some  have 
thought  it  to  be  an  expansion  or  paraphrase  of  Ps.  cxlviii.  It  is 
called  '  The  Song  of  the  Three  Holy  Children,'  Hanariiah,  Mishael, 
and  Azariah  (the  Princes  of  Judah),  whom  Nebuchadnezzar 
had  taken  captive,  and  to  whom  had  been  given  the  Babylonian 
names  of  Shadrach,  Meshach,  and  Abed-nego  (Dan.  i.  6,  7).  In 
the  Hymn  itself  they  are  called  Ananias,  Azarias,  and  Misael, 
the  Grecized  form  of  their  Hebrew  names.  It  was  commonly 
sung  among  the  morning  Psalms  in  the  fourth  century.  In  the 
ancient  Offices  the  Doxology  ran  thus  :  '  0  let  us  bless  the 
Father,  and  the  Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost ;  let  us  praise  them, 
and  magnify  them  for  ever.  Blessed  art  Thou,  0  Lord,  in  the 
firmament  of  Heaven  ;  worthy  to  be  praised,  and  glorious,  and 
to  be  magnified  for  ever.'  The  Reformers  (1549)  substituted 
the  present  Doxology.  This  Hymn  is  suitable  for  Septuagesima 

*  For  further  remarks  the  reader  is  referred  to  Dr.  Wordsworth's  '  Te 
Deum,  Its  Structure  and  Meaning,'  etc.  Revised  Edition.  S.P.C.K. 


i(X5  MORNING   PRAYER 

Sunday  (First  Lesson,  Gen.  i.-ii.  4)  and  for  the  21st  Sunday  after 
Trinity  (First  Lesson,  Dan.  iii.). 

1549.     Ordered  to  be  used  in  Lent  instead  of  the  Te  Deum. 

1552.     This  direction  removed. 

In  the  Scottish  Book  Ps.  xxiii.  takes  the  place  of  the  Benedicite. 
The  American  Book  omits  the  last  verse  of  the  Benedicite  and 
the  Doxology. 

Analysis. 

An  Appeal  to  praise  the  Creator,  addressed  : —  vers. 

1.  To  Creation  in  general         . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  1 

2.  To  the  Angels,  the  Heavens,  and  the  Heavenly  bodies       . .  2-7 

3.  To  the  great  forces  and  phenomena  of  Nature..          ..  8-17 

4.  To  the  Earth  with  its  vegetable  and  animal  life         . .  18-25 

5.  To  our  Fellow-men  living  and  dead,  and  in  particular  to 

the  Three  Children  in  whose  memory  the  Hymn  was 
composed     . .         . .         . .         . .         . .         . .         . .     26-32 

Rubric  before  the  Benedictus. 

1549.  And  after  the  second  Lesson,  throughout  the  whole 
year,  shall  be  used  Benedictus  Dominus  Deus  Israel, 
&c.  in  English  as  followeth. 

1552.  The  words  '  Dominus  Deus  Israel '  and  '  through 
out  the  whole  year  '  were  omitted  ;  and  after  '  used  ' 
the  words  '  and  said '  were  added. 

1662.  Then  shall  be  read  in  like  manner  the  Second 
Lesson,  taken  out  of  the  New  Testament ;  and  after 
that,  the  Hymn  following ;  except  when  that  shall 
happen  to  be  read  in  the  Chapter  for  the  Day,  or  for 
the  Gospel  on  Saint  John  Baptist's  Day. 

Benedictus.    (Luke  i.  68-79.)     1549.    Sar.  Brev.  Lauds. 

This  was  the  Song  of  Zacharias  to  which  he  gave  utterance 
immediately  after  the  circumcision  of  John  the  Baptist.  It  is 
a  summary  of  the  messages  of  both  Testaments.  The  version 
differs  slightly,  both  from  the  '  Great  Bible  '  and  from  the  A.V. 

1549.  Described,  in  one  edition,  as  a  '  thanksgiving  for  the 
performance  of  God's  promises.' 

N.B. — The  infinitives,  'to  perform  .  .  .  to  remember  ...  to 
perform '  in  verses  72,  73,  are  connected  with  the  words  '  He  hath 
raised  up  a  mighty  salvation  for  us '  (ver.  69). 

Analysis. 

I.  Thanksgiving  for  the  Advent  of  the  Messiah,  in  Whom      vers. 
God's  promised  Redemption  was  being  fulfilled  . .          . .     68-75 

II.  Address  to  the  Infant  John,  in  which  Zacharias  prophe 
sies  the  object  of  his  mission  as  the  Forerunner    . .          . .     76-79 


THE   RUBRIC  BEFORE    THE    CREED  107 

The  Rubric  before  the  Jubilate. 

1552.     Or  else  this  Psalm,  Jubilate  Deo. 

1559.     Or  the  C  Psalm,  Jubilate. 

1662.     Or  tliis  Psalm,  Jubilate  Deo. 

There  is,  at  first  sight,  some  ambiguity  in  the  wording  of  the 
Rubric  before  the  Benedictus,  and  consequently  some  have 
thought  that  the  Jubilate  should  only  be  sung  on  the  two  occa 
sions  when  the  Rubric  directs  the  Benedictus  to  be  omitted. 
But  the  meaning  is  clear  if  the  two  Rubrics  are  read  together 
thus  :  '  And  after  that,  the  Hymn  following ;  (except  when  that 
shall  happen  to  be  read  in  the  Chapter  for  the  Day,  or  for  the 
Gospel  on  St.  John  Baptist's  Day),'  'or  this  Psalm,  Jubilate 
Deo.'  The  parenthetical  marks  are  inserted  for  the  sake  of 
elucidation.  Read  in  this  way,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  Jubilate 
can  be  sung  on  any  occasion. 

Cf.  rubrics  for  use  of  alternative  Prayers  for  Ember  Days,  of 
alternative  Thanksgivings  in  the  Post-Communion,  and  of 
alternative  Psalms  in  the  Office  for  the  Solemnization  of  Matri 
mony. 

Jubilate  Deo.  (Psalm  c.)  1552.  '  Great  Bible.'  Sar.  Brev. 
Lauds. 

In  Lauds  (Sundays  and  Festivals)  it  came  before  the  Lesson. 

The  joyful  character  of  this  Psalm,  which  was  most  likely 
composed  for  some  joyous  Festival  in  the  Jewish  Temple,  makes 
it  specially  appropriate  after  the  reading  of  the  glad  tidings 
contained  in  the  New  Testament  Lesson.  Compare  its  position 
as  the  closing  Psalm  (af  doxology  ')  of  the  series  of  Psalms  xciii.- 
xcix.,  intended  for  Temple  worship  on  some  joyful  occasion. 
It  represents  the '  tone  '  of  Morning  Prayer,  as  the  Nunc  dimittis 
that  of  Evening  Prayer.  In  the  latter  the  '  Gospel  of  Peace ' 
is  gratefully  accepted,  in  the  former  '  grace,  mercy,  and  truth  ' 
are  made  the  ground  of  an  appeal  for  joyous  assurance  that 
'  the  Lord  He  is  God.'  The  Psalm  is  written  in  antiphonal  form. 

Analysis. 

I.  An  Appeal  to  all  lands  to  sing  God's  Praise,  for  we  are  His      vers. 

possession    . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .          . .         1-2 

II.  An  Appeal  to  thank  Him  publicly,  for  His  mercy  is  un 
changing     . .         . .         . .         . .         . .         . .         . .         3-4 

N.B. — R.V.  renders  '  and  not  we  ourselves,'  as  '  and  we  are  His.' 

The  Rubric  before  the  Creed. 

1549.     Then  the  Minister  shall  say  the  Creed  and  the  Lord's 
Prayer  in  English,  with  a  loud  voice,  &c. 


io8  MORNING   PRA  YER 

1552.     Then  shall  be  said  the  Creed  by  the  Minister  and  the 

people,  standing. 
1662.     Then  shall  be  sung  or  said  the  Apostles'  Creed  by  the 

Minister  and  the  people  standing  :  except  only  on  such 

days  as  the  Creed  of  St.  Athanasius  is  appointed  to  be 

read. 

The  Apostles'  Creed.  1549  (not  printed  in  the  Service).  1552 
(printed).  Sar.  Brev.  Matins  and  Prime. 

This  Creed,  '  commonly  called  the  Apostles' '  (Art.  VIII.), 
can  only  claim  that  designation  from  its  containing  Apostolic 
teaching.  Traces  of  Apostolic  formulae  have  been  thought  to 
be  found  in  Acts  xvi.  31 ;  1  Cor.  xv.  3-8  ;  1  Tim.  iii.  16  ;  2  Tim. 
i.  13,  14  ;  but  none  of  the  various  Baptismal  Creeds  of  the  primi 
tive  Church  can  boast  of  direct  Apostolic  sanction.  The  Bap 
tismal  Formula  of  Matt,  xxviii.  19  is  doubtless  the  germ  of  both 
the  contents  and  the  structure  of  the  later  Creeds,  which  gradually 
grew  from  a  simple  confession  of  faith  in  the  Three  Persons  of 
the  Blessed  Trinity  to  more  or  less  detailed  summaries  of  Scrip 
tural  revelation  concerning  the  Father,  Son,  and  Holy  Ghost. 

The  earliest  use  of  a  Creed  was  probably  in  Baptism,  as  is 
suggested  by  its  ancient  name  Symbolum,  i.e.  the  sign  or  mark 
by  wliich  a  Christian  is  known.  Other  old  names  were  Regula 
fidei,  the  rule  or  '  canon  '  of  truth,  and  '  the  standard  of  truth.' 
The  Apostles'  Creed  is  selected  for  this  purpose  in  the  Church 
of  England,  and  is  used  not  only  in  the  Baptismal  Offices,  but 
also  in  the  Catechism,  Daily  Services,  and  Visitation  of  the  Sick. 

The  Apostles'  Creed  attained  to  its  present  form  about  the 
middle  of  the  eighth  century.  The  following  steps  are  traceable  :— 

138-161.  Aristides'  Apology  gives  7  of  its  clauses. 

180.  Irenseus,  Bishop  of  Lyons,  gives  a  summary  of  Christian 
doctrine  substantially  similar  to  that  of  the  Apostles' 
Creed  :  Adv.  Haer.  I.  ii. 

341.  A  Creed  in  the  days  of  Marcellus  shows  approximation 
to  the  present  form. 

369-410.  The  Creed  of  Rufinus  of  Aquileia  contains  further 
additions  towards  the  completion  of  the  present  Creed. 

750.  In  the  writings  of  Firminius  the  Creed  is  found  in  its 
present  form. 

About  1000  the  Creed,  which  had  already  found  its  way  into 
the  Anglo-Saxon  Office,  was  generally  adopted  by  the  Western 
Church.  In  the  pre-Reformation  Services  it  followed  the  Lord's 
Prayer  amongst  the  prayers  of  Prime.  Its  present  position 
is  much  more  appropriate.  It  follows  upon  the  reading  of  Holy 
Scripture,  the  foundation  of  faith,  and  precedes  prayer,  which 


THE   APOSTLES'    CREED  109 

both  needs  and  sustains  faith.  The  old  practice  in  the  Sar. 
Brev.  was  for  the  Priest  alone  and  inaudibly  to  recite  the  Creed 
till  the  last  clause  ('  et  vitam  seternam  '),  when  he  raised  his 
voice  as  a  signal  to  the  Choir  that  they  were  to  join  with  him  in 
saying  it.  This  inaudible  recitation  of  the  Creed,  as  of  the  Lord's 
Prayer,  has  been  connected  with  the  early  practice  of  concealing 
these  sacred  mysteries  from  the  heathen  and  unbaptized.  The 
Reformers  were  anticipated  in  their  improvement  upon  this 
somewhat  meaningless  custom  by  Cardinal  Quignon,  who  directed 
in  his  Breviary,  1536,  that  the  Creed  should  be  said  aloud  on 
all  days  except  Sunday.  In  the  Sar.  Use  the  Creed  used  publicly 
was  the  Athanasian,  but  in  Rom.  Brev.  the  Athanasian  Creed 
was  used  on  Sundays  only.  The  rubric  directs  the  people  to 
join  the  Minister  in  its  recitation,  profession  of  faith  being  essen 
tially  a  personal  matter  ;  and  to  stand,*  because  that  attitude 
is  significant  of  readiness  to  defend  and  suffer  for  the  faith. 

There  is  no  authority  for  the  frequent  practice  of  turning  to 
the  East  in  the  Creed,  nor  is  there  any  satisfactory  explanation 
of  the  origin  of  the  custom.  The  still  more  frequent  custom  of 
bowing  the  head  at  the  Name  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  is  also 
without  authority  and  explanation.  The  18th  Canon  of  1604 
indeed  gives  direction  for  '  due  and  lowly  reverence  '  whenever 
in  Divine  Service  the  Name  '  Jesus '  is  uttered,  but  apart  from  the 
fact  that  these  Canons  are  not  binding  upon  the  laity,  there  is 
no  authority  here  for  restricting  such  observance  to  the  Creed. 
The  practical  impossibility  as  well  as  the  inconvenience  attaching 
to  such  a  direction  has  from  the  first  prevented  the  Canon  from 
being  generally  observed. 

It  is  probable  that  the  great  mass  of  Christians  are  absolutely 
at  one  upon  the  Apostles'  Creed,  down  to  the  clause  which  con 
cluded  its  earlier  forms,  '  I  believe  in  the  Holy  Ghost.'  A  pos 
sible  exception  is  '  He  descended  into  Hell,'  omitted  in  the 
American  Book  f  and  \)j  the  Countess  of  Huntingdon's 
Connexion,  but  here  the  difference  is  based  upon  the  ambiguity 
of  the  word  '  hell,'  and  not  upon  doctrinal  differences.  The 
later  clauses  were  added  as  the  desire  became  more  pronounced 
to  emphasize  the  Church,  and  though  they  contain  nothing  in 
their  wording  to  which  any  Christian  would  object,  they  are 
capable  of  very  divergent  interpretation. 

It  is  to  be  noted  that  in  the  B.C. P.  the  words  '  carnis 
resurrectionem '  (Latin  Version)  are  translated  '  resurrection 
of  the  body,'  but  in  the  Baptismal  Offices  they  are  rendered 
'  resurrection  of  the  flesh.' 

*  In   1549  the  Creed  was  apparently  said  kneeling, 
f  Cbangi  d  to  :   '  He  was  sent  to  the  place  of  departed  spirits.' 


no  MORNING   PRAYER 

In  1549  the  Apostles'  Creed  came  after  the  Lesser  Litany.* 
The  Rubric  before  the  Versieles. 

1549.  Then  shall  be  said  daily  through  the  Year,  the 
Prayers  following,  as  well  at  Evensong  as  at  Matins,  all 
devoutly  kneeling. 

1552.  And  after  that,  these  Prayers  following,  as  well  at 
Evening  Prayer  as  at  Morning  Prayer,  all  devoutly  kneeling, 
the  Minister  first  pronouncing  with  a  loud  voice. 

1662.  The  words  ( as  well  at  Evening  Prayer  as  at  Morning 
Prayer'  omitted. 

The  Versieles  before  the  Lord's  Prayer.    1549.    See  Euth  ii.  4  ; 
2  Tim.  iv.  22  ;    Ps.  cxxiii.  3  ;    Luke  xvii.  13. 
These  Versieles  consist  of  two  parts — 

1.  The  Mutual  Salutation.     1552. 

2.  The  Lesser  Litany.     1549. 

The  division  is  marked  by  the  invitation,  '  Let  us  pray.' 

The  Rubric  before  the  Lord's  Prayer. 

1549.     Then  the  Minister  shall  say  the  Creed  and  the  Lord's 

Prayer  in  English,  with  a  loud  voice,  &c. 
1552.     The   words   '  Clerks  f  and    People '    were   added   after 

'  the  Minister.' 

1662.     The  words  '  in  English  '  were  omitted. 
It  is  ordered  to  be  said  '  with  a  loud  voice '  (cf .  Justin  Martyr, 
Apol.  i.  c.  13),  as  a  corrective,  doubtless,  to  the  practice  of  the 
Church  of  Rome,  which  is  to  say  it  mentally. 

The  Lord's  Prayer.  1549.  Sar.  Brev.  Prime,  where  it  pre 
ceded  the  Apostles'  Creed. 

This  Prayer  is  a  fit  introduction  to  the  supplicatory  portion 
of  the  Service,  as  a  general  summary  of  human  need.  Objection 
has  been  taken  to  the  repetition  of  the  Lord's  Prayer,  a  repetition 
which  in  the  Irish  Book  has  been  obviated  by  a  special 
rubric.  The  Lord's  warning  against  mechanical  repetitions  is 
interpreted  by  His  own  repetitions  in  Gethsemane  (Matt.  xxvi.  44). 
Repetition  need  not  be  mechanical,  and  the  best  defence  of  the 
practice  here  is  that  the  Prayer  is  so  condensed  in  its  complete 
ness  that  it  is  impossible  for  any  worshipper,  however  devout, 
to  exhaust  its  meaning  in  one  utterance.  The  Doxology  is 
omitted  here,  '  because  the  characteristic  of  this  part  of  the 
Service  is  Prayer  '  (Cornford),  i.e.  as  distinct  from  Praise. 

The  Rubric  before  the  Versieles  after  the  Lord's  Prayer. 
1549.     Priest. 
1552.     Then  the  Minister  standing  up  shall  say. 

*  For  the  analysis  and  exposition  of  the  Creed,  see  Catechism,  pp.  406,  7. 
•j"  '  Clerks '  mean  the  lay-clerks,    i.e.  the  choir. 


COLLECT    FOR    GRACE  III 

1662.     Then  the  Priest,  etc. 

The  '  standing  up  '  of  the  Priest  is  exceptional.  The  direction 
was  apparently  borrowed  from  the  practice  in  the  old  Services 
of  his  rising  up  after  the  51st  Psalm,  with  the  words  Exsurgat 
Deus,  and  proceeding  to  the  steps  of  the  Altar  to  say  the  rest 
of  the  prayers,  in  order  to  be  heard  by  the  people  with  a  view  to 
their  responding. 

The  Versicles  or  Preces  and  Responses  after  the  Lord's  Prayer. 
1549.  Sar.  Brev.  except  5th  Versicle,  which  occurs  in  Henry 
VIII's  Prymer,  1545. 

These  Versicles  are  found  in  the  old  Offices  for  Prime,  but 
not  together.  Originally  they  were  meant  for  private  preparation 
for  the  Service.  They  are  taken  from  the  following  texts,  viz : 
Ps.  Ixxxv.  7  ;  1  Sam.  x.  24  ;  Ps.  xx.  9  ;  cxxxii.  9  ;  xxviii.  9  ; 
li.  10,  11.  The  thoughts  contained  in  them  generally  correspond 
with  those  in  the  Collects  and  Prayers  which  follow — 

The  2nd.     To  the  Prayer  for  the  King. 

The  3rd  'and  4th.     To  the  Prayer  for  Clergy  and  People. 

The  5th.     To  the  Collect  for  Peace. 

The  6th.     To  the  Collect  for  Grace. 

The  Rubric  before  the  Three  Collects. 
1549.     The  word  '  Matins  '  was  used. 
1552.     The  words  '  Morning  Prayer  '    were  substituted  for 

'  Matins.' 

1662.     The  words  '  all  kneeling  '  were  added. 
In  1549  there  was  the  following  2nd  Rubric,  '  The  Priest  stand 
ing  up,  and  saying,  Let  us  pray.     Then  the  Collect  of  the  Day. ' 
The  Collect  for  the  Day  occurred  at  the  end  of  Lauds. 
The  Collects  with  their  brief  petitions  are  characteristic  of  the 
Western  Church  ;    in  the  East  a  more  exuberant  phraseology 
found  favour. 

The  Reformers  recast  several  of  the  Collects  and  carefully 
rejected  whatever  was  not  consistent  with  the  Holy  Scriptures. 
This  was  especially  needful  in  connection  with  the  Collects  for 
Saints'  Days,  which  frequently  contained  intercession  for  or 
through  the  saint.* 

Collect  for  Peace.  1549.  Sac.  Gel.  ;  Sar.  Brev.  Lauds.  (See 
1  Cor.  xiv.  33 ;  John  xvii.  3  ;  viii.  31-36 ;  Rom.  vi.  15-23  ;  Ps.  xxvii. 
1,  3.)  The  terseness  of  the  Latin  in  the  address  to  God  is  difficult 
of  reproduction  in  English  :  '  Quern  nosse  vivere,  cui  servire 
regnare  est.' 

Collect   for   Grace.     1549.     Sac.  Gel. ;   Sac.  Greg. ;   Sar.  Brev. 
*  For  further  details  see  pp.   149  ff. 


H2  MORNING   PRAYER 

The  American   Book  avoids  the  somewhat  difficult  grammar 
of  the  last  clause  by  rendering  it  thus — 

But  that  all  our  doings,  being  ordered  by  Thy  governance, 

may  be  righteous  in  Thy  sight.     (Sed  semper  ad  Tuam 

justitiam  faciendam  omnis  actio  Tuo  moderamine  dirigatur.) 

It  was  here  that  the  Order  for  Morning  Prayer  ended  before 

1662. 

The  Rubric  after  the  Third  Collect. 

1662.     In  Quires  and  Places  where  they  sing,  here  followeth  the 
Anthem. 

'  Quire '  means  the  choirs  of  Cathedrals,  Eoyal  Chapels,  Col 
legiate  Churches  and  Colleges  ;  and  '  Places  '  refers  either  to 
ordinary  Parish  Churches  or  to  those  mentioned  in  Elizabeth's 
49th  Injunction.  Under  the  word  '  Anthem '  comes  any  Hymn 
or  Psalm,  rhythmical  or  metrical.  This  is  the  only  place  in  the 
B.C.P.  which  authorizes  Hymnody  ;  but  it  has  now  been  formally 
legalized  in  the  amended  Act  of  Uniformity  that  Hymns  may 
be  sung  at  other  times  during  Service. 

The  Rubric  before  the  Five  Prayers. 

1662.     Then  these  five  Prayers  following  are  to  be  read  here, 
except  when  the  Litany  is  read  ;  and  then  only  the  two 
last  are  to  be  read,  as  they  are  there  placed. 
Observe  that    the    word    '  read '    is    substituted    for    '  said,' 
the  term  previously  used.     This  shows  that  the  last  Revisers 
were  not  so  regardful  as  generally  supposed  of  merely  ecclesiastical 
expressions.      '  Read  '    was  an  expression  which  came  into  use 
in  the  seventeenth  century  to  distinguish    liturgical    from   ex 
tempore  prayers. 

A  Prayer  for  the  King's  Majesty.  1559.  (1  Tim.  ii.  1,  2.) 
This  Prayer,  the  authorship  of  which  is  unknown,  is  a  good 
example  of  the  more  flowing  and  rhetorical  style  of  the  later 
Collects,  breathing  all  the  fervent  loyalty  of  the  Tudor  Period. 
Prayers  for  Rulers  occur  in  the  old  Greek  and  Latin  Liturgies. 
In  the  Sarum  Use  they  are  called  '  Memoria?  (Commemorations) 
pro  rege  '  (Cornford). 

The  following  quotation  from  Dr.  Dowden  *  is  worthy  of 
notice :  '  This  Prayer,  "  0  Lord,  our  heavenly  Father,  high 
and  mighty,  King  of  kings,"  etc.,  has  been  much  and  deservedly 
admired  for  the  solemn  dignity  of  its  opening.  Yet  there  are 
at  least  two  particulars  in  which  it  is  capable  of  improvement. 
We  know  from  Holy  Scripture  (Rev.  xix.  16  and  xvii.  14)  that 
it  is  He  whose  "  name  is  called  the  Word  of  God  "  that  has  on  His 
vesture  and  on  His  thigh  the  name  written,  "  King  of  kings,  and 

*  See  '  The  Workmanship  of  the  Prayer  Book,'  pp.  219,  220. 


A    PRAYER    FOR    THE    CLERGY   AND    PEOPLE        113 

Lord  of  lords."  Hence  it  is  "  the  Lamb  "  who  is  the  "  Lord 
of  lords  and  King  of  kings."  And  in  accord  with  this  thought 
the  original  of  this  Prayer  was  addressed  to  the  Second  Person 
of  the  Blessed  Trinity,  and  opened  in  the  following  sublime  lan 
guage  :  "  0  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  most  high,  most  mighty,  King  of 
kings,  Lord  of  lords,  the  only  Ruler  of  Princes,  the  very  Son  of 
God,  on  whose  right  hand  sitting  dost  from  Thy  throne,5'  etc. 
The  Eeformers  therefore,  by  altering  the  address,  injured  the 
thought  of  the  prayer.' 

1545.  The  earliest  English  form  of  it  is  in  '  A  Prayer  for 
the  Kynge  '  composed  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII  and 
occurring  in  a  book  entitled  '  Psalmes  or  Prayers  taken 
out  of  holye  Scripture.' 

1553.     Placed  in  the  reformed  Primer,  as  '  the  fourth  Collect 

for  the-  King  '  at  Morning   Prayer  ;    another  and  shorter 

'  Prayer  for  the  King '  being  added  to  the  Collect  '  for 

Peace  '  and  '  for  aid  against  all  peril '  at  Evening  Prayer. 

1559.     Placed  in  its  present  form  before  the  Prayer  of  St. 

Chrysostom,  at  the  end  of  the  Litany. 
1662.     Removed  to  its  present  position. 
A  Prayer  for  the  Royal  Family.    1604. 

This  Prayer  was  approved,  if  not  composed,  by  Archbishop 
Whitgift. 

1604.  Placed  among  the  Collects  at  the  end  of  the  Litany, 
and  entitled  '  A  Prayer  for  the  Queen,  and  Prince,  and 
other  the  King  and  Queen's  children.'  It  began  with 
the  words,  '  Almighty  God,  which  has  promised  to  be  a 
Father  of  thine  elect  and  of  their  seed,  We  humbly 
beseech  Thee  to  bless  our  gracious  Queen  Anne,  Prince 
Henry  and  all  the  King  and  Queen's  royal  progeny ; 
endue  them,'  etc. 

1625.  When  Charles  the  First  came  to  the  Throne,  having 
no  issue,  the  words  '  the  fountain  of  all  goodness'  were 
substituted  for  the  clause  '  which  has  promised  .  .  . 
seed.' 

1632.  After  the   birth   of  Prince   Charles  and   the  Lady 
Mary  the  passage  in  the  1604  B.C. P.  was  reintroducecl. 

1633.  The  Prayer  was  finally  revised  by  Laud  as  we  now 
have  it. 

1662.     Placed  in  its  present  position. 
A  Prayer  for  the  Clergy  and  People.    1559.    Sac.  Gel. ;  Sac. 
Greg. ;   Sar.  Brev. 

1544.    Inserted  in  Cranmer's  Litany. 

1559.  Introduced  into  Prayer  Book,  and  placed  at  the 
end  of  the  Litany. 


114  MORNING   PRAYER 

1662.     Removed  to  its  present  position. 
'  Who   alone   workest  great   marvels '    (cf.   Ps.    cxxxvi.    4). 
These  words  suggest : — 

(1)  The  Pentecostal  outpouring    (Acts   ii.    2-4). 

(2)  The  Preservation  and  Triumph  of  the  Church. 

'  Curates  ' — i.e.  all  who  have  cure  of  souls,  whether  they  be 

Incumbents  or  Assistant  Curates. 
Other  versions  of  the  Prayer  are — 

Almighty  and  everlasting  God,  who  alone  workest  great 
and  marvellous  things,  send  down  upon  our  Bishops, 
Presbyters,  and  Curates,  etc.  (Scottish  Liturgy,  1637.) 

Almighty  and  everlasting  God,  from  whom  cometh  every 
good  and  perfect  gift :  send  down  upon  our  Bishops 
and  other  Clergy,  and  upon  the  congregation,  etc.  (The 
American  Prayer  Book.) 

Prayer  of  St.  Chrysostom.  1549.  (See  Matt,  xviii.  19,  20. 
This  Prayer  is  found  in  the  Liturgy  of  Constantinople  bearing 
the  name  of  St.  Chrysostom,  although  it  is  wanting  in  the  most 
ancient  copy  of  that  Liturgy,  viz.  the  Barberini.  It  is  likewise 
found  in  the  Liturgy  of  St.  Basil  (ninth  century),  and  forms  part 
of  the  Byzantine  Liturgy  of  the  same  date.  The  author  of  it  is 
unknown.  Cranmer  ascribed  it  to  St.  Chrysostom,  probably 
because  he  took  it  from  the  Liturgy  which  bears  his  name.  It  is 
addressed  to  the  Second  Person  of  the  Holy  Trinity. 

1544.  It  was  placed  at  the  end  of  the  English  Litany  which 
had  been  set  forth  by  Cranmer  and  his  coadjutors. 
Before  this  time  it  had  not  been  inserted  in  any  of  the 
'  Processions.' 

1549.     Retained  in  the  same  place. 

1662.  Placed  in  its  present  position,  in  Morning  Prayer, 
but  left  at  end  of  Litany  also. 

The  Grace.     1559.     (2  Cor.  xiii.  14;    cf.  Numb.  vi.    24-26.) 
It  is  found  in  Eastern  Liturgies.     The  Latin  Hour  Services 
ended  with  the  salutation  and  the  versicle  and  response — 
Let  us  bless  the  Lord. 
Thanks  be  to  God. 
1559.     Placed  at  the  end  of  Litany. 
1 662.    Placed  also  at  end  of  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer. 


EVENING    PRAYER   AND    SAPUM    USE 


A  TABLE  SHOWING  THE  CONNEXION  BETWEEN  THE 
ORDEE  FOR  EVENING  PRAYER  AND  THE  OFFICES 
OF  VESPERS  AND  COMPLINE  IN  THE  SARUM  USE 
(BREVIARY). 


PRAYER  BOOK,  1662. 

SARUM  USE,*  1085. 

Evening  Prayer. 

Vespers. 
At  6  p.m. 

Compline. 
Before  retiring  to  rest. 

1 

Sentences 

In  the  Name 

In  the  Name 

2 

Exhortation 

Turn  us 

3 

Confession 

4 

Absolution 

5 

Our  Father 

5 

Our  Father  c  eecreto  ') 

5 

Our  Father 

6 

0  Lord,  open 

Hail  !  Mary 

:7 

O  God,  make  speed 

7 

0  God,  make  speed 

7 

0  God,  make  speed 

8 

Psalms  * 

8 

Psalms 

8 

Psalms* 

9 

3  Glorise 

9 

Gloria 

9 

5  Glorise 

10 

Short  Chapter 

10 

1st  Lesson 

10 

Short  Chapter 

Hymn 

11 

Magnificat,  or 

Hymn 

14 

Nunc  Dimittis 

12 

Cantate 

11 

Magnificat 

17 

Lesser  Litany 

13 

2nd  Lesson 

17 

Lesser  Litany 

18 

Our  Father 

14 

Nunc  Dimittis,  or 

18 

Our  Father 

19 

Suffrages 

15 

Deus  Misereatur 

19 

Suffrages 

16 

Apostles'  Creed  f 

16 

Apostles'  Creed 

20 

Collect  of  the  Day 

(said  privately) 

17 

Lesser  Litany 

21 

Collect  for  Peace 

cf.3 

Confession  )  ,..   , 
r  JVlutual 

18 

Our  Father 

cf  .  4 

Absolution  t 

±  O 

19 

Suffrages 

22 

Collect  for  Aid 

20 
21 

Collect  of  the  Day 
Collect  for  Peace 

*  1  h  ire   were    5 
Psalrns    and    Anti- 
phons. 

22 

Collect  for  Aid 

*  There   were   4 
Psalms    and    Anti- 

23 

Prayers  for  State 

phons. 

and  Church 

f  The     Choir     re 

24 

St.    Chrysostom's 

sponded,    '  Et  vitam 
seternam.    Amen.' 

Prayer 

25 

The  Grace 

1  Definitely  settled  beginning  of  thirteenth  century.   Sarum  Breviary 
reformed,  1st  ed.  1516,  2nd  ed.  1531,  further  reformed  1541, 


THE   ORDER   FOR  EVENING  PRAYER 
DAILY   THROUGHOUT   THE    YEAR* 

THE  Evening  Service  of  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer  was 
compiled  partly  from  materials  taken  from  the  ancient  Services 
of  Vespers  (Evensong)  and  Compline  (the  Service  before  retiring 
to  rest).  The  general  plan  of  the  Order  for  Morning  Prayer 
was  followed,  the  intention  being  that  both  Services  should 
exemplify  the  same  general  principles. 

A  certain  difference  of  tone  is  traceable  between  the  Order 
for  Morning  Prayer  and  that  for  Evening  Prayer.  In  the  words 
of  Canon  Fausset :  *  As  in  the  Morning  Service  intensity  and 
vigour  are  the  characteristics,  so  throughout  the  Evening  Service 
there  breathes  a  tranquil  spirit,  which  is  well  embodied  in  the 
aged  Simeon's  soothing  hymn,  after  his  active  day  was  past, 
and  the  shades  of  life's  evening  cheered  by  the  assurance  of 
Jesus'  salvation  were  gathering  round  him.'  f 

The  Title. 

1549.     An  Order  for  Evensong  throughout  the  Year. 
1552.     An  Order  for  Evening  Prayer  throughout  the  Year. 
1662.     The  Order  for  Evening  Prayer  daily,  etc. 

The  Sentences,  etc. 

1552.  The  Sentences,  Exhortation,  Confession,  and  Abso 
lution  added,  but  not  printed  in  the  Evening  Service. 
The  rubric,  however,  at  the  beginning  of  the  Morning  Ser 
vice  ran  thus  :  '  At  the  beginning  both  of  Morning  Prayer 
and  likewise  of  Evening  Prayer,  the  Minister  shall  read 
with  a  loud  voice  some  one  of  these  Sentences  of  the 
Scriptures  that  follow.  And  then  he  shall  say  that 
which  is  written  after  the  said  Sentences.' 

1662.  The  Sentences,  etc.,  up  to  the  Lord's  Prayer  printed 
as  an  integral  portion  of  the  Evening  Service,  i.e.  as 
they  now  stand. 

*  Refer  to  Notes  on  Morning  Service  for  those  parts  which  aro  sinvlar 
to  the  Evening, 
f  '  A  Guide  to  the  Study  of  the  Book  of  Common  Prayer '  (1894),  p.  105. 

116 


THE    MAGNIFICAT  117 

Rubric  before  the  Lord's  Prayer. 
1549.     The  Priest  shall  say. 
1662.    Then  the  Minister  shall  kneel  and  say  the  Lord's  Prayer  ; 

the  people  also  kneeling,  and  repeating  it  with   him. 
The  Lord's  Prayer.    1549.     Sar.  Brev.  Vespers.    [Not  printed 
in  full  till  1662.] 

In  1549  the  service  commenced  with  this  Prayer. 

The  Versicles. 

1549.     0  God,  make  speed  to  save  me  [us,  1552]. 

0  Lord,  make  haste  to  help  me  [us,  1552]. 
1552.     0  Lord,  open  thou  our  lips 

And  our  mouth  shall  shew  forth  thy  praise. 
This  Versicle  and  Response  were  added  and  placed  before  the 
former. 

Gloria  Patri.     1549.    Sar.  Brev.  Vespers. 

The  Versicle. 

1549.     Praise  ye  the  Lord.     And  from   Easter   to    Trinity 

Sunday,  Hallelujah. 
1552.     '  Hallelujah,'  omitted. 
1662.     '  The  Lord's  name  be  praised  '  added. 

The  Rubric  concerning  the  Psalms. 

1549.  Then  Psalms  in  order  as  they  be  appointed  in  the 
Table  for  Psalms,  except  there  be  proper  Psalms  ap 
pointed  for  that  day. 

1662.  Then  shall  be  said  or  sung  the  Psalms  in  order  as 
they  be  appointed. 

The  Rubric  concerning  the  First  Lesson. 

1549.  Then  a  Lesson  of  the  Old  Testament  as  it  is  appointed 
likewise  in  the  Calendar,  except  there  be  proper  Lessons 
appointed  for  that  day. 

1662.     Then  a  Lesson  of  the  Old  Testament,  as  is  appointed. 

The  First  Lesson. 

This  occupies  the  same  position  in  the  Service  as  did  the 
Chapter  read  at  Vespers. 

The  Rubric  before  the  Magnificat. 

1549.     After  that  [i.e.  the  Lesson]   (Magnificat  anima  mea 

Dominum)  in  English,  as  followeth. 
1552.  '  Anima  mea  Dominum '  omitted. 
1662.  And  after  that  [i.e.  the  Lesson],  Magnificat  (or  the 

Song  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  Mary)  in  English,  as  followeth. 

The    Magnificat.     (Luke    i.    46-55.)       Great    Bible.       1549. 
Sar.  Brev.  Vespers. 
This  Canticle,  which  resembles  the  Song  of  Hannah  (1  Sam. 


118  EVENING    PRAYER 

ii.  1-10),  has  been  sung  at  Evening  worship  from  the  sixth  cen 
tury,  when  St.  Benedict  is  said  to  have  assigned  it  for  use  at 
Vespers.  In  the  Eastern  Church  it  is  sung  in  the  morning  while 
the  Deacon  censes  the  altar.  In  the  King's  Primer  1545  it  was 
entitled,  '  The  Song  of  Mary  rejoicing  and  praising  the  Goodness 
of  God.'  Owing  to  the  high  position  assigned  in  the  Canticle 
to  the  Virgin  Mary,  and  owing  to  the  fact  that  ornate  ritual 
often  accompanied  its  public  use  in  the  Middle  Ages,  the  Puri 
tans  tried  several  times  to  procure  its  removal  from  the  Prayer 
Book.  In  1662  the  explanatory  title  was  added,  '  or  the  Song 
of  the  Blessed  Virgin.' 

Analysis.  Vers. 

I.  Outburst  of  Joy . .         ...        46, 47 

II.  Various  Notes  of  Praise  for  : — 

1.  The  Personal  Honour  bestowed  upon  her  *        ...  48,40 

2.  The  Enduring  Mercy  of  God      . .          . .              . .  59 

3.  The  Contrasts  in  God's  dealings  with  men         . .  51-53 

4.  The  Fulfilment  of  the  Promise  to  Abraham       .  .  51,  55 
'Lowliness'  is  altered  into  'Low  estate'    (A.V.   &  R.V.),  'Hath 

magnified  me'  into  'Hath  done  to  me  great  things'  (A.V.  &  R.V.)  ; 
'And  His  mercy  is  on  them  that  fear  Him  throughout  all  generations' 
into  '  And  His  mercy  is  unto  generations  and  generations  on  them 
that  fear  Him'  (R.V.). 
The  Rubric  before  the  Cantate  Domino. 
1552.     Or  else  this  Psalm. 

1559.     Or  the  98  Psalm.     Cantate  Domino  canticum  novum. 
1604.     Or  else  this  Psalm.     Cantate  Domino,  Psalm  98. 
1662.     Or  else  this  Psalm  ;   except  it  be  on  the  Nineteenth 
Day  of  the  Month,  when  it  is  read  in  the  Ordinary 
course  of  the  Psalms.     Cantate  Domino,  Psalm  1  8 
Cantate    Domino.     (Ps.     xcviii.)    Great  Bible.     1552.     Sar. 
Brev.  Lauds. 

The  language  of  this  Canticle  resembles  in  several  passages 
that  of  the  Magnificat.    The  Hymn  is  a  Song  of  Triumph  for  the 
revelation  of  God  to  the  world  as  Conqueror,  Deliverer,  and  Judge. 
An  alternative  Canticle  was  here  provided,  possibly  as  a  con 
cession  to  those  who  were  prejudiced  against  the  Magnificat. 

In  the  American  Prayer  Book  a  second  alternative  is  provided, 
consisting  of  Ps.  ciii.  1-4,   20-22. 

Analysis. 
A  Summons  to  sing  to  God,  addressed  vers. 

1.  To  the  House  of  Israel       . .         . .         . .         . .         . .         1-4 

2.  To  all  the  Nations  of  the  World 5-7 

3.  To  the  World  of  Nature 8-10 

*  'And  holy  is  his  name'   (v.  49&)  is  an  outburst  of  adoration  called 

forth  by  the  thought  of  the  personal  honour  bestowed  upon  her. 


DEUS   MISEREATUR  119 

The  arrangement  of  the  verses  both  in  the  A.V.  and  the  R.V. 
somewhat  differs  from  the  Prayer  Book  Version. 

The  Rubric  concerning  the  Second  Lesson. 

1549.     Then  a  Lesson  of  the  New  Testament. 
1662.     Then  a  Lesson  of  the  New  Testament,  as  it  is  ap 
pointed. 

The  Second  Lesson. 

This  occupies  the  place  of  the  Chapter  that  was  read  at  Com 
pline. 
The  Rubric  before  the  Nunc  dimittis. 

1549.     And  after  that  [i.e.  the  Second  Lesson],  (Nunc  dimittis 

servum  tuum)  in  English,  'as  followeth. 
1552.     Servum  tuum  omitted. 
1662.     And  after  that,  Nunc  dimittis  (or  the  Song  of  Simeon) 

in  English,  as  followeth. 

Nunc  dimittis.  (St.  Luke  ii.  29-32.)  Great  Bible.  1549- 
clar.  Brev.  Compline. 

This  is  found  as  a  Canticle  in  the  '  Apostolical  Constitutions/* 
Its  use  in  Compline  is  ascribed  to  Gregory  the  Great  (d.  604). 

Analysis. 

I.  A  thankful  readiness  to  depart,  now  that  Simeon  has  seen         vers. 

the  pledge  of  the  world's  salvation     . .          . .          . .       29,  30 

II.  Declaration  respecting  the  Saviour's  world-wide  office  as  the 

Gentiles'  Light  and  Israel's  Glory     . .          . .          . .      31,    32 

N.B. — In  1549  the  Rubric  after  the  Nunc  dimittis  ran  thus : 
'  Then  the  suffrages  before  assigned  at  Matins,  the  Clerks  kneeling 
likewise,  with  three  Collects,'  etc.  This  was  explained  by  the 
rubric  before  the  Lesser  Litany  in  the  Morning  Service  which 
ordered, '  Then  shall  be  said  daily  through  the  Year,  the  Prayers 
following,  as  well  at  Evensong  as  at  Matins,  all  devoutly  kneel- 

ing.'t 
The  Rubric  before  the  Deus  misereatur. 

1552.     Or  else  this  Psalm. 

1559.     Or  this  Psalm  (Deus  misereatur  nostri)  in  English. 
1604.     Or  else  this  Psalm. 

1662.     Or  else  this  Psalm  ;    except  it  be  on  the  Twelfth 
Day  of  the  Month. 

Deus  misereatur.  (Ps.  Ixvii.)  Great  Bible.  1552.  Sar.  Brev. 
Lauds. 

*  See  '  Apost.  Const.,'  vii.  49. 

f  Much  difficulty  is  experienced  in  ascertaining  the  rubrical  directions 
in  the  Prayer  Books  prior  to  1G62,  and  especially  those  of  1549,  as  many  of 
those  referring  to  the  conduct  of  the  Evening  Service  are  found  in  the 
Morning  Service,  and  vice  versa. 


120  EVENING   PRAYER 

The  underlying  thought  of  this  Psalm  is  that  the  acknow 
ledgment  of  God's  blessing  leads  to  further  blessings.  The  key 
notes  are,  '  Prayer,'  '  Blessing,'  '  Praise/  '  further  Blessing.' 
(John  i.  16.) 

Analysis. 

I.  Prayer  for  blessing  upon  Israel,  that  the  nation  may  fulfil      vers. 

its  missionary  calling       1,2 

II.  Appeal  for  world-wide  praise  to  God  on  account  of  His  right 

eous  administration  . .         . .         . .         . .         . .         3-5 

III.  Consequent  increased  blessing        . .         . .         . .         . .         6,  7 

The  Rubric  before  the  Creed. 

1549.     Then  the  Minister  shall  say  the  Creed  and  the  Lord's 

Prayer  in  English,  with  a  loud  voice,  &c.     (See  Morning 

Service  in  loc.). 
1552.     Then  shall  follow  the  Creed,  with  other  Prayers  as  is 

before  appointed  at  Morning  Prayer  after  Benedictus. 
1662.     Then  shall  be  said  or  sung  the  Apostles'  Creed  by  the 

Minister  and  the  people,  standing. 

The  Creed.     1549   (but  not  printed).     Sar.   Brev.   Compline. 
The  Rubric  before  the  Versicles. 

1549.      Then  the  suffrages  before  assigned  at  Matins,  the 

Clerks  kneeling  likewise. 
1552.     Then  shall   follow  .  .   .  other  Prayers  as  is  before 

appointed  at  Morning  Prayer  after  Benedictus. 
1662.     And  after  that,  these  Prayers  following,  all  devoutly 
kneeling  ;  the  Minister  first  pronouncing  with  a  loud  voice. 
Mutual  Salutation. 

The  Versicles  before  the   Lord's  Prayer.    1549.     Sar.  Brev. 
Vespers  and  Compline.- 
The  Lord's  Prayer.    1549. 

The  Versicles  and  Responses  after  the  Lord's  Prayer.    1549. 
These  '  Versicles  '    are  called  '  Suffrages  '  in   1549. 
Rubric  before  the  Three  Collects. 

1549.  With  three  Collects.  First  of  the  Day ;  second 
of  Peace ;  third  for  Aid  against  all  Perils,  as  here 
followeth  :  which  two  last  Collects  shall  be  daily  said 
at  Evensong  without  alteration. 

1552.  And  with  three  Collects  ;  first  of  the  Day  ;  the  second 
of  Peace  ;  the  third  for  Aid  against  all  Perils,  as  here 
after  followeth  :  which  two  last  Collects  shall  be  daily 
said  at  Evening  Prayer  without  alteration  (included  in 
rubric  before  the  Creed). 

1662.  Then  shall  follow  three  Collects ;  the  first  of  the 
Day,  etc. 


THE    BLESSING  ial 

Collect  for  Peace.     1549.     Sac.  Gel. ;  Sar.  Brev.,  Vespers. 

Collect  for  Aid  against  all  Perils.  1549.  Sac.  Gel. ;  Sac.  Greg. ; 
Sar.  Brev.  Compline. 

Its  language  echoes  noticeably  that  of  the  Psalms.  '  Thou 
shalt  light  my  candle,  the  Lord  my  God  shall  make  my  darkness 
to  be  light.  Yea  the  darkness  is  no  darkness  but  the  night  is  as 
clear  as  the  day  :  the  darkness  and  light  to  Thee  are  both  alike. 
He  will  not  suffer  thy  foot  to  be  moved  :  and  He  that  keepeth 
thee  will  not  sleep.  Behold  He  that  keepeth  Israel  shall  neither 
slumber  nor  sleep '  (Ps.  xviii.  28 ;  cxxxix.  11  ;  cxxi.  3,  4. 
Prayer  Book  Version). 

In  the  first  American  Prayer  Book  the  Collect  reads  thus  : 
'  0  Lord,  our  heavenly  Father,  by  whose  Almighty  Power  we 
have  been  preserved  this  day ;  by  Thy  great  mercy  defend  us 
from  all  perils,'  etc.,  but  in  the  revision  of  1886  the  English 
form  was  adopted. 

In  the  American  Book  there  is  a  Rubric  to  the  Collect  to  the 
following  effect : '  The  Minister  may  here  end  the  Evening  Prayer 
with  such  Prayer  or  Prayers,  taken  out  of  this  Book,  as  he  shall 
think  fit.' 

The  Closing  Rubric. 

In  the  1549  B.C.P.  after  the  Third  Collect  there  was  the 
following  rubric  :  '  In  the  feasts  of  Christmas,  the  Epiphany, 
Easter,  the  Ascension,  Pentecost,  and  upon  Trinity  Sunday, 
shall  be  sung  or  said  immediately  after  Benedictus  this  Confession 
of  our  Christian  Faith.'  *  In  the  B.C.P.  of  1552,  1559,  and 
1604  the  rubric  directed  that  it  should  also  be  sung  or  said  on 
the  Festivals  of  Saint  John  the  Baptist  and  some  of  the  Apostles. 

The  Court  Prayers,  the  Prayer  for  the  Clergy  and  People,  the 
Prayer  of  St.  Chrysostom,  and  the  Blessing,  were  all  inserted  in 
1662  as  a  result  of  the  Savoy  Conference. 

The  Benediction  in  the  Eastern  Vespers  was  thus  worded  : 
'  And  may  the  blessing  of  the  Lord  come  upon  us  through  His 
grace  and  lovingkindness  continually,  now,  always  and  for  ever 
and  ever.  Amen.' 

1549.     Thus   endeth   the   Order   of    Matins  and   Evensong, 

through  the  whole  Year. 
1552.     '  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer  '    were  substituted  for 

'Matins  and  Evensong/ 

1662.     Here  endeth  the  Order  of  Evening  Prayer  throughout 
the  Year. 

*  This  was  the  Athanasian  Creed  which  was  printed  in  1549  at  the  end  of 
the  Evening  Service,  i.e.  immediately  after  the  Third  Collect.  See  notes 
on  'Athanasian  Creed,'  pp.  122  ff. 


THE  ATHANASIAN  CREED 

The  Heading.    At  Morning  Prayer.     1662. 

The  Name  of  the  Creed.  This  is  not  given  in  the  heading,  but 
in  the  opening  rubric  it  is  spoken  of  as  '  This  Confession  of  our 
Christian  Faith,  commonly  called  the  Creed  of  Saint  Athanasius' 
1662. 

The  title  in  the  Utrecht  Psalter  was  '  Hymnus  Athanasii  de 
fide  Trinitatis ' ;  in  many  ancient  Psalters,  '  Fides  Catholica 
sancti  Athanasii ' ;  in  Sar.  Brev.  '  Symbolum  Athanasii.' 

The  Creed  is  called  that  of  St.  Athanasius  (Bishop  of  Alexan 
dria,  326-373),  because  it  contains  the  great  doctrine  of  the 
Trinity  in  Unity  and  the  Unity  in  Trinity,  for  which  he  contended 
against  the  Arians. 

The  Rubric. 

1549.  In  the  feasts  of  Christmas,  the  Epiphany,  Easter,  the 
Ascension,  Pentecost,  and  upon  Trinity  Sunday,  shall  be 
sung  or  said  immediately  after  Benedictus,  this  Confession 
of  our  Christian  Faith. 

1552.  In  the  feasts  of  Christmas,  the  Epiphany,  Saint  Mat 
thias,  Easter,  the  Ascension,  Pentecost,  Saint  John 
Baptist,  Saint  James,  Saint  Bartholomew,  Saint  Mat 
thew,  Saint  Simon  and  Jude,  Saint  Andrew,  and  Trinity 
Sunday,  shall  be  sung  or  said,  immediately  after  Bene 
dictus,  this  Confession  of  our  Christian  Faith. 

1559.  '  Saint '  was  printed  '  S  '  (according  to  Keeling). 

1604.     '  Saint '  was  restored  for  '  S.' 

These  rubrics  and  the  Creed  itself  in  the  above 
Editions  stood  at  the  end  of  The  Order  for  Evening 
Prayer. 

1662.  Upon  these  Feasts;  Christmas  Day,  etc.  .  .  shall 
be  sung  or  said  at  Morning  Prayer,  instead  of  the 
Apostles'  Creed,  this  Confession  of  our  Christian  Faith, 
commonly  called  the  Creed  of  Saint  Athanasius,  by 
the  Minister  and  people  standing. 
The  seven  additional  days,  added  in  1552  to  the  six  great 

Festivals  named  in  1549  for  its  use,  were,  as  will  be  seen  by  the 

122 


THE  ATHANASIAN   CREED  1*3 

table  below,  apparently  in  order  to  secure  the  Creed  being  said 
about  once  a  month. 


The  Six  Great  Festivals. 

1.  Christmas  Day  (Dec.  25). 

2.  The  Epiphany  (Jan.  6). 

3.  Easter     Day     (March     22 

April  25). 

4.  Ascension   Day   (April   30- 

June  3). 

5.  Whit-Sunday  (May  10-June 

13). 

6.  Trinity   Sunday    (May    17- 

June  20). 


The  Seven  other  Holy  Days. 
1    St.  Matthias  (Feb.  24). 
1.  St.  John  the  Baptist  (June 
24). 

3.  St.  James  (July  25). 

4.  St.  Bartholomew  (Aug.  24). 

5.  St.  Matthew  (Sept.  21). 

6.  St.    Simon    and    St.    Jude 

(Oct.  28). 

7.  St.  Andrew  (Nov.  30). 


Quicunque  Vult  was  inserted  1549,  omitted  1552  and  1559, 
and  re-inserted  1604. 

1.  THE  SPECIAL  CHARACTER  OF  THE  CREED. 

The  Creed  not  only  affirms  and  defines  the  doctrine  of  the 
Trinity  and  the  union  of  the  Divine  and  human  natures  in  our 
blessed  Lord,  but  also  contradicts  and  excludes  certain  heretical 
opinions  of  the  time  when  it  was  composed. 

'  Every  proposition  is  a  record  of  some  battle-field,  on  which 
the  faith  has  been  assaulted,  but  finally  is  maintained,  ascer 
tained,  and  cleared  '  (Samuel  Wilberforce).  '  Not  a  phrase  that 
is  used,'  writes  Dean  Armitage  Robinson,  '  is  new  :  each  phrase 
has  been  tested  in  the  long  fight,  and  has  been  found  needful  to 
protect  some  portion  of  the  truth.  Almost  every  section  is  the 
tombstone  of  a  buried  error.'  * 

2.  HISTORICAL  NOTES. 

o.  420-450.  Compiled  in  Southern   Gaul,   author  unknown. 
c.  670.         First   mentioned   in   connection   with   the   Gallican 

Church  in  a  Canon  of  the  Council  of  Autun. 
772.  Presented  to   the    Pope   by  Charlemagne  and   the 

Lombards. 

c.  900.          Introduced  into  England. 

c.  930.          Admitted  into  the  Offices  of  the  Church  of  Rome. 
c.  1085.         Ordered  in  Sar.  Brev.  to  be  said  daily  at  Prime. 
1539.        Translated  into  English  in  Bishop  Hilsey's  Primer. 

*  '  Some  Thoughts  on  the  Athanasian  Creed,'  p.  23.  See  also  pp.  46. 
47,  61,  62. 


I24  THE  ATHANASIAN   CREED 

3.  APPARENT  QUOTATIONS  FROM  THE  CREED.* 

798.  By  Denebert,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  in  a  Confession  of 

Faith  presented  to  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury. 

633.  By  the  Fathers  assembled  at  the  fourth  Council  of 

Toledo. 

502-542.     By  Caesarius,  Bishop  of  Aries. 

490-518.     By  Avitus,  Bishop  of  Vienne. 

450.  By  Vincentius  of  Lerins. 

4.  ITS  AUTHORSHIP. 

It  was  at  an  early  period  regarded  as  the  work  of  Athanasius, 
and  this  traditional  authorship  remained  practically  unquestioned 
until  the  seventeenth  century. 

The  Ten  Articles  (1536)  stated  it  was  '  made  by  Athanasius.' 
Richard  Hooker  follows  Baronius  in  ascribing  it  to  Athanasius, 
and  there  is  no  indication  of  doubt  in  formularies  until  1662.  A 
Dutch  theologian  named  Gerard  Voss  in  his  work  on  the  Three 
Creeds  (De  tribus  Symbolis),  1642,  forcibly  and  successfully 
attacked  the  received  opinion. 

The  arguments  against  the  Athanasian  authorship  are  as 
follows  f  : — 

(1)  It  rarely  occurs  in  any  MS.  of  Athanasius,  and  never 

with  his  name  affixed. 

(2)  It   is  not  referred    to   by   Gregory   Nazianzen,   Basil, 

Chrysostom,  or  any  other  early  Fathers. 

(3)  It  is  not  cited  (as  it  would  have  been  if  it  had  been 

acknowledged  to  be  the  work  of  St.  Athanasius)  during 
the  important  controversy  respecting  the  Procession  of 
the  Holy  Spirit,  in  the  eighth  century. 

(4)  It  is  seldom  mentioned  up  to  1000  A.D. 

(5)  It  is  now  admitted  to  be  originally  a  Latin  composition. 

(6)  It  is  largely  dependent  on  the  works  of  Augustine,  who 

wrote  a  century  later  than  Athanasius. 

(7)  It  definitely  condemns  Apollinarianism,  which  did  not 

become  a  serious  danger  till  the  last  years  of  Athanasius' 
life,  and  was  not  formally  condemned  till  after  his 
death  (see  Bishop  Gibson,  '  The  Three  Creeds,'  pp. 
183-184). 

N.B. — The  first  four  arguments  were  those  used  by  Voss. 
The   following  have   been   suggested,  but   upon  inconclusive 
grounds,  as  possible  authors  of  the  Creed  :    Hilary,  Bishop  of 
Aries  (c.  430) ;  Csesarius,  Bishop  of  Aries  (470-542) ;  Vincentius  of 

*  See  Bishop  Gibson,  '  The  Three  Creeds,'  p.  191. 
t  '  Critical  History  of  the  Athanasian  Creed,'  1723   (revised  edition  by 
J.  R.  King,  1870). 


THE   ATHANASIAN   CREED  125 

Lerins  (450) ;  Honoratus,  Bishop  of  Aries  (d.  429).  Some  have 
thought  it  may  have  been  gradually  developed  by  various  hands 
into  its  present  form. 

5.  ITS  DATE. 

Waterland  *  tries  to  fix  its  date  as  follows  : — 

(1)  It  could  not  be  earlier  than  420,  for — 

(a)  It   combats   so   fully  the  Arian   and   Apollinarian 

heresies. 
(6)  It  depends  so  largely  on  the  work  of  St.  Augustine 

on  the  Trinity  (416). 

(2)  It  could  not  well  be  later  than  430,  for — 

It  is  wanting  in  those  critical  terms  which  were  used 
against  the  heresies  of    Nestorius  and    Eutyches, 
condemned  at   the  General   Councils   of   Ephesus 
(431)  and  Chalcedon  (451). 
Therefore  its  date  must  be  between  420  and  430.  f 

6.  ITS  USE  IN  THE  SERVICES  OF  THE  CHURCH. 

There  is  a  very  great  difference  of  opinion  about  this.  Against 
its  recital  it  has  been  urged  that  J  : — 

(1)  It  is  in  a  high  degree  ill-suited  for  use  in  the  large  and 

miscellaneous  gatherings  that  crowd  our  Churches  at 
the  great  festivals. 

(2)  It  cannot  in  its  present  form  be  otherwise  than  mis 

leading. 

(3)  It  is  a  constant  source  of  irritation  and  misunderstand 

ing. 

(4)  It  is  a  composition  in  the  form  of  a  hymn. 

(5)  Its  statements  go  beyond  the  teaching  of  Scripture. 
The  following  several  suggestions  §  have  been  offered  : — 

(1)  To  make  the  use  optional  instead  of  compulsory,  by 
inserting  '  may '  in  the  place  of  '  shall '  in  the  rubric. 

*  See  Bishop  Gibson,  '  The  Three  Creeds,'  pp.  181-189. 

f  The  arguments  in  support  of  this  conclusion  are  clearly  set  out  in 
Harold  Browne's  '  Exposition  of  the  Articles,'  pp.  221-224. 

J  See  Ffoulkes,  '  The  Athanasian  Creed  ;  by  whom  written  and  by  whom 
published,'  1872  ;  Heurtley,  '  The  Athanasian  Creed,'  1872,  and  '  A  History 
of  the  Earlier  Formularies  of  Faith,'  1892  ;  Lumby,  '  History  of  the  Creeds,' 
1873  ;  Swainson,  '  The  Nicene  and  Apostles'  Creeds  :  their  Literary  His 
tory,  together  with  an  Account  of  the  Growth  and  Reception  of  the  Sermon 
on  the  Faith  commonly  called  the  Creed  of  St.  Athanasius,'  1875  ;  Omman- 
ney,  '  A  Critical  Dissertation  on  the  Athanasian  Creed,'  1897  ;  A.  E.  Lurn, 
'  An  Introduction  to  the  Creeps  and  to  the  Te  Deum,'  1899. 

§  Gibson  deals  with  these  suggestions  in  his  work  on  '  The  Three  Crecda,' 
1908,  pp.  252-258, 


126  THE  ATHANASIAN   CREED 

(2)  To  remove  the  minatory  clauses. 

(3)  To  delete  the  rubric,  as  has  been  done  by  the  Church  of 

Ireland,  so  that  the  Creed,  while  remaining  in  the  Prayer 
Book,  should  be  no  longer  used  in  public  worship. 

(4)  To    provide  a  synodical  declaration,  or  rubrical  note, 

and  a  new  translation. 

(5)  To  print  the  Creed  in  its  present  form,  together  with  a 

new  translation,  at  the  end  of  the  Prayer  Book,  as  an 
appendix. 

The  reasons  for  its  retention  in  its  present  position  are  thus 
stated  by  Waterland  :  '  So  long  as  there  shall  be  any  men  left 
to  oppose  the  doctrine  which  this  Creed  contains,  so  long  will  it 
be  expedient,  and  even  necessary,  to  continue  to  use  it,  in  order 
to  preserve  the  rest  :  and,  I  suppose,  when  we  have  none  remain 
ing  to  find  fault  with  the  doctrines,  there  will  be  none  to  object 
against  the  use  of  the  Creed,  or  so  much  as  wish  to  have  it  laid 
aside.' 

It  is  omitted  altogether  in  the  American  Prayer  Book.* 

It  occupies  no  authoritative  position  in  the  Greek  Church,  f 
In  the  Greek  versions  the  filioque  phrase  (v.  23)  is  of  course  want 
ing.  Since  the  last  quarter  of  the  eighteenth  century  it  has  been 
accorded  a  place  in  the  Horologion,  or  Service  Book  of  the  Greek 
Church. 

In  the  Roman  Church  it  is  used  at  Prime,  a  service  whan  few 
of  the  laity  are  present. 

7.  INTRODUCTORY  SUMMARY. 

1.  The  Godhead,  the  Divinity,  the  Essential  Being  of  God,  that 

which  makes  God  to  be  God,  is  technically  called  Sub 
stance.]; 

2.  In    order  to   describe  the  individuality  of  the  Father,  the 

Son  and  the    Holy   Spirit,  the  technical  term  Person  §  is 
used. 

3.  God   the  Father  begat  the  Son  from  all  eternity,  and  He  has 

the  same  substance  with  the  Father. 

*  For  the  discussion  as  to  its  retention  for  public  use  in  the  Church  of 
England,  see  Stanley,  '  The  Athanasian  Creed,'  1871  (adverse) ;  Brewer, 
'Origin  of  the  Athanasian  Creed,'  1872  (defensive);  Oxenham,  'The 
Athanasian  Creed:  should  it  be  recited?'  1902;  J.  Armitage  Robinson, 
'  Thoughts  on  the  Athanasian  Creed,'  1905. 

|  See  Gibson,  '  The  Three  Creeds,'   1909,  p.  205. 

j  '  Substance  '  ('sub  stare ')  is  that  which  is  supposed  to  stand  under  or 
support  attributes. 

§  The  '  Persons '  of  the  Trinity  cannot  be  contemplated  as  existing  and 
working  in  isolation.  In  all  their  acts  all  the  Persops  of  the  Trinity  co 
operate. 


THE  ATHANASIAN   CREED  127 

The  Arians  taught  that  the  Son  was  of  a  like  but 
not  identical  substance. 

The  Adoptionists  taught  a  Sonship  merely  by  adop 
tion. 

4.  From  God  the  Father  and  God  the  Son  eternally  proceeded  the 

Holy  Ghost,  and  He  has  the  same  substance  with  the  Father 
and  the  Son.  He  is  not,  as  the  Macedonians  taught,  a 
creature. 

The  words  '  begat,'  '  proceeding,'  are  scriptural  terms, 
used  as  those  best  able  to  suggest  Divine  relationships 
which  are  beyond  human  language  to  express,  and  the 
human  mind  to  grasp. 

5.  Thus  there  is  a  Trinity  in  Unity  and  a  Unity  in  Trinity. 

6.  In  regard  to  the  Incarnation  of  our  Lord,  the  following  points 

need  to  be  firmly  held  : — 

(1)  Our  Lord  had  a  real  human  body. 

His  body  was  not,  as  the  Docetse  taught,  only  a 
seeming  body,  or  a  phantom. 

(2)  In  our  Lord  there  is  one  Person,  two  Natures. 

He  is  not,  as  Nestorianism  taught,  two  distinct  per 
sons.  He  has  two  natures,  not  one  nature,  as  the 
Monophysites  affirmed  ;  nor  are  the  two  natures  fused, 
as  the  Eutychians  contended. 

(3)  The  human  nature  of  Christ  was  complete.     He  had  a  reason 
able  or  rational  soul,  and  a  human  will. 

The  Divine  nature  of  our  Lord  did  not  supply  or 
interfere  with  His  rational  soul,  as  the  Apollinarians 
contended  ;  nor  did  it  take  the  place  of  His  human  will, 
according  to  the  teaching  of  the  Monothelites. 

8.  ANALYSIS. 

[.    Exposition  of  the  Doctrine  of  the  Trinity  (w.  1-28). 
1.  Necessity  of  holding  fast  the  Catholic  Faith  in  its  Integrity      vers. 

and  Purity  . .        1,2 

2  Definition  of  the  Catholic  Faith,  concerning  the  Unity  in 

Trinity  and  the  Trinity  in  Unity          . .          . .          . .        3,  4 

3.  Enumeration  of  the  Divine  Attributes  possessed  alike  by 

each  Person  of  the  Trinity          , .          . .          . .          . .       6-20 

4.  Declaration  of  the  Relations  existing  between  the  Divine 

Persons,  viz. — 

The  Father  is  made  of  none ; 

The  Son  is  of  the  Father  alone  .  .  .  begotten  ; 

The  Holy  Ghost  is  of  the  Father  and  the  Son  .  .  . 
proceeding  . .         . .         . .         . .  •  •     21-23 

6.  Summary  of  above  Statements. 

The  Three  Persons  in  the  Trinity  are  co-eternal  and 
co-equal        ..          ..     24-28 


1*8  THE   ATHANASIAN   CREED 

vers. 

IT.     Exposition  of  the  Doctrine  of  the  Incarnation  (w.  29-     41) 

1.  Necessity  of  a  Firm  Faith  in  this  Doctrine          ..         ..        29 

2.  Statements  respecting  the  Reality  of  our  Lord's  Human 

and  Divine  Natures,  viz. — 

The  union  of  the  two  natures  and  their  distinctness 

when  so  united        30-36 

N.B. — Verses  30-33  state  the  perfection  of  the  two 
natures  in  One  Person,  and  vv.  34-36  guard 
against  misunderstandings. 

3.  Description  of  the  Work  of  the  Incarnate  Christ  37-41 


Final  Re-affirmation  of  the  Necessity   of  Believing 

the  Catholic  Faith 42 

9.  EXPOSITION.* 

I.  THE  DOCTRINE  OP  THE  TRINITY. 

1.     The  Necessity  of  holding  fast  the  Catholic  Faith  in  its 
Integrity  and  Purity  (vv.  1,  2). 

1.  Whosoever  f  will  be  saved  [would  be  saved],  i.e.  desireth  to  be 

saved  ('  Quicunque  vult  salvus  esse  ' )  :  before  all  things, 
i.e.  first  in  importance,  it  is  f  necessary  [needful]  that  he 
hold  [fast]  ('  teneat ')  the  Catholic  Faith,  i.e.  the  faith  held 
by  the  whole  Church  (Acts  xvi.  30,  31  ;  Heb.  xi.  6)  as 
distinguished  from  that  held  by  heretical  communities. 
'Would  be  saved;'  marg.  'desireth  to  be  saved.' 

2.  Which  Faith   except  f  every  one  [a   man]  ('  quisque'),  i.e.  one 

who  has  been  duly  instructed  in  the  truth  |  do  keep  [have 
kept]  whole  and  unde  filed  ('  integram  inviolatamque  ser- 
vaverit'),  i.e.  in  both  its  integrity  and  purity,  without 
omission  or  corruption  :  without  doubt  he  f  shall  [will] 
perish  everlastingly  (eternally)  ('in  aeternum  peri  bit'). 
'  Undented ; '  marg.  '  uncorrupted.' 

The  Creed  can  only  be  duly  appreciated  when  it  is  regarded 
ae  '  the  warning  of  a  loving  mother  for  her  children  '  during  the 
stress  of  Arian  persecutions  that  severely  tried  the  faith  of  many. 
'  The  Quicunque '  has  well  been  termed  by  Bishop  Dowden 
'  The  mysterious  cry,  the  chant,  the  inspiring  battle-song  of  the 
faith,  or  the  hymn  of  constancy ' ;  and  by  Dean  Armitage  Eobin- 

*  The  renderings  in  square  brackets  [  ]  are  those  of  the  Committee 
appointed  by  the  Archbishop  to  make  a  new  translation  of  the  Athanasian 
Creed  in  pursuance  of  the  29th  Resolution  of  the  Lambeth  Conference,  1908. 
These  alternative  renderings  in  the  margin  are  given  in  small  type  imme 
diately  after  the  verses.  The  sign  f  immediately  precedes  the  original 
words  which  have  been  differently  translated.  The  marginal  alternative 
renderings  of  the  Committee  are  given  in  small  type  after  each  verse. 


THE  ATHANASIAN   CREED  129 

eon  '  The  great  hymn  of  the  Catholic  Faith.'  The  Formal 
Declaration  by  the  Convocation  of  Canterbury,  1879,  runs, 
'  Whereupon  the  warnings  in  this  Confession  of  Faith  are  to  be 
understood  not  otherwise  than  the  like  warnings  of  Holy  Scrip 
ture  ;  for  we  must  receive  God's  threatenings  even  as  His  pro 
mises,  in  such  wise  as  they  are  generally  set  forth  in  Holy  Writ. 
Moreover,  the  Church  doth  not  herein  pronounce  judgment  on 
any  particular  person  or  persons,  God  alone  being  the  Judge  of 
all.'  Bishop  Gibson  remarks,  '  The  monitory  clauses  are  simple 
warnings,  not  of  what  we  wish  to  happen  to  any  one,  but  of  what, 
if  God's  Word  be  true,  will  happen  to  those  who  reject  or  let  go 
the  faith '  ('  The  Three  Creeds,'  p.  243).* 

2.     Definition  of  the  Catholic   Faith,   concerning  the    Unity   in 
Trinity  and  the  Trinity  in  Unity  (vv.  3,  4). 

3.  And  [now]  ('  autem  ')  the  Catholic  Faith  is  this  :   That  (not  only 

we  believe  but)  we  worship  ('  veneremur  ')  one  God  j  in  [as 
a]  Trinity,  and  Trinity  f  in  [as  an]  Unity  ('  unum  Deum  in 
Trinitate,  et  Trinitatem  in  Unitate  ' )  ; 

'  The  word  "  worship "  marks  the  attitude  of  the 
Church  towards  the  deep  mystery  of  the  Faith.  It 
seems  to  say  at  the  outset  :  We  cannot  wholly  under 
stand  these  things,  for  they  are  in  their  nature  higher 
than  the  sphere  in  which  we  live  and  think  as  mortal 
men.  We  must  look  up  to  them  :  our  true  attitude  is 
the  upraised  face  of  adoring  wonder.'  J 

4.  Neither  confounding  [confusing]  by  destroying  the  identity  of 

the  Persons  (as  Sabellius,  who  considered  the  Three  Persons 
to  be  only  three  different  aspects  or  manifestations  of  one 
God,  namely,  Creator,  Redeemer,  Inspirer)  :  nor  dividing 
(' separantes ')  the  Substance  (i.e.  essential  nature  of  the 
Godhead)  (as  Arius,  who  denied  that  the  Substance  of  the 
Son  and  of  the  Holy  Ghost  was  the  same  with  the  Sub 
stance  of  the  Father  ;  cf.  John  xiv.  9-11  ;  xvii.  11  ;  Rom. 
viii.  9-11). 

'The  substance'  ('sub  stare')  etymologically  the 
equivalent  of  the  Greek  word  vTroo-raVt?,  hypostasis, 
which  theologically,  however,  was  used  sometimes  in 
the  sense  not  of  '  substance  '  but  of  '  person  '.  The  Greek 
word  generally  used  for  substance  was  ova-ia,  ousia. 

*  Cf.  J.  Armitage  Robinson, '  Some  Thoughts  on  the  Athanasian  Creed, 
pp.  43,  44. 
•   J  J.  Armitage  Robinson,  Ibid.,  p.  29. 

£ 


130  THE   ATHANASIAN   CREED 

3.     Enumeration  of  the  Divine  Attributes  possessed  alike  "by 
each  Person  of  the  Trinity  (vv.  5-20). 

5.  For  ('  enim '),  by  way  of  elucidation,  there  is  f  one  [a]  Person 

('  alia  persona  ')  of  the  Father,    another   of    the    Son  :    and 

another  of  the  Holy  Ghost  (cf.  Matt.  iii.  16,  17  ;  John  xv.  26). 

This  verse  is  directed  against  the  Sabellians,  who  in 

their  anxiety  to  preserve  the  unity  of  the  Godhead,  fell 

into  the  error  of  denying  such  distinctions  within  the 

Godhead  as  are  necessary  to  make  the  Incarnation  and 

Atonement   possible.     Hence   they  were  called   Patri- 

passians  by  the  orthodox,  as  implying  that  God  the 

Father  suffered  on  the  Cross. 

6.  But  the  Godhead  of  the  Father,  of  [omit  '  of  ']  the  Son,  and  of  [omit 

'  of  ']  the  Holy  Ghost,  is  all  [omit  '  all ']  one  (simply  '  una  ') 

(John  i.  1  ;    x.  30)  :  |  the  [their]  Glory  equal  (John  i.  14  ; 

xvii.  5),  the  [their]  Majesty  co-eternal  (cf.  John  xvii.  5  ;  Heb. 

i.  3,  K.V.). 

This  verse  is  directed  against  the  Arians,  who,  though 
they  called  Jesus  the  Son  of  God,  yet  used  the  words  in 
an  inferior  sense,  since  they  denied  that  He  was  of  the 
same  eternal  and  equal  Substance  with  the  Father. 

7.  Such  as  the  Father  is,  such  is  the  Son  :   and  such  is  the  Holy  Ghost. 

Verses  7-18  enforce  the  statements  just  made  (vv. 
3-6),  by  emphasizing  the  truth  that  while  each  of  the 
Divine  Persons  possesses  the  Divine  properties  and 
attributes,  each  being  uncreated,  infinite,  eternal, 
almighty,  God  and  Lord,  yet  we  are  not  to  think  of 
the  Persons  of  the  Holy  Trinity  as  being  so  separate 
one  from  another  as  to  be  three  uncreated  infinites, 
eternals,  almighties,  or  as  being  three  Gods  or  three 
Lords  (Gibson,  'The  Three  Creeds,'  1909,  pp.  212, 
213). 

8.  The  Father  f  uncreate  [uncreated]  (cf.  Ps.  xc.  2  ;  Isa.  xl.  13,  14  ; 

xliii.  10  ;  John  i.  1-3),  the  Son  f  uncreate  [uncreated]  :  and 
the  Holy  Ghost  f  uncreate  [uncreated]. 

9.  The  Father  f  incomprehensible  [infinite]  (' immensus '),  the  Son  j 

incomprehensible  [infinite]  :  and  the  Holy  Ghost  f  incomprehen 
sible  [infinite]  (cf.  Job  xi.  7-9  ;  Ps.  cxxxix.  7  ;  1  Cor.  ii. 
16). 

'  Incomprehensible  '  does  not  mean  here  '  not  to  be 
comprehended.'  This  word  '  incomprehensible  '  in  olden 
days  possessed  a  different  meaning  from  that  which  it 
now  conveys.  As  used  in  this  verse  it  signifies  '  infinite,' 
'  illimitable.'  The  Latin  word  in  the  Creed  is  '  immen- 


THE   ATHANASIAN    CREED  131 

sus.'  *  Bishop  Dowden,  however,  considers  that  the 
word  '  incomprehensible '  is  used  to  represent  not 
'  immensus,' '  infinite,'  but  d/caraX^TTTo?  ('  ineomprehensi- 
bilis '),'  not  to  be  thoroughly  understood  by  the  intellect ; ' 
and  that  a  Greek  text  was  used  for  our  version.  '  The 
word  "  immensus,"  '  writes  Dean  Armitage  Robinson, 
'  conveys  the  idea  that  the  Divine  nature  cannot  be 
measured  by  any  measure  that  we  can  apply  to  it,  and 
cannot  be  grasped  in  its  completeness  by  our  human 
faculties.'  f 

10.  The  Father  eternal,  the  Son  eternal  :    and  [om.  '  and  ']  the  Holy 

Ghost  eternal  (cf.  Ps.  xc.  2  ;  Isa.  Ixiii.  16  ;  Heb.  i.  8  ; 
Rev.  xxii.  13). 

11.  And  yet  they  are  not  three  eternals  :   but  one  eternal. 

12.  As  also  there  are  f  not  three  incomprehensibles,  nor  three  uncreated  : 

but  one  .uncreated,  and  one  incomprehensible  [not  three  un 
created,  nor  three  infinites  :  but  one  infinite,  and  one 
uncreated]. 

13.  So  likewise  the  Father  is  Almighty,  the  Son  Almighty  :  and  the 

Holy  Ghost  Almighty  (cf.  Gen.  xvii.  1  ;  Job  xxxiii.  4  ;  Rev. 
i.  8  ;  xv.  3). 

14.  And  yet  they  are  not  three  Almighties  :   but  one  Almighty. 

15.  So  the  Father  is  God,  the  Son  is  [omit  '  is  ']  God  :  and  the  Holy 

Ghost  is  [omit  '  is  ']  God  (Acts  v.  3,  4  ;   Eph.  i.  3). 

16.  And  yet  they  are  not  three  Gods  :   but  one  God. 

17.  So  likewise  [omit  '  likewise  ']  the  Father  is  Lord,  the  Son  Lord  : 

and  [omit  '  and ']  the  Holy  Ghost  Lord  (cf .  Matt.  xi.  25  ; 
Acts  x.  36  ;  2  Cor.  iii.  17). 

18.  And  yet  [they  are]  not  three  Lords  :  but  one  Lord. 

19.  For  ('  quia  '  because)  like  as  we  are  compelled  by  the  Christian 

verity  (i.e.  by  the  truth  expressed  in  the  Holy  Scriptures) : 
to  acknowledge  [confess]  f  every  Person  [each  of  the  Persons] 
by  himself  ('  singillatim,'  singly,  severally)  to  be  [both]  God 
and  Lord  ; 

By  the  Christian  verity ; '  marg.   '  by  Christian  truth.' 
'  By  himself ; '  marg.  '  severally.' 

20.  So  are  we  forbidden  by  the  Catholic  Religion  (see  note  on  v.  1)  : 

f  to  say,  There  be  [to  speak  of]  three  Gods,  or  three  Lords. 

'  We  must  not  view  God  as  we  would  a  material  being, 
as  though  the  Godhead  could  be  divided  into  three  differ 
ent  parts,  which  three  united  together  made  up  one 
whole  ;  and  so  imagine  that  the  Father  alone  was  not 

*  Dowden,  '  Further  Studies  in  the  Prayer  Book,'  pp.  137-162  ;  specially 
p.  145. 

|  '  Some  Thoughts  on  the  Athan.osian  Creed,'  p.  69.     See  also  pp.  30-33. 


1 32  THE  ATHANASIAN   CREED 

God,  but  required  to  have  the  Son  and  Spirit  added  to 
Him  in  order  to  make  up  the  Godhead.  The  spiritual 
unity  is  far  closer,  more  intimate,  and  more  real  than 
the  unity  by  which  parts  make  up  a  whole.  Each  by 
Himself  or  considered  alone  ('  severally ' )  must  be 
confessed  to  be  God  ;  and  yet  all  make  not  up  three 
Gods,  but  are  one  in  essence,  and  therefore  but  one  God  '. 
(Bishop  Harold  Browne,  '  Exposition  of  the  Thirty- 
Nine  Articles,'  1868,  p.  226). 

Swainson  remarks  upon  this  verse  that  '  we  may 
speak  of  a  "  separate  confession  "  in  regard  to  One  or 
Other  (of  the  Persons  of  the  Trinity)  ;  but  that  it  is 
wrong  to  speak  of  One  or  Other  as  being  "  by  Himself."  : 

4.     Declaration  of  the  Relations  existing  between  the  Divine 
Persons  (vv.  21-23). 

21.  The  Father  f  is  made  [omit  '  made  ']  of  none  ('  a  nullo  '),  i.e.  He 

is    self-existent    [not  made]  :   f  neither  [nor]  created,  nor 

begotten. 

The  Father  derives  His  essence  from  none,  being 
Himself  the  Fountain  and  Source  of  being  (cf.  John  v. 
26).  He  is  the  essential  Godhead  with  the  property 
'  to  be  of  none,'  and  is  revealed  as  the  first  Person  in 
order  in  the  Holy  Trinity  (cf.  Matt,  xxviii.  19). 

22.  The   Son   is  of  the   Father  alone    (in   contradistinction  to  the 

double  Procession    of    the  Holy  Spirit  see  v.  23)  :    not 

made,  nor  created,  but  begotten  (cf.  John  v.  26  ;   Heb.  i.  5). 

The  very  same  nature  or  substance  of  God  which  the 

Father  has,  is  from  all  eternity  communicated  by  Him 

to  the  Son. 

23.  The  Holy  Ghost  is  of  the  Father  and  of  [omit  'of']  the  Son  ('a 

Patre  et  Filio  ')  (cf.  John  xiv.  26  ;  xv.  26  ;  Acts  ii.  33)  : 
f  neither  [not]  made,  nor  created,  nor  begotten,  but  proceeding 
('  procedens '). 

The  famous  filioque  clause  ('and  the  Son')  in  the 
Nicene  Creed  is  rejected  by  the  Eastern  Church,  as  an 
unauthorized  addition  to  the  statement  in  John  xv.  26. 
The  statement  in  the  Creed  implies  that  the  very  same 
substance  of  God  is  from  all  eternity  communicated  to 
the  Holy  Ghost  from  the  Father  and  the  Son.* 

5.  Summary  of  above  Statements  (vv.  24-28). 

24.  So  there  is  [thers  is  therefore]  i.e.  it  follows  from  what  has 

been  stated  about  the  properties  of  the  Godhead  (vv.  21- 

*  See  Nicene  Creed,  p.  305. 


THE  ATHANASIAN   CREED  ijj 

23)  one  Father,  not  three  Fathers  :  one  Son,  not  three  Sons  : 
one  Holy  Ghost,  not  three  Holy  Ghosts. 

25.  And  in  this  Trinity,  none  is  f  afore  [before],  or  after  other  [omit 

'  other  ']  as  to  duration  :  none  is  greater,  or  less  than  another 
[omit  '  than  another ']  as  to  degree,  power,  and  dignity 
('  Et  in  hac  Trinitate  nihil  prius  aut  posterius,  nihil  majus 
aut  minus ') ; 

Bishop  Dowden  suggests  that  our  English  of  the 
second  clause  of  this  verse  '  is  rather  a  paraphrase  of 
what  was  supposed  to  be  the  true  sense  of  a  rather 
obscure  verse,  than  an  attempt  to  translate  it.'  He 
offers  as  a  free  re-translation  the  following  :  '  And  in 
this  Trinity  there  is  nothing  afore  or  after,  nothing 
greater  or  less.'  The  idea  of  the  original  seems  to  be, 
he  writes,  '  that  in  the  conception  of  the  Trinity  there 
is  no  place  for  the  notions  of  priority,  posteriority,  or 
of  greater  or  less.'  * 

26.  But  the  whole  three  Persons  are  co-eternal  f  together  [one  with 

another]  ('  coseternse  sibi')  :  and  co-equal. 

27.  So  that  in  all  f  things  [ways],  as  is  aforesaid  (vv.  3-23)  ;   f  the 

Unity  in  Trinity,  and  the  Trinity  in  Unity  is  to  be  worshipped 
[both  the  Trinity  is  to  be  worshipped  as  an  Unity,  and 
the  Unity  as  a  Trinity]  (cf.  Rev.  vii.  9-12). 

28.  He  therefore  that  will  be  saved  [Let  him  therefore  that  would  be 

saved]  ('  qui  vult  ergo  salvus  esse  ')  f  :  must  thus  think  [think 
thus]  of  the  Trinity,  i.e.  '  as  consisting  of  three  Persons,  co- 
eternal  and  co-equal,  and  all  one  God,  distinct  enough  to 
be  three,  united  enough  to  be  one  ;  a  distinction  without 
division,  a  union  without  confusion.' 

'  That  would  be  saved ; '  marg.  '  desireth  to  be  saved.' 
'  Of  the  Trinity ; '    marg.  '  concerning  the  Trinity.' 

II.  THE  DOCTRINE  OF  THE  INCARNATION. 
1.  Necessity  of  a  Firm  Faith  in  this  Doctrine  (v.  29). 

29.  Furthermore,  it   is   necessary   to   everlasting   [eternal]   salvation  : 

that  he  also  believe  f  rightly  [faithfully]  ('  fideliter  credat ') 
(cf.  1  John  xiv.  3  ;  Rom.  x.  10)  the  Incarnation  (John  i. 
14  ;  Rom.  i.  3,  4)  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ. 

2.  Statement  respecting  the  Reality  of  our  Lord's  Human 
and  Divine  Natures  (vv.  30-36). 

30.  f  For  the  right  Faith  [The  right  Faith  therefore]  ('  est  ergo 

fides  recta  ')  is,  that  we  believe  and  confess  :  that  our  Lord 

*  Dowden.  '  Further  Studies  in  the  Prayer  Book,'  pp.  137-162  ;  specially 
161,  162 


134  THE  ATHANASIAN   CREED 

Jesus  Christ,  the  Son  of  Cod,  is  [at  once  both]  God  and  Man 

(1  John  v.  20  ;  1  Tim.  iii.  16)  ; 

In  vv.  30-33  the  heresies  that  are  principally  alluded 
to  are  the  Arian,  which  impugned  the  truth  of  our  Lord's 
Godhead  ;  and  the  Apollinarian,  which  impugned  the 
perfection  of  His  Humanity. 

31.  [He  is]  God,  of  the  Substance  of  the  Father  ('  ex  substantia  Pa- 

tris'),  not  of  a  totally  different  substance,  as  the  Arians 
contended,  nor  of  a  like  substance,  as  the  semi-Arians 
contended,  but  of  the  same  substance  with  the  Father 
(cf.  Col.  ii.  9)  begotten  before  the  worlds  ('ante  soecula') 
i.e.  before  time  was  (John  xvii.  5)  :  and  [He  is]  Man,  of 
the  substance  of  his  Mother  (cf.  Gal.  iv.  4)  and  not,  as 
Eutyches  taught,  that  the  Manhood  of  Christ  was  ab 
sorbed  into  His  Godhead,  born  in  the  world,  not,  as  the 
Docetse  taught,  a  phantom  ; 

'  Before  the  worlds ; '  marg.  '  before  all  time.' 
'In  the  world;'  marg.  'in  time.' 

32.  Perfect,  i.e.  completely,  God,  not,  as  the  Arians  taught,  that 

the  Son  had  a  beginning,  and  [omit  '  and  ']  perfect  Man  (cf. 
Heb.  iv.  15),  not,  as  such  Gnostics  as  the  Marcionites 
taught,  that  the  body  of  Jesus  was  not  really  born  of  the 
Virgin  Mary,  but  descended  from  heaven,  and  was  in 
capable  of  suffering  and  only  seemed  to  suffer  :  of  f  a 
reasonable  [reasoning],  or  rather  rational,  soul  and  human 
flesh  |  subsisting  [consisting],  viz.  possessed  of  all  the 
attributes  of  God  and  man  ;  endowed  with  a  rational  soul 
and  human  flesh  in  His  essential  nature,  not,  as  Apollinaris 
maintained,  that  the  Divine  Word  supplied  in  Him  the 
place  of  the  rational  soul ; 

'  Reasonable ; '  marg.  '  rational.' 

'  A  reasonable  soul '  is  a  soul  belonging  not  to  the  lower 
creation,  but  to  man. 

33.  Fqual  (the  Arians  said  '  inferior ')  to  the  Father,  as  touching  his 

Godhead  (John  xiv.  9,  10  ;  xvii.  11,  22) :  f  and  inferior  to 
[less  than]  the  Father,  as  touching  his  Manhood  (John  xiv. 
28  ;  Phil.  ii.  5,  7). 

34.  Who  although  he  be  God  and  Man  :    yet   he  Is  not  two,  but  [is] 

one  Christ ; 

The  Apollinarians  charged  the  orthodox  with  making 
two  Christs,  because  it  seemed  to  them  that  the  acknow 
ledgment  of  the  existence  in  the  Incarnate  Christ  of 
the  human  spirit  in  addition  to  the  Divine  Logos,  in 
volved  the  recognition  of  a  twofold  personality. 


THE  ATHANASIAN   CREED  135 

The  Nestorians,  by  their  emphatic  distinction  between 
the  Son  of  God  and  the  Son  of  Mary,  practically  taught 
that  there  were  two  Persons  in  Christ,  viz.  the  Son  of 
God  and  a  man,  into  whom  the  Son  of  Man  descended, 
and  whom  the  Son  left  before  the  Crucifixion.* 

35.  f  One  ;     not   by   conversion   [One,   however,   not   by  change] 

('  unus  autem,  non  conversione  ')  of  the  [omit '  the  ']  God 
head  into  flesh  (i.e.  the  whole  human  nature)  :  but  by  taking 
of  j"  the  [omit '  the ']  Manhood  ('  assumptio  humanitatis ')  into 
God; 

'  The  Godhead  lost  nothing  by  its  conjunction  with 
flesh  in  the  Person  of  Christ,  while  the  manhood,  though 
losing  none  of  its  essential  properties,  was  infinitely 
exalted  by  its  union  with  the  Divine  Nature  in  the  same 
one  Person  of  Christ.'  J 

36.  One  altogether   ('unus  omnino'),  i.e.   one  wholly,   entirely; 

not  by  confusion  of  Substance  (the  Eutychians  taught  that 
after  the  Incarnation  the  human  nature  of  Christ  was 
absorbed  into  the  Divine,  and  thus  then  ceased  to  have  a 
distinct  existence  ;    the  Apollinarians  had  similarly  con 
founded  the  Substance)  :   but  by  unity  of  f  Person  [person]. 
'  Nofr  by  confusion  ; '  marg.  '  One  :  not  by  any  confusion.' 
3.  Description  of  the  Work  of  the  Incarnate  Christ  (vv.  37-41). 

37.  For  ('  nam  ')  (by  way  of  analogy)  ast  the  reasonable  ['  as  reason 

ing  ']  soul  and  flesh  is  one  man  (Gen.  ii.  7)  :  so,  i.e.  just  as 
really  and  completely,  God  and  Man  is  one  Christ  (cf.  Matt. 
xvi.  13-16  ;  John  vi  69)  ; 

'Reasonable;'  marg.   'rational.' 

This  does  not  teach  that  God  and  man  are  united  in 
Christ  in  the  same  way  in  which  the  soul  and  flesh  are 
united  in  man.  God  and  man  are  two  natures,  soul 
and  flesh  are  two  parts  of  one  nature. 

38.  Who  suffered  (Isa.  liii.  4-10)  for  our  salvation  :    descended  f  intc 

hell  [to  the  world  below]  ('ad  inferos')  (i.e.  Hades,  the 
place  of   departed    spirits),  rose  again  the   third  day  [omit 
'  the  third  day ']  from  the  dead  (1  Cor.  xv.  3,  4). 
'  Into  hell ; '  marg.  '  into  Hades.' 

'  In  the  text  of  w.  38  and  39  two  phrases  have  been 
interpolated  to  make  the  passage  correspond  more 
closely  with  the  text  of  the  Apostles'  Creed.  In  v.  38 
the  words  "  the  third  day  "  should  certainly  be  omitted, 
and  similarly  in  v.  39  the  words  "  God  Almighty."  '  § 

•  GibBon,  '  The  Three  Creeds,'  pp.  221,  222. 
J  Ibid.,  p.  223.  §  Ibid.,  p.  225. 


136  THE  ATHANASIAN   CREED 

39.  He  [omit  '  He  ']  ascended  into  heaven,  hef  [omit '  he ']  sitteth  [sat 

down]  at  the  right  hand  of  the  Father,  God  Almighty  [omit 
'  God  Almighty ']  (Luke  antiv.  51  ;  1  Pet.  iii.  21,  22) : 
f  from  whence  He  shall  come  [to  conic  from  thence]  to  judge 
(2  Thess.  i.  7-10  ;  2  Tim.  iv.  1)  the  quick  and  the  dead. 

40.  At  whose  coming  all  men  shall  rise  again  ('  resurgere  habent/  * 

have  to  rise  again)  with  their  bodies  :  and  shall  give  account  f 
for  their  own  works  [for  their  own  deeds]  (cf.  Isa.  xxvi.  19  ; 
2  Cor.  v.  10). 

'  Shall  rise  again/  alternative  rendering  in  the  margin,  is  '  must 
rise  again.' 

41.  And  they  that  have  done  good  shall  [will]  go  into  life  f  everlasting 

[eternal]  ('seternam')  (Dan.  xii.  2):  and  they  that  have 
done  evil  into  f  everlasting  [eternal]  Ore  (Matt.  xxv.  45,  46  ; 
Heb.  x.  26-31). 

Observe   this   emphatic   assertion   that  the   rule  of 

judgment   on  the  last  day  will  be  in  accordance  with 

men's  works.     The  statement  stands  in  striking  contrast 

to  the  following  concluding  statement. 

Verses  1  and  2  are  admonitory,  v.  41  is  declaratory. 

Final   Re-affirmation   of  the  Necessity  of  Believing  the  Catholic 
Faith   (v.  42). 

42.  This  is  the  Catholic  Faith,  i.e.  the  faith  of  the  whole  Church  : 

which  except  a  man  f  believe  faithfully  [have  faithfully  and 

steadfastly  believed]  ('  Qtiam  nisi  quisque  fideliter  firmiter- 

que  crediderit ' ),  ho  eannot  be  saved  ('  salvus  esse  non  poterit ' ). 

'  Believe,'  i.e.   accept  as  an  article  of  faith,    as   a 

Divine    revelation    of   a   fact    beyond    the    scope   of 

human  reason  :   but  not  contrary  to  it. 

'  And  steadfastly.'  The  Latin  '  firmiterque  '  is  not 
translated  in  the  Prayer  Book  version.  The  translators 
appear  to  have  followed  here  a  Greek  copy  of  the  Creed, 
where  the  same  omission  occurs. 

Gloria  Patri  (w.  43,  44). 

43.  Glory  be  to  the  Father,  and  to  the  Son  :  and  to  the  Holy  Ghost  ; 

44.  As  it  was  in  the  beginning,  is  now,  and  ever  shall  be  :  world  without 

end.     Amen. 

The  addition  of  the  Gloria  forms  a  fitting  ending  to 
this  striking  declaration  of  the  Church's  Faith.  It 
was  added  about  the  eighth  century,  when  the 
Athanasian  Creed  began  to  be  used  in  the  West  as  a 
Canticle  at  the  Hour  Services. 

*  Note  the  curious  phrase,  '  resurgere  habent '   ('  are  to  rise,'   '  must 
rise  ')  instead  of  the  future  tense. 


THE  LITANY 

1.  AN  HISTORICAL  REVIEW  OF  PRE-REFORMATION 
LITANIES. 

THE  first  trace  of  the  use  of  the  word  '  Litany  '  occurs  in  '  The 
Life  of  Constantine,'  by  Eusebius  (339),  who  states  that  the 
Emperor '  a  little  before  his  death,  spent  some  time  in  the  house 
of  prayer,  making  supplications  and  Litanies  to  God.'  * 

The  word  seems  to  have  acquired  a  liturgical  sense  about  the 
end  of  the  fourth  century.  St.  Basil  the  Great  (379),  for  instance, 
used  it  as  a  term  for  Penitential  Services.f  The  chanting  of 
penitential  prayers  (Litanies)  in  Church  processions  was  probably 
inaugurated  about  398  by  St.  Chrysostom  in  Constantinople,  as 
a  counter  attraction  to  Arian  processions.  In  these  processions 
silver  crosses,  which  had  been  furnished  by  the  Empress  Eudocia, 
were  used. 

During  the  fifth  century  the  custom  of  reciting  or  chanting 
Litanies  in  public  Church  processions  was  adopted  by  the  Western 
Church,  and  soon  a  series  of  days  was  fixed  and  entered  in  the 
Calendar. 

In  Gaul  these  processional  Litanies  were  called  '  Rogations.' 
Hence,  when  about  the  year  467  very  dreadful  earthquakes  were 
devastating  Southern  Gaul,  Mamertus,  Bishop  of  Vienne,  directed 
that  solemn  Rogations  should  be  used  on  the  Monday,  Tuesday, 
and  Wednesday  before  Ascension  Day.  It  was  in  commemora 
tion  of  these  terrible  cosmic  occurrences  that  annual  Litanies  or 
Rogations  were  used  on  these  days.  Hence,  subsequently  these 
days  came  to  be  commonly  known  as  Rogation  Days. 

From  the  practice  of  using  Litanies  in  procession  through  the 
streets,  they  were  often  called  '  processions.'  Thus  in  England, 
during  the  Anglo-Saxon  period,  Ascension  Week  was  called  Gang- 
woeca,  or  Procession  Week  ;  and  the  Rogation  Days  were 
called  Gang  dcegas,  or  Procession  Days. 

During  the  sixth  century  several  Councils,  notably  those  of 
Orleans  (511)  and  Tours  (567),  decreed  that  these  Rogation  Days 

*  «Vit.  Const.,'  iv.  61. 
t  Basil,  'Ad  Clericos  Neocaes.'  Epist.  ccvii. 
137 


138  THE  LITANY 

should  be  observed  as  Fasting  Days,  during  which  Litanies 
should  be  chanted. 

The  Church  in  Spain,  however,  deeming  it  unfitting  to  have 
fasting  days  at  Ascension- tide,  decreed  that  fasting  days  should 
be  observed  during  Lent,  after  Whitsuntide,  and  during  the 
autumn. 

About  the  close  of  the  sixth  century  a  very  fatal  pestilence 
appeared  in  Rome.  A  Solemn  Litany  was,  therefore,  appointed 
by  Gregory  the  Great  to  be  used  on  St.  Mark's  Day.  It  was 
called  '  Litania  Septiformis.'  The  clergy  and  laity  in  Rome 
formed  themselves  into  seven  separate  processions,  each  of  which 
represented  a  particular  ecclesiastical  or  social  status.  Each 
procession  assembled  at  its  appointed  Church,  and  marched 
thence  chanting  '  Kyrie  Eleison  '  ('  Lord,  have  mercy '),  to  the 
Church  of  Santa  Maria  Maggiore,  where  the  whole  company 
joined  in  the  special  Litany.  This  great  penitential  service  was 
repeated  each  succeeding  year,  and  received  the  name  of  '  The 
Great  Litany  of  St.  Mark's  Day.' 

Becle  states  that  it  was  generally  believed  in  his  day  that 
Augustine  and  his  band  of  missionaries  chanted  a  Litany  as 
they  made  their  first  entry  into  Canterbury  in  597.* 

In  the  seventh  century  the  seventeenth  Council  of  Toledo  (694) 
decreed  that  Litanies,  with  intercessions  for  the  Church,  the  King, 
and  the  people,  should  be  chanted  at  least  once  a  month. 

In  the  eighth  century  the  Council  of  Clovesho  (747)  decreed 
that  the  English  Church  should  observe  the  three  Rogation  Days 
with  prayer  and  fasting  ;  and  that  Litanies  should  be  repeated 
by  both  clergy  and  people  on  St.  Mark's  Day,  thus  following  the 
precedent  that  had  been  established  by  Gregory  the  Great. 

In  813  the  Council  of  Mayence  ordered  that  '  all  should  go 
barefoot  and  in  sackcloth  in  the  procession  of  the  Great  Litany 
of  three  days.' 

In  the  old  Litany  of  Gregory  the  Great,  and  likewise  in  others 
which  were  in  use  prior  to  the  eighth  century,  there  were  no 
invocations  to  angels  or  saints,  but  about  800  they  seem  to  have 
been  introduced,  and  in  the  following  century  their  number 
became  considerable.  Martene  quotes  one  Litany  in  which  94 
occurred  :  the  Litany  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Church  had  a  long 
series  in  this  century  ;  one  given  by  Muratori  contains  the  names 
of  120  saints  ;  and  a  Litany  used  by  the  Church  in  Paris  con 
tained  102  such  invocations. 

In  the  Middle  Ages  the  number  of  them  became  still  greater. 
At  the  time  of  the  Reformation  these  invocations  were  addressed 
to  the  Virgin  Mary,  to  the  Archangels  Michael  and  Gabriel,  to 

*  'Eccl.  Hist.,'  i.  25. 


THE  LITANY  t3g 

Angels,  and  to  all  the  holy  orders  of  blessed  spirits,  to  Patriarchs, 
to  Prophets,  to  Apostles,  to  Martyrs,  to  Evangelists,  to  the  Inno 
cents,  to  Confessors,  to  all  the  Holy  Priests,  to  all  Holy  Widows 
and  Hermits,  etc. 

2.  THE  FORMATION  OF  OUR  PRESENT  LITANY. 

1544.  '  Owing  to  the  miserable  state  of  all  Christendom,'  Cran- 
mer  was  requested  by  King  Henry  VIII  in  1544  to  draw  up 
a  Litany.  In  so  doing  he  drew  largely  from  the  Litany  of 
Gregory  the  Great  and  from  the  Sarum  and  York  Uses. 
He  also  gathered  material  from  Hermann's  '  Consultatio/ 
which  contained  a  Litany  compiled  by  Melanchthon  and 
Bucer  ;  and,  with  much  free  handling  both  in  arrangement 
and  composition,  he  produced  the  Litany  which  is  almost 
identical  with  the  one  now  in  use.  Of  the  sixty-two  invo 
cations  to  Saints  and  Angels  in  these  Ancient  Offices,  he 
retained  only  three.  These  were  to  : — 

(1 )  St.  Mary,  Mother  of  God  our  Saviour ; 

(2)  The  Holy  Angels,  Archangels  and  all  Holy  Orders  of 

Blessed  Spirits  ; 

(3)  The   Holy   Patriarchs,    Prophets,   Apostles,   Martyrs, 
Confessors,  Virgins  and  all  the  Blessed  Company  of 
Heaven. 

They  were  placed  immediately  after  the  invocations  of 
the  Holy  Trinity,  and  ended  with  the  words  '  Pray  for  us.' 
Other  important  changes  were  : — 

(1)  The  omission  of  the  Kyrie  Eleison,  which  had  been 
placed  at  the  beginning  of  all  the  earlier  Litanies. 

(2)  The  addition  of  the  expression  '  miserable  sinners ' 
to  the  invocations  addressed  to  the  Three  Persons  in 
the  Trinity. 

(3)  The   insertion   of  the   words,  '  proceeding  from  the 
Father  and  the  Son,'  in  the  invocation  of  the  Holy 
Spirit. 

(4)  The  addition  of  the  petition  for  deliverance  '  from  the 
Bishop  of  Rome  and  all  his  detestable  enormities.' 

(5)  '  Remember  not,  Lord,'  substituted  for  the  old  suffrage 
'  Propitius  esto  ;  parce  nob  is,  Domine  '  ('Be  favour 
able  ;  spare  us,  0  Lord '). 

This  Litany  was  intended  to  be  used  as  a  separate  service, 
and  was  published  in  a  separate  book. 

1549.  The  invocations  to  the  Virgin  Mary,  Angels  and  Saints, 
were  now  omitted,  and,  thus  amended,  it  was  annexed  to  the 
Prayer  Book,  and  placed  between  the  Communion  Office 
and  that  for  Public  Baptism,  the  old  title  '  The  Litany  and 


140  THE  LITANY 

Suffrages,'  being  retained.  This  Litany  is  generally  con 
sidered  to  be  the  first  portion  of  the  Prayer  Book  which  ap 
peared  in  the  English  language  ;  but  the  Creed,  the  Decalogue 
and  the  Lord's  Prayer  had  been  issued  in  English  in  1536. 
1552.  It  was  removed  to  its  present  position. 

1558.  The  words,  '  Strengthen  in  the  true  worshipping  of  thee, 
in  righteousness  and  holiness  of  life  '  were  first  added  in  the 
Queen's  Chapel  Litany  of  this  date. 

1559.  The  Petition  referring  to  the  Pope  was  omitted. 

1662.  In  the  fifth  suffrage  the  words  ' rebellion '  and  'schism* 
were  added.  These  additions,  said  to  be  due  to  Bishop 
Cosin's  suggestion,  obviously  referred  to  the  Great  Rebellion, 
which  had  recently  come  to  an  end,  and  to  the  divisions  which 
were  then  troubling  the  Church.  The  words  '  Bishops, 
Priests  and  Deacons  '  in  the  fourteenth  suffrage  were  sub 
stituted  for  '  Bishops,  Pastors  and  Ministers.' 

The  Rubric. 

The  Litany  and  Suffrages. 

1549.  Upon  Wednesdays  and  Fridays  the  English  Litany 
shall  be  said  or  sung  in  all  places,  after  such  form  as  is  ap 
pointed  by  the  King's  Majesty's  injunctions  ;  or  as  is  or 
shall  be  otherwise  appointed  by  his  highness. 

1552.  Here  followeth  the  Litany,  to  be  used  upon  Sundays, 
Wednesdays  and  Fridays,  and  at  other  times,  when  it 
shall  be  commanded  by  the  Ordinary. 

1662.  Here  followeth  the  Litany,  or  General  Supplication,  to 
be  sung  or  said  after  Morning  Prayer  upon  Sundays,  Wed 
nesdays,  and  Fridays,  and  at  other  times,  when  it  shall  be 
commanded  by  the  Ordinary. 

3.  ANALYSIS. 

I.    The  Uniform  Portion. 

1.  Penitential  Invocations. 

Addressed  to  the  Persons  of  the  Holy  Trinity  first     Vers. 
separately,  and  then  collectively    . .          . .          . .         1-4 

2.  Introductory  Plea  to  Christ  . .         . .          . .          . .          . .  5 

3.  Deprecations,  being  Prayers : — 

(1)  For  Deliverance  from  particular  forms  of  evil         . .       6-10 

(2)  For  Deliverance  generally,  making,  as  the  ground  of 

the  appeal,  the  leading  facts  in  connexion  with   our 

Lord's  life  11-13 

N.B. — These  are  often  called  '  Obsecrations.' 

4.  Intercessions  for  all  sorts  and  conditions  of  men         . .     14-32 

5.  Supplications  for    (1)  material,  (2)  spiritual  blessings  ..     33,34 

6.  Versicles  and  Responses       . .         . .         . .         . .         . .     35-39 


THE   LITANY  141 

II.  The  Varied  Portion. 

1.  The  Lord's  Prayer. 

2.  Versicles. 

3.  A  Prayer  against  Persecution,  or  for  Deliverance  from  Troubles,  and 

Responsive  Supplications. 
0  God,  merciful  Father,  etc. 

4.  Commemoration  of  Mercies  and  Responsive  Supplication. 
O  God,  we  have  heard  with  our  ears,  etc. 

5.  The  Gloria. 

6.  Preces  and  Responses. 
From  our  enemies,  etc. 

7.  A  Prayer  for  Trust  in  Time  of  Trouble. 
We  humbly  beseech  thee,  etc. 

8.  A  Prayer  of  St.  Chrysostom. 

9.  The  Grace  (2  Cor.  xiii.  14). 

4.  EXPOSITORY  AND  CRITICAL  NOTES. 

No.  1.  Of  heaven  (Lat.  '  de  ccelo  ').  The  words  signify,  '  Who 
looketh  down,  from  heaven.'  The  expression  is  equivalent  to  the 
words  in  the  Lord's  Prayer,  '  Which  art  in  heaven  '  (cf.  2  Chron. 
vi.  21). 

No.  1.  Miserable  sinners.  The  epithet  '  miserable '  refers 
rather  to  our  natural  and  spiritual  condition  than  to  the  view 
we  may  take  of  it. 

No.  3.  Proceeding  from.  This  has  reference  to  the  eternal 
procession  of  the  Holy  Spirit.* 

No.  5.  Remember  not  .  .  .  vengeance  of  our  sins  (cf.  Second  Com 
mandment).  We  are  not,  of  course,  eternally  punished  for  the 
sins  of  our  progenitors,  but  temporally  we  have  to  bear  the  ill 
effects  of  their  transgressions  through  heredity. 

No.  8.  Deadly  sins,  i.e.  wilful  and  presumptuous  sin,  which 
debases  the  whole  nature  and  hardens  the  heart. 

The  phrase  '  deadly  sin '  is  not  to  be  regarded  as  conveying 
the  old  scholastic  distinction  between  sins  '  venial '  and  '  mortal,' 
a  distinction  which  both  implied  that  there  was  a  difference 
between  sins  as  to  guilt  and  its  removal,  and  also  necessitated 
confession  to  an  expert  casuist  to  determine  to  which  class  sinful 
actions  were  to  be  referred.  With  the  single  exception  of  '  the 
sin  against  the  Holy  Ghost '  f  (which  is  rather  a  state  than  an 
isolated  act)  the  Holy  Scriptures  draw  no  such  distinction  be 
tween  sins  (cf.  Jas.  ii.  10)  as  the  Schoolmen  drew.  For  all 
sins  are  venial,  if  repented  of  ;  all  sins,  if  persevered  in  to  harden 
ing  of  heart  incapable  of  repentance,  are  deadly. 

At  the  Savoy  Conference  an  alteration  of  '  deadly  sins  '  to 

*  See    Athanasian  Creed  and  Nicene  Creed,  pp.    132,  305. 

t  See  Matt.  xii.  31,  32  ;  Mark  iii.  28,  29  ;  Luke  xij.  10  ;   1  John  v.  16,  17. 


142  THE  LITANY 

'  heinous  or  grievous  sins '  was  suggested  ;     and  of    '  sudden 
death  '  into  '  unprepared  death.' 

No.  10.  Heresy  and  Schism.  Heresy  signifies  erroneous  doc 
trine,  that  which  is  contrary  to  the  teaching  of  Scripture.  Schism 
refers  to  the  divisions  amongst  Christian  bodies.  To  express 
the  distinction  in  another  way,  Heresy  perverts  the  faith  ; 
Schism  divides  the  unity  of  the  Church. 

No.  11.  By  the  mystery.  'Mystery'  in  the  New  Testament 
generally  denotes  something  which  could  not  have  been  made 
known  to  man  without  a  supernatural  revelation  (see  Col.  i.  26  ; 
1  Cor.  xv.  51).  Here  'mystery'  refers  to  an  event  which  we 
heartily  believe,  but  which,  even  with  the  help  of  revelation,  we 
cannot  fully  comprehend.  We  cannot  understand  how  the  Word 
was  made  flesh,  how  He  was  at  once  perfect  God  and  perfect  man, 
and  how  the  union  of  these  two  natures  is  still  maintained.  It 
is  in  this  sense  that  St.  Paul  speaks  of  the  Incarnation  as  a  great 
mystery — '  Great  is  the  mystery  of  godliness  :  He  who  was 
manifested  in  the  flesh'  (1  Tim.  iii.  16,  E.V.). 

No.  13.  In  all  time  of  our  tribulation.  This  suffrage  refers 
not  necessarily  to  deliverance  out  of  afflictions,  but  to  protection 
from  the  special  moral  dangers  which  attend  them.  Suffering 
does  not  always  fulfil  that  which  God  designs  it  to  accomplish  ; 
it  sometimes  hardens  instead  of  softening  the  heart,  and  leads 
to  impatience  and  murmuring. 

No.  15.  Righteousness  and  holiness.  The  former  refers  to 
our  duties  and  dealings  with  mankind  ;  the  latter  to  our  duty 
towards  God  (cf.  Rom.  i.  18). 

No.  29.  Prisoners  and  captives.  The  former  signifies  crimin 
als,  and  the  latter  those  who  have  been  taken  prisoners  in  war 
or  specially  by  pirates.  When  the  Litany  was  drawn  up  there 
were  continual  cases  of  piracy  in  the  Mediterranean  and  the 
British  seas  ;  and  hundreds  of  persons  who  were  taken  prisoners 
by  the  Algerine  pirates  were  sold  as  slaves  in  the  African  markets. 

No.  33.     Kindly  fruits  of  the  earth  ;  i.e.  fruits  after  their  several 
kinds. 
The  Versicles  after  the  Lord's  Prayer. 

After  our  sins.  The  use  of  the  word  '  after  '  in  the  metaphori 
cal  sense  of  '  according  to  '  still  lingers  in  such  phrases 
as  '  after  the  pattern,  example,'  etc.  (comp.  Isa.  xi.  3  ; 
Rom.  viii.  5). 

Prayer  for  Trust  in  Time  of  Trouble.     We  humbly   beseech 
thee,  0  Father,  etc. 

1549.  Serve  thee  in  pureness  of  living. 

1552.  S.^rve  thee  in  holiness  and  pureness  of  living. 

Cranmer  placed  here  six  collects  in  the  Litany  of  1544.     In 


THE   LITANY  143 

1549  the  1st  and  5th  were  combined  to  form  the  present 
collect,  the  first  part  of  which  was  adapted  from  a  collect  in 
Sar.  Proc.,  and  the  second  part  composed  by  Cranmer. 
A  Prayer  of  St.  Chrysostom. 

This  title  dates  from  1559. 
The  Grace  (2  Cor.  xiii.  14).    1559. 

Placed  at  the  end  of  the  Litany  in  Queen's  Chapel  Litany. 

The  Litany  of  the  American  Prayer  Book. 

No.  8.  { From  all  inordinate  and  sinful  affections '  was  sub 
stituted  for  '  from  fornication.' 

No.  13.  'In  all  time  of  our  prosperity '  for  '  In  all  time  of 
our  wealth.' 

No.  18.  '  All  Christian  rulers  and  magistrates '  for  '  Our 
Gracious  King,'  etc.' 

No.  29.  '  All  women  in  the  perils  of  child-birth '  for  '  All 
women  labouring  of  child.' 

No.  34.  The  words,  '  That  it  may  please  thee  to  send  forth 
labourers  into  thy  harvest '  were  added. 

The  Minister  may  at  his  discretion  omit  that  portion  of  the 
Litany  which  commences  after  the  Supplications  and  ends  after 
the  Collect  '  0  God  merciful  Father.' 


PRAYERS    AND    THANKSGIVINGS 
UPON  SEVERAL  OCCASIONS 

1.     PRAYERS. 

IN  the  Mediaeval  Litanies  there  were  special  prayers  for  several 
occasions,  and  collects  were  introduced  into  the  Mass  for  fine 
weather,  rain,  war,  plague,  etc.  But  the  Occasional  Prayers 
and  Thanksgivings  in  the  B.C.P.  were  original  compositions, 
with  part  of  the  old  materials  adapted. 

Prayer  for  Rain.    1549. 

The  Title. 

1552.     The  title  was,  '  For  Rain,  if  the  time  require.* 
1662.     The  words  '  if  the  time  require '  omitted. 

1549.     This  Prayer  was  inserted  at  the  end  of  the  Communion 

Office. 
1552.     Placed  at  the  end  of  the  Litany,  before  the  Prayer 

of  St.  Chrysostom. 

1662.  Removed  to  its  present  position. 
It  slightly  resembles  an  old  collect  in  the  Sac.  Greg,  found  in 
the  Sar.  Missal.  For  the  phrase  '  Thy  kingdom  and  the  right 
eousness  thereof,'  which  is  due  to  an  inaccurate  translation  of 
Matt.  vi.  33  in  Coverdale's  Bible,  the  Prayer  in  the  Scotch 
Liturgy  of  1637  has  '  Thy  kingdom  and  thy  righteousness.' 

Prayer  for  Fair  Weather.    1549.  (Gen.  vi.  5-7  ;  viii.  21,  22  ; 
ix.  11.) 

1549.    Inserted  at  the  end  of  the  Communion  Office. 
1552.  'Placed  at  the  end  of  the  Litany. 
1662.     Removed  to  its  present  position. 
This  Prayer  likewise  slightly  resembles  an  old  collect  in  the 
Sac.  Greg,  found  in  the  Sar.  Missal.     The  American  Prayer  Book 
omits  the  allusion  to  the  Deluge.    The  words  '  by  the  granting  of 
our  petitions,'  1549,  were  changed  in  1552,  '  for  thy  clemency.' 

Prayers  in  the  Time  of  Dearth  and  Famine.   (Two  forms.)   1552. 
The  First  Form  (Gen.  i.  22  ;    Joel  i.  16-20  ;   Matt.  vi.  11). 
1552.     Placed  at  the  end  of  the  Litany. 

144 


,  PR  A  YERS  145 

1662.     Removed  to  its  present  position. 
The  Second  Form  (2  Kings  vi.  25  ;  vii.  1-16). 
1552.     Placed  at  the  end  of  the  Litany. 
1559.     Omitted  from  the  printed  Prayer  Book. 
1662.     Restored    with    alterations,    attributed    to    Bishop 

Cosin,  and  placed  in  its  present  position. 
It  is  probable  that  these  two  Collects  are  inserted  in  the  Prayer 
Book  in  consequence  of  a  dearth  which  occurred  in  England  in 
1551. 

Prayer  in  the  Time  of  War  and  Tumults.    1552.    (1  Chron. 
xxix.  11  ;  Ps.  xxii.  28.) 

1552.     Placed  at  the  end  of  the  Litany. 
1662.     Removed  to  its  present  position. 
The  words  '  and  tumults  '  were  added  to  the  title  in  1662.     This 
Prayer  very  slightly  resembles  a  collect  on  the  same  subject  in 
the  Sar.  Missal  taken  from  the  Sac.  Greg.     The  American  Prayer 
Book  has  modified  the  petition  '  Abate  their  pride  and  assuage 
their  malice.' 

Prayer  in  the  Time  of  any  Common  Plague  or  Sickness.    1552. 
(Num.  xvi.  44-50  ;  2  Sam.  xxiv.  15-25.) 
1552.     Placed  at  the  end  of  the  Litany. 
1662.     Removed  to  its  present  position. 
The  terrible  Sweating.  Sickness,  which  occurred  in  1551,  was 
probably  the  reason  for  the  insertion  of  this  Prayer. 

1552.  0  Almighty  God,  which  in  thy  wrath  in  the  time  of 
King  David,  didst  slay  with  the  plague  of  pestilence 
threescore  and  ten  thousand,  and  yet  remembering  thy 
mercy,  didst  save  the  rest ;  have  pity,  etc.,  that  like 
as  thou  didst  then  command  thine  angel  to  cease  from 
punishing,  etc. 

1662.  0  Almighty  God,  who  in  thy  wrath  didst  ser.d  a 
plague  upon  thine  own  people  in  the  wilderness,  for 
their  obstinate  rebellion  against  Moses  and  Aaron ;  and 
also  in  the  time  of  King  David  .  .  .  that  like  as  thou 
didst  then  accept  of  an  atonement,  and  didst  command 
the  destroying  Angel,  etc. 

Collects  in  the  Ember  Weeks.    (Two  forms.)    1662. 
The  First  Form.     (Acts  vi.  6  ;   xiii.  2,  3  ;    xx.  28  ;   Eph.  iv.  7  ; 
1  Tim.  v.  22.) 

The  Second  Form.    (Jas.  i.  17  ;  1  Cor.  xii.  8-10 ;  John  xiv.  16, 17  ; 
Eph.  iv.  11-16.) 

*  The  Ember  Days  are  the  Wednesday,  Friday,  and  Saturday 
after — 

*  The  old  English  name  was  ymb-ren-wuce.      The  prefix  ynib  means 
about,  round.     Rene  or  ryne  means  a  course.     In  Dutch  they  are  called 

L 


146  PRAYERS   AND    THANKSGIVINGS 

(1)  The  First  Sunday  in  Lent. 

(2)  Whit-Sunday. 

(3)  September  14,   formerly  observed  as  Holy  Cross  Day 

and  called  (as  well  as  May  3)  '  Roodmasday.' 

(4)  December  13,  Feast  of  St.  Lucy,  Virgin  and  Martyr 

(c.  304). 

These  days  were  called  Jejunia  quatuor  temporum,  i.e.  the 
fasts  of  the  four  seasons.  The  original  intention  of  the  Ember 
Days,  it  has  been  suggested,  was  to  consecrate  with  fasting  and 
prayer  the  four  seasons  of  the  year.  It  was  at  the  Council  of 
Placentia,  1095,  that  Ordinations  were  ordered  to  be  held  on 
these  days.  The  first  Ember  Collect  was  composed  by  Bishop 
Cosin,  1662.  The  second  was  taken  from  the  Ordination  Ser 
vices,  and  varied  slightly.  They  had  already  been  inserted  in 
the  Scottish  Prayer  Book,  1637. 

Both  Collects  dwell  upon — 

(1)  The  twofold  ministry  of  doctrine  and  life. 

(2)  The  twofold  object,  God's  glory  and  man's  salvation. 
The  latter  Collect  presupposes  that  the  candidates  are  already 

chosen. 

A  Prayer  that  may  be  said  after  any  of  the  Former.  1559- 
Sac.  Greg.  ;  Sar.  Brev.  (Ex.  xxxiv.  6,  7  ;  Bom.  vii.  23,  24  5 
1  John  ii.  1.) 

This  Prayer  was  found  in  English  Primers  prior  to  1549  at  the 
end  of  the  Litany. 

1549.  Not  inserted. 

1559.  Placed  at  the  end  of  the  Litany. 
1662.  Removed  to  its  present  position. 
Omitted  in  the  American  Prayer  Book. 
'  Nature  and   property '   is   a   translation   of  the  one  Latin 
word  Proprium,  and  means  '  essential  characteristic.' 

A  Prayer  for  the  High  Court  of  Parliament.  1662. 
1625.  First  appeared  in  an  '  Order  of  Fasting.' 
1628.  Appeared  again  in  a  special  form  of  prayer  '  necessary 

to  be  used  in  these  dangerous  times  of  war.' 
1662.  Inserted  in  the  Prayer  Book. 
1801.  '  Dominions '  was  substituted  for  '  Kingdoms '  by  an 

order  in  Council  (Jan.  1). 
Its  reputed  author  is  Laud. 

The  words  '  Our  most  religious  and  gracious '  occur  in  the 
original  form  of  the  Prayer,  and  were  not,  as  some  suppose,  a 

Quarter  temper,  and  in  German  Quatember.  The  Ember  Fasts  would 
seem  to  have  been  so  called,  therefore,  from  their  coming  round 
periodically.  See  also  p,  64, 


THANKSGIVINGS  147 

compliment  to  Charles  II.  A  similar  expression  occurs  in  the 
Liturgy  of  St.  Basil,  viz.  '  Our  most  pious  and  faithful  sove 
reigns.' 

The  Collect  for  all  Sorts  and  Conditions  of  Men.    1662. 

It  has  been  thought  by  some  that  this  Prayer  was  composed 
by  Bishop  Sanderson,  but  its  more  probable  author  was  Dr. 
Gunning,  Master  of  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge,  and  afterwards 
Bishop  of  Ely,  Coadjutor  to  the  Episcopal  divines  at  the  Savoy 
Conference.  It  was  originally  of  much  greater  length,  petitions  for 
the  King,  the  Royal  Family,  Clergy,  etc.,  being  included  in  it. 
This  explains  why  the  word  '  finally  '  is  used  in  so  short  a  prayer. 
It  somewhat  resembles  the  Orationes  Generales  in  the  Saram 
Missal.  The  words, '  that  all  who  profess  and  call  themselves 
Christians,  may  be  led  into  the  way  of  truth,'  are  thought  to  be 
intended  to  refer  to  the  Puritans,  who  had  increased  in  such  large 
numbers  during  the  Commonwealth. 

The  phrase  for  '  Jesus  Christ  his  sake  '  is  the  only  trace  in  oui 
B.C. P.  of  the  theory,  once  very  prevalent,  that  our  possessive 
case  (-'s)  is  a  contraction  of  the  personal  possessive  pronoun '  his.' 

In  the  American  Prayer  Book  this  Prayer  is  placed  in  the  Order 
for  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer. 

In  the  Irish  Prayer  Book  there  are  the  following  special  Prayers  : 
'  Prayer  for  Unity  '  ; '  For  a  Sick  Person  '  ; '  On  Rogation  Days  '  ; 
'  On  New  Year's  Day '  ;  '  For  Christian  Missions ' ;  '  A  Prayer 
for  the  General  Synod  of  the  Church  of  Ireland  ' ;  'A  Prayer 
to  be  used  in  Colleges  and  Schools.' 

2.  THANKSGIVINGS. 

General  Thanksgiving.    1662. 

This  was  the  production  of  Reynolds,  Bishop  of  Norwich.  It 
is  the  general  thanksgiving  as  distinguished  from  the  special 
thanksgivings  which  follow.  There  is  no  authority  for  its  repeti 
tion  by  the  congregation,  however  appropriate  the  practice. 
It  bears  some  resemblance  to  a  General  Thanksgiving  in  a  Coptic 
'  Liturgy  of  St.  Basil.' 

In  the  American  Prayer  Book  this  Thanksgiving  is  inserted  at 
the  end  of  the  Litany,  and  also  of  morning  and  evening  prayer. 

Thanksgiving  for  Rain.    1604.    (Acts  xiv.  17.) 
Title. 

1604.  A  Thanksgiving  for  Rain. 

1662.  The  words  '  A  Thanksgiving '  omitted. 
The  titles  in  the  rest  of  the   Thanksgivings  were  similarly 
shortened. 
For  Fair  Weather.    1604. 


148  PRAYERS    AND    THANKSGIVINGS 

For  Plenty.    1C01.    (Ps.  Ixvii.  5,  6.) 
For  Peace  and  Deliverance  from  our  Enemies.    IGOi.    (Ps. 
cxxiv.  1-6.) 

For  restoring  Public  Peace  at  Home.  1662.  (Ps.  Ixv.  7  ; 
1  Tim.  ii.  1,  2.) 

This  Thanksgiving  is  believed  to  have  been  composed  by  Bishop 
Cosin,  and  based  upon  Bishop  Wren's  suggestions. 

For  Deliverance  from  the  Plague,  or  other  Common  Sickness. 
1604.  (Two  forms.) 

First  Form.     (Hab.  iii.  2  ;  Rom.  xii.  1.) 
Second  Form.     (Deut.  xxviii.  15-30  ;  Ps.  cxviii.  15.) 
These  special  Thanksgivings,  with  the  exception  of  that  '  For 
restoring  Public  Peace  at  home,'  were  inserted  at    the    request 
of  the  early  Puritans. 

A  Thanksgiving  Service  for  Harvest  was  prepared  by  both 
Houses  of  Convocation  of  the  Province  of  Canterbury,  February 
14,  1862,  but  still  needs  the  Royal  sanction,  and  approbation  of 
Parliament.  The  American  Liturgy  includes  forms  of  Prayer  and 
Thanksgiving  for  several  other  occasions,  viz,  :  '  For  a  Sick  Per 
son  '  ;  '  For  a  Sick  Child  '  ;  '  For  a  Person  or  Persons  going  to 
Sea  '  ;  '  For  a  Person  under  Affliction  '  ;  '  For  Malefactors  after 
Condemnation  '  ;  '  A  Prayer  to  be  used  at  the  Meetings  of  Con 
vention  '  ;  '  For  Recovery  from  Sickness '  ;  '  For  a  Safe  Return 
from  Sea  ' ;  '  Forms  of  Prayer  to  be  used  in  Families '  (morning 
and  evening)  ;  and  a  '  Form  of  Prayer  and  Thanksgiving  to 
Almighty  God  for  the  fruits  of  the  earth,  and  all  the  other  bless 
ings  of  his  merciful  Providence,'  to  be  used  yearly  on  the  first 
Thursday  in  November,  or  on  such  other  day  as  shall  be  appointed 
by  the  civil  authority.  In  the  Irish  Prayer  Book  there  is  a 
Thanksgiving  for  Recovery  from  Sickness. 


THE  COLLECTS,  EPISTLES,  AND 
GOSPELS 

THE  COLLECTS. 

Collects  are  not  peculiar  to  this  portion  of  the  Liturgy ;  the 
Epistles  and  Gospels  are  appointed  for  use  exclusively  in  con 
nexion  with  the  Communion  Office.  Collects,  either  expressly 
so  called,  or  prayers  similar  in  structure,  appear  elsewhere  in 
B.C.R 

The  Collects,  collecta  ;  either  '  a  gathering  together '  or,  as  has 
been  suggested,  a  contraction  of  cum  lectione,  '  accompanying 
the  reading  of  Scripture.'  If  the  former  derivation  be  adopted, 
the  word  may  mean  either  a  summary  of  the  teaching  of  the  Service 
immediately  preceding  or  following,  or  a  prayer  used  at  the 
gathering  together  of  the  worshippers. 

Sources. 

1.  The  Ancient  Collects,  which  form  far  the  larger  number,  are 
taken  from  three  of  the  Sacramentaries,*  viz. : 

(i)  Five  from  that  of  Leo  I, '  the  Great,'  the  chief  ecclesiasti 
cal  figure  of  the  fifth  century.  He  composed  or  com 
piled  many  prayers. 

(ii)  Twenty,  besides  the  first  part  of  the  Easter  Day  Collect, 
from  that  of  Gelasius,  Bishop  of  Eome,  492,  a  liturgical 
writer  and  revisionist. 

(iii)  Twenty-seven,  and  the  other  half  of  the  Easter  Day 
Collect,  from  that  of  Gregory  the  Great,  Bishop  of  Rome, 
590,  who  condensed,  re-arranged,  and  improved  the 
Sacramentaries  of  Leo  and  Gelasius. 

(iv)  One,  for  the  22nd  Sunday  after  Trinity,  from  Anglo- 
Saxon  sources,  though  perhaps  traceable  to  Sac.  Greg. 
The  authorship  of  the  Sacramentaries  is  traditional. 

*  Before  1000  A.D.  the  Holy  Communion  Service  was  in  four  books. 
viz. : 

1.  The  Lectionary        containing  the  Epistles. 

2.  The  Evangelistary          „  „     Gospels. 

3.  The  Antiphonary  „  ,,     Anthems  (fntroits). 

4.  The  Sacramentary          „  „     Collects  and  Service. 

149 


ISO  THE   COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,   AND    GOSPELS 

From  these  they  passed  into  the  Sarum  Missal,  ascribed  to 
Osmund,  Bishop  of  Sarum,  1073.  All  the  Collects  for  the  Sundays 
except  six,  and  some  of  those  for  Holy  Days,  were  taken  from 
the  above  sources,  with  more  or  less  adaptation. 

2.  The  Modern  Collects,  four  Sunday  Collects  (for  the  first  two 
in  Advent,  first  after  Christmas,  and  Quinquagesima),  besides 
those  for  Christmas-Day,  Ash -Wednesday,  and  most  of  the  Holy 
Days,  were  composed  by  the  Reformers.  The  Revisers  of  1 662 
were  responsible  for  four,  the  3rd  Sunday  in  Advent,  the  6th 
after  Epiphany,  St.  Stephen's  Day,  and  Easter  Eve. 

The  author  of  each  of  the  later  Collects  cannot  be  named  with 
certainty,  but  in  an  Act  of  Parliament  respecting  the  First  Prayer 
Book,  Archbishop  Cranmer  is  named,  together  with  the  '  most 
earned  and  discreet  Bishops,  and  other  learned  men  of  the  realm.' 

Structure  and  Style, 

Collects  are  peculiar  to  the  Western  Church  ;  in  the  Eastern 
Church  prayers  are  longer  and  more  ornate.  Speaking  strictly, 
a  Collect  consists  of : — 

1.  The  Invocation,  in  which  mention  is  made  of  the  name  of 

God  *  with  one  or  more  of  His  glorious  attributes,  and 
often  of  some  fact  connected  with  redemption. 

2.  The  Doctrine,  or  ground  of  the  succeeding  Petition. 

3.  The  Petition  itself. 

4.  The  Aspiration,  or  object  with  which  the  Petition  is  offered, 

'  the  feather  or  wings  of  the  Petition.' 

5.  The  Termination,  f  varying  in  accordance  with  the  Person 

of  the  Holy  Trinity  involved,  but  usually  a  pleading  of 
Chiist's  merits,  sometimes  with  an  asciiption  of  praise 
and  an  acknowledgment  of  the  Holy  Tiinity. 
The  various  Terminations  may  be  thus  described : 

(i)  The  General  Plea,  '  through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord.' 

*  Only  three  Collects  are  addressed  to  our  Lord  :  3rd  Sunday  in  Advent, 
St.  Stephen's  Day,  and  1st  Sunday  in  Lent.  None  are  distinctly  addressed 
to  the  Holy  Spirit.  The  reason  given  by  some  for  addressing  Collects 
to  the  Father,  is  their  special  employment  at  the  Communion ;  but  since 
no  special  reason  can  be  assigned  for  addressing  the  Son  on  the  three  Sundays 
named,  this  reason  has  no  force.  A  better  would  be  Christ's  own  teaching 
in  the  opening  words  of  the  Lord's  Prayer,  and  His  encouragement  to  offer 
prayer  to  the  Father  in  His  name. 

t  In  Sar.  Miss,  the  whole  termination  of  a  Collect  is  never  given  at  full 
length  as  in  our  Prayer  Book.  Rules  were  given  to  the  officiant :  '  If 
you  address  the  Father  in  your  prayer,  say  "  through  the  Lord."  If  you 
make  mention  of  Christ,  say  "  through  the  same,"  etc.' 

The  doxological  ending,  e.g.  '  through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord  ;  by  whom 
and  with  whom  in  the  Unity  of  the  Holy  Ghost,'  etc.,  does  not  occur  in 
Sar.  Miss. 


THE   EPISTLES   AND   GOSPELS  151 

(ii)  The  Specific  Plea,  '  through  the  merits,'  etc. 
(iii)  The  Extended  Plea,  which  is  : — 
(a)  Doxological,   e.g.   '  to  whom  with  thee  and  the  Holy 

Ghost  be  all  honour  and  glory,  world  witl  out  end.' 
(6)  Descriptive,   '  who  liveth  and  reigneth  with  thee  and 
the  same  Spirit,  ever  one  God,  world  without  end.' 

This  last  is  a  confession  of  faith  in  the  Trinity  in  Unity,  and 
appropriately,  although  not  exclusively,  appears  in  the  Collects 
for  the  four  great  Festivals  of  Christmas,  Easter,  Whitsun,  and 
Trinity. 

The  Collects,  like  other  parts  of  the  Prayer  Book,  have  had 
to  run  the  gauntlet  of  severe  criticism.  Some  of  the  early  Puri 
tans  were  by  no  means  satisfied  with  them,  their  brevity,  in 
particular,  giving  great  offence.  The  Puritan  objections  were 
met  by  Hooker,  who  appealed  to  St.  Augustine,  affirming  that 
short  prayers  express  '  the  quick  and  speedy  expedition,  where 
with  ardent  affections,  the  very  wings  of  prayer,  are  delighted 
to  present  our  suits  to  heaven ' ;  and  that  long  prayers  dull  the 
'  vigilant  and  erect  attention  of  mind,  which  in  prayer  is  very 
necessary.' 

In  the  seventeenth  century  objections  were  again  raised,  and 
in  September,  1679,  a  Royal  Commission  was  held  by  ten  Bishops 
and  twenty  other  divines  to  propitiate  Dissenters  by  removing 
grievances.  The  Commissioners  included  Patrick,  Stillingfleet, 
Tillotson,  Sharp,  Tenison,  Burnet,  Aldrick,  and  Jane.  They 
proposed  to  Patrick  that  he  should  '  make  the  Collects  longer 
by  way  of  makii  g  them  more  affecting.' 

Their  survival,  c  espite  all  criticism,  proves  their  excellence. 
All  the  Collects  show  that  the  composers  bestowed  much  study 
upon  the  words  used,  the  balancing  of  clauses,  and  the  unity  of 
the  whole  composition.  They  have,  as  Macaulay  writes,  'soothed 
the  griefs  of  forty  generations  of  Ch  istians.'  The  fact  that 
several  of  them  have  been  arranged  as  anthems,  to  form  a  part  of 
the  worship  of  other  Christian  bodies,  is  no  mean  proof  of  their 
popularity  as  expres  ing  devotion. 

'  While  the  East  soars  to  God  in  exclamation  of  angelic  self- 
forgetful  ness,  the  West  comprehends  all  the  spiritual  needs  of 
man  in  Collects  of  matchless  profundity  ;  reminding  us  of  the 
alleged  distinction  betwe  n  the  Seraphim,  who  love  most,  and 
the  Cherubim,  who  know  most'  (Fr  eman's  Principles  of  Divine 
Service). 

THE  EPISTLES  AND  GOSPELS. 

In  the  Synagogue  worship  there  were  two  Lessons,  one  from 
the  Law  and  one  from  the  Propheis,  and  as  Early  Christian 


IJ2  THE   COLLECTS,   EPISTLES  AND   GOSPELS 

worship  was  modelled  largely  upon  that  of  the  Synagogue,  this 
may  have  been  the  origin  of  the  Epistle  and  Gospel.  Justin 
Martyr  (c.  140)  note5  the  reading  of  the  '  Memoirs  of  the  Apostles  ' 
at  Holy  Communion,  and  Tertullian  (c.  200)  mentions  the  reading 
of  Evangelical  and  Apostolic  books  in  Church  Services  generally. 

The  passages  selected  for  Holy  Communion  were  very  anciently 
appropriated  to  the  days  whereon  we  now  read  them,  as  may 
be  gathered  from  the  fact  that  early  Fathers,  preaching  on  the 
days  to  which  these  portions  of  Scripture  are  attached,  comment 
on  them. 

The  adoption  of  the  vernacular  constituted  a  great  change  in 
this  as  in  other  parts  of  public  worship.  From  1549  to  1662, 
the  translation  used  was  that  of  the  Great  Bible  of  1539-40, 
but  at  the  Kevision  of  1662,  in  accordance  with  a  note  in  the 
Black  Letter  Prayer  Book  of  1636  (of  which  a  copy  was  used 
for  .'.uggesting  corrections),  the  Epistles  and  Gospels  were  all 
'  corrected  after  the  last  translation,'  i.e.  the  A.V.  of  1611.* 

The  alterations  of  the  Epistles,  in  1549  were  often  trivial,  such 
as  dropping  one  or  two  words  at  the  beginning  which  were  not 
in  Holy  Scripture,  and  adding  a  verse  or  two  at  the  end  to  finish 
the  passage.  But  they  made  the  following  alterations  in  the 
Gospels  :  they  added  '  The  Account  of  the  C  eansing  of  the 
Temple  '  on  1st  Sunday  in  Advent,  '  The  Healing  of  the  Gadarene 
Demon!ac  '  on  the  4th  Sunday  after  Epiphany,  '  The  Raising  of 
Jairus'  Daughter '  on  the  24th  Sunday  after  Trinity  ;  and  they 
omitted  '  The  Account  of  the  Unbelef  of  Thomas  '  on  the  1st 
Sunday  after  Easter.  In  general,  their  alterations  were  in  the 
direction  of  enla  ging  the  somewhat  '  scrappy '  lections  of  the 
Sarum  Missal. 

Entirely  new  were  three  of  the  Gospels  for  Holy  Week,  added 
to  complete  the  accounts  of  the  Passion.  Matt.  i.  (including 
genealogy,  omitted  1662)  was  substituted  for  St.  Luke's  account 
of  Simeon,  on  the  Sunday  after  Christmas. 

Matt.  xxiv.  23-31  was  added  in  1662  for  the  6th  Sunday 
after  Epiphany,  then  for  the  first  time  prov'dcd  for.  At  this 
same  date  the  Gospels  for  Holy  Week  were  conveniently  arranged, 
those  for  Palm  Sunday  and  Good  Friday  being  reduced  from  two 
chapters  to  one,  Tuesday  and  Thursday  before  Easter  abbre 
viated,  so  as  not  to  anticipate  Easter  events,  and  the  Gospel 
for  the  Presentation  lengthened  to  include  the  account  of  Anna. 

The  Principle  of  Selection,  adopted  by  the  compilers  in  choosing 
and  appointing  the  Collects,  Epistles,  and  Gospels,  is  quite  obvious 

*  For  further  information  upon  the  several  translations  adopted  for 
the  Epistles  and  Gospels,  see  Goulburn,  and  later  pages. 


THE  FIRST  SUNDAY  IN  ADVENT  153 

in  the  case  of  the  great  Festivals,  Special  Seasons,  and  Saints' 
Days.  It  was  to  concentrate  the  mind  of  the  worshipper  upon 
the  historical,  doctrinal,  and  practical  aspects  of  the  events  com 
memorated.  In  regard  to  the  Sundays  after  Epiphany,  Trinity, 
etc.,  the  reason  for  the  selection  is  not  so  obvious,  and  the  sugges 
tions  usually  made  are  more  fanciful  than  real.* 

EXPOSITION. 

The  Title. 

1549.  The  Introits,  Collects,  Epistles,  and  Gospels,  to  be  used 
at  the  celebration  of  the  Lord's  Supper  and  holy  Communion, 
through  the  Year  ;  vdth  proper  Psalms  and  Lessons  for 
divers  Feasts  and  Days. 

1552.  The  Collects,  Epistles,  and  Gospels,  to  be  used  at  the 
celebration  of  the  Lord's  Supper,  and  holy  Communion, 
through  the  Year. 

1662.     The  Collects,  Epistles,  and  Gospels,  to  be  used  through 
out  the  year. 
The  omission  of  the  reference  to  Holy  Communion  is  due  to 

the  use  of  the  Collects  at  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer,  and  the 

use  of  the  Epistles  and  Gospels  when   only  Ante-Communion 

was  read. 

The  word '  Introits  '  f  was  omitted  in  1552  ;  these  were  Psalms 

containing  something  proper  to  the  day  which  were  sung  while 

the  priest  made  his  '  entrance.'     The  '  proper  Psalms  and  Lessons 

for  divers  Feasts  and  Days '  were  printed  in  a  separate  table  in 

1552. 

Introductory  Rubric. 

This  was  added  in  1662,  and  enjoins  the  use  of  the  Sunday 
Collect  on  the  previous  Saturday  evening,  and  the  Holy  Day 
Collect  on  its  Vigil  or  Eve,  if  such  there  be. 

THE  FIRST  SUNDAY  IN  ADVENT.J 

The  observance  of  Advent  cannot  be  traced  before  300,  and 
the  name  itself  is  even  later.  Advent  originally  commenced 
on  November  11,  St.  Martin's  Day,  on  which  date  it  still  begins 
in  the  Greek  Church. 

*  For  such  subjects  as  the  '  ritual '  prescribed  for  the  reading  of  the 
Epistles  and  Gospels,  see  Communion  Office. 

f  In  the  earlier  Service  Books  there  were  Introits  and  Graduate,  i.e. 
Psalms  sung  after  the  Epistle  from  the  steps  (gradus)  of  the  pulpit,  and 
said  to  date  from  the  time  of  Jerome  (c.  400). 

J  The  Church's  year  falls  into  two  main  divisions  :  (1)  from  Advent  to 
Trinity  Sunday,  in  which  the  work  of  the  Redemption  is  set  forth  ;  (2) 
from  Trinity  Sunday  to  the  last  Sunday  after  Trinity,  in  which  Christian 
duties  are  enforced. 


154  THE   COLLECTS,   EPISTLES,   AND   GOSPELS 

The  Collect.     1549  ;   probably  by  Cranmer. 
Sar.  Miss.  Collect  more   resembled   present   Collect   for   4th 
Sunday  in  Advent. 

The  Rubric  after  the  Collect.    1662. 

The  Epistle.  Eom.  xiii.  8-14,  1549  ;    Sar.  Miss.,  11-14. 

The  Gospel.  Matt.  xxi.  1-13,  1549  ;    Sar.  Miss.,  1-8. 

THE  SECOND  SUNDAY  IN  ADVENT. 

The  Title,  1662.     '  The  Second  Sunday,'  1549. 
The  Collect.*    1549. 

The  comma  after  c  patience '  is  not  in  A.V.  of  Rom.  xv.  4  ; 
nor  in  the  American  and  some  other  Prayer  Books.  This  Collect 
reflects  the  recent  introduction  into  the  public  and  private  life  of 
England  of  the  Holy  Scriptures  in  the  vernacular. 

The  Epistle.     Rom.  xv.  4-13,  Sar.  Miss. 
The  Gospel.     Luke  xxi.  25-33,  Sar.  Miss. 

THE  THIRD  SUNDAY  IN  ADVENT. 

The  Title,  1662.     *  The  Third  Sunday,'  1549. 
The  Collect.    1662 :  probably  by  Cosin. 

From  1549  to  1662  the  old  Sar.  Miss.  Collect  was  used  :  '  Lord, 
we  beseech  thee,  give  ear  to  our  prayers,  and  by  thy  gracious 
visitation  lighten  the  darkness  of  our  hearts  by  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ.' 

The  third  week  in  Advent  being  Ember  week,  this  Collect 
setting  forth  the  right  exercise  of  the  Christian  ministry  is  specially 
appropriate.  The  word  '  Minister  '  here  is  the  translation  not 
of  the  usual  word,  Siaxovos,  but  of  inrr)peTr)<;,  '  under-rower,' 
1  Cor.  iv.  1,  the  metaphor  being  taken  from  a  galley,  and 
emphasizing  the  relationship  of  the  minister  to  his  Captain,  as 
the  other  word  suggests  his  duty  to  the  flock. 

The  Epistle.    1  Cor.  iv.  1-5,  Sar.  Miss. 
The  Gospel.     Matt.  xi.  2-10,  Sar  Miss. 

THE  FOURTH  SUNDAY  IN  ADVENT. 

The  Title,  1662.     '  The  Fourth  Sunday,'  1549. 

The  Collect.  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549 ;  revised 
1662. 

*  The  old  Collects  for  the  1st,  3rd  and  4th  Sundays  in  Advent  were 
addresses  to  God  the  Son.  This  may  have  suggested  the  form  of  invocation 
in  some  of  the  new  Collects,  e.g.  '  Blessed  Lord.' 


THE   NATIVITY   OF   OUR   LORD  15$ 

The  main  alteration  in  1662  was  the  addition,  after  '  hin 
dered,'  of  the  phrase  '  in  running  the  race  that  is  set  before  us ' ; 
and  of  '  help  and '  before  '  deliver  us.' 

The  Epistle.    Phil.  iv.  4-7. 
The  Gospel.    John  i.  19-28. 

THE  NATIVITY  OF  OUR  LORD,  OR  THE  BIRTH-DAY  OF 

CHRIST. 

Commonly  called  CHRISTMAS-DAY. 

Christmas-Day  was  kept  on  January  6  by  the  Eastern  Church 
until  c.  400,  when  the  Western  practice  of  keeping  December  25 
began  to  prevail,  though  the  Armenian  Church  still  observes 
the  January  date.  The  Western  Church  from  an  early  date 
separated  the  Nativity  from  the  Epiphany.* 

The  observance  of  Christmas -Day  possibly  began  as  a  protest 
against  various  heretical  theories  in  regard  to  the  Person  of. 
Christ,  all  virtually  denying  the  Incarnation  in  one  way  or 
another. 

The  Title,  1662  ;    1549,  '  Christmas-Day.' 

'Commonly'  as  thus  used  suggests  that  the  title  referred  to 
is  inaccurate  or  misleading,  cf.  'Commonly  called  the  Creed  of 
St.  Athanasius,'  '  Commonly  called  the  Purification,'  etc.  In 
1549  were  provided  here  two  f  Introits,  Collects,  etc.,  headed 
'  At  the  First  Communion,'  '  At  the  Second  Communion,'  respec 
tively.  The  former  Collect,  not  retained  in  1552,  J  was  as  follows  : 

'God,  which  makest  us  glad  with  the  yearly  remembrance 
of  the  birth  of  thy  only  Son  Jesus  Christ ;  grant  that  as  we  joyfully 
receive  him  for  our  Redeemer,  so  we  may  with  sure  confidence 
behold  him,  when  he  shall  come  to  be  our  judge,  who  liveth,'  etc. 

The  Collect.  1549. 

This  prayer  aptly  suggests  the  causal  connexion  between  the 
Incarnation  of  our  Lord  and  the  regeneration  of  man  ;  His 
taking  our  likeness  teaches  the  possibility  of  our  taking  His. 

1549.     '  This  day  to  be  born  of  a  pure  Virgin.' 
1662.    '  As  at  this  time,'  as  in  S.L.,  1637,  obviously  because 
the  Collect  is  used  throughout  the  week. 

The  Epistle.    Heb.  i.  1-12,  1662  ;  Sar.  Miss.,  1549,  1552,  1-13. 

*  The  omission  of  eleven  days  in  the  Western  Calendar,  not  followed 
by  Russia,  has  resulted  in  the  Eastern  Christmas-Day  falling  so  much 
later. 

f  In  Sar.  Miss,  there  were  three. 

j  The  American  Church  has  reverted  to  the  earlier  arrangement  of  pro 
viding  additional  Collects  for  Christmas  and  Easter. 


156          THE   COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,    AND   GOSPELS 

The  Gospel.  John  i.  1-14  ;  Sar.  Miss.  (3rd  Mass),  1549  ;  the 
Gospel  for  2nd  Mass,  Luke  ii.  15-20,  was  appropriated  to  The 
Circumcision. 

SAINT  STEPHEN'S  DAY. 

The  position  of  St.  Stephen's,  St.  John  the  Evangelist's,  and 
Innocents'  Days,  is  stated  to  be  due  to  the  desire  to  illustrate 
the  triple  kind  of  martyrdom  endured  :  St.  Stephen  in  will  and 
deed  ;  St.  John  in  will ;  Holy  Innocents  in  deed.  Another  view 
is  that  these  days  are  so  placed  as  to  emphasize  the  honour  due 
to  St.  Stephen's  priority  in  martyrdom  ;  to  St.  John's  special 
friendship  with  our  Lord  ;  and  to  the  connexion  of  the  death  of 
the  Innocents  with  the  birth  of  the  Saviour.  St.  Stephen's  Day 
has  been  observed  from  the  fourth  century. 

The  Collect.  Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg. ;  shortened  1549 ;  expanded 
1662. 

In  the  Latin  original  the  prayer  was  addressed  to  the  Father ; 
in  1549  it  was  more  appropriately  addressed  to  Him  to  whom 
Stephen  prayed  at  his  death  :  '  Grant  us,  0  Lord,  to  learn  to 
love  our  enemies,  by  the  example  of  thy  Martyr  Saint  Stephen, 
who  prayed  to  thee  for  his  persecutors ;  which  livest,  etc.'  The 
addition  in  1662  of  the  words  '  0  blessed  Jesus,'  after  the  word 
'  thee  '  at  the  close  of  the  Collect,  seems  to  imply  the  restoration 
of  the  address  to  the  Father.  The  appropriateness  of  the  addition 
'  to  love  and  bless  our  persecutors  '  at  the  Restoration  is  obvious  ; 
such  a  spirit  was  very  necessary. 

For  the  Epistle.  Acts  vii.  55-60,  1549  ;  Sar.  Miss.,  Acts  vi. 
8-15. 

The  Gospel.    Matt,  xxiii.  34-39,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

SAINT  JOHN  THE  EVANGELIST'S  DAY. 

The  day  has  been  observed  from  the  sixth  century.  '  The ' 
inserted,  1662. 

The  Collect.*    Sar.  Miss.  Sac.  Gel.  ;   expanded  1549  and  1662. 
1549.     'may  attain  to  thy  everlasting  gifts,' 
1662.     '  may  so  walk  in  the  light  of  thy  truth,  that  it  may 

attain  to  the  light  of  everlasting  life ;  ' 

The  figure  of  light,  confined  in  the  old  Collect  to  prayer  for 
illumination  by  God,  and  the  teaching  of  His  Apostle,  is  finely 
developed  by  the  further  prayer  that  the  Church  may  so  walk 
in  the  '  light  of  God's  truth,  that  it  may  attain  to  the  light  of 

*  In  some  old  Offices  the  Collect  for  St.  Stephen's  Day  was  repeated 
on  Lt.  John's  Day. 


THE   CIRCUMCISION   OF   CHRIST  157 

everlasting  life,'  the  Collect  being  thus  brought  more  closely  into 
correspondence  with  the  Epistle. 

The  Epistle.     1  John  i.  1-10,  1549  ;  Sar.  Miss.,  Ecclus.  xv.  1-5. 
The  Gospel.    John  xxi.  19-25J  Sar.  Miss.,  19-24. 

THE  INNOCENTS'  DAY. 

Observed  from  the  fourth  century  ;  formerly  called  '  Childer 
mas  Day,'  A.-S.  Cilda  Maesse  Daeg.  In  Medioeval  times  the 
mournful  character  of  this  day  was  kept  up  in  England  by  the 
use  of  black  vestments  and  muffled  peals. 

The  Collect.  Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549  ;  rewritten 
1662. 

1549.  Almighty  God,  whose  praise  this  day  the  young 
Innocents,  thy  witnesses,  hath  ['  have,'  1559]  confessed 
and  sh  wed  forth,  not  in  speaking,  but  in  dying ; 
Mortify  and  kill  all  vices  in  us,  that  in  our  conversation, 
our  life  may  express  thy  faith,  which  with  our  tongue 
we  do  confess  :  through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord. 

1662.  The  introduction  was  added, justifying  the  commemor 
ation  of  unconscious  infant  sufferers  for  Christ  by  the 
words  '  who  out  of  the  mouths  of  babes,'  etc.,  from 
Ps.  viii.,  part  of  the  Introit  of  Sar.  Miss.  The  added 
reference  to  '  innocency '  happily  supplies  a  motive 
to  the  remembrance  of  Herod's  victims,  thoroughly  in 
accord  with  our  Lord's  attitude  to  children,  and  His 
teaching  concerning  them. 

For  the  Epistle.    Eev.  xiv.  1-5,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    Matt.  ii.  13-18,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  SUNDAY  AFTER  CHRISTMAS-DAY. 

The  Collect.    As  for  Christmas-Day. 

The  Epistle.     Gal.  iv.  1-7,  Sar.  Miss. ;    1549. 

The  Gospel.  Matt.  i.  18-25,  1662  ;  1549,  the  whole  chapter : 
Sar.  Miss.,  Gospel  for  sixth  day  after  Christmas. 

THE  CIRCUMCISION  OF  CHRIST. 

The  Collect.    1549. 

A  '  Benediction  on  the  Octave  of  the  Lord '  in  Sac.  Greg, 
contains  the  ideas  incorporated  in  this  prayer  :  '  Omnipotens 
Deus,  Cujus  unigenitus  hodierna  die,  ne  legem  solveret,  quam 
adimplere  venerat,  corporalem  suscepit  circumcisionem  ;  spiri- 
tuali  circumcisione  mentes  vestras  ab  omnibus  vitiorum  incentivis 
expurget ;  et  suam  in  vos  infundet  benedictionem.  Amen.' 


158  THE    COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,   AND    GOSPELS 

1  Almighty  God,  whose  only-begotten  Son  on  this  day  underwent 
bodily  circumcision,  that  he  might  not  break  the  law  which  he 
had  come  to  fulfil,  purify  your  minds  from  all  incentives  to  vice 
by  spiritual  circumcision,  and  pour  into  you  his  own  blessing. 
Amen.' 

1549.     the  true  circumcision  of  thy  Spirit. 

1552.  the  true  circumcision  of  the  Spirit. 
If  the  alterat'on  was  intended,  as  it  seems  to  have  been,  to 
restore  the  idea  preserved  in  Sac.  Greg,  of  the  contrast  between 
circumcision  of  flesh  and  spirit,  the  modern  printing  of  Spirit 
with  a  capital  initial  defeats  that  object  entirely,  making  it 
necessary  to  deduce  from  '  the  Circumcision  of  (i.e.  by)  the  Holy 
Spirit 'the  thought  of  spiritual  circumcision.  Col.  ii.  11,  'cir 
cumcision  without  hands,'  emphasizes  the  agency,  Rom.  ii.  29, 
'  circumcision  of  heart,  in  spirit,  not  letter,'  emphasizes  the 
sphere  of  spiritual  circumcision. 

The  Epistle.    Rom.  iv.  8-14,  1549. 

Col.  ii.   and  Rom.  ii.   would  have  offered  better  Scriptural 
illustration  of  the  Collect ;    Rom.  iv.  8-14  declares  the  '  sacra 
mental  '  meaning  of  the  rite,  a  sign  and  seal  of  faith. 
The  Gospel.    Luke  ii.  15-21,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Rubric,  1552;  re-written  1662. 

1552.  If  there  be  a  Sunday  between  the  Epiphany  and 
the  Circumcision,  then  shall  be  used  the  same  Collect, 
Epistle,  and  Gospel  at  the  Communion,  which  was  used 
upon  the  day  of  Circumcision. 

1662.  The  same  Collect,  Epistle,  and  Gospel  shall  serve 
for  every  day  after  unto  the  Epiphany. 

The  alteration  from  '  a  Sunday '  to  '  every  day '  is 
obviously  a  provision  for  other  than  Sunday  Services, 
whether  Morning  or  Evening  Prayer  (when  the  Collect 
is  needed),  Ante-Communion  or  the  full  Communion 
Service.  The  suggestion  that  the  alteration  '  seems 
to  contemplate  daily  Communion '  *  is  negatived  by 
the  words  of  the  rubric  itself  :  viz.  '  shall  serve  for ' 
instead  of  '  shall  be  used,'  and  by  the  omission  of  the 
words  '  at  the  Communion.' 

THE  EPIPHANY. 

This  season,  called  in  the  Greek  Church,  Theophania,  originally 
commemorated  four  '  manifestations,'  viz.  the  Nativity,  the 

*  '  The  old  ideal  again  came  forward  and  was  expressly  provided  for  ' 
(so  Frere,  in  'Procter  and  Frere,'  p.  530),  without  any  reference  to  prove 
daily  Communion  to  be  '  the  old  ideal '  or  the  contemplation  by  the  Revisers 
of  any  such  practice. 


THE   FIRST   SUNDAY   AFTER    THE   EPIPHANY       159 

Baptism,  the  first  Miracle  at  Cana,  the  appearance  of  the  Star. 
In  the  Greek  Church  it  is  regarded  as  one  of  the  greatest  festivals 
of  the  year,  and  is  still  one  of  the  three  great  times  of  Baptism. 
That  Church  also  calls  it  the  '  Day  of  Lights,'  from  the  array  of 
lights  with  which  the  ceremony  of  the  Blessing  of  the  Waters 
is  performed.  The  date  was  always  January  6,  the  name  '  Twelfth 
Day '  showing  its  close  association  with  Christmas-tide,  of  which 
season  it  forms  the  close. 

'  When  in  the  fourth  century  the  Roman  usage  as  to  Christmas 
prevailed  in  the  East,  we  find  the  Epiphany,  probably  borrowed 
from  the  East,  observed  in  the  West  as  a  separate  Festival ' 
(Barry). 

The  Sovereigns  of  England  still  continue  the  ancient  custom 
of  presenting  gifts  on  this  Festival,  although  these  have  not,  since 
the  time  of  George  III,  been  offered  in  person,  but  through  an 
official  of  the  Royal  Household,  and  the  expectation  of  '  omens ' 
in  the  gifts  has  of  course  ceased. 

The  Title,  1549.  The  alternative  title,  '  Or  the  Manifesta 
tion  of  Christ  to  the  Gentiles,'  1662. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

In  the  Latin,  the  word  perducamur,  '  that  we  may  be  led  on 
to,'  suggests  a  parallel  with  the  leading  of  the  Wise  Men  which 
has  not  been  preserved  in  the  English. 

The  words  '  fruition  of  thy  glorious  Godhead,'  however,  are 
rather  more  consonant  with  reverence  and  more  dignified  than 
contemplandum  speciem  tuce  celsitudinis  :  '  beholding  the  beauty 
of  thy  highness.' 

The  Epistle.    Eph.  iii.  1-12,  1549  ;   Sar.  Miss.,  Isa.  ix.  1-6. 

The  change  is  justified  by  the  fact  that  Eph.  iii.  contains  the 
announcement  by  St.  Paul  of  his  commission  to  the  Gentiles. 
The  Sar.  Miss.  Epistle  is  now  the  First  Lesson  on  Christmas 
morning. 

The  Gospel.  Matt.  ii.  1-12,  1549  ;  Sar.  Miss.,  Luke  iii.  21- 
iv.  1,  made  part  of  the  Second  Morning  Lesson  in  1549. 

THE  FIRST  SUNDAY  AFTER  THE  EPIPHANY. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

A  good  illustration  of  the  impossibility  of  reproducing  exactly 
the  terseness  of  the  original  :  '  Vota,  quscsumus,  Domine,  suppli- 
cantis  populi  coelesti  pietate  prosequere  ;  ut  et  quse  agenda 
sunt,  videant ;  et  ad  implenda  quse  viderint,  convalescant, 
per,'  etc. :  '  The  prayers,  we  beg,  Lord,  of  (thy)  suppliant  people, 
follow  up  with  heavenly  kindness  ;  that  they  may  both  see  what 
things  are  to  be  done  and  grow  strong  to  fulfil  what  they  have 


i6o  THE    COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,    AND    GOSPELS 

seen,'  etc.  What  the  translators  necessarily  lost  in  crispness 
they  have  atoned  for  in  smoothness. 

The  Epistle.    Rom.  xii.  1-5,    Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

The  Epistles  for  the  first  four  Sundays  after  Epiphany  are  all 
taken  from  the  homiletic  closing  portion  of  the  Epistle  to  the 
Romans  ;  the  Gospels  deal  with  self -manifestations  of  our  Lord 
The  5th  and  6th  Sundays,  which  are  exceptional  in  occurrence 
do  not  present  the  same  continuity. 

The  Gospel.    Luke  ii.  41-52,  1549  ;  Sar.  Miss.,  42-52. 

THE  SECOND  SUNDAY  AFTER  THE  EPIPHANY. 

The  Title.     '  After  the  Epiphany '  added  1552. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,    Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

1604.  The  word  '  peace  '  altered  to  '  grace  ' ;  restored 
1662,  and  the  words  'through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord. 
Amen,'  added  from  S.L. 

The  slight  variations  from  the  original  are  obvious  improve 
ments,  viz.  the  omission  of  '  at  the  same  time '  (simul),  in 
the  reference  to  the  Divine  government  of  heaven  and  earth, 
and  the  substitution  of  '  all  the  days  of  our  life '  for  '  in  our 
times,'  which  has  a  selfish  sound. 

In  the  versicles  of  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer  the  translators 
have  performed  the  reverse  process,  translating  the  original 
da  pacem  in  diebus  nostris,  '  give  peace  in  our  time.' 

The  Epistle.     Rom.  xii.  6-16,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

The  Gospel.    John  ii.  1-11,  Sar.  Miss.,  1519. 

It  is  not  difficult  to  understand  how  great  an  effect  must  have 
been  produced  upon  the  minds  of  the  worshippers,  when  for  the 
first  time  this  Gospel,  exhibiting  the  true  relations  existing 
between  the  Lord  and  His  mother,  was  read  in  English  instead 
of  Latin. 

THE  THIRD  SUNDAY  AFTER  THE  EPIPHANY. 

The  Title.     '  After  the  Epiphany '  added  1604. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.;  modified  1519. 

The  addition  of  '  in  all  our  dangers  and  necessities,'  and  '  thy 
right  hand  '  for  '  the  right  hand  of  thy  majesty  '  are  the  chief 
variations.  In  the  Collect  for  the  Third  Sunday  in  Lent,  the 
phrase  '  right  hand  of  thy  Majesty  '  is  retained. 

The  prayer  to  stretch  forth  the  right  hand  is  peculiarly  appo 
site,  followed  as  it  is  by  the  account  of  the  Lord's  healing  touch 
in  the  case  of  the  leper. 

The  Epistle.    Rom  xii.  16  21,  Sar.  Miss.,  1519. 

The  Gospel.     Matt.  viii.  1-13,  Sar.  Miss.    1519. 


THE   FIFTH    SUNDAY   AFTER    THE   EPIPHANY      161 

THE  FOURTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  THE  EPIPHANY. 

The  Title.     '  After  the  Epiphany  '  added  1604. 

The  Collect.  Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.  ;  somewhat  varied  1549  ; 
much  altered  1662. 

1549.  '  God,  which  knowest  us  to  be  set  in  the  midst  of  so 
many  and  great  dangers,  that  for  man's,  frailness  we 
cannot  always  stand  uprightly  [Lat.  subsistere  :  '  stand 
out,  hold  out ;  '  omit  '  always  '] ;  Grant  to  us  the  health 
of  body  and  soul  [Lat.  '  mind  and  body  '],  that  all 
those  things  which  we  suffer  for  sin  [Lat.  '  for  our  sins  '  ], 
by  thy  help  we  may  well  pass  and  overcome  [Lat.  '  over 
come  '  only]  through  Christ  our  Lord.' 
1662.  'That  by  reason  of  the  frailty  of  our  nature'  sub 
stituted  for  '  That  for  man's  frailness.'  (Latter  part) 
'Grant  to  us  such  strength  and  protectio.n  as  may 
support  us  in  all  dangers,  and  carry  us  through  all 
temptations ;  through,'  etc. 

The  1549  translation  was  an  improvement  upon  the  original, 
which  asked  for  merely  physical  and  mental  strength  ;  but  it 
retained  the  ambiguity  of  the  phrase — quce  pro  peccatis  nostris 
patimur,  '  the  things  which  we  suffer  for  our  sins,'  our  English 
word  '  for  '  being  as  ambiguous  as  the  Latin  pro,  and  susceptible 
of  the  dangerous  idea  that  our  suffering  atones  for  our  sins.  The 
use  of  '  sin  '  for  '  sins  '  did  not  sufficiently  remove  the  possibility 
of  this  misunderstanding,  and  the  prayer  was  recast  in  1662 
accordingly.  It  is,  perhaps,  unfortunate  that  the  accuracy  of 
the  original  was  not  restored  by  the  omission  of  '  always.'  Man 
can  never  'stand  upright'  without  Divine  strength  and  protection. 

The  Epistle.  Eom.  xiii.  1-7,  1549  ;  in  Sar.  Miss.,  Rom.  xiii. 
"8-10,  part  of  the  Epistle  for  the  First  Sunday  in  Advent. 

The  Gospel.  Matt.  viii.  23-34,  1549  ;  Sar.  Miss.,  Matt.  viii. 
23-27. 

The  1549  addition  to  the  Gospel  makes  complete  the  series 
of  '  Epiphanies  of  Power  '  read  at  this  season  ;  without  it,  an 
instance  of  Christ's  authority  over  the  powers  of  darkness  would 
have  been  wanting. 

THE  FIFTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  THE  EPIPHANY. 

The  Title.     '  After  th«  Epiphany  '  added  1604. 

The  Collect.  Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg. ;  very  freely  translated 
1519. 

Latin  :  '  Familiam  [1549,  '  Church  and  household,'  cf.  Collect 
for  22nd  Sunday  after  Trinity]  tuam,  qusesumus,  Domine, 

M 


1 62  THE    COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,   AND   GOSPELS 

continua  pietate  [1549,  '  in  thy  true  religion '  instead  of  '  by 
thy  continual  goodness  ']  custodi ;  ut  quse  in  sola  spe  gratise 
coelestis  innititur,  tua  semper  protectione  [1549,  '  mighty  power  '] 
muniatur,'  etc. 

The  Epistle.    Col.  iii.  12-17,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    Matt.  xiii.  24-30,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  SIXTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  THE  EPIPHANY. 

Prior  to  1549  the  counting  was  made  from  the  Octave  of  the 
Epiphany,  so  that  six  Sundays  were  provided  for,  though  only 
five  after  Epiphany  were  so  named  ;  when  in  1549  the  counting 
was  made  from  the  Epiphany  itself,  the  following  rubric  was 
added  :  '  The  Sixth  Sunday  (if  there  be  so  many)  shall  have  the 
same  Psalm,  Collect,  Epistle,  and  Gospel,  that  was  upon  the  fifth.' 
The  Roman  Missal,  though  observing  the  Octave,  provides  a 
Collect,  Epistle,  and  Gospel,  for  a  Sixth  Sunday.  The  present 
Collect  (by  Cosin),  Epistle,  and  Gospel  were  added  in  1662. 

The  Collects,  Epistles,  and  Gospels  for  the  later  Sundays  after 
Epiphany  are  prescribed  for  use  after  the  Twenty-fourth  Sunday 
after  Trinity,  whenever  the  incidence  of  Easter  shortens  the 
aft^r-Epiphany  season  and  correspondingly  lengthens  the  period 
between  Trinity  and  Advent. 

The  Collect.  1662.  It  need  not  fear  comparison  with  the 
ancient  models,  being  composed  of  skilfully  woven  passages 
from  Holy  Scripture,  including  the  Epistle  for  the  day. 

The  Epistle.    1  John  iii.  1-8,  1662. 
The  Gospel.    Matt.  xxiv.  23-31,  1662. 

THE  SUNDAY  CALLED  SEPTUAGESIMA 

or 
THE  THIRD  SUNDAY  BEFORE  LENT. 

The  Title.     The  sub-title  was  added  1662. 

This  and  the  two  following  Sundays  form  the  first  stage  of 
the  second  period  of  the  ecclesiastical  year,  viz.  that  which  is 
dependent  upon  Easter.  It  is  a  preparatory  stage  for  Lent, 
the  second  stage  closes  with  Easter  Eve,  the  third  stage  running 
from  Easter  Day  to  the  Sunday  after  Ascension  Day,  and  the 
fourth  and  last  being  Whitsun-tide. 

The  names  given  to  these  Sundays  are  peculiar  to  the  Western 
Church,  and  are  possibly  derived  from  the  forty  days  of  Lent, 
quadraginta.  Quinquagesima  (sc.  dies),  fiftieth  day,  the  Sunday 
before  Ash- Wednesday,  is  fifty  days  before  Easter;  the  other 


THE   SUNDAY   CALLED    QUINQUAGESIMA  163 

names,  sixtieth  and  seventieth,  being  given  to  the  two  preceding 
Sundays  as  convenient,  though  numerically  inexact. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 
'Justly  pun;shed';  Lat.  Juste  affligimur:    'justly  afflicted.' 
'  By  thy  goodness  '  added  1549. 

The  translation  expressly  recognizes  the  permissive  hand  of 
God  in  affliction,  latent  in  the  '  justly '  of  the  original. 

The  Epistle.  1  Cor.  ix.  24-27,  1549 ;  Sar.  Miss.,  1  Cor.  ix. 
24-x.  4. 

The  Gospel.    Matt.  xx.  1-16,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  SUNDAY  CALLED  SEXAGESIMA 

or 
THE  SECOND  SUNDAY  BEFORE  LENT. 

The  Title.     The  sub-title  added  1662. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.  ;    1549,  with    alterations. 

The  original  prayed  for  defence  doctoris  gentium  protectione, 
'  by  the  protection  of  the  teacher  of  the  Gentiles,'  i.e.  St.  Paul. 
Thi;  unscriptural  and  unnecessary  request  for  protection  other 
than  that  afforded  by  God  Himself  was  excised  by  the  Reformers, 
and  prayer  for  defence  by  God's  power  substituted. 

The  Epistle.    2  Cor.  xi.  19-31,  1549  ;  Sar.  Miss.,  xi.  19-xii.  9. 
The  Gospel.    Luke  viii.  4-15,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  SUNDAY  CALLED  QUINQUAGESIMA 

or 
THE  NEXT  SUNDAY  BEFORE  LENT. 

Formerly  called  Shrove  Sunday,  from  A.-S.  Serif  an  =  'shriven,' 
'  absolved.' 
The  Title.     Sub-title  added  1662. 

The  Collect.  1549.  In  Sar.  Miss,  it  was  :  Preces  nostras, 
qucesumus,  Domine,  dementer  exiuii,  atque  a  peccatorum 
vinculis  absolulos  ob  omni  nos  adversit  tte  cus'odi — '  0  Lord, 
we  beseech  thee  favourably  to  hear  our  prayers,  and  defend 
us,  absolved  from  the  bonds  of  sins,  from  all  adversity.'  This 
prayer,  appropriate  to  the  Mediaeval  custom  of  using  the  '  Sacra 
ment  of  Penance  '  on  Shrove  Tuesday,  was  rejected  at  the  Refor 
mation. 

The  poverty  of  thought  of  the  old  Collect,  which  only  repeats 
the  prayer  for  protection  of  Sexagesima,  justified  the  abandon 
ment  of  any  attempt  to  rewrite  it ;  the  new  composition,  '  beauti- 


164  THE    COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,    AND    GOSPELS 

fully  formed  from  the  ancient  Epistle '  (Palmer's  '  Orig.  Lit.'), 
justifies  itself. 
The  Epistle.     1  Cor.  xiii.  1-13,  Sar.  Miss  ,  1549. 

The  Gospel.    Luke  xviii.  31-43,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

The  salutary  warning  of  the  Epistle  against  mere  external 
self-abnegation  has  not  escaped  notice. 

'  Tt  seems  clear  that  this  emphasis  on  the  spirit  of  love  which 
makes  and  not  counts  sacrifice,  is  intended  to  teach  us  the  true 
spirit  of  Lenten  self -discipline  and  self-denial,  without  which 
it  may  be  Pharisaic  in  self-righteousness,  or  superstitious  in  self- 
torment  '  (Barry). 

THE  FIRST  DAY  OF  LENT 

commonly  called 
ASH-WEDNESDAY. 

The  Title,  1549  :  1552,  alternative  title  omitted  ;  restored  1G62 
as  in  S.L. 

'  Commonly  called  '  here,  as  elsewhere,  casts  an  imputation  of 
error  upon  the  title  introduced.  The  first  day  of  Lent  was 
formerly  called  Caput  Jejunii,  i.e.  '  the  head  or  beginning  of  the 
Fast ' ;  '  Ash-Wednesday,'  Dies  Cinerum,  is  derived  from  the 
practice — of  doubtful  antiquity — of  using  ashes  to  signify  con 
trition.  There  was  a  Service  to  bless  and  apply  these  ashes,  in 
Sar.  Miss.  This  Service,  with  the  candles  of  Candlemas,  and 
other  like  practices  was  abolished  by  the  Council,  1548.* 

The  Collect  1549.  The  introductory  sentence  is  very  like  the 
opening  of  one  of  the  Ash-Wednesday  collects  in  Sar.  Miss.  : 
Omnipotens,  sempiterne  Deus,  qui  misereris  omnium  et  nihil 
odisti  eorum  qua  fecisti,  dissimulans  peccata  hominum  propter 
panitentiam — '  Almighty  and  everlasting  God,  who  pitiest 
ill  [men  ?]  and  hatest  nothing  of  the  things  which  thou  hast 
made,  treating  as  non-existent  (dissimulans)  the  sins  of  men  on 
account  of  their  repentance.  .  .  .' 

'  Who  hatest  nothing,'  etc.  Seo  Wisd.  xi.  24, — a  rare  instance 
of  the  use  of  the  devotional  Apocrypha  in  B.C.P. 

The  Roman  Collect  is, '  Grant,  0  Lord,  that  thy  faithful  people 
may  enter  on  this  solemn  fast  with  suitable  piety,  and  go  through 
it  with  unmolested  devotion.' 

The  Rubric  after  the  Collect  directing  daily  use  in  Lent,  1662. 
For  the  Epistle.    Joel  ii.  12-17,  1549  ;  Sar.  Miss.,  ii.  12-19. 
The  Gospel.    Matt.  vi.  16-21,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

*  For  tho  moaning  a~:d  origin  of  Lent,  see  p.  53. 


THE    THIRD    SUNDAY    TN   LENT  165 

In  the  Scotch  Liturgy  a  rubric  after  the  Gospel  directs  the 
use  of  the  Ash-Wednesday  Collect,  Epistle,  and  Gospel  until  the 
First  Sunday  in  Lent ;  this  was  not  incorporated  into  B.C. P.  in 
1662. 

THE  FIRST  SUNDAY  IN  LENT. 

This  is  sometimes  called  '  Quadragesima  Sunday.' 

The  Collect.  1549 :  probably  by  Cranmer ;  Miss.  Ambros. 
contains  a  Collect  distantly  resembling  Cranmer's. 

Sar.  Miss.  :  '  0  God,  who  dost  cleanse  thy  Church  by  the 
yearly  observance  of  Lent ;  Grant  to  thy  Family  that  what  it 
strives  to  obtain  from  ihee  by  fasting,  it  may  carry  out  by  good 
works.'  The  mind  of  the  Reformers  is  clearly  indicated  by 
their  substitution  of  the  present  Collect,  basing  all  abstinence 
upon  the  Lord's  example,  drawing  no  distinction  between  fasting 
and  abstinence,  severing  abstinence  from  any  particular  period, 
limiting  its  utility  to  the  subordination  of  the  flesh  to  the  spirit, 
and  omitting  any  claim  to  Divine  sanction  for  the  observance 
of  Lent,  and  any  idea  of  merit  in  fasting. 

The  Epistle.    2  Cor.  vi.  1-10,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    Matt.  iv.  1-11,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  SECOND  SUNDAY  IN  LENT. 

The  Title.     '  In  Lent '  added  1604. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549  (freely  translated). 

The  chief  alteration  is  making  the  verb  '  defend '  cover  both 
'body'  and  'soul.'  The  verbal  parallel  in  the  Latin,  Muniamur 
in  corpore  .  ,  .  mundemur  in  mente :  '  defended  in  body 
.  .  .  cleansed  in  mind,'  does  not  admit  of  reproduction  in 
English. 

The  Epistle.    1  Thess.  iv.  1-8,  1549 ;  Sar.  Miss.,  iv.  1-7. 
The  Gospel.    Matt.  xv.  21-28,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  THIRD  SUNDAY  IN  LENT. 

The  Title.     '  In  Lent '  added  1604. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

The  phrase  '  against  all  our  enemies '  is  not  HI  the  original. 
'  Hearty  desires  '  is  the  translation  of  vota,  originally  '  vows,'  but 
common  in  later  Latin  for  a  '  desire,'  or  '  prayer.' 

The  Epistle.    Eph.  v.  1-14,  1549 ;    Sar.  Miss.,  v.  1-9. 
The  Gospel.    Luke  xi.  14-28,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 


1 66  THE   COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,   AND    GOSPELS 

THE  FOURTH  SUNDAY  IN  LENT. 

Mid-Lent  Sunday,  formerly  called  Dies  (or  Dominica)  Refec- 
tionis:  '  the  Day  (or  Lord's  Day)  of  Refreshment,'  also  '  Mothering 
Sunday.'  The  reasons  given  for  these  various  names  are  : 

(1)  The  subject  of  the   Gospel:    The  Feeding  of  the  Five 

Thousand. 

(2)  The  old  practice  of  feasting  on  this  day  midway  through 

the  fast :  special  cakes  are  still  made  at  this  season  in 
parts  of  Lancashire. 

(3)  The  custom  of  visiting  the  Mother  Church  of  the  diocese 

with  offerings  on  this  day. 

(4)  The  custom  in  some  parts  of  England  for  apprentices  and 

servants  living  from  home  to  visit  their  parents  on  this 
day  and  take  them  a  present,  which  often  took  the  form 
of  a  '  mothering  cake.' 
The  Title.     '  In  Lent '  added  1559. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

1662.  '  Worthily  deserve  to  be  punished '  instead  of  '  are 
worthily  punished.'  The  earlier  form  was  closer  to 
the  original,  but  the  alteration  renders  the  prayer  more 
generally  applicable  to  all  people  at  all  times. 

The  Epistle.     Gal.  iv.  21-31,  1549 ;   Sar.  Miss.,  iv.  22- v.  1. 
The  Gospel.    John  vi.  1-14,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  FIFTH  SUNDAY  IN  LENT. 

Called  foimerly '  Passion  Sunday,'  perhaps  from  the  anticipation 
of  the  Passion  in  the  Epistle ;  but  this  scarcely  explains  the  name 
'  Passion  Week '  applied  to  the  whole  week. 

The  Title.     '  In  Lent '  added  1559. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549  (freely  translated). 

The  difficulty  recurs  here  of  reproducing  the  terse  and  balanced 
phrasing  of  the  original  :  Te  largiente  regatur  in  corpore,  et 
te  servante  custodiatur  in  mente,  i.e.  literally,  '  Thee  bestowing 
bountifully  it  may  be  ruled  in  body,  and  thee  preserving  it  may 
be  guarded  in  mind.'  The  rhythm  of  the  English  is,  however, 
some  compensation,  and  the  fuller  significance  obtained  by  sub 
stituting  '  soul '  for  '  mind,'  together  with  the  use  of  '  people  ' 
and  the  plural  for  '  family  '  and  the  singular,  more  than  makes 
up  for  the  loss  of  verbal  nicety. 

The  Collect  much  resembles  that  for  the  Second  Sunday  in 
Lent,  and  has  no  obvious  connexion  with  the  Passion  of  our 
Lord.  Bishop  Patrick,  one  of  the  Commissioners  appointed  to 
revise  the  Prayer  Book  in  1679,  drew  up  a  beautiful  Collect, 


MONDAY  BEFORE   EASTER  167 

which  incorporated  the  language  and  thought  of  the  Epistle  for 
the  day,  but  the  proposals  of  that  Commission  were  never  put 
into  effect. 

The  Epistle.    Heb.  ix.  11-15,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

The  Gospel.    John  viii.  46-59a,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  SUNDAY  NEXT  BEFORE  EASTER. 

4  Palm  Sunday,'  '  Holy  Week,'  '  Great  Week,'  *  '  Indulgence 
Week,'  are  terms  which  are  not  found  in  the  B.C.P.  though 
'  Palm  Sunday '  and  '  Holy  Week '  are  in  popular  usage. 

On  Palm  Sunday  in  comparatively  early  times  there  was  a 
ceremony  of  the  blessing  and  distribution  of  palms,  or  small 
branches  of  trees,  in  commemoration  of  the  Triumphal  Entry 
of  our  Lord  into  Jerusalem,  and  the  practice  is  still  maintained  in 
the  Roman  Church.  The  absence  of  reference  to  the  triumphal 
entry,  in  the  Collect  or  Gospel  is  explained  by  the  arrangement 
by  which  the  four  accounts  of  the  Passion  are  read  during  Holy 
Week.  One  of  the  Second  Lessons  at  Evening  Prayer,  however 
(Luke  xix.  28-48),  recounts  the  event. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

'Of  1  hy  tender  love.'  Without  this  phrase,  added  by  the  trans 
lators,  there  would  be  no  clear  reference  to  the  self-sacrifice  of 
God  in  this  Collect.  Bishop  Dowden  well  says  that  the  phrase 
'  suffuses  the  whole  prayer  with  its  flush  of  emotion.' 

In  the  original  all  is  based  upon  the  word  mereamur  :  '  that 
we  may  deserve  to  have  the  example  of  his  patience  and  a  share 
in  his  resurrection.'  The  importance  of  the  Reformers'  altera 
tion  is  obvious :  '  that  we  may  follow  '  (not  '  deserve  to  have  ') 
'  the  example  '  and  '  be  made  partakers  of  '  (not  '  deserve  to 
share  in  ')  '  his  resurrection.' 

The  Epistle.    Phil.  ii.  5-11,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

The  Gospel.  Matt,  xxvii.  1-54,  1662 ;  Sar.  Miss.,  xxvi.  2- 
xxvii.  61 ;  1549,  xxvi.  1-xxvii.  56. 

Chapter  xxvi.  was  in  1662  appointed  for  the  Second  Lesson 
at  Morning  Prayer,  to  make  a  continuous  narrative  with  the 
Gospel  which  follows.  The  custom  of  having  the  Holy  Com 
munion  Office  before  Morning  Prayer,  or  apart  from  it,  is  a  late 
introduction  of  the  Victorian  period. 

MONDAY  BEFORE  EASTER. 

In  the  pre-Reformation   services,  there  were  special  Collects 

*  St.  Chrysostom  (c.  400)  says  that  it  was  called  by  this  name  because 
'  great  things  were  wrought  at  this  time  by  the  Lord,'  and  he  bases  an 
exhortation  to  acts  of  Christian  devotion  and  mercy  thereupon. 


1 68  THE   COLLECTS,   EPISTLES,    AND   GOSPELS 

for  each  day  of  the  week  before  Easter ;  for  Monday,  Tuesday, 
and  Thursday  one  each,  for  Wednesday  two,  and  for  Good 
Friday  a  large  number,  as  many  as  eighteen. 

The  Collects  for  Monday  to  Thursday  were  omitted  in  1549, 
and  have  never  been  restored.  At  the  last  revision  of  the  Ameri 
can  Prayer  Book  it  was  proposed  to  insert  a  series  of  Collects,  one 
for  each  of  the  four  days,  but  this  was  not  adopted.  The  subjects 
of  the  proposed  collects  were  as  follows  : — 

Monday  :  Preparation  for  the  right  commemoration  of  the 
Passion. 

Tuesday  :    Willingness  to  share  in  the  Sufferings  of  Christ. 

Wednesday  :  True  repentance,  after  the  example  of  St.  Peter. 

Thursday  :  A  right  reception  of  the  '  Cup  of  Blessing '  in 
remembrance  of  the  '  cup '  drunk  by  the  Saviour  in 
Gethsemane. 

For  the  Epistle.  Isa.  Ixiii.  1-19,  1549;  part  of  Sar.  Miss. 
Lesson  for  the  fourth  day  in  Holy  Week. 

The  Gospel.  Mark  xiv.  1-72, 1549  ;  part  of  Sar,  Misa.  Gospel 
for  third  day  in  Holy  Week. 

TUESDAY  BEFORE  EASTER. 

For  The  Epistle.    Isa.  1.  5-11,  1549. 

The  Gospel.    Mark  xv.  1-39,  1549  ;   Sar.  Miss.,  xiv.  1-xv.  46; 

WEDNESDAY  BEFORE  EASTER. 

The  Epistle.    Heb.  ix.  16-28,  1549. 

The  Gospel.  Luke  xxii.  1-71,  1549  ;  Sar.  Miss.,  xxii.  1-xxiii. 
49. 

THURSDAY  BEFORE  EASTER. 

1  Next  before  Easter,'  1559  ;  formerly  called  Dies  Ccence  Domini, 
Dies  Natitlis  Eucharistica,  Dies  Natalis  Calicis ;  known,  though 
not  so  described  in  the  B.C.P.,  as  '  Maundy-Thursday.'  Three 
derivations  of  this  last  name  are  given  : 

(1)  The   most   probable — Lat.   mando,    '  to   command '  (Dies 
Mandatd), '  the  Day  of  the  Commandment,'  from  the  fact  that  our 
Lord  as  on  this  day  gave   His  disciples  commandment :  (a)  to 
commemorate  His  death;  (b)  to  wash  one  another's  feet;  (c)  to 
love  one  another. 

(2)  Maund,  A.-S.  mand,  '  a  basket,'    because    the  royal  gifts 
bestowed  on  this  day  were  brought  and  carried  away  in  baskets. 

(3)  French  maundier,  '  to  beg.' 

This  day,  being  the  day  on  which  the  Lord's  Supper  was 
instituted,  was  formerly  observed  with  greater  solemnity  than 


GOOD    FRIDAY  169 

the  preceding  days,  and  in  many  English  Churches  it  is  now 
marked  by  an  administration  of  the  Lord's  Supper,  especially 
in  the  evening,  as  being  nearest  to  the  time  of  its  original  insti 
tution. 

For  many  centuries  English  Sovereigns,  up  to  James  II,  follow 
ing  a  general  practice,  washed  the  feet  of  a  number  of  poor  persons 
on  this  day.  It  was  afterwards  done  by  the  Archbishop  of  York 
as  the  King's  representative,  but  it  is  now  no  longer  practised, 
only  the  Eoyal  Maundy  gifts  being  continued,  with  a  special 
^service  and  some  of  the  ancient  ceremonial. 

Foot-washing  is  still  performed  by  the  Pope,  by  some  high 
Roman  Catholic  dignitaries,  and  by  some  Sovereigns  of  Roman 
Catholic  countries,  but  with  ceremonious  display,  little  suggestive 
of  the  lowly  Redeemer  in  the  '  upper  room.' 

A  number  of  other  practices  were  associated  with  this  day, 
such  as  the  repetition  of  the  Creed  by  catechumens,  the  public 
absolution  of  penitents,  and  the  consecration  of  the  chrism,  or 
baptismal  oil. 

The  Epistle.    1  Cor.  xi.  17-34, 1549  ;  Sar.  Miss.,  1  Cor.  xi.  20-32. 

The  Gospel.  Luke  xxiii.  1-49,  1549;  Sar.  Miss.,  with  Luke 
xxii.  on  another  day. 

GOOD  FRIDAY. 

The  Title.  'On  Good  Friday,'  1549,  1552.  This  name  is 
peculiar  to  the  Church  of  England.  In  the  earliest  times  it  was 
called  '  Pascha,'  as  being  associated  with,  and  observed  at  the 
time  of,  the  Jewish  Passover,  but  by  the  second  century  the  name 
was  appropriated  to  Easter,  whence  the  well-known  error  of  the 
A.V.  in  Acts  xii.  4,  '  intending  after  Easter  [R.V.  '  the  Pass 
over  ']  to  bring  him  (Peter)  forth  to  the  people.'  In  another 
early  name  for  Good  Friday  the  reverse  process  has  obtained, 
the  name  '  Day  of  Preparation '  in  the  Didache,  a  synonym 
for  Friday,  being  appropriated  to  this  Friday  in  particular.  Other 
•  descriptive  phrases  and  names  are  :  Dies  Dominica  Passionis, 
Dies  Absolutionis,  Dies  Crucis.'  There  is  a  peculiar  fitness 
in  the  English  title,  both  positively,  as  recognizing  the  joyous 
•emancipation  of  the  believer  through  the  finished  work  of  the 
Cross,  and  negatively  as  a  protest  against  the  superstitious  brand 
ing  of  all  Fridays,  and  this  one  in  particular,  as  '  unlucky '- 
a  superstition  not  yet  dead  even  in  England,  and  traceable  without 
much  difficulty  to  the  mistaken  ideas  which  tended  to  fill  the 
day  with  an  external  pomp  of  funereal  gloom.  Easter  having 
been  in  very  early  times  a  great  day  for  public  baptism,  it  is 
:not  surprising  that  the  solemnity  of  the  events  immediately 


1 70  THE   COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,   AND   GOSPELS 

preceding  Easter  should  have  been  seized  as  an  occasion  for 
heart-searching  preparations.  Such  commendable  reverence 
has  nothing  in  common  with  Mediaeval  customs,  e.g.  Creeping 
to  the  Cross,  The  Mass  of  the  Pre-sanctified,  Stripping  of  Altars, 
Singing  of  the  '  Reproaches.'  Apart  from  the  doctrinal  errors 
associated  with  such  practices,  there  is  a  danger  of  obscuring 
the  great  lesson  which  alone  justifies  the  observance  of  Good 
Friday,  viz.  that  '  with  His  stripes  we  are  healed,'  not  plunged 
into  gloom.  The  hymnology  of  Reformed  Christendom  is  not 
free  from  the  same  danger,  not  infrequently  overstepping  the 
bounds  of  reverential  awe,  and  so  tending  to  reproduce  the  blind 
ness  of  those  who  wept  for  Christ  when  their  own  desperate  con 
dition  alone  called  for  tears  ! 

The  Collects.    1552.    '  The  Collect,'  1549. 

(1)  Sar  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

(2)  Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

In  the  Roman  Missal  there  are  eight  Collects  for  Good  Friday : 
for  the  Church,  the  Pope,  the  Monarchy,  Catechumens,  those 
in  Tribulation,  Heretics,  the  Jews,  and  Pagans. 

(3)  1549 ;   ideas  found   in   three   Collects  in  Sar.  Miss.,  Sac. 
Gel.,  Sac.  Greg. 

In  1549  a  rubric  directs  the  use  of  the  last  two  '  at  the  Com 
munion,'  the  first  one  only  being  '  The  Collect.'  This  rubric 
was  not  preserved  in  1552. 

The  first  refers  to  the  Church  as  the  family  of  the  redeemed ; 

the  second  to  the  Church  as  a  living  organism;  while 

the  last  embraces  all  outside  the  Church. 

It  is  a  strange  confusion  of  thought  which  imagines  that  the 
mention  of  Jews  and  Heretics  in  conjunction  with  Turks  (Moham 
medans)  and  Infidels  groups  them  into  one  class.  Their  separate 
enumeration  distinguishes  them  in  all  but  the  one  respect  of 
rejection  of  Jesus  Christ  as  Lord  and  Saviour.  A  more  valid 
objection  to  all  the  three  Collects  is  their  omission  on  Good  Friday 
of  any  direct  reference  to  the  Redemption.  Here,  at  any  rate, 
the  Collects  do  not  summarize  the  teaching  of  the  Epistle  and 
Gospel  for  the  day. 

The  Epistle.    Heb.  x.  1-25,  1549. 

The  Gospel.  John  xix.  1-37,  1662 ;  Sar.  Miss.,  xviii.  1-xix. 
37 ;  1549,  xviii.  1-xix.  42. 

EASTER  EVEN. 

The  Collect.  1662.  A  revision  of  one  in  the  Scotch  Liturgy, 
probably  by  Laud.  It  somewhat  resembles  a  Collect  for  this 
day  in  the  old  Gallican  Missal. 


EASTER   DAY  171 

There  was  no  special  Collect  from  1549  to  1662. 

The  S.L.  Collect  was  as  follows,  the  chief  portions  omitted  or 
varied  in  1662  being  in  brackets  : 

0  (most  gracious)  God,  (look  upon  us  in  mercy,  and)  grant 
that  as  we  are  baptized  into  the  death  of  thy  Son  our  Saviour 
Jesus  Christ ;  so  by  (our  true  and  hearty  repentance  all  our 
sins)  may  be  buried  with  him,  (and  we  not  fear  the  grave) ; 
(that  as  Christ  was  raised  up  from  the  dead  by  the  glory  of  thee, 
0  Fat  er,  so  we  also  may  walk  in  newness  of  life,  but  our  sins 
never  be  able  to  rise  in  judgment  against  us)  and  that,  for  the 
merit  of  Jesus  Christ  that  died,  was  buried,  and  rose  again  for 
us. 

The  fanciful  idea  in  the  above  of  '  burial  of  sins  '  by  repentance 
is  exchanged  for  the  revealed  truth  of  the  burial  of  the  believer 
through  death  unto  sin  ;  and  by  the  words  '  through  the  grave 
and  gate  of  death,  we  may  pass  to  our  joyful  resurrection,'  the 
idea  of  silencing  our  sins  as  accusers  by  holiness  of  life  is  excluded. 

'As  we  are  baptized.'  The  reference  to  Baptism,  though  directly 
taken  from  Holy  Scripture,  recalls  the  primitive  custom  of  making 
Easter  Eve  one  of  the  piincipal  times  for  that  rite.  The  catechu 
mens  were  prepared  during  Lent,  clad  in  white  garments  called 
chrisoms,  as  a  symbol  of  their  having  put  on  Christ. 

The  Collect  in  Sar.  Miss,  is  based  upon  this  custom  : — 

0  God,  who  dost  illuminate  this  most  holy  night  by  the  glory 
of  our  Lord's  resurrection,  preserve  in  the  children  newly  brought 
into  thy  family  the  spirit  of  adoption  which  thou  hast  given, 
that  being  renewed  both  in  body  and  mind,  they  may  render 
unto  thee  a  pure  service,  through  the  same  our  Lord. 

In  the  opening  words  there  may  have  been  an  allusion  to  the 
custom  of  lighting  torches  and  lamps  on  Easter  Eve  in  churches 
and  private  houses,  said  to  have  been  in  vogue  early  in  the 
fourth  century.  The  lighting  of  the  '  new  fire  '  on  this  day  is 
still  practised  in  Jerusalem  and  elsewhere  in  the  East. 

The  Epistle.     1  Pet.  iii.  17-22,  1549  ;   Sar.  Miss.,  Col.  iii.  1-4. 

The  Gospel.  Matt,  xxvii.  57-66,  1549 ;  Sar.  Miss.,  xxviii. 
1-7. 

EASTER  DAY.* 

Observed  from  very  early  times,  but  cf.  Socrates  (fifth  century): 
'  The  Apostles  had  no  thought  of  appointing  festival  days,  but 
of  promoting  a  life  of  blamelessness  and  piety.  And  it  seems 

*  All  other  movable  Feasts  and  Holy  Days  depend  upon  this  date. 
The  rules  for  finding  Easter  are  fully  set  out  and  explained  in  pp.  57  ff. 
For  the  controversy  respecting  the  time  of  observance,  etc.,  see  pp.  41,  2. 


172  THE    COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,   AND   GOSPELS 

to  me  that  the  Feast  of  Easter  has  been  introduced  into  the 
Church  from  some  old  usage,  just  as  many  other  customs  have 
been  established  '  ('  Eccles.  Hist.,'  I.  xxii.  bk.  v.  :  quoted  from 
Blakeney,  p.  229). 

The  Anthems.    Rubric,  1552. 

1549.  In  the  morning,  afore  Matins,  the  people  being 
assembled  in  the  Church,  these  Anthems  shall  be  first 
solemnly  sung  or  said. 

The  Anthems.  1549 ;  except  the  first,  1662,  when  chapter 
and  verse  were  also  added  and  A.V.  used. 

The  first  was  in  the  Anthem  Book  of  Gregory,  without  the 
phrase,  '  Not  with  the  old  leaven,  nor  with  the  leaven  of  malice 
and  wickedness.'  It  came  in  the  Epistle  in  Sar.  Miss. 

The  second,  Antiphonar.  Greg.,  in  Communionem ;  Sar.  Brev. 
'  before  Matins' ;  used  a' so  in  Sar.  Miss.  In  1549  the  two  clauses 
closed  with  '  Hallelujah  '  (twice  repeated  after  the  first  clause), 
the  whole  being  followed  by  the  following  Versicles  and  Collect  : — 

The  Priest.     Shew  forth  to  all  nations  the  glory  of  God. 

The  Answer.    And  among  all  people  his  wonderful  works. 

Let  us  pray. 

0  God,  who  for  our  redemption  didst  give  thine  only  begotten 
Son  to  the  death  of  the  cross  ;  and  by  his  glorious  resurrection 
hast  delivered  us  from  the  power  of  our  enemy  ;  Grant  us  so  to 
die  daily  from  sin,  that  we  may  evermore  live  with  him,  in  the 
joy  of  his  resurrection ;  through  the  same  Christ  our  Lord. 
Amen. 

These,  with  the  Hallelujahs,  were  om'tted  in  1552.  They  were 
divided  according  to  verses  of  the  Bible,  and  the  Gloria  added, 
in  1662. 

The  Collect.     1549,  Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  and  Sac.  Greg. 
The  provision  for  Easter-tide  has  undergone  some  variations 
of  arrangement  : — 

1549.  Two  Collects,  Epistles,  and  Gospels,  for  first  and 
second  Communion. 

The  first  Collect  to  be  repeated  on  Monday  in  Easter 
Week ;  the  second  on  Tuesday,  and  on  the  First  Sunday 
after  Easter. 

1552.  Only  the  first  Collect,  Epistle,  and  Gospel  retained 
for  Easter  Day. 

The  first  Collect  to  be  used  on  Monday  and  the  follow 
ing  Sunday ;  the  second  to  be  used  on  Tuesday  only. 
1662.     The  first  Collect  to  be  used  through  the  whole  of 
Easter  Week;   the  second  Collect  to  be  used  on  and 
from  the  Sunday  after  Easter. 


MONDAY   IN   EASTER    WEEK  173 

The  Second  Epistle  and  Gospel  of  1549, 1  Cor.  v.  6  ff.,  and  Mark 
xvi.  1  ff.,  have  not  been  used  in  connexion  with  Easter  since  1552. 

The  first  part  of  the  Collect  for  Easter  Day  is  by  Gelasius, 
the  second  by  Gregory.  Gelasius'  Collect  simply  asked  tliat 
through  the  renewing  of  the  Spirit  we  may  rise  from  the  death 
of  the  soul.  Gregory's  revision,  with  its  reference  to  '  grace 
preventing  us,'  was  probably  made  to  meet  the  Pelagian  heresy. 

The  connexion  of  the  petition  of  this  Collect  with  the  opening 
portion  is  not  obvious.  It  has  the  merit  of  associating  a  con 
sistent  Christian  life  with  the  Resurrection,  but  seems  inadequate 
to  the  greatest  Festival  of  the  Christian  year. 

The  Epistle.  Col.  iii.  1-7,  1549 ;  Sar.  Miss.  (Easter  Eve), 
Col.  iii.  1-4. 

The  Gospel.  John  xx.  1-10,  1549 ;  Sar.  Miss.  (Saturday 
after  Easter),  xx.  1-9. 

In  the  Sar.  M  ss.  the  Gospels  for  Easter-tide  seem  to  have  been 
appointed  to  secure  the  reading  of  all  the  accounts  of  the  Resur 
rection,  beginning  with  St.  Matthew's  on  Easter  Even. 

MONDAY  IN  EASTER  WEEK. 

It  is  the  custom  in  some  quarters  to  speak  of  the  '  Octave ' 
of  certain  Festivals,  but  B.C.P.  does  not  use  the  term,  and  makes 
no  provision  for  the  observance  of  any  days  in  Easter  Week 
save  Monday  and  Tuesday.  Augustine  and  Chrysostom  speak 
of  the  Octave  of  Easter,  i.e.  the  observance  of  the  eighth  day 
of  the  Festival.  The  Code  of  Theodosius  prescribed  cessation 
of  work  for  the  whole  week  This  is  an  instance  of  the  practice, 
which  developed  so  largely  in  later  days,  of  multiplying  holidays 
until  they  fostered  an  indo^nt  spirit  in  the  worker  by  their 
serious  interference  in  the  daily  occupations  of  the  people.  Under 
the  changed  conditions  of  life  prevailing  to-day,  the  provision 
for  three  days  after  Christmas,  two  days  after  Easter  and  Whit 
suntide,  and  the  whole  of  Holy  Week,  seems  more  than  ample  ; 
but  at  the  time  when  the  changes  were  made  they  were  very 
sweeping,  and  were  so  regarded.  The  most  obvious  spiritual 
calamity  attaching  to  the  multiplication  of  days  of  observance, 
is  that  degradation  of  the  one  day  in  seven  which  has  always 
accompanied  over-strict  enforcement  of  their  observance. 

The  Collect.  As  on  Easter  Day,  1549  (the  former  of  the  two 
then  appointed). 

For  the  Epistle.  Acts  x.  34-43,  1549  ;  Sar.  Miss.  (Tuesday 
in  Easter  Week). 

The  Gospel.    Luke  xxiv.  13-35,  1549. 


174  THE    COLLECTS    EPISTLES,   AND   GOSPELS 

TUESDAY  IN  EASTER  WEEK. 

The  Collect.  As  on  Easter  Day,  1662.  In  15i9  and  1552  the 
second  Easter  Collect  was  appointed. 

For  the  Epistle.  Acts  xiii.  26-41,  1549  ;  Sar.  Miss.  (Wednesday 
in  Easter  Week). 

The  Gospel.    Luke  xxiv.  36-48,  1549. 

The  American  Revision  Committee  suggested  a  return  to  the 
pre-Reformation  use  of  having  special  Collects  for  these  two  days, 
and  Collects  were  prepared,  but  the  suggestion  was  not  adopted. 

THE  FIRST  SUNDAY  AFTER  EASTER. 

Other  names  given  to  this  day  are  : 

(1)  Dominica   in   Albis — '  The  Lord's  Day  in  White,'    from 
the  newly  baptized  wearing,  for  the  last  time,  the  white  robes, 
or  chrisoms,  worn  during  Easter  Week.     The   robes  were  then 
deposited  in  the  Church. 

(2)  '  Low  Sunday.'     It  was  customary  to  repeat  some  of  the 
'  Paschal  solemnities,'  thus   making  it  a  special  feast,  though 
of  a  lower  degree  than  Easter  Day.     Another  explanation  of 
the  term  is  that  '  Low  '  is  a  corruption  of  Laudes,  the  Sequence 
for  the  day  beginning  Laudes  Salvatori. 

(3)  The  French  have  a  name, '  Paque  close ' — Pascha  clauswn, 
because  on  this  day  the  Easter  celebrations  ended. 

(4)  The  Greek  Church  calls  the  day  '  New  Sunday,'  the  refer 
ence  being  to  the  new  life  en'ered  upon  by  the  newly  baptized. 

The  Collect.  1549.  Origin  unknown ;  based  on  second  Easter 
Epistle  of  1549,  with  which  it  was  then  used  1  Cor.  v.  7,  8 ; 
the  second  Collect  for  Easter  Day  in  1549. 

1552.     Only  used  on  Tuesday  in  Easter  Week. 
1662.     Restored  as  Collect  for  this  Sunday. 

'  Almighty  Father.'  A  form  of  invocation  occurring  nowhere 
else  among  the  Collects. 

The  Epistle.     1  John  v.  4-12,  1549;    Sar.  Miss.,  4-10.. 

The  Gospel.     John  xx.  19-23,  1549. 

The  Gospel  in  Sar.  Miss,  included  vers.  24-31,  containing  the 
appearance  to  Thomas,  and  the  two  final  verses  of  the  chapter. 
The  compilers  in  1549  omitted  the  last  eight  verses,  the  first 
seven  of  which  now  form  the  Second  Lesson  at  Evening  Prayer 
on  this  day. 

THE  SECOND  SUNDAY  AFTER  EASTER. 

The  Collect.    1549. 

The  old  Collect  in  Sar.  Miss,  was  : — • 

0   God,  who  by  thy  Son's  humbling  himself,  hast  raised   up 


THE   FOURTH   SUNDAY   AFTER   EASTER  175 

a  fallen  world  ;  Grant  unto  thy  faithful  people  perpetual  joy, 
that  they  whom  thou  hast  snatched  from  the  dangers  of  perpetual 
death,  may  be  brought  by  thee  to  the  fruition  of  eternal  joys ; 
through  the  same. 

'  For  it  the  Reformers  substituted  one  of  more  solid  excellence. 
This  prayer  .  .  .  summarizes  the  whole  benefit  of  the  Redemp 
tion,  as  consisting  in  the  provision  of  a  sin  offering,  and  of  a 
perfect  example  '  (Goulburn).  One  could  wish  that  the  framers 
of  such  a  Collect  had  forsaken  models,  however  ancient,  in  pro 
viding  for  Holy  Week  and  Good  Friday. 

'  Thine  only  Son  '  ;  in  original  draft,  and  in  all  editions  until 
1596,  '  thy  hobj  Son' ;  '  no  doubt  a  printer's  error  '  (Goulburn). 

'  Daily  endeavour  ourselves  ' ;  a  reflexive  use  of  the  verb,  now 
no  longer  in  use  ;  cf.  Ordination  Services  :  '  I  will  endeavour 
myself  .  .  .  the  Lord  being  my  helper.' 

The  Epistle.    1  Pet.  ii.  19-25,  1549  ;    Sar.  Miss.,  21-25. 

The  Gospel.     John  x.  11-16,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

1549,  'Christ  said';  1662,  'Jesus  said'  prefixed  ;  Sar.  Miss., 
dixit  Jesus. 

In  the  Black  Letter  Prayer  Book  the  words  '  Christ  said  ' 
are  printed,  not  in  black  letter,  but  in  Roman  type,  in  accordance 
with  King  James'  Letter  in  CardwelPs  Conf.,  p.  218  :  '  These 
words  (Christe  seyde)  to  be  printed  in  letters  differing  from  the 
text.'  Compare  the  use  of  italics  in  A.V.  for  a  similar  reluctance 
to  place  human  additions,  however  needed  for  sense,  on  a  level 
with  the  actual  words  of  Holy  Writ. 

THE  THIRD  SUNDAY  AFTER  EASTER. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Leo,  Sac.  Gel.,  1549. 

'  The  Way '  stood  alone  in  Sac.  Leo ;  '  of  righteousness  '  was 
added  by  Gregory. 

'  May  return  '  ;    Lat.  possint  redire  :  '  may  be  able  to  return.' 

'  Admitted  into  the  fellowship  of  Christ's  religion ' :  Lat.  qui 
Christiana  professions  censentur  :  '  who  are  rated,  estimated, 
according  to  their  Christian  profession.' 

'  Esche  v ' ;  Lat.  respuere :  '  to  eject  from  the  mouth ' ;  cf.  Rev. 
ii.  16. 

The  Epistle.    1  Pet.  ii.  11-17,  1549;    Sar.  Miss.,  11-19. 

The  Gospel.    John  xvi.  16-22,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  FOURTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  EASTER. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

1662.     '  Which  dost  make  the  minds  of  all  faithful  men  to 
be  of  one  will,'  as  in  the  original  Latin,  altered  to  '  who 


1 76  THE   COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,   AND    GOSPELS 

alone  canst  order  the  unruly  wills  and  affections  of 
sinful  men.'  This  more  sad  opening  may  be  an  inten 
tional  reflection  of  the  divided  state  of  English  Chris 
tianity  at  the  time. 

The  Epistle.    Jas.  i.  17-21,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    John  xvi.  5-14,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549 

THE  FIFTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  EASTER. 

Also  called,  though  not  in  B.C.P.,  '  Rogation  Sunday,'  because 
the  three  Rogation  Days,  '  Days  of  Asking,'  immediately  follow 
it  (see  p.  55). 

There  is  some  appropriateness  to  the  idea  of  Rogation -tide  in 
the  opening  words  of  the  Collect,  and  in  the  Gospel.  The  Gospel 
also  announces  the  Ascension,  commemorated  on  the  following 
Thursday. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

The  only  deviation  of  any  importance  from  the  original  is 
the  substitution  of  the  more  inclusive  word  '  good  '  for  '  right ' : 
'  think  those  things  that  be  good.' 

The  Epistle.    Jas.  i.  22-27,  Sar.  Miss.    1549. 

The  Gospel.    John  xvi.  23-33,  1549 ;    Sar.  Miss.,  23-30. 

THE  ASCENSION-DAY. 

The  Title.     '  The  '  omitted  1559,  restored  1662. 

This  Festival  was  observed  from  earliest  times,  according  to  St. 
Augustine,  who  reckons  it  with  Good  Friday,  Easter,  and  Whitsun 
tide.  In  modern  times  Christmas  would  be  acknowledged  to  be 
of  more  general  and  more  definite  observance,  partly,  at  any  rate, 
because  of  the  exigencies  of  da  ly  life,  which  permit  of  a  public 
holiday  at  Christmas  tide  more  easily  than  in  the  days  before 
the  Whitsun  tide  holiday.  On  the  Continent  Ascension  Day  is 
still  a  public  holiday,  especially  in  France.  The  Ascension  of 
our  Lord  is  hardly  sufficiently  emphasized,  and,  so  far  as  a  more 
strict  observance  of  Ascension  Day  is  calculated  to  remedy  that 
defect,  such  fuller  observance  is  desirable. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac,  Greg.,  1549. 

The  Sarum  Collect  varies  considerably  from  the  Gelasian,  to 
which  the  1549  Collect  is  a  return,  laying  stress,  as  they  both 
do;  upon  the  effort  to  attain  to  dwelling  in  heaven,  as  well  as 
upon  the  spiritual  ascension  of  believers. 

For  the  Epist'e.    Acts  i.  1-11,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.     Mark  xvi.  14-20,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 


WHIT-SUNDAY  177 

SUNDAY  AFTER  ASCENSION-DAY. 

The  Title.  1604  :  1549,  '  The  Sunday  after  the  Ascension- 
Day  '  ;  formerly  called  Dominica  Expectationis  :  '  Waiting 
Sunday,'  as  coming  within  the  ten  days  of  waiting  between 
Ascension-Day  and  Whit  Sunday. 

The  Collect.    1549. 

The  Sarum  Collect  made  no  allusion  to  the  Ascension :  'Almighty 
and  everlasting  God,  make  us  always  to  have  a  will  devoted  unto 
thee,  and  to  serve  thy  majesty  with  sincerity  of  heart ;  through 
the  Lord.' 

The  compilers  worked  into  the  present  Collect  part  of  a  beautiful 
antiphon  which  formed  a  part  of  the  ancient  Vespers  for  Ascension- 
Day,  and  which  was  used  by  Bede  on  his  death-bed  :  '  0  Lord, 
Kiug  of  glory,  Lord  of  virtues,  who  to-day  didst  ascend  in 
triumph  above  all  heavens,  do  not  leave  us  orphans,  but  send 
upon  us  the  promise  of  the  Father,  even  the  Spirit  of  Truth.' 
The  Greek  6/o<£arors  in  John  xiv.  18,  is  translated  '  comfortless ' 
in  A.V.,  as  in  this  Collect ;  E.V.  '  desolate' ;  '  orphans  '  in  margin 
A.V.  and  E.V.  This  antiphon  is  addressed  to  God  the  Son  ;  the 
Collect,  to  God  the  Father. 

The  Epistle.    1  Pet.  iv.  7-11,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.     John  xv.  26-xvi.  4a,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

WHIT-SUNDAY. 

The  name  '  Whit- Sunday  '  is  variously  explained  : — 
(1)  White  Sunday,  from  the  chrisom,  or  white  baptismal  gar 
ment,  assumed  by  English  baptismal  candidates  on  that  day  in 
preference  to  Easter  Day.  Evan  Daniel  argues  strongly  for  this 
explanation,  appealing  to  (a)  the  history  of  the  word  as  it  is  used 
in  Mediaeval  documents  and  Service  books  ;  (&)  the  Icelandic  and 
Welsh  names  for  the  day,  which  both  mean '  White  Sunday  '  ;  and 
(c)  the  analogy  of  Saxon  words  and  proper  names,  e.g.  Whitlow, 
Whitchurch,  all  meaning  '  White.'  Eeferring  to  the  mode  of 
printing  the  word  Evan  Daniel  says  :  '  The  facsimile  of  the  House 
of  Lords'  MS.  of  the  Prayer  Book  of  1662  has  "  Whit-Sunday  " 
in  all  five  places  where  the  word  occurs.  Modern  Prayer  Books 
vary  greatly.  The  division  of  the  word  by  a  hyphen  after 
Whitsun  should  be  abandoned,  in  spite  of  the  term  ''  Whitsun- 
Week  "  in  B.C.P.,  where,  however,  the  hyphen  is  wanting  in 
correctly  printed  books.  By  analogy,  the  term  ''  Whitsun  tide  " 
has  come  into  popular  use,  but  its  cognates  ''  Whitsun-Monday  " 
and  "  Whitsun-Tuesday  "  are  happily  dead  or  dying.' 
The  objection  to  this  derivation,  viz.  that  the  real  White 

M 


i;8  THE   COLLECTS,   EPISTLES,   AND   GOSPELS 

Sunday  (Dominica  m  Albis)  is  the  First  Sunday  after  Easter, 
is  met  by  the  argument  that  the  Northern  Churches  preferred 
the  later  date  of  Pentecost  for  their  great  Baptismal  Sundays 
from  considerations  of  climate. 

(2)  The  day  was  called  Whit-Sunday  because  '  wit,'  i.e.  under 
standing   and  wisdom,  was  given  to  the  Apostles  at  Pentecost. 
This  derivation  is  only  a  plausible  conjecture,  unsupported  by 
any  reliable  evidence. 

(3)  '  Whitsun  '  is  said  by  Neale  and  other  liturgiologists  to  be 
derived  from  the  German  Pfingsten,  in  itself  a  corrupt  form  of 
'Pentecost,'  i.e.  Fiftieth  Day. 

The  original  name,  '  Pentecost,'  fiftieth,  from  the  N.T.  name 
of  fche  Jewish  Festival,  is  still  largely  used  for  Whit-Sunday. 
The  Jews  were  bidden  to  keep  the  feast  on  the  fiftieth  day  from 
the  morrow  of  the  sabbath  after  the  Passover,  to  commemorate 
the'  ingathering  of  the  first-fruits  of  the  harvest,  two  loaves 
from  the  new  harvest  being  ceremonially  offered  at  this  feast 
(Lev.  xxiii.  15-22).* 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

'  To  have  a  right  judgment  in  all  things ' ;  Lat.  recta  sapere. 
The  word  sapere  =  first, '  taste,'  cf. '  savour  ' ;  then, '  to  have  good 
taste,  discernment,'  finally,  '  to  be  wise.'  The  address  to  God 
without  an  interjection,  and  the  ending,  are  peculiar  to  this 
Collect. 

The  Epistle.    Acts  ii.  1-11,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

The  Gospel.     John  xiv.  15-31,  1549  ;    Sar.  Miss.,  23-31. 

MONDAY  IN  WHITSUN  WEEK. 

The  Collect.    As  for  Whit-Sunday. 

In  Sar.  Miss,  there  were  special  Collects  for  Monday  and 
Tuesday  ;  it  was  proposed  to  have  such  in  the  American  B.C.P. 
(1883),  but  the  proposal  was  not  adopted. 

The  Epistle.    Acts  x.  34^48,  1549  ;    Sar.  Miss.,  for  Tuesday. 

For  The  Gospel.    John  iii.  16-21,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

TUESDAY  IN  WHITSUN  WEEK. 

The  Collect.    As  for  Whit-Sunday. 

For    the    Epistle.    Acts  viii.  14-17,   1549 ;    Sar.  Miss.,  for 
Wednesday. 
The  Gospel.    John  x.  1-10,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

*  It  has  been  roughly  calculated  from  Exod.  xix.  1  that  the  giving  of 
the  Law  took  place  fifty  days  after  the  original  Passover,  and  later  rabbini 
cal  writers  enlarge  upon  the  point.  There  is  no  trace  of  the  idea  in  Holy 
Scripture  or  in  Josephus. 


THE   FIRST   SUNDAY   AFTER    TRINITY  179 

TRINITY  SUNDAY. 

The  Church  of  England  seems  to  have  led  the  way  in  the 
observance  of  this  Festival,  but  the  fact  that  the  Collect  is  the 
one  appointed  for  the  Sunday  after  Whitsunday  in  Sac.  Greg, 
indicates  that  the  idea  of  specially  considering  the  subject  of 
the  Blessed  Trinity  on  this  day  was  early  introduced  into  the 
Western  Church.  The  word  '  Trinity '  dates  from  180  A.D. 
Durandus  gives  834  as  the  date  of  the  institution  of  the  Festival, 
when  Gregory  IV  was  Pope.  Pope  Alexander  II  (1061-1073) 
discouraged  its  observance  as  unnecessary,  seeing  that  in  every 
day's  worship  the  Trinity  was  recognized,  and  Alexander  III 
(1179)  said  there  was  no  day  in  the  Eoman  Calendar  set  apart 
for  this  commemoration.  Other  authorities  state  that  Thomas 
a  Becket,  who  was  consecrated  on  this  day  in  1162,  first  ordained 
its  observance  in  honour  of  the  Holy  Trinity.  Its  general  obser 
vance  was  certainly  enjoined  by  the  Synod  of  Aries  (1260),  and 
its  observance  was  formally  ordered  by  Pope  John  XXII  (1324). 
The  Church  of  England  follows  the  Sarum  Use  in  reckoning  the 
succeeding  Sundays  from  Trinity  Sunday ;  in  the  Greek  and 
Roman  Churches  they  are  called  '  Sundays  after  Pentecost.' 

.  In  the  Eastern  Church  this  Sunday  ia  kept  as  the  Festival  of 
All  Martyrs. 

The  Collect.  Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549;  slightly  altered 
1662. 

1549.     That    through  the    stedfastness  of    this   faith,  we 

may  evermore  be  defended,  etc. 

1662.     That  thou  wouldest  keep  us  stedfast  in  this   faith, 
and  evermore  defend  us,  etc. 

'  By  the  confession  of  a  true  faith  ...  in  the  power  of  the 
Divine  Majesty '  ;  Lat.  in  confessione  verce  fidei  .  .  .  in  potentia 
Majestatis — the  prepositions  being  the  same  in  both  clauses. 
The  balance  of  the  Collect  is  lost  by  the  translation  '  by '  and 
'  in,'  and  the  latter  is  ambiguous.  '  By '  is  certainly  right ;  it 
alone  gives  a  clear  meaning.  We  acknowledge  the  Blessed 
Trinity  by  our  faithful  confession ;  we  adore  the  One  God  by  the 
prompting  of  His  infinite  power. 

The  Epistle.    Rev.  iv.  1-11,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    John  iii.  1-15,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  FIRST  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Title.  In  1549,  1552,  '  The  First  Sunday  after  Trinity 
Sunday.'  The  full  title  of  the  First  Sunday  after  Trinity  in  the 
Roman  Church  is  '  The  Sunday  after  the  Octave  of  the  Holy 
Sacrament,  or  the  Second  Sunday  after  Pentecost.' 


i8o  THE    COLLECTS     EPISTLES,   AND   GOSPELS 

The  Collect.  Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1519;  slightly 
altered  1662. 

The  labours  of  Gelasius  to  extirpate  the  Pelagian  heresy  lend 
peculiar  emphasis  to  the  words  '  through  the  weakness  of  our 
mortal  nature.' 

The  Epistle.    1  John  iv.  7-21,  1549 ;    Sar.  Miss.,  9-21. 
The  Gospel.    Luke  xvi.  19-31,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  SECOND  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Title.  1549,  1552,  the  words  'after  Trinity'  omitted 
from  the  Second  Sunday  after  Trinity  onwards. 

The  Collect.  Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549;  trans 
posed  in  1662  to  make  it  uniform  with  other  Collects  ;  the  original 
began  with  the  petition,  and  closed  with  the  ground  of  appeal. 

Considerable  freedom  was  used  in  rendering  the  original  Collect 
into  English  :  '  Sancti  nominis  tui,  Domine,  timorem  pariter  et 
amorem  fac  nos  habere  perpetuum  ;  quia  nunquam  tua  guber- 
natiore  destituis  quos  in  soliditate  tuse  dilectionis  instituis.  Per 
Donrnv.m.'  'Stedfast  fear  and  love'  can  only  mean  man's  love 
to  God ;  the  original  speaks  of  man's  being  established  '  in  the 
firmness  of  God's  love  for  man.' 

The  Epistle.    1  John  iii.  13-24,  1549 ;   Sar.  Miss.,  13-18, 
The  Gospel.    Luke  xiv.  16-24,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  THIRD  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.;  altered  1GG2. 

1662.     '  And  comforted    in    all    dangers    and    adversities ' 
added. 

The  Epistle.     1  Pet.  v.  5-11,  1549  ;    Sar.  Miss.,  6-11. 
The  Gospel.    Luke  xv.  1-10,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  FOURTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

'Things  temporal';  bona  temporalia.  '  temporal  good  things.' 
The  contrast  .  between  '  temporal  good  things  '  and  '  eternal 
good  things '  is  lost  by  the  translation,  which  contrasts  temporal 
things,  good  and  bad,  with  eternal  good  things.  The  clear  warn 
ing  of  the  original  against  contentment  with,  and  misuse  of,  the 
good  things  of  time  is  sacrificed  to  the  definite  warning  against 
misuse  of  this  life  generally. 

The  Epistle.    Rom.  viii.  18-23,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

The  Gospel.    Luke  vi.  36-42,  Sar.  Miss.    1549. 


THE   SIXTH   SUNDAY   AFTER    TRINITY  181 

THE  FIFTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Leo,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

In  the  original  :  '  Grant  to  us,  Lord,  we  beseech  thee,  that 
both  the  course  of  this  world  may  be  directed  (dirigatur)  peaceably 
for  us  by  thy  ordinance,  and  that  thy  Church  (ecclesia)  may  rejoice 
with  tranquil  devoutness  (tranquilla  devotione).'  The  Reformers 
have  escaped  the  somewhat  selfish  suggestion  by  omitting  '  for 
us,'  and  have  made  clear  the  latent  idea  of  the  original,  that 
peace  on  earth  enhances  the  Church's  opportunities  of  service, 
by  fusing  the  two  co-ordinate  sentences  of  the  original  into  one 
compound  sentence,  '  so  '.  .  .  that  .  .  .  . '  Ecclesia  was  trans 
lated  '  congregation  '  in  1549,  '  people  '  in  S.L.,  '  Church  '  in 
1662. 

The  Epistle.     1  Pet.  iii.  8-15,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    Luke  v.  1-11,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  SIXTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

'  Such  good  things  as  pass  man's  understanding ' ;  Lat.  bona 
invisibilia  ;  cf. '  Eye  hath  not  seen,'  etc.  (1  Cor.  ii.  9).  The  trans 
lation,  by  borrowing  the  phrase  from  Phil.  iv.  7,  '  which  passeth 
all  understanding,'  avoided  the  mistake,  still  commonly  made 
in  using  the  former  passage,  of  ignoring  the  fact  that  these  '  good 
things '  have  been  revealed  to  us  by  the  Spirit.  The  connexion 
with  Phil.  iv.  7  has  been  obscured  by  the  omission  of  '  all '  before 
'  man's  understanding,'  in  1662. 

'  Above  all  things ' ;  Lat.  in  omnibus  et  super  omnia :  '  in  all 
things  and  above  all  things';  1549,  '  in  all  things.'  The  com 
bination,  agreeable  enough  in  the  Latin,  is  overweighted  in 
English.  It  is  difficult  to  decide  between  the  two  selections  of 
1549  and  1602 :  the  latter  is  more  smooth  to  our  ears,  but  the 
former  displays  deeper  insight  into  the  difficulties  of  the  spiritual 
life.  Difficult  as  it  is  to  put  God  first,  it  is  even  more  subtly 
difficult  to  love  Him  unfalteringly  in  all  circumstances  of  joy 
or  sorrow. 

'  That  love  thee  .  .  .  love  towards  thee  .  .  .  loving  thee ' ; 
Lat.  diliyentibus  te  .  .  .  affeclum  tui  amoris  .  .  .  diligentes.  The 
poverty  of  the  English  tongue  is  here  painfully  apparent.  The 
love  owned  of  God  is  set  forth  in  the  original  as  active  (cf. 
'  diligent '),  all  idea  of  passion  being  absent ;  cf.  Greek,  (far  more 
rich  than  English  or  Latin),  aydTrrj,  i.e. '  admiring,  respecting,  love,' 
corresponding  to  the  love  here  mentioned,  and  always  used  of 
God  to  man,  e.g.  John  iii.  16.  The  word  </><Aia,  a'most  friend 
ship,'  the  love  of  communion,  is  the  love  three  times  claimed  by 


1 82          THE   COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,   AND    GOSPELS 

Peter  in  John  xxi.,  where,  as  is  well  known,  the  translation  of 
the  two  words  by  the  one  English  word  seriously  affects  the 
meaning  of  the  whole  passage  ;  epw?,  love  between  the  sexes, 
is  never  used  in  Holy  Scripture.  Amor,  like  '  love,'  suffers  from 
its  use  for  all  affection,  highest  and  lowest. 

Affectum  tui  amoris  is  ambiguous,  tui  being  either  an  adjective 
or  a  pronoun,  it  may  mean  '  love  of  thy  love,'  i.e.  the  disposition 
of  heart  which  allows  God's  love  to  be  reflected  in  man's  heart : 
'  We  love  Him  because  He  first  loved  us  '  ;  or,  '  the  mood  (almost 
"  will ")  of  love  of  thee ' — '  the  mood  to  love  thee,'  an  equally 
needful  petition. 

The  Epistle.    Rom.  vi.  3-11,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

This  is  the  first  of  a  long  series  of  nineteen  Epistles  taken 
from  St.  Paul,  in  Biblical  order  save  on  the  Eighteenth  after 
Trinity,  when  the  order  is  broken. 

The  Gospel.    Matt.  v.  20-26,  1549;    Sar.  Miss.,  20-24. 

THE  SEVENTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.  Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.  ;  1549,  very 
freely  translated. 

This  Collect  is  worth  detailed  investigation  as  an  examp'e 
of  the  Reformers'  enrichment  of  prayers  already  rich. 

'  Deus  virtutum,  cujus  est  totum  quod  est  optimum,  insere 
pectoribus  nostris  amorem  tui  nominis,  et  praesta  in  nobis  re- 
ligionis  augmentum,  ut  quse  sunt  bona  nutrias,  ac  pietatis  studio 
quse  sunt  nutrita  custodias ' — '  God  of  virtues,  to  whom  belongeth 
all  that  is  best,  plant  in  our  breasts  love  of  thy  name,  and  furnish 
in  us  increase  of  religion,  that  thou  mayest  nourish  what  things 
are  good,  and  with  the  zeal  of  fatherly  love  guard  what  things 
are  nourished.' 

The  flow  of  the  English  Collect  best  justifies  the  freedom  of 
the' translation  as  a  whole;  the  changed  times  account  for  the 
insertion  of  '  true  '  before  '  religion  '  ;  '  author  and  giver  of  '  for 
'  to  whom  belongeth '  is  more  direct  and  more  close  to  Scripture 
(Jas.  i.  17) ;  '  nourish  us  '  and '  keep  us  '  are  preferable  to  '  nourish 
and  guard  '  impersonal  qualities ;  it  is  more  lowly  to  appeal  tc 
God's  '  great  mercy  '  than  to  His  '  zeal  of  fatherly  love.' 

The  Epistle.    Rom.  vi.  19-23,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    Mark  viii.  1-9,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  EIGHTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

Lat.  Deus,  cujus  providentia  in  sui   disposition    non  fallitur  : 


THE   ELEVENTH   SUNDAY   AFTER    TRINITY         163 

lit.  '  God,  whose  providence  is  not  deceived  in  the  management  of 
its  own.' 

1549.     God,  whose  providence  is  never  deceived. 

1662.  0  God,  whose  never-failing  providence  ordereth  all 
things  both  in  heaven  and  earth. 

The  Epistle.    Rom.  viii.  12-17,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    Matt.  vii.  15-21,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  NINTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Leo,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 
Lat.  ut  qui  sine  te  esse  non  possumus,  secundum  te  vivere  valeamus: 
1  that  we  who  without  thee  cannot  be,  may  be  strong  to  live  in 
accordance  with  thee.' 

1549.     That  we  which  cannot  be  without  thee  may  by  thee 

be  able  to  live  according  to  thy  will. 

1662.  That  we  who  cannot  do  anything  that  is  good  with 
out  thee,  may  by  thee  be  enabled  to  live  according  to 
thy  will. 

The  Epistle.    1  Cor.  x.  1-13,  1549;  Sar.  Miss.,  6-14. 
The  Gospel.    Luke  xvi.  1-9,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  TENTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.     Sar. 'Miss.,  Sac.  Leo,  Sac.  Gel.,  1549. 

The  English  Collect  followed  Gelasius  in  the  beginning,  then 
the  earlier  prayer  of  Leo. 

Sar.  Miss,  ut  petentibus  desiderata  concedas  :  '  that  thou  mayest 
grant  thy  petitioners  their  desires.'  The  change  in  the  English 
Collect,  '  that  they  may  obtain  their  petitions,'  is  in  every  way 
preferable.  It  is  not  God's  willingness  to  bestow,  but  man's 
capacity  to  receive,  which  undergoes  change. 

The  Epistle.     1  Cor.  xii.  1-11,  1549;  Sar.  Miss.,  2-12. 
The  Gospel.    Luke  xix.  41-47a,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  ELEVENTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

'  God, which  declarest  thy  almighty  power  most  chiefly  in  shewing 
mercy  and  pity ;  give  unto  us  abundantly  thy  grace,  that  we 
running  to  thy  promises,  may  be  made  partakers  of  thy  heavenly 
treasure.'  This  is  much  closer  to  the  original  than  the  present 
Collect,  the  only  marked  variation  being  '  give  unto  us  abun 
dantly  '  for  '  multiply  upon  us.'  It  is  at  least  open  to  question 
whether  '  mercifully  grant  unto  us  such  a  measure  of  thy  grace,' 
1662,  is  an  improvement.  '  Running  to  thy  promises,'  ad  tua 


1 84  TUB   COLLECTS,   EPISTLES,    AND   GOSPELS 

promissa  currentes,  is  only  allied  in  sound  to  the  '  running  the 
way  of  thy  commandments  '  of  1662  ;  the  change  quite  obscures 
the  important  teaching  that  God's  promises  themselves  need 
grace  for  their  attainment,  and  that  man  derives  from  promises, 
and  not  from  obedience  to  commandments,  the  assurance  of 
heaven. 

The  Epistle.    1  Cor.  xv.  1-11,  1549;  Sar.  Miss.,  1-10. 

The  Go  pel.    Luke  xviii.  9-14,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

Vers  9,  10  of  the  Epistle,  and  the  whole  Gospel,  fit  in  admir 
ably  with  the  original  Collect,  recognizing  that  the  ground  of 
acceptance  with  God  is  our  acceptance  of  His  grace,  rather  than 
conformity  with  ordinances. 

THE  TWELFTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.  Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Leo,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 
The  original  has  been  enriched,  greatly  in  1549,  somewhat 
also  in  1662.  Lat.  qui  abundantia  pietatis  luce  et  tnerita  supplicum 
excedis  et  vota  .  .  .  ut  dimittas  qua  conscientia  metuit,  et  adjicias 
qua  oratio  non  prcesumit — '  who  in  .  the  abundance  of  thy 
fatherly  love  exceedest  both  the  merits  and  the  desires  of  thy 
suppliants  .  .  .  that  thou  mayest  banish  the  things  which  con 
science  fears,  and  confer  the  things  which  prayer  does  not  presume 
(to  ask).' 

1549.  Which  art  always  more  ready  to  hear  than  we  to 
pray,  and  art  wont  to  give  more  than  either  we  desire 
or  deserve  .  .  .  forgiving  us  those  things  whereof  our 
conscience  is  afraid,  and  giving  us  that,  that  our  prayer 
c'are  not  presume  to  ask. 

1662.  The  last  clause  was  skilfully  rounded  off,  and  the  plead 
ing  of  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord  woven  into  it :  '  And 
giving  us  those  good  things  which  we  are  not  worthy 
to  ask,  but  through,'  etc. 

The  Epistle.    2  Cor.  iii.  4-9,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    Mark  vii.  31-37,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  THIRTEENTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Leo,  Sac.  Gel.,  1549. 

'  Of  whose  only  gift ' ;  Lat.  de  cujus  munere.  '  Only,'  i.e.  '  alone,' 
is  a  suggestive  addition  by  the  Reformers. 

'  True  and  laudable  service  ' ;  Lat.  digne  et  laudabiliter  serviatur. 
The  change  of  '  worthy  '  to  '  true  '  is  a  distinct  gain ;  our  best 
service  may  by  God's  grace  be  true,  i.e.  genuine ;  it  can  never  be 
worthy,  in  this  life. 

'  That  we  may  so  faithfully  serve  thee  in  this  life,  that  we  fail 


THE   FIFTEENTH   SUNDAY   AFTER    TRINITY        185 

•  ot  finally  to  attain  thy  heavenly  promises.'  As  in  the  Collect 
for  the  Eleventh  Sunday  after  Tr'nity,  this  1662  alteration  is 
certainly  justifiable.  The  original  is  '  that  we  may  run  to  thy 
promises  without  stumbling '  :  ut  ad  promissiones  tuas  sine 
offensione  curramus  ;  1549,  '  that  we  may  so  run  to  thy  heavenly 
promises,  that  we  fail  not  finally  to  obtain  the  same.'  It  is 
more  scripturally  accurate  to  speak  of  advancing  towards  promises 
so  as  to  attain  them,  than  to  suggest  their  attainment  by  any 
service,  however  faithful. 

The  Epistle.    Gal.  iii.  16-22,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    Luke  x.  23-37,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  FOURTEENTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss...  Sac.  Leo,  Sac.  Greg.,  Sac.  Gel,  1549. 

'  That  we  may  obtain  ' ;  Lat.  ut  mereamur  ad  sequi  :  '  that  we 
may  deserve  to  obtain.'  The  omission  of  '  deserve  to  '  in  1549 
is  significant ;  the  Roman  Use  still  retains  the  word.  The  history 
of  the  Reformation  is  wrapped  up  in  this  seemingly  minute 
alteration. 

The  Epistle.     Gal.  v.  16-24,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    Luke  xvii.  11-19,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  FIFTEENTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

'  From  all  things  hurtful '  inserted  in  1662  after  '  keep  us,'  from 
the  original  a  noxiis,  omitted  in  1549. 

c  By  thy  perpetual  mercy,'  1549.  The  original  has  '  by  thy 
perpetual  propitiation  (atonement),' — propitiatione  perpetua.  In 
early  days  this  may  only  have  meant  '  by  thy  propitiation  whose 
effects  are  perpetual ' ;  yet  even  so,  the  Church  is  not  kept  by 
the  atonement,  but  by  the  intercession  of  the  risen  Saviour, 
and  by  His  Holy  Spirit,  sent  in  virtue  of  the  Saviour's  exaltation 
to  power.  In  later  times  the  possibility  of  serious  error  scarcely 
needs  more  than  mention ;  '  perpetual  propitiation '  would 
suggest  one  thing  in  particular,  viz.  the  sacrifice  of  the  Mass. 
It  may  be  added  that,  apart  from  that  error,  there  is  a  dangerous 
ambiguity  in  using  the  adjective  '  perpetual '  with  the  atone 
ment  :  the  '  blood-shedding '  is  not  perpetual,  but  a  finished 
work,  though  the  application  of  the  blood  shed  to  the  individual, 
cleansing  from  all  unrighteousness,  is  continuous  till  this  dis 
pensation  closes. 

'  The  frailty  of  man  without  thee  cannot  but  fall ' ;  Lat.  sine 
te  labilur  humana  mortalitas :  '  without  thee  human  mortality 
slips.' 


i86  THE   COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,   AND   GOSPELS 

'  Profitable  to  our  salvation ' ;  Lat.  salutaria.  It  is  unfortunate 
that  the  word  '  salutary '  to-day  suggests  little  or  no  connexion 
with  salvation. 

The  Epistle.  Gal.  vi.  11-18,  1549;  Sar.  Miss.,  Gal.  v.  25- 
vi.  10. 

This  is  the  only  Epistle  for  the  Trinity  season  not  taken,  in 
whole  or  in  part,  from  the  earlier  Service  Books.  In  view  of 
the  alteration  of  '  perpetual  propitiation '  to  '  perpetual  mercy,' 
the  reason  for  the  change  is  not  far  to  seek.  St.  Paul's  directions 
to  mutual  service  are  exchanged  for  his  vigorous  assertion  of 
the  only  motive  for  such  service,  the  new  creation  in  Christ 
Jesus,  fulfilling  and  superseding  the  external  rites  which  fore 
shadowed  it. 

The  Gospel.    Matt.  vi.  24-34,  1549 ;  Sar.  Miss.,  24-33. 

THE  SIXTEENTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

1662,  'Church';  1549,  'congregation,'  Lat.  Ecdesia.  The 
word  '  congregation,'  common  in  Scripture  for  the  O.T.  Church 
as  a  whole,  has  become  appropriated  to  local  assemblies  of 
Christians. 

'  Continue  in  safety ' ;  Lat.  salva  consistere :  '  stand  safe.'  The 
change  to  '  continue  '  after  the  adjective  '  continual '  is  an  inten 
tional  violation  of  the  English  idiom,  in  order  to  emphasize  the 
concurrent  continuity  of  God's  pity  and  the  Church's  well-being. 

The  change  to  '  preserve,'  from  '  governed,'  Lat.  gubernetur, 
conserves  the  unity  of  thought  lost  in  the  original. 

The  Epistle.    Eph.  iii.   13-21,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

The  early  selection  of  this  Epistle  to  follow  the  above  Collect, 
would  seem  to  suggest  that  the  connexion  between  the  Collects 
and  Epistles  generally  is  not  intended  to  be  a  close  one.  Eph. 
ii.,  which  would  have  emphasized  the  Scriptural  idea  of  '  the 
Church,'  is  passed  over  for  the  present  passage  from  Eph.  iii.,  in 
which  the  Church  receives  only  incidental  mention  in  the  closing 
verse. 

The  Gospel.    Luke  vii.  11-17,  1549 ;    Sar.  Miss.,  11-16. 

THE  SEVENTEENTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

'  Prevent ' ;  Lat.  preveniat.  The  etymological  meaning  intended 
here  (and  elsewhere  in  B.C.P.)  has  only  survived  in  the  technical 
theological  phrase  :  '  prevenient  gra^e.'  The  idea  of  '  coming 
before '  to  help,  has  given  place  to  the  idea  of  coming  before  to 
hinder — '  prevent,'  in  our  modern  sense — a  sad  comment  upon 


THE  NINETEENTH   SUNDAY   AFTER    TRINITY      187 

human  experience.  The  Collect  for  Easter  Day  contains  a 
similar  reference  to  prevenient  grace,  but  here  the  idea  is  com 
pleted  by  the  addition  of  grace  which  follows  as  well  as  precedes. 

'  Continually ' ;  Lat.  jugiter, '  perennially,'  especially  of  the  flow 
ing  of  a  stream ;  the  root  seems  to  be  that  of  jungere,  '  to  join.' 

'  Given  to ' ;  Lat.  intentos,  a  slightly  different  idea. 

The  Epistle.    Eph.  iv.  1-6,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    Luke  xiv.  1-11,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  EIGHTEENTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

'  To  withstand  the  temptations  of  the  world,  the  flesh,  and  the 
devil,'  1662,  for  '  to  avoid  the  infections  of  the  devil,'  1549,  Lat. 
didbolica  vitare  contagia,  '  to  avoid  diabolical  intercourse  (con 
tact)  with  the  devil.'  The  substitution  of  '  temptations  of  the 
world,  the  flesh,  and  the  devil,'  a  phrase  peculiar  to  English 
Reformed  Offices  (cf.  Dowden's  Further  Studies,  pp.  254  ff.), 
compelled  the  change  from  '  avoid  '  to  '  withstand  ' ;  though 
contact,  i.e.  vicious  intercourse,  with  the  devil,  can  and  must 
be  avoided,  temptations  cannot  be  avoided,  but  must  be  withstood. 

'  With  pure  hearts  and  minds,'  1662  ;  '  heart  and  mind,'  1549, 
combines  Gregory's  pura  mente  with  puro  corde  of  Gelasius. 

'  Follow ' ;  Lat.  sectari,  '  to  pursue  eagerly,'  commonly  used  of 
hunting. 

The  Epistle.    1  Cor.  i.  4-8,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549 

Wheatley  thinks  that  the  selection  of  this  Epistle,  an  exception 
to  the  rule  that  the  Epistles  of  this  season  are  selected  in  Biblical 
order,  is  due  to  there  having  been  at  first  no  Epistle  and 
Gospel  appointed  for  this  Sunday ;  the  ceremonies  and  devotions 
of  the  Ordination  of  clergy,  which  took  place  on  the  Saturday 
evening,  being  prolonged  over  this  day,  such  Sunday  being  styled 
Dominica  vacans.  The  statement  is  not  convincing,  and  cannot 
be  accepted  as  proved,  although  it  is  true,  as  Wheatley  says,  that 
ver.  5  of  the  passage  selected  may  be  appropriately  applied  to 
newly  ordained  ministers  (Wheatley,  sect.  xxvi.  pp.  239,  240, 
1863). 

The  Gospel.    Matt.  xxii.  34-46.  1549  ;  Sar.  Miss.,  35-46. 

THE  NINETEENTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

The  Latin  Collect  commenced  with  the  petition,  and  concluded 
with  its  reason  ;  this  order  was  reversed  In  1549.  A  greater 
improvement  was  made  in  1662  :  '  the  working  of  thy  mercy,' 


r88  THE    COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,   AND   GOSPELS 

Lat.  operatio  tuce  miserationis,  being  happily  dropped  for  '  thy 
Holy  Spirit.'  the  notion  of  'mercy'  being  retained  by  inserting 
the  adverb  '  mercifully  '  before  '  grant.' 

'  Direct  and  rule.'  1549  ;  Lat.  dirigat,  only.  The  double  noticn 
of  guidance  by  ruling  is  already  in  the  one  Latin  verb. 

The  Epistle.    Epb.  iv.  17-32,  1549  ;    Sar.  Miss.,  23-23. 
The  Gospel.    Matt.  ix.  1-8,  Sar.  Miss..  1549. 

THE  TWENTIETH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg...  1519. 

The  variations  from  the  original  are  numerous. 

'Most  merciful  God';  Lat.  M  isericors  Deus :  'pitiful  God'; 
1549,  'merciful  God';  1662,  'most  merciful  God';  both  ia 
sense  and  sound  a  helpful  emendation. 

'  Of  thy  bountiful  goodness' :  Lat.  propitiatus  :  '  having  been 
made  favourable,'  a  somewhat  harsh  phrase,  yet  undoubtedly 
true. 

'  Keep  us  ...  from  all  things  that  may  hurt  us '  :  Lat.  umrcrsa 
nobis  ndversantia  exclude :  '  shut  out  all  things  adverse  to  us.' 
There  is  a  subtle  touch  of  tenderness  in  the  alteration  of  the  petition 
from  one  merely  to  get  rid  of  our  difficulties  to  one  for  our  personal 
protection  ;  there  is  also  a  valuable  lesson  in  the  change  from 
'  things  adverse  '  to  '  things  that  may  hurt,'  for  things  adverse 
mav  be  the  very  opposite  of  things  hurtful. 

'Ready';  Lat.  ezpeditus:  'unimpeded,' commonly  used  as  a 
noun  for  a  soldier  lightly  equipped  for  forced  marches. 

'  Body  and  soul '  ;  Lat.  mente  et  corpore :  '  mind  and  body.' 

'  Choorfully,'  1662;  'with  free  hearts,'  1549;  Lat.  liberis 
mcvlibus.  In  spite  of  long  association  with  the  1662  alteration, 
regret  must  be  felt  for  the  loss  of  the  phrase  of  1549  and  the 
original.  Cheerfulness  is  not  the  full  equivalent  of  that  spiritual 
freedom  which  makes  spiritual  service  possible. 

The  Epistle.     Eph.  v.  15-21,  Sar.  Miss..  1549. 
The  Gospel.    Matt.  xxii.  1-1 4,  Sar.   Miss.,  1549. 

THE  TWENTY-FIRST  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  CoMect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Gel.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

'Pardon';  Lat.  indulgentiam  placatus :  i.e.  'grant  indulgence 
on  the  ground  of  satis'action  having  been  made  to  thee.'  The 
woid  'pardon.'  though  dependent  upon  that  same  satisfaction, 
does  not  need  it  to  be  so  plainly  expressed  as  the  word  '  indul 
gence  '  does. 

'  Qu'et  mind';  Lat.  secura  mente,  a  mind  devoid  of  anxious 
care,  sine  cura. 


THE    TWENTY-THIRD    SUNDAY   AFTER    TRINITY   189 

'  £>erve ' ;  Lat.  deserviant,  a  rare  but  classical  compound  of  servio. 
The  preposition  denotes  a  devotion  of  service,  which  might  well 
have  found  place  in  the  translation,  suggesting,  as  it  does,  the 
eagerness  of  service  consequent  upon  realized  forgiveness  and 
cleansing. 

The  Epistle.    Eph.  vi.  10-20,  1549 ;    Sar.  Miss.,  10-17. 
The  Gospel.    John  iv.  46-54,  1549 ;    Sar.  Miss.,  46-53. 

THE  TWENTY-SECOND  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  1549  ;  Sac.  Greg.  (?  See  p.  149). 

This  Collect  is  found  in  the  Anglo-Saxon  Missal  of  Leofric, 
Bishop  of  Exeter  c.  1050. 

'  Thy  household  the  Church ' ;  Lat.  familiam  tuam :  '  thy  house 
hold.' 

'  Devoutly  given  to  serve  thee  in  good  works,  to  the  glory  of 
thy  name';  Lat.  in  Itonis  actilus  tuo  nomini  sit  devota  :  'be 
devoted  to  thy  name  in  good  works.' 

'  In  continual  godliness ' ;  Lat.  continua  pietate  :  '  with  thy  con 
tinual  fatherly  goodness.'  It  has  been  rendered  here,  as  in  the  Col 
lect  for  the  Fifth  Sunday  after  the  Epiphany, '  in  thy  true  religion,' 
in  a  way  which  is  either  an  intentional  departure  from  the 
original  or  a  mistranslation.  Pietas  is  very  remote  from  the 
English  word  '  piety  '  ;  it  originally  denoted  a  sense  of  duty 
towards  heavenly  beings,  parents,  children,  country,  etc.,  and 
v.as  therefore  predicable  of  God  as  well  as  man.  The  English 
use  of  the  word  sufficiently  explains  the  translators'  abandonment 
of  any  attempt  to  retain  it. 

The  Epistle.     Phil.  i.  3-11,  1549;    Sar.  Miss.,  6-12. 

Tlio  Gospel.    Matt,  xviii.  21-35,  1549;    Sar.  Miss.,  23-35. 

THE  TWENTY-THIRD  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

'  Strength  ' ;  Lat.  virtus,  originally  '  manliness/  etymologically 
therefore  most  inapplicable  to  God. 

'  The  author  of  all  godliness,  be  ready  to  hear  the  devout 
prayers  of  thy  Church ' ;  Lat.  adesto  piis  Ecclesice  luce  precibus, 
audor  'pse  pietatis  :  '  Be  present  to  the  dutiful  prayers  of  thy 
Church,  thyself  the  author  of  dutifulness.'  From  this  literal 
translation  it  will  be  seen  that  the  emphasis  upon  piis  and  pietatis 
iu  the  original  could  hardly  be  retained.  Goulburn's  suggestions, 
'  godly  '  and  '  godliness,'  '  devout '  and  '  devotion,'  scarcely 
meet,  the  case  ;  '  godly  prayers '  is  meaningless  :  '  devout '  and 
'  (1,-votion  '  are  only  alike  in  their  derivation,  not  in  their  modern 


i go  THE   COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,   AND    GOSPELS 

use.     '  Loving '  and  '  love  '  would  be  correct,  though,  of  course, 
more  wide  than  the  original. 

The  Epistle.    Phil.  iii.  17-21,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

The  Gospel.    Matt.  xxii.  15-22,  1549 ;    Sar.  Miss.,  15-21. 

THE  TWENTY-FOURTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

'  Absolve,'  1662  ;  '  assoil,'  1549  ;  Lat.  absolvere.  *  Assoil ' 
is  the  old  English  form  of  '  absolve ' ;  '  assoilzie  '  is  still  a  Scots 
law  term  for  '  acquit.'  The  idea  of  the  original  might  have 
been  preserved  by  translating  '  loosen,'  appropriate  to  the  'bonds,' 
(1549  '  bands '  :  Lat.  nexibus)  which  follows.  Ovid's  u  e  of 
nexus  for  the  '  coils  '  of  a  serpent,  and  the  later  '  legal  obligation,' 
are  both  suggestive  in  this  connexion. 

'  Sins  which  by  our  frailty  we  have  committed ' ;  Lat.  pecca- 
torum  .  .  .  quce  'pro  nostra  fragilitate  contraximus :  '  sins  which, 
such  is  our  frailty,  we  have  contracted.'  The  use  of  this  last 
word  is  doubtless  suggested  by  the  word  nexibus,  which  actually 
divides  the  relative  quce  from  its  antecedent,  peccatorum. 

The  Epistle.    Col.  i.  3-12,  1549  ;    Sar.  Miss.,  9-11. 
The  Gospel.    Matt.  ix.  18-26,  1549 ;    Sar.  Miss.,  18-22. 

THE  TWENTY-FIFTH  SUNDAY  AFTER  TRINITY. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

Lat.  '  Excita,  quscsumus  Domine,  tuorum  ndeliuni  voluntates  ; 
ut  divini  operis  fmctum  propensius  exsequentes,  pietatis  tuae 
remedia  major  apercipiant ' — '  Arouse,  we  beseech  thee,  0  Lord, 
the  wills  of  thy  faithful  [people],  that  they,  more  readily  pur 
suing  the  fruit  of  thy  Divine  work,  may  get  possession  of  greater 
helps  of  thy  fatherly  goodness.' 

The  English  Collect  is  scarcely  a  translation ;  except  in  the 
opening  petition  it  is  only  by  the  similarity  of  the  words  used 
that  any  connexion  with  the  Latin  is  recognizable. 

For  the  Epistle.    Jer.  xxiii.  5-8,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

The  Gospel.    John  vi.  5-14,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

Almost  the  same  passage  (John  vi.  1-14)  is  appointed  for  the 
Fourth  Sunday  in  Lent,  the  only  instance  of  such  a  repetition. 
It  has  been  suggested  that  the  choice  of  this  miracle  was  due  to 
its  containing  the  words  '  gather  up  the  fragments,'  applicable  to 
the  gathering  up  of  all  the  teaching  of  the  past  year. 

1552.  Rubric  providing  for  '  more  Sundays  before  Advent ' 
by  the  use  of  omitted  Services  between  the  Epiphany 
and  Septuagesima. 


SAINTS'   DAYS  191 

1662.  Instruction  to  omit  services  when  fewer  than  twenty- 
five  Sundays  between  Trinity  and  Advent,  and  to  use 
Collect,  Epistle  and  Gospel  for  the  Twenty-fifth  Sunday 
on  the  Sunday  before  Advent.  This  last  regulation 
was  contained  in  Sar.  Miss. 

SAINTS'  DAYS. 

The  word  translated  '  faints  '  in  A.V.  is  applied  to  all  believers, 
even  though,  as  in  the  case  of  Corinth,  the  standard  of  holiness 
was  far  from  '  saintly '  in  modern  parlance.  The  singular, 
'saint,'  one  of  the  commonest  words  in  the  N.T.,  is  curiously 
subjected  to  restrictions  which  are  not  observed  in  the  use  of 
the  plural,  nor  of  the  singular  as  applied  to  things,  e.g. 
'  holy  city,'  '  holy  kiss.'  The  restrictions  are,  that  if  used  of 
any  person  save  the  Persons  of  the  Blessed  Trinity,  the  adjectival 
use,  as  contrasted  with  the  title,  must  be  unmistakable.  Even 
so,  the  word  is  applied  to  another  person  but  four  times  :  '  holy 
angel '  (Acts  x.  22) ;  '  greet  every  saint '  (Phil.  iv.  21) ;'  Blessed 
and  holy  is  he  that  hath  part  in  the  first  resurrection '  (Rev.  xx. 
6) ;  'he  that  is  holy  '  (Rev.  xxii.  11).  Besides  being  adjectival, 
it  will  be  observed  that  these  last  three  uses  of  the  singular  in 
connexion  with  man  are  not  so  used  of  individuals  ;  the  plural 
would  give  the  same  sense.  The  use  of  the  singular  for  the  Three 
in  One,  especially  for  the  Holy  Spirit,  and  in  the  Trisagion,  '  Holy, 
Holy,  Holy,'  would  sufficiently  account,  on  grounds  of  reverence 
alone,  for  the  reluctance  in  Apostolic  and  sub-Apostolic  times, 
to  apply  this  word  as  a  title  to  any  created  being.  The  later 
use  of  '  saint '  as  a  technical  term,  no  longer  suggestive  of  this 
careful  Scriptural  practice,  renders  tolerable  what  would  otherwise 
be  grossly  irreverent. 

The  technical  use  grew  out  of  the  early  and  not  unnatural 
practice  of  commemorating  the  dead,  especially  martyrs.*  How 
ever,  four  centuries  passed  before  the  word  became  a  title,  imply 
ing  recognition  of  special  '  sanctity '  in  certain  individuals,  and 
still  later  came  formal  beatification  and  canonization  by  the 
Church — '  a  judging  of  men  before  the  Lord's  judgment '  (Lati- 
mer).  The  Reformers  found  it  one  of  their  chief  tasks  to  expunge 

*  This  word  has  become  technically  restricted  to  those  who  have  borne 
witness  to  Christ  by  dying  for  their  faith.  The  injustice  of  the  restriction 
is  well  exemplified  in  the  cases  of  the  two  sons  of  Zebedee.  It  would  be 
difficult  for  any  one  to  imagine  that  James  was  a  more  faithful  witness 
than  John.  The  frequent  reference  by  the  latter,  in  the  Apocalypse,  to 
all  believers  as  dying  for  their  witness  to  Christ,  e.g.  vi.  9-11,  has  been 
misunderstood  from  very  early  times,  and  that  misunderstanding  easily 
explains  the  traditions  which  attach  a  violent  death  to  practically  every 
early  '  saint.' 


192  THE    COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,   AND    GOSPELS 

the  multitude  of  Saints'  Days,  the  observance  of  which  had  not 
only  obscured  the  Divine  institution  of  one  day  in  seven,  but 
also  deposed  the  Word  of  God  from  its  place  in  public  worship, 
in  favour  of  memorials  of  saints,  legends — at  first  so  called  because 
'  to  be  read  '  but  worthily  described  by  that  word  in  it  >  later 
significance,  conferred  upon  it  by  the  legendary  and  puerile 
nature  of  the  '  legends.'  They  retained  twenty-on  \  including 
the  Presentation  in  the  Temple  (not  a  Saint's  Day  under  this, 
its  official  title),  All  Saints'  Day,  and  Innocents'  Day  (without 
the  word  '  holy  '  prefixed).*  The  request  for  the  intercession 
of  saints,  a  characteristic  of  the  Collects  in  Sar.  Miss.,  compelled 
the  abandonment  of  many  of  the  Latin  Collects,  nine  being 
retained  with  more  or  less  alteration,  eleven  new  ones  composed 
in  1549,  and  one  in  1552.  Four  of  the  older  ones  and  two  of 
the  new  ones  underwent  further  revision  in  1662. 

SAINT  ANDREW'S  DAY 

The  placing  of  St.  Andrew's  Day  first  in  the  Church  Calendar  is 
attributed  either  to  St.  Andrew's  having  been  the  first  called  (but 
St.  John  was  called  at  the  same  time,  whereas  St.  Thomas  is  the 
next  Apostle  in  the  Calendar),  or  to  Gregory's  personal  predilec 
tions,  he  having  dedicated  his  monastery  at  Rome  to  St.  Andrew. 
As,  however,  it  is  asserted  that  this  '  is  perhaps  the  only  Festival 
of  an  Apostle  claiming  to  be  really  on  the  ann  versary  of  his 
death  '  (Wordsworth's  Ministry  of  Grace,  ap.  Reynolds)  it  would 
seem  that  the  exigencies  of  date  decided  the  matter,  and  that 
the  above  given  theories  are  post  factum  explanations.  Of  St. 
Andrew  we  know  his  call  (John  i.  35-40) ;  his  leading  his  brother 
to  Christ  (41) ;  his  city,  Bethsaida  (44) ;  his  second  call  when  fish 
ing  (Matt.  iv.  19  and  parallels) ;  his  place  in  the  twelve,  always  next 
after  the  first  three.  Twice  he  fulfils  a  useful  function  (John 
vi.  8  and  xii.  22) ;  but  after  the  dispersion  of  the  Twelve  from 
Jerusalem  nothing  is  recorded  of  him.  Tradition  has  it  that  he 
visited  Scythia,  Epirus,  and  Achaia  ;  that  he  was  crucified  at  an 
advanced  age  at  Patras  in  the  Morea,  on  a  '  St.  Andrew's  Cross/  t 
decussate,  preaching  to  20,000  spectators  at  his  martyrdom, 
which  lasted  two  whole  days ;  and  that  his  bones  were  removed 
from  Patras  !o  Rome  in  359. 

The  Festival  of  St.  Andrew  is  one  of  the  nine  found  in  St. 
Jerome's  Lectionary.  This  Apostle's  memory  is  held  in  high 
esteem  in  the  Greek  Church  as  the  traditional  evangelist  of  South 
Russia  (Scythia  ;  cf.  Stanley's  Eastern  Church,  p.  293),  and  in  the 

*  For  further  particulars  upon  the  Calendar,  see  p.  64. 
f  St.  Andrew  being    the  national  saint  of  Scotland,  the  St.  Andrew's 
Cross  finds  a  place  in  the  '  Union  Jack.' 


SAINT    THOMAS    THE  APOSTLE  193 

Greek  Vesper  Services  he  is  addressed,  together  with  St.  Peter, 
Aus  :  '  Hail,  Andrew,  first  called  example  of  manliness.  Hail, 
chosen  and  noble  pair  of  brethren  before  Christ  our  God,  who 
followed  the  example  of  crucified  suffering.  Fail  not  to  ask 
him  continually  that  our  souls  may  be  saved.' 

The  Collect.  1552.  The  only  Collect  of  that  date.  No  parallel 
has  been  found  in  ancient  Liturgies.* 

1549.     Almighty  God,  which  hast  given  such  grace  to  thy 
Apostle  Saint  Andrew,  that  he  counted  the  sharp  and 
painful  death  of  the  cross  to  be  an  high  honour,  and  a 
great  glory  :   Grant  us  to  take  and  esteem  all  troubles 
and  adversities  which  shall  come  unto  us  for  thy  sake, 
as  things  profitable    for    us   toward  the   obtaining  of 
everlasting  life  ;   through  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord. 
The  grave  uncertainty  of  the  martyrdom  of  St.  Andrew  ren 
dered  the  alteration  imperative  in  a  prayer  to  Omniscience.     The 
Collect  is  otherwise  unexceptional,  the  reference  to  troubles  as 
'  profitable '  and  not  '  meritorious,'   being    perfectly  consonant 
with  Holy  Scripture.      The  Collect  in  Sar.  Miss,  will  serve  to 
illustrate  the  change. f     '  We  humbly  beg  thy  Majesty,  0  Lord, 
that  as  the  blessed  Apostle  Andrew  lived  as  preacher  and  ruler 
of  thy  Church,  so  in  thy  presence  (apud  te)  he  may  be  a  perpetual 
intercessor  on  our  behalf.' 

The  Epistle.    Rom.  x.  9-21,  1549 ;    Sar.  Miss.,  9-18. 

The  Gospel.    Matt.  iv.  18-22,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
This  is  Andrew's  second  call ;  the  narrative  of  his  first  call  was 
used  in  Sar.  Miss,  on  the  vigil,  John  i.  35-41. 

SAINT  THOMAS  THE  APOSTLE. 

Thomas,  Heb. ;  Didymus,  Gr.,  '  a  twin,'  presumably  therefore 
not  the  Apostle's  real  name. 

Apart  from  the  lists  of  the  Apostles  (where,  from  the  conjunc 
tion  of  his  name  with  that  of  St.  Matthew,  ground  has  been  found 
for  the  suggestion  that  they  were  brothers),  there  are  but  four 
references  to  him  in  Holy  Scripture :  John  xi.  16  ;  xiv.  5  ;  xx. 
28  (all  suggestive  of  that  character  which  is  associated  with 
blunt  honesty,  genuine  loyalty,  and  common  sense,  even  at  the 
expense  of  real  '  common  sense  ') ;  and  xxi.  2,  where  he  is  one  of 

*  Palmer  cites,  '  Per  Christum  nostrum  qui  beato  Andrese  in  prim. a  voca- 
tione  dedit  fidem,  et  in  passione  dedit  victoriam '  from  a  prayer  in  the  old 
Gallican  L:turgy.  He  says,  it  'somewhat  resembles  our  Collect,'  but,  save 
the  mention  of  Andrew  and  his  call,  scarcely  suggestive  of  any  necessary 
connexion,  they  have  nothing  in  common. 

Tr.  from  Dickinson,  Missale  ad  Utum  Sarum,  657,  660. 

o 


194  THE    COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,    AND   GOSPELS 

the  seven  present  at  the  second  miraculous  draught  of  fishes. 
Tradition  names  the  East,  Mesopotamia,  Persia,  and  India,  as 
the  scene  of  his  Apostolic  labours  ;  at  Malabar  a  Church  still 
survives  called  '  The  Christians  of  St.  Thomas.'  Martyrdom 
is  ascribed  to  him  also,  in  the  shape  of  death  by  a  spear-thrust,  at 
Taprobane  (Ceylon).* 

The  Collect.    1549. 

Sar.  Miss. :  '  Grant  us,  Lord,  we  beseech  thee,  so  to  rejoice  in 
the  festival  (solemnitatibus)  of  thy  blessed  Apostle  Thomas,  that 
we  may  be  supported  by  his  patronage  (patrociniis)  and  pursue 
his  faith  with  corresponding  (congrua)  devotion.'  The  wording 
of  our  Collect  is  not  quite  free  from  perilous  ambiguity.  It  is 
not  true  that  Thomas  was  allowed  to  doubt  merely  for  our 
benefit,  which  is  attributing  to  God  '  the  doing  of  evil  that  good 
may  come.'  God  suffered  Thomas  to  doubt,  primarily  because 
our  creation  in  His  image,  with  wills  to  choose  or  reject,  renders 
compulsory  faith  as  impossible  as  it  would  be  unacceptable  to 
One  who  is  calling  not  slaves  but  sons. 

The  Epistle.     Eph.  ii.  19-22,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    John  xx.  24-31,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  CONVERSION  OF  ST.  PAUL. 

The  unreformed  Calendar  commemorated  St.  Paul  thrice,  viz. 
his  conversion,  January  25  ;  with  St.  Peter,  June  29 ;  and  his 
Martyrdom,  June  30.  The  day  retained  is  associated  with  the 
event  three  times  detailed  in  Holy  Scripture  ;  the  day  usually 
retained  for  a  saint  is  the  traditional  date  of  martyrdom,  St. 
Paul's,  St.  John  Baptist's,  and  the  Virgin  Mary's  days  being 
exceptions.  This  Festival  is  of  comparatively  late  introduction 
(ninth  century),  and  is  peculiar  to  the  Western  Church. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  Miss.  Ambros.,  1549. 

The  changes  are  as  follows  : — 

Sar.  Miss.  :  '  Deus,  qui  universum  mundum  beati  Pauli  apostoli 
tui  preedicatione  docuisti ;  da  no  bis,  quaesumu^,  utqui  ejus  hodie 
conversionem  colimus,  per  ejus  ad  te  exemplagradiamur ' — '  God, 
who  hast  taught  the  whole  world  by  the  preaching  of  thy  blessed 
apostle,  Paul,  grant  us,  we  beseech  (thee),  that  we  who  observe 
to-day  his  conversion,  may  walk  to  thee  through  his  example.' 
The  Collect  in  Sac.  Greg,  contained  a  prayer  for  St.  Paul's 
advocacy. 

*  The  very  common  use  of  the  name  Thomas  for  the  dedication  of  old 
Churches  in  England  is  largely  derived  from  the  mediaeval  reverence  for 
Thomas  a  Becket. 


THE   PRESENTATION   OF   CHRIST   IN    THE    TEMPLE  195 

1549.  God,  which  hast  taught  all  the  world,  through  the 
preaching  of  thy  blessed  Apostle  Saint  Paul  :  Grant 
we  beseech  thee,  that  we  which  have  his  wonderful 
conversion' in  remembrance,  may  follow  and  fulfil  thy 
holy  doctrine  which  he  taught ;  through  Jesus  Christ 
our  Lord.  Amen. 

1662.  0  God,  who  through  the  preaching  .  .  .  hast  caused 
the  light  of  the  Gospel  to  shine  throughout  the  world  ; 
Grant,  we  beseech  thee,  that  we,  having  his  wonderful 
conversion  in  remembrance,  may  shew  forth  our  thank 
fulness  unto  thee  for  the  same,  by  following  the  holy 
doctrine  which  he  taught ;  through  Jesus  Christ  our 
Lord.  Amen. 

The  inaccurate  statement  of  the  original,  that  God  had  taught 
the  whole  world  'by'  St.  Paul's  preaching,  is  amended  by  the  use 
of  the  word  '  through '  in  1549,  and  the  enlargement  of  the 
passage  in  1662,  by  substituting '  taught'  for  '  caused  the  light  of 
the  Gospel  to  shine,'  makes  it  still  more  accurate. 

All  reference  to  mere  observance  of  the  day  disappears  in 
1549,  when  the  memory  of  St.  Paul's  wonderful  conversion 
becomes  the  ground  for  any  such  observance.  The  additional 
mention  of  thankfulness,  in  1662,  happily  marks  the  difference 
between  true  and  false  commemoration.* 

For  the  Epistle.    Acts  ix.  1-22,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

The  Gospel.    Matt.  xix.  27-30,  1549;    Sar.  Miss.,  26-29 

THE  PRESENTATION  OF  CHRIST  IN  THE  TEMPLE, 

commonly  called 
THE  PURIFICATION  OF  SAINT  MARY  THE  VIRGIN. 

The  Title  :  originally,  at  its  institution,  probably  by 
Justinian  (c.  541),  Hypapante,  '  Meeting,'  from  the  meeting 
of  our  Lord  with  Simeon.  This  name  still  survives  in  the 
Greek  Church,  but  in  the  West,  pari  passu  with  the  growing 
cult  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  the  name  '  Purification  '  gained  ground 
from  the  ninth  century  onwards,  the  commemoration  of 
Mary  displacing  that  of  the  Lord.  Curiously  enough,  the 
Roman  Church  has  stereotyped  this  name,  which  goes  lar  to 
stultify  the  later  Roman  dogma  of  the  Immaculate  Conception. 
In  1549  the  Roman  name  was  preserved,  but  the  revision  of 

In  Sar.  Miss,  is  a  second  Collect,  relating  to  a  St.  Prsejectus,  com 
memorated  on  the  same  day  :  '  Let  the  glorious  intervention  of  St.  Prsejec- 
tus  thy  martyr  commend  us,  0  Lord  ;  that  what  we  do  not  deserve  by 
our  deeds,  we  may  obtain  by  his  prayers.' 


ig6  THE   COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,   AND   GOSPELS 

1662  restored  the  true  title,  relegating  the  familiar  '  Purification ' 
to  the  position  of  a  mistaken  sub-title :  '  commonly  called  The 
Purification  of  Saint  Mary  the  Virgin.'  Sar.  Miss,  contains  a 
special  Service  for  the  Blessing  of  Candles  "on  this  day,  which 
was  popularly  known  as  '  Candlemas '  in  Mediaeval  times.  It 
is  strange  that  the  name  '  Purification  '  should  have  obtained 
such  permanence,  seeing  that  the  Collect,  and  also  the  Candlemas 
prayers,  refer  to  the  Presentation  in  the  Temple  and  the  meeting 
with  Simeon,  and  not  to  the  Purification,  unless,  indeed,  the  word 
'  pure  '  in  the  Collect  is  a  distant  allusion  thereto. 

The  Collect.  Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  Sac.  Gel.  (altered  by 
Gregory),  1549. 

'  Eve  living,'  1662  ;    '  everlasting,'  1549  ;  Lat.  semanteme. 

1  In  the  substance  of  our  flesh.'  1662  ;  '  in  the  substance,'  etc., 
1549  ;  Lat.  cum  nostrw  carmis  substantia  :  '  with  the  substance.' 
The  Latin  is  more  strictly  accurate. 

'  So  we  may  be  presented,'  1662  ;  '  so  grant  that  we  may  be 
presented,'  1549 ;  Lat.  ita  nos  facias  prcesentari. 

'  Pure  and  clean  hearts,'  1662  ;  '  pure  and  clean  minds,'  1549  ; 
Lat.  purificatis  mentibus. 

'  By  the  same  thy  Son  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord,'  1662 ; 
'  by  Jesus  Christ  our  Lord,'  1549 ;  Lat.  per  eundem.  The 
use  of  '  by '  at  the  close  of  this  Collect  is  unique ;  it  greatly 
enriches  the  Collect  here  ;  Christ  was  presented  that  we  may 
be  presented  by  Him,  such  presentation  being  a  not  infrequent 
figure  in  N.T.  :  Eph.  v.  27  ;  Col.  i.  22  ;  Jude  24. 

For  the  Epistle.    Mai.  iii.  1-5,  1662 ;   Sar.  Miss.,  1-4 ;  1549, 

Epistle  for  preceding  Sunday. 

The  Gospel.     Luke  ii.  22-40,  1549  ;    Sar.  Miss.,  22-32. 

Both  purposes  of  the  visit  to  the  Temple  are  here  noted — the 
presentation  of  the  first-born  male  (Exod.  xiii.  2),  and  the  purifi 
cation  of  the  mother  (Lev.  xii.  1-8).  Reynolds,  Book  of  Common 
Prayer,  strangely  states  that  '  except  to  fulfil  the  letter  of  the 
law,  no  purification  was  needed  after  such  a  birth,  evidently  missing 
the  point  of  the  whole  rite.  Strictly  speaking  the  purification 
was  the  waiting  period  (Lev.  xii.  6), '  when  the  days  of  her  purifying 
are  fulfilled  '  ;  the  sacrificial  offering  obtained  the  ceremonial 
cleansing  which  officially  recognized  the  purification  as  complete. 
The  fact  that  Christ  was  the  child  in  this  case  does  not  affect 
the  matter  at  all :  '  The  Levitical  law  ascribed  impurity  exclusively 
to  the  mother,  in  no  degree  to  the  child '  (Speaker's  Commentary, 
on  Lev.  xii.  4).  Incidentally,  the  only  direct  evidence  of  the 
poverty  of  our  Lord's  earthly  circumstances  is  given  by  Mary's 
offering  the  sacrifice  prescribed  for  those  unable  to  bring  a  lamb 


THE  ANNUNCIATION  OF  THE  BLESSED  VIRGIN  MARY  197 

and  a   pigeon — the  Purification    no  doubt  taking    place    long 
before  the  visit  of  the  Magi,   with  their  offerings. 

SAINT  MATTHIAS'  DAY.* 

Holy  Scripture  is  silent  concerning  this  Apostle  after  his  selec 
tion  to  fill  the  place  of  Judas.  It  is  an  old  conjecture  that  this 
choice  was  premature,  and  that  St.  Paul  was  our  Lord's  selection 
for  the  vacancy.  There  is  no  Scriptural  support  for  the  idea, 
for  the  absence  of  further  mention  would  be  fatal  to  the  Apostle- 
ship  of  most  oi  the  Twelve.  Tradition  even  is  unusually  vague 
and  uncertain,  stating  both  that  he  died  a  natural  death  in 
Judfea,  and  that  he  was  crucified  in  Cappadocia  or  Ethiopia. 
It  is  illustrative  of  this  uncertainty  that  the  Greek  Church  observes 
this  Festival  on  August  9.  Its  nearness  to  Ember-tide  lends  an 
appropriateness  to  the  Western  date,  at  any  rate  with  its  present 
Collect. 

The  Collect.    1549. 

Sar.  Miss. :  '  God  who  didst  join  Matthias  to  the  band  (collegia 
sociasti)  of  thy  Apostles  ;  Grant,  we  beseech  thee,  that  by  his 
intervention  we  may  always  feel  the  heart  (viscera)  of  thy 
surrounding  fatherly  goodness  (turn  circa  not  pietatis).''  This 
prayer,  besides  that  it  does  not  lend  itself  to  translation,  has 
no  point  as  regards  Matthias,  the  false  assumption  of  his  power 
to  '  intervene '  implying  the  still  more  erroneous  idea  that 
God  needs  such  intervention,  and  the  unreasonable  one  that, 
needing  such  intervention,  He  is  to  be  asked  to  procure  it. 

For  the  Epistle.    Acts  i.  15-26,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    Matt.  xi.  25-30,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

THE  ANNUNCIATION  OF  THE  BLESSED  VIRGIN  MARY. 

The  Title.  1662.  '  Blessed  '  inserted,  a  literal  application  of 
Luke  i.  48  :  '  all  generations  shall  call  me  blessed,'  not  without 
value  as  a  reply  to  the  Roman  accusation,  still  made,  of  Protestant 
irreverence  towards  the  '  Mother  of  our  Lord  '  (Luke  i.  43). 
'  Blessed  Mary '  would  be  the  most  literally  Scriptural  title, 
'  Virgin  Mary '  being  linked  to  the  superstitious  and  degrading 
idea,  often  expressed  by  the  phrase,  '  Mary  Ever- Virgin,*  that 
sanctity  attaches  to  the  unreality  of  her  marriage  with  Joseph, 
though  the  genealogy  of  our  Lord  is  traced  by  that  marriage, 
certainly  in  Matt,  i.,  possibly  in  Luke  iii.,  ani  though  that  mar- 

*  Before  1662,  the  extra  day  in  'eap  year  was  added  after  February  23, 
instead  of  after  February  28,  making  each  day  from  February  24  to  28 
a  day  late.  St.  Matthias'  Day  being  normally  the  24th,  it  became  in  leap 
rear  the  25th. 


ig8  THE    COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,    AND   GOSPELS 

riage  is  implied  in  Matt.  i.  25.  This  is  irrespective  of  the  parent- 
tage  of  the  '  brethren  of  the  Lord ' ;  though,  apart  from  a  false 
idea  of  the  degradation  incurred  by  marriage,  it  is  doubtful  if 
any  would  ever  have  sought  to  disprove  their  relationship  to 
Christ,  after  the  flesh,  through  Mary. 

The  still  familiar  name  for  this  day  is  '  Lady  Day,'  perpetuating 
both  the  special  cult  of  St.  Mary  on  this  day,  and  also  the  high 
attributes  conferred  upon  her,  '  The  Lady '  par  excellence, 
Domina.  The  '  Sequence '  in  Sa  \  Miss,  for  this  day  suggests 
the  lengths  to  which  the  Roman  Church  had  gone  in  Cranmer's 
time  :  '  Mundi  spe*,  Jesse  virgula,  cceli  luminarium,  per  quam 
porta  ccoli  aperitur.'  This  extravagance  is  even  surpassed  to-day. 

'  It  is  beyond  all  dispute  that  Holy  Scripture  and  primitive 
antiquity,  while  they  bring  out  her  blessedness  and  dignity, 
give  no  vestige  of  authority  for  all  that  has  gone  beyond  this 
both  in  the  Eastern  and  in  the  Western  Church '  (Barry). 

The  Collect.  Sar.  Miss.  (Post-Communion  Collect),  Sac.  Greg., 
1549. 

Sar.  Miss. :  '  God,  who  didst  will  thy  Word  to  undertake  flesh 
from  the  womb  of  the  blessed  Mary  always  virgin,  at  the 
announcement  of  an  angel ;  Grant  to  thy  suppliants,  that  we  who 
believe  her  truly  the  Mother  (genetricem)  of  God,  may  be  helped 
with  thee  by  her  intercessions.'  The  '  always '  (semper)  before 
'  virgin '  is  a  various  reading,  the  idea  of  perpetual  virginity  not 
having  become  firmly  rooted  till  after  the  original  date  of  the 
Collect.  The  word  genetricem,  instead  of  matron  is  noteworthy. 
As  early  as  Nestorius  a  protest  was -made  against  the  Greek 
equivalent  of  Dei  genetrix,  ©eoro/co?,  on  the  unassailable  Scrip 
tural  ground  that  St.  Mary  is  called  f»;r?//>  TOV  K-upiou, '  Mother 
of  the  Lord  '  (Luke  i.  43) ,  never  '  Mother  of  God,'  '  producer  of 
God.'  Unhappily  Nestorianism  went  to  the  opposite  extreme, 
and  divided  the  Personality  of  Christ  in  a  vain  attempt  to  de 
fine  Mary's  relationship  to  the  '  God-Man.'  Looking  at  the 
dire  results  of  such  very  unnecessary  epithets  as  Dei  genetrix 
and  ©CO-TOKO?,  which  go  further  than  Holy  Scripture,  and  are 
therefore  solely  due  to  human  reasoning,  good  or  bad,  it  is  fair 
to  state  that  had  the  Greek  Fathers  foreseen  whither  things 
would  tend,  they  would  have  been  content  with  the  ipsis- 
sima  verba,  as  in  the  Creeds  of  undivided  Christendom.  Nes 
torianism  was  rightly  condemned  as  destructive  of  our  Lord's 
Godhead  ;  the  Mediaeval  and  modern  exaltation  of  Mary  has 
tended  to  the  same  effect,  by  another  route.  Truth  is  perhaps 
more  easily  hidden  by  unwarrantable  additions  than  by  direct 
opposition. 


SAINT   MARK'S   DAY  199 

The  Collect  is  au  exact  translation  of  the  Sar.  Miss.  Post- 
Communion  Collect,  whe.e  the  Annunciation  is  mentioned,  but 
not  the  Virgin  Mary.  It  is  stiikingly  incongruous  with  the 
later  importations  into  the  Missal,  e.g.  '  Pour  thy  grace,'  instead 
of  attiibuting  to  Mary  the  power  of  communicating  grace.* 

For  the  Epistle.    Isa.  vii.  10-15,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    Luke  i.  26-38,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

SAINT  MARK'S  DAY. 

In  addition  to  the  comparatively  full  knowledge  of  the  Evange 
list  to  be  gleaned  from  Holy  Scripture,  universal  tradition  con 
nects  him  with  Alexandria,  where  he  is  said  to  have  been  martyred 
for  opposing  the  worship  of  Serapis.  By  reason  of  the  alleged 
removal  of  his  body  to  Venice  in  465,  he  is  claimed  as  the 
patron  saint  of  that  city.  His  name  has  been  given  to  the 
Alexandrine  Liturgy,  and  to  Gregory's  Litany. 

The  Collect.    1549,  re-arranged  1662. 

'  That,  being  not  like  children  ...  we  may  be  established,' 
1062, '  so  to  be  established  .  .  .  that  we  be  not,  like  children,'  1549. 
The  alteration  is  unnecessary  or  worse,  for  the  1549  version  gives 
the  true  sequence  of  cause  and  effect.  '  In  the  truth  of  thy 
Holy  Gospel,'  1662  ;  '  by  thy  Holy  Gospel,'  1549.  The  allusion 
to  children  is  borrowed,  but  inaccurately,  from  Eph.  iv.  14, 
'  Be  no  more  children,  tossed  to  and  fro,  and  carried  about  by 
every  wind  of  doctrine.'  St.  Paul  emphasizes  the  weakness  of 
children  in  a  storm,  not  any  disposition  to  fickleness  of  belief, 
which  would  be  impossible  in  infants,  as  the  '  children '  are  in 
the  original,  vr/Trioi.  The  1549  Collect  saved  the  situation  by 
a  comma  before  and  after  '  like  children.'  It  is  perhaps  unfor 
tunate  that  this  expression  should  have  found  its  way  into  a 
Collect  for  St.  Mark's  Day,  suggesting  a  reminder  of  his  defection 
on  St.  Paul's  first  Missionary  Journey  (Acts  xii.  25  ;  xiii.  13  ;  xv. 
37,  38). 

Sar.  Miss. :  '  God,  who  hast  elevated  thy  blessed  Evangelist 
Mark  by  the  grace  of  gospel  preaching ;  Grant,  we  pray,  that 
we  may  always  profit  by  his  instruction,  and  be  defended  by 
his  praying.' 

The  Epistle.    Eph.  iv.  7-16,  1549 ;    Sar.  Miss.,  7-13. 
The  Gospel.     John  xv.  1-11,  1549  ;    Sar.  Miss.,  1-7. 

*  The  angelic  greeting,  xatpe,  Kexa.piTu/j.ei>-r],  i.e.  '  Hail,  graced  one,'  has 
been  ambiguously  rendered  into  Latin  :  Ave,  Marie,  plena  gratia,  i.e.  cither 
'  filled  with  grace '  (not  doctrinally  remote  from  the  original),  or  '  full  of 
grace,'  as  a  fountain. 


200  THE   COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,   AND   GOSPELS 

SAINT  PHILIP  AND  SAINT  JAMES'  DAY. 

The  Title,  1662.  1549,  '  Saint  Philip  and  James.'  The  omis 
sion  of  the  '  Saint '  before  the  second  name  is  due  to  the  Latin 
mode  of  combining  the  titles  :  SS.  Philippus  et  Jacobus.*  Even 
in  1662  the  possessive  case  was  not  used  for  Philip,  a  trifling 
but  real  error  of  grammar. 

Philip  is  fairly  well  known  in  the  Gospel  story:  found  by  the 
Lord  (John  i.  43)  ;  belonging  to  Bethsaida  (44) ;  the  '  missionary  ' 
to  Nathanael  (45),  with  whom,  if  this  latter  be  identical  with 
Bartholomew,  he  is  coupled  in  the  Gospel  lists  of  the  Apostles 
(with  Thomas  in  the  Acts)  ;  questioned  as  to  supplying  bread 
for  the  five  thousand  (vi.  5,  6) ;  following  Thomas  in  questioning 
the  Lord  (xiv.  8).  In  the  Acts  another  Philip  is  prominent,  and 
the  Apostle's  subsequent  life  is  unknown.  Even  traditions  are 
'  more  than  usually  contradictory '  (Reynolds),  one,  however, 
ascribing  to  him  a  martyr's  death  in  Phrygia. 

Which  James  is  here  referred  to  is  uncertain,  all  depending  upon 
the  vexed  question  of  the  identity  of  the  son  of  Alpheeus  with  the 
Lord's  brother.  The  Epistle  intends  the  latter  to  be  commemo 
rated.  Of  the  other,  if  he  be  another,  nothing  is  known.  Of  this 
James,  claimed  as  a  son  of  Joseph  by  another  marriage,  on  no 
other  grounds  save  the  reluctance  to  admit  any  children  of  Joseph 
and  Mary,  something  is  known.  St.  Paul  credits  him  with  high 
authority  at  Jerusalem  (Gal.  i.  19 ;  ii.  9,  12),  and  Acts  xv.  13  ff. 
accords  with  the  Epistle  on  this  point.  The  common  custom  of 
calling  him  Bishop  of  Jerusalem,  however,  is  a  misleading 
anachronism  ;  he  owed  his  authority  to  his  special  call,  1  Cor. 
xv.  7,  and  his  high  character,  recognized  by  Josephus.  He  met 
his  death  not  long  before  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem,  at  the 
hands  of  his  fellow-countrymen. 

There  is  no  explanation  forthcoming  of  the  commemoration 
of  two  '  Saints  '  together,  nor  of  the  conjunction  of  this  particular 
pair.  The  idea  that  the  '  two  and  two  '  of  the  Lord's  appointment 
has  anything  to  do  with  it  is  both  baseless  in  itself  and  over 
turned  by  the  fact  that  only  two  pairs  are  thus  conjoined. 

The  Collect.     1549  ;    expanded  1662. 

1549.  As  thou  hast  taught  Saint  Philip,  and  other  the 
Apostles,  etc. 

1662.  That,  following  the  steps  of  thy  holy  Apostles, 
Saint  Philip  and  Saint  James,  we  may  stedfastly  walk 
in  the  way  that  leadeth  to  eternal  life,  etc. 

*  The  persistence  of  the  Anglicized  Latin  title  is  paralk-led  by  the  name 
of  the  old  Parish  Church  of  East  Bristol,  St.  Philip  and  Jacob,  where 
probably  few  associate  the  second  name  with  any  one  but  the  Patriarch. 


SAINT  JOHN   BAPTIST  20 1 

The  expansion  carries  out  the  thought  of  the  1549  petition, 
to  know  Christ  as  '  the  Way '  and  to  walk  therein.  It  is  some 
what  strange  that  the  Lord's  answer  to  St.  Thomas's  question 
should  form  the  basis  of  the  petition,  when  St.  Philip's  question 
and  His  answer,  forming  part  of  the  Gospel,  are  so  near  at  hand 
and  so  suggestive.  The  uncertainty  with  regard  to  James  accounts 
for  the  absence  of  his  name^from  the  1519  Collect. 

Sar.  Miss. :  '  God  who  delightest  us  with  the  annual  festival 
of  thy  Apostles,  Philip  and  James  :  Grant  that  as  we  rejoice  by 
their  merits,  we  may  be  instructed  by  their  examples.' 

The  Epistle.    Jas.  i.  1-12,  1549  ;  Sar.  Miss.,  Wisd.  v.  1-5. 
The  Gospel.     John  xiv.  1-14,  1549  ;    Sar.  Miss.,  1-13. 

SAINT  BARNABAS  THE  APOSTLE. 

The  Title.  1662.  1549,  'Saint  Barnabe  Apostle.'  This 
addition  of  the  words  '  the  Apostle  '  is  unusual,  and  doubtless 
was  intended  to  mark  the  fact  that  Holy  Scripture  thus  designates 
Barnabas  (Acts  xiv.  14),  though  he  was  not  one  of  the  Twelve. 

Barnabas  is  well  known  in  Holy  Scripture,  but  outside  that 
source  no  definite  knowledge  is  available.  His  name  is  attached 
to  the  spurious  '  Epistle  of  Barnabas,'  he  is  one  of  the  conjectured 
authors  of  the  Epistle  to  the  Hebrews,  and  tradition  credits  him 
with  both  the  foundation  of  the  Church  at  Milan,  and  martyrdom 
by  stoning  at  Salamis,  in  Cyprus,  where  he  landed  with  St.  Paul 
on  the  first  Missionary  Journey.  The  observance  of  St.  Barna 
bas'  Day  cannot  be  traced  beyond  the  seventh  century. 

The  Collect.    1549. 

'  Singular  gifts  of  the  Holy  Ghost ' ;  cf.  Acts  xi.  24,  '  a  good 
man,  and  full  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  of  faith.' 

Sar.  Miss. :  '  We  beseech  thee,  0  Lord,  let  the  praying  of  thy 
blessed  Apostle  Barnabas  commend  thy  Church,  and  let  him 
stand  as  mediator  (interventor)  for  it,  as  he  illuminates  it  by  his 
teaching  and  suffering.' 

For  the  Epistle.    Acts  xi.  22-30,  1549. 

The  Gospel.    John  xv.  12-16,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

SAINT  JOHN  BAPTIST. 

The  birth  and  not  the  death  is  commemorated ;  the  latter  is 
a  '  black  letter '  day  in  the  Calendar,  viz.  August  29.  The 
association  of  the  day  with  Midsummer  has  connected  his  words 
with  the  observance  :  '  He  must  increase,  but  I  must  decrease,' 
June  24  and  December  25  roughly  marking  the  commencement 
of  shortening  and  lengthening  days.  The  commemoration  is 
mentioned  as  early  as  the  time  of  Augustine. 


26i  THE   COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,    AND    GOSPELS 

The  Collect.    1549. 

'  Repentance,'  1662  ;  '  penance,'  1549.  The  technical  meaning 
of  the  latter  was  sufficient  reason  for  its  excision,  while  the  use 
of  '  repentance '  in  A.V.  doubtless  accelerated  the  change. 

Sar.  Miss. :  '  God,  who  hast  made  this  present  day  honourable 
for  us  by  the  nativity  of  blessed  John  :  Give  to  thy  people  the 
grace  of  spiritual  joys,  and  direct  the  minds  of  all  the  faithful 
into  the  way  of  eternal  life.' 

The  abandonment  of  this  Collect,  in  spite  of  its  freedom  from 
doctrinal  error,  excellently  betrays  the  attitude  of  the  Reformers 
towards  Saints'  Days.  They  had  no  desire  to  forfeit  any  means 
of  spiritual  prayers,  but  saw  no  value  in  such  emphasis  as  this 
prayer  lays  upon  the  mere  day  of  commemoration. 

For  the  Epistle.    Isa.  xl.  1-11, 1549  ;  Sar.  Miss.,  Isa.  xlix.  1-7. 
The  Gospel.    Luke  i.  57-80,  1549  ;    Sar.  Miss.,  57-68. 

SAINT  PETER'S  DAY. 

The  Title.  1549.  Sar.  Miss. : 'Dies  ApostolorumPetrietPauli,' 
from  the  legend  that  both  suffered  martyrdom  at  Rome  on  the 
same  day.  The  observance  of  a  commemoration  of  St.  Peter 
is  traceable  back  to  the  fourth  century.  In  Sar.  Miss,  provision 
is  made  for  the  Vigil  and  Octave,  as  well  as  for  the  day  itself. 

The  Collect.  1549.  The  use  of  the  word  'Pastor/  in 
tended  to  have  special  reference  to  the  command  to  Peter, 
unintentionally  provides  opportunity  for  remembrance  in  prayer 
of  ministries  not  technically  episcopal,  an  opportunity  rare  in 
B.C.P.,  from  absence  of  the  need  in  1549;  and  absence  of  realization 
of  the  need  in  1662.  This  Collect  is  adapted  for  use  in  the  Con 
secration  of  Bishops.. 

Sar.  Miss. :  '  God,  who  hast  consecrated  this  day  by  the  martyr 
dom  of  thy  Apostles  Peter  and  Paul ;  Grant  to  thy  Church  to 
follow  in  all  things  the  teaching  of  those  by  whom  it  took  the 
beginning  of  religion.' 

The  incorporation  of  doubtful  legend,  coupled  with  the  general 
baldness  of  the  Collect,  justified  its  abandonment ;  the  Reformers, 
moreover,  were  careful  to  pray  that  the  Church  should  follow, 
not  the  teaching  of  even  a  Peter  or  a  Paul,  but  that  of  God  : 
'  thy  Holy  Word,  and  the  people  obediently  to  follow  the  same.' 

For  the  Epistle.    Acts  xii.  1-11,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

The  Gospel.     Matt.  xvi.  13-19,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

The  entire  absence  of  reference  to  St.  Paul'  in  the  Epistle, 
though  the  selection  is  as  old  as  Leofric's  MS.,  points  to  the 
lateness  of  his  inclusion  in  the  observance  of  this  day 


SAINT  MARY   MAGDALENE  203 

[SAINT  MARY  MAGDALENE. 

In  1549  provision  was  made  for  this  day  as  follows : — 

The  Collect.  Merciful  Father,  give  us  grace  that  we  never 
presume  to  sin  through  the  example  of  any  creature ;  but  if  it 
shall  chance  us  at  any  time  to  offend  thy  divine  majesty,  that 
then  we  may  truly  repent,  and  lament  the  same,  after  the  ex 
ample  of  Mary  Magdalene,  and  by  lively  faith  obtain  remission 
of  all  our  sins  ;  through  the  only  merits  of  thy  Son  our  Saviour 
Christ. 

Sar.  Miss. :  '  Grant  us,  most  merciful  Father,  that  like  as  the 
blessed  Mary  Magdalene,  by  loving  thy  Son  above  all  things, 
obtained  forgiveness  of  her  sins,  so  she  may  obtain  eternal  blessed 
ness  for  us  from  (apud)  thy  pitifulness.' 

Regret  has  been  expressed  (Reynolds's  The  Book  of  Common 
Prayer,  p.  240)  at  the  abandonment  of  this  Sarum  Collect,  '  which 
was  singularly  beautiful,  and  might  with  slight  change  have  been 
adopted.'  But  the  latter  part  credits  Mary  Magdalene  ^vith 
powers  on  our  behalf  for  which  there  is  no  warrant  in  Holy 
Scripture,  and,  which  is  worse,  thereby  discredits  the  Father, 
as  needing  intervention  to  obtain  the  mercy  which  He  has 
promised  without  any  mediation  save  that  of  God  the  Son  and 
God  the  Holy  Ghost ;  while  the  former  part,  besides  assuming 
the  identity  of  Mary  Magdalene  with  '  the  woman  which  was  a 
sinner'  (see  below),  dangerously  misinterprets  the  Lord's  words 
in  Luke  xii.  47,  '  Her  sins  which  are  many,  are  forgiven  ;  for 
she  loved  much,  but  to  whom  little  is  forgiven,  the  same  loveth 
little.'  The  ambiguity  of  the  English  conjunction  '  for,'  used 
to  express  both  the  cause  and  also  the  evidential  result,  is  doubt 
less  responsible  for  a  misinterpretation  still  common.  The 
context,  however,  even  in  the  verse  itself,  without  the  parable 
to  Simon,  demonstrates  clearly  that  love  is  the  result  and  proof 
of  forgiveness,  not  its  cause.  The  Reformers  carefully  excised 
this  error :  '  truly  repent,  and  lament  the  same  (i.e.  sin),  after 
the  example  of  Mary  Magdalene,  and  by  lively  faith  obtain 
remission  of  all  our  sins  ;  through  the  only  merits  of  thy  Son 
our  Saviour  Christ.'  The  '  only  merits '  designedly  excludes 
both  our  own  and  any  other  merits,  whether  of  love  or  service. 
Thus  the  whole  of  the  Sarum  Collect  stands  Scripturally  con 
demned. 

The  Epistle.    Prov.  xxxi.  10-31,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

Until  1G62,  no  distinction  was  made  between  '  Epistles  '  drawn 
from  Epistles  proper,  and  those  taken  from  other  parts  of  Holy 
Scripture.  In  this  case,  the  observance  having  been  abandoned 
in  1552,  the  word  '  For '  was  never  used.  It  was  customary 


204  THE   COLLECTS,   EPISTLES,   AND   GOSPELS 

in  Sar.  Miss,  to  denominate  such  portions  as  are  used  '  for  the 
Epistle,'  Lectio. 

The  Gospel.    Luke  vii.  36 -50,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

This  day  was  reduced  to  a  Black-Letter  Day  in  1552  ;  possibly 
its  proximity,  July  22,  to  St.  James'  Day,  July  25,  had  some 
weight  in  deciding  the  matter.  At  any  rate,  a  complete  revision 
would  have  been  necessary,  for  the  identification  of  Mary  Mag 
dalene  with  the  woman  '  which  was  a  notorious  sinner ' 
(a/xaprw/Xos)  is  absolutely  unscriptural,  and  has  led  to  such  un 
worthy  ideas  of  Mary  Magdalene  as  are  suggested  by  the  word 
'  maudlin,'  a  corruption  of  Magdalen.] 

SAINT  JAMES  THE  APOSTLE. 

Saint  James  the  Great  (or  Greater),  probably  so  styled  from 
his  pre-eminence  with  Peter  and  John  amongst  the  Twelve, 
is  the  only  Apostle  whose  death  is  recorded  in  Holy  Scripture. 
The  date  of  his  death  being  just  before  the  Passover  (Acts  xii. 
3),  his  day,  July  25,  is  plainly  wrong,  which  fact  renders  doubtful 
the  historicity  of  other  Calendar  dates.  Tradition  has  been 
busy  with  St.  James,  connecting  him  with  Spain,  both  in  the 
brief  period  of  his  ministry  and  after  his  death.  Absolutely 
untrustworthy  as  it  is,  the  tradition  is  noteworthy  from  the 
prominence  given  to  the  Apostle  in  that  country  under  the  name 
[ago. 

The  Collect,     1549. 

'Thy  holy  commandments';  'holy'  added  1662. 

There  is  no  real  parallel  between  what  James  abandoned  at 
his  call,  and  what  we  are  to  forsake  according  to  this  Collect. 

Sar.  Miss. :  '  Be  to  thy  people,  0  Lord,  Sanctifier  and  Guardian  ; 
that  fortified  by  the  succours  of  thy  Apostle  James,  it  may  both 
please  thee  by  its  conversation,  and  serve  thee  in  safety.' 

For  the  Epistle.  Acts  xi.  27-xii.  3a,  1549  ;  Sar.  Miss,,  Eph. 
ii.  19-22. 

The  Gospel.    Matt.  xx.  20-28,  1549  ;    Sar.  Miss.,  20-23. 

[THE  TRANSFIGURATION. 

The  Keformers  dropped  the  observance  of  this  day,  August  6 ; 
the  American  B.C. P.  has  restored  it.  The  event  is  certainly 
worthy  of  commemoration. 

The  American  Collect,  Epistle  (2  Pet.  i.  13-18),  and  Gospel 
(Luke  ix.  28-36)  are  all  new,  or  altered  from  Sar.  Miss. 

The  Collect.  God,  who  on  this  day  hast  revealed  to  the 
fathers  of  either  Covenant  (Testamenti)  thine  only  begotten 


SAINT   BARTHOLOMEW    THE   APOSTLE  205 

(Son)  wonderfully  transfigured  (transformatum)  in  a  heavenly 
manner  ;  Grant  us,  we  beseech  thee,  by  deeds  well  pleasing  to  thee, 
to  attain  to  the  continual  contemplation  of  his  glory,  in  whom 
thou  hast  testified  that  thy  Fatherhood  is  well  (oplime)  pleased. 

The  Epistle.    2  Pet.  i.  16-19. 
The  Gospel.    Matt.  xvii.  1-9.] 

SAINT  BARTHOLOMEW  THE  APOSTLE. 

The  Title.     '  The  Apostle '  added  1662,  from  S.L. 

The  identity  of  Bartholomew  and  Nathanael  is  a  moot  point, 
supported  by  Eastern,  denied  by  Western,  tradition — the  latter 
on  the  insufficient  ground  that  Nathanael  was  of  too  high  a 
position  in  life  to  be  chosen  a  disciple  of  our  Lord  !  The  name 
is  no  difficulty,  Bartholomew,  like  Barnabas,  being  a  patronymic, 
and  not  a  personal  name.  Nathanael  was  brought  to  Jesus  by 
Philip,  and  in  three  of  the  lists  of  the  Apostles  Philip  and  Bar 
tholomew  are  coupled  together,  as  though  they  were  connected 
by  some  close  bond.  Moreover,  Nathanael  was  present  with 
other  Apostles  when  our  .Lord  appeared  at  the  Sea  of  Tiberias 
after  His  resurrection ;  and  the  Evangelists  who  mention  Bar 
tholomew  do  not  mention  Nathanael,  while  St.  John,  who  men 
tions  Nathanael,  does  not  mention  Bartholomew.  The  new 
Lectionary  of  1871  gives  a  semi-endorsement  to  the  identification, 
by  appointing  as  First  Lessons,  M.,  Gen.  xxviii.  10-18,  to  which 
our  Lord  alludes  in  speaking  to  Nathanael  (John  i.  51) ;  and  E., 
Deut.  xviii.  15,  containing  Moses'  prophecy  of  the  Messiah, 
alluded  to  by  Philip  in  his  endeavour  to  persuade  Nathanael 
to  come  to  Christ  (John  i.  45).  However,  this  selection  is  non 
committal,  for  the  Second  Lessons  are  not  '  proper  '  to  the  day, 
and  the  use  of  John  i.  43  ff.  was  advisedly  not  prescribed  (Hum 
phrey,  one  of  the  Revisionists  1871,  ap.  Reynolds,  p.  243). 
Tradition  makes  Bartholomew  a  martyr  in  India. 

The  Collect.     Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549  (much  altered). 

•'  Who  didst  give  to  thine  Apostle  Bartholomew  grace  truly 
to  believe  and  to  preach  thy  word,'  1662  ;  Sar.  Miss. :  '  Who  hast 
allowed  the  venerable  (venerandam)  and  holy  joy  of  this  day 
for  (in)  the  festivity  of  thy  blessed  Apostle  Bartholomew.' 

'  To  love  that  Word  which  he  believed,'  1662;  Lat.  amare  quod 
credidit :  '  to  love  what  he  believed.'  '  Both  to  preach  and  receive 
the  same  (that  Word) ' ;  Lat.  prcedicare  quod  docuit :  '  to  preach 
what  he  taught.' 

For  the  Epistle.    Acts  v.  12-16,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospel.    Luke  xxii.  24-30,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 


206  THE   COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,    AND   GOSPELS 

SAINT  MATTHEW  THE  APOSTLE. 

The  Title.     '  The  Apostle  '  added  1662,  as  in  S.L. 

St.  Matthew  is  unknown  outside  the  New  Testament,  even 
tradition  only  credits  him  with  martyrdom,  specifying  no  circum 
stances  of  place  or  time.  The  Greek  Church  observes  November 
16.  His  call  and  his  Gospel  are  his  sufficient  memorial. 

The  Collect.    1549. 

Sar.  Miss. :  '  May  we  be  helped,  0  Lord,  by  the  prayer  of  thy 
Apostle  and  Evangelist  blessed  Matthew,  that  what  our  possi 
bilities  [sing,  in  Lat.]  do  not  compass,  may  be  given  us  by  his 
intercession.' 

The  Epistle.    2  Cor.  iv.  1-6,  1549  ;   Sar.  Miss.,  Eph.  ii.  19-22. 
The  change  introduced  a  Lesson  on  worldliness,  specifically 
appropriate  to  the  call  of  Levi  the  publican. 

The  Gospel.     Matt.  ix.  9-13,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

SAINT  MICHAEL  AND  ALL  ANGELS. 

The  reprobation  of  the  cult  of  angels  in  Apostolic  times  (Col. 
ii.  18  ;  cf.  Rev.  xix.  10  ;  xxii.  8,  9)  would  lead  to  the  conclusion 
that  this  commemoration  is  not  of  early  date.  Traces  are  sup 
posed  to  be  found  in  the  fifth  century.  Michael  is  the  only 
archangel  of  whom  Scripture  speaks  (the  use  of  the  plural  in  the 
Communion  Office  being  a  doubtful  inference),  Jude  9.  He  is 
called  '  prince  '  in  Daniel : '  your  prince '  (x.  21) ;  '  the  great  prince ' 
(xii.  1)  ;  '  one  of  the  chief  princes '  (x.  13).  In  Rev.  xii.  7  he  is 
simply  named  '  Michael  and  his  angels.'  Some  think  Michael 
(=  '  who  is  like  God  ? ')  is  Christ  Himself  ;  Dan.  x.  13  is  the  chief 
passage  against  this  supposition,  and  the  only  Scriptural  ground 
for  believing  there  is  more  than  one  archangel. 

The  Roman  Calendar  contains  two  Festivals  of  St.  Michael, 
the  Appearing  of  St.  Michael,  May  8,  the  Dedication  of  St.  Michael 
the  Archangel,  September  29.  '  All  Angels '  are  not  commemor 
ated,  but  '  Guardian  Angels  '  have  a  day  of  their  own,  Oct.  2. 

The  Collect.    Sar.  Miss.,  Sac.  Greg.,  1549. 

'  Hast  ordained  and  constituted ' ;  Lat.  dispensas : '  dost  manage.' 

'  By  thy  appointment,'  added  in  1549,  to  avoid  even  the  sem 
blance  of  needing  their  help  save  as  '  ministeiing  spiiits  sent 
forth'  (Heb.  i.  14). 

'  Succour  and  defend  us ' ;  Lat.  vita  nostra  muniatur :  '  our  life 
may  be  fortified.' 

For  the  Epistle.     Rev.  xii.  7-12,  1549  ;  Sar.  Miss.,  i.  1-5. 
Rev.  xii.  7-1 2a  is  the  Epistle  in  Sar.  Miss,  for  the  feast  Sancti 
Michadis  in  Monte  Tumba.     The  only  other  angel  mentioned  by 


SAINT   SIMON   AND   SAINT   JUDE,    APOSTLES  207 

name   in    the   Scriptures   is   Gabriel.     Raphael  and  Uriel    arc- 
mentioned  in  the  Apocrypha. 

The  Gospel.    Matt,  xviii.  1-10,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 

SAINT  LUKE  THE  EVANGELIST. 

The  Title.     'The'  added  1552. 

The  '  beloved  physician  '  is  unknown  outside  Holy  Scripture  ; 
the  traditions  that  he  was  a  painter,  and  that  he  was  martyred, 
are  unhis'torical.  He  is  conjectured  to  have  been  one  of  the 
seventy,  a  native  of  Antioch,  and  the  unnamed  companion  of 
Cleopas  on  Easter  Day.  The  Festival  has  been  suggested  to 
have  commenced  with  the  removal  of  his  body  to  Constantinople 
in  481. 

The  Collect.    1549. 

.'  Whose  praise,'  etc. ;  cf.  2  Cor.  viii.  18. 

'  Evangelist,'  added  1662. 

'  The  doctrine  delivered  by  him,'  1662,  altered  from  '  his  doc 
trine,'  1549. 

'  The  merits  of '  added  1662. 

Sar.  Miss. :  '  0  Lord,  we  beseech  thee,  let  holy  Luke  the  Evange 
list  intervene  on  our  behalf ;  who  continually  bore  in  his  own 
body  the  mortification  of  the  cross  for  the  honour  of  thy  name.' 

The  Epistle.    2  Tim.  iv.  5-15,  1549. 

The  Gospel.    Luke  x.  1-7,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
This   selection   perpetuates   the    supposition    that   Luke  was 
one  of  the  seventy. 

SAINT  SIMON  AND  SAINT  JUDE,  APOSTLES. 

The  Title.     1662.     '  Simon  and  Jude  Apostles,'  1549. 

Simon  is  unknown  outside  the  list  of  the  Apostles,  where  he 
is  called  '  the  Zealot,'  or  '  the  Canaanite,'  both  of  which  refer 
to  the  sect  of  the  Jews  whose  impatience  led  them  beyond  the 
policy  of  the  ordinary  Pharisean  party.  According  to  an  un 
trustworthy  tradition,  he  was  sawn  asunder  in  Persia. 

Jude,  the  '  Judas,  not  Iscariot '  of  John  xiv.  22,  was  not  one 
of  the  Lord's  brethren,  for  both  the  Simon  and  Jude  thus  related 
to  the  Lord  were  unbelievers  after  the  Apostles  were  chosen.  The 
Epistle  was  presumably  not  written  by  the  Apostle  (Jude  17). 
He  was  generally  identified  with  Lebhaeus  and  Thaddaetis.  Tradi 
tion  has  asserted  his  working  with  Simon,  and  si; tiering  martyr 
dom  with  him  in  Persia,  but  as  the  Greek  Church  does  not  com 
memorate  the  two  together,  it  is  probable  that  the  tradition 
arose  to  account  for  their  being  so  coupled,  and  not  vice  versa. 
The  association  is  more  probably  due  to  the  confusion  of  the 


208  THE   COLLECTS,    EPISTLES,   AND   GOSPELS 

Apostles  with  the  Lord's  brethren.     The  commemoration  is  not 
traceable  further  back  than  the  eleventh  century. 

The  Collect.    1549. 

'  Church,'  1662,  for  '  congregation,'  1549. 

The  English  Collect  is  entirely  based  upon  Eph.  ii.  20-22. 
The  omission  of  the  names  of  the  Apostles  is  unique  ;  it  may  well 
be  due  to  the  prevailing  uncertainty  as  to  the  identity  of  Simon 
and  Jude,  which  made  it  impossible  to  associate  their  names 
with  the  word  '  Apostles  '  in  prayer. 

Sar.  Miss. :  '  God,  who  hast  granted  us  to  come  to  the  know 
ledge  of  thy  name  through  the  blessed  Apostles  Simon  and  Jude ; 
Grant  to  us  both  to  celebrate  their  eternal  glory  by  profiting  (by 
it),  and  to  profit  by  celebrating  it  (proficiendo  celcbrare  et  cclebrando 
proficere).' 

Here,  as  so  often,  the  Keformers  have  departed  from  any 
such  emphasis  upon  the  benefits  to  be  derived  from  merely  observ 
ing  festivals,  even  though  the  Sarum  Collect  does  recognize 
that  '  profiting  '  is  the  only  true  '  celebration.' 

The  Epistle.    Jude  1-8,  1549  ;    Sar.  Miss.,  Eom.  viii.  28-39. 

The  Keformers  have  followed  the  Eastern  Church  in  selecting 
this  Epistle  ;  the  choice  is  a  tacit  support  of  the  Apostolic  author 
ship  of  Jude,  a  theory  which  is  not  tenable. 

The  Gospel.    John  xv.  17-27,  1549;    Sar.  Miss.,  17-25. 
The  Gospel  in  the  Eastern  Church,  John  xiv.  21-24,  contains 
the  only  recorded  saying  of  Jude. 

ALL  SAINTS'  DAY. 

The  Title.     1662.     '  All  Saints,'  1549. 

This  Festival  is  a .  continuation  of  the  early  commemoration 
of  martyrs,  too  numerous  for  individual  commemoration  ;  later, 
all  dead  Christians  were  included.  The  invention  and  develop 
ment  of  the  doctrine  of  Purgatory  led  to  a  separation  between 
those  technically  endowed  with  the  name  of  '  Saints,'  and  the  souls 
in  purgatory,  the  latter  being  remembered  on  the  following  day; 
All  Souls'  Day.  With  the  escape  from  the  tyranny  of  purgatorial 
inventions,  the  English  Church  abandoned  '  All  Souls'  Day,' 
and  '  All  Saints '  now  includes  all  '  the  faithful  departed.' 

The  Collect.    1549. 

'  Blessed  Saints,'  1662,  for  '  holy  saints,'  1549. 

'  Mystical  body.'  '  Mystical '  is  the  adjective  formed  from 
'  mystery,'  the  word  used  by  St.  Paul  to  describe  the  '  secret ' 
concerning  our  relation  to  Christ,  typified  by  the  institution  of 
marriage,  revealed  in  Christ  Jesus  (Eph.  v.  29-32). 


ALL   SAINTS'   DAY  209 

The  Collect  carefully  ignores  any  human  distinction  between 
the  elect,  as  do  also  the  Epistle  and  Gospel.  Sar.  Miss. :  '  Al 
mighty  everlasting  God,  who  hast  granted  us  to  venerate  the 
merits  of  all  Saints  on  one  day  (sub  una) ;  We  beseech  thee  to 
bestow  upon  us  the  longed-for  abundance  of  thy  propitiation, 
our  intercessors  having  been  multiplied.' 

For  the  Epistle.    Rev.  vii.  2-12,  Sar.  Miss.,  1549. 
The  Gospal.    Matt.  v.  1-12,  1549 ;   Sar.  Miss.,  5-12a. 


THE   ORDER    OF  THE 

ADMINISTRATION    OF    THE   LORD'S 

SUPPER    OR    HOLY    COMMUNION 


HISTORICAL  INTRODUCTION. 

As  an  aid  to  devotion  the  English  Communion  Office  is  its  own 
recommendation,  needing  no  other  support  than  that  of  the  New 
Testament  with  which  it  claims  to  be  in  absolute  accord  in  all 
things  essential.  Nevertheless,  as  an  historical  document  it 
has  points  of  contact  with  primitive  precedents  and  teaching, 
and  points  of  contrast  with  mediaeval  doctrine  and  practice, 
the  knowledge  of  which  is  as  helpful  in  the  appreciation  of  its 
incomparable  beauty,  as  it  is  essential  to  the  interpretation  of 
its  form  and  substance.  Further,  its  very  arrangement  and 
wording  enshrine  the  progress  of  the  English  Reformation,  and 
illustrate  the  religious  differences  of  the  period  of  the  Restoration. 
Finally,  it  has  been  for  many  years  the  battlefield  of  conflicting 
schools  of  thought  in  the  English  Church,  the  story  of  which 
is  not  yet  concluded. 

This  introduction  must  therefore  include  a  summary,  however 
concise,  of  the  doctrinal  and  liturgical  history  of  the  Lord's 
Supper  itself.  That  history  is,  in  brief,  the  account  of  the 
gradual  loss  of  scriptural  simplicity,  of  its  costly  recovery  at 
the  Reformation,  and  of  the  struggle  to  preserve  it  in  succeeding 
centuries.  Two  distinct  yet  closely  related  questions  determine 
the  main  course  of  historical  inquiry  :  (1)  Are  the  Body  and 
Blood  of  the  Lord  literally  present  in,  under,  or  with,  the  con 
secrated  elements  ?  (2)  Is  the  Lord's  Supper  the  commemora 
tion  of  a  finished  sacrifice,  or  is  it  itself  a  sacrifice  ?  In  the 
search  for  such  an  answer  to  these  questions  as  will  adequately 
explain  the  Communion  Office,  the  following  sources  of  informa 
tion  will  be  successively  laid  under  contribution  : — 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  211 

PAGE 

1.  Scriptural  references  to  the  Lord's  Supper.     .      .      .     211 

2.  Sub-Apostolic  writings 222 

3.  Early  Liturgies  and  Patristic  Literature.         .      .      .     228 

4.  Mediaeval  doctrinal  pronouncements.  ....     238 

5.  Liturgical  products  of  the  English  Reformation  : —       251 

(1)  The  Order  of  Communion,  1548 252 

(2)  The  Communion  Office  of  1549.        .     .     .     .  255 

(3)  The  Communion  Office  of  1552.        .     .     .     .  261 

6.  Liturgical  changes  at  the  Restoration 264 

7.  Interpretative  principles  of  the  Tractarian  Movement  269 

1.  Scriptural  References  to  the  Lord's  Supper. 

If,  as  some  have  thought,  there  are  traces  of  early  hymns  in 
the  N.T.  which  may  have  been  used  liturgically,  these 
are  the  only  traces  of  anything  like  a  '  liturgy,'  in  either  its 
general  sense  of  '  a  form  of  worship,'  or  its  later  restricted 
one  of  '  an  office  for  Holy  Communion.'*  The  command  '  This 
do  in  remembrance  of  Me '  was  given  to  the  Church  to  obey, 
without  the  inculcation  of  any  manner  or  method  of  ritual  obser 
vance,  beyond  what  obedience  to  the  command  necessarily 
implies.  This  divinely  permitted  freedom  is  of  primary  impor 
tance  in  estimating  what  is  obligatory  in  this  service,  and  in 
opposing  the  rigid  system  of  uniformity  which  was  increasingly 
enforced  as  the  rite  became  more  and  more  unlike  the  original 
institution.  The  suggestion  that  ritual  and  liturgical  details 
constituted  part  of  '  the  things  pertaining  to  the  kingdom  of 
God,'  which  the  Risen  Lord  made  known  to  His  disciples  (Acts 
i.  3),  is  sufficiently  met  by  the  fact  that  the  N.T.  writers 
appeal  to  no  such  '  traditions,'  even  when,  as  in  1  Cor.  x., 
xi.,  the  subject  was  to  the  fore.  The  existence  of  any  divinely 
ordered  liturgical  requirements  is  contradicted  by  the  great  variety 
of  use  in  early  centuries. 

The  N.T.  passages  referring  to  Holy  Communion  are  : — 

*  The  word  'liturgy'  is  found  in  LXX.  and  N.T.,  where  it 
signifies  '  ministry.'  It  originally  meant  a  public  or  state  duty,  from 
Xen-os  and  Zpyov.  '  In  later  ecclesiastical  use  it  has  been  sometimes 
attempted  to  limit  its  use  to  those  prayers  and  offices  which  stand  in  more 
immediate  relation  to  the  Holy  Eucharist  ;  but  there  is  no  warrant  in 
the  best  ages  of  the  Church  for  any  such  limitation.'  Trench,  Synonyms, 

§    XXXT. 


2i2  THE   COMMUNION 

a.  THE  FOUR  ACCOUNTS  OF  THE  INSTITUTION. 


MATT.    xxvi.    26- 

MARK  xiv.  22-25. 

LUKE  xxii.  19,  20. 

1  COH.  xi.  236-26. 

29. 

And  as  they  wore 

And  as  they  were 

Tho    Lord    Jesus, 

eating 

eating 

in  tho  night  in 

which    he    was 

betrayed, 

Jesus    having 

having     taken     a 

And  having  taken 

took  a  loaf 

taken  a  loaf 

loaf 

a  loaf 

and  having  bless 

having  blessed 

having      given 

and  having  given 

ed 

thanks 

thanks 

brake 

ho  brake 

he  brake 

ho  brake, 

and  having  given 

and  gave  to  them, 

and  gave  to  them, 

and  said  : 

to  the  disciples, 

and  said  : 

saying  : 

said  : 

Take  ye,  cot  ye, 

Take  ye  ; 

This  is  my  body. 

This  is  my  body. 

This  Is  my  body 

This  is  my  body 

which    is   given 

which     (is)     on 

on  your  behalf  ; 

your  behalf  ; 

This  do  in  remem 

This  do  in  remem 

brance  of  me. 

brance  of  mo. 

And  having  taken 

And  having  taken 

And  the  cup  like 

Likewise  also  the 

a  cup 

a  cup 

wise 

cup 

after  supper 

after  supper 

and  having  given 

having      given 

thanks 

i  hanks 

he  gave  to  them 

he  gave  to  them 
and  t  hey  all  drank 

of  it 

saying 

and  he  said  unto 

saying 

saying 

them 

Drink  all  yo  of  it 

for  this    is    my 

This  is  my  b'ood 

This  cup   (is)  the  |  This    cup    is    tho 

blood,    that    of 

of  the  covenant 

new     covenant 

new      covenant 

the  covenant, 

in  my  blood 

in  my  blood  : 

which      is      being 

which      is      being 

which      is      being 

poured  out  con 

poured   out   on 

poured    out    on 

cerning        (n-epi) 

behalf  of  (u7Tf» 

your  behalf. 

many 

many 

unto  remission  of 

bins 

this  do,  as  oft  as 

ye  drin'<,  in  re 

membrance     of 

mo. 

But    I    say    unto 

Verily  I  say  unto 

(w.    15-18  in  St. 

(in  v.  26  the  rite  is 

you  that  1   will 

you  that   I  will 

Luke'n    account 

linked      to      the 

not     henceforth 

never  any  more 

contain  a  simi 

Lord  N      Second 

drink      of     this 

drink      of      the 

lar  reference,  but 

Corning,       aome 

fruit  of  the  vine, 

fruit  of  the  vine, 

before  the  Lor  1  s 

think      in       the 

until    that    day 

until    that    day 

Supper,  and  ex 

Lord's           own 

when  I  drink  it 

when  I  drink  it 

pressly  referring 

•words)    For    as 

with    you    new 

new  in  the  king 

to  the  Passover.) 

oft    as    ye    eat 

in  the  kingdom 

doin  of  GoU. 

this    loaf,    and 

of  my  Father. 

drink    the   cup, 

ye  proclaim  the 

Lord's       death 

till  he  come. 

The    following   liturgical    and   doctrinal    points   emerge   from 
the  above  : — 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  213 

(1)  The  Materials  employed. 

A  loaf  of  broad  and  a  cup  of  wine  are  alone  mentioned.  The 
'bread'  was  more  accurately  a  'loaf,'  somewhat  of  the  shape 
of  an  English  '  tea-cake,'  and  unleavened  at  the  original  institu 
tion,  but  not  necessarily  afterwards.  The  wine  may  very  possibly 
have  been  diluted  with  water,  as  such  dilution  was  frequent  ; 
it  is,  however,  no  ritual  requirement,  such  dilution  not  being 
expressed. 

(2)  The  Words  used. 

None  are  strictly  requisite,  however  naturally  used  to  express 
the  meaning  of  the  rite.  The  variations  in  the  records  of  the 
Lord's  words  sufficiently  prove  them  to  be  of  secondary  import, 
as  words,  to  the  institution.  The  differences  existing  from  the 
first  centuries  to  the  present  day,  as  to  the  use  of  the  words  of 
institution,  and  as  to  the  stress  to  be  laid  upon  them,  corroborate 
this  conclusion. 

They  are  of  three  kinds  : — 

(a)  Devotional. 

The  words  used  by  the  Lord  over  the  loaf  and  tho  cup  are 
not  recorded  ;  we  are  simply  told  that  He  '  gave  thanks,'  or 
'  blessed.'  The  identity  in  meaning  of  these  two  expressions  is 
clear  from  their  being  used  to  describe  the  same  action  in  the 
different  ciccounts.  Precisely  the  same  words  are  u.--ed,  with 
similar  indiscriminateness,  to  express  the  Lord's  '  eaying  grace  ' 
over  the  five  loaves  and  two  fL^hes,  the  seven  loaves  and  the 
few  small  fLhes,  and  the  bread  broken  at  Emmaus. 

The  word  'blessed'  is  literally  'spoke  well  of  (erXoy??™.?, 
cf.  English  '  eulogy  ').  Strictly  speaking,  the  bread  and  wine 
cannot  be  '  blessed,'  any  more  than  they  can  be  '  thanked,' 
though  the  figure  is  well  enough  in  derstood,  and  common  to-day 
in  the  phrase  '  asking  a  blessing '  upon  our  food.  There  is  no 
word  governed  by  the  verb  '  blessed  '  in  Matthew  and  Mark, 
the  A.V.  has  introduced  the  word  '  it.'  St.  Paul,  in  1  Cor.  x.  16, 
mentions  '  The  cup  of  blessing,  which  we  bless,'  where  the  accu 
sative  is  probably  an  accusative  of  respect  :  '  the  cup  of  blessing 
in  respect  of  which  we  bless  God.'  But,  if  the  elements  are  to 
be  considered  as  direct  objects  of  the  verb,  the  blessing  here  is 
precisely  identical  with  the  blessing  of  the  five  loaves  in  Luke 
ix.  16,  ei'Xoy-rjtrtv  airou?,  and  conveys  no  idea  of  consecration, 
save  for  the  ordinary  purpose  of  consumption  as  food. 

(b)  Descriptive. 

'  This  is  my  body  which  is  being  given  on  your  behalf.'  '  This 
cup  is  (the  new  covenant  in)  my  blood,  which  us  being  poured 
out  on  your  behalf.' 

The  interpretation  of  the  recorded  \vi-rd-  of  our  Lord  i~  of  the 


214  THE   COMMUNION 

utmost  importance  as  determining  the  meaning  of  the  whole 
rite,  for  it  is  universally  acknowledged  that  the  Lord's  Supper 
must  mean  now  what  it  meant  at  its  original  institution.  The 
meaning  of  the  word  '  is '  in  the  words  '  This  is  my  bo'h/ '  may 
be  said  to  lie  at  the  root  of  all  the  divergent  views  of  the  Holy 
Communion.  It  is,  however,  agreed  that  the  verb  'to  be '  is 
used  to  denote  symbolical  as  well  as  literal  identity  ;  e.g.  '  this 
Agar  is  mount  Sinai '  (Gal.  iv.  25)  :  and  in  the  accounts  of  the 
Lord's  Supper  probably  no  theologian,  at  any  rate,  now  desires 
to  press  the  literal  identity  of  the  '  this  '  which  the  Lord  dis 
tributed  to  His  disciples,  with  the  body  which  was  being  given 
on  their  behalf.  Those  who  believe  that  the  bread  and  wine 
are  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ  after  consecration,  do  not 
believe  that  the  body  of  the  Speaker  was  transmuted  into  that 
'  loaf  '  before  the  disciples'  eyes  ;  and  strict  identity  of  the  '  This  ' 
with  '  My  Body  which  is  being  given  for  you  '  demands  no  less. 
It  is  therefore  a  question  as  to  what  kind  of  limitation  is  to  be 
assigned  to  the  word  '  is.'  Had  the  Lord  meant  to  teach  that 
the  bread  and  wine  were  miraculously  changed  in  any  way, 
there  was  a  word  used  in  the  Gospel  for  such  a  miracle  of 
change,  a  word  which  would  have  made  ambiguity  impossible, 
viz.,  the  word  '  become,'  employed  to  describe  the  miracb  at 
Cana  of  Galilee,  John  ii.  9.  The  following  considerations  should 
be  carefully  noted  : — 

i.  The  Lord  refers  to    His  natural  body  and  blood,  '  given 
and  '  poured  out,'  for  the  remission  of  sins. 

ii.  The  bread  and  wine  are,  therefore,  given  separately,  with 
a  considerable  time  intervening,  the  separation  of  the 
body  and  blood  constituting  the  essence  of  sacrificial 
death. 

iii.  The  Aramaic  words  used  by  our  Lord  are  unknown,  but, 
as  interpreted  by  St.  Luke  and  St.  Paul,  the  identity  of 
the  wine  with  His  blood  is  not  stated  or  intended  :  '  This 
cup  is  the  new  covenant  in  my  blood.' 

iv.  The  words  are  spoken  at  a  Passover  Feast,  with  which 
the  whole  rite  is  so  closely  associated  that  the  words 
used  by  St.  Matthew,  (xxvi.  29),  and  St.  Mark,  (xiv.  25), 
of  the  wine,  are  by  St.  Luke  spoken  of  the  Passover  as 
such  (xxii.  15-18).  At  the  Passover  Supper,  the  Lord, 
as  President  (cf.  Justin  Martyr's  account  of  Holy  Com 
munion,  where  there  is  a  '  president,'  Trpoeo-roj? — not  a 
ministerial  designation),  would  take  an  unleavened 
loaf,  and  distribute  it,  saying  :  '  This  is  the  bread  of 
affliction  which  our  fathers  ate  when  they  came  out  of 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  215 

Egypt,'   where  identity  could   be  neither  intended  nor 
understood. 

v.  The  disciples  had  already  been  familiarized  with  the  phrase 
ology,  '  eating  His  flesh,  drinking  His  blood,'  and  its 
explanation,  viz.,  '  believing  on  Him,'  John  vi.,  esp. 
w.  4:7,  54. 

vi.  The  words  '  this  do  in  remembrance  of  me '  identify  the 
original  institution  with  every  succeeding  observance, 
so  that  what  it  meant  then  it  means  now,  and  what  it 
means  now  it  meant  then.  Now  the  institution  pre 
ceded  the  Crucifixion,  so  that  had  the  bread  and  wine 
become  in  any  sense  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ, 
separated  in  Sacrifice  and  offered  for  the  remission  of 
sins,  both  the  Sacrifice  of  Calvary  and  its  redemptive 
effect  were  anticipated,  and  rendered  unnecessary,  the 
night  before  !  * 
(c)  Preceptive. 

There  are  two  preceptive  utterances,  one  that  all  should  partake, 
the  other  that  the  rite  was  to  be  repeated.  The  importance  of 
the  first  command  is  intensified  by  the  strange  disregard  paid 
to  it  both  in  '  non-communicating  attendance,'  and  in  withholding 
from  the  laity  the  cup,  in  connexion  with  which  the  word  '  all ' 
was  used. 

The  other  direction  demands  special  attention  for  two  widely 
different  reasons,  its  bearing  upon  frequency  of  observance,  and 
its  interpretation  by  some  as  stamping  the  rite  with  sacrificial 
meaning. 

i.  Frequency  of  Observance. 

There  is  here  no  strict  regulation,  but  the  words  'as  oft '  in 
St.  Paul's  account,  seem  at  least  to  contemplate  some  amount 
of  frequency.  With  this  agrees  the  N.T.  practice  so  far 
as  it  can  be  traced,  cf.  Acts  ii.  42.  There  is  no  Scriptural 
justification  for  daily  observance,  the  reference  of  Acts  ii.  46 
to  the  Lord's  Supper  being  more  than  doubtful  :  '  And  they 
continued  daily  with  one  accord  in  the  temple,  and  breaking 
bread  at  home  (R.V.),  did  eat  their  meat  with  gladness  and 
singleness  of  heart.'  The  proximity  of  v.  42,  where  '  breaking 
of  bread  '  comes  between  '  Apostles'  doctrine  and  fellowship  ' 
and  '  prayers,'  might  seem  to  suggest  that  in  v.  46,  too,  a  religious 
'  breaking  of  bread '  is  implied  ;  but  the  reference  to  taking 
their  food  with  cheerful  content  removes  that  implication  ;  and 
the  word  'daily'  (R.V.  'day  by  day')  is  not  necessarily  con- 

*  For  the  importance  of  this  point  at  the  Council  of  Trent,  see  below, 
p.  250. 


2i6  THE   COMMUNION 

nected  with  anything  but  their  gathering  in  the  Temple.  It  is 
remarkable  that  the  N.T.  is  so  silent  in  regard  to  the 
frequency  of  observance  of  the  Lord's  Supper.  Acts  xx.  7  : 
'  Upon  the  first  day  of  the  week,  when  the  disciples  came  together 
to  break  bread,'  suggests  definitely  that  the  observance  was  on 
Sunday,  and,  possibly,  that  it  was  a  weekly  occurrence. 

ii.  Sacrificial  Meaning. 

The  attempt  to  fasten  the  idea  of  Sacrifice  upon  these  words 
would  seem  to  be  sufficiently  answered  by  the  .identity  of  the 
original  institution  with  every  subsequent  observance  of  it,  for 
if  '  do  this'  means,  as  is  alleged,'  make  this  sacrifice,'  the  original 
institution  must  have  been  a  sacrifice,  and  that  expressly  for 
the  remission  of  sins,  in  which  case  Crucifixion  was  unnecessary. 

However,  as  the  idea  still  holds  in  some  quarters,  the  following 
notes  are  necessary  :  — 

'  This  do  '    (TOITO   Troietre). 

(a)  '  Do  '  is  the  ordinary  meaning  of  the  word. 
(/3)  All  the  Greek  Fathers  so  understood  it. 

(7)  The  LXX  for  '  offer,'  of  a  sacrifice,  uses  not    Troieiv  but 
7rpoCT<£epeu'.     The  word  Troteu-  is  used  of  the  '  keeping  '   of  the 
Passover,  of  Matt.  xxvi.  18,  '  I  keep  the  Passover  at  thy  house 
with  my  disciples.' 

(8)  Modern  Commentators  find  no  support  for  the  notion  of 

Sacrifice  in  the  word  ;    Bishop  Gore,  Body  of  Christ, 
p.  318,  abandons  the  idea. 
'  Remembrance  '  (OVO/OT/O^S). 

The  contention  to  be  met  is  that  '  the  primary  thought  sug 
gested  by  the  word  "  memorial  "  (m  u^rr/o-is)  is  that  of  a  memorial 
before  God  '  ;  Darwell  Stone,  Hastings'  Dictionary  of  Christ 
and  the  Gospels,  Art.  '  Lord's  Supper.'  The  following  is  the 
reply  :  — 

(a)  The  word  for  '     emorial  before  God  '  in  LXX  is 


not 
(fi)  The  common  meaning  of  dva/Av^cns  is  '  calling  to  mind,' 

'  recollection.' 
(y)  That  is  its  meaning  in  the  only  other  place  in  which  it  is 

used  in  N.T.,  Heb.  x.  3,  'remembrance  of  sins.' 
(8)  All  the  Greek  and  Latin  Liturgies  support  the  translation 

'  remembrance.' 
(e)  The  four  passages   in  LXX,  cited  by  Darwell  Stone  as 

conveying  the  sense  of  '  memorial.'  are  all  capable  of 

the  idea  of  '  remembrance  '  ;    cf.  T.  K.  Abbott,  Reply 

to  Criticisms,  p.  41  :    '  Most  certainly  di  a/xv^o-ts  is  xtot 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  ^l^ 

a  sacrificial  term  ;  it  never  means  or  can  mean  "  memo 
rial  offering."  ' 

The  all-important  idea  connected  with  such  an  interpretation 
could  scarcely  have  been  hidden  away  in  words  usually  bearing 
another  meaning,  and  not  to  be  found  at  all  in  two  of  the  four 
accounts  of  the  institution.*  If  Papias  be  correct,  and  St.  Mark's 
Gospel  is  St.  Peter's  teaching,  both  he  and  those  who  depended 
upon  his  teaching  were  ignorant  of  these  words  altogether. 

(3)  The  Manual  Acts  performed. 

i.  Breaking  the  bread. 

The  early  introduction  of  the  word  '  broken '  into  MSS.  of 
the  N.T.  in  1  Cor.  xi.  24,  was  doubtless  due  to  the  idea 
that  the  breaking  of  the  bread  was  intended  to  symbolize 
in  some  sort  the  death  of  the  Lord.  No  such  dramatic  action 
accompanied  the  use  of  the  wine  ;  it  was  not  '  poured  out  at 
the  institution.  The  discovery  that  the  word  '  broken  '  is  an 
interpolation  is  therefore  of  great  importance  in  assisting  the 
recovery  of  the  true  symbolism  of  the  '  breaking.'  f  The  division 
of  the  '  loaf '  into  pieces  for  the  disciples  to  eat,  conveyed  pre 
cisely  the  same  idea  as  the  '  loving  cup  '  of  which  all  were  to 
drink,  viz.,  communion,  fellow-partaking.  St.  Paul,  in  1  Cor. 
x.  16,  calling  attention  to  this  '  fellow-partaking,'  refers  to  '  the 
cup  of  blessing  which  we  bless,'  and  '  the  bread  which  we  break '  ; 
it  is  noteworthy  that  he  does  not  say  of  the  bread  '  which  we 
bless,'  '  breaking '  being  more  important  for  his  purpose,  viz. 
to  show  that  (v.  17)  '  we  being  many  are  one  loaf,  and  one 
body  ;  for  we  are  all  partakers  of  that  one  loaf.'  The  recognition 
of  this  idea  of  '  communion '  as  underlying  the  '  breaking '  from 
the  earliest  days,  is  plainly  visible  in  the  phrase  '  breaking  of 
bread,'  which,  though  not  exclusively  used  of  the  Lord's  Supper, 
is  apparently  employed  in  that  sense  in  Acts  ii.  42,  and  with 
wn 'oji'tu,  the  word  translated  '  communion '  in  1  Cor.  x.  16  : 
'  and  they  continued  stedfastly  in  the  Apostles'  teaching  and 
the  fellowship  (Kotrojrta),  the  breaking  of  bread,  and  the  prayers.' 
There  is  no  conjunction  between  '  the  fellowship '  and  '  the 
breaking  of  bread '  in  the  best  MSS.,  this  omission  suggesting 
that  the  '  breaking  of  bread '  describes  the  '  fellowship.'  In  the 
Didache,  directions  are  given  concerning  '  the  cup '  and  '  the 

thing    broken,'      Trepi    TOV    TruTijpiov  .   .   .   Trepl    be    TOV    KA.acryu.aTOS, 

the    '.breaking'    being   so   irnportant   as   to  displace  the   word 
'  bread  '  {  altogether.  i 

*  This  interpretation,  be  it  understood,  is  quite  late  it  arose  long 
after  the  practices  for  which  it  is  supposed  to  find  sanction. 

t  St.  John  lays  stress  upon  the'  prophetic  promise  that  breaking  should 
not  accompany  tho  Lord's  deathi  (xix.  30)  ;  His  body  was  given  for  us, 
not  broken.  J  See  p.  224 


2i8  THE    COMMUNION 

ii.  Distribution. 

This  needs  no  explanation,  but  only  emphasis,  in  view  of  the 
maiming  of  the  rite  in  later  ages. 

(4)  The  Circumstances  accompanying  the  Institution. 

The  fact  that  the  Lord's  Supper  was  instituted  in  the  midst 
of  a  Passover  meal,  besides  declaring  the  Lord's  intention  in 
calling  the  bread  His  body,  also  condemns  superstitious  regard 
to  fasting  in  connexion  with  the  rite.  The  Lord's  Supper  was 
instituted  '  as  they  were  eating,'  and  St.  Paul  refers  to  the  '  cup 
of  blessing,'  the  name  commonly  given  to  the  third  cup  at  the 
Passover  feast  (1  Cor.  x.  16).  That  the  accompaniment  of  a 
common  meal  is  not  indeed  obligatory,  is  clear  from  the  advice 
to  the  Corinthians  to  satisfy  hunger  at  home  (1  Cor.  xi.  22,  34)  ; 
but  this  very  command  would  lend  weight  to  the  Lord's  example 
(if  weight  could  be  lent  to  teaching  so  directly  divine),  for  St. 
Paul  does  not  bid  the  Corinthians  sup  after  the  Lord's  Supper. 
Whatever  the  N.T.  teaching  in  regard  to  fasting  may  be — 
and  it  is  notorious  that  the  MSS.  have  been  tampered  with 
in  several  places  to  enforce  the  practice — there  is  not  only  no 
association  of  it  with  this  rite,  but  the  very  reverse.  The  investi 
gation  of  this  question  is  indissolubly  bound  up  with  another 
much  debated  matter,  the  time  of  observance,  with  regard  to 
which  the  original  institution  is  equally  clearly  a  sanction 
of  the  evening  hour.  Both  at  Corinth,  and  at  Troas  (Acts 
xx.  7),  N.T.  practice  still  further  sanctions  the  evening  hour, 
though  it  has  been,  and  is,  seriously  contended  that  the  irregu 
larities  at  Corinth  put  an  end  to  the  custom,  and  that  at  Troas 
St.  Paul  purposely  preached  until  midnight,  that  in  regard  to 
both  the  hour  of  communion  and  the  fasting  condition  of  the 
communicants,  the  supposed  apostolic  rule  might  be  observed. 
The  great  name  of  Augustine,  who  claims  apostolic  authority 
for  '  fasting  communion  '  (Ep.  ii.  liv.  §  8  :  Edn.  1679),  has  doubt 
less  been  instrumental  in  perpetuating  what  is  now  known  to 
be  historically  erroneous.  He  argues  that  so  general  a  custom 
as  fasting  reception  had  by  his  time  become,  could  not  have 
arisen  without  divine  authority  ;  and  that  St.  Paul's  words  '  the 
rest  will  I  set  in  order  when  I  come  '  (1  Cor.  xi.  34)  are  to  be 
taken  as  referring  to  this  matter  amongst  others.  In  addition 
to  the  negative  evidence  afforded  by  the  absence  of  any  reference 
to  any  such  apostolic  tradition,  there  is  positive  evidence  that 
the  theory  is  untenable  : — •• 

(a)  St.   Augustine  himself,  strangely  enough,  permits   a   late 
reception  on  Maundy  Thursday,  in  the  very  Epistle  cited  above. 

(b)  Socrates,  Hist.  Eccles.,  v.  22,  states  that  evening  communion, 
after  supper,  was  the  practice  in  the  Thebaid.     He  mentions  it 


HISTORICAL    INTRODUCTION  219 

as  a  peculiarity,  but  without  any  suggestion  of  blameworthiness. 
The  well-known  asceticism  of  the  Thebaid,  which  would  have 
sufficiently  explained  fasting  communion,  renders  the  prevalence 
of  the  contrary  practice  an  all  the  more  forcible  argument  against 
the  existence  of  any  apostolic  order  to  fast. 

(c)  Chrysostom,  though  acquainted  with  the  custom  of  fasting, 
blames  abstention  from  the  Lord's   Table  on  the  part  of  those 
who  were  not  in  a  fasting  condition.* 

(d)  Cyprian,  rinding  fault  with  the  Aquarians  for  using  water 
only  at  their  morning  Communion,  acknowledges  that  they  used 
wine  in  their  evening  observance.     He  has  no  fault  to  find  with 
the  hour,  but  rather  regards  the  general  abandonment  of  that 
hour  as  needing  explanation  (see  Bingham,  Ant.  xv.  vii.  §  8). 

(e)  The  3rd  Council  of  Carthage,  397,  which  ordered  a  fasting 
celebrant,  is  cited  in  support  of  Fasting   Communion  ;    why  an 
ecclesiastical  regulation  if   already  apostolic  ? 

(/)  The  Didache,  whether  its  date  be  as  early  as  90,  or  as  late 
as  200,  knows  no  separation  of  the  '  Agape '  f  and  the  Lord's 
Supper.  The  attempt  to  refer  §§  9,  10  of  that  work  to  the 
'  Agape '  only,  would,  if  successful,  bring  about  the  strange 
result  that  the  Didache  knows  nothing  of  the  Lord's  Supper  at 
all,  or  does  not  think  it  worth  even  a  mention.  It  expressly 
enforces  fasting  before  Baptism,  but  not  before  the  Lord's  Supper. 

(g)  Ignatius,  c.  110,  calls  the  Lord's  Supper  by  the  name 
'  Agape '  :  '  it  is  not  lawful  apart  from  the  Bishop  either  to 
baptize  or  to  hold  an  Agape.'  This  can  only  be  denied  by 
conceding  that  Ignatius  attached  more  importance  to  the  '  Agape  ' 
than  to  the  Lord's  Supper. 

The  question  remains  :  How  did  the  practically  universal 
custom  arise  ?  ±  The  records  of  the  sub-apostolic  age  are  exceed- 
ginly  scanty,  but  they  afford  an  intelligible  explanation  : — 

(a)  Trajan  had  a  jealous  fear  of  clubs  of  every  kind,  as  probable 
hot-beds  of  sedition  ;  this  is  well  known,  c/.  his  letter  to  the 

*  Dimock,  Hour  of  Holy  Communion,  p.  7. 

t  The  '  Agape '  is  mentioned  in  two  N.T.  passages,  showing  con 
siderable  verbal  resemblance,  2  Pet.  ii.  13  ;  Jude  12.  There  are  MS. 
variations,  but  the  older  MSS.  support  the  reading  dydini.  Festal  gather 
ings  were  associated  with  the  social,  commercial  and  religious  life  of  the 
age,  and  Christians,  being  debarred  from  heathen  feasts,  would  make  all 
the  more  of  their  own.  The  feast  outlived  its  separation  from  the  Lord's 
Supper,  though  more  and  more  restricted  to  commemorative  festivals  of 
the  dead.  Its  observance  in  Churches  was  forbidden  in  the  East  by  Cone. 
Laodic.,  Canon  28,  361  ;  but  the  prohibition  needed  renewal  in  the  Council 
of  Trullo,  so  late  as  the  seventh  century. 

$  It  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  burden  of  proof  rests  upon  those 
who  claim  authority  for  Early  and  Fasting  Communion,  not  upon  those 
who  claim  liberty  in  that  regard. 


220  THE   COMMUNION 

younger  Pliny  granting  an  exemption  in  the  matter  of  club- 
gatherings  to  the  city  of  Amisa,  concluding  :  '  in  all  the  other 
cities  which  are  subject  to  our  laws,  anything  of  the  kind  must  be 
prohibited.' 

(b)  Christians  were  accused  in  Trajan's  time  of  horrible  crimes 
at  banquets,  the  charge  being  doubt  less  due  to  misunderstood  or 
misrepresented  references  to  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ. 

(c)  St.   Paul's  directions  to  the  Corinthian  Church  made  it 
clear  that  the  association  of  a  banquet  with  the  Lord's  Supper 
was  not  essential. 

(d)  The    regular    teaching   of   the   N.T.   in   regard   to   loyal 
citizenship  on  the  part  of  Christians  would  inculcate  readiness  to 
forego  what  was  not  essential. 

(e)  Pliny's  letter  to  Trajan   (110),  concerning  the  Bithynian 
Christians,  expressly  states  that  the  evening  meeting  for  a  meal 
had  been  abandoned  in  response  to  Pliny's  edict  carrying  out 
Trajan's  commands. 

(/)  The  reasons  which  compelled  the  abandonment  of  the 
Agape,  also  interfered  with  freedom  for  any  kind  of  evening 
gathering,  so  that  the  Lord's  Supper  was  more  conveniently 
held  at  the  morning  gathering. 

(g)  The  rapid  growth  of  asceticism,  exemplified  by  the  early 
regulation  for  fasting  before  Adult  Baptism,  helped  to  attach 
a  religious  significance  to  what  arose  purely  from  considerations 
of  expediency. 

(h)  These  considerations  are  not  affected  by  the  fact  that 

the  Agape  is  mentioned  by  Ignatius  as  still  practised  c.   110. 

Imperial  Edicts  were  not  enforced  with  the  same  rigour  in  every 

part  of  the  Empire  ;    and,  in  fact,  the  Agape  survived  not  only 

'Trajan's  commands,  but  the  condemnation  of  councils. 

6.  THE  N.T.  REFERENCES  TO  THE  LORD'S  SUPPER.* 

(1)  Acts  ii.  42  ;  xx.  7, 11  : — '  the  breaking  of  bread,' see  above, 
p.  217.     This  phrase  does  not  always  refer  to  the  Lord's  Supper, 
e.g.  Acts  xxvii.  35. 

(2)  1  Cor.   x.  14-22  : — '  a  joint -partaking  of  the  blood  .  .  . 
the  body  of  Christ.'f     St.  Paul's  point  is  the  double  fellowship 
of  believers  with  one  another,  symbolized  in  their  joint-partaking 
of  the  one  loaf  (see  above,  p.  217),  and  of  believers  with  Christ. 

*  The  Lord's  address  at  Capernaum,  in  John  vi.,  is  not  directly  connected 
with  the  Lord's  Supper ;  the  institution  docs,  indeed,  embody  the  same 
teaching,  but  the  address  explains  the  rite,  the  rite  does  not  explain  the 
address.  Cf.  Westeott,  Commentary,  in  loc. 

•f  The  cup  precedes  the  bread  in  the  Didache  also.  Compare  the  inde- 
cisiveness  in  the  Gospel  accounts  in  regard  to  the  cup  of  which  our  Lord 
will  not  partake  '  till  He  come.' 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  221 

Such  fellowship  must  not  be  defiled  by  similar  fellowship  with 
demons.  The  impossibility  of  deducing  from  these  words  any 
idea  of  literal  partaking  of  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ  is  most 
clearly  seen  by  the  context,  where  the  noun  and  adjective  are 
used  as  follows  : — 

v.  16,  joint-partaking  of  the  blood  .  .  .  the  body. 

v.  18,  joint-partakers  of  the  altar  (spoken  of  '  Israel  after  the 
flesh'). 

v.  20,  joint-partakers  of  demons. 

If  v.  16  must  mean  that  the  literal  body  and  blood  are  partaken 
of,  then  the  altar  in  v.  18,  and  demons  in  v.  20  must  be  literally 
devoured.  In  truth  the  only  possible  point  to  be  drawn  from 
St.  Paul's  parallel,  is  that  participation  in  a  religious  feast  implies 
fellowship  with  the  object  of  worship  in  that  feast,  Christ  or 
demons. 

The  avoidance  of  the  word  '  altar '  in  this  passage  is  notable. 
Used  for  Israel's  religious  feasts  in  v.  18,  it  is  carefully  suppressed 
for  the  Christian  feast  in  v.  21,  where  '  table '  is  substituted. 
For  convenience,  Heb.  xiii.  10  may  here  be  mentioned  :  '  we 
have  an  altar '  :  a  passage  often  misquoted  in  support  of  a 
sacrificial  idea  of  the  Lord's  Supper.  Even  Thomas  Aquinas 
interprets  that  *  altar '  of  the  Cross  ;  it  would  be  strange  indeed 
if  that  Epistle,  written  to  prove  the  supersession  of  all  altars 
by  the  Cross,  should  conclude  by  re-establishing  them. 

(3)  1  Cor.  xi.  20-34.  This  passage  has  been  largely  dealt  with 
already  (for  the  designation,  '  the  Lord's  Supper,'  see  p.  287)  ; 
there  only  remains  to  note  the  Apostle's  commentary  upon  the 
institution  : — 

(a)  v.  26 : —  '  shew  the  Lord's  death ' :  this  emphasis  upon 
preaching  the  death  of  Christ  in  the  rite  has  been  grievously  over 
laid  by  an  unwarrantable  misinterpretation  of  the  word  '  shew,' 
/cuTayyeAAere.  It  can  only  mean  that  by  partaking  of  the  bread 
and  wine,  the  symbols  of  the  body  and  blood  separated  in  sacri 
ficial  death,  that  sacrificial  death  is  preached  to  the  world  ;  there 
is  absolutely  no  idea  of  presentation  before  God.  Nor  is  there 
any  need  to  find  in  the  words  a  custom  of  describing  the  death 
in  words  (Godet,  Commentary,  in  loc.,  arguing  from  the  Haggadah, 
or  historical  explanation,  given  at  the  Passover)  ;  the  partaking 
is  the  preaching.  The  later,  though  still  early,  custom  of  treating 
the  rite  as  a  mystery  to  be  hidden  from  unbelievers,  finds  no 
countenance  here,  but  rather  the  reverse.* 


*  Perhaps  it  should  be  said  that  such  preaching  to  unbelievers  by  the 
rite  is  quite  another  and  different  thing  from  the  fancy  that  benefits  attach 
to  the  non-communicating  attendance  of  believers. 


222  THE   COMMUNION 

(b)  v.  26  : — '  till  He  come.'    These  words  echo  the  Lord's  own 
statement  that  He  would  not  partake  of  the  fruit  of  the  vine 
till  the  Kingdom  comes.     Their  bearing  upon  the  '  bodily  absence  ' 
of  Christ  in  the  rite  is  obvious. 

(c)  vv.  27-34.     Here  the  bread  and  wine  are  expressly  dis 
tinguished  from  the  body  and  blood  ;    careless  misuse  of  the 
former  is  guilt  in  regard  to  the  latter,  visited  in  this  life  with 
condign  punishment.     In  v.  29  '  not  discerning  the   body,'  (not 
'  the  Lord's  body  '),  where  the  '  blood  '  is  not  mentioned,  .refers 
to  the  mystical  body  of  Christ,  the  communion  or  fellowship  of 
the  faithful.*     The  guilt  of  the  Corinthians  was  precisely  failure 
to  recognize  that  organic  oneness  of  the  mystical  body,  cf.  vv. 
21,  22. 

(4)1  Cor.  v.  7,  8  is  a  possible  reference,  the  mention  of  the 
Passover  sacrifice  and  the  Feast  together*  suggesting  the  true 
relation  of  the  Cross  and  Holy  Communion  ;  but,  like  John  vi., 
it  covers  more  than  the  rite — all  the  faithful  life  of  a  believer 
js  a  feasting  upon  Christ. 

Summary  of  N.T.  requirements. 

i.  A  loaf  of  bread  and  a  cup  of  wine. 

ii.  Thanksgiving  for  the  gift  of  bread  and  wine. 

iii.  Breaking  of  the  loaf. 

iv.  Distribution  and  partaking  of  the  bread  and  wine. 

Summary  of  N.T.  teaching. 

i.    Kemembrance  of  the  death  of  Christ. 

ii.     Partaking  of  the  Body  given  and  the  Blood  shed. 

iii.     Fellowship  in  that  partaking. 

iv.     Preaching  the  death  '  till  He  come.' 

The  attempt  to  find  more  than  these  in  Holy  Scripture,  especi 
ally  to  find  a  teaching  of  identity  of  Christ's  body  and  blood 
with  the  bread  and  wine,  and  a  propitiatory  sacrifice  in  the 
Sacrament,  is  rendered  vain  both  by  the  absence  of  any  such 
estimate  of  the  Sacrament  in  the  time  of  the  Apostles,  and  by 
the  fact  that  those  dogmas  preceded  the  search  for  Scriptural 
support,  and  did  not  arise  from  the  plain  interpretation  of  the 
words. 

2.  Sub-Apostolic  Writings. 

Although  the  Keformers  expressly  asserted  the  unique  and 
paramount  authority  of  Holy  Scripture,  they  were  by  no  means 
blind  to  the  interpretative  value  of  genuine  records  of  the  Early 

*  The  usual  explanation  of  v.  29  is  that  the  Corinthians  failed  to  dis 
criminate  between  the  sacred  symbols  of  the  Lord's  Body  and  Blood  and 
the  ordinary  food  provided  at  the  Love-Feast. 


HISTORICAL    INTRODUCTION  223 

Church.  For  example,  Jewel's  famous  Apology,  a  more  than 
semi-authoritative  document,  was  based  upon  the  incompatibility 
of  certain  rejected  tenets  of  the  unre formed  Church  with  the 
teaching  of  the  first  six  centuries.  Unhappily  falsifications, 
both  by  interpolation  and  by  excision,  together  with  the  too 
common  attempt  on  the  part  of  later  writers  to  enhance  the 
authority  of  their  books  by  attaching  to  them  earlier  and  more 
authoritative  names,  complicate  the  question  ;  but  nevertheless 
it  is  po?sible  to  see  the  comparative  simplicity  and  purity  of  the 
first  centuries,  and  to  detect  the  first  beginnings  of  tendencies 
which  foreshadowed  later  corruptions. 

The  earliest  patristic  documents  are  largely  silent  in  regard 
to  the  Lord's  Supper,  Clement  (Rom.)  (96),*  Hermas  (140  (?), 
Polycarp  (d.  157),  and  the  writer  of  the  Epistle  to  Diognetus  (c. 
150),  make  no  allusion  thereto  ; — a  significant  comment  upon 
the  disproportionate  attention  it  has  received  in  ages  more  remote 
from  the  Apostles. 

Ignatius  mentions  Holy  Communion  at  least  four  times,  (if 
the  'middle  recension,'  the  seven  letters,  be  authentic)  : — 

(a)  Ad  Smyrn.  vii.  :  '  They  abstain  from  Eucharist  and  prayer, 
because  they  do  not  confess  that  the  Eucharist  is  flesh  of  our 
Saviour  Jesus  Christ,  which  (TJ/F,  flesh)  suffered  for  our  sins,  and 
which  the  Father  of  His  goodness  raised.' 

The  Docetse,  who  denied  the  reality  of  the  Lord's  body, 
naturally  found  a  serious  difficulty  in  the  Lord's  Supper  ;  how 
could  there  be  a  figurative  representation  of  something  which 
had  no  real  existence  ?  At  a  later  date  this  passage  was  quoted 
by  Theodoret  against  the  Eutychians,  whose  belief  involved 
them  in  a  similar  difficulty.  Theodoret  either  made  or  preserved 
a  significant  misquotation,  viz.,  '  offering '  (7rpoo-<£op«9)  for 
'  prayer.'  It  is  difficult  to  be  sure  of  Ignatius'  intention  in  the 
first  use  of  the  word  '  Eucharist,'  for  it  has  there  no  article,  and 
is  conjoined  with  '  prayer.'  In  the  following  words  the  meaning 
must  be  '  the  Eucharist.' 

This  passage  has  been  often  cited  in  support  of  the  dogma  of 
a  *  Corporal  Presence,'  but  the  words  need  not  mean  more  than 
the  Lord's  own  utterance  at  the  institution,  they  carefully  retain 
the  Lord's  reference  to  His  body  which  suffered,  they  even 
exclude  the  idea  of  any  kind  of  identification  by  the  mention  of 
the  Resurrection.  Moreover,  they  are  explained  by  the  figurative 

*  It  is  unfortunately  still  necessary  to  protest  against  the  citation  of 
Clement  as  supporting  the  '  sacrificial '  idea  of  Holy  Communion.  His 
reference  to  the  O.T.  priesthood,  as  illustrating  God's  provision  of  decency 
and  order,  is  not  obscure  enough  to  justify  the  continuance  of  a  long-ex 
ploded  misuse  of  his  words. 


224  THE    COMMUNION 

use  in  Ad  Trail.    :    viii.  '  be  ye  renewed  in  faith,  that  is  the 
flesh  of  the  Lord,  and  in  love,  that  is  the  blood  of  Jesus  Christ.' 

(b)  Ibid.   viii.  :    '  Let  that  be  considered  a  valid   Eucharist 
which  is  under  the  bishop  or  him  to  whom  he  entrusts  it  ... 
it  is  not  allowable  without  the  bishop  either  to  baptize  or  to 
hold  an  Agape  (dyaV^v  TTOUU').' 

The  Lord's  Supper,  now  called  '  Eucharist,'  is  still  one  with 
the  Agape  (see  above,  p.  219). 

(c)  Ad  Philadelph.  iv.  :  '  Be  zealous  then  to  use  one  Eucharist ; 
for  one  is  the  flesh  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  one  cup  for  the 
oneness  of  his  blood,  one  altar,  as  one  bishop,  together  with  the 
presbytery  and  deacons,  my  fellowservants,  in  order  that  what 
ever  you  do  you  may  do  it  in  accordance  with  God.' 

The  word  '  altar '  here,  though  in  such  close  proximity  to  the 
words  describing  the  Eucharist,  has  no  ritual  connexion  there 
with.  It  is  used  figuratively  of  the  Christian  faith,  as  in  Ad 
Trail,  vii.  :  '  He  who  is  within  the  altar  is  clean,  but  he  who 
is  outside  is  not  clean.'  Again,  in  Ad  Magnes.  vii.,  the  word  is 
figuratively  used  :  '  Do  ye  all  therefore  come  together  (agree) 
as  to  one  altar,  as  to  one  Jesus  Christ.'  Polycarp,  in  Ad  Philip. 
iv.  adds  yet  another  figurative  use, — widows  are  the  '  altars  of 
God.' 

(d)  Ad  Eph.  xx.    ' .  .  .  breaking  one  loaf,  which  is  the  medicine 
of  immortality.'      This   new   idea,  probably  drawn  from  John 
vi.  53,  58,  became  enshrined  in  liturgical  use. 

(2)  One  document,  of  unknown  authorship  and  disputed  date, 
is  probably  to  be  ascribed  to  early  days  : — the  recently  dis 
covered  Teaching  of  the  Twelve  Apostles,  commonly  known  as 
the  '  Didache.'  Some  date  it  as  early  as  90,  others  as  late  as 
120,  200,  and  even  later.  Its  references  to  Holy  Communion 
are  : — 

c.  9.  '  But  concerning  the  thanksgiving  (tvxa.  purr  las)  thus  thank 
(fvxapiffT-fiffaTe) ;  first  concerning  the  cup  :  We  thank  thee,  0  our  Father, 
for  the  holy  vine  of  David  thy  servant  (TrcuSos),  which  thou  hast  made 
known  to  us  by  Jesus  thy  servant  (ircu5.<s) ;  to  thee  (be)  the  glory  for  ever. 
And  concerning  the  fragment  (/cXacr/xaros) :  We  thank  thee,  O  our  Father, 
for  the  life  and  the  knowledge  which  thou  hast  made  known  to  us  by  Jesus 
thy  servant ;  to  thee  be  the  glory  for  ever.  As  was  this  fragment  once 
scattered  over  the  mountains  and  became  gathered  into  one,  so  may  thy 
church  be  gathered  from  the  ends  of  the  earth  into  thy  Kingdom  ;  for 
thine  is  the  glory  and  power  by  Jesus  Christ  for  ever.  And  let  no  one 
eat  or  drink  from  your  Eucharist,  but  those  who  have  been  baptized  into 
the  name  of  the  Lord  ;  for  concerning  this  the  Lord  has  said  :  Give  not 
that  which  is  holy  to  the  dogs.' 

c.  10.  '  And  after  being  filled  (wera  5£  rb  e/.i.ir\r)(76rjvai)  thus  give 
thanks  :  We  thank  thee,  0  holy  Father,  for  thy  holy  name,  .  .  .  thou 
hast  given  both  food  and  drink  to  men  for  enjoyment,  that  they  may  thank 
thee,  but  to  us  thou  hast  given  spiritual  food  and  drink  and  life  eternal 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  225 

through  thy  Son.  For  all  things  we  thank  thee.  ...  If  any  one  is  holy, 
let  him  come  ;  if  any  one  is  not,  let  him  repent ;  Maranatha.  Amen. 
But  suffer  the  prophets  to  give  thanks  as  they  will.' 

c.  14.  '  And  on  each  Lord's  Day  when  assembled  together  break  bread 
and  give  thanks,  after  j~ou  have  confessed  your  transgressions  in  order 
that  your  sacrifice  may  be  pure.  But  let  none  that  hath  strife  with  his 
comrade  come  together  with  you  until  they  be  reconciled,  that  your  sacrifice 
be  not  defiled.  For  this  is  that  which  was  spoken  by  the  Lord  :  In  every 
place  and  time  bring  me  a  clean  sacrifice  ;  because  I  am  a  great  King, 
saith  the  Lord,  and  my  name  is  wonderful  among  the  nations.' 

Forms  of  thanksgiving  are  here  provided,  for  the  cup  and  the 
bread  (in  that  order,  as  in  1  Cor.  x.),  and  also  for  use  after  par 
taking,  but  with  express  latitude  in  regard  to  their  use  ;  if  a 
'  prophet,'  anyone  able  to  conduct  worship,  is  present,  he  is  not 
to  be  tied  to  forms.  The  word  '  sacrifice '  is  also  introduced, 
though  without  any  closer  association  with  the  Lord's  Supper 
than  with  the  rest  of  public  worship.  Regulations  are  given 
to  warn  unfit  communicants,  and  general  confession  of  sins  is 
inculcated  to  prevent  unworthy  communicating.  The  Lord's 
Day  is  the  only  day  for  such  worship.  The  '  breaking '  is  so 
essential  that  the  bread  is  called  '  the  fragment,'  or  '  thing 
broken,'  and  the  Eucharistic  prayer  in  regard  to  it  dwells  solely 
upon  the  communion  of  believers.* 

(3)  Some  light  is  thrown  upon  early  Christian  worship  by  a 
writing  whose  heathen  authorship  lends  peculiar  value  to  its 
witness,  Pliny's  letter  to  Trajan  (Ep.  x.  96)  : — 

'  They  protested  that  this  was  the  sum  of  their  fault  or  error,  that  they 
were  wont  on  a  fixed  day  to  meet  before  daylight,  and  to  sing  (dicere) 
together  in  turn  a  hymn  to  Christ  as  God,  and  to  bind  themselves  by  an 
oath  (sacramenlo),  not  to  any  crime,  but  that  they  would  commit  no  thefts, 
robberies,  adulteries,  would  not  break  their  faith,  would  not  deny  a  trust 
when  challenged  (ne  depositum  appellati  abnegarent) :  which  things  com 
pleted  it  was  their  custom  to  disperse,  and  come  together  again  to  take 
food,  common  however  and  harmless  :  and  that  they  had  ceased  to  do 
even  that  after  my  edict  by  which,  following  your  orders,  I  had  forbidden 
dub-meetings  (hetcerias)  to  be  held.' 

If  any  allusion  to  Holy  Communion  is  to  be  found  here  (as 
every  one  is  ready  to  admit),  it  is  only  on  the  assumption  that 
the  '  food '  mentioned  relates  to  it  or  includes  it.  For  the  impos 
sibility  of  the  reference  of  the  word  sacratnento  to  the  rite  see 
p.  289,  and  for  the  importance  of  this  passage  in  accounting 
for  the  general  abandonment  of  Evening  Communion  fee  p.  220. 

*  The  connexion  of  these  passages  with  the  Lord's  Supper  is  denied 
by  some.  Frere,  History  of  B.C. P.  (1910),  is  curiously  uncertain.  On  pp. 
506,  7,  he  gives  the  passage  as  the  first  of  '  Three  early  accounts  of  the 
Holy  Eucharist '  ;  on  p.  432,  note  1,  he  says  the  Lord's  Supper  is  called 
Eucharist  '  probably  in  the  Didache  '  ;  note  2,  '  the  forms  very  possibly 
refer  only  to  the  Agape.' 

Q 


226  THE   COMMUNION 

The  information  is  otherwise  of  a  very  negative  character, 
giving  no  hint  of  any  '  liturgy '  in  connexion  with  the  Lord's 
Supper.  One  positive  element  is  important ;  the  Lord's  Supper 
becoming  compulsorily  connected  with  the  morning  meeting, 
the  antiphonal  hymn  and  mutual  pledge  thus  became  accidentally 
associated  with  the  Sacrament. 

(4)  One  other  author  of  the  early  period  deserves  special 
notice,  Justin  Martyr,  c.  140.  His  accounts  of  services  are -very 
full,  the  most  important  being  : — 

(a)  Apology  i.  65,  66  :  '  Having  ceased  from  the  prayers  (for  a  newly 
baptized  convert)  we  greet  one  another  with  a  kiss  ;  then  is  brought 
(irportpfpeTai)  to  the  president  (Trpoecrrois)  of  the  brethren  bread  and  a 
cup  of  water  and  wine  (/rpd^aros),  and  he,  receiving  them,  sendeth  up 
praise  and  glory  to  the  Father  of  all,  through  the  name  of  the  Son  and 
the  Holy  Spirit,  and  makes  a  thanksgiving  (ei'xapKm'av)  at  some  length 
for  that  He  has  granted  us  these  blessings.  When  he  hath  ended  the 
prayers  and  thanksgiving,  the  whole  people  present  join  in  with  one  voice 
saying  Amen.  And  after  the  president  has  given  thanks  and  the  people 
have  assented,  those  called  among  us  deacons  give  to  each  of  them  present 
to  partake  of  the  bread  and  wine  and  water,  over  which  thanksgiving  has 
been  made,  and  carry  it  to  those  not  present. 

'  And  this  meal  is  called  with  us  Eucharistic,  of  which  none  is  permitted 
to  partake  except  one  who  believes  that  the  things  taught  by  us  are  true, 
and  who  has  passed  through  the  washing  for  remission  of  sins,  and  new 
birth,  and  so  lives  as  Christ  commanded.  For  we  receive  these  not  as 
common  bread  or  as  common  drink,  but,  just  as  Jesus  Christ  our  Saviour, 
being  incarnate  through  the  word  of  God,  possessed  both  flesh  and  blood 
for  our  salvation,  so  also  we  were  taught  that  the  food  over  which  thanks 
giving  has  been  made  by  the  (utterance  in)  prayer  of  the  word  which  is 
from  Him  (^rjv  Si1  fi'xn*  \6yov  TOV  Trap'  avroS  evxo-ptGTr/fte'io'a.v  Tpo^>'(}v) 
—that  food  from  which  our  blood  and  flesh  are  by  assimilation  nourished 
— is  the  flesh  and  blood  of  Him,  the  Incarnate  Jesus.  For  the  Apostles, 
in  the  memoirs  which  they  wrote  which  are  called  Gospels,  transmitted 
to  us  that  Jesus  Christ  thus  charged  them,  that  after  taking  bread  and 
giving  thanks  He  said  :  Do  this  in  remembrance  of  Me  ;  this  is  My  body  : 
and  that  likewise  having  taken  the  cup  and  given  thanks,  He  said  :  This 
is  my  blood,  and  gave  to  partake  to  them  alone  ..." 

(b)  Ibid.  c.  67,  the  same  account  is  given  in  an  abbreviated  form  :  '  On 
the  day  called  that  of  the  Sun  there  is  a  congregation  of  all  who  dwell  in 
town  or  country  into  one  place,  and  the  reminiscences  of  the  Apostles  or 
the  writings  of  the  prophets  are  read  so  far  as  time  permits ;  then,  the 
reader  ceasing,  the  president  by  an  address  admonishes  and  exhorts  to 
the  imitation  of  these  noble  deeds  (men  ?) ;  afterwards  we  all  stand  up 
together  and  offer  prayers  ;  and,  as  we  said  before,  when  we  cease  from 
prayer,  bread  (a  loaf)  is  brought  and  wine  and  water ;  and  the  president 
sends  up  prayers  likewise  and  thanksgivings  to  the  best  of  his  ability, 
and  the  people  assent  saying  the  Amen.  And  the  distribution  of  and 
participation  in  the  things  which  have  been  made  objects  of  thanksgiving 
(TUV  fvxapurTTj(>€i>T(i}i>)  takes  place  for  each,  and  to  those  not  present  they 
are  sent  by  means  of  the  deacons.  And  the  prosperous  and  willing  each 
according  to  his  own  previous  purpose,  contribute  each  what  they  will ; 
and  that  which  is  collected  is  laid  by  with  the  president,  and  he  helps 
orphans.'  etc. 


HISTORICAL    INTRODUCTION  227 

(c)  Dial,  cum  Trypho,  c.'  70  :    'In  this  prophecy  allusion  is  made  to 
the  bread  which  our  Christ   gave    us  to    do    in    remembrance    (woielv  et'j 
avaf.'.v-r)(nv)  of  His  being  made  flesh  in  behalf  of  those  who  believe  in  Him, 
for  whom  also  He  became  subject  to  suffering ;   and  to  the  cup  which  He 
gave  us  to  drink  in  remembrance  of  His  own  blood,  with  giving  of  thanks.' 

(d)  Ibid.  cc.  116,  117.     '  Now  God  receives  sacrifices  from  no  one,  except 
through  His  priests.     Therefore"  God  anticipating  all  the  sacrifices  which 
we  do  through  His  name,  and  which  Jesus  the  Christ  enjoined  us  to  do, 
i.e.,  in  the  Eucharist  of  the  bread  and  of  the  cup,  and  which  are  done  by 
Christians  in  all  places  throughout  the  world,  bears  witness  that  they  are 
well-pleasing  to  Him.  .  .  .     You  assert  that  God  ...  is  pleased  with 
the  prayers  of  the  individuals  of  that  nation  then  dispersed,  and  calls 
their  prayers  sacrifices.     Now  that  prayers  and  giving  of  thanks  (evxapiffTiai) 
when  offered  by  worthy  men,  are  the  only  perfect  and  well-pleasing  sacri 
fices  to  God,  I  also  admit.     For  such  alone  Christians  have  undertaken 
to  do,  and  in  the  remembrance  made  by  their  food,  both  solid  and  liquid, 
in  which  the  suffering  of  the  Son  of  God  which  He  endured  is  brought  to 
remembrance.' 

Summary  of  Justin's  liturgical  teaching  : — 

(1)  Worship,  including  Holy  Communion,  is  on  Sunday. 

(2)  The  kiss  of  peace. 

(3)  A  president,  ministerial  qualification  unspecified.* 

(4)  Reading  of  O.T.  and  N.T.  Scriptures. 

(5)  A  Sermon. 

(6)  Prayers,  by  the  congregation. 

(7)  The  bringing  to  the  president  of  bread  and  mixed  wine 
and  water,  f 

(8)  A  long  prayer  of  thanksgiving. 

(9)  The  response  of  the  people,  Amen.J 

(10)  Administration. 

(11)  Distribution  to  the  Sick. 

(12)  Almsgiving,  according  to  the  regulation  of  1  Cor.  xvi.  2. 
Doctrinal  references  : — 

(1)  Sacrifices  are  prayers  and  thanksgivings,  the  latter  including 
those  offered  at  the  Lord's  Supper.  In  describing  the  rite  the 

*  It  deserves  a  passing  protest  that  Blunt,  Annotated  Prayer  Book, 
should  have  rendered  the  colourless  word  7r/5oe<rrit>j  by  the  highly  coloured 
word  sacerdos. 

f  Frere,  History  of  B.C. P.,  p.  433,  denominates  this  'the  oblation,' 
trading  on  the  double  meaning  of  the  verb  irpocrtyffitTcn,  which  can  only 
mean  '  is  brought '  here,  seeing  that  '  to  the  president '  immediately  follows. 
It  is  unfortunate  that  in  his  quotation  from  Justin,  p.  507,  he  omits  the 
passage  containing  this  addition,  and  only  preserves  the  more  brief  repeti 
tion  of  these  words  :  '  as  we  have  said,  when  we  cease  from  prayer  bread 
is  brought,'  etc.  The  '  as  we  have  said '  refers  to  the  context,  where  the 
words  '  to  the  president '  are  expressed.  The  verb  cannot  mean  both 
'  bring  '  and  '  offer  '  in  one  passage. 

%  For  the  attempt  to  derive  from  this  that  St.  Paul  called  the  Lord's 
Supper  '  Eucharist.'  see  p.  288. 


228  THE   COMMUNION 

word  '  sacrifice  '   (<Wi«)  is  not  used.*     Other  sacrificial    terms 
are  absent. 

(2)  Bread   and  wine  are  still  called  bread  and   wine  when 
distributed,  though  Justin  is  not  afraid  of  sacramental  identifica 
tion  with  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ. 

(3)  Justin's  parallel  between  the  Incarnation  and  the  figurative 
body  and  blood  in  Holy  Communion,  innocently  enough  used 
by  him,   is   nevertheless   one  of  those   vague  and  unscripturol 
analogies  peculiarly  liable  to  be  superstitiously  misused. 

3.  Early  Liturgies  and  Patristic  Literature. 

I.  LITURGIES. 

The  efforts  to  obtain  satisfactory  historical  evidence  by  com 
parisons  of  ancient  liturgies  and  sacramentaries,  and  the  liturgical 
hints  to  be  found  in  patristic  writings,  have  been  notoriously 
unproductive  of  trustworthy  positive  results.  The  negative 
teaching,  however,  is  of  great  importance  as  furnishing  indis 
putable  evidence  that  some  particular  development  was  not  in 
vogue  when  and  where  the  particular  liturgy  was  in  use  ;  it  is 
possible  on  such  grounds  alone  to  disprove  the  claims  to  catho 
licity  of  most  mediaeval  doctrine  and  ritual.  But  to  establish 
positive  teaching  as  to  the  age  or  prevalence  of  any  rite  contained 
in  these  documents  is  not  possible.  When  undisputed  facts 
and  statements  of  patristic  writers  are  so  continually  tortured 
into  giving  evidence  to  suit  the  biassed  inquisitor,  it  is  not  to 
be  expected  that  in  this  region,  where  the  difference  between 
early  and  late  is  a  matter  of  delicate  weighing  of  probabilities 
and  possibilities,  the  results  obtained  by  liturgiology  will  do 
much  more  than  reflect  the  predilections  of  the  liturgiologist. 
Moreover,  even  were  a  greater  measure  of  success  obtainable, 
the  earliness  or  lateness  of  the  introduction  of  any  doctrinally 
important  liturgical  novelty  is  a  matter  of  no  practical  importance, 
save  as  teaching  a  melancholy  lesson  upon  the  rapidity  with 
which  purity  of  doctrine  is  lost  as  the  stream  becomes  remote 
from  its  scriptural  source.  Carelessness  hi  the  use  of  unscriptural 
phraseology,  largely  borrowed  from  Jewish  and  Pagan  religion  : 
the  proneness  of  human  nature  to  find  substitutes  for  the  exacting 
demands  of  spiritual  devotion  in  the  fatally  easy  refuge  of  an 
aesthetic  cult :  the  well-meant  but  ill-starred  efforts  to  embrace 
hordes  of  heathen  within  the  Christian  fold  by  accommodating 
Christianity  to  their  superstitious  ideas  of  religion  :  the  com 
bined  tendencies  of  priestly  ambition  on  one  side,  and  ignorant 

*  Yet  Frero  (p.  432)  c'tcs  Justin,  Dial.  c.  41,  117,  as  the  authority 
for  Ovffla  as  one  of  '  the  principal  early  titles  of  the  service,'  with  how 
much  (or  how  little)  justice,  can  be  seen  from  the  quotations  above  given. 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  229 

indifference  on  the  other,  to  evolve  a  hierarchical  and  sacrificial 
system  for  which  there  were  parallels  on  every  side  :  these,  and 
such  like  reasons,  writ  large  in  the  experience  of  all  ages, 
sufficiently  explain  the  comparatively  early  transmutation  of 
the  simple  worship  of  the  New  Testament  into  the  superstitious, 
more  than  semi-heathen,  displays  of  later  times. 

One  further  precaution  should  precede  any  consideration  of 
the  liturgies.  They  are  not  doctrinal  treatises,  though  they 
involve  doctrine.  This  needs  emphasizing  in  view  oi  the  too 
common  practice  of  treating  the  rhetorical  expressions  of  devotion 
as  though  they  were  found  in  a  volume  of  dogmatic  theology. 
Such  procedure  is  as  unwise  and  as  unfair  as  would  be  an  attempt 
to  trace  the  course  of  Anglican  theological  belief  by  means  of  a 
popular  hymn-book.  At  the  close  of  the  following  outline  of  the 
comparatively  reliable  data  of  liturgical  research,  will  be  found 
some  typical  quotations  from  doctrinal  writings  of  the  periods 
•to  which  the  earliest  liturgical  relics  can  be  ascribed  ;  those 
quotations  will  serve  to  refute  hasty  doctrinal  deductions  often 
made  from  the  fervid  language  of  public  worship. 

In  the  Table  on  p.  230  an  attempt  has  been  made  to  indicate 
the  most  probable  relations  of  the  more  important  liturgical 
compilations  to  one  another  and  to  modern  uses,  with  brief 
notes  of  the  dates  of  their  earliest  extant  MSS.,  etc.  Free  use 
has  been  made  of  the  Article  '  Liturgies  '  in  Encyclop.  Britann,, 
llth  Edn.,  where  may  be  found  justification  of  the  arrangement, 
and  reference  to  sources  of  fuller  information. 

i.  The  Clementine  Liturgy. 

There  is  a  long  gap  between  the  simplicity  and  freedom  of 
the  service  described  by  Justin,  and  the  earliest  known  liturgy, 
which  is  probably  that  in  the  eighth  book  of  the  so-called  '  Apos 
tolical  Constitutions,'  a  work  emanating  from  the  neighbourhood 
of  Antioch,  in  the  fourth  century  or  later.  From  its  claim  to 
be  the  ipsissima  verba  of  the  Apostles,  written  down  by  Clement, 
the  account  of  the  Lord's  Supper  therein  is  called  the  '  Clementine 
Liturgy,'  *  which  enshrines  the  following  important  changes 
introduced  in  the  two  centuries  or  more  since  150  A.D.  : — 

(1)  A  sharp  division  of  the  service  into  two  parts,  one  for 
catechumens,  etc.,  the  other  for  the  faithful. 

(2)  Prayer  for  the  Church,  including  the  faithful  departed. 

(3)  Gifts  are  now  brought  to  the  *  Altar.' 

(4)  The  -sign  of  the  Cross  is  introduced. 

*  For  some  account  of  this  work  see  Protestant  Dictionary,  Art.  'Apos- 
tilical  Constitutions,' where  it  is  proved  to  be  tinged  with  Arianism  and 
lull  of  absurd  anachronisms. 


230 


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\BLE  OF  LITURGIES.  v 
:  RECENT  THEORIES  AS  TO  THEIR  RELATIONS. 

I.  EASTERN. 

Monophysite  (Jacobite)  Use  ;  earliest  extant  form 
century. 
Orthodox  Use,  largely  supplemented  by  Byzantine  an 
Occurs  in  Apostolical  Constitutions,  viii. 
Occurs  in  Catechetical  Lectures  ;  authenticity  doubted 

Coptic,  Ethiopic,  and  Abyssinian  Jacobite  Uses  deri 
extant  form  llth  or  12th  century. 

Authenticity  doubtful  ;  recently  discovered  llth  cent 

Nestorian  Uses  ;  the  Liturgy  of  St.  Thomas,  used  on 
to  Roman  Use  by  Jesuits  c.  1600. 

Russian  Use  ;  earliest  extant  form  8th  or  9th  centui 
1549  B.C.P. 
Armenian  Uses  ;  disappearing  before  Russian  Use. 
Roman  Use  in  Byzantine  framework] 

II.  WESTERN. 

Spanish  Use,  ousted  by  Hildebrand  llth  century,  resto: 
Church  of  Spain.  Influence  traced  in  1549  B.C.P. 
French  Use,  ousted  by  Charlemagne. 
North  Italy,  ousted  by  Charlemagne. 
British  Isles,  ousted  by  Roman  influences.  Eastern 
theory  ;  earliest  extant  form  7th  or  8th  century. 

Origin  unknown  ;  earliest  extant  form  7th  to  8th  < 
fluencing  Anglo-Saxon  (Leofric),  and  Anglo-Normai 
Authenticity  of  Sacramentaries  unknown  ;  present 
9th  century,  and  all  MSS.  come  from  north  of  the  A 

i  a  Liturgy  connotes  no  Apostolic  authorship  or  sanctii 
requently  assumed  his  name,  though  composed  long  afti 

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HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  231 

(5)  The  Sursum  Corda,  and  Ter  Sanctus. 

(6)  Prayer,  including  : — 

(a)  Account  of  the  Institution  (inexcusably  travestied). 

(6)  Oblation  of  the  Bread  and  Wine. 

(c)  Invocation  of  the  Holy  Spirit  upon  '  this  sacrifice,'   that 

He  may  '  show  forth  this  bread  the  body  of  thy  Christ, 
and  this  cup  the  blood  of  thy  Christ.' 

(d)  '  Offering  on  behalf  of '  the  faithful  dead. 

(7)  Words  of  Administration,  'The  Body  of  Christ';  'the 
Blood  of  Christ,  the  cup  of  life  '  ;   '  Amen  '  being  the  recipients' 
answer  to  both. 

ii.  Cyril  of  Jerusalem. 

Side  by  side  with  the  Clementine  Liturgy  should  be  set  the 
Liturgical  hints  to  be  deduced  from  the  CalecJiciical  Lectures  of 
Cyril  of  Jerusalem  (348).*  The  following  are  the  notable  inno 
vations  : — 

1.  Ceremonial  hand- washing  before  Kiss  of  Peace. 

2.  Invocation  of  the  Holy  Spirit  that  He  may  be  sent  forth 

on  these  (things)  lying  before  Him,  that  He  may  make 
the  bread  the  body  of  Christ,  and  the  wine  the  blood 
of  Christ. 

3.  Sacrificial  terms  used  of  the  bread  and  wine  :  '  the  spiritual 

sacrifice,'  '  that  sacrifice  of  propitiation.'  f 

4.  Offering  for  the  departed. 

5.  Prayers  and  intercession  of  the  Saints  mentioned. 

6.  The  Lord's  Prayer  mentioned. 

7.  The  Choir  sings  before  Communion,  '  Taste  and  see  that 

the  Lord  is  gracious.' 

8.  '  Altar '  is  frequently  used.f 
iii.  Serapion. 

In  an  eleventh  century  MS.,  discovered  in  the  last  decade  of 
the  nineteenth  century,  is  contained  what  would  be  called  in  the 
West  a  Sacramentary.  The  name  of  Serapion,  Bishop  of  Thmuis, 
and  friend  of  Athanasius,  is  prefixed  to  part  of  the  liturgy  which 
it  contains,  but  it  offers  no  resemblance  to  his  current  works. 
It  is  conjectured  to  date  from  c.  350,  and  the  Delta  is  the  apparent 
place  of  its  origin.  The  most  important  point  to  be  noted  here 
is  its  invocation  of  the  Word  upon  the  bread  and  wine  :  '  0 
God  of  truth,  let  thy  holy  Word  settle  upon  this  bread  that  the 
bread  may  become  body  of  the  Word,  and  on  this  cup  that  the 

*  In  fairness  to  Cyril  it  should  be  observed  that  his  authorship  of  these 
Lectures  is  doubted  by  Bishop  Andrewes  and  Dean  Goode. 

t  Similar  language  is  found  in  Irena?us,  but  not  in  a  liturgy. 

J  For  the  well-known  direction  to  the  communicants  in  the  matter  of 
reception,  see  p.  237,  and  p.  341. 


232  THE   COMMUNION 

cup  may  become  blood  of  the  truth..  And  cause  all  who  com 
municate  to  receive  a  drug  of  life  for  healing  of  every  disease 
and  empowering  of  all  moral  advance  and  virtue.'  *  The  ele 
ments  are  called  a  '  living  sacrifice,  a  bloodless  offering '  ;  the 
bread  and  wine  are  called  '  likeness  of  his  body  and  blood  '  before 
consecration.  It  is  some  indication  of  early  date,  that,  though 
the  invocation  is  capable  of  a  meaning  akin  to  later  doctrines 
of  a  literal  transformation  of  the  elements,  '  sacrifice  '  is  used 
of  the  unconsecrated  bread  and  wine,  which  are  called  '  likeness 
of  his  body  and  blood '  before  consecration. 

iv.  Chrysostom. 

His  writings  contain  outlines  of  the  use  at  Antioch,  in  which 
the  following  words  occur,  paving  the  way  for  enhanced  doctrine 
and  ritual  : — 

(a)  Sacrificial  terms,  upews  and  Ovcriaa-Ti'/pLov,  '  priest '  and 
'  altar,'  are  in  use,  but  rpu.irt?a,  '  table,'  is  also  used. 

(6)  The  Holy  Spirit  is  invoked  to  '  come  and  touch  the  gifts 
lying  before  Him,  that  grace  may  fall  on  the  sacrifice,  and  through 
it  kindle  the  souls  of  all.' 

v.  Syrian  practices.! 

From  the  fifth  to  the  eighth  century  the  following  liturgical 
changes  came  into  use  : — 

(a)  Lessons  confined  to  Epistle  and  Gospel. 

(6)  Creed  recited. 

(c)  In  narrative  of  institution,  '  and  confess  His  resurrection ' 
added  to  '  show  His  death.' 

(d)  Invocation  of  the  Holy  Spirit  to  come  '  on  us  and  on  the 
gifts  '  to  '  hallow  and  make  this  bread  the  holy  body  o-f  Christ 
and  this  cup  the  precious  blood  of  Christ, — that  they  may  become 
to  those  who  worthily  partake  by  faith,  for  remission  of  sins, 
for  life  eternal,  and  for  a  guard  of  soul  and  body.' 

(e)  Unbloody  Sacrifice ' — r-ljv  6WiW  rrjv  di'ai/xaKTov. 
(/)  Elevation  of  the  bread. 

(g)  Burning  of  unconsumed  bread  and  wine. 

*  As  translated  in  Encyclop.  Britann.  The  writer  of  the  Article  affords 
an  instructive  illustration  of  the  way  in  which  inferences  can  be  drawn 
from  such  devotional  passages,  which  would  be  repudiated  by  their  Authors  : 
'  Here  the  bread  and  wine  become  by  consecration  Tenements  in  which 
the  Word  is  reincarnated  as  he  aforetime  dwelled  in  flesh.  They  cease 
to  be  now  likeness  of  the  body  and  blood,  and  are  changed  into  receptacles 
of  divine  power  and  intimacy,  by  swallowing  which  we  are  benefitted  in 
soul  and  body.'  Proof  will  be  forthcoming  from  the  Fathers  of  later 
centuries  than  the  fourth  that  such  ideas  as  '  reincarnation,'  '  tenements,' 
and  '  receptacles,'  and  '  ceasing  to  be  bread  and  wine '  would  have  been 
quite  unintelligible  in  the  reputed  period  of  this  work. 

t  Extracted  from  various  writings  by  Brightman,  Liturgies  Eastern  and 
WeMern. 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  233 

vi.  Byzantine  practices. 

The  following  are  stated  to  be  earlier  than  600  : — 

(a)  Incense  is  used,  possibly  only  as  a  fumigatory. 

(b)  Ritual  bringing  of  bread  and  wine  '  to  the  holy  altar ' 
('  table,'  however,  still  used). 

(c)  The  words  '  showing  to  God  '  introduced. 

(d)  Eating  and  drinking  the  unconsumed  bread  and  wine. 
The  justifiable  conclusions  to  be  drawn  from  the  contents  of 

these  '  Early  Liturgies  '  are  that : — 

(a)  The  earliest  are  the  simplest,  both  in  ritual  and  devotional 
language. 

(6)  Remembrance,  Spiritual  Feeding,  Thanksgiving,  and 
Fellowship,  are  still  the  explicit  teaching  of  the  rite. 

(c)  Faith  is  still  the  means  of  receiving  :    Baptism,  Holiness, 
Charity,  the  qualifications  for  bein^  present. 

(d)  The  connexion  of  forgiveness  of  sins  with  the  rite  is  becom 
ing  obscured,  the  rite  itself  being  treated  as  a  cause  of  forgiveness, 
instead  of  a  thanksgiving  for  forgiveness. 

(e)  Sacrificial  terms  are  assimilating  the  simple  commemorative 
Feast  of  '  the  Upper  Room '  to  the  Jewish  and  Pagan  Sacrifice,? 
around,  a  process  hastened  by  the  influx  of  nominal  Christians 
after   the   outward    adhesion    of   the   Emperor   Constantine   to 
Christianity. 

(/)  Mystery,  in  the  modern  sense  of  the  word,  is  becoming 
attached  to  the  bread  and  wine  after  consecration,  and  the 
practice  of  hedging  the  rite  around  is  cultivated.* 

(g)  To  justify  the  mystery,  the  Lord's  simple  thanksgiving 
for  God's  gift  of  food  is  dropped  for  invocations,  varying  in  form 
and  wording,  but  ail  asking  for  some  effect  upon  the  elements 
themselves.f  The  effect  of  this  change  is  various  ;  the  Holy 
Spirit  displays,  shows,  the  bread  to  be  the  body  (Clementine)  : 
makes  the  bread  the  body  (Cyril  ?)  :  touches  the  gifts  that  grace 
may  fall  on  them  (Chrysostom-Antioch)  :  hallows  and  makes 
the  bread  body  (Syrian)  :  while,  in  Egypt,  the  holy  Word  is  the 
agent  by  Whom  the  bread  becomes  the  body  of  the  Word  (Sera- 
pion). 

(h)  Such  language,  apart  from  the  unscriptural  invocation 
and  its  implications,  docs  not  necessarily  convey  any  change  in 
the  elements  save  for  use  ;  there  is,  ab  yet,  neither  a  reasoned 
literal  identification  of  the  bread  and  wine  consumed  with  the 

*  Even  so  early  as  Tertullian  the  idea  had  arisen  of  comparing  the  Lord's 
Supper  to  the  Eleusinian  mysteries,  but  it  is  perhaps  unfair  to  him  to 
press  his  comparison  far. 

f  It  will  be  remembered  that  the  1649  B.C.P.  contained  an  invocation 
of  the  Holy  Spirit  and  the  Word,  which  was  expunged  in  1552. 


234  THE   COMMUNION 

body  and  blood  of  Christ,  nor  a  sacrifice  by  the  priest  for  the 
remission  of  sins  apart  from  communicating,  save  that  in  the 
latter  case,  the  idea  of  offering  for  the  dead,  who  could  not 
partake,  logically  leads  to  the  idea  of  benefits  obtainable  by 
the  living,  through  non-communicating  attendance  at  a  sacrifice. 

II.  PATRISTIC  LITERATURE. 

It  remains  to  quote  typical  passages  from  the  early  Fathers 
containing  their  reasoned  teaching  upon  the  Lord's  Supper. 
Here  two  all-important  preliminary  observations  must  be  made  : — 

(1)  The  language  of  devotion  is  to  be  interpreted  by  that  of  doc 

trinal  statement,  and  not  vice  versa ;  cf.  for  example, 
the  relation  of  the  B.C. P.  Baptismal  Service  to  the 
Catechism  and  Articles. 

(2)  One  indisputable  passage  by  an    author  declaring  certain 

language  to  be  figurative,  stamps  as  figurative  any  number 
of  uses  of  such  language  by  that  same  author,  unless  he 
himself  states  that  he  has  altered  his  mind ;  e.g.  an  astrono 
mer's  book  on  the  Solar  system  is  not  to  be  explained 
away  by  his  use  of  the  words  '  Sunrise '  and  '  Sunset,' 
however  often  used  and  used  without  explanation,  once 
he  has  committed  himself  to  the  Earth's  motion  as  the 
cause  of  Sunrise  and  Sunset. 
The  following  passages  will  suffice  : — 

(1)  Tertullian    (early  in   third  century):     'The   bread,   taken 
and  distributed  to  the  disciples,  He  made  it  His  own  body,  by 
saying,  This  is  my  body,  that  is  the  figure  of  my  body '  (Adv. 
Marc.  iv.  40). 

The  stock  reply  to  such  passages  as  this,  in  Origen  as  well  as 
in  Tertullian,  is  that  these  teachers  were  heretics,  though  Muratori 
tries  to  get  rid  of  the  obvious  force  of  the  above-quoted  passage 
by  interpreting  it  as  meaning  that  bread  was  a  figure  of  Christ's 
body  in  the  Old  Testament  !  This  exegesis  needs  no  answer  ; 
the  question  of  heresy  opens  a  very  wide  field.  There  were 
heretics,  there  were  also  refutations  of  heresy,  in  very  early  days, 
but  neither  Tertullian  nor  Origen  was  charged  with  heresy  on 
the  point  in  question.  On  the  contrary,  Tertullian  and  others 
refuted  such  heretics  as  the  Docetse,  and  that  by  citing  figurative 
representation  of  the  Lord's  body  in  the  Lord's  Supper  :  '  There 
could  not  however  be  a  figure,  unless  there  were  a  body  of  truth  ; 
nay,  an  empty  thing,  a  phantasm,  cannot  take  a  figure,'  see, 
for  other  examples,  Dimock,  Eucharistic  Worship,  pp.  61,  62. 

(2)  Augustine   (354-430)  :    'for  the  Lord  did  not  hesitate  to 
say,  This  is  my  body  ;    when  he  was  giving  a  sign  (signum)  of 
his  body'  (Contra  Adimant.,  xii. §  3).     This  passage  occurs  in  a 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  235 

proof  that  the  word  '  is  '  in  '  The  blood  is  the  life '  does  not  convey 
literal  but  figurative  identity,  '  that  Rock  was  Christ '  being 
quoted  as  illustrative,  and  reference  being  al.-;o  made  to  Christ's 
mercy  in  inviting  Judas  '  to  the  banquet,  in  which  He  commended 
and  delivered  to  the  disciples  the  figure  of  His  body  and  blood.'  * 

In  view  of  the  frequent  teaching  that  '  the  Word  was  made 
flesh '  is  to  be  understood  as  parallel  to  '  This  is  my  body,'  Dr. 
Harrison's  words  (Answer  to  Pusey,  pp.  398,  399)  should  be 
weighed  :  '  No  orthodox  Father  ever  said  of  the  phrase  "  The 
Word  was  made  flesh,"  "  that  is,  a  figure  of  the  flesh  "... 
No  orthodox  Father  ever  affirmed  that  "  St.  John  did  not  hesitate 
to  say,  The  Word  was  made  flesh,  when  he  meant  a  sign  of  his 
flesh."  :  There  is  a  true  parallel  to  '  This  is  my  blood '  in  '  I 
am  the  true  vine,'  and  numerous  parallels  can  be  cited,  from 
Clement  of  Alexandria  to  Ambrose,  and  from  later  writers  still, 
where  the  Lord's  words  in  regard  to  the  wine,  and  of  Himself 
as  the  vine,  are  brought  into  closest  juxtaposition  as  explaining 
one  another  (Harrison,  ibid.  pp.  395-8). f 

(3)  Augustine,  De  Doctrina  Christiana,  iii.  16,  commenting  on 
the  words,  '  Except  ye  eat  the  flesh  of  the  Son  of  Man,  and  drink 
His  blood,  ye  have  no  life  in  you '  :  '  It  seems  to  order  a  crime 
or  an  outrage  :  it  is  therefore  a  figure,  commanding  us  to  share 
in  the  Lord's  Passion,  and  to  store  in  our  memory  sweetly  and 
usefully,  that  for  us  His  flesh  was  crucified  and  wounded.' 

Though  the  words  of  Scripture  commented  upon  are  not 
regarded,  even  by  many  Roman  writers,  as  directly  bearing  upon 
the  Lord's  Supper,  yet  these  latter  admit  that  Augustine's 
comment  makes  their  view  of  the  identity  of  the  consecrated 
elements  with  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ '  a  crime  or  an  outrage  ' 
({acinus  vel  flagitium).  The  argument  is  precisely  the  same  for 
the  words  '  This  is  my  body,'  '  this  is  my  blood,'  if  they  be  inter 
preted  of  any  presence  of  Christ's  body  given  for  us  and  His 
blood  shed  for  us,  in,  under,  or  with  the  consecrated  elements. 
The  straits  to  which  these  words  of  Augustine  have  reduced 
adherents  of  a  '  Real  Corporal  Presence '  may  be  gathered  from 
the  following  facts  : — 

i.  Paschasius,  whose  name  marks  an  epoch  in  the  development 

*  For  similar  teaching  in  Ephrem,  Procopius,  Jerome,  see  Dimock, 
ibid.  pp.  70  ff. 

t  Yet  Frere  writes  (New  History  of  B.C. P.,  p.  431)  :  'the  Church  at 
once  .  .  .  gave  a  quite  different  interpretation  to  the  statement  '  This 
is  my  body,'  from  that  which  it  gave  to  such  parallel  statements  as  "  I 
am  the  vine,"  '  etc.  This  statement  is  made  without  any  allusion  to  the 
more  than  twenty  quotations  from  Patristic  literature  to  be  found  in 
Harrison,  Dimock,  etc.,  where  the  latter  phrase  is  quoted  to  illustrate  the 
termer. 


236  THE   COMMUNION 

of  mediaeval  doctrine,  could  only  say,  in  reply  to  Frudegard's 
citation  of  this  passage,  that  if  any  one  believed  it  (the  Lord's 
saying)  to  be  so  a  crime  as  they  then  believed  it  to  whom  He 
said  (the  words)  .  .  .  says  that  this  flesh  and  this  blood  are 
themselves  so  to  be  taken  without  mystery  and  sacrament,  not 
partly  in  figure,  .  .  .  being  carnally  understood  carnally  destroys 
the  whole,  and  so  therefore  perhaps  the  blessed  Augustine  says 
that  so  to  understand  this  is  a  great  crime.  This  halting  attempt 
at  explanation,  with  its  admission  of  '  partly  in  figure,'  and  its 
consciousness  of  insufficiency,  '  has  probably,'  to  quote  [Harrison, 
'  never  been  repeated,  and  is  beneath  notice.' 

ii.  De  Villiers  published  in  1608  an  edition  of  the  works  of 
Fulbert  of  Chartres,  who  quoted  with  approval  the  words  of 
Augustine.  Confronted  with  the  problem  of  dealing  with  so 
unequivocal  a  condemnation  of  the  then  received  doctrine,  de 
Villiers  adopted  a  solution  which  sufficiently  shows  what  he 
thought  Augastine's  words  to  mean.  He  interpolated  dicet 
hcereticus,  '  a  heretic  will  say,'  thus  making  Fulbert  put  St. 
Augustine's  words  into  the  mouth  of  a  heretic  !  The  interpolated 
words  were  certainly  not  in  Petavius'  MS.  of  Fulbert,  which 
de  Villiers  was  using,  and  their  insertion  is  certainly  not  excusable 
as  a  '  typographical '  error.  The  day  of  such  interpolating 
without  risk  of  detection  having  passed,  in  the  list  of  Errata  at 
the  end  of  the  book,  amongst  genuine  errors  which  are  one  and 
all  of  the  usual  kind  found  in  printed  books,  comes  the  statement 
that  the  interpolated  words  are  not  in  Petavius,  while  to  save 
the  situation  is  added  '  the  interpretation  is  mysterious,'  inter- 
pretatio  est  mystica.  Nor  is  this  all  ;  subsequent  reprints  of 
Fulbert's  Works,  right  down  to  Migne's  Patrology,  reproduce 
the  interpolated  words,  with  de  Villiers'  note  from  the  Errata  ; 
this  suggestio  falsi  being  the  only  way  of  getting  rid  of  Augustine's  * 
plain  condemnation  of  the  Corporal  Presence. 

iii.  Pusey,in400  pages  of  quotations  from  the  Fathers,  contain 
ing  one  from  the  same  little  treatise  of  Augustine,  omits  all 
reference  to  this  passage,  one  of  the  best  known,  and  quoted 
in  Eucharistic  controversy  from  the  days  of  Bertram  and  Pas- 
chasius.  Perhaps  this  omission  is  more  significant  than  any 
comment. 

(4)  Cyril  of  Jerusalem,  if  the  Catechetical  Lectures  be  his,  may 
supply  another  illustration,  different  in  kind,  of  the  absence  in 
the  early  Church  of  later  mediaeval  ideas  of  the  meaning  of  the 


*  For  a  full  account  of  this  strange  procedure,  see  Dimock,  Ritual,  1910, 
Edn.,  pp.  69-80,  and  for  similar  treatment  of  Chrvsostom,  Eucharidic 
Worship,  pp.  105-112,  of  Elfric  (c.  1000),  Ibid,  pp/122-129. 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  237 

Lord's  Supper.  In  Catech.  MysL,  v.  21,  22,  occurs  the  following 
instruction  :  '  When  you  draw  near  do  not  come  with  your 
palms  wide  open  or  your  fingers  apart,  but  making  your  left 
hand  a  throne  for  the  right,  as  about  to  receive  a  king,  and 
making  your  palm  hollow,  receive  the  body  of  Christ,  saying 
Amen  ;  and  when  you  have  with  care  sanctified  your  eyes  with 
the  touch  of  the  sacred  Body,  receive.'  The  directions  for  the 
wine  are  even  more  elaborately  superstitious,  viz.  to  apply  the 
hands  to  the  moisture  on  the  lips,  and  with  the  moisture  to 
sanctify  eyes,  forehead,  and  '  the  rest  of  the  organs  of  sense.'  * 
Dimock,  Eucliaristic  Worship,  p.  53,  records  similar  practices, 
e.g.,  wearing  of  the  sacrament  as  a  preservative  against  perils 
by  land  and  sea,  giving  the  consecrated  bread  to  the  dead,  using 
it  as  a  plaster  or  poultice,  St.  Basil's  desire  that  a  part  of  the 
sacrament,  which  he  had  waved  over  the  altar,  should  be  buried 
with  him,  use  of  the  consecrated  wine  mixed  with  ink  for  solemn 
documents,  etc.  Koman  divines  recognize  that  such  practices, 
though  significant  of  a  growing  superstitious  regard  for  the  con 
secrated  elements,  are  quite  incongruous  with  any  belief  in  their 
identification  with  the  body  and  blood  of  our  Lord  ;  Muratori 
says  they  are  '  too  little  in  conformity  with  the  institution  and 
majesty  of  the  Eucharist.' 

(5)  Cyril  also  supplies  a  valuable  commentary  upon  the  language 
of  his  time  in  regard  to  the  invocation  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  Catech. 
Myst.,  iii.  3  :  '  for  as  the  bread  of  the  Eucharist,  after  the  invo 
cation  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  is  no  longer  simple  bread,  but  body  of 
Christ,  so  also  this  holy  oil  is  no  longer  bare,  (i.e.  mere  oil), 
nor  as  one  might  say,  common,  after  invocation,  but  grace  of 
Christ  and  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  becoming  full  of  power  by  the 
Prep ence  of  His  Deity.'  The  use  of  such  language  for  the  Chrism, 
or  oil  for  anointing  in  baptism,  is  illustrative  of  the  universal 
custom  of  applying  the  same  dignity  to  the  things  connected 
with  Baptism  as  to  those  connected  with  the  Lord's  Supper. 
Indeed  frequently  they  are  identified  :  '  each  one  of  the  faithful 
is  then  made  a  partaker  of  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ,  when 
in  baptism  he  is  made  a  member  of  the  body  of  Christ '  :  so 
Fulgentius,  referring  for  his  authority  to  Augustine's  words  : 
'  If  therefore  ye  are  the  body  of  Christ  and  His  members,  the 
mystery  of  yourselves  is  placed  upon  the  Lord's  Table  ;  ye 

*  Dowden,  Further  Studies,  p.  230,  whose  translation  is  used  above, 
adds  a  not  unmerited  rebuke  of  the  widely  prevalent  attempt  in  the  Church 
of  England  to  create  a  rule  out  of  part  of  Cyril's  directions  :  '  we  are  only 
too  familiar  with  the  practice  of  citing  from  the  Fathers  only  the  si:ippets 
which  make  for  one's  own  notions.'  Cf.  also  Dimock,  The  Doctrine  of  the 
Lord's  Supper,  p.  12. 


238  THE   COMMUNION 

receive  the  mystery  of  yourselves.'  *  Such  passages  could 
not  occur  in  writers  who  held  the  bread  and  wine  to  be  literally 
the  Lord's  Body  and  Blood. 

The  force  of  these  five  quotations,  which  could  be  multiplied 
indefinitely,  is  nevertheless  absolutely  independent  of  their 
number.  Though,  it  is  not  contested  that  extravagant  language 
and  unscriptural  terms  were  freely  employed  at  an  early  date 
to  describe  the  Lord's  Supper,  yet  it  is  contended  that  its  very 
extravagances  were  inconsistent  with  the  doctrines  the  rise  of 
which  will  occupy  the  following  section. 

4.  Mediaeval  Doctrinal  Pronouncements. 

'  The  very  body  of  the  tree — or  rather  the  roots  of  the  weeds 
— is  the  popish  doctrine  of  transubstantiation,  of  the  real  presence 
of  Christ's  flesh  and  blood  in  the  sacrament  of  the  altar  (as  they 
call  it),  and  of  the  sacrifice  and  oblation  of  Christ  made  by  the 
priest,  for  the  salvation  of  the  quick  and  the  dead  ;  which  roots, 
if  they  be  suffered  to  grow  in  the  Lord's  vineyard,  they  will 
overspread  all  the  ground  again  with  the  old  errors  and  super 
stitions.' 

These  oft-quoted  words  of  Cranmer  (True  and  Catholic  Doctrine 
and  Use  of  the  Sacrament  of  the  Lord's  Supper)  serve  not  only  to 
indicate  the  exact  task  set  him  at  the  Reformation,  but  also  to 
summarize  the  teaching  whose  development  is  now  to  be  traced. 
It  is  unnecessary  to  recapitulate  the  tendencies  which,  appearing 
at  a  comparatively  early  period,  enable  the  modern  student  of 
Church  History  to  see  the  germs  of  the  later  completed  sacerdotal 
system,  f  Suffice  it  to  remark  that  there  is  no  difficulty  in 
understanding  the  process  ;  the  difficulty  is  to  trace  it  accurately. 
Judging  by  the  experience  of  later  centuries,  it  is  most  certain 
that  popular  extravagance  of  language  and  practice  would  precede 
anything  like  authoritative  embodiment  of  such  things  in  doctrinal 
formularies,  even  as  to-day  the  established  doctrines  of  the 
Roman  Church  owe  their  origin  to  unauthoritative  and  un 
authorized  impulses  on  the  part  of  individuals  and  communities. 
The  popular  cult  unchecked,  a  time  arrives  when  to  check  it 
effectually  is  only  possible  with  a  disturbance  of  the  body  ecclesi 
astic  which  those  in  authority  seldom  care  to  encourage  ;  the 
alternative  course  is  followed,  viz.,  to  adopt  the  cult  and  its 
implications,  and  to  force  it  into  some  kind  of  apparent  conformity 
with  existing  institutions. 

*  Harrison,  Vol.  ii.  pp.  175,  176 ;  cf.  Vol.  i.  pp.  161  ff.  for  other  refer 
ences. 

f  For  words  as  early  as  Justin,  Tcrtullian  and  Origen,  capable  of  being 
useJ  to  support  later  theories,  besides  those  given  above,  see  Dirnock, 
Doctrine,  of  the  Lord's  Supper,  pp.  49,  50. 


HISTORICAL    INTRODUCTION  •         239 

A  superstitious  regard  for  the  elements  began  at  an  early 
date  ;  under  its  influence  they  gradually  ceased  to  be  symbols 
and  signs  by  the  faithful  reception  of  which  '  they  be  certain 
sure  witnesses,  and  effectual  signs  of  grace  '  ;  the  invocations 
of  the  Holy  Spirit  upon  them  naturally  paved  the  way  for  con 
ceptions  of  some  miracle  wrought  in  them  whereby  the  benefits 
attaching  to  their  reception  were  obtained.  The  region  of  sur 
mise  is  left  for  that  of  definite  fact  at  four  chief  periods,  two 
marked  by  the  names  of  John  Damascene  and  Paschasius,  two 
by  those  of  Popes  Hildebrand  and  Innocent  III. 

(1)  John  Damascene  and  the  Augmentation  Theory. 

John  Damascene  entered  history  as  the  champion  of  images 
against  the  Byzantine  Emperor  Leo,  c.  730,  whose  attempts  to 
stem  the  advancing  tide  of  revolting  image-worship  were  opposed 
by  Patriarch,  priests,  monks,  and  people,  together  with  the 
Popes,  Gregory  II  and  III.  Leo's  son,  in  754,  summoned  an 
(Ecumenical  Council  at  Constantinople,  at  which  the  350  bishops 
present,  (Rome  sending  no  legates),  sweepingly  condemned 
image-worship,  whereupon  Pope  Stephen  III,  in  769,  retorted 
with  '  a  dreadful  anathema  '  against  all  opponents  of  images.* 
In  the  Council's  desire  to  attack  images,  it  refers  to  the  Lord's 
Supper,  stating  that  Christ  '  ordered  the  substance  of  bread  to 
be  offered,  which  does  not  resemble  the  form  of  man,  lest  idolatry 
might  be  dragged  in,  no  other  form  or  type  being  chosen  by 
Him,  as  able  to  represent  His  incarnation  '  :  this  alone  is  '  the 
God-given  image  of  his  flesh  .  .  .  the  true  image  of  the  incarnate 
dispensation  of  Christ  our  God.' 

In  787,  under  an  Empress  favouring  image-worship,  another 
Jouncil  was  called,  which  ranks  as  the  (Ecumenical  Second 
Council  of  Nicsea,  the  Pope  being  represented.  It  included 
some  bishops  who  were  present  at  the  now  disowned  Council  of 
754,  but  they  all  denounced  as  unscriptural  the  idea  of  the  bread 
being  an  image  of  Christ's  Body  :  '  it  is  manifestly  evident,  as 
regards  the  unbloody  sacrifice  offered  by  the  priest,  that  nowhere 
is  it  called  an  image  or  type,  by  the  Lord,  or  by  the  Apostles, 
or  by  the  Fathers,  but  the  Body  itself,  and  the  Blood  itself.' 
They  adopted  the  teaching  of  John  Damascene,  (who  appears 
to  have  died  between  the  time  of  the  two  Councils),  that  when 
the  word  '  antitype '  f  was  used  of  the  elements  by  the  Fathers, 
it  referred  to  the  unconsecmted  elements.  The  falsity  of  this 

*  For  fuller  details  see  Dimock,  Ritual,  1910  Edn.,  pp.  81  ff. 

f  The  word  '  antitype '  has  changed  its  meaning.  In  Heb.  ix.  24,  1 
Pet.  iii.  21,  tr.  A.V.  'figure,'  the  old  meaning  remains,  viz.  the  earthly 
counterpart  of  a  heavenly  reality.  Such  is  the  meaning  here. 


2 4o  THE   COMMUNION 

jdea  is  now  univer-ally  admitted  ;  the  Fathers  did  frequently 
call  the  consecrated  elements  antitypes.  The  Council  further 
declared, -by  the  way,  that  'if  it  is  an  image  of  the  body,  it 
cannot  be  the  Divine  body  itself,' — a  declaration  the  truth 
of  which  condemns  all  the  rest  of  their  Eucharistic  pronounce 
ments. 

The  doctrines  enunciated  by  these  two  Councils  exemplify 
(wo  separate  stages  of  advance  in  sacerdotal  ideas  since  Augus 
tine's  time.  According  to  the  former,  the  elements  themselves, 
apart  from  their  use,  though  called  an  image  or  '  icon,'  represent 
the  Incarnation  in  some  sort,  and  some  kind  of  divine  wonder 
working  produces  the  representation, — it  is  no  mere  choice  of 
a  figure  :  '  the  Master  Christ,  as  He  deified  the  flesh,  which  He 
took,  by  His  own  natural  sanctification  and  by  the  union  itself, 
so  He  was  well-pleased  that  the  bread  of  the  Eucharist,  as  a 
true  image  of  the  natural  flesh  sanctified  through  the  visitation 
of  the  Holy  Spirit,  should  become  divine  body.'  The  second 
Council  did  not  find  fault  with  these  words,  but  exchanged  their 
comparative  indefinitene?s,  and  susceptibility  of  interpretation 
in  a  figurative  manner,  for  an  argument  which  left  no  room  for 
misapprehension  ;  the  '  unbloody  sacrifice '  is  no  image  but 
'  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ '  :  figurative  explanation  is 
expressly  excluded. 

But  this  did  not  mean  any  theory  of  transubstantiation  ;  the 
language  is  explained  by  the  teaching  of  John  Damascene  in  his 
De  Fide  Orthodoxa,  IV.  xiii.  Again  the  caution  must  be  added 
that  this  is  but  a  formal  enunciation  of  ideas  suggested  by  very 
early  language,  and  anticipated  by  John's  predecessors  in  doctrinal 
theology.*  Anastasius  of  Mt.  Sinai,  a  century  earlier,  was, 
according  to  Waterland,  '  the  first,  or  among  the  first,  that  threw 
off  the  old  distinction  between  the  symbolical  and  true  body, 
thereby  destroying  in  a  great  measure  the  very  idea  of  a  sacra 
ment.'  Anastasius  said  :  '  So  we  believe,  and  so  we  confess, 
according  to  the  voice  of  Christ  Himself — this  is  my  body — He 
did  not  say,  this  is  the  figure  (drTiru-oi )  of  my  body  and  blood  '  : 
anticipating  the  very  language  of  John,  and  of  the  Second  Council 
of  Nicsea.  John's  words  are  also  those  of  the  Council  :  '  God 
forbid'  (that  any  one  should  think  bread  and  wine  to  be  type?) 
they  are  '  the  very  deified  body  of  the  Lord.' 

The  history  of  Eucharistic  doctrine  from  this  period  onward^ 
is  really  a  history  of  the  modes  of  interpretation  of  the  supposed 
miracle  wrought  by  consecration.  The  Second  Council  had 
established  the  doctrine  as  an  article  of  the  faith,  subsequent 

*  For  a  catena  of  passages  see  Dimock's  Doctrine  of  the  Lord's  Supper: 
Appendix  on  the  Augmentation  Theory. 


HISTORICAL    INTRODUCTION  241 

theological  speculation  could  only  supply  theories  to  obscure 
the  contradiction  between  what  the  bread  and  wine  obviously 
arc,  and  what  this  dogma  asserts  them  to  be.  In  this  enterprise, 
which  might  seem  to  be  an  impossible  one,  they  were  greatly 
aided  by  the  apparently  pious  conception  that  the  greater  the 
impossibility  to  be  believed,  the  more  meritorious  the  credulity 
which  accepted  it, — credo  quia  impossibile — an  idea  not  without 
meaning,  indeed,  as  affirming  the  reasonableness  of  what  tran 
scends  human  experience,  if  there  is  reasonable  ground  for  trusting 
the  Revealer,  but  an  idea  fatal  to  purity  of  faith,  if  applied  to  any 
revelation  less  than  infallible,  that  is,  Divine. 

Waterland  reduces  the  theories  roughly  to  five  : — 

1.  The  elements  literally  become  the  same  personal  body. 

2.  The  elements  contain  the  same  body. 

3.  The  elements  become  another  personal  body. 

4.  The  elements  contain  another  personal  body. 

5.  The  elements  are  or  contain  a  true  and  proper  body  of 

Christ,  distinct  and  different  from  a  personal  body. 

The  enumeration  of  these  shades  of  distinction  clearly  demon 
strates  the  difficulty  immediately  felt  when  the  typical  inter 
pretation  of  Holy  Scripture  is  abandoned  ;  for  these  theories 
antedated  the  enunciation  of  transubstantiation. 

In  John  Damascene's  teaching,  often  called  the  Augmentation 
Theory,  the  following  points  are  noteworthy  (the  translations 
«».re  strictly  literal)  : — 

1.  '  The  bread  and  wine  are  changed  into  body  and  blood  of 

God.' 

2.  '  The  Holy  Spirit  visits,  and  does  these  things  which  are 

above  reason  and  thought.' 

3.  '  But  the  mode  is  unsearchable,'  yet  as  a  parallel  is  cited 

the  process  by  which  food  becomes  man's  body  and 
blood,  not  another  different  body  from  that  before 
possessed  ;  so  '  by  the  invocation  and  visitation  of  the 
Holy  Spirit '  the  bread  and  wine  '  are  marvellously 
changed '  into  Christ's  body  and  blood — '  and  are  not 
two,  but  one  and  the  same.' 

The  difference  between  this  and  the  later  extravagances  of 
Eucharistic  theory  is  plain  ;  there  is  here  no  teaching  of  the 
same  body  being  on  ten  thousand  altars  at  once  ;  the  bread 
becomes  body,  indeed,  but  by  being  incorporated  into  Christ's 
body  through  the  operation  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  In  the  Augmen 
tation  Theory  the  word  '  body '  in  Christ's  words  is  adjectival  : 
'  This  is  my  body,  but  not  all  of  it '  :  it  was  left  for  later  teaching 
to  make  the  words  an  outrage  upon  common  reverence  and 
common  sense  by  asserting  that  whole  Christ,  and  the  same 

R 


24 «  THE   COMMUNION 

Christ  who  is  in  Heaven,  is  in  every  particle  of  the  bread,  and 
every  drop  of  the  wine.  Nevertheless  the  language  of  the  Aug 
mentation  Theory  is  often  scarcely  distinguishable  from  that 
of  Transubstantiation  ;  in  the  West,  where  not  the  invocation 
of  the  Holy  Ghost,  but  the  priest's  recital  of  the  words  of  institu 
tion,  was  the  miracle-working  agency,  and  there  was  therefore 
even  greater  room  for  superstitious  development,  that  theory 
soon  paved  the  way  for  further  grievous  error. 

In  Waterland's  words  *  :  '  Before  the  end  of  the  ninth  century 
the  Eastern  innovations,  introduced  by  Anastasius  and  Dama 
scene,  and  established  by  the  Nicene  Council,  spread  far  and 
wide,  both  among  Greeks  and  Latins.  .  .  .  The  old  notion  of 
a  sacrament,  as  importing  a  sign  and  a  thing  signified,  wore  off 
apacej  and  now  all  the  care  was  how  to  make  out  that  very 
body  and  blood,  by  some  subtile  evasions,  or  newly  devised 
theories.'  Such  a  departure  was  bound  to  end  in  '  blasphemous 
fables  and  dangerous  deceits,'  both  in  East  and  West,f  and  the 
first  fatal  step  was  taken  in  attaching  to  the  elements  what 
Holy  Scripture  only  promises  to  the  faithful  recipient.  It  is 
not  necessary,  it  is  not  any  use,  that  the  bread  should  become 
the  Lord's  body  in  order  that  the  partakers  may  partake  of  the 
Lord's  body  ;  the  incorporation  of  a  fragment  of  miraculously 
changed  bread  into  the  physical  system  can  only  be  deemed  of 
any  worth  whatever,  by  those  who  are  sadly  ignorant  of  the 
meaning  of  partaking  of  Christ's  slain  body  and  shed  blood. 
Such  literature  is  indeed  '  a  crime  and  an  outrage '  in  Augustine's 
words  already  quoted. 

(2)  Paschasius. 

That  advances  in  the  direction  of  further  corruption  were 
generally  slow,  and  not  by  leaps  and  bounds,  is  excellently  shown 
by  the  very  tardy  growth  of  anything  like  direct  worship  of 
the  consecrated  elements.  Adoration  of  the  Host,  for  example, 
was  still  unknown  in  the  early  part  of  the  ninth  century,  J  though 
it  seems  one  of  the  first  natural  deductions  from  the  Augmenta 
tion  Theory.  However,  with  the  appearance  of  Paschasius' 
work,  De  Corpore  et  Sanguine  Domini,  written  831,  but  published 

*   Works,  Vol.  r.  p.  204. 

t  In  the  regular  Syriac  Liturgy,  whether  older  or  more  recent  than  the 
official  promulgation  of  the  Augmentation  Theory,  occur  these  words 
amongst  the  private  prayers  of  the  priest  before  reception  :  '  Grant  me, 
O  Lord,  to  eat  thee  holily,'  '  I  hold  Thee,  who  containest  the  ends  of  the 
world ;  I  have  Thee  in  my  hands,  who  rulest  the  deep  ;  Thee,  God,  I 
place  in  my  mouth.'  (From  Freeman's  Principles  of  Divine  Service,  Vol. 
ii.  part  i.,  p.  182,  where  something  similar,  though  not  so  terrible  as  the 
last,  is  stated  to  exist  in  the  anct»nt  English  Used.) 

J  See  Dimock  on  Agobard,  in  Eucharistic  Worship,  pp.  219-224. 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  143 

some  years  later,  a  change  began  which  marks  a  new  epoch. 
The  teaching  of  Paschasius,  though  not  without  its  antecedent 
causes  and  subsequent  modifications,  is  substantially  the  teaching 
of  the  Church  of  Home  to-day.  It  has  been  often  noted  that 
the  development  of  the  Roman  doctrine  of  the  Real  Presence 
runs  more  than  parallel  with  the  development  of  the  Papal  system, 
and  that  in  both  the  three  stages  of  development  coincide.  The 
notorious  False  Decretals,  a  product  of  this  period,  embodied 
Paschasian  doctrine,  and  the  two  works  have  been  described  as 
twin  births  of  the  same  conception  of  the  Ecclesiastical  mind.* 
The  next  stage  was  that  of  Gregory  VII  (Hildebrand),  1073- 
1085,  who  also  appealed  to  a  forged  document  to  establish  his 
power,  and  in  whose  pontificate  the  condemnation  of  Berengarius 
established  the  Paschasian  doctrine.  The  third  stage  saw  Tran- 
substantiation  promulgated  at  the  Fourth  Council  of  Lateran, 
(1215),  by  Innocent  III,  whose  aims  at  aggrandizement  were 
furthered  by  the  shamelessly  interpolated  Decretum  of  Gratian.f 
This  very  noteworthy  concomitance  is  not  produced  to  foreclose 
inquiry,  but  to  suggest  an  explanation  of  the  way  in  which 
Paschasian  and  ultra-Paschasian  dogmas  triumphed  over  the 
opposition  of  the  most  learned  theologians  of  the  time,  and  over 
the  common  sense  of  the  very  Popes  themselves. 

Paschasius'  doctrine  differs  from  that  of  John  Damascene  in 
substituting  for  the  latter's  augmentation  theory  unmistakable 
teaching  of  the  change  of  the  bread  and  wine  into  the  very  flesh 
and  blood  which  were  born  of  Mary  and  hanged  upon  the  Cross. 
Comparing  the  miracles  of  feeding,  he  says  :  '  for  from  the  very 
blessing  of  Christ  such  great  abundance  remains,  and  what  was 
eaten  and  what  laid  aside  was  not  anything  else  than  the  five 
or  seven  loaves  themselves.  How  much  more  therefore  (for 
the  Word  was  made  flesh)  the  flesh  of  the  Word  produces,  and 
the  abundance  of  Christ  and  His  blood  flow  in  the  Sacrament. 
And  there  is  no  other  than  flesh  of  Christ,  and  yet  Christ  remains 
whole.'  {  Such  passages  are  frequent.  Paschasius  bolsters  up 
his  theory  by  the  citation  of  miracles,  such  as  the  appearance  of 
the  consecrated  bread  in  the  form  of  a  lamb.  One  pious  priest 
prayed  that  he  might  see  what  was  the  appearance  (species) 
hid  under  the  form  of  bread  and  wine,  and  was  rewarded  with 
the  vision  of  the  Child  Christ  on  the  altar,  afterwards  partaking 

*  Greenwood,  Cathedra  Petri. 

f  For  details  see  Dimock,  Romish  Mass  and  English  Church,  pp.  63  ff. 

j  Tr.  in  Harrison,  Dr.  Pusey's  Challenge,  ii.  p.  314  ;  here  and  in  Vol. 
i.  Chaps,  viii.,  ix.,will  be  found  full  details  of  Paschasius' teaching,  with  its 
curious  anticipation  of  some  modern  equivocations  in  the  use  of  the  words 
'  spiritual,'  '  sacramental,'  '  mystical,'  etc. 


244  THE   COMMUNION 

of  the  Sacrament,  but  '  not  before  it  returned  into  the  outward 
appearance  of  its  prior  form.' 

More  wonderful  than  the  compiling  of  such  a  farrago  is  its 
triumphant  spread  against  all  the  learning  of  the  day.  Rabanni 
Maurus  and  Bertram  were  amongst  the  more  famous  opponents, 
the  latter  writing  specifically  to  oppose  Paschasius'  teaching. 
Odo,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  is  said  to  be  the  only  tenth 
century  author  who  publicly  declared  himself  on  the  Paschasian 
side.  It  is  now  the  fashion  to  maintain  that  Bertram  did  not 
really  differ  from  Paschasius  ;  this  opinion  was  not  held  when 
Bertram's  work  was  prohibited  by  Clement  VIII,  placed  in  the 
first  class  of  heretical  writings  in  1559,  denounced  as  a  forgery 
of  CEcolampadius  by  Poissevin  the  Jesuit,  and  stated  by  Bcllar- 
mine  to  be  the  work  of  the  chief  opponent  of  Paschasius.  Refer 
ring  to  the  ominous  inactivity  of  Popes  Nicholas  I  and  Adrian 
II  in  regard  to  the  controversy,  L'Aroque  says  they  saw  '  that 
the  belief  of  the  enemies  of  Paschas  was  a  belief  publicly  received 
by  all  the  world — in  France,  in  Germany,  in  England,  and  else 
where  ;  and,  moreover,  approved  by  the  most  learned  men  of 
the  age,  publicly  vindicated  by  writings,  supported  by  the 
authority  of  the  most  eminent  princes  and  prelates  ...  it 
cannot  be  said  but  these  Popes  had  credit  and  power  enough 
to  have  opposed  themselves.'  Is  this  tacit  papal  support  a 
partial  solution  of  the  mystery  of  this  triumph  of  error  over 
truth  ? 

(3)  Hildebrand,  Gregory  VII. 

Two  centuries  later  than  Paschasius,  the  dogmas  associated 
with  his  name  were  almost,  but  not  quite,  triumphant.  Beren- 
garius  of  Tours,  the  friend  of  Hildebrand  (afterwards  Pope 
Gregory  VII),  wrote  a  famous  letter  to  Lanfranc  in  1049,  reproach 
ing  him  for  maintaining  Paschasian  doctrine,  and  appealing  to 
Scotus  and  the  Doctors  of  the  Church.  This  letter  was  read  in 
a  Synod  at  Rome  in  1050,  and  Berengarius  was  excommunicated 
and  summoned  to  appear  at  a  Synod.  Being  at  the  tune  in 
prison  he  could  not  appear,  but  was  condemned  in  his  absence. 
Two  more  condemnations  followed  in  1051  ;  in  1054  a  Council 
was  arranged  to  be  held  at  Tours  under  Hildebrand  as  Papal 
Legate,  but  the  illness  of  the  Pope,  Leo  IX,  and  Hildebrand's 
consequent  departure  for  Rome,  saved  Berengarius  for  the  time. 
In  1059,  under  Pope  Nicholas  II,  he  appeared  and  had  to  give 
way,  signing  the  famous  Ego  Berengarius  declaration.  How  far 
Western  Christendom  had  travelled  in  the  direction  of  Paschasian 
materialistic  doctrine  regarding  the  Lord's  Supper,  could  hardly 
be  better  illustrated  than  by  this  repeated  condemnation  of  the 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION 


245 


*  apostle '  of  the  patristic  teaching,  culminating  in  his  being 
forced  to  sign  the  following  declaration  : — 

'  I,  Berengarius  .  .  .  with  mouth  and  heart  profess  myself 
to  hold  .  .  .  that  the  bread  and  wine  which  are  placed  on  the 
altar  are  after  consecration  not  only  a  Sacrament  but  also  true 
body  and  blood  of  Our  Lord  Jesus  Christ  :  and  sensibly  (sensuali- 
\0r),  not  only  sacramentally  but  really,  are  handled  and  broken 
by  the  hands  of  the  priest,  and  ground  by  the  teeth  of  the  faith 
ful.  .  .  .'  * 

Berengarius  had  yielded  to  force,  but  had  not  altered  his 
mind.  Returning  to  Tours,  he  answered  a  treatise  by  Lanfranc 
with  another  still  extant.  Pope  Alexander  II  was  content  to 
give  him  a  friendly  warning,  but  at  the  Council  of  Poictiers,  1075, 
he  hardly  escaped  with  his  life.  At  last,  at  Rome  in  1078,  Hilde- 
brand,  now  Pope  Gregory  VII,  and  personally  averse  from  the 
Berengarian  controversy,  in  which  his  personal  beliefs  must  have 
been  on  the  '  heretic's '  side,  as  certainly  his  policy  of  personal 
aggrandizement  was  on  the  other,  instead  of  reinforcing  his 
predecessor's  condemnation  of  Berengarius,  addressed  the  follow 
ing  words  to  him  :  '  I  certainly  do  not  doubt  thou  dost  think 
well  concerning  the  Sacrifice  of  Christ  according  to  the  Scrip 
tures  ;  however,  because  it  is  my  custom  to  have  recourse  to 
the  Blessed  Mary  concerning  those  things  which  move  me,  I 
directed  a  certain  "  religious  "  friend  to  pay  attention  to  fastings 
and  prayers  some  days  beforehand,  and  so  to  obtain  from  Blessed 
Mary,  that  through  him  she  would  not  be  silent  to  me,  as  to 
whither  I  should  betake  myself  concerning  the  business  which 
I  had  on  my  hands  concerning  the  Sacrifice  of  Christ,  (for  a 
position)  in  which  I  might  remain  unmoved.  The  "  religious 
man "  heard  from  B.  Mary,  that  nothing  was  to  be  thought 
concerning  the  Sacrifice  of  Christ,  nothing  was  to  be  held  save 
what  the  authentic  Scriptures  contained,  against  which  Beren 
garius  was  holding  nothing.'  It  may  well  be  imagined  that 
this  extraordinary  action  on  the  part  of  the  Pope  gave  no  satis 
faction,  except  to  Berengarius,  whom  he  sent  back  to  Tours 
with  great  honour.  Cardinal  Benno's  comment  is  :  'He  com 
manded  a  fast  to  the  Cardinals,  that  God  might  show  who  was 
right  in  his  opinion  concerning  the  body  of  the  Lord,  the  Roman 
Church  or  Berengarius  ; — (he  who  is)  dubious  in  faith  is  unfaith 
ful.'  Bgilbert's  is  :  '  Behold  a  true  pontiff  and  a  true  priest 
who  doubts  if  that  which  is  taken  on  the  Lord's  Table  be  true 

*  To  ®bviate  any  ambiguity,  the  statement  is  repeated  twice  in  the 
declaration,  once  as  opposed  to  Berengarius'  teaching,  onee  as  above 
translated.  For  the  whole  Btory  see  Harrison,  ibid.  i.  219  S.  Dimock, 
Ritual,  pp.  98  ff. 


246  THE   COMMUNION 

body -.and  blood  of  Christ'  :  that  of  the  Council  of  30  Bishops 
at  Brixen  is  (1070)  :  '  putting  in  question  the  Catholic  and 
Apostolic  faith  concerning  the  body  and  blood  of  the  Lord,  an 
old  disciple  of  the  heretic  Berengarius.'  This  last  comment 
was  directed  against  Gregory's  contentment  with  the  very  hazy 
declaration  now  signed  by  Berengarius,  of  which  it  has  been 
said  that  '  The  doctrinal  exposition  of  Pope  Gregory  and  the 
Roman  Council  would  have  satisfied  any  of  the  reformed  denomi 
nations.'  *  This  was  in  1078  ;  in  1079  Berengarius  had  to  sign 
another  confession,  acknowledging  that  the  elements  are  sub 
stantially  changed  into  the  Real  Body  and  Blood  of  Christ,  a 
confession  which  he  speedily  rejected. 

The  opinions  of  Berengarius  lived  on,  though  in  influential 
quarters  they  were  either  abandoned  or  concealed.  The  Council 
of  Plaisance,  1095,  had  to  condemn  them  ;  Abelard,  in  the 
twelfth  century,  still  regarded  the  question  as  under  discussion  ; 
St.  Bernard's  views  are  doubtful,  but  even  after  the  Fourth 
Lateran  Council  the  University  of  Paris  had  to  defend  itself 
from  a  charge  of  similar  heresy.  In  fact  it  is  impossible  to 
believe  that  learned  students  of  Holy  Scripture  and  the  early 
Fathers  could  fail  to  hold  such  opinions,  however  reluctant 
they  might  be  to  take  the  stand  of  a  Wycliffe.  Nevertheless 
there  is  no  qiiestion  as  to  what  was  the  '  orthodox '  opinion  of 
the  time  ;  the  teaching  of  Paschasius  had  ripened  to  that  extent 
that  the  formation  of  some  doctrine  of  Transubstantiation 
could  not  be  long  withheld. 

(4)  Innocent  III. 

The  Fourth  Lateran  Council,  1215,  which  decreed  the  death 
of  heretics,  the  suspension  of  allegiance  to  princes  who  would 
not  punish  heretics,  and  compulsory  confession  to  a  priest,  also 
declared  Transubstantiation  to  be  an  Article  of  the  Faith.  Tran 
substantiation  is  the  climax  of  the  attempts  to  explain  the 
obvious  contradiction  involved  in  any  theory  of  a  change  in 
the  consecrated  elements  ;  they  are  not  changed — the  bread 
remains  bread,  and  the  wine  remains  wine.  Physical  explanation 
being,  therefore,  impossible,  recourse  was  had  to  metaphysics, 
and  the  Realistic  philosophy  of  the  Schoolmen  supplied  what 
was  wanted.  By  that  philosophy  material  things  were  supposed 
to  consist  of  '  substance  '  and  '  accidents,'  the  '  substance  '  being 
the  thing  itself,  the  '  accidents  '  the  qualities  of  the  thing,  sup 
posed  to  inhere  in  the  substance.  Bread,  for  example,  would 
consist  of  a  substratum  which  may  be  called  '  breadness  '  ;  its 
colour,  size,  weight,  and  everything  knowable  about  bread 
being  '  accidents  '  inherent  in  the  substance.  In  consecration 
*  Edgar,  Variations  of  Popery,  p.  7, 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  247 

the  substance  of  '  breadness '  disappeared,  being  exchanged  for 
'  fleshness,'  *  the  '  substance  '  of  Christ's  body  ;  while  the 
accidents  remained  unchanged.  The  philosophy  is  now  obsolete, 
but  it  served  its  turn,  and  just  as  the  papal  system  survives  the 
discovery  that  its  historic  bases  were  forged  and  false,  so  the 
Eoman  Eucharistic  doctrine  survives  the  exposure  of  its  false 
philosophy. 

It  should  be  at  once  stated  that  there  is  a  considerable  doubt 
as  to  whether  Transubstantiation  was  the  work  of  the  Council 
at  all.  Innocent  III,  in  whom  the  papacy  attained  to  its  greatest 
height  of  absolute  power,  was  not  much  concerned  about  the 
views  of  those  whom  he  called  to  his  Councils.  Bishop  Cosin 
says  the  Canons  of  the  Fourth  Lateran  Council  are  simply  the 
Pope's  Decrees,  '  written  by  him,  and  read  in  the  Council,  and 
disliked  by  many,  and  afterwards  set  down  in  the  Book  of  Decre 
tals,  under  certain  titles,  by  his  nephew  Gregory  IX.'  Dimock 
says  :  '  Transubstantiation  was  hardly  regarded  as  an  Article 
of  the  Faith  before  the  Council  of  Trent.  How  else  is  it  to  be 
accounted  for,  that  Peter  d'Alliaco  speaks  of  it  as  the  general 
opinion  of  the  Doctors  (which  he  therefore  embraces),  but  as 
no  necessary  inference  either  from  Scripture,  or,  as  it  seems  to 
him,  from  the  determination  of  the  Shurch  ? '  f 

An  instructive  indication  that  Transubstantiation  was  known 
at  the  time  to  be  an  advance  upon  previous  teaching,  and  danger 
ously  out  of  keeping  with  much  of  it,  is  afforded  by  the  Decretum 
in  Gratian,  in  its  record  ©f  the  '  Ego  Berengarius,'  already  quoted 
above.  There  the  following  gloss  appears,  from  the  hand  of 
John  Semeca,  of  Halberstadt,  written  about  1215  :  '  Unless 
thou  wisely  understandest  the  words  of  Berengarius,  thou  wilt 
fall  into  a  greater  heresy  than  he  himself  was  (in).  And  there 
fore  thou  shouldst  refer  all  things  to  the  species  themselves.'  In 
other  words,  the  doctrine  of  Transubstantiation,  with  its  separa 
tion  of  substance  and  accidents,  was  formulated  largely  to  dis 
prove  literal  grinding  with  the  teeth  of  the  very  flesh  of  Christ, 
which  Berengarius  was  forced  to  approve  !  The  Schoolmen 
could  admit  the  teaching  that  Christ's  human  body  was  at  the 
same  time  on  earth  in  many  places  and  in  heaven— with  the 
adverb  '  sacramentally '  thrown  in  as  a  salve  to  their  outraged 
intellects, J — but  they  could  not  allow  the  idea  that  that  human 

*  This  word  is  used  as  a  pis  aller ;  in  fact  the  Roman  teaching  is  that 
not  only  '  body,'  but  also  '  soul '  and  '  divinity  '  are  in  the  transubstantiated 
bread.  It  is  impossible  really  to  reconcile  this  even  with  the  exploded 
philosophy  on  which  it  is  based. 

f  Cosin,  Works,  Vol.  iv.  p.  222  ;   Dirnock,  Romish  Mass,  p.  71. 

j  So  Aquinas :   but  Bellarminc  confutes  it.     Jeremy  Taylor,  Real  Pre- 


248  THE   COMMUNION 

•body  of  Christ  is  continually  being  wounded  and  torn  by  the 
teeth  of  the  faithful.  How  could  the  invisible,  intangible,  imper 
ceptible  '  substance '  be  seen  or  touched  ?  In  fact  they  agree 
;so  far  with  Berengarius'  real  belief,  and  not  with  what  the  Council 
compelled  him  to  say. 

It  is  not  possible  here  to  enter  into  the  many  contradictions 
involved  in  the  new  doctrine  of  Transubstantiation,  nor  is  it 
necessary,  for  the  story  of  their  confutation  is  the  story  of  the 
English  Keformation.  Yet  it  is  worth  while  to  conclude  this 
section  with  a  brief  notice  of  some  of  the  more  fundamental 
absurdities  of  the  doctrine. 

(1)  The  manifest  absurdity  of  the  separation  of  'substance  ' 
and   '  accidents '   led   to  the   practical  test-question  :    are  the 
'  accidents '  of  bread  and  wine  able  to  nourish  the  body,  though 
no  '  bread-ness  '  and  no  '  wine-ness  '  remain  after  consecration  ? 
Some  early  Schoolmen,   logically  enough  if  transubstantiation 
were  true,  denied  the  nourishing  power  of  the  '  accidents,'  but 
logic  had  to  yield  to  facts,  and  the  later  teaching  admits  the 
nourishing.     Various  have  been  the  attempts  to  define  what 
does  the  nourishing,  for  certainly  shape,  colour,  etc.,  are  not 
articles  of  food.     The  futility  of  all  such  attempts  is  clear  ; 
unless  the  '  accidents '  are  stretched  to  include  all  that  makes 
bread  '  bread,'  unless  in  fact  the  distinction  between  '  substance ' 
and  '  accidents '  is  abandoned,  the  nourishment  is  an  insoluble 
problem. 

(2)  What  really  happens  to  the  accidents  ?     The  Catechism 
of  Trent  teaches  that  :   '  Since  those  "  accidents  "  cannot  inhere 
in  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ,  it  remains  that  they  sustain 
themselves  resting  on  no  other  thing,  above  all  the  order  of 
nature  .  .  .  this  was  the  perpetual  and  constant  teaching  of 
the  Catholic  Church.'     Yet  the  Fathers  not  only  asserted  that 
accidents  could  not  exist  without  their  substance,  but  confuted 
heretics  on  the  strength  of  that  argument.*    The  statement  of 
the  doctrine  is  its  best  refutation,  cf.  Cranmer  :    '  although  all 
the  accidents,  both  of  the  bread  and  wine,  remain  still,  yet, 
say  they,  the  same  accidents  be  in  no  manner  of  thing,  but  hang 
alone  in  the  air,  without  anything  to  stay  them  upon  ...  in 
the  bread  and  wine,  say  they,  these  accidents  cannot  be,  for 

scnce,  xi.  §  21,  is  worth  quoting  on  this  point :  '  1  might  make  advantage 
of  this  contestation  between  two  so  great  patrons  of  transubstantiation 
if  I  did  need  it,  for  Aqui  ias  says  that  a  body  cannot  be  in  two  places  at 
once  locally,  Bellarmine  says  then  neither  can  it  be  sacramentally ;  it 
were  easy  then,  to  infer  that  therefore  it  is  in  two  places  no  way  in  the 
world.' 

*  Stillingfleet,  Doctrine  of  the  Trinity  and  Transubstantiation  compared, 
pp.  23-27. 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  249 

the  substance  of  bread  and  wine,  as  they  affirm,  be  clean  gone. 
And  so  there  remains  whiteness,  but  nothing  is  white  ;  there 
remaineth  colours,  but  nothing  is  coloured  therewith  ;  there 
remaineth  roundness,  but  nothing  is  round  ;  and  there  is  bigness, 
and  yet  nothing  is  big  ;  there  is  sweetness  without  any  sweet 
thing  ;  softness  without  any  soft  thing  ;  breaking  without  any 
thing  broken  ;  division  without  anything  divided.'  * 

(3)  Where  is  now  the  literal  interpretation  of  the  words  '  This 
is  my  body '  ?  To  Transubstantiation  it  means  :  '  What  you 
take  and  eat  is  my  body  in  '  substance,'  but  all  that  you  touch, 
see,  handle,  taste,  etc.,  is  '  accidents  '  of  bread.  You  take  and 
swallow  substance  of  body,  but  you  press  accidents  of  bread 
with  your  teeth.'  Surely,  this  congeries  of  absurdities  reduces 
the  so-called  literal  acceptance  of  Christ's  words  to  a  literal 
rejection  of  them,  and  to  trace  even  briefly  the  steps  by  which 
such  caricatures  of  the  Lord's  ordinance  came  into  being,  is  to 
understand  that  the  moving  ,cpirit  of  the  Reformation  was  some 
thing  quite  other  than  a  desire  for  political  or  intellectual  freedom, 
namely  a  protest  against  the  degradation  of  God  and  Man.f 

This  section  will  fittingly  conclude  with  some  reference  to  the 
question  of  Sacrifice.  The  term  had  been  applied  to  the  Lord's 
Supper  figuratively  for  many  centuries  ;  with  the  development 
of  the  Real  Corporal  Presence,  a  sister-dogma  appeared,  which 
changed  its  significance  altogether.  The  sacrificial  idea  in  some 
sort  preceded  any  idea  of  transformation  of  the  elements  in 
consecration,  as  witness  the  remembrance  of  the  dead,  as  bene- 
fitted  by  the  sacrament  in  some  undefined  way  ;  but  the  concep 
tion  of  a  propitiatory  offering  for  sin  was  not  attached  thereto. 
Justin  Martyr,  Tertullian,  and  Minucius  Felix  defended  them 
selves  against  the  charge  of  being  atheists  as  having  no  sacrifices, 
by  saying  they  had  no  need  of  any  but  spiritual  sacrifices  ; 
Julian  the  Apostate  (d.  363)  found  fault  with  the  Christians 
because  they  had  no  sacrifices  and  no  altars.  Long  after  the 
importation  of  the  idea  of  '  oblation '  of  the  elements,  there  was 
still  no  real  sacrifice  pretended,  though  a  perilous  step  had  been 
taken.  Eusebius,  Jerome,  and  Augustine,  are  quoted  by  Jewel 
to  repudiate  the  idea  of  any  real  sacrifice  in  the  Early  Church, 
save  the  '  spiritual  sacrifices '  offered  by  the  whole  body  of  the 
redeemed.  |  Indeed,  there  could  be  no  thought  of  the  real 

*  Cranmer,  Lord's  Supper. 

f  As  an  illustration  of  the  protest  of  the  English  people  as  a  whole  against 
the  doctrine  of  Transubstantiation,  may  be  cited  the  phrase  '  Hocus-pocus,' 
used  to  describe  juggling  quackery  of  any  kind,  yet — sad  to  contemplate 
— drawn  from  the  Latin  of  our  Lord's  words  of  institution  !  So  low 
did  Transubstantiation  bring  His  Name. 

J  See  Harrison,  Vol.  i.  o.  xii.  §§  133  ff.  for  abundance  of  proofs  from 
later  authors. 


250  THE   COMMUNION 

propitiatory  sacrifice  in  the  Holy  Communion,  until  the  dogma 
of  a  Heal  Corporal  Presence  had  taken  shape.  The  Conception 
of  a  sort  of  dramatic  representation  of  Calvary,  due  to  a  mis 
understanding  of  Holy  Scripture,  (a  misunderstanding  which 
still  finds  place  in  the  hymnology  of  the  Reformed  Churches)  is 
quite  confessedly  remote  from  a  real  sacrifice,  which  could  only 
follow  the  acceptance  of  Paschasian  teaching  concerning  the 
effect  of  consecration.  When  that  teaching  became  prevalent, 
all  was  changed.  Such  additions  as  those  to  the  Ordinal  : 
'  Receive  the  power  to  offer  sacrifice,'  with  the  formal  handing 
to  the  ordinand  of  paten  and  chalice  :  indicate  the  greatness  of 
the  change.  Compelled  to  deliberate  upon  the  matter  at  the 
Council  of  Trent,  the  Church  of  Rome  set  its  seal  to  the  dogma 
of  Mass-Sacrifice,  which  for  several  centuries  had  dominated 
the  popular  mind  to  the  virtual  exclusion  of  '  Communion '  in 
the  Lord's  Supper,  by  decreeing  that  there  is  a  true  and  proper 
and  propitiatory  sacrifice  in  the  Mass  ;  that  they  are  anathema 
who  say  that  the  sacrifice  is  a  sacrifice  of  praise  and  .thanksgiving, 
a  commemoration  only  of  the  Sacrifice  of  the  Cross  ;  that  in  His 
Last  Supper,  Christ,  showing  Himself  a  Priest  for  ever  after  the 
Order  of  Melchizedek,  offered  His  Body  and  Blood  to  God  the 
Father  under  the  species  of  Bread  and  Wine.  Cranmer  had 
been  dead  some  years  when  this  decree  was  issued,  in  1562,  but 
this  authoritative  statement  sums  up  the  sacrificial  doctrine 
with  which  he  and  the  Reformers  had  to  contend,  and  against 
which  the  B.C.P.,  both  in  1549  and  1552,  was  directed. 

The  decree  demands  a  brief  examination  : — 

(1)  It  enshrines  a  curious  reminiscence  of  a  serious  division 
in  the  Council.  The  question  arose  :  Did  Christ  offer  Himself 
as  a  propitiatory  Sacrifice  to  God  in  the  Supper  ?  If  so,  then 
why  the  Death  upon  the  Cross  ?  *  If  not,  then  how  could  any 
repetition  of  the  Lord's  Supper  be  a  propitiatory  sacrifice  ? 
The  Council  was  very  evenly  divided,  and  every  argument  that 
could  be  brought  to  bear  against  the  novelty  of  declaring  that 
Christ  offered  Himself  was  brought  by  the  one  side,  especially 
by  the  Bishop  of  Veglia,  who  almost  won  his  case,  according  to 
Sarpi.  However,  the  party  which  saw  that  to  maintain  the 
Mass-Sacrifice  was  essential  to  the  preservation  of  the  papacy, 
prevailed,  and  it  was  decreed  that  the  Lord  did  offer  Himself. 
Note,  however,  a  most  significant  omission  in  the  decree  ;  the 
Lord's  offering  of  His  Body  and  Blood  is  not  stated  to  be  '  pro 
pitiatory,'  and  the  omission  was  designed,  f  Could  there  be  a 

*  See  Dimock,  Romish  Mass,  passim,  esp.  pp.  5  ff.  for  fuller  detail 
f  See  Dimock,  ibid.,  p.  7,  note 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  251 

clearer  admission  of   the  impossibility  of   reconciling  the  Mass- 
Sacrifice  with  the  Lord's  Institution  ? 

(2)  The  relation  of  the  Mass-Sacrifice  to  the  one  Sacrifice  once 
offered  upon  the  Cross  is  another  dilemma.     The  theory  that 
the  latter  propitiates  for  original  sin,  the  former  for  later  sins, 
was  repudiated  by  Rome  itself  with  indignation.*    It  is  impossible 
to  attribute  propitiatory  efficacy  to  the  Mass  without  detracting 
from  the  sufficiency  of  the  Death  upon  the  Cross,  which  Rome 
dare  not  do  as  yet,  at  least  in  so  many  words.     '  Commemorative 
sacrifice,'  '  Applicatory  sacrifice,'  and  other  such  phrases,  apart 
from  their  doctrinal  inaccuracy,  will  not  consist  with  the  cate 
gorical  wording  of  the  Tridentine  decree  :   '  true  and  proper  and 
propitiatory.' 

(3)  The  tangle  in  which  the  mind  is  involved  becomes  con 
fusion  worse  confounded  when  such  questions  are  asked  as  :  What 
is  sacrificed,  and  how  is  it  sacrificed  ?     According  to  Bellarmine 
these  questions  can  pnly  be  answered  by  assuming  that  Christ 
sacrificed  Himself  by  first  transubstantiating  the  bread  into  His 
very  Body,  and  then  by  eating  and  so  destroying  His  own  Body. 

(4)  One  last  dilemma  shall   be  noted.     The   Mass-Sacrifice  is 
stated  to  be  the  one  means  by  which  the  Sacrifice  of  the  Cross 
is  made  available  for  the  living  and  the  dead.     If  so,  what  need 
of  repeated  masses,  for  the  dead,  at  any  rate  ?     The  soul  is 
presumably  made  partaker  of  that  perfect  Redemption,  yet  it 
needs  further  applications  !     Well  might  the  Reformers  use  the 
famous  words  of  the  Homily  :    '  We  must  take  heed  lest  of  the 
memory  the  Holy  Supper  be  made  a  sacrifice.' 

5.  Liturgical  Products  of  the  English  Reformation. 

Though  the  appeal  to  Holy  Scripture,  and  the  recovery  of 
the  great  doctrine  of  Justification  by  Faith,  were  as  much  the 
lever  of  the  Reformation  in  England  as  elsewHfcre,  the  specific 
point  chosen  by  Cranmer's  unerring  instinct  for  bringing  Reform 
ing  principles  to  bear  upon  religious  thought  and  life  was  the 
doctrine  of  Holy  Communion.  In  his  oft-quoted  words  denomi 
nating  the  dogmas  of  the  Real  Presence  and  Mass-Sacrifice  as 
the  roots  of  all  Roman  heresy,  is  enshrined  the  specific  charac 
teristic  of  the  English  Reformation.  The  displacement  of  the 
Sacrifice  by  the  Communion,  of  the  Corporal  Presence  on  the 
Altar  by  the  Spiritual  Presence  in  the  heart  of  the  believer, 
governed  the  compilation  of  the  B.C.P.,  and  procured  the  death 

*  The  attempt  to  interpret  Art.  XXXI  as  framed  only  against  this 
theory  of  Mass  Sacrifice  is  well-known  ;  see  Dimock,  Blasphemous  Fable* 
v,n$.  Dangerous  Deceits, 


25*  THE   COMMUNION 

of  the  martyrs  in  Mary's  reign.  The  martyrdom  of  John  Frith 
in  1533,  on  account  of  his  denial  of  the  Corporal  Presence,  was 
the  first  indication  of  this  becoming  the  crucial  test  of  reforming 
tendencies.  The  enactment  in  1539  of  the  Six  Articles,  upholding 
with  terrible  penalties  Transubstantiation,  Communion  in  one 
kind,  and  Private  Masses,  (in  half  the  Articles,*  therefore,  oppos 
ing  the  Reformation  in  this  specific  doctrine),  served  both  to 
prove  the  existence  of  opposition  to  Mass  dogmas,  and  to  identify 
reform  with  that  opposition.  Not  only  did  Bishops  Latimer 
and  Shaxton  resign  tkeir  sees,  but  so  many  were  those  who 
refused  to  obey,  that  the  penalties  had  to  be  modified.  Henry's 
idea  of  reformation,  i.e.,  merely  independence  of  the  Pope,  was 
plain  in  the  English  Litany  of  1544,  where  one  of  the  petitions 
was  foi  deliverance  from  the  Bishop  of  Rome  and  all  his  detestable 
enormities,  but  the  opposition  to  the  Six  Articles  Act  manifested 
the  impossibility  of  stopping  there. 

With  Edward  s  accession,  on  January  28,  1547,  things  rapidly 
altered.  On  July  31  the  first  Book  of  Homilies  appeared, 
and  also  Edward's  first  Royal  Injunctions  were  issued,  on 
December  20  the  first  Act  of  Edward's  first  Parliament 
ordered  the  priest  to  communicate  with  the  laity,  not  by 
himself,  and  to  administer  to  the  laity  in  both  kinds,  while 
on  December  24  a  repealing  Act  got  rid  of  the  Six  Articles  Act. 
Yet  the  doctrine  of  the  Holy  Communion  was  not  clear  ;  a 
Royal  Proclamation  enjoined  men  to  '  devoutly  and  reverently 
affirm  that  holy  bread  to  be  Christ's  body,  and  that  cup  to  be 
the  cup  of  His  holy  blood,  according  to  the  purport  and  effect 
of  the  Holy  Scripture ' — words  which  might  mean  anything, 
according  to  the  beliefs  of  those  who  interpreted  them.  The 
purpose  of  the  Proclamation  was  to  check  irreverence  due  to 
rejection  of  the  Mass-doctrines  with  no  clear  teaching  to  replace 
them,  and  for  that  purpose  it  would  suffice.  Images  had  largely 
disappeared  by  May,  1548.  The  order  for  communion  in  both 
kinds  had  been  accompanied  by  the  appointment  of  a  committee 
to  deal  with  the  liturgical  alterations  needful,  and  the  history 
of  the  doctrine  of  the  Lord's  Supper  becomes  one  with  the  history 
of  the  liturgy,  in  which  three  dates  are  marked  by  liturgical 
productions  : — 1548,  the  Order  of  Communion  ;  1549,  Edward's 
First  Prayer  Book  ;  1552,  Edward's  Second  Prayer  Book. 

(I)  THE  OKDEB  OF  COMMUNION,  1548. 
This  was  an  interim  production,  to  be  used  at  first  with  the 

*  Of  the  other  three,  Vows  of  Celibacy,  Celibacy  of  Priests,  and  Auricular 
Confession,  the  last  was  closely  connected  with  the  Mass,  and  the  othei 
two  did  not  touch  the  life  of  the  laymaq. 


PIISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  353 

Latin  Missal,  but  afterwards  incorporated  in  the  1543  B.G.P.* 
The  contents  were  as  follows  : — 

1.  Exhortation— the  first  in  1662  B.C. P. 

2.  Rubric  :  '  The  time  of  the  Communion  shall  be  immediately 
after  that  the  Priest  himself  hath  received  the  Sacrament,  without 
the  varying  of  any  other  rite  or  ceremony  in  the  Mass  (until 
other  order  shall  be  provided),  but  as  heretofore  usually  the 
Priest  hath  done  with  the  sacrament  of  the  body,  to  prepare, 
bless,  and  consecrate  so  much  as  will  serve  the  people  ;    so  it 
shall  continue  still  after  the  same  manner  and  form,  save  that 
he  shall  bless  and  consecrate  the  biggest  chalice,  or  some  fair 
and  convenient  cup  or  cups  full  of  wine  with  some  water  put 
unto  it  ;    and  that  day,  not  drink  it  up  all  himself,  but  taking 
one  only  sup  or  draught,  leave  the  rest  upon  the  altar  covered, 
and  turn  to  them  that  are  disposed  to  be  partakers  of  the  com 
munion,  and  shall  thus  exhort  them  as  followeth'  : 

3.  Second  Exhortation — the  third  in  1662. 

4.  Warning  to  Communicants — made  one  clause  of  the  first 
in  1662,  ('If  any  man  here  be  an  open  blasphemer,'  etc.). 

5.  Rubric  :    '  Here  the  Priest  shall  pause  a  while,  to  see  if 
any  man  will  withdraw  himself :    and  if  he  perceive  any  to  do 
so,  then  let  him  commune  with  him  privily  at  convenient  leisure, 
and  see  whether  he  can  with  good  exhortation  bring  him  to 
grace  :    and  after  a  little  pause,  the  Priest  shall  say '  : — 

6.  '  You  that  do  truly'  etc. 

7.  Rubric  :   '  Then  shall  a  general  confession  be  made  in  the 
name  of  all  those  that  are  minded  to  receive  the  Holy  Communion, 
either  by  one  of  them,  or  else  by  one  of  the  ministers,  or  by  the 
Priest  himself,  all  kneeling  humbly  upon  their  knees  ' : 

8.  The  Confession — as  in  1662. 

9.  The  Absolution — as  in  1662,  save  that  it  commenced  :  '  Our 
blessed  Lord,  who  hath  left  power  to  His  Church,  to  absolve 
penitent  sinners  from  their  sins,  and  to  restore  to  the  grace  of 
the  heavenly  Father  such  as  truly  believe  in  Christ,  have  mercy 
upon  you,'  etc. 

10.  The  Comfortable  Words. 

11.  Prayer  of  Humble  Access — as  in  1662,  with  the  addition 
of  '  in  these  holy  mysteries,'  after  '  drink  his  blood.' 

12.  Administration,  first  to   Ministers,   then  to   people,   with 
the  first  part  of  the  present  words,  save  that  instead  of  '  body 
and  soul,'  '  body '  was  used  alone  in  administering  the  bread, 
'soul'  alone  in  adminstering  the  wine. 

*  The  important  doctrinal  and  other  differences  from  the  present  B.C. P. 
are  noted  later  under  the  1549  B.C.P.,  in  which  the  Order  was  inserted 
almost  bodily. 


254  THE    COMMUNION 

13.  Rubric :  *  If  there  be  a  Deacon  or  other  Priest,  then  shall 
he  follow  with  the  chalice,  and  as  the  Priest  ministereth  the 
bread,  so  shall  he  for  more  expedition  minister  the  wine.'  The 
bread  is  to  be  '  such  as  heretofore  hath  been  accustomed  ;  and 
every  of  the  said  consecrated  breads  shall  be  broken  in  two 
pieces  at  the  least.  .  .  .  And  men  must  not  think  less  to  be 
received  in  part,  than  in  the  whole,  but  in  each  of  them  the  whole 
body  of  our  Saviour  Jesus  Christ.'  If  the  wine  '  hallowed '  is 
not  enough,  more  is  to  be  consecrated,  the  words  of  institu 
tion  (in  Latin)  being  used,  '  and  without  any  levation  or  lifting 
up.' 

This  first  instalment  of  reform,*  avowedly  temporary,  exhibits 
the  transitional  nature  of  the  doctrine  held  at  the  time.  On 
the  one  hand,  Gardiner  expressed  approbation  of  it,  which  he 
well  might  do,  being  able  to  interpret  it  by  the  Missal,  still 
retained  ?.nd  used  with  it  :  on  the  other  hand,  the  use  of  the 
English  tongue,  administration  to  the  laity,  and  that  in  both 
kinds,  with  the  order  to  break  the  bread  for  distribution,  and 
the  calling  the  consecrated  elements  '  bread '  and  '  wine '  in 
the  closing  Eubric,  marked  a  distinct  advance,  and  promised 
still  greater  alterations.  Cranmer's  own  position  on  the  Lord's 
Supper  was  that  of  one  groping  towards  fuller  light.  So  far 
back  as  1532  he  had  been  lodging  at  Nuremberg  with  Osiander, 
whose  niece  he  married,  and  whose  Church  Order  was  then  being 
completed.  The  indebtedness  of  the  B.C.P.  to  this  work,  in 
several  particulars  supposed  to  prove  dependence  upon  Mozarabic 
and  other  Ancient  Liturgies,  suggests  at  least  some  influence 
on  Cranmer.  However,  it  was  through  Eidley  that  Cranmer's 
final  doctrine  of  the  Lord's  Supper  took  shape,  and,  therefore, 
through  the  publication  in  1532  of  Bertram's  Treatise  against 
Paschasius.  That  work,  unable  to  overthrow  heresy  at  the 
time,  bore  fruit  in  later  days,  in  a  way  of  which  Bertram  could 
not  have  dreamed. 

In  May  of  1548,  the  whole  service  was  used  in  English,  and, 
in  the  words  of  Dr.  Gasquet  :  '  It  is  clear  that  before  September, 
1548,  services  were  already  drawn  up  and  in  use,  the  main  parts 
of  which  corresponded  with  those  subsequently  enforced  in  the 
Book  of  Common  Prayer.'  |  This  proof  of  the  industry  of  the 
Committee  appointed  to  provide  the  '  other  order '  of  the  Eubric 
quoted  above  from  the  Order  of  Communion,  is  supplemented 

*  Ordered  to  be  used  on  Easter  Day,  April  1,  1548. 

f  Gasquet,  147  ;  from  Tomlinson's  Great  Parliamentary  Debate,  p.  7, 
a  document  of  the  utmost  importance  for  the  story  of  1548. 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  255 

by  the  report  of  the  Great  Parliamentary  Debate  no  the  Lord's 
Supper  on  December  15,  17,  18,  1548.  From  that  report  the 
following,  amongst  many,  important  conclusions  must  be 
drawn  : — 

(1)  Cranmer  and  his  fellow  reformers  distinguished  between 
Transubstantiation    and    the    Real    (Corporal)    Presence,    and 
rejected  both. 

(2)  The  other  side  recognized  that  omission  was  prohibition, 
and  deplored  the  abandonment  of  Adoration,  Elevation,   and 
the  Oblation  of  the  Host,  Tonstal  also  protesting  against  the 
discredit  thrown  upon  the  word  '  Mass.' 

(3)  The  unreliability  of  the  '  Ancient  Liturgies  '  as  standards 
of  historical  or  doctrinal  accuracy  was  clearly  felt  and  expressed. 


(I)  THE  COMMUNION  OFFICE  OF  1549. 

Within  a  month  of  the  Great  Debate,  Parliament  passed  the 
new  book,  and  by  March  it  was  published,  coming  into  general 
use  on  Whit-Sunday,  June  9.  The  relation  of  its  Communion 
Office  to  the  Sarum  Missal  is  exhibited  in  the  following  descrip 
tion  of  their  respective  contents  *  in  parallel  columns,  in  which 
parts  largely  identical  in  both  Offices  are  in  Clarendon  type  ; 
parts  used  by  the  Reformers,  but  with  alterations  of  doctrinal 
significance,  are  in  Italics  ;  the  many  important  changes  of 
order  will  be  seen  directly  from  the  Table  ;  rubrics  are  indented, 
only  the  more  important  of  those  in  the  Missal  being  noted, 
their  length  being  greater  than  the  remainder  of  the  service.f 
The  comparison  must  compel  agreement  with  the  following 
estimate  :  '  The  Eucharistic  Service  of  the  Church  of  England 
is  substantially  a  new  service.  If  we  take  even  the  Communion 
Service  of  1549  and  compare  it  with  the  Canon  according  to  the 
Use  of  Sarum,  we  find  that  by  far  the  greater  part  of  it  is  new. 
.  .  .  The  Office  of  1549  occupies  twenty-three  closely-printed 
pages  at  the  end  of  Mr.  Maskell's  Ancient  Liturgies  of  the  Church 
of  England,  and  of  these  not  above  two  pages  are  to  be  found  in 
the  Sarum  Missal '  (Prebendary  Sadler,  The  Church  and  the 
Age,  p.  305). 

*  The  full  text  of  the  Office  of  1549,  side  by  side  with  that  of  the  Sarum 
Use  in  English,  may  be  seen  in  Canon  Estcourt's  Dogmatic  Teaching  of  the 
Book  of  Common  Prayer  on  the  Eucharist.  The  '  Canon '  is  similarly  dis 
played  in  Tomlinson,  Tracts  on  Ritual,  Vol.  i,  No.  113. 

f  The  divisions  of  the  Mass  are  borrowed  from  Frere,  pp.  282  fl. 


256 


THE   COMMUNION 


1549  B.C.P. 

The  Supper  of  the  Lord  and 
Holy  Communion  commonly 
called  The  Mass. 

Notice  to  be  giver  by  intending 
Communicants.  Evil-livers 
and  those  at  variance  to  be 
kept  away. 

Vesture  (vestment  or  Cope). 

Psalm  in  English  (Inlroil). 

Priest  to  stand  afore  the  midst 

of  the  Altar. 
Lord's  Prayer. 
Collect  for  Purity. 
Psalm. 
Lesser  Litany. 


The  Gloria  In  Excelsis. 


The  Lord  be  with  you,  etc. 
The  Collect. 


Alternative  Collects  for  the  King. 
The  Epistle. 


The  Gospel. 

Announced  by  the  reader,  with 
response,  '  Glory  be  to  thee,  O 
Lord.' 


SABUM  Uss. 
Ordinarium  Missre. 


1.  Preparation. 
Vesting  hymn. 
Versicle  and  Response. 
Collect  for  Purity. 

2.  Psalm,  etc. 
Psalm. 

Lesser  Litany. 

Lord's  Prayer. 

Hail  Mary. 

3.  Approach  to  Altar,  etc. 
Versicles  and  Responses. 
Confession  of  Priest. 
Absolution  of  Priest  by  the  Minister. 
Confession  of  Ministers. 
Absolution  of  Ministers. 

Kiss  of  Peace. 

Lights,  kissing  altar,  etc. 
Priest  to  begin  at  South  corner 

of  Altar. 
Silent  Prayers. 

4.  Censing. 
Lesser  Litany. 

Many  regulations  for  censing ; 
for  procession  to  altar ;  for 
dress  of  deacon,  sub-deacon, 
light-bearers,  etc.,  for  colours. 

5.  Gloria. 

The  Gloria  in  Excelsis  (ten  varia 
tions)  :  regulations  as  to  priest's 
sitting  or  standing. 

6.  Collects  and  Memorials. 
The  Lord  be  with  you,  etc. 

The  Collects  (seven  the  maximum). 
Many  regulations  as  to  posture, 
signing  the  cross,  bringing 
bread,  wine  and  water,  bring 
ing  basin  and  water  for 
washing,  etc. 

7.  Epistle. 

8.  Gradual. 

Rubric  concerning  gradual, 
etc. 

9.  Alleluia,  Sequence,  and  Tract. 

10.  Censing. 

11.  Gospel. 

Many  regulations  as  to  pro 
cession,  posture,  bless 
ing,  censing,  etc. 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION 


257 


1549  B.C.P. 

The  Creed. 

Sermon  and  Homily. 

Exhortation  to  worthy  receiving  the 

Sacrament. 

Exhortation  to  the  negligent. 
Offertory,    by   the   people   '  to   the 

poor  men's  box.' 
Sentences     inciting     to     generous 

giving. 

Singing  the  Sentences. 

Nature  of  the  offertory. 

Non-communicants  to  leave 
the  Quire. 

Bread  and  wine  (with  water) 
to  be  set  upon  the  Altar, 
after  the  offertory. 

The  Lord  be  with  you. 
Sursum  Corda. 

It  is  very  meet,  right,  etc.  (some 
what  altered). 

Proper  Prefaces,  reduced  to  five, 
and  two  entirely  new. 

Holy,  Holy,  Holy. 

Prayer  for  the  whole  state  of  Christ's 
Church. 

To  be  said  '  plainly  and  dis 
tinctly.' 

Intercession      (wording     entirely 
new). 

For  acceptance  of  '  these  our 
prayers.' 

For  the  truth  and  unity  of  Church. 

For  the  King  and  Council,  etc. 

For  Bishops  and  Clergy. 

For  all  God's  people. 

Praising  God  for  Saints,  Mary  alone 
mentioned  by  name. 

For  God's  servants  departed  (before 
the  Consecration,  to  avoid  the 
idea  of  offering  for  the  dead). 


(ii)  Consecration. 
Reference  to  the  one  oblation  once 

offered. 
Prayer   for    sanctification    of    the 

bread  and  wine  by  the  holy 

Spirit  and  word  (two  crossings). 
Recital  of  institution  with  two  single 

directions  for  manual  acts. 

Elevation    and    shewing     sac 
rament  forbidden. 


SARUM  USB. 

12.  The  Creed 

13.  Versicles,  etc. 
The  Lord  be  with  you. 


14.  Offertory,  i.e.  by  the 
Priest  of  bread  and  wine. 

Crossings,         kissings,        censings, 
washings,  etc. 

15.  Its  Prayers. 

Prayer  for  acceptance  of  Sacrifice 
for  sins  and  Offences,  on  behalf 
of  living  and  dead. 

16.  The  Secret. 
Secret  Prayers,  etc. 

17.  The  Salutation. 

The  Lord  be  with  you. 
Sursum  Corda. 

18.  The  Preface. 

It  is  very  meet,  right,  etc. 

Proper  Prefaces. 

19.  The  Sanctus. 
Holy,  Holy,  Holy. 

20.  The  Canon. 

Rubrical  regulations  for  hands, 
eyes,  signing  cross,  etc. 

(i)  Intercession. 

For     acceptance     of     these 

'  holy  sacrifices.' 
For  the  Church. 
For  the  Pope  and  King. 
For  special  individuals. 
Commemorating   Saints    (25 
by    name),    and    seeking 
their  merits  and  prayers. 
Here    to    regard    the 
host  with  great  vener 
ation — 

For  acceptance  of  this  obla 
tion 

Again  to  look  at  host — 
For  its  becoming  the  Body 

and  Blood  of  Christ, 
(ii)  Consecration. 

Wash  fingers  and  ele 
vate  host. 

Recital  of  institution,  not 
in  the  words  of  the  Bible, 
and  multitudinous  accom 
panying  regulations. 


258 


THE   COMMUNION 


1549  B.C.P. 

(iii)  OVation. 

Celebrating  before  God  '  the  me 
morial  which  (His)  Son  hath 
willed  us  to  make.' 

Sacrifice  of  Praise  and  thanksgiving. 

Our  Souls  and  bodies  offered  as  a 
reasonable  Sacrifice. 

Prayer  that  these  prayers  may  be 
taken  to  God's  holy  Tabernacle 
in  Heaven  by  the  Ministry  of 
His  holy  Angels. 


(iv)  Lord's  Prayer  (without  regu 
lations). 


The  Peace  of  the  Lord,  etc. 
Substituted  for  Agnus  Dei : — 
Christ  our  Paschal  Lamb  is  offered 
up  for  us,  once  for  all,  when  he 
bare  our  sins  on  his  body  upon 
the  cross ;    for  he  is  the  very 
lamb  of  God,  that  taketh  away 
the  sins  of  the  world ;    where 
fore  let  us  keep  a  joyful  and 
holy  feast  with  the  Lord. 

N.B. — Agnus   Dei    transferred 
to  'the  Communion  time.' 


Invitation  to  Confession. 

Confession  by  all,   Priest  and 

people. 

General  Confession. 
Absolution,      [cf.      Absolution      of 

Priest  by  the  Minister  (p.  256), 

Division  3.] 
Comfortable  Words. 
Prayer  of  Humble  Access. 

Rubric  for  Reception. 
Words  of  Administration. 
Sentences. 
Twenty-two  from  Holy  Scripture, 


SARTJM  USE. 

(iii)  Oblation. 

Offering  Victim  to   God,  cf. 

Abel,  Abraham,   and  Mel- 

chizedek. 
Prayer   for   Angels   to   take 

the  host  to  God's  Altar  in 

heaven. 

Prayer  for  the  dead. 
Prayer  for  the  living  to  have 

their  part  with  the  Saints 

(15  named). 
Ascription,  with  five  signings 

of  the  Cross, 
(iv)  Paternoster,      with      minute 

regulations  as  to  Elevation 

of  Paten  and  hands. 
Prayer  with  more  regulations, 

for  peace,  etc.,   by  inter 
cession  of  Saints. 
Breaking   the   Host   in   the 

Chalice. 
Peace,  with  signing  the  Cross. 

21.  Agnus  Dei. 

22.  Commixture  and  Pax. 
Prayer,   placing  third  part  of  the 

•Host  in  '  the  Sacrament  of  the 
blood.' 

Prayer  for  the  priest's  worthy  recep 
tion. 

Kissing  corporal  and  the  deacon. 
Minute  regulations  for  the  Pax. 

23.  Prayers  at  reception. 
Prayer   to   God   '  Who   willed   thy 

onjy  begotten  to  take  flesh  .  .  . 

which  I,  unworthy,  here  hold 

in  my  hands.' 
Adoration  of  the  Host. 
Address  to  the  Body,  and  reception. 
Address  to  the  Blood,  and  reception. 
Thanksgiving  prayer. 

(No  Communion  of  the  People 
in  the  Missal.) 


24.  Prayers  at  Ablutions. 
Three  prayers  with  elaborate  rubrics. 

25.  Anthem  '  Communio.' 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  259 


1549  B.C.P. 
not   including   the   ambiguous 


SARUM  USE. 
'  Taste  and  see,'  etc. 


'  Taste  and  see.'  26.  Post-Communion. 

The  Lord  be  with  you,  etc.  Dominus  vobiscum,  with  ritual  regu- 

Collect,   '  We  most  heartily  thank  lations. 

thee.'  Collects,    replete    with   invocations 

and  memorials  of  Saints. 
Dominus  vobiscum. 
Let  us  give  thanks  unto  the  Lord. 
The  Blessing.  27.  Dismissal. 

Ite,  Missa  est. 

28.  Closing  Prayer. 
Private  Prayer  for  acceptability  of 

the  Sacrifice. 

In  the  name  of  the  Father,  etc. 
Regulations  for  procession. 
Post-Communion   Gospel   (John   i. 
1-14). 

It  is  scarcely  credible  that  any  one  would  find  the  outstanding 
point  of  this  comparison  to  be  '  the  close  similarity '  between 
the  1549  B.C.P.  and  the  Sarum  Use  *  ;  their  fundamental  differ 
ence  is  even  more  apparent,  if  possible,  in  the  following  list  of 
the  chief  omissions,  alterations,  additions,  and  transpositions  : — 

a.  Omissions. 

The  '  Hail  Mary.' 

The  ritual  approach  to  the  Altar. 

Mutual  Confession  and  Absolution  of  Clergy. 

Kiss  of  peace. 

Censing  (passim). 

Collects  called  '  Memorials.' 

Gradual,  etc.,  with  ritual  accessories. 

Ritual  production  of  the  Book  of  the  Gospels,  with  Kissing  the  Book, 

etc. 

Ritual  placing  of  the  elements,  with  kissing,  censing,  and  hand- washing. 
Prayer  of  oblation  of  elements,  offered  in  honour  of  '  saints,'  and  for 

salvation  of  living  and  dead. 
Kissing  Altar,  crossings,  etc. 
Secret  prayers,  involving  intercession  of  Saints. 
Offering  of  the  elements,  as  '  their  holy  undefiled  sacrifices,'  in  the 

'  Canon.' 

Reference  to  merits  and  prayers  of  the  Saints. 

Elevation  of  the  consecrated  Elements,  and  accompanying  posturings. 
Reference  to  the  '  pure  victim,'  '  holy  victim,'  etc.,  with  crossings. 
Reference  to  Abel's,  Abraham's,  and  Melchizedek's  sacrifices. 
Prayer  that  Angels  should  carry  the  elements  to  the  '  Altar  on  high.' 
Prayer  to  '  sanctify  and  to  give  life  to  '  the  Elements. 
Using  the  Host  to  make  5  signs  of  the  Cross. 
Prayer  for  intercession  of  Mary,  etc.,  and  all  the  Saints. 
Ritual  kissings,  touching  eyes  with  the  paten,  etc. 
Threefold  breaking  of  the  Host,  etc. 
'  Commixture  '  of  the  Bread  and  Wine. 
The  Pax,  kissing  of  '  corporal,'  and  of  the  deacon. 

*  Frere,  p.  458. 


260  THE    COMMUNION 

Private  prayer  before  priest's  communicating,  referring  to  the  Lord's 
taking  '  flesh,  the  which  I,  unworthy,  here  hold  in  my  hands.' 

Address  '  to  the  Body '  before  reception  :  '  Hail  for  evermore,  Most 
Holy  Flesh  of  Christ,'  etc. 

Address  '  to  the  blood.' 

Rinsing  of  hands  and  chalice,  with  prayers,  including  '  we  adore  the 
sign  of  the  Cross.' 

'  Taste  and  sec  that  the  Lord  is  sweet,'  etc. 

Post-Communion,  Procession,  and  Gospel. 

b.  Alterations. 

The  Title  '  Mass '  relegated  to  position  of  no  repute. 

Use  of  the  English  tongue. 

Chasuble  made  of  no  account  by  alternative  use  of  Cope. 

Collect  for  purity  said  publicly. 

'  God's  board  '  used  sometimes  instead  of  '  altar.' 

Sentences  exhorting  to  charitable  giving  during  the  Offertory,  instead 

of  a  devotional  anthem  from  the  Psalms. 
Prayer  to  '  receive  these  our  prayers,  which  we  offer,'  etc.,  instead  of 

'  accept  and  bless  these  gilts,  these  presents,  these  holy  undefilcd 

sacrifices,'  etc. 
Praising  God  for  virtue  of  Saints,  instead  of  '  Communicating  with 

and  venerating  the  memory,'  and  pleading  the  merits  and  prayers 

of  the  Saints. 
Christ's  '  one  oblation,  once  offered, '-etc.,  for  '  this  oblation — we  beseech 

thee  to  accept.' 
4  Bless  and  sanctifythese  thy  gifts  of  bread  and  wine  that  they  may 

be  unto  us  the  body  and  blood  '  instead  of  '  which  oblation  make 

blessed,  admitted,  ratified,  reasonable,  and  acceptable,  that  it  may 

be  made  to  us  the  Body  and  Blood.' 
Words  of  Scripture  used  in  the  Consecration. 
'  Celebrate  the  memorial  which  thy  Son  hath  willed  us  to  make ' 

instead  of  '  offer  a  pure  victim,'  etc. 
'  Our  sacrifice  of  praise  and  thanksgiving  '    for  '  a  holy  sacrifice,  an 

immaculate  victim.' 
Partakers  of  this  Holy  Communion,'  for  '  this  participation  of  the 

altar.' 
General  confession  to  God  alone,  for  the  Confiteor  addressed  to  Saints, 

etc. 

Unambiguous  sentences  of  scripture,  for  '  Taste  and  see,'  etc.. 
'  Almighty  and  ever-loving  Gocl,  we  most  heartily  thank  thee,'  etc., 

for  the  five  Post-Communion  Collects  including  reference  to  sacrifice, 

intercession  of  Saints,  etc. 
'  The  Peace  of  God,'  etc.,  instead  of  the  priest's  private  prayer  for 

the  acceptance  of  the  sacrifice  he  has  offered. 

c.  Additions. 

Collect  for  the  King. 

Sermon,  and  exhortation  '  to  the  worthy  receiving.' 

Exhortation  to  communicate  more  diligently. 

Gathering  the  communicants  together,  and  excluding  others  from  the 

quire. 

Offering  oneself  to  be  a  '  reasonable  holy  and  lively  sacrifice.' 
'  Christ  our  Paschal  lamb  is  offered  up  for  us,  once  for  all,  when  he 

bare  our  sins,  on  his  body  upon  the  cross ;    wherefore  lot  us  keep  a 

joyful  and  holy  feast  with  the  Lord.' 
1  Ye  that  do  truly  and  earnestly,'  etc. 
Comfortable  words. 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  261 

Prayer  of  humble  access. 

Words   of   administration    '  The   body  which    was  given :  .  .  .     The 

Blood  which  was  shed.' 
d.  Transpositions.* 

Commemoration  of  the  dead  placed  before  the  consecration  to  avoid 

suggestion  of  offering  Christ  for  the  quick  and  the  dead. 
'  Agnus  Dei '  transferred  to  '  the  communion  time,  beginning  so  soon 

as  the  priest  doth  receive,'  etc. 
Confession  and  absolution,  (the  latter  prefaced  by  reference  to  God's 

promises  of  forgiveness  to  the  repentant),  made  '  general '  instead 

of  for  celebrant  only,  and  transferred  to  a  suitable  position. 

The  Act  which  established  the  1549  B.C.P.  is  the  '  Authority 
of  Parliament,  in  the  Second  Year  of  the  Eeign  of  King  Edward 
the  Sixth,'  words  of  importance  for  the  understanding  of  the 
'  Ornaments  Eubric,'  in  which  they  are  still  to  be  found.  That 
even  these  great  changes  were  only  of  the  nature  of  a  compromise 
is  sufficiently  attested  by  the  extant  correspondence  of  the  day  ; 
not,  however,  a  compromise  between  Rome  and  the  Reformers, 
but  between  Lutheran  views  of  the  Sacramental  Presence  and 
those  of  Cranmer  and  the  English  Reformers  generally.!  The 
genuine  opposition  of  the  great  body  of  those  who  rebelled  in 
various  parts  of  the  country  is  evidence  of  the  departure  from 
the  Sarum  Mass,  not  to  be  weakened  by  Gardiner's  claim  that 
he  could  find  the  Mass  in  the  book.  Such  emphasis  upon  ambigu 
ous  words  and  phrases,  scattered  here  and  there,  to  the  exclusion 
of  the  general  and  obvious  trend  of  the  whole  book,  is  an  unworthy 
policy  unhappily  not  unknown  in  England  at  a  later  date,  and 
in  a  less  ambiguous  B.C.P.  The  new  Ordinal,  published  March, 
1550,  was  far  more  free  from  ambiguity  (see  p.  498),  and, 
with  the  abolition  of  altars  at  the  same  period,  and  the  calling 
in  of  old  Ser vice-Books,  paved  the  way  for  the  inevitable  re- 
"ision  of  1552. 


(Ill)  THE  COMMUNION  OFFICE  OF  1552. 

It  is  remarkable  that  this  Prayer  Book,  which  had  scarcely 
time  to  come  into  use  before  Edward's  death  caused  the  suspen 
sion  of  all  reform  for  five  years,  is  nevertheless  essentially  the 
B.C.P.  of  1912.  It  was  passed  on  April  14,  printed  in  August, 
and  prescribed  for  use  from  November  1,  1552  ;  the  42  Articles, 
substantially  our  39  Articles,  received  the  King's  Mandate  on 

*  The  Injunctions  of  1548,  No.  19,  mention  '  transposed  '  as  a  contem 
plated  process  in  reforming  the  Mass  ;  such  transposition  was  made  more 
affective  still  as  a  reforming  instrument  in  1552. 

t  For  the  true  relation  of  the  1549  B.C.P.  to  Lutheranism  see  Dimock, 
History  of  B.C.P.,  1910  Edn.,  pp.  7  ff.  ;  for  evidence  that  it  was  regarded 
as  transitional  see  Tomlinson,  Great  Parliamentary  Debate,  pp.  19,  20; 
and  First  Prayer  Book  of  Edward  VI,  pp.  4  ff. 


262  THE   COMMUNION 

June  9,  1553,  the  King's  death  occurring  on  July  6.  The  nature 
of  the  Book  is  clear  from  the  statement  of  the  Act  which  enjoined 
its  use  ;  it  is  the  former  book  '  explained  and  made  fully  perfect 
.  .  .  more  earnest  and  fit  to  stir  Christian  people  to  the  true 
honouring  of  Almighty  God.'  This  estimate  of  their  work  by 
those  who  compiled  both  books  might  suffice  to  silence  for  ever 
the  Cosin-Heylin  theory,  popularized  by  Wheatley,  that  the 
second  book  was  virtually  the  work  of  foreigners,  even  if  that 
theory  were  not  otherwise  untenable.  It  is  now  disclaimed,  but 
it  has  done  its  evil  work  in  casting  a  slur  upon  the  revision  of 
1552. 

The  importance  of  the  changes  will  be  seen  from  the  following 
lists  of  omissions,  alterations,  etc.  : — 

a.  Omissions. 

'  Commonly  called  the  Mass,'  in  the  Title. 

All  special  Vesture  :    the  surplice  being  ordered  for  all  services. 

Introit  sung  by  clerks. 

Introit  said  by  priest. 

Lesser  Litany. 

Dominus  Vobiscum. 

'  Glory  be  to  thee,  0  Lord  '  before  Gospei. 

Direction  to  add  to  the  wine  '  a  little  pure  and  clean  water.' 

Prayer  for  dead. 

'  Doth  vouchsafe,  in  a  Sacrament  and  Mystery,  to  give  us  his  said 

body  and  blood  to  feed  upon  spiritually.' 

'  Blessed  is  he  that  cometh  in  the  name  of  the  Lord  '  in  the  Ter  Sanctus. 
'  In  these  holy  mysteries,'  after  '  so  to  drink  his  blood.' 
Indented  Rubrics  and  sign  of  the  cross  in  prayer  of  consecration. 
'  We  ...  do  celebrate  and  make  here  before  thy  divine  Majesty, 

with  these  thy  holy  gifts,  the  memorial  which  thy  Son  hath  willed 

us  to  make.' 

Agnus  Dei  during  communion. 
Post-communion  sentences. 

Petition  for  prayers  to  be  carried  by  the  Angels  to  heaven. 
The  declaration  that  in  each  part  is  received  the  whole  body  of  Christ. 

/..  Alterations. 

'  North  side  of  the  Table,'  for  '  afore  the  midst  of  the  Altar,'  this  last 
word  being  everywhere  changed. 

'  He  hath  instituted  and  ordained  holy  mysteries,  as  pledges  of  his 
love,'  etc.,  for  :  '  he  hath  left  in  those  holy  mysteries,  as  a  pledge 
of  his  love,  and  a  continual  remembrance  of  the  same,  his  own  blessed 
body,  and  precious  blood,'  etc. 

'  Discreet  and  learned  Minister  of  God's  word,  and  open  bis  grief, 
that  by  the  ministry  of  God's  holy  word,'  etc.,  for  '  discreet  and 
learned  priest,  taught  in  the  law  of  God,  and  confess  and  open  his 
sin  and  grief  secretly  .  .  .  requiring  such  as  shall  be  satisfied  with 
a  general  confession,  not  to  be  offended  with  them  that  do  use,  to 
their  satisfying,  the  auricular  and  secret  confession  to  the  Priest,' 
etc. 

The  exhortations  of  1549  completely  rearranged. 

'  That  we  receiving  these  thy  creatures  of  bread  and  wine  .  .  .  may 
be  partakers  of,'  for  '  with  thy  Holy  Spirit  and  word  vouchsafe 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  263 

to  bl  +  ess  and  sanc  +  tify  these  thy  gifts  and  creatures  of  bread 

and  wine,  that  they  may  be  unto  us  the  body  and  blood,'  etc. 
'  Delivereth  the  bread  .  .  .  the  cup '  for  '  delivereth  the  sacrament 

of  the  body  of  Christ  ...  of  the  blood  of  Christ.' 
'  Into  their  hands  '  for  '  in  their  mouths  at  the  Priest's  hand.' 
Second  part  of  present  words  of  administration  instead  of  the  first. 
'  Vouchsafe  to  feed  us,  who  have  duly  received  these  holy  mysteries,' 

for  '  vouchsafed  to  feed  us  in  these  holy  mysteries.' 
'  A  good  number,'  instead  of  '  some '  necessary  to  communicate  with 

the  priest,  the  '  good  number '  being  given  as  '  four  or  three  at  the 

least,'  even  in  a  parish  with  not  more  than  twenty  communicants. 
Bread  '  usual  to  be  eaten,'  instead  of  '  unleavened  and  round  ' ;  '  three 

times  in  the  year,'  instead  of  '  once.' 

c.  Additions. 

Ten  Commandments. 

'  Militant  here  in  earth  '  added. 

Rubric  concerning  notices. 

Delivery  '  into  the  hands '  of  the  people  '  kneeling.' 

Rubric  regulating  disposal  of  surplus  bread  and  wine. 

The  Black  Rubric. 

d.  Transpositions. 

Gloria  from  beginning  to  end  of  Service. 

Prayer  for  Christ's  Church,  entirely  broken  up  and  rearranged. 

Confession,  etc.,  before  consecration. 

Lord's  Prayer  after  communicating. 

First  Thanksgiving  taken  out  of  Prayer  at  Consecration,  and  made 

an  alternative  after  communicating. 

The  following  alterations  outside  the  Communion  Office  also  bear  upon 
it:— 

Provision  for  Double  Communion  for  Christmas  and  Easter  omitted. 
Communion  Table  allowed  to  stand  in  the  middle  of  the  Church. 
Reservation  for  the  Sick  omitted. 
Celebration  at  burial  omitted. 

The  relation  between  the  two  Edwardian  books  is  plain  enough 
from  these  lists  of  changes  ;  the  second  is  the  first  with  the 
removal  of  whatever  had  been  proved  by  experience  to  be  am 
biguous.  It  is  significant  that  every  detail  fastened  upon  by 
Gardiner  as  a  loop-hole  for  the  Mass,  was  altered.  Nor  was  any 
room  left  for  any  Lutheran  idea  of  a  Corporal  Presence,  a  matter 
of  grave  importance  in  view  of  current  controversy,  seeing  that 
the  work  of  1552  is  the  B.C.P.  of  to-day.  The  proof  of  this  last 
statement  will  now  appear.* 

On  the  accession  of  Queen  Elizabeth  the  1552  B.C.P.  was 
expressly  restored,  with  three  alterations,  '  and  none  other  or 
otherwise.'  The  three  specified  alterations  were  (1)  the  omission 
of  the  petition  against  the  Bishop  of  Rome  in  the  Litany,  (2) 
new  Tables  of  Lessons,  and  (3)  the  addition  of  the  words  of 
administration  in  1549  to  those  prescribed  in  1552,  making  our 

*  The  holes  and  corners  in  which  the  Real  Corporal  Presence  and  Mass- 
Sacrifice  are  still  pretended  to  be  found,  will  be  noted  in  the  last  section 
of  this  Introduction,  pp.  269  ff. 


264  THE   COMMUNION 

present  compound  sentences.  The  too  common  phrase  '  Prayer- 
Book  of  Queen  Elizabeth '  is,  therefore,  a  misnomer,  and  actually 
misleading  as  liable  to  convey  the  impression  that  revision  of 
any  kind  took  place.  The  one  alteration  in  the  Communion 
Service,  above-described,  simply  restored  words  of  administra 
tion  with  some  claim  to  scriptural  accuracy  and  doctrinal  safety  ; 
the  words  '  which  was  given,'  '  which  was  shed,'  especially  with 
the  words  of  1552  retained  :  '  Take  and  eat  this,'  '  Drink  this 
in  remembrance  : '  effectually  safeguarded  the  change  from  mis 
interpretation.  However,  two  other  changes  appeared  in  the 
printed  B.C.P.  which  have  been  cited  as  evidence  of  a  retrogression 
in  doctrine  : — (1)  the  unauthorized  Rubrics  prefacing  Morning 
Prayer,  (2)  the  omission  of  the  '  Black  Rubric.'  The  former  of 
these  matters  is  dealt  with  elsewhere  (pp.  76  ff.).  The  Black 
Rubric  will  also  receive  attention  elsewhere,  but  the  simple 
fact  that  it  was  not  part  of  the  1552  B.C.P.,  but  a  Royal  Proclama 
tion  appended  thereto,  divests  its  omission  of  any  significance 
whatever.* 

The  final  form  taken  by  the  XXXIX  Articles,  and  the  addition 
of  that  portion  of  the  Catechism  which  deals  with  the  Sacra 
ments,  are  the  two  important  additions  to  the  B.C.P.  between 
1552  and  1662.  This  last  addition  was  made  in  1604,  and  sundry 
occasional  prayers  and  thanksgivings  were  added,  the  B.C.P. 
thus  enlarged  being  often  called  the  Prayer  Book  of  James  I. 

6.  Liturgical  Changes  at  the  Restoration. 

In  estimating  the  intention  and  effect  of  the  last  revision  of 
the  B.C.P.,  preponderating  attention  should  be  paid  to  the 
Revisers'  own  Preface.  They  state,  by  the  pen  of  Bishop  Sander 
son,  that  in  spite  of  various  alterations  '  the  main  body  and 
essentials  of  it  (as  well  in  the  chiefest  materials,  as  in  the  frame 
and  order  thereof)  have  still  continued  the  same  unto  this  day, 
and  do  yet  stand  firm  and  unshaken '  ;  they  are  '  fully  persuaded 
in  (their)  judgments,  and  here  profess  it  to  the  world  that  the 
book  as  it  stood  before,  is  free  from  error  ' ;  and  that  with  no 
desire  '  to  gratify  this  or  that  party  in  any  way '  they  set  about 
revising  the  book  with  practical  aims,  the  general  account  of 
their  alterations  being  that  they  were  made  to  : — 

1.  Guide  the  clergyman  in  Divine  Service. 
•  2.  Alter  archaic  and  ambiguous  language. 

3.  Embody  the  improved  English  Version  of  Holy  Scripture. 

4.  Add  special  services  for  special  occasions. 

Despite  this  straightforward  declaration  of  policy,  concluding 

*  For  further  information  see  pp.  273  ff ;  365  ff . 


HISTORICAL    INTRODUCTION  265 

with  an  appeal  for  comparison  of  the  old  and  new,  when  they 
'  doubt  not  but  the  reason  of  the  change  may  easily  appear,' 
there  is  a  tendency  to  attribute  to  the  revision  an  effect  which 
credits  the  Eevisers  with  a  deep  dark  plot  to  undermine  the 
doctrine,  (especially  the  doctrine  of  the  Lord's  Supper),  of  the 
Church  of  England.  This  charge  has  been  often  and  openly 
brought  :  '  The  Revisers  seized  the  opportunity  (contrary  to 
what  the  public  was  reckoning  upon)  to  make  our  formularies 
not  more  Puritanic,  but  more  Catholic.  They  effected  this, 
without  doubt,  stealthily,  and,  to  appearance,  by  the  minutest 
alteration  ;  but  to  compare  the  Communion  Service  as  it  now 
stands,  especially  in  its  rubrics,  with  the  form  in  which  we  find 
it  previously  to  that  transaction,  will  be  to  discover  that,  without 
any  change  of  features  which  could  cause  alarm,  a  new  spirit 
was  then  breathed  into  our  Communion  Service.'  *  On  the 
same  page  is  added  '  It  has  actually  escaped  general  observation. 
Wheatley  on  the  Liturgy  notices  the  changes  ;  but  though  himself 
a  High  Churchman,  overlooks  their  import.  Nicholls,  if  I 
remember  right,  scarcely  adverts  to  the  fact  ;  and  Shepherd, 
who  meant  to  take  pains,  seems  not  to  have  known  anything 
of  the  matter.' 

What  then  are  these  changes,  designed  to  effect  so  much,  yet 
recognized  not  even  by  their  authors  nor  by  any  one  eke  for 
two  centuries  ?  The  Laudian  movement,  with  all  its  tendencies 
to  exclusive  episcopalianism,  Arminianism,  and  the  revival  of 
discarded  outward  forms,  did  not  seriously  touch  the  doctrine 
of  Holy  Communion.  In  the  temper  of  the  Protestant  world 
over  the  Thirty  Years'  War,  and  active  papal  propagandism  by 
the  Jesuits,  that  high-handed  disregard  of  the  rubrics  which 
ordered  the  altar-wise  position  of  the  Lord's  Table  and  the  railing 
it  in,  loomed  large  enough  to  help  to  embitter  the  nation  against 
Laud,  but  it  would  hardly  bear  to  be  construed  as  a  doctrinal 
innovation,  save  by  implication.  Treatises  on  the  Lord's  Supper 
might  defend  the  Church  of  England  from  imputations  of  Zwing- 
lianism,  by  asserting  that  the  Presence  to  the  hearts  of  the 
faithful  was  a  '  Real '  Presence,  and  even  (less  wisely)  by  using 
the  word  '  oblation '  in  a  sense  which  the  B.C.P.  had  carefully 
avoided,  but  the  doctrine  of  the  Church  of  England  was  untouched. 

The  failure  of  the  Savoy  Conference  in  1661  was  perhaps  to 
be  expected,  with  both  parties  in  the  land  indisposed  to  con 
cession  ;  but  when  the  revision  was  handed  over  to  Convocation, 
rhere  was  at  any  rate  some  sign  of  a  willingness  to  meet  the 
desires  of  the  Puritans,  and,  as  will  shortly  be  seen,  some  of  the 

*  Alexander  Knox,  Remains,  Vol.  i.  p.  60  :  from  Dimock,  History  of 
the.  Prayer  Book,  p.  68. 


266  THE   COMMUNION 

changes  recently  attributed  to  an  imaginary  longing  for  the 
B.C.P.  of  1549,  were  actually  changes  granted  at  the  request  of 
the  Puritans.  There  certainly  was  a  party  anxious  to  introduce 
such  changes  as  are  to  be  seen  in  the  ill-fated  Scottish  Liturgy 
of  1637,  but  that  party  met  with  no  success  ;  the  famous  note 
in  Bancroft's  handwriting  runs  :  '  My  Lords  the  Bishops  at  Ely 
House  ordered  all  in  the  old  method '  :  the  changes  proposed 
were  not  adopted.  Mention  of  some  of  these  rejected  proposals 
will  indicate  the  true  nature  of  the  revision  : — 

1.  To    substitute    '  Catholic    Church '    for    '  Church    Militant 

here  in  earth,'  so  as  to  include  the  dead  in  the  prayer 
by  the  words  '  we,  and  all  they  which  are  of  the  mystical 
body  of  Thy  Son,  may  be  set  at  His  right  hand.' 

2.  To  prefix  '  priest  the '  to  '  minister  of  God's  Word.' 

3.  To  provide  '  another  method  of  the  Consecration,  Oblation, 

Address,  and  Distribution,'  including  : — 

a.  Invocation  of  the  Holy  Spirit  and  the  "Word  on  the 

bread  and  wine. 

b.  After   Consecration   a   rubric  :    '  Immediately   after 

shall  follow  this  Memorial  or  Prayer  of  Oblation.' 

c.  '  We  Thy    humble  servants  do  celebrate  and  make 

here  before  Thy  Divine  Majesty,  with  these  Thy 
holy  gifts,  the  Memorial  which  Thy  Son  hath  willed 
and  commanded  us  to  make  .  .  .  death  of  Thy 
Son  Jesus  Christ,  now  represented  unto  Thee.' 

d.  '  That  whosoever  shall   be   partakers   of  this  Holy 

Communion,  may  worthily  receive  the  most  precious 
body  and  blood  of  Thy  Son  Jesus.' 

e.  Agnus  Dei  to  be  sung  during  administration. 

4.  The  Table  always  to  stand  in  the  East. 

5.  The  Priest  to  '  offer  up  and  place '  the  elements  on  the 
Table. 

6.  Wafer  bread  to  be  allowed. 

The  rejection  of  these  proposals,  to  be  seen  inserted  in  the 
'  Durham '  or  '  Bodleian '  Books  or  Laud's  B.C.P.  of  1637,  used 
by  the  Revisers,  is  most  significant,  and  corroborates  the  evidence 
of  the  Preface.  The  mistake,  often  made,  is  due  to  the  failure 
to  distinguish  between  the  temper  of  the  Commission,  which 
made  no  alterations,  and  the  Convocation  which  did  make  con 
cessions  to  the  Puritans.  The  spirit  of  the  latter,  and  not  of 
the  former,  is  to  be  regarded  as  the  motive  of  the  revision  of 
1662. 

The  changes  actually  made  may  be  seen  in  the  following 
list :— 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  267 

Notice  required  some  time  the  day  before. 

Ordinary  to  be  informed  of  any  refusal  to  admit  to  the  Lord's  Table. 

Direction  to  people  to  kneel  at  commencement  of  the  office. 

Enlargement  of  rubric  explaining  the  Kyrie. 

'  The  Priest  standing  as  before,'  for  '  standing  up,'  before  Collect  for  the 

King. 

Creed  '  sung  or  said  '  for  '  said.' 

Notices  put  before  the  Sermon ;   enlarged  list  of  notices,  with  restriction 
of  notice-giving   to   the   Minister,  who  must   announce  only   what  is 
prescribed  in  the  B.C.P.,  or  by  the  King  or  the  Ordinary. 
'  Then  shall  the  Priest  return  to  the  Lord's  Table  and  begin  the  Offertory  ' 

added  ;   '  earnestly  exhort  them  to  remember  the  poor  '  omitted. 
Alms  '  and  other  devotions  '  to  be  gathered  into  '  a  decent  basin  '  which 

must  be  reverently  brought  to  the  Priest '  who  shall  humbly  present 

and  place  it  upon  the  Holy  Table.' 
'  Deacons  '  added  to  Churchwardens,  etc.,  as  Collectors. 
Rubric  to  '  place  upon  the  Table '  the  bread  and  wine,  added. 
'  And  oblations  '  added  to  Prayer  for  Church  Militant;  '  or  oblations  '  to 

indented  rubric. 

Clause  beginning  '  And  we  also  bless  thy  holy  name  '  added. 
Exhortation  of  1552,  to  be  '  sometime '  said  at  the  discretion  of  the 

Curate,  adapted  for  use  as  a  regular  exhortation  for  announcing 

Holy  Communion. 
In  exhortation  to  the  negligent  '  in  the  remembrance  of  the  sacrifice 

of  his  death  '  for  '  in  the  remembrance  of  his  death.' 
In  same  exhortation  paragraph  omitted  expressly  condemning  '  gazers 

and  lookers  on  them  that  do  communicate.' 
Reference  to  confession  '  before  this  congregation  '  omitted. 
Leading  in  the  confession  restricted  to  '  one  of  the  Ministers.' 
'  Pronounce  this  Absolution  '  instead  of  '  says  thus.' 
'  Holy  Father '  to  be  omitted  from  '  It  is  very  meet,  right,'  etc.,  on 

Trinity  Sunday. 
'  As  at  this  time '  for  '  as  this  day '  in  Christmas  Preface,  and  for  '  this 

day  '  in  Whit-Sunday  Preface. 
'Be   sung  or   said'    for   'follow'    in   Rubric  before   'Therefore    with 

Angels,'  etc. 
'  The  Lord's  Table  '  for  '  God's  board  '  in  Rubric  before  Prayer  of  humble 

access. 
'  When  the  Priest,  standing  before  the  Table,  hath  so  ordered  the  Bread 

and  Wine,  that  he  may  with  the  more  readiness  and  decency  break 

the  Bread  before  the  people,  and  take  the  cup  into  his  hands  '  added 

to  Rubric  before  the  '  Prayer  of  Consecration,'   this  name  being 

then  first  given. 
Five  indented  Rubrics  in  Prayer  of  Consecration,  and  '  Amen '  at  close 

of  Prayer,  added. 

Rubric  for  consecrating  additional  bread  and  wine  added. 
Rubric  for  replacing  and  covering  surplus  consecrated  bread  and  wine 

added. 

'  The  mystical  body  of  thy  Son '  for  '  thy  mystical  body  '  in  2nd  Post- 
Communion  Prayer. 
'  One  or  more '  tor  '  one '  in  rubric  directing  use  of  collects  when  there 

is  no  Communion. 
'  Sundays  and  other  Holy-days '  for  '  Holy-days '  in  rubric  directing 

method  of  closing  service  when  no  communion  on  such  days. 
'  Closing  with  the  Blessing,'  added  to  that  rubric. 

'  Convenient  number  '  for  '  good  number,'  in  rubric  forbidding  celebra 
tion  without  sufficient  communicants. 


268  THE   COMMUNION 

Omission  of  '  at  the  table  with  other  meats '  after  '  Bread  be  such  as  is 
usual  to  be  eaten.' 

Curate  to  have  bread  and  wine  remaining,  only  if  unconsocrated,  the 
consecrated  not  to  be  carried  out  of  the  Church,  but  reverently 
eaten  and  drunk  immediately  after  the  Blessing,  by  the  Priest  and 
such  other  of  the  communicants  as  he  shall  then  call  unto  him. 

Omission,  in  the  Rubric  relating  to  provision  of  bread  and  wine,  of  the 
words  :  '  and  the  Parish  shall  be  discharged  of  such  sums  of  money, 
or  other  duties,  which  hitherto  they  have  paid  for  the  same,  by 
order  of  their  houses  every  Sunday.' 

Rubric  added,  concerning  disposal  of  offertory. 

'  Black  Rubric '  re-introduced,  being  the  Royal  Proclamation  of  1552, 
altered  by  the  re-arrangement  of  one  clause,  the  addition  of  the 
word  '  therein '  before  '  given  to  all  worthy  receivers,'  and  the  sub 
stitution  of  '  corporal '  for  '  real  and  essential '  before  '  presence,' 
beside  verbal  changes  of  no  significance  whatever. 

N.B. — The  alteration  of  compulsory  to  suggested  Communion  in  Marriage 
Service. 

•  Of  these  changes  the  following,  amongst  others,  were  directly 
due  to  the  Puritan  objections  at  the  Savoy  Conference  : — 

1.  Notice  required  some  time  the  day  before. 

2.  Leading  in  the  confession  restricted  to  '  one  of  the  ministers.' 

3.  '  As  at  this  time '  for  '  as  this  day.' 

4.  Indented  Rubrics  in  Prayer  of  Consecration,  which  name  is 
practically  that  used  in  the  Puritan  request  :    '  Prayer  at  the 
Consecration.' 

5.  The  Black  Rubric  was  restored  at  their  request,  covering  all 
alterations  with  regard  to  kneeling. 

The  following  are  the  alterations  most  generally  supposed 
to  mark  a  retrograde  movement  : — 

1.  Addition   of    remembrance   of    the    faithful   dead    in    the 

Prayer  for  Church  Militant. 

2.  Alteration,  of  rubrics  regarding  presentation  of  alms,  and 

placing  of  bread  and  wine  on  the  Table. 

3.  '  Remembrance  of  the  Sacrifice  of  his  death '  for  '  remem 

brance  of  his  death.' 

4.  '  Pronounce  this  absolution '  instead  of  '  say  this.' 

5.  Rubric  before  Prayer  of  Consecration,  directing  the  ordering 

of  bread  and  wine. 

6.  '  Prayer  of  Consecration.' 

7.  *  Paten  '  and  '  Chalice.' 

8.  '  Amen  '  at  end  of  Consecration. 

9.  Rubric  commanding  surplus  bread  and  wine  to  be  covered. 

10.  Alteration  in  wording  of  Black  Rubric. 

The  separate  doctrinal  effect  (if  any)  of  these  alterations  will 
be  noted  either  in  the  following  section,  or  in  their  place  in  the 
Exposition.  Their  general  effect,  as  indicative  of  the  tendency 
of  the  last  revision,  can  be  summed  up  in  a  very  few  words  :— 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  269 

1.  The  Preface  disclaims  '  to  the  world  '  any  doctrinal  tendency 

at  all. 

2.  The    known    proposals    containing    a    doctrinal    tendency 

towards  higher  sacramental  doctrine  were  ignored. 

3.  The   alterations   supposed  to   embody  higher  sacramental 

doctrine   were   largely   due   to   Puritan   suggestion. 

4.  Such  alterations   as  the  relaxation   of  the  rule  requiring 

the  Communion  after  matrimony,  and  others  outside  the 
Communion  Service,  pointed  the  other  way.* 
If,  therefore,  it  is  still  held  that  the  1662f  B.C.P.  represents 
a  retrograde  step  doctrinally,  it  is  held  at  the  cost  of  the  honesty 
of  the  Revisers,  the  facts  of  historical  research,  and  the  plain 
meaning  of  the  alterations  themselves,  which  are,  on  this  theory, 
tt>  be  interpreted  by  the  use  of  the  words  '  Paten  '  and  '  Chalice,' 
'  Amen '  at  the  end  of  a  Prayer,  '  Absolution '  in  the  rubric 
preceding  a  prayer  (inserted  in  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer 
in  1552),  thankful  remembrance  of  the  faithful  dead,  as  desired 
by  Bucer,  and  as  safeguarded  from  Prayer  for  the  Dead  by  the 
retention  of  the  Title  '  Church  Militant  here  in  earth,'  and  the 
injunction  to  cover  the  unconsumed  bread  and  wine  after  adminis 
tration.  J 

7.  Interpretative  Principles  of  the  Tractarian  Movement. 

No  changes  have  taken  place  in  the  Communion  Office  since 
1662,  save  the  necessary  alterations  of  royal  names.  Such 
doctrinal  variations,  however,  as  the  use  of  the  word  '  altar ' 
in  Coronation  Services,  and  the  introduction  of  prayer  for  the 
dead  into  occasional  special  offices,  illustrate  the  new  method 
of  affecting  the  doctrinal  standards  of  the  Church  of  England, 
viz.  by  the  imposition  of  a  new  meaning  upon  her  unaltered 
formularies.  This  new  method  is  due  to  a  school  of  thought 
originating  in  the  '  Tracts  for  the  Times,'  and  well  known  as 
'  The  Oxford  Movement.'  In  spite  of  the  Prefaces  to  the  B.C. P., 
and  to  the  Articles,  claiming  that  '  any  man  '  can  understand 
all  changes  ;  that  all  ceremonies  '  are  set  forth  that  every  man 
may  understand  what  they  do  mean,  and  to  what  use  they  do 
serve,  so  that  it  is  not  like  that  they  in  time  to  come  should 
be  abused '  ;  and  that  '  no  man  hereafter  shall  either  print, 

*  The  regulation  for  consecrating  more  bread  or  wine  separately  is 
definitely  opposed  to  Roman  directions :  Canon  Estcourt,  (R.C.),  terms 
it  the  revival  of  '  the  sacrilegious  rubric  of  1548,'  because  it  allows  a  second 
consecration  in  one  kind,  destructive  of  any  sacrificial  idea  in  consecration. 

•)•  Convocation  completed  its  work  on  December  20,  1661,  but  the  revised 
book  only  became  law  on  May  19,  1662. 

J  The  inclusion  of  the  words  '  the  sacrifice  of '  (No.  3  in  list)  suggests 
no  alteration  of  doctrine. 


2jo  THE   COMMUNION 

or  preach,  to  draw  the  Article  aside  any  way,  but  shall  submit 
to  it  in  the  plain  and  full  meaning  thereof,  and  .  .  .  shall  take 
it  in  the  literal  and  grammatical  sense,'  yet  a  microscopical 
search  has  been  made  by  the  new  school  for  words  and  phrases, 
rubrical  and  devotional,  which  may  serve  to  establish  an  inter 
pretation  of  the  B.C.P.  unknown  to  its  authors,  and  to  three 
centuries  of  Christian  life  and  thought. 

Though  no  part  of  the  B.C.P.  has  been  neglected  in  this  search, 
those  parts  which  deal  with  the  doctrine  of  the  Lord's  Supper 
have  naturally  been  most  in  the  minds  of  those  whose  position 
depends  upon  the  mediaeval  ideas  of  a  Corporal  Presence  and 
priestly  Sacrifice. 

To  assist  the  student  by  gathering  into  one  place  the  items 
chiefly  relied  upon  by  the  new  school,  they  are  here  submitted 
to  brief  discussion.  Two  of  these  may  be  dealt  with  summarily. 
(1)  The  '  Ornaments  Rubric'  has  been  dealt  with  in  its  place 
on  pp.  76  ff.  ;  here  it  needs  only  to  repeat  that  according  to 
some  modern  interpretations,  it  teaches  doctrine  as  well  as  ritual, 
the  assumption  being  that  the  '  ornaments '  prescribed  therein 
carry  with  them  the  doctrines  connoted  by  their  use.  (2)  The 
retention  of  such  words  as  '  Mass,'  '  Canon,'  and  '  Altar,'  in 
1549,  are  often  used  as  a  justification  for  their  re-introduction  ; 
it  would  seem,  however,  that  the  use  of  such  words  in  1549, 
with  their  subsequent  rejection,  tells  in  precisely  the  opposite 
direction. 

In  regard  to  the  other  items,  consisting  of  minute  details  of 
phraseology  in  the  present  B.C.P.,  it  is  necessary  to  remark  that 
they  must  be  interpreted  not  by  their  possible  meaning  in  another 
connexion,  or  in  no  connexion  at  all,  but  by  their  relation  to 
their  context,  to  any  alterations  in  that  context  which  have 
taken  place,  and  to  the  professed  interpretation  of  them  by 
those  who  introduced  them.  It  is  justifiable  to  scrutinize  with 
care  a  method  of  interpretation  which  depends  upon  minute 
and  scattered  phrases  :  which  demands  their  consideration  in 
isolation  from  their  surroundings  and  history  :  which  claims 
an  equivocal  passage  as  necessarily  supporting  only  one  of  two 
possible  views  :  which,  finally,  supersedes  the  general  witness 
of  the  whole  B.C.P.  and  its  history. 

(1)  In  the  First  Exhortation  in  the  Communion  Office  : — '  God  hath 
given  His  Son,  our  Saviour  Jesus  Christ  ...  to  be  our  spiritual 
food  and  sustenance  in  that  holy  Sacrament.  Which,  being  so 
divine  and  comfortable  a  thing  to  them  who  receive  it  worthily, 
and  so  dangerous  to  them  that  presume  to  receive  it  unworthily,' 
etc. 

It  is  contended  that,  '  holy  sacrament '  being  the  antecedent 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  271 

to  '  which,'  and  Jesus  Christ  being  '  in  that  holy  sacrament,' 
and  '  it '  being  capable  of  unworthy  reception,  Jesus  Christ  is 
present  independently  of  the  worthiness  of  the  recipient.  If  it 
should  be  replied  that  '  sacrament '  means  only  the  externals, 
the  bread  and  wine,  then,  it  is  argued,  Christ  must  be  in  the 
bread  and  wine.  It  is  claimed  that  whichever  meaning  of  Sacra' 
ment  be  chosen,  a  Real  Objective  Presence  is  taught  by  these 
words. 

The  answer  is  : — 

(a)  Apart  from  any  flaw  in  the  argument,  the  explicit  state 
ment  of  the  title  of  Article  XXIX  :  '  Of  the  wicked  which  eat 
not  the  Body  of  Christ  in  the  use  of  the  Lord's  Supper '  :  must 
govern  the  interpretation  of  this  hortative  language,  and  not 
vice  versa. 

(&)  The  Exhortation  states  that  God  has  given  His  Son,  not  to 
be  in  that  holy  Sacrament,  but  to  be  our  spiritual  food  therein. 
It  is  for  us  by  worthy  reception  of  the  Sacrament,  to  accept  or 
reject  God's  gift  of  His  Son. 

(c)  The  two-fold  use  of  the  word  '  Sacrament,'  first  as  both 
outward  and  inward,  then  as  outward  only,  is  too  common  to 
justify  any  deduction  from  such  double  use  here. 

(2)  1st  and  3rd  Exhortations,  etc.  :    '  Mystery,  mysteries.' 

The  suggestion  is  that  such  a  term  could  not  be  applied  to 
the  bread  and  wine,  without  there  being  some  change  in  them 
deserving  such  a  title,  and  though  the  whole  rite  may  be  intended 
elsewhere,  the  plain  meaning  of  the  words  in  the  second  Post- 
Communion  Collect  :  '  duly  received  these  holy  mysteries '  : 
forbids  its  application  to  aught  but  the  consecrated  elements. 

The  point  of  this  argument  turns  on  the  meaning  of  the  word 
'  mystery,'  the  signification  of  which  had  originally  nothing  to 
do  with  '  mystification,'  the  literal  translation  of  the  Greek 
word  being  '  secret,'  either  from  Greek  /xrw,  '  shut,'  or  Heb. 
mislar,  '  secret  place.'  It  is,  therefore,  only  properly  applicable 
to  bread  and  wine  as  such,  and  not  at  all  to  bread  and  wine 
which  have  ceased  to  be  figurative  ;  as  Bertram  says  :  '  If  there 
be  no  figure  in  that  mystery,  it  is  not  properly  called  a  mystery.' 
St.  Paul  uses  the  word  many  times,  of  the  Gospel,  of  faith,  etc., 
where  the  application  of  the  modern  meaning  of  the  word  makes 
either  a  wrong  sense  or  no  sense  at  all.  The  literal  application 
of  the  four  words  '  This  is  my  body  '  to  bread  destroys  its  '  mys 
tery,'  as  a  secret  :  cf.  Art.  XXVIII,  '  overthroweth  the  nature 
of  a  Sacrament,'  i.e.  confounds  the  figure  with  that  which  is 
figured,  so  that  there  is  no  '  mystery  ' — no  '  secret ' — left. 

(3)  Prayer  of  Humble  Access  :  '  Grant  Ud  ...  so  to  eat  the 
flesh  .  .  .  and  to  drink  his  blood,  that  our  sinful  bodies  may 


272  THE   COMMUNION 

be  made  clean  by  his  body,'  etc.  The  inference  is  that  it  is 
possible  so  to  partake  of  Christ's  flesh  and  blood  as  not  to  be 
made  clean,  etc.,  i.e.  that  the  wicked  can  partake  of  that  flesh 
and  blood,  which  are  therefore  not  dependent  upon  the  faith 
of  the  recipient. 

Here  is  to  be  observed  a  curious  ignorance  of  the  English 
idiom  of  the  B.C.P.  The  word  '  so  '  may  be  used  before  '  that ' 
to  signify  '  in  such  a  manner '  or  '  with  such  a  result.'  To-day 
the  separation  of  '  so  '  from  '  that '  implies  the  meaning  '  in 
such  a  manner,'  three  centuries  ago  it  did  not  :  cf.  '  so  assist 
us  with  thy  grace,  that  we  may  continue  in  that  holy  fellowship.' 
This  does  not  leave  any  room  for  God's  so  assisting  us  with  His 
grace  that  we  may  not  continue  in  that  holy  fellowship.* 

(4)  The  Words  of  Administration.  The  argument  is  that  the 
former  part  of  the  words  declare  the  bread  and  wine  then  given 
to  be  the  Lord's  Body  and  Blood,  and  that  the  '  this '  of  the 
second  clauses  refers  to  the  '  Body '  and  '  Blood '  of  the  preceding 
clauses.  The  history  of  the  words  is  sufficient  answer  to  all 
argument  ;  the  first  sentence  of  1549  is  an  old  form  with  the 
significant  addition  of  '  which  was  given  (icas  shed)  for  thce '  ; 
the  second,  in  1552,  took  the  place  of  the  first  to  silence  misinter 
pretation  ;  the  two  were  combined  in  1559,  in  order  to  preserve 
the  ancient  form  and  yet  safeguard  it  from  misuse.  The  '  this,' 
of  the  1552  clauses,  could  only  mean  the  elements  then  given 
to  the  recipient ;  this  is  all  it  means  now. 

(5)  The  First  Post-Communion  Collect  :  '  this  our  sacrifice  of 
praise  and  thanksgiving.'  '  This,'  it  is  said,  refers  to  the  Com 
munion  just  administered,  which  is  called  a  sacrifice.  To  most 
readers  of  the  Bible,  however,  the  form  of  the  words  is  enough 
to  solve  all  doubts,  '  sacrifice  of  praise  '  being  the  very  language 
of  Heb.  xiii.  15,  and  '  thanksgiving '  being  the  summary  of  the 
latter  part  of  that  verse,  which  cautiously  explains  the  ambiguous 
word  '  sacrifice ' — '  that  is  the  fruit  of  our  lips  giving  thanks  to 
His  Name.'  Thus  is  precluded  any  meaning  in  the  phrase  save 
'  sacrifice  which  consists  of  praise  and  thanksgiving.'  f  But 
historically  the  words  '  sacrifice  of  praise '  had  been  used  in  a 
sense  which  took  '  sacrifice '  literally  and  not  figuratively,  the 
words  '  of  praise '  being  descriptive,  and  not  a  definition  of  the 
thing  offered  in  sacrifice.  It  is  therefore  to  be  granted  that 
the  phrase  alone  is  ambiguous,  but  the  following  facts  will  remove 

*  Several  other  examples  from  B.C.P.  may  be  found  in  Dimock,  Eucharis- 
tic  Presence,  p.  438. 

•j-  It  has  been  suggested  that  the  word  '  this '  may  refer  here,  not  to  the 
praise  and  thanksgiving  of  the  rite  as  a  whole,  but  to  the  sacrifice  mentioned 
in  the  remainder  of  the  prayer. 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  273 

the  ambiguity.  In  1549  the  same  words  formed  part  of  the 
long  Consecration  Prayer,  where,  immediately  after  Consecra 
tion,  came  :  '  Wherefore  ...  we  ...  do  celebrate  and  make 
here  before  thy  divine  Majesty,  with  these  thy  holy  gifts,  the 
memorial  which  thy  Son  hath  willed  us  to  make  .  .  .  entirely 
desiring  thy  fatherly  goodness  mercifully  to  accept  this  our 
sacrifice  of  praise  and  thanksgiving.'  The  following  words  of 
Cranmer  show  what  he  meant  by  the  phrase  :  '  His  (Christ's) 
Sacrifice  .  .  .  was  the  taking  away  the  Sins  of  the  world  ;  ours 
is  a  praising  and  thanking  for  the  same  .  .  .  this  is  the  priest's 
and  people's  sacrifice.'  However,  '  mis-taking '  compelled  the 
re-arrangement  of  the  whole  service  in  1552  ;  these  words  were 
taken  from  before  administration,  and  placed  after  it,  where 
their  application  to  the  completed  rite  is  unmistakable  ;  the 
words  about  making  a  memorial  before  God  were  omitted  as 
unscriptural  ;  and  the  newly-made  Post-Communion  Collect 
became  an  alternative  to  the  already  existing  one,  so  that  the 
phrase  was  deprived  of  any  important  doctrinal  teaching  by 
its  use  being  not  obligatory.* 

The  expressed  desire  to  make  this  prayer  obligatory  in  any 
new  revision  is  evidence  that  those  who  would  press  the  literal 
sacrificial  meaning,  recognize  the  hopelessness  of  so  doing  with 
the  B.C.P.  as  it  stands. f 

(6)  The  '  Black  Rubric.'  Nothing  is  more  confidently  affirmed 
than  that  the  alteration  of  the  original  wording  of  this  note  in 
1552  on  its  reintroduction  in  1662,  has  restored  the  doctrine  of 
the  Eeal  Presence  to  the  Church  of  England,  for  the  original 
had  '  Real  and  Essential '  where  the  revisers  put  '  Corporal,' 
thereby  implicitly  allowing  the  Real  Presence  of  Christ's  natural 
Flesh  and  Blood. 

The  answer  is  plain  : — 

(a)  The  '  Rubric '  was  reintroduced  at  the  request  of  the 
Puritans,  to  explain  that  kneeling  at  reception  should  not  be 
misconstrued  into  adoration  J  of  any  Presence  in  the  Elements. 

(&)  It  expressly  states  this  to  be  the  purpose  of  its  reintro- 

*  That  the  '  this '  was  not  meant  to  refer  to  any  of  the  bread  and  wine 
left  after  distribution,  is  proved  by  the  words  of  Bishop  Cosin,  pointing 
out  that  if,  as  the  Scottish  Book  of  1637  directs,  proper  care  is  used  in 
consecrating,  it  is  easy  to  avoid  having  any  consecrated  bread  left. 

t  For  the  attempts  to  use  the  Greek  of  the  words  '  Do  this  '  and  '  Remem 
brance  '  to  establish  the  idea  of  literal  sacrifice  see  pp.  216,7  above.  The 
direction  to  the  Celebrant  to  use  the  Roman  Missal  in  his  private  prayers 
immediately  after  the  B.C.P.  form  of  Consecration,  so  as  to  intrude  the 
sacrificial  idea,  is,  apart  from  its  questionableness  on  moral  grounds,  a 
confession  of  the  non-sacrificial  form  of  our  Liturgy. 

J   For  the  practice  of  Adoration,  see  p.  366. 

T 


274  THE    COMMUNION 

duction  :  '  lest  the  same  kneeling  should  .  .  .  out  of  ignorance 
and  infirmity,  or  out  of  malice  and  obstinacy,  be  misconstrued 
and  depraved.' 

(c)  It  declares  kneeling  to  be  for  the  spiritual  reason  of  humble 
and  grateful  acknowledgment  of  the  benefits  of  Christ  therein 
given  to  all  worthy  Receivers,  and  for  the  practical  reason  of 
avoiding  possible  profanation  and  disorder. 

(d)  It  forbids  adoration  of  either  '  the  sacramental  Bread  or 
Wine  there  bodily  received,'  or  '  any  Corporal  Presence  of  Christ's 
natural  flesh  and  blood,'  exchanging  the  ambiguous  words,  '  real 
and   essential,'    for  the   unequivocal   word   '  corporal.'     '  Eeal,' 
etymologically   derived   from  res,  '  the  thing,'    and   '  essential,' 
etymologically  derived  from  esse,  '  being,'  had  come  to  mean, 
since  Cranmer's  time,  what  they  now  mean.     Every  Christian 
believes  in  the  '  reality '  of  Christ's  Presence  to  all  worthy  re 
ceivers  at  Holy  Communion  in  that  later  sense  ;    what  Cranmer 
meant  by  '  Real  Presence '  is  just  what  advocates  of  a  Real 
Presence  in  the  elements  mean  by  it  to-day,  and  is  excluded 
by  the  word  '  Corporal.' 

(e\  It  gives  as  the  reason  for  forbidding  adoration,  that  '  the 
sacramental  bread  and  wine  remain  still  in  their  very  natural 
substances,'  so  that  to  adore  them  is  to  be  abhorred  as  idolatry  ; 
that  the  natural  Body  and  Blood  of  Christ  are  in  Heaven  and 
not  here  ;  and  that  it  destroys  the  truth  of  His  Natural  Body 
to  imagine  it  to  be  in  more  places  than  one.  In  any  sense,  there 
fore,  in  which  Christ's  Body  can  be  the  Body  which  was  given 
for  us,  it  is  never  on  earth,  according  to  this  Rubric,  so  that 
any  kind  of  Real  Presence  (in  the  old  sense  of  the  word  '  real ' ) 
is  expressly  denied. 

(/)  To  fancy  some  Presence  of  a  '  Spiritual  Body '  as  taught 
or  even  justified  by  the  omission  of  the  words  '  Real  Presence ' 
(nowhere  to  be  found  in  B.C.P.)  is  to  attribute  to  the  Revisers 
something  of  which  they  are  known  to  have  been  innocent ; 
the  Bishops'  reply  at  the  Savoy  Conference  was  :  '  The  posture 
of  kneeling  best  suits  at  the  Communion,  as  the  most  convenient, 
and  so  most  decent  for  us,  when  we  are  to  receive,  as  it  were 
from  God's  hand,  the  greatest  of  seals  of  the  Kingdom  of  heaven.' 
Convocation,  more  desirous  of  placating  the  Puritans,  certainly 
did  not  mean  more  than  the  Bishops  at  the  Conference,  unless 
their  honesty  is  to  be  impugned. 

(g)  What  Presence  is  possible,  which  leaves  the  Sacramental 
bread  and  wine  still  in  their  very  natural  substance,  and  leaves 
Christ's  Body,  given  for  us,  in  Heaven  ?  Attempts  have  been 
made  to  avoid  this  dilemma  by  boldly  claiming  that  the  '  rubric  ' 
is  not  binding — a  suggestive  cutting  of  the  Gordian  knot — and 


HISTORICAL    INTRODUCTION  275 

by  claiming  that  the  '  rubric '  excludes  a  carnal,  physical,  Pre 
sence,  but  not  a  '  Spiritual  Presence,'  this  last  trading  on  an 
ambiguity  in  the  use  of  the  word  '  Spiritual.'  St.  Paul  uses  the 
word  (1  Cor.  xv.)  as  meaning  '  belonging  to  the  spirit,'  contrast 
ing  the  '  spiritual  body '  with  that  '  belonging  to  the  soul '  (A.V. 
'  natural  body  ').  In  that  sense  the  Lord's  body  is  now  a  '  spiri 
tual  body,'  and  is  '  in  heaven,  and  not  here.'  Upholders  of  a 
Real  Presence  in,  with,  or  under  the  forms  of  bread  and  wine, 
intend  to  convey  by  '  Spiritual  Presence,'  the  Presence  of  some 
imaginary  '  body '  made  of  '  spirit,'  a  meaningless  self-contra 
dictory  suggestion,  which  cannot  bear  for  one  moment  the 
investigation  of  the  word  '  spiritual.'  The  true  spiritual  Presence 
of  Christ  is  His  Presence  by  His  Spirit,  to  our  spirits,  and  no 
other  Presence  is  thinkable  without  violence  to  the  truth  of  His 
Incarnation  and  perfect  manhood. 

(7)  The  First  Book  of  Homilies,*  notice  at  its  close  :  '  Hereafter 
shall  follow  sermons  ...  of  the  due  receiving  of  His  blessed 
Body  and  Blood,  under  the  form  of  bread  and  wine.'  The  first 
160  pages  of  Pusey's  work,  The  Real  Presence  the  Doctrine  of  the 
English  Church,  are  devoted  to  this.f 

The  following  considerations  will  show  the  futility  of  any 
arguments  based  upon  the  words  of  this  notice  : — • 

(a)  This  argument  for  building  a  doctrine  upon  a  notice  pro 
ceeds  from  those  who  reject  the  binding  authority  of  the  titles 
of  the  Articles  ;  see  below,  p.  277. 

(&)  The  notice  was  issued  in  July,  1547,  when,  as  Pusey  ad 
mitted,  Cranmer's  belief  as  to  the  Real  Presence  was  not  what 
it  was  afterwards  ;  when  not  even  the  Order  of  Communion 
had  been  issued  ;  and  when  it  was  penal  to  doubt  Transubstantia- 
tion,  the  Six  Articles  Act  being  still  unrepealed  until  December 
24.  One  of  the  Homilies  was  from  the  pen  of  Bonner. 

(c)  When  the  Second  Book  of  Homilies  appeared,  in  Elizabeth's 
reign,  the  title  of  this  Homily  was  changed,  though  most  of  the 
others  retained  the  titles  given  in  the  notice  appended  to  the 
First  Book. 

(d)  The  Article  authorizing  the  Homilies  mentions  the  titles 
of  the  Second  Book,  sanctioning  thereby  not  the  1547  title  of 
the  promised  Homily,  but '  Of  the  worthy  receiving  of  the  Sacra 
ment  of  the  Body  and  Blood  of  Christ.' 

(e)  Cranmer  replied  to  Gardiner's  claim  that  in  the  1549  B.C.P. 
'  it  is  there  said,  the  body  and  blood  of  Christ  to  be  under  the 

*  This  and  the  three  following  passages  are  not  in  the  Communion  Office 
itself,  but  so  immediately  bear  upon  it,  as  to  demand  treatment  in  this 
place. 

|  See  Goode,  On  the  Eucharist,  Supplement,  pp.  20-22. 


276  THE   COMMUNION 

form  of  bread  and  wine ' : — •'  When  you  shall  show  the  place 
where  this  form  of  words  is  expressed,  then  shall  you  purge 
yourself  of  that,  which  in  the  meantime  I  take  to  be  a  plain 
untruth.'  * 

(/)  The  teaching  of  the  Homily,  as  is  well  known,  directly 
opposes  the  doctrinal  accompaniments  of  the  Real  Presence. 

(8)  The  Catechism  :    '  Q.  What  is  the  inward  part,  or  thing 
signified  ?      A.  The  Body  and  Blood  of  Christ,  which  are  verily 
and  indeed  taken  and  received  by  the  faithful  in  the  Lord's 
Supper.' 

The  argument  for  the  teaching  of  a  Real  Objective  Presence 
in  this  passage  is  largely  dependent  upon  an  exploded  idea  of 
the  opinions  of  Overall,  the  Author  of  this  part  of  the  Catechism,f 
whose  opinions,  moreover,  orthodox  or  unorthodox,  could  in 
no  case  bind  the  Catechism,  which  was,  as  Wheatley  says, '  allowed 
by  the  bishops '  at  the  Hampton  Court  Conference,  including 
Whitgift.  It  was  made  to  meet  the  view  of  the  Puritans  of 
1604,  and  definitely  approved  by  the  Puritans  of  1661  at  the 
Savoy  Conference. 

To  put  the  matter  briefly,  the  language  is  scriptural,  both  in 
what  it  includes,  and  in  what  it  excludes.  Christ  is  received 
'  by  the  faithful '  in  the  Lord's  Supper  ;  such  oneness  with  Christ, 
in  His  own  ordinance,  on  the  part  of  those  who  are  His  own,  is 
not  denied  ;  in  fact,  it  is  greatly  due  to  a  belittling  of  the  sacra 
mental  belief  of  the  reformed  churches,  by  those  who  seek  to 
establish  a  doctrine  of  a  Corporal  Presence  of  some  kind,  that 
any  idea  has  arisen  that  there  is  anything  in  these  words  needing 
explanation  by  those  who  reject  that  Corporal  Presence.  Christ 
is  not  received  by  the  faithless,  nor  by  the  faithful  in  virtue  of 
the  physical  reception  of  bread  and  wine — except,  of  course,  that 
that  reception  is  part  of  the  obedience  of  faith.  J 

The  attempt  has  been  made  to  interpret  '  faithful '  as  here 
used  in  a  loose  theological  sense,  somewhat  resembling  '  Chris 
tian,'  as  applied  to  a  country.  This  interpretation,  however, 
is  expressly  excluded  elsewhere.  Cf.  Art.  XXVIII,  XXIX. 

(9)  Article  XXIX.     '  Of  the  wicked  which  eat  not,'  etc.     Here 
has  to  be  met  an  attempt  to  explain  away  a  serious  indictment 
against  any '  Presence  '  (independent  of  the  faith  of  the  recipient), 

*  Dimock,  Eucharistic  Presence,  pp.  230  ff.,  shows  by  quotations  that 
the  Real  Objective  Presence  is  not  necessarily  taught  by  the  words  in 
question,  even  were  they  authoritative. 

|  Dimock,  Each.  Pr.,  pp.  295  ff. 

j  The  Irish  B.C. P.  has  added  a  Q.  and  A.  to  the  Catechism  here, 
explaining  the  reception  to  be  after  a  heavenly  and  spiritual  manner,  by 
faith,  using  the  actual  language  of  the  second  paragraph  of  Art.  XXVIII. 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  277 

rather  than  to  enlist  language  on  behalf  of  that  position.  The 
argument  is  that  in  correct  theological  language  '  partakers  of 
Christ '  does  not  mean  what  it  appears  to  mean,  but  '  partakers 
of  the  benefits  of  Christ's  Presence,'  which  benefits  of  course  the 
wicked  do  not  enjoy. 

It  is,  perhaps,  useless  to  urge  that  the  Royal  Declaration 
prefixed  to  the  Articles  speaks  of  '  the  plain  and  full  meaning,' 
and  '  the  literal  and  grammatical  sense,'  but  the  complete  absence 
of  any  such  '  theological '  sense  of  '  partakers  of  Christ,'  in  any 
writings  of  the  Reformers  in  the  period  when  the  Articles  were 
drawn  up,  demands  an  answer.  The  '  theological '  sense  appears 
in  the  pleadings  of  those  who,  both  in  Cranmer's  time  and  now, 
are  called  upon  to  reconcile  their  belief  that  the  wicked  can  partake 
of  Christ  with  the  plain  statements  of  Holy  Scripture  attaching 
everlasting  life  to  any  feeding  on  Christ.  Bradford  and  Jewel 
both  had  to  meet  this  imaginary  distinction  between  real  receiving 
and  effectual  receiving  of  Christ. 

The  refusal  to  regard  the  title  as  authoritative  has  been  already 
alluded  to  above  (p.  275),  in  connexion  with  the  argument  drawn 
from  the  notice  closing  the  First  Book  of  Homilies,  of  1547.  But, 
whether  authoritative  or  not,  this  title  was  set  in  its  place  by 
those  who  passed  the  Article,  and  is  therefore  authoritatively 
interpretative  of  the  meaning  of  the  Article  in  the  eyes  of  those 
who  thus  passed  it. 

Again,  this  Article  was  kept  out  of  the  printed  copies,  though 
it  passed  Convocation  in  1562,  because  it  too  plainly  shut  out 
all  believers  in  a  Real  Corporal  Presence,  including  Lutherans. 
Why  should  this  have  been,  if  in  the  theological  language  of  the 
time  it  did  no  such  thing  ?  Bradford  was  put  to  death  for  '  the 
denial  of  wicked  men  to  receive  the  Lord's  Body  '  ;  other  Re 
formers  used  the  same  language.  Rogers'  Exposition  of  the 
Articles,  1585, '  perused  and  by  the  lawful  authority  of  the  Church 
of  England,  allowed  to  be  public,'  speaks  of  the  '  ubiquitaries, 
both  Lutheran  and  Popish  .  .  .  saying  the  very  body  of  Christ, 
at  the  Lord's  Supper,  is  eaten  as  well  of  the  wicked  as  of  the  godly,' 
as  '  adversaries  of  this  doctrine,'  i.e.  that  of  the  Article.  To  the 
indefensible  argument,  that  the  Article  cannot  mean  what  it 
says  because  certain  bishops  responsible  for  it  were  opposed, 
viz.,  Parker,  Cheney  and  Geste,  see  the  full  answer  in  Dimock, 
Euchar.  Pres.,  pp.  629  ft.  Archbishop  Parker  visited  Cheney 
with  ecclesiastical  penalties  for  his  Lutheran  tendencies  ;  Geste's 
and  Cheney's  opposition  proves  the  Article  to  mean  what  it 
says.  In  the  same  place  will  be  found  full  reply  to  the  further 
allegation  that  as  Augustine  is  mentioned  in  the  Article,  and 
he  believed  the  wicked  to  take  Christ's  body  (?),  therefore  the 


278  THE   COMMUNION 

Article  cannot  mean  what  it  says  ; — as  though  the  teaching  of 
the  English  Church  depended  upon  either  the  doctrine  of  St. 
Augustine,  or  the  authenticity  of  certain  words  quoted  from 
him,  instead  of  upon  the  obvious  purpose  and  meaning  of  their 
quotation  by  the  framers  of  the  Article. 

(10)  Article  XXXI,  '  the  sacrifices  of  Masses.'  Again  the  diffi 
culty  created  is  an  argument  not  so  much  to  establish  any  dogma, 
as  to  get  rid  of  the  plain  force  of  language  subversive  of  a  dogma. 

It  is  asserted  : — 

(a)  That  the  phrase  '  the  sacrifices  of  Masses '  is  not  '  the 
sacrifice  of  the  Mass.' 

To  this  contention,  not  generally  held  now,  it  is  enough  to 
reply  that  the  plural  term  is  used  as  equivalent  to  the  singular 
in  many  authoritative  documents.* 

(6)  That  the  words  '  commonly  said '  could  not  be  used  of 
an  authoritative  doctrine,  so  the  Article  must  be  directed  against 
some  popular  misconception,  and  not  against  the  Roman  doctrine 
of  Mass-Sacrifice. 

But  there  was  no  authoritative  doctrine  of  the  Mass-Sacrifice 
in  1553  when  the  Article  was  written,  so  that  the  framers  of  the 
Article  could  only  say  '  commonly  said.'  The  Missal  itself  con 
tains  no  verbal  oblation  of  Christ,  as  the  Reformers  often  pointed 
out  in  appealing  to  the  Missal  against  the  Roman  Mass. 

(c)  That  the  rejected  doctrine  is  one  inconsistent  with  the 
one  offering  of  Christ  once  made,  with  which  the  Roman  Mass 
claims  not  to  he  inconsistent. 

But  the  Reformers  thought  and  taught  that  the  Roman  Mass 
is  inconsistent  with,  and  derogates  from,  the  completeness  of 
the  finished  work  of  Christ,  disputing  the  Roman  claims. 

(d)  That  the  strong  language  used,  '  blasphemous  fables  and 
dangerous   deceits,'     must    point   to   something    more    grossly 
corrupt  than  Mass-Sacrifice. 

But  the  Reformers  believed  that  nothing  could  be  more  gross 
than  to  put  a  limitation  to  the  redemption  wrought  once  for  all 
on  the  Cross,  and  believed  that  limitation  essentially  to  attach 
to  the  received  Roman  teaching  of  Mass-Sacrifice. 

(e)  That  the  special  error  denounced  in  the    Article  is  that 
Christ's  Death  took  away  original  sin,  the  Mass  being  used  for 
actual  sins  of  baptized  Christians — a  dogma  taught  by  some  emi 
nent  Romans,   and   credited  to   Roman   Catholicism   generally 
by  the  Lutherans,  but  repudiated  authoritatively. 

But  the  language  in  which  Rome  repudiates  this  special  error 
emphatically  teaches  for  truth  the  very  thing  condemned  in 
the  Article,  namely  that  the  Mass  does  benefit  the  quick  and 

*  See  Diinock.  Dagger , its  Deceit),  p.  10,  and  Appendix,  Note  A. 


HISTORICAL    INTRODUCTION  279 

the  dead,  oy  the  offering  of  Christ  therein.*  Rome  has  never 
repudiated  the  language  attributed  to  the  doctrine  of  the  Mass 
in  that  Article  ;  nor  were  the  Martyrs  put  to  death  for  disbelieving 
what  Rome  herself  repudiated.  The  Homily  clearly  teaches 
what  the  Reformers  believed  and  what  they  disbelieved :  '  Christ 
commanded  to  His  Church  a  Sacrament  of  His  Body,  and  Blood  : 
they  have  changed  it  into  a  sacrifice  for  the  quick  and  the  dead.' 

It  is  worth  noting,  in  conclusion,  that  when,  in  1562,  the 
Council  of  Trent  anathematised  those  who  said  that  the  Mass- 
Sacrifice  was  '  blasphemous '  as  detracting  from  the  sacrifice  of 
Christ  on  the  Cross,  in  the  revision  of  the  Articles  which  took 
place  immediately  afterwards,  the  Reformers  added  '  blasphe 
mous  '  to  the  word  '  fables  '  in  the  Latin  copy,  the  English 
version  being  similarly  altered  in  1571,  '  forged  fables  '  (fiymenta) 
becoming  'blasphemous  fables'  (UaspJiema  figmcnta). 
Omission  and  Prohibition. 

Against  such  unsuccessful  efforts  to  read  into  the  B.C.P.  a 
doctrine  already  acquired  outside  it,  must  be  set  the  designed  ex 
cision  therein  of  both  the  idea  of  a  Presence  of  Christ  in  the 
elements,  and  also  that  of  a  sacrifice  of  any  kind  save  the  scrip 
tural  ones  of  thanksgiving,  self-sacrifice,  and  self-surrender.  The 
effect  of  the  contrast  is  felt  even  by  those  who  persevere  in 
grafting  upon  the  Church  of  England  the  doctrines  rejected 
by  her,  and  justification  is  now  sought  in  the  new-fangled  principle 
that  omission  is  not  prohibition,  i.e.  that  unless  a  doctrine  is 
expressly  repudiated,  no  amount  of  evidence  of  its  removal  from 
the  B.C.P.  will  avail  to  prove  it  to  be  inconsistent  with  loyalty 
to  the  Church  of  England.  A  telling  illustration  of  the  effects 
of  such  a  principle  is  to  be  seen  in  the  following  commentary 
upon  the  Prayer  of  Consecration,  successively  altered  in  1549 
and  1552  to  get  rid  of  the  Corporal  Presence  and  Mass-Sacrifice. 

'  The  Prayer  (of  Consecration)  avoids  at  this  point  any  express 
mention  of  the  consecration  of  the  creatures  of  bread  and  wine, 
and  of  the  work  of  the  Holy  Spirit  in  consecration  :  it  is  carefully 
worded  so  as  not  to  express  any  special  theory  of  consecration 
while  consecrating  the  sacrament  :  the  prayer  has  already  been 
offered  that  we  may  duly  eat  the  flesh  of  Christ  and  drink  his 
blood,  and  it  is  enough  now  to  pray  that  we,  receiving  those 
creatures  of  God,  may  partake  of  that  Body  and  Blood,  truly  and 
really,  in  a  sacramental  manner,  according  to  the  full  meaning 
of  Christ's  Ordinance,  whatsoever  that  may  be,  without  specifying 
the  hidden  way  in  which  the  earthly  elements  are  made  conductors 
of  the  heavenly  grace.'  f 

*  Dimock,  ibid.  pp.  27-30. 

t  Frere,  in  Procter  &  Frere,  last  Edition,  p.  492. 


28o  THE  COMMUNION 

Note  :— 

(1)  'At  this  point.'     There  is  no  mention,  save  in  the  1662 
Title,  of  any  consecration  at  any  point,  and  '  the  work  of  the 
Holy  Spirit  in  consecration,'  is  not  only  wanting  at  any  '  point,' 
but  has  been  expunged  from  this  point  since  1552,  the  work  of 
the  Holy  Spirit  being  to  consecrate  us,  not  the  bread  and  wine — we 
consecrate  the  elements  in  the  secondary  sense  of  setting  them 
apart  for  sacred  use. 

(2)  Express  mention.'     The  phrase  suggests  that  somewhere 
there  is    wnexpressed  mention  '  at  this   point '  ;    but  where  ? 
'  Avoided  '  is  hardly  a  fair  equivalent  for  '  excised "  (see  p.  336). 

(3)  '  Any  special  theory ' — implies  that  any  theory  may  be 
held,  including  Transubstantiation  ;   the  omission  of  the  words 
'  that  they  may  be  to  us  the  Body,'  etc.,  in  1549,  is,  then,  to  be 
reckoned   as   of  no   doctrinal  importance.     Hence   the   prayer 
excludes,  and  does  not  merely  fail  to  include  '  any  special  theory 
of  consecration.' 

(4)  'Consecrating  the   Sacrament.'     The   word   'sacrament' 
is  used  for  the  bread  and  wine  alone,  i.e.  not  including  the  whole 
of  the  outward  part  (e.g.  the  breaking  and  the  reception),  and 
excluding  all  the  inward  part  of  the  Sacrament.     This  use  of 
the  word  allows  the  suggestion  that  both  the  outward  and  inward 
are  in  the  bread  and  wine,  antecedently  to  and  apart  from  faithful 
reception.* 

(5)  '  Those  creatures  of  God.'     This  variation  of  the  B.C.P. 
words,  '  these  thy  creatures  of  bread  and  wine,'  is  capable  of 
a  meaning  foreign  to  the  Prayer-Book  words,  which  expressly 
exclude  any  idea  of  any  change  through  consecration. 

(6)  '  Truly  and  really,  in  a  sacramental  manner.'     Why  qualify 
'  truly  and  really '  with  '  in  a  sacramental  manner  '  ?     '  Sacra 
ment  '  above  meant  bread  and  wine  :    does  '  sacramental '  here 
mean  the  same  ? 

(7)  '  Whatsoever    that    may    be.'     These    words    ignore    the 
omission  in  B.C.P.  of  all  ways  of  receiving  Christ  involving  a 
Presence  in  the  elements. 

(8)  'Hidden  way.'     What  is  hidden,  and  from  whom  ?    Neither 
the  B.C.P.,  nor  Holy  Scripture,  has  any  idea  of  any  '  hidden 
way,'  save  as  all  revelations, '  mysteries,'  are  hidden  from  unbelief. 

(9)  'Made    conductors.'     The    elements    do    not    'conduct' 
grace,  which  is  only  conferred  upon  faithful  recipients  of  the 
elements.     The    word    '  made '    is,    therefore,    meaningless,  or 
worse,  as  suggesting  some  miraculous  change  in  the  elements. 

*  Tho  word  '  Sacrament '  is  used  in  B.C.P.  of  the  elements  alone,  e.g. 
Art.  XXIX ;  but  the  phrase  '  consecrating  the  Sacrament '  is  not  to  be 
found  thoro. 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION 


281 


COMPARATIVE  TABLE  OF  COMMUNION  OFFICES. 


SAE.UM  USE. 

1549. 

1552. 

1002. 

Private  prepn. 

Introit 

1. 

1.  Lord's  Prayer 

with 

1.  Lord's  Prayer 

2. 

2.  Collect 

2.  Collect 

2.  Collect 

3. 

3.  Commandments 

Antiphons,  etc. 

Kyrie 

4. 

4.  Collects  for  King 

1.  Lord's  Prayer 

30.  Gloria 

5. 

5.  Collect  for  day 

Hail  Mary,  etc. 

4.  Collects  for  King 

6. 

0.  Epistle 

Introit 

5.  Collect  for  day 

7. 

7.  Gospel 

Clergy  Confessn. 

6.  Epistle 

8. 

8.  Creed 

Censing,  Kyrie, 

7.  Gospel 

10. 

9.  Notices 

etc. 

8.  Creed 

9. 

10.  Sermon 

30.  Gloria 

10.  Sermon 

11. 

11.  Offertory        Sen 

5.  Collect,  etc. 

16.  Exh.  to  communi 

tences 

C.  Epistle,  etc. 

cants 



12.  Placing  elements 

Gradual,  censing 

14.  Exh.  to  negligent 

13. 

13.  Prayer  for  Church 

7.  Gospel,  etc. 

11.   Offertory      Sen 

15. 

14.   1st  Exhortation 

8.  Creed 

tences 

14. 

15.  2nd  to  negligent 

Oblation    of    ele 

12.  Providing      ele 

16. 

10.  3rd  to  Communi 

ments 

ments 

cants 

Censing  ditto 

21.  Lift     up     your 

17. 

17.  Invitation 

Handwashing 

hearts 

18. 

18.  Confession 

Secret  prayers 

22.  Prefaces 

19. 

19.  Absolution 

21.  Lift     up     your 

23.  Holy,  Holy,  Holy 

20. 

20.  Comfortable 

hearts 

13.  Prayer             for 

Words 

22.  Preface 

Church 

21. 

21.  Lift    up     your 

23.  Holy,  Holy,  Holy 

25.  Consecration 

hearts 

13.  Prayer  for  Church 

28.  Thanksgiving 

22. 

22.  Prefaces 

25.  Consecration 

27.  Lord's  Prayer 

23. 

23.  Holy,  Holy,  Holy 

27.  Lord's  Prayer,  etc. 

Versicles 

24. 

24.  Humble  Access 

Agnus  Dei 

Agnus  Dei 

25. 

25.  Consecration 

Commixture 

17.  Invitation 

20. 

20.  Administration 

The  Pax 

18.  Confession 

words 

Priest's  reception 

19.  Absolution 

27. 

27.  Lord's  Prayer 

Ablutions 

20.  Comfortable 

28. 

28.  Thanksgiving 

Collects 

Words 

29. 

29.  Alternative  ditto 

Dismissal 

24.  Humble  Access 

30. 

30.  Gloria 

Private  Prayer 

20.  Administration 

31. 

3  1    Blessing 

Last  Gospel 

words 

— 

32.  Surplus  con 

Agnus  Dei 

sumed 

Sentences 

Versicles 

29.  Thanksgiving 

31.  Blessing 

Sarum  Use  is  much  shortened  to  bring  it  within  limits  for 
comparison  (for  closer  comparison  see  pp.  256  ff.) ;  portions  of 
1549  in  Italics  were  in  1548  Order  of  Communion,  used  with  the 
Missal :  Words  of  Administration  of  1549  and  1552  were  com 
bined  in  1559  as  in  1662 ;  Exhortations  were  much  changed  in 
arrangement  (see  p.  319). 


ANALYSIS  AND   HISTORICAL   NOTES 

PAGE 

Title,  1552  (1549).* 286 

I.    ANTE-COMMUNION. 

"^Giving   notice    of  intention   to    communicate,    1549 ; 

altered   1662 290 

Warning  notorious  evil-livers,  1549    ....     291 
Warning  those  at  variance,  1549  ;    order  to  report    to 

Ordinary  added  1662 291 

Defining  place  of  Table,  and  position  of  Priest,  1552 ; 

(1549) 291 

Lord's  Prayer,  1549  ;    printed  1662 297 

Collect  for  purity,  1549 297 

(Here  in  1549  followed  : — 
Introit. 

Lesser  Litany. 
Gloria  in  excelsis. 
The  Lord  be  with  you,  etc.) 

Concerning  the  Commandments,  1552  ;  enlarged  1662.   .     298 
Commandments,  1552          ......     299 

Concerning  Collects  for  the  King,  1549       .         .         .     299 

Collects  for  the  King,  1549 300 

Concerning  Collect,  Epistle  and  Gospel,  1549  ;    altered 

1552  and  1662 300 

Creed,  1549 304 

Respecting  Notices,  1552  ;   enlarged  and  placed  before 

Sermon,  1662 306 

Prescribing  Sermon  or  Homily,  1549  ;  altered  1552  and 

1662 307 

(Here  in  1549  followed  : — 

JExhortation  to  communicants. 
Exhortation  to  negligent.) 

*  Dates  are  put  into  brackets  when  subsequent  changes  of  position, 
wording,  or  both,  are  impoitant. 

f  Rubrics  are  in  italics  and  indented. 

j  For  the  intricate  changes  of  arrangement  of  Exhortations  see  Table 
on  p.  319. 

282 


THE  COMMUNION  283 

PAGE 

Regarding  the  Offertory  Sentences,  1549  ;    altered  1552, 

made  separate  Rubric  1662          ....     310 

Offertory  Sentences,  1549 310 

Regarding  the  collection  of  the  offerings,  1549  ;    altered 

1552  ard  1662 311 

Ordering  the  placing  of  the  bread  and  the  wine,  1662 

(1549);  no  directions,  1552        .:        .         .         .312 
(H3re  in  1549  followed  :— 
The  Lord  be  with  you,  etc.,  second  time. 
Lift  up  your  hearts,  etc. 
Proper  Prefaces. 
Ter  Sanctus. 

Prayer  for  Church,  including  Consecration.) 
Prayer  for  Chu  ch  Militant,  1552,  (1549) ;    last  sentence 

added  1662 313 

Indented  Rubric,  1552  ;  '  oblations  '  added  1662  .         .     318 
Ordering  Announcement  of  Holy   Communion,    1548, 

(1549);    1662 318 

First  Exhortation,  1548;  enlarged  for  the  negligent, 
1549 ;  some  time  said  also,  1552 ;  adapted  for  an 
nouncing,  and  clause  added  from  another  Exhorta 
tion,  1662 318 

Providing  for  the  negligent,  1549  ;  placed  before  Second 

Exhortation.  1552      .         .         .         .         .         .322 

Second  Exhoitation,  1552;    one  clause  omitted  1662..     323 

II.     COMMUNION. 

Directing  that  communicants    be    conveniently    placed, 

1662;   (1549) 323 

Third  Exhoitation,  1548  ;  placed  here  1549  ;  one  clause 

transferred  to  First  Exhoitation,  1662            .          .  324 

Preceding  the  Invitation,  1549,  (1548) ;  placed  here  1552.  325 

Fourth  Exhortation  (Invitation),  1548  ;  placed  here  1552.  326 

Regulating  the  Confession,  1548         ....  326 

Confession,  1548 326 

Regarding  the  Absolution,  1548  ;  called '  Absolution '  1662.  321 
Absolution,  1548 ;    altered  1549           .         .         .         .327 

Comfortable  Words,  1548 327 

Lift  up  your  hearts,  etc.,  1549  ;    placed  here  1552       .  328 

Directing  turning  to  the  Lord's  Table,  1662         .         .  328 

It  is  very  meet,  right,  etc.,  1549  ;    placed  heie  1552    .  328 

Indented  Rubric,  1662 328 

Respecting  Proper  Prefaces,  1549       ....  328 


284  THE   COMMUNION 

PAGE 

Ter  Sanctus,  1559 ;    printed  1662        .         .         .         .329 
Proper  Prefaces,  1549  : — 

(1)  Christmas,  1549  ;    seven  days  after,  1552     .         .     329 

(2)  Easter,  1549  ;    seven  days  after,  1552          .         .     329 

(3)  Ascension,  1549 ;    seven  days  after,  1552     .         .     329 

(4)  Whitsunday,  1549  ;    six  days  after,  1552     .         .     330 

(5)  Trinity,  1549  ;  in  1549,  1552, '  It  is  very  meet,'  etc., 
repeated  with  this  Preface,  '  holy  Father  '  excepted      330 

*Ter  Sanctus,  1549 ;    altered  1552        .         .         .         .331 
(Here  in  1549  followed  : — 

Long  Prayer  (the  Canon),f  including  : — 
Petitions  for  living  and  dead. 
Consecration. 
Oblation. 
Thanksgiving. 
Lord's  Prayer. 
Agnus  Dei. 
Fourth  Exhortation. 
Confession. 
Absolution. 
Comfortable  Words.) 

Preceding  Prayer  of  Humble  Access,  1548  .         .     331 

Prayer  of  Humble  Access,  1548  ;    placed  here  1552      .     332 

Providing  for  arranging  the  bread  and  the  wine,  1662.     333 

Prayer  of  Consecration,  1552 ;  (1549)  .          .          .          .334 

Indented  Rubrics,  1662 ;  (1549)          .         .  .     339 

Prescribing  the  order  of  reception,  1549,  (1548) ;   altered 

1552  and  1662 340 

Regarding  the  administration  of  the  bread,  1548  ;  altered 

1552  and  1662 .342 

Words  of  administration  of  the  bread,  1559  ;    first  part 

1548,   1549 ;    second  1552 342 

Regarding  the  administration  of  the  wine,  1548  ;  altered 

1552  and  1662 343 

Words  of  administration  of  the  wine,  1559  ;    first  part 

1548,  1549  ;    second  1552 345 

Directing   Consecration   of  more  bread  or  wine,  1548  ; 

wanting  in  1549, 1552  ;  altered  and  placed  here  1662      345 
Directing  to  cover  with  a  fair  linen  cloth,  1662          .         .     346 
(In  1549  Agnus  Dei  sung  during  administration.) 

*  The  Ter  Sanctus  was  originally  printed  here  only, 
f  The  term  '  Canon  '  is  used  in  1549  Communion  of  the  Sick :    it  dis 
appeared  in  1552. 


THE  COMMUNION  285 

III.    POST-COMMUNION. 

PAGE 

(In  1549  Post-Communion  Sentences  and  Versiclc. 

Respecting  the  saying  of  the  Lord's  Prayer,  1552          .  348 

Lord's  Prayer,  1549  ;  placed  here  1552  ;  printed  1662  .  348 

First  alternative  Thanksgiving,  1552  ;    (1549)       .          .  349 

Second  alternative  Thanksgiving,  1549  ;  altered  1552    .  352 
Gloiia  in  excelsis,  1549  ;  placed  here  with  one  sentence 

repeated  1552      .          .          .          .          .        ...        .  353 

Regarding  the  method  of  dismissal,  1548       .         .         .  354 
Blessing,  1549;    (1548)        .         .         .         . .»      .         .354 

APPENDIX. 

Concerning  the  use  of  Collects   when   no    Communion, 

1549  ;  enlarged  1552,  altered  1662       .         .          .354 
Collects,  1549  ;    two  for  Rain  and  Fair  Weather  placed 

elsewhere  1552    .         .         .         .         .         .         .     355 

Concerning  Sundays,  etc.,  ivhen  no  Communion,  1552  ; 

(1549) .         .356 

Prescribing  a  convenient  number  of  communicants,  1662  ; 

some,  1549  ;  good  number,  1552  ....  356 
Fixing  the  minimum,  3  out  of  20, 1552  ;  (1549)  .  .  356 
Ordering  Clergy  to  communicate  weekly  in  Cathedrals, 

etc.,  1552  ....  .  •  .  .  .357 
Prescribing  the  use  of  purest  Wheat  Bread,  1552  ;  (1549)  357 
Directing  the  disposal  of  the  bread  and  wine  remaining, 

1662;  (1552) 360 

Directing  the  provision   of  the   bread  and  wine,  1549  ; 

altered  1552  and  1662 362 

Ordering  a  minimum  attendance  of  three  times  a  year, 

1552;  (1549) 362 

Regarding  Easter  Dues,  1552 ;  (1549)  .  .  .  364 
Regulating  the  disposal  of  the  offerings,  1662  .  .  365 
'  Black  Rubric,'  1552  ;  omitted  1559  ;  restored  with  verbal 

alterations,  1662        .  .     365 


EXPOSITION 

'  We  are  thus  taught  by  the  Saviour,  and  also  by  the  Apostle 
Paul,  that  this  bread  and  this  wine,  which  is  placed  upon  the 
altar,  are  placed  for  a  figure  or  memorial  of  the  Lord's  Death, 
so  that  it  may  recall  to  present  memory  that  which  was  done  in 
the  past,  and  that  we  may  be  reminded  of  His  Passion  ;  by  it 
also  are  we  made  partakers  of  the  Divine  gift  by  which  we  are 
freed  from  death.  Knowing  that  when  we  shall  come  to  the 
vision  of  Christ  we  shall  no  more  have  need  of  such  outward 
means,  by  which  we  may  be  reminded  of  that  which  divine  good 
ness  endured  for  us.  For  beholding  Him  face  to  face  we  shall  not 
be  influenced  by  the  outward  admonition  of  temporal  things,  but 
by  the  contemplation  of  the  thing  itself  (ipsius  leritatis)  we  shall 
perceive  in  what  way  we  ought  to  give  thanks  to  the  Author  of 
our  salvation.' — The  Book  of  Bertram,  Monk  of  Corbie,  A.D.  840, 
on  The  Body  and  Blood  of  the  Lord  (De  Corpore  et  Sanguine 
Domini),  c.  100,  translated  by  Archdeacon  Taylor. 

He  who  would  know  the  principle  upon  which  the  Communion 
Office  of  the  Church  of  England  was  built  up  by  Cranmer  can  see 
it  '  writ  large '  in  this  extract  from  the  work  whose  reproduc 
tion  at  the  period  of  the  Reformation  led  Ridley,  and  through 
him  Cranmer,  back  to  Scriptural  truth. 

Title. 

1549.     The  Supper  of  the  Lord,  and  the  Holy  Communion, 

commonly  called  The  Mass. 
1552.     The  Order    for    the  Administration  of  the    Lord's 

Supper,  or  Holy  Communion. 

Commonly  called  The  Mass :  cf.  '  Commonly  called  the  Creed 
of  St.  Athanasius,'  '  Those  five  commonly  called  Sacraments ' 
(Art.  XXV),  '  the  Sacrifices  of  Masses,  in  the  which  it  was  com 
monly  said,'  etc.  (Art.  XXI).  The  adverb  '  commonly  '  stamps 
the  usage  as  popular  but  inaccurate  and  undesirable  ;  cf.  '  The 
Presentation  of  Christ  in  the  Temple,  commonly  called  The  Purifi 
cation  of  Saint  Mary  the  Virgin,'  a  new  title  given  in  1662  to 
justify  the  special  observance  of  the  Day,  consonant  with  the 
Collect,  Epistle,  and  Gospel. 


EXPOSITION  287 

The  name  '  Mass  '  is  generally  deuved  from  the  words  of  dis 
missal  :  lie,  missa  est*  It  had  been  retained  in  the  ' 0  de:1  of 
Communion  '  of  1548,  and  '  time  of  High  Mass  '  is  found  in  the 
Royal  Preface  to  the  Homilies  in  1547  and  1548,  but  it  was 
changed  to  '  the  Celebration  of  the  Holy  Communion '  in  the 
1549  Edn.  It  appears  only  here  in  the  1549  B.C.P.,  and  was 
finally  discarded  in  1552. 

Bishop  Tonstal  at  the  great  Parliamentary  Debate  on  the 
Lord's  Supper  in  December,  1548,  began  the  disputation  by 
objecting  to  the  abandonment  of  the  term  '  Mass,'  see  Tomlinson's 
Tract,  containing  a  verbatim  reprint,  Tracts  on  Ritiial,  vol.  ii. 

The  Lord's  Supper  is  a  name  derived  from  1  Cor.  xi.  20.  The 
title  prevailed  in  very  early  days,  e.g.,  Hippolytus,  220 ;  Dionysius 
the  Great,  254  ;  cf.  Scudamore,  Not.  Euch.,  p.  5.f  Though  a  very 
common  name  in  the  Middle  Ages  (Frere,  I.  c.),  its  manifest  incon 
gruity  with  the  practice  of  non-communicating  presence  at  a 
sacrifice,  and  that  early  in  the  day,  had  practically  abolished 
its  use  in  the  West.J  "  I  chanced  in  our  communication  to  name 
the  .Lord's  Supper.  'Tush,'  saith  the  bishop,  'What  do  ye 
call  the  Lord's  Supper  ?  What  new  term  is  that  1  '  "  (Latitner 's 
Sermons,  p.  121,  P.S.).  Following  a  Jesuit  of  the  close  of  the 
fifteenth  century,  Roman  divines  and  others  now  try  to  dis 
sociate  the  term  as  used  by  St.  Paul  from  the  Holy  Communion  ; 
but  no  answer  is  or  can  be  given  to  the  fact  that  St.  Paul  goes 
on  immediately  to  describe  t1  e  Holy  Communion,  and  has  not 
a  word  to  say  about  the  Agape  :  this  latter  may  certainly  have 
accompanied  the  Holy  Communion  at  Corinth — probably  did  do 
so — but  it  is  not  the  matter  concerning  which  St.  Paul  writes. 
Nor  is  it  easy  to  see  on  what  ground  any  feast  save  the  Holy 
Communion  could  be  called  '  the  Lord's  Supper.' 

Holy  Communion  is  taken  from  1  Cor.  x.  16,  17,  which  teaches 
the  common  partaking  of  Christ,  and  therefore  fellowship  with 
one  another.  This  is  the  distinctive  Reformation  title,  bringing 
out,  by  its  implication  of  fellow-partaking,  the  contrast  between 
the  original  rite,  now  restored,  and  the  Mass-Sacrifice. 

Other  names  have  been  and  are  in  "ise  ;  '  Breaking  of  bread ' 
Acts  ii.  42  ;  xx.  7  ;  '  Eucharist/  an  early  and  appropriate  title, 
though  not  Scriptural.  It  is  a  strange  irony  that  this  title  should 

*  I.e.  :  '  Go,  the  (congregation)  is  dismissed.'  Others  suppose  that 
missa  is  a  late  corruption  of  missio,  '  dismissal.' 

f  Frere  says  (New  History  of  the  £.C.P.,Edn.  1910,  p.  438,  ft.  nt.)  that 
'  it  does  not  appear  that  1  Cor.  xi.  20  was  interpreted  absolutely  of  the 
Eucharist  before  the  end  of  the  fourth  century.'  This  seems  to  be  wrong. 

J  In  Hermann's  Deliberatio  (1535)  the  name  was  restored ;  see  Dowden, 
Further  Studies,  p.  66. 


288  THE   COMMUNION 

have  become  chiefly,  though  not  exclusively,  the  property  of 
those  whose  tendency  is  to  subordinate  the  sacrifice  of  praise 
and  thanksgiving  to  the  idea  of  a  sin-offering.  The  words  of 
1  Cor.  xiv.  16  : — Else  when  thou  shalt  bless  with  the  spirit,  how 
shall  he  that  oecupieth  the  room  of  the  unlearned  say  Amen  at 
thy  '  giving  of  thanks,'  seeing  he  understandeth  not  what  thou 
sayest? — have  been  cited  as  Scriptural  authority  for  applying 
the  name  '  Eucharist '  to  the  Holy  Communion.*  But  there 
is  not  one  word  to  indicate  that  St.  Paul  refers  here  to  Holy 
Communion  ;  the  two  preceding  verses  refer  to  prayer  and 
praise,  this  to  blessing  and  thanksgiving,  the  latter  as  general 
as  the  former  in  application  ;  and  the  whole  chapter  deals 
with  mysterious  utterances,  which,  far  from  being  necessary 
parts  of  worship,  were  ordered  to  be  controlled  as  liable  to  disturb 
public  worship.  The  nemesis  of  this  kind  of  exegesis,  which 
attempts  to  attach  a  later  technical  meaning  to  a  word  originally 
as  general  as  our  '  thanksgiving,'  is  its  being  carried  to  such  an 
extremity  as  the  limitation  of  the  word  in  1  Tim.  ii.  1  : — '  I 
exhort,  therefore,  that,  first  of  all,  supplications,  prayers,  inter 
cessions,  and  Eucharists,  be  made  for  all  men.'  At  the  original 
institution  our  Lord  '  said  grace '  over  the  bread  and  wine, 
Matt.  xxvi.  26  ;  Mark  xiv.  22  ;  cf.  1  Cor.  x.  16  ; 
Matt.  xxvi.  27  ;  Mark  xiv.  23  ;  Luke  xxii.  19  ; 
1  Cor.  xi.  24  ;  this  use  of  the  word,  apart  from  the  indiscriminate 
use  of  two  Greek  words,  is  decisive  against  its  technical  associa 
tion  with  the  whole  rite.  The  early  transition  from  the  general 
meaning  of  thanksgiving  to  the  special  application  of  the  word 
to  the  Holy  Communion  may  be  seen  in  the  Didache,  §  9  ;  Ignat. 
ad  Smyrn.,  7,  8.  Justin's  Apology  (i.  67),  however,  conclusively 
proves  that  the  word  was  not  thus  restricted  generally  in  140. 
Sacrament  is  not,  strictly  speaking,  a  name  of  Holy  Communion, 
though  often  used  as  such.  It  meant  in  classical  Latin  (1)  the 
sum  of  money  deposited  by  the  parties  to  a  suit,  called  '  a  sacred 
thing,'  either  because  a  pledge  against  perjury  and  injustice,  or 
because  deposited  in  a  temple,  and  to  be  used,  if  forfeited,  for 
sacred  things  :  (2)  the  suit  itself  :  (3)  the  military  recruit's 
preliminary  pledge  :  (4)  the  military  oath  generally.  In  post- 
Augustan  Latin  it  had  already  become  common  for  any  solemn 
oath  or  obligation,  in  which  sense  it  is  used  in  Pliny's  famou.i 
letter  to  Trajan,  containing  the  Bithynian  Christians'  description 
of  their  public  worship  : 

*  Palmer,  Orig.  Lit.,  vol.  ii.  pp.  114  ff :  Frere,  p.  30,  ft.  nt.  (2),  p.  432,  ft. 
nt.  (1),  '  probably  not  in  the  technical  sense,'  and  p.  435,  without  any  such 
qualification.  This  curious  inconsistency  of  the  latter  writer  is  itself  suffi 
cient  answer. 


EXPOSITION  289 

'  They  asserted  that  this,  was  the  sum -total  of  their  fault  or  error,  that 
they  were  wont,  on  a  fixed  day,  to  assemble  before  daylight,  and  sing 
(dicere)  a  hymn  in  turn  to  Christ  as  God  ;  and  to  bind  themselves  by  an 
oath  (sacramento),  not  to  a  crime  of  any  sort,  but  not  to  commit  thefts 
or  adulteries,  not  to  deny  their  faith,  not  to  repudiate  a  trust :  these  things 
completed,  it  was  their  custom  to  disperse,  and  to  reassemble  to  take  food, 
in  common,  however,-  and  innocently  :  and  even  that  they  had  abandoned 
since  my  edict  forbidding  clubs  by  your  mandate.' 

Here  the  word  has  obviously  its  ordinary  meaning  of  a  sacred 
pledge.*  Another  meaning  was  conferred  upon  the  word  in 
ecclesiastical  Latin,  some  idea  of  which  may  be  gained  by  its 
use  in  the  Vulgate  to  translate  the  Greek  /mvo-rripior,  '  secret  (, 
(not  '  an  intellectual  puzzle,'  as  the  modern  use  of  the  word 
•  mystery  '  suggests)  ;  cf.  Tobit,  xii.  7,  '  it  is  good  to  keep  a 
king's  secret  (LXX  /WO-TY/PIOT,  Vulg.  sacramentum),  but  to  reveal 
clearly  the  works  of  God  '  :  Eph.  v.  32,  of  the  symbolic  meaning 
of  marriage  :  1  Tim.  iii.  16,  '  great  is  the  mystery  of  godliness 
(Vulg.  sacramentum  pietatis),  God  was  manifest  in  the  flesh,'  etc.  : 
Rev.  i.  20  :  '  the  mystery  of  the  seven  stars.'  f  From  such 
passages  as  this  last  it  is  easy  to  see  how  the  modern  idea  of 
'  transcending  intelligence  '  attached  to  the  word  '  mystery,'  a 
fruitful  cause  of  mischief  in  interpreting  Patristic  references  to 
Holy  Communion,  as  well  as  Holy  Scripture.  However,  it  is 
quite  another  error  which  has  accompanied  the  use  of  the  word 
'  Sacrament,'  due  to  its  ambiguity.  Anciently  used,  like  its 

*  Bishop  Beveridge's  suggestion,  that  the  word  is  here  used  of  the  Holy 
Communion,  though  '  the  following  words  seem  to  show  that  the  Eucharistic 
Service  was  in  the  evening  '  (Robertson,  History,  i.  18,  Note  a),  might  pass 
unnoticed  were  it  not  that  Harold  Browne  (Art.  XXV)  claims  that  '  it 
is  generally  supposed  that  its  application  in  this  passage  was  to  the  Supper 
of  the  Lord,'  and  refers  to  Waterland's  Eucharist  c.  i.  Frere  (Procter  and 
Frere,  432,  n.  1)  makes  the  same  claim,  saying  'the  word  was  probably 
misunderstood  by  Pliny,  and  may  have  been  technically  employed.  It 
is  probable  enough  that  he  [Pliny]  used  the  very  word  which  he  had  heard 
from  them  [the  Bithynian  Christians],  and  that  they  used  it  in  the  Christian 
and  technical  sense,  howsoever  Pliny  may  have  understood  it.'  Pliny's 
conjectural  use  of  the  actual  word  used  by  the  Christians,  and  his  con 
jectural  misunderstanding,  and  consequent  conjectural  mistranslation  of 
their  word — for  presumably  the  Bithynians  did  not  use  Latin  terms  in 
A.D.  112 — constitute  slender  support  for  a  claim  styled  'probable.'  It  is 
more  truly  probable  that  the  desire  to  find  earlier  evidence  of  the  separation 
of  the  Holy  Communion  from  the  Evening  Agape,  and  another  reason  for 
it  than  that  expressly  contained  in  the  letter  itself,  viz.,  Trajan's  mandate 
against  clubs,  is  responsible  for  the  perpetuation  of  this  suggestion.  It 
is  unfortunate  that  Harold  Browne's  quotation  stops  short  of  the  reference 
to  the  re-assembling  for  food.  Robertson  (I.  c.)  supposes  that  the  baptismal 
vow  may  probably  be  intended  ;  Tertullian  (A pol.  2)  gives  it  no  sacramental 
signification  of  any  kind. 

f  Mysterium  is  also  sometimes  emplojred  in  the  Vulgate;  cf.  Eph.  vi. 
19 ;  '  mystery  of  the  Gospel,'  mysleriuu*  evangelii. 

u 


ago  THE   COMMUNION 

Greek  theological  equivalent,  for  anything  connected  with  revela 
tion  (e.g.  Cyprian's  reference  to  many  sacraments  in  the  Lord's 
Prayer),  it  very  gradually  acquired  a  technical  meaning  in  Augus 
tine's  time  :  signa,  cum  ad  res  divinas  pertinent,  sacramenta 
appellantur,  Ep.  138.  He  applies  the  word  to  O.T. 
symbols,  e.g.,  manna,  as  well  as  to  Baptism  and  Holy  Com 
munion,  but  regards  these  twp  as  the  N.T.  sacraments,  De 
doctrina  Christiana,  iii.  9  :  cf.  Epistle  54,  where,  however,  is 
added  et  si  quid  aliud  in  Scripturis  Canonicis  commendatur :  '  and 
anything  else,  if  any,  which  is  commended  in  the  Canonical 
Scriptures.'  Lombard  fixed  upon  the  symbolical  number  seven, 
in  the  twelfth  century  ;  the  Reformers  returned  from  this  arbi 
trary  use  of  the  word  to  the  more  reasonable  one  suggested  by 
Augustine,  limiting  it  more  definitely,  however,  to  the  two  rites 
instituted  by  Christ.  A  further  ambiguity,  productive  of  many 
misconceptions,  is  the  double  use  of  the  word,  both  to  signify 
the  rite  r,s  a  whole,  including  the  outward  visible  sign  and  the 
inward  invisible  grace,  and  also  for  the  former  alone.  Some 
times  even  the  outward  visible  sign  is  not  wholly  included  in 
the  word,  the  consecrated  bread  and  wine,  to  the  exclusion  of 
the  distribution  and  partaking  thereof,  being  called  '  the  Sacra 
ment.'  Many  a  reference  to  the  whole  rite,  in  the  Fathers,  in 
the  Reformers'  writings,  and  in  B.C.P.,  is  reasonable  and  intelli 
gible  as  applied  to  the  Sacrament  as  a  whole,  which  would  be 
unjustifiable  if  used  of  the  outward  alone.  It  is  interesting 
to  note  that  in  the  expression  '  pledges  of  his  love,'  there  is  a 
return  to  the  classical  meaning  of  the  word  '  Sacrament,'  a  pledge 
given  by  God  to  us,  however,  not  by  us  to  Him.* 

I.     ANTE-COMMUNION. 

Rubric  giving  notice  of  intention  to  communicate,  1549. 
1549.     Overnight,  or  else  in  the  morning  afore  the  beginning 
of  Matins,  or  immediately  after. 

*  Other  expressions,  as  'offering'  (irpocrtpopd),  'sacrifice '(Over  id),  are  given 
as  early  names  of  the  rite  in  Frere  (I.  c.) ;  but,  if  accurately,  their  technical 
meaning  is  abandoned  for  a  spiritual  one.  For  example  the  passage  cited 
but  not  quoted  by  him  for  the  use  of  '  Sacrifice,'  and  '  Commemoration, 
Memorial,'  Justin,  Dial.  117,  is  :  '  Now  that  prayers  and  giving  of  thanks, 
when  offered  by  worthy  men,  are  the  only  perfect  and  well-pleasing  sacri 
fices  to  God,  I  also  admit.  For  such  alone  Christians  have  undertaken 
to  do,  and  in  the  remembrance  made  by  their  food,  both  solid  and  liquid, 
in  which  the  suffering  of  the  Son  of  God  which  he  endured  is  brought  to 
remembrance.'  The  passage  cited  in  support  of  '  Oblation '  (irpoa<j>opa, 
•A  word  frequent  in  the  N.T  for  a  sacrilicial  offering,  but  never  used 
of  Holy  Communion)  is  Clem.,  Ep.  Cor.,  40,  where,  far  from  being  a  '  name  ' 
for  Holy  Communion,  the  word  is  not  used  in  the  singular  at  all ;  and  the 
whole  passage  refers  expressly  to  Jewish  sacrifices,  '  high-priest,'  '  Levites,' 
and  '  Jerusalem  '  being  named  to  define  the  reference. 


ANTE-COMMUNION  291 

1552.     '  Matins  '  altered  to  '  Morning  Prayer.' 
1662.     At  least  sometime  the  day  before. 
This  alteration  was  a  concession  to  the  request  of  the  Pres 
byterians  at  the  Savoy  Conference. 

Rubric  warning  notorious  evil-livers,  1549 ;    unimportant 
verbal  changes  1552  and  1662. 

Rubric  warning  those  at  variance,  1549  ;  order  to  report  to 
Ordinary  added  1662. 

The  Ordinary  is  the  judge  authorized  to  take  cognisance  of 
causes,  i.e.  in  this  case  the  Bishop  of  the  Diocese,  from  whom 
appeal  lies  to  the  Archbishop,  and  from  him  to  the  King  in 
Council.  Seeing  that  Canon  Law  is  abrogated  by  desuetude, 
and  that  this  form  of  exercising  '  the  Canon  '  has  certainly  not 
been  used  for  some  time,  the  Ordinary  cannot  fulfil  this  rubric. 
The  abandonment  of  attempts  to  enforce  uniformity  has  made 
it  unlikely  that  an  open  or  notorious  evil-liver  would  come  to 
the  Lord's  Table,  though  it  is  to  be  feared  that  those  at  variance 
may  do  so,  in  spite  of  warnings.  A  recent  attempt  to  interpret 
'  evil-liver  '  in  a  sense  not  recognized  by  Statute  Law,  and  to 
refuse  the  bread  and  wine  to  one  who  had  married  his  deceased 
wife's  sister,  was  condemned  on  appeal  to  Law  by  the  rejected 
communicant. 

Rubric  defining  place  of  Table  and  position  of  Priest,  1552. 

1549.  A  rubric  stood  here,  regulating  the  vesture  of  the 
officiant,  and  of  his  assistants,  if  any  (see  p.  79),  con 
cluding,  '  Then  shall  the  Clerks  sing  in  English  for  the 
Office,  or  Introit  *  (as  they  call  it),  a  Psalm  appointed 
for  that  day.  The  Priest  standing  humbly  afore  the  midst 
of  the  Altar,  shall  say  the  Lord's  Prayer,  with  this  Collect.' 

1552.  The  Table,  having  at  the  Communion- time  a  fair  white 
linen  cloth  upon  it,  shall  stand  in  the  body  of  the  Church, 
or  in  the  Chancel,  where  Morning  Prayer  and  Evening 
Prayer  be  appointed  to  be  said.  And  the  Priest  standing 
at  the  North  side  of  the  Table,  shall  say  the  Lord's  Prayer 
with  this  Collect  following. 

S.L.  The  Holy  Table  having  at  the  Communion-time  a 
Carpet,  and  a  fair  white  linen  cloth  upon  it,  with  other 
decent  furniture,  meet  for  the  high  mysteries  there  to 
be  celebrated,  shall  stand  at  the  uppermost  part  of  the  Chancel 

*  The  '  Introit  as  they  call  it '  was  a  reminiscence  of  the  mediaeval 
'  approach  to  the  Altar,'  and  was  removed  in  1552.  It  has  been  of  late 
re-introduced  under  cover  of  the  growth  of  the  use  of  hymns. 


2Q2  THE   COMMUNION 

or  Church,  where  the  Presbyter  standing  at  the  North  side 
or  end  thereof,  etc. 
1662.    As  in  1552,  with  '  the  people  kneeling '  added. 

(1)  The  Meaning  of  '  Table.' 

In  1549  the  word  '  table '  was  introduced  three  times, 
*  God's  Board '  twice,  '  altar '  being  also  retained.  But  though 
the  word  was  retained,  the  altars  themselves  began  to  disappear 
as  early  as  February  of  that  same  year,  and  an  Order  in  Council, 
dated  November  23,  1550,  bade  every  bishop  '  pluck  down  the 
altars,'  and  prescribed  a  '  table  '  instead,  stating  that  '  the  form 
of  a  table  shall  more  move  the  simple  from  the  superstitious 
opinions  of  the  popish  Mass,  unto  the  right  use  of  the  Lord's 
Supper.  For  the  use  of  an  altar  is  to  make  sacrifice  upon  it  ; 
the  use  of  a  table  is  for  men  to  eat  upon.'  Accordingly,  in  1552, 
the  word  '  altar '  disappeared  from  the  B.C.P.,  and  was  not- 
restored  at  the  revision  of  1662,  though  the  abortive  Canon  of 
1640,  attempting  to  enforce  the  altar-wise  position  of  the  Table, 
claimed  a  legitimate  use  of  the  word  as  applied  to  the  Lord's 
Table  :  '  We  declare  that  this  situation  of  the  Holy  Table  doth 
not  imply  that  it  is,  or  ought  to  be  esteemed  a  true  and  proper 
Altar,  whereon  Christ  is  again  really  sacrificed,  but  it  is  and  may 
be  called  an  Altar  by  us,  in  that  sense  in  which  the  Primitive 
Church  called  it  an  Altar,  and  no  other.'  The  word  has  persisted 
in  popular  language,  especially  in  regard  to  the  Marriage  Service, 
where  a  sense  of  humour  might  have  killed  the  inaccuracy  ;  and 
the  occasional  Coronation  Offices,  which  cannot  be  taken  to 
govern  the  doctrine  and  usage  of  the  Church  of  England,  have 
been  used  for  an  introduction  of  the  word.  The  word  is  unscrip- 
tural,  unhistorical,  and  misleading  : — 

(a)  In  the  O.T.  the  prescribed  altars  were  two,  the  brazen 
altar  of  sacrifice,  and  the  golden  altar  of  incense.  Earth 
and  unhewn  stone  were  the  only  materials  permitted,  though 
the  casings  were  directed  to  be  of  brass  and  gold  for  the  two 
altars  of  the  Tabernacle.  To  carve  the  stone  was  to  pollute 
the  altar,  and  to  add  steps  was  an  insult  to  God  (Exod.  xx.  24-26) . 
An  altar  may  be  sometimes  called  a  table,  cf.  Ezek.  xli.  22, and 
Mai.  i.  7  ;  but  a  table  cannot  conversely  be  called  an  altar. 

In  the  N.T.  the  altar  of  sacrifice  finds  its  typical  signi 
ficance  fulfilled  in  the  Cross,  the  golden  altar  has  its  counter 
part  in  the  Presence  of  God  where  our  High-Priest  ever  livcth 
to  make  intercession  for  us.  The  two  altars  are  both  mentioned 
in  Revelation,  where  they  are  in  heaven,  save  indeed  that  the 
measured  temple,  altar,  and  them  that  worship  therein  (xi.  1). 
are  once  figuratively  applied  to  the  Church  Militant.  In  all 


ANTE-COMMUNION  293 

the  word  is  used  twenty-three  times,  and  always  of  the  two 
O.T.  altars,  save  once  of  Abraham's  altar,  and  once  of  the 
Cross  perhaps.  This  last  reference,  Heb.  xiii.  10,  '  we  have  an 
altar,'  may  very  well  refer  to  the  Israelitish  Altar  of  Sacrifice, 
for  the  '  we,'  which  is  unemphatic,  would  mean  Israelites  in  a 
letter  written  by  a  Jew  to  Jews.  If  the  '  we  '  means  '  we  Chris 
tians/  even  so  the  writer  does  not  say  that  we  have  '  altars '  in 
our  churches,  much  less  that  the  Table  of  the  Lord  is  an  altar. 
As  a  matter  of  fact  the  typical  altar  was  outside  the  building, 
symbolizing  by  its  position  that  not  until  sacrifice  had  been 
ofl'ered  could  any  one  venture  to  enter  the  Tabernacle  or  Temple. 
In  one  place  (1  Cor.  x.  18-21),  St.  Paul  uses  the  word  'altar' 
of  the  Jewish  sacrifices,  in  connexion  with  the  Lord's  Supper, 
and  carefully  avoids  using  the  word  of  the  Christian  rite,  sub 
stituting  for  it  the  word  '  table.' 

(b)  In  the  primitive  church  Ignatius  and  Polycarp  use  the 
word  fancifully  enough  (see  p.  224),  but  most  early  writers  avoided 
the  dangerous  word,  Minucius  Felix  stating  roundly  that  Christians 
have  no  altars.     So  late  as  Ambrose,  the  figurative  use  of  the 
word  is  clear  :    '  our  altar  is  not  visible  but  invisible '  (Ep.  ad 
Heb.  viii).     It  was  not  until  the  eleventh  century  that  the  wooden 
tables  were  replaced  in  England  by  stone  altars,  though  the 
growth  of  the  idea  of  a  sacrifice  for  sin  in  the  Lord's  Supper  had 
long  tended  to  make  the  table  an  altar.     The  brief  account  of 
the  Reformers'  action  already  given  demonstrates  the  importance 
which  they  attached  to  the  avoidance  of  both  the  word  and  the 
thing. 

(c)  The  re-introduction  of  the  word  is  to  be  deprecated  as 
inevitably  leading  to  unscriptural  ideas  of  the  Holy  Communion, 
with  which,  indeed,  the  word  is  associated  by  the  majority  of 
those  who  use  it  with  any  meaning  at  all.     The  highest  Court  of 
Appeal  stated  in  1857  that  '  the  Reformers  considered  the  Holy 
Communion  not  as  a  Sacrifice  but  as  a  feast  to  be  celebrated  at 
the  Lord's  Table,'  and   declared  stone  structures  to  be  illegal. 

The  use  of  the  singular,  '  the  Table  '  in  B.C.P.  sufficiently 
shows  that  side-tables,  '  Credence-Tables,'  were  not  contem 
plated  by  the  compilers  or  revisers,  but  the  use  of  such  was  not 
condemned  when  the  case  was  brought  into  court.  The  meaning 
of  the  term  '  credence '  is  not  known,  but  the  tables  are  used 
for  the  elements  before  they  are  placed  on  the  Lord's  Table. 
Such  side-tables  seem  to  have  .been  unknown  before  the  seven 
teenth  century  (see  Micklethwaite,  Ornaments  of  the  Rubric,  p.  40. 

(2)  Place  of  Table, 
1549.     No   order   was   made,    the    /  Itar-wise    position   being 


294  THE   COMMUNION 

retained  (though  some  altars  disappeared  that  same  year), 
and  the  Communicants  being  gathered  in  the  '  Quire,' 
from  which  non-communicants  were  excluded. 

1552.  The  Table  was  to  be  placed  in  the  Nave  or  the  Chancel, 
for  the  convenience  of  worshippers,  that  the  Priest's 
words  might  be  audible  and  his  actions  visible. 

1559.  Elizabeth's  injunction  ordered  the  Table  to  be  placed 
'  where  the  Altar  stood,'  except  at  Communion,  when  it 
was  to  be  '  so  placed  in  good  sort  within  the  Chancel,  as 
whereby  the  minister  may  be  more  conveniently  heard 
.  .  .  and  the  communicants  also  more  conveniently, 
and  in  more  number  communicate '  ;  the  Table  was 
afterwards  '  to  be  placed  where  it  stood  before.' 

An  old  synopsis  of  '  Varieties  in  the  service,'  of  1565, 
describes  the  absence  of  a  uniform  placing  of  the  Table 
in  those  days  : — 

'  The  Table  standeth  in  the  body  of  the  Church  in  some  places, 
in  others  it  standeth  in  the  Chancel.  In  some  places  the 
Table  standeth  Altarlike  distant  from  the  wall  a  yard,  in 
some  other  in  the  midst  of  the  chancel  north  and  south.' 

1566.  The  Advertisements  in  one  place  specified  'the  East 
wall  over  the  said  Table,'  but  did  not  deal  directly  with 
these  varieties. 

1640.  A  Canon,  framed  to  enforce  the  altar-like  position, 
spoke  of  it  as  adopted  '  in  most  Cathedrals,  and  some 
Parochial  Churches,'  and  as  not  being  any  longer  under 
'  just  suspicion  of  Popish  superstition  or  innovation.' 
It  also  ordered  the  railing  in  of  the  Table,  to  prevent  the 
irreverent  way  in  which  it  had  been  misused,  namely  for 
hats,  and  even  as  a  seat. 

1662.  Attempts  to  enforce  this  Canon  on  the  lines  of  the 
Scottish  B.C.P.  of  1637  were  frustrated,  the  liberty  of 
the  1552  Rubric  being  still  retained. 

Within  a  short  time  from  the  Restoration  the  moving  of  the 
Table  for  the  Communion  seems  to  have  died  away  ;  the  custom 
of  erecting  pews  in  Churches  had  already  made  the  placing  of 
the  Table  in  the  body  of  the  Church  difficult,  if  not  impossible, 
while  the  almost  invariable  addition  of  rails  made  any  moving  of 
the  Table  a  practice  scarcely  to  be  carried  out  with  the  quiet 
reverence  desirable  at  the  Lord's  Supper.  The  absence  of 
screens,  too,  made  moving  unnecessary.* 

*  For  very  full  details,  with  illustrations,  see  Tomlinson,  Tracts  on  Ritual, 
Nos.  88,  164,  180  and  203,  from  which  the  above  notes  have  been  freely 
borrowed 


ANTE-COMMUNION  *91 

(3)  Position  of  Priest. 

1549.     Standing  humbly  afore  the  midst  of  the  Altar. 

1552.     Standing  at  the  North  side  of  the  Table. 
S.L.     Standing  at  the  North  side  or  end  thereof. 

1662.  Standing  at  the  North  side  of  the  Table  ;  and  (in  the 
Kubric  before  the  Consecration)  '  when  the  Priest,  standing 
before  the  Table,  hath  so  ordered  the  Bread  and  Wine, 
that  he  may  with  the  more  readiness  and  decency  break 
the  Bread  before  the  people,  and  take  the  Cup  into  his 
hands,'  etc. 

The  position  '  afore  the  midst  of  the  Altar '  represented  the 
mediaeval  position  of  a  sacrificing  priest  ;  in  earlier  days  the 
officiant  had  often  stood  behind  the  Table,  facing  the  people. 
Before  1552,  the  Eastward  Position  (as  it  is  called)  had  been 
very  generally  abandoned,  and  the  North  side  position  was  ap 
parently  chosen  to  obtain  uniformity  wherever  the  Table  stood, 
against  the  East  Wall  or  in  the  body  of  the  Church.  Of  course 
it  had  no  meaning  in  itself,  save  as  a  visible  protest  against  the 
Mass  position,  which  commenced  at  the  South  and  ended  '  afore 
the  midst  of  the  Altar.' 

The  1552  ordinance  was  unchanged  in  1662,  the  new  rubric 
before  Consecration  providing  for  such  cases  as  that  of  Bishop 
Wren,  who  defended  himself  from  the  accusation  of  having 
once  adopted  the  sacrificer's  position  by  alleging  that  his 
littleness  of  stature  made  it  impossible  for  him  readily  and 
decently  to  reach  the  bread  and  wine  from  the  North  side. 

In  spite  of  the  plain  facts  of  history,  and  the  obvious  con 
currence  with  these  facts  of  the  '  North  side  or  end  '  of  S.L., 
efforts  to  recover  the  sacrificial  position  of  the  Priest  at  Holy 
Communion  were  crowned  with  considerable  success  in  1890, 
when  the  then  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  decided  that  the 
Eastward  Position  is  legal,  so  that  the  '  afore  the  midst '  of 
1549,  and  the  '  North  side '  of  1552,  are  to  be  considered 
synonymous.  Yet  the  highest  Court  of  Appeal  had  stated  in 
the  Purchas  Judgment :  '  North  side  means  that  side  which 
looks  towards  the  north  '  ;  and,  in  the  Eidsdale  Judgment  : 
'  It  is  the  duty  of  the  minister  to  stand  at  the  side  of  the  Table 
which,  supposing  the  church  to  be  built  in  the  ordinary  west 
ward  position,  would  be  next  the  north,  whether  the  side  be  a 
longer  or  shorter  side  of  the  table  ...  it  is  accurate,  both  in 
scientific  and  in  ordinary  language,  to  say  that  a  quadrilateral 
table  has  four  sides.' 

The  history  of  the  theory  which  seems  to  have  determined 
the  Lambeth  Judgment  of  1890  is  important  as  showing  that 
that  theory  is  novel. 


296  THE   COMMUNION 

(a)  The  North  side  is  the  North- West  Corner  ;    sug 

gested  in  a  journal  called  The  Ecclesiastic. 

(b)  The  whole  front  is  divided  into  five  sections,  viz. 
N.  and  S.  Corners,  the  Midst,  and,  between  the 
Corners  and  the  Midst,  the  N.  and  S.  sides  ;   theory 
of  F.  G.  Lee,  Directorium  Anglicanum,  1865. 

(c)  The  front  is  divided  into  three  sections,  North  side 

Middle,   and  South  side  ;    theory   of    Blunt  and 
Freeman. 

(d)  The  front  is  divided  into  two  sides,  North  and 
South,  by  an  imaginary  line  ;   theory  of  Littledale. 

(e)  There  is  now  no  '  North  side,'  the  rubric  only  refer 

ring  to  the  Table  as  placed  East  and  West  in  the 
Body  of  the  Church,  so  that,  being  oblong,  its 
North  side  was  identical  with  its  front  when  placed 
Altar-wise.  This  is  the  theory  of  Walton  and 
Scudamore,  who,  so  early  as  1866,  pointed  out  the 
absurdity  of  their  predecessors'  attempts  to  recon 
cile  the  Eastward  Position  with  the  words  '  North 
side.' 
Is  their  own  any  better  ? 

(i)  It  assumes  a  distinction  between  '  side  '  and  '  end  ' 

which  was  unknown  to  Laud  and  Wren  when  the 

S.  L.  was  drawn  up,  in  1637,  with  the  words  '  side 

or  end.' 

(ii)  It  assumes   that  all   Tables  were  oblong,   which 

they  certainly  were  not. 

(iii)  It  assumes  that  when  moved  from  the  East  End 
to  the  Chancel  or  body  of  the  Church,  the  Tables 
were  always  placed  East  and  West,  of  which  assump 
tion  there  is  no  proof. 

(iv)  It  assumes  either  that  all  Tables  were  always  moved 
for  the  Communion  in  1662 — an  obvious  contra 
diction  of  facts — or  that  the  rubrical  direction 
for  the  priest  was  of  only  partial  application,  viz., 
to  those  in  Churches  where  the  Tables  were  so 
moved — an  assumption  of  which  there  is  no  evi 
dence.* 

In  conclusion,  it  should  be  noted  that  the  Eastward  Position 
should  be  avoided  on  the  following  grounds  : — 

(1)  Now,  as  at  the  Reformation,  its  significance  is  the  sacrificial 
idea  conveyed  thereby. 

*  For  the  whole  subject,  including  full  historical  investigation  of  the 
Lambeth  Judgment,  see  Tomlinson,  Tracts  on  Ritual,  I.  c.,  also  195,  and 
Lambeth  Judgment  Examined,  in  vol.  ii. 


ANTE-COMMUNION  297 

(2)  The  Lambeth   Judgment  itself  recognizes  the   necessity 
of  the  manual  acts  being  visible,  a  practical  impossibility  with 
the  Eastward  Position. 

(3)  The  posture  is  inconsistent  with  the  whole  genius  of  the 
B.C.P.  which  sets  the  ministry  forth  as  ministering  to  a  congre 
gation,  not  as  acting  for  them  in  any  sacerdotal  capacity. 

Lord's  Prayer,  1549  ;  printed  here  1662,  cf.  S.L. ;  Sar.  Miss, 
in  Priest's  Preparation. 

The  omission  of  any  direction  to  the  people  to  join  in  the 
Lord's  Prayer  is  probably  the  reason  for  the  prevalence  of  the 
custom  of  the  Priest's  saying  it  alone,  though  it  may  also  be 
that  its  having  formed  part  of  the  private  preparation  of  the 
Priest  in  the  Missal  aided  the  practice.  Whatever  the  cause, 
the  custom  is  inconsistent  with  the  1662  Kubric  before  the  Lord's 
Prayer  in  Morning  Prayer  directing  the  people  to  repeat  it  with 
the  Priest,  '  both  here,  and  wheresoever  else  it  is  used  in  Divine 
Service.'  Some  have  imagined  that  '  Divine  Service  '  applies 
only  to  Morning  and  Evening  Prayer,  with,  perhaps,  the  Litany  ; 
but  this  theory  will  not  hold  with  the  use  of  the  phrase  in  two 
1662  Rubrics  in  the  Communion  Service,  that  for  giving  notices, 
and  that  directing  the  disposal  oj:  the  collection.  Others  (e.g. 
Blunt)  suggest  that  the  wording  of  the  Morning  Prayer  Rubric 
(Cosin's)  was  an  oversight,  which  is  hardly  serious.  Strictly 
the  Lord's  Prayer  should  be  repeated  by  the  people,  and  the 
'  Amen  '  is  so  printed  that  unless  they  do  so,  they  take  no  audible 
part  in  the  Prayer.* 

Collect  for  Purity,  1549  ;  Sar.  Miss,  in  Priest's  Preparation ; 
Leofric  ;  Alcuin. 

The  Latin  has  been  partly  improved  by  the  English  Transla 
tion,  but  partly  impaired  :  Deus,  cui  omne  cor  patet,  el  omnis 
voluntas  loquitur  et  quern  nullum  latet  secretum ;  purifica  per 
infusionem  Sancti  Spiritus  cogitationes  cordis  nostri  ;  ut  te  perfecte 
diligere  et  digne  laudare  mcreamur.  Per  Christum  Dominum 
nostrum.  Amen. 

Literally  translated  :  '  God,  to  whom  every  heart  is  open  and 
every  wish  speaks,  and  from  whom  no  secret  lies  hid  ;  purify 
by  the  inpouring  of  the  Holy  Spirit  the  thoughts  of  our  heart ; 
that  we  may  deservef  to  perfectly  love  and  worthily  praise  thee. 
Through  Christ  our  Lord,  Amen.'  '  All  desires  known  '  is  a 

*  See  Dowden,  Further  Studies,  pp.  82-88. 

f  The  verb  mcreor  had  become  very  general  in  its  significance,  often 
moaning  little  more  than  '  obtain.'  But  its  very  frequent  use  in  Latin 
Collects  is  at  least  ambiguous,  especially  when  the  tendency  of  human 
nature  to  substitute  merit  for  grace  is  taken  into  consideration. 


298  THE   COMMUNION 

somewhat  poor  equivalent  for  the  original,  lit.  '  to  whom  every 
wish  speaks  '  ;  on  the  other  hand,  the  idea  of  '  merit,'  in  the 
word  mereamur,  is  gladly  missed.* 

Rubric  concerning  the  Commandments,  1552  ;  enlarged  1662. 

1552.     Then  shall    the  Priest  rehearse  distinctly  all  the  X. 

Commandments,  and  the  people  kneeling  shall,  after  every 

Commandment,  ask  God's  mercy  for  their  transgressions 

of  the  same,  after  this  sort. 

1662.  Then  shall  the  Priest,  turning  to  the  people,  rehearse- 
distinctly  all  the  TEN  COMMANDMENTS  ;  and  the  people, 
still  kneeling,  shall,  after  every  Commandment,  ask  God! 
mercy  for  their  transgression  thereof  for  the  time  past,, 
and  grace  to  keep  the  same  for  the  time  to  come,  as  fol- 
loweth. 

The  addition.  '  turning  to  the  people ',  was  a  partial  con 
cession  to  the  Puritans'  demand  at  the  Savoy  Conference. 

In  1549  Auricular  Confession  f  was  still  recognized  (though  not 
enforced)  with  its  examination  of  the  sinner.  In  1552  for  this 
method  of  examination,  liable  to  so  many  and  grievous  cor 
ruptions,  was  substituted  the  reading  of  the  Decalogue,  with  a 
special  petition  after  the  reading  of  each  Commandment.  Palmer 
finds  some  precedent  for  both  the  reading  and  the  petition  in 
the  custom  of  reading  the  last  Six  Commandments  in  Lent, 
with  a  prayer  at  the  close  :  '  Pity  me,  0  Lord,  since  I  am 
weak,  heal  me,  0  Lord.'  But  the  petition  is  obviously  formed 
by  adding  to  the  familiar  words  of  the  Lesser  Litany,  used  in 
the  Communion  Office  here  in  1549,  a  special  request  for 
power  to  keep  each  Commandment.  Cranmer  had  many  pre 
cedents  for  this  departure.  The  Frankfort  Church  Order  of 
1530  introduced  the  Decalogue  just  before  the  Exhortation 
warning  against  unworthy  reception  ;  the  Christly  Order  for 
Bremen  (1534)  directed  an  exposition  of  the  Ten  Command 
ments  after  the  Sermon  in  the  Mass  ;  Bugenhagen's  Church  Order 
for  Pomerania  (1535)  prescribed  them  to  be  sung  as  an  alterna 
tive  use  in  the  Mass  ;  the  North eim  Church  Order  (1539)  contained 
the  Decalogue ;  the  Order  for  Calenberg  and  Gottingen  intro 
duced  it  just  before  Confession  in  the  Mass.  Moreover  Luther's 
metrical  version  (1524),  each  verse  being  followed  by  '  Lord 
have  mercy,'  was  translated  into  English  by  Coverdale,  with  the 
response.  These  possible  sources  render  it  quite  needless  to 
trace  Cranmer's  work  to  Pullain's  service  for  refugees  at  Glaston- 
bury  (with  Frere  and  Daniel),  in  which  the  Decalogue  was  sung 

*  For  the  variation  of  the  Service  here  in  1549,  which  more  nearly  followed 
the  o'der  in  Sar.  Miss.,  see  analysis,  p.  282. 
t  See  p.  321. 


ANTE-COMMUNION  299 

at  Morning  Prayer,  in  two  separated  parts,  especially  as  this 
service  only  appeared  in  1551,  barely,  if  at  all,  in  time  to  suggest 
anything  to  the  Revisers  of  the  1552  B.C.P.  The  prayer  in 
Pullain's  Service  :  '  deign  to  write  (thy  law)  in  our  hearts  by  thy 
Spirit '  :  is  similar  to  the  response  to  the  tenth  Commandment, 
and  may  possibly  have  suggested  it,  but  so  scriptural  a  figure 
need  not  be  traced  to  anything  but  knowledge  of  the  Bible.* 

The  present  Scottish  B.C.P.  allows  the  use  of  the  Lord's  sum 
mary  of  the  Commandments  (Matt.  xxii.  37-39),  with  a 
petition  similar  to  that  after  the  tenth  ;  the  American  B.C.P.  . 
gives  a  similar  relaxation  when  the  Commandments  have  been 
read  in  full  once  in  a  day.  The  Non-Jurors'  B.C.P.  of  1718 
was  the  first  to  substitute  this  summary. 

S.L.  (1637)  added  after  '  transgression  '  :  '  either  according 
to  the  letter,  or  to  the  mystical  importance  of  the  said  Com 
mandment,'  a  valuable  distinction  taught  by  the  Sermon  on 
the  Mount,  but  capable  of  clearer  expression.  It  did  not  make 
any  reference  to  '  the  time  to  come,'  cf.  1552  B.C.P.,  possibly 
because  that  is  plainly  included  in  the  petitions  themselves. 
Frere  states  that  the  word  '  mystical '  has  special  reference  to 
the  Fourth  Commandment,  a  statement  which  agrees  with  the 
authoritative  desecration  of  the  Lord's  Day  at  that  period  ;  but 
'  mystical '  is  rather  too  euphemistic  a  description  of  the  Laudian 
practice. 

Commandments,  1552. 

The  version  of  the  Great  Bible  was  not  changed  for  A.V.  in 
1662,  as  in  most  other  cases  ;  the  same  version  is  used  in  the 
Catechism,  where,  however  in  1549,  the  Commandments  were 
abbreviated. 

Rubric  concerning  Collects  for  the  King,  1549. 
1549.     Then  shall  follow  the  Collect  of  the  day,  with  one  of 

these  two  Collects  following,  for  the  King. 
1552  added  : — the  Priest  standing  up,  and  saying  :    Let  us 

Pray. 

1662.  Then  shall  follow  one  of  these  two  Collects  for  the 
King,  the  Priest  standing  as  before,  and  saying  :  Let  us 
pray. 

The  mention  of  the  Collect  for  the  Day  first,  in  1549  and 
1552,  is  a  reminiscence  of  the  Missal,  where '  memorials,'  i.e. 
various  Collects,  were  read  after  the  Collect  for  the  Day,  and 
before  the  Epistle.  The  Rubric  regulating  the  use  of  the  six 
collects  at  the  end  of  the  Communion  Office  was  altered  in  1552 
to  permit  of  their  being  used  not  only  when  there  was  no  Com- 

*  See  Dowden,  Further  Studies,  pp.   167  ff. 


3oo  '  THE   COMMUNION 

niunion,  as  in  1549,  but  also  at  tLc  Communion,  and  other 
Services.  It  has  been  suggested  that  the  intention  was  that 
they  should  be  used  here  (Palmer),  but  without  any  evidence 
in  support  of  a  theory  which  conflicts  with  the  next  Rubric  : 
'  immediately  after  the  Collect  the  Priest  shall  read  the  Epistle.' 

Collects  for  the  King,  1549. 

1662.     '  Church  '  for  '  congregation  '  in  the  first  Collect. 

St.  Paul's  injunction  (1  Tim.  ii.  1,  2)  to  remember  Kings  and 
all  that  are  in  authority  first  in  our  prayers,  was  very 
literally  carried  out  in  the  Middle  Ages,  Kings  sometimes  bar 
gaining  for  Masses  to  be  said  in  return  for  benefits.*  The 
changes  in  regard  to  the  authority  exercised  by  Kings  seem 
to  call  for  some  recognition"  in  B.C. P.,  which  still  retains  the 
language  suitable  to  the  times  of  Absolute  Monarchy.  How 
ever,  these  Collects  are  more  free  from  such  unsuitable  phrases 
than  some  others,  though  the  second  is  markedly  preferable 
to  the  first,  as  not  pronouncing  the  King  to  be  God's  chosen 
servant  (which  reads  queerly  of  a  Charles  II  or  James  II),  and 
as  praying  more  definitely  for  grace  for  the  King  to  fulfil  his 
high  office,  instead  of,  as  in  the  former  of  the  two,  for  grace 
for  his  subjects  to  obey  him.  Yet  the  turbulence  of  1548,  under 
a  boy-king,  may  well  have  made  the  latter  a  more  pressing  need 
than  the  former.  As  Bishop  Dowden  points  out,  the  successive 
changes  in  political  life  call  for  suitable  petitions,  and  rebuke 
that  strange  spirit  of  worship  of  the  antique  which  opposes 
such  improvements  on  the  ground  that  the  present  forms  are 
old. 

Rubric  concerning  Collect,  Epistle  and  Gospel,  1549  ;  altered 
1552  and  1662. 

1549.  The  Collects  ended,  the  Priest,  or  he  that  is  appointed, 
shall  read  the  Epistle  in  a  place  assigned  for  the  purpose, 
saying  The  Epistle  of  Saint  Paul  written  in  the  —  chapter 
of  —  to  the  — .  The  Minister  then  shall  read  the  Epistle. 
Immediately  after  the  Epistle  ended,  the  Priest,  or  one 
appointed  to  read  the  Gospel,  shall  say,  The  holy  Gospel 
written  in  the  —  chapter  of  — .  The  Clerks  and  people  shall 
answer,  Glory  be  to  Thee,  0  Lord.  The  Priest  or  Deacon 
then  shall  read  the  Gospel.  After  the  Gospel  ended,  the 
Priest  shall  begin. 

1552.  Immediately  after  the  Collects,  the  Priest  shall  read 
the  Epistle  beginning  thus  :  The  Epistle  written  in 
the  —  chapter  of  — .  And  the  Epistle  ended,  he  shall 
say  the  Gospel  beginning  thus  :  The  Gospel  written  in 

*  See  Dowden,   Workmanship  of  the  Prayer  Book,  2nd  Edn.,  p.  xxii. 


ANTE.COMMUNION  301 

the  —  chapter  of  — .    And  the  Epistle  and  Gospel  being 
ended,  shall  be  said  the  Creed. 

S.L.     Immediately   after    the   Collects,   the   Presbyter  shall 
read  the  Epistle,  saying  thus  :    The  Epistle  written  in  the 
—  Chapter  of  —  at  the  —  verse.     And  when  he  hath 
done,  he  shall  say  :    Here  endeth  the  Epistle.     And  the 
Epistle  ended,   the  Gospel  shall  be  read,  the  Presbyter 
saying  :   The  holy  Gospel  is  written  in  the  —  Chapter  of 
-  at  the  -  -  Verse.     And  then  the  people  all  standing  up 
shall  say  :    Glory  be  to  thee,  0  Lord.     At  the  end  of  the 
Gospel,  the  Presbyter  shall  say :  So  endeth  the  holy  Gospel. 
And  the  people  shall  answer  :    Thanks  be  to  thee,  0  Lord.     And 
the  Epistle  and  Gospel  being  ended,  shall  be  said  or  sung 
this  Creed,  all  still  reverently  standing  up. 
1662.     Then  shall  be  said  the  Collect  of  the  Day.     And  immedi 
ately  after  the  Collect  the  Priest  shall  read  the  Epistle; 
saying,  The  Epistle  [or,  The  portion  of  Scripture  appointed 
for  the  Epistle]  is  written  in  the  - —  chapter  of  —  beginning 
at  the  —  verse.     And  the  Epistle  ended,  he  shall  say, 
Here  endeth  the  Epistle.     Then  shall  he  read  the  Gospel 
(the   people   all   standing    up)    saying,    The  holy  Gospel  is 
written  in  the  —  chapter  of  —  beginning  at  the  —  verse. 
And  the  Gospel  ended,  shall  be  sung  or  said  the  Creed 
following,  the  people  still  standing,  as  before. 
With  the  excision,  in  1549  (note  the  words  :   '  immediately 
after  the  Epistle  ended  '),  of  much  ceremonial  in  introducing 
the  Gospel,  there   also  took  place  the  custom  of  naming  the 
places  from  which   the  Epistle  and  Gospel  are  taken.    After 
the  division  of  the  Bible  into  verses,  which  first  appeared  in 
the  Genevan  Version  (1557-60),  the  exact  verse  was  also  an 
nounced,  both  in  S.  L.  and  in  1662.    According  to  Frere  (Sarum 
Customs)    the   practice  of    making    some  such  announcement, 
of  course  in  Latin,  obtained  in  the  Middle  Ages.     The  German 
Church  Orders,  e.g.   Brunswick,  1528,  prescribed  this  practice  ; 
cf.  also  Brandenburg-Nuremberg  Order,  1533. 

In  the  Missal,  the  Epistles  taken  from  most  of  St.  Paul's 
writings  commenced  with  the  word  Fratres  ;  from  his  Pastoral 
Epistles  with  Charissime  ;  from  the  other  Epistles  with  Charis- 
simi.  The  Gospel  began  with  in  illo  tempore,  as  also  did 
'  Epistles  '  taken  from  the  Acts  and  historical  books  of  the 
O.T.  ;  selections  from  the  Prophets  had  Haec  dicit  Dominus 
prefixed. 

The  direction  to  the  people  to  say  :  '  Glory  be  to  thee,  0 
Lord '  :  after  the  announcement  of  the  Gospel,  was  omitted 
in  1552,  and  not  re-inserted  in  1662,  though  the  S.L.  had 


302  THE   COMMUNION 

restored  it,  and  added  :  '  Thanks  be  to  thee,  0  God  '  :  after 
the  reading.  Either  the  1549  or  the  S.L.  practice  is  very  general 
now,  but  neither  has  sanction  in  B.C.P. 

In  1662  the  incongruity  of  saying :  '  The  Epistle  written  in 
the — Chapter  '  of  a  book  which  is  not  an  Epistle  was  removed.* 

Incense.  In  1549  the  words  '  immediately  after  the  Epistle 
ended,'  prefacing  the  announcement  of  the  Gospel,  marked  an 
important  divergence  from  Sar.  Miss.,  which  introduced  the 
Gospel  with  elaborate  ceremonial,  including  profuse  employment 
of  incense.  In  view  of  the  re-introduction  of  the  use  of  Incense, 
the  following  conclusive  proofs  of  its  unscriptural,  unprimitive 
and  unreform