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The  Leonard  Library 

Wpditlt  College 





•       • 


•*;'  -.  m 

i  ••'  | 

v     - 

Travels  and  Adventures 

of  the 

Rev.  Joseph  Wolff,  D.D.,  LL.D. 

Travels  and  Adventures 


Rev.  Jofeph  Wolff,  D.D.,  LL.D., 



"  Who  would  not  travel  over  sea  and  land,  to  be  instrumental  in  the 
salvation  of  one  soul /" — FRANCIS  XAVIER. 

/,  Joseph  Wo  lffy  also  am  an  Israelite,  of  the  seed  of  Abraham  of  the  tribe 
of  LEVI,  and  I  have  preached  the  Gospel,  not  only  from  Jerusalem,  round 
about  unto  Illyricum,  but  also  from  the  Thames  to  the  Oxus  and  the 
Ganges  and  the  New  World! 

London : 

SAUNDERS,     OTLEY,     AND     CO., 


\The  right  of  translation  is  reserved.] 


4-5  207 








T\7"OLFF  lays  now  before  the  public,  not  an  abridgment 
of  his  Travels  and  Adventures,  but  an  edition,  though 
in  smaller  type,  enriched  with  many  new  remarks  and 
notices.  Every  piece  of  information,  the  style  and  senti 
ments,  the  philosophical  and  theological  views,  the  remarks 
on  the  heroes  of  his  story,  are  his  own  throughout.  They 
have  been  written  down  as  he  dictated  them  to  kind  friends 
who  received  them  from  his  lips. 

As  to  the  great  object  of  this  work,  Wolff  has  to  make  the 
following  remarks.  The  first  reason  of  his  giving  it  to  the 
world,  was  that  a  wish  for  its  publication  had  been  expressed, 
not  only  by  members  of  the  Church  of  England,  but  by 
persons  belonging  to  other  branches  of  the  Catholic  Church. 
In  the  second  place,  Wolff  wished  to  prove  to  the  world  and 
to  the  Church,  that  the  Lord  is  the  Lord  of  Wolff  as  much  as 
he  was  of  Paul ;  and  that  with  GOD'S  grace  he  is  able  to 
demonstrate  to  the  Church  at  large  that  GOD  has  not  cast 
away  His  people.  Wolff  is  able  to  say,  "  Has  GOD  cast  away 
His  people  ?  GOD  forbid ;  for  I  also  am,  an  Israelite,  of  the 
seed  of  Abraham,  of  the  tribe  of  LEVI."  GOD  has  not  cast 
away  his  people  !  And  amidst  good  report  and  evil  report, 
Joseph  Wolff  has  proclaimed  the  Gospel  to  kings ;  for  in 
stance,  Rundjut  Singh,  the  King  of  Delhi,  and  the  King  of 


Lucknow,  and  to  the  Princes  of  Persia,  to  the  Gentiles  also, 
and  to  the  children  of  Israel. 

Another  object  that  he  had  in  view  was  to  prove  to  the 
Jewish  nation  that  he  is  not  ashamed  of  confessing  to  the 
world  that  he  is  of  the  seed  of  Abraham,  of  that  Semitic  race 
which  has  given  light,  the  light  of  knowledge  of  GOD  as  it  is 
in  Christ  Jesus,  and  the  light  of  civilization,  to  the  world; 
and  that,  though  born  a  Jew,  he  loves  the  Gentile  world, 
and  wishes  to  make  all  men  as  happy  as  he  is  himself,  through 
the  knowledge  of  Christ,  and  that  he  looks  with  pity  upon 
those  Jews  who,  though  professing  Christianity,  are  ashamed 
of  being  known  to  the  world  as  sprung  from  the  Jewish 
stock.  Farewell ! 




Birth;  Childhood;  Talmudical  Legends;  Early  Education  and 
First  Wanderings ;  Falk  and  Gothe ;  Baptism  .  .  1 


State  of  Religion  at  Vienna ;  Five  Religious  Parties ;  C.  M.  Hoff- 
bauer ;  His  Life  and  Habits;  Count  Stolberg  and  his  Family  .  14 


Prince  Hohenlohe  and  his  doings;  Madame  de  Krudener,  her  great 
influence;  Route  from  Germany  to  Rome  .  .  31 


Rome  and  its  Society;  Pope  and  Ecclesiastics;  Collegio  Romano 
and  Propaganda ;  their  Discipline ;  is  Expelled  from  Rome  .  44 


Returns  to  Vienna;  Monastic  Life  in  Switzerland ;  Henry  Drum- 
mond ;  Becomes  a  Member  of  the  Church  of  England ;  Lewis 
Way,  the  Philanthropist ;  Studies  at  Cambridge ;  Charles  Simeon ; 
Is  turned  out  of  the  Synagogue  .  .  .69 


Gibraltar;  Argues  with  Jews;  Malta,  further  arguments;  Cleardo 
Naudi ;  Alexandria ;  Argues  with  Marpurgo ;  Mr.  Salt ;  Sir  Gardi 
ner  Wilkinson ;  Magic;  Cairo  ;  Messrs. Carne  and  Clarke ;  Mount 
Sinai ;  Taken  prisoner  by  Arabs ;  Return  to  Cairo  .  .91 




Desert ;  Gaza ;  Jaffa ;  the  Samaritans ;  Mount  Carmel ;  Acre ;  Sidon ; 
Argument  with  a  Roman  Catholic ;  Mount  Lebanon ;  robbed  by 
Bedouins;  arrives  at  Jerusalem  .  .  .131 


Jerusalem,  its  Inhabitants  and  Neighbourhood ;  Controversies  with 
Rabbis  Mendel  and  Markowiz  .  .  .150 


Lady  Hester  Stanhope  and  her  Prophet ;  Earthquake  at  Aleppo ; 
Massacre  of  Christians  at  Nicosia ;  Mediterranean  ;  Stay  at  Alex 
andria  ;  Holy  Land  .  .  •  .165 


Mesopotamia ;  Ur  of  the  Chaldees ;  Haran ;  Padan- Aram ;  Kurdish 
Robbers ;  Jacobite  Christians ;  Devil- Worshippers  ;  Sennacherib  186 


Arrives  at  Bagdad;  the  Cuthites  ;  Bossora;  Sabeans ;  Bushire; 
Sheeraz ;  Sheah  and  Soonnee ;  Argues  with  Sooffees ;  Jews 
quarter  in  Sheeraz  .  .  .  .199 


Ispahan;  Teheran;  Tabreez;  introduced  to  Abbas  Mirza ;  Tiflis; 
Erivan ;  Armenia ;  attacked  by  Typhus  fever ;  Circassia ;  Crimea ; 
crosses  from  Odessa  to  Constantinople;  reaches  Dublin  .217 


Loaves  Dublin  for  London;  Edward  Irving;  Lady  Georgiana 
Walpole;  Discussions  at  Albury  Park  ;  Marries  and  is  Natural 
ized  as  an  Englishman;  Visits  Holland;  Sails  for  Gibraltar; 
Malta ;  Smyrna ;  Egina ;  Navarin  .  .  .  232 


Sir  Charles  Napier;  Ionian  Islands ;  Beyrout;  Cyprus;  Detained 
by  Illness  at  Cairo;  Address  from  Bishops  of  Cyprus;  The  De 
sert  ;  Exorcises  an  Evil  Spirit ;  Holy  Land  ;  Jerusalem  again  ; 
Is  Poisoned ;  Dr.  Stormont ;  Jaffa  .  .  .  249 




The  Levant ;  Is  attacked  by  Pirates ;  Mount  Athos  ;  Intense  Thirst ; 
Salonica  and  Admiral  Slade ;  Malta,  and  Hookham  Frere ;  Starts 
for  Bokhara,  on  his  own  account,  via  Constantinople  and  Persia .  266 


Advance  towards  Bokhara;  Colonel  Campbell,  Sir  John  McNeil, 
Borowsky  the  Jew;  Plague;  from  Astaara  to  Teheran ;  State  oi' 
Persia;  Boostan ;  Journey  through  the  Desert  of  Cayen  .  '280 


Burchund ;  Taken  Prisoner ;  Dervishes ;  Caravan ;  Toorshesh ; 
Made  Slave;  Torbad-Hydareea ;  The  " Head-tearer ;"  Released 
from  Slavery  .  .  .  .  .294 


Meshed  the  Holy ;  Borowsky  again :  Abbas  Mirza ;  Timoor ;  Tur- 
comauns;  Sarakhs;  Desert  of  Merw;  Guzl-Baash  Slaves ;  Gate 
of  Bokhara  .....  308 


Bokhara ;  Suspected  of  being  a  Russian  Spy ;  Inhabitants  of  Bok 
hara;  Identity  of  Jewish  Customs;  Description  of  Bokhara; 
Morecroft ;  Czoma  de  Koros  .  328 


Dangers  of  the  way ;  The  Kafir  Seeahpoosh ;  Is  spoiled  and 
stripped  naked ;  Sir  Alexander  Burnes  ;  Cabul ;  Is  reclothed  and 
recompensed ;  Peshawur ;  Abdul  Samut  Khan ;  Route  through 
Affghanistan ;  Crosses  the  Sutledge  and  is  safe  .  .351 


The  Punjaub  and  Sikhs;  Avitabile;  General  Allard;  Lahore; 
Umritsur ;  Rundjud  Singh,  and  his  Court;  Loodhiana;  Visions  •  370 


Sir  Jeremiah  and  Lady  Bryant ;  the  Governor- General,  Lord  Wil* 
Ham  Bentinck  and  Lady  William  Bentiuck;  Subathoo  and 
Simlah ;  and  the  society  he  met  there  ,  ,  •  382 




Cashmere;  Nadown;  Yoghees;  Sheer  Singh  .  .  391 


Delhi  ;  The  Grand  Mogul  ;  Majo  Fraser  ;  Agra  ;  Captain  Have- 
lock;  Cawnpore;  A.  Conolly;  Lucknow;  Dispute  with  Mool- 
lahs  ;  Benares  :  Buxar  ....  405 


Route  from  Buxur  to  Calcutta;  Bishop  Daniel  Wilson;  Sir  Edward 
Barnes,  and  other  friends;  Preaches  for  six  days  in  succession  .  421 

Hyderabad;  the  Thugs;  their  History,  Manners,  and  Customs        .   432 


Captain  Moore,  R.N.;  Severe  Attack  of  Cholera  at  Ramahpatanij 
and  Subsequent  Illness;  Mrs.  Gillespie  and  Dr.  Cooper;  Mis 
sionaries;  Infidel  Objections  answered;  Broad-  church  ;  Rhenius, 
the  Lutheran  Missionary  ;  Jews  in  Cochin  .  .  446 


Monks  at  Goa  ;  Jews  at  Poonah  ;  Conversation  in  a  Palanquin  ; 
Fat  Jew  at  Bombay  ;  Mocha  ;  Travels  in  Abyssinia  ;  Arrives 
again  at  Malta  .  .  .  .  .463 


Summary  of  Eastern  Missions  ;  What  Wolff  has  done,  and  tried  to 
do;  Retrospect  of  India;  Religious  Societies  and  their  Secre 
taries  ;  Return  to  Syria  ;  Abyssinian  Mission  ;  Mistaken  for  the 
Abaona  .....  479 


Detained  in  Abyssinia  by  the  illness  of  Gobat  ;  Returns  to  Jiddah  ; 
Ibrahim  Pasha  ;  Rcchabites  ;  Jews  of  Yemen  .  496 



Bombay ;  St.  Helena ;  New  York ;  Robert  Hall ;  Apostolical  Suc 
cession;  Ordained  Deacon  in  America,  and  Priest  in  Ireland; 
Marquis  of  Anglesea;  Archbishop  Whately ;  Prepares  for  second 
Mission  to  Bokhara  .  .  .  .512 


Obligation  to  British  Officers;  Arrangements  for  Second  Journey 
to  Bokhara;  Sails  for  Gibraltar,  Company  on  board,  Lord  Lyons; 
Malta ;  Athens,  King  and  Queen ;  Constantinople ;  Sir  Stratford 
Canning;  Arrives  at  Trebizond  .  .  .522 


Route  from  Erzroom  to  Teheran:  Sir  Fcnwick  Williams;  the 
Koolagh  ;  the  Head-Tearer  in  prison ;  is  convinced  Stoddart  and 
Conolly  are  dead,  but  proceeds :  Colonel  Sheil ;  Wolff  detests 
cant  ...  .  53-A 


Route  through  Khorassau  to  Bokhara  in  Clerical  Dress ;  Interviews 
with  the  King  of  Bokhara,  who  has  become  a  great  brute  .  55 1 


Abd-ul-Samut-Khan;  His  Villainy;  Wolff  in  great  danger  of  As 
sassination;  the  Persian  Ambassador  arrives;  Fate  of  Stoddart 
and  Conolly  confirmed  by  the  Jews ;  History  of  Timoor  *  568 


Escape  from  Bokhara ;  Detects  the  hired  Assassins ;  Return  home  • 
Baptismal  Regeneration ;  He  Brewers ;  Friends  and  acquaintance  ; 
Oxford  and  Cambridge ;  Conclusion  .  .  .583 





Birth ;  Childhood  ;  Talmudical  Legends  ;  Early  Education  and 
First  Wanderings ;  Folk  and  G tithe ;  Baptism. 

ABOUT  the  beginning  of  the  eighteenth  century,  a  fierce 
persecution  was  raised  against  the  Jews  in  Prague,  by 
the  students  of  that  place.  This  spread  generally  against  the 
members  of  that  nation  who  were  scattered  throughout  Bo 
hemia  ;  and  compelled  many  of  them  to  emigrate  to  Germany 
and  other  countries  of  Europe.  A  rabbi,  named  Wolff,  whose 
family  had  been  dispersed  by  these  troubles,  and  who  himself 
was  born  in  the  year  1 720,  resided  at  a  little  village  called 
Weilersbach,  near  Forcheim,  in  the  district  of  Bamberg,  and 
was  appointed  the  rabbi  of  a  small  Jewish  congregation  there. 
Another  rabbi,  a  cousin  of  Wolff,  named  Isaac  Lipchowitz, 
settled  himself  at  Bretzfeld,  near  Ebermannstadt,  which  was 
only  three  miles  distant  from  Weilersbach.  These  two  rela 
tives  lived  in  great  amity,  and  often  visited  each  other  ;  and 
both  married  ladies  of  the  country  of  Franconia.  Wolff  had 
two  sons  and  two  daughters ;  the  name  of  the  one  son  was 
David,  the  name  of  the  other  son  was  Asshur.  David,  the 
elder  son,  who  was  born  in  the  year  1750,  left  his  father's 
house  when  he  was  seven  years  old,  and  studied  Hebrew  and 
the  Chaldean  languages,  and  the  science  of  the  Talmud,  in  the 
Jewish  college  at  Prague,  and  learned  the  pure  German  lan 
guage  in  one  of  the  elementary  schools  established  there  for 
the  Jews  ;  Maria  Theresa,  the  empress,  and  her  son,  Joseph  II,, 
having  not  only  arrested  the  persecution,  but  issued  an  order 
that  all  the  Jews  should  be  well  instructed  in  the  German 

After  David  had  finished  his  studies  at  Prague,  he  became 

2  Travels  and  Adventures 

the  private  tutor  of  several  rich  families  in  Moravia  and  Hun- 
garia ;  and  when  he  was  thirty  years  of  age,  he  returned  to  his 
native  place,  Weilersbach,  where  he  found  that  both  his  father 
and  mother  had  died.  He  then  married  Sarah,  daughter  of 
Isaac  Lipchowitz,  of  Bretzfeld,  his  second  cousin,  and  became 
a  rabbi  first  at  Weilersbach,  in  the  year  1794.  His  eldest  son 
was  born  in  1795,  and  was  called  "  Wolff,"  after  his  paternal 
grandfather.  This  child  is  the  subject  of  this  history.  The 
Wolff  family  belonged  to  the  tribe  of  Levi.* 

When  the  French  invaded  Germany,  in  1795,  the  event 
struck  terror  among  the  Jews  in  Bavaria,  for  they  had  heard 
that  the  French  committed  all  kinds  of  excesses.  Rabbi  David 
therefore,  with  his  wife  and  first  born  son,  then  only  fifteen 
days  old,  left  Weilersbach,  and  was  appointed  rabbi  at  Kis- 
singen,  where  the  family  took  up  their  residence.  Young 
Wolff's  mother  and  father  often  afterwards  related  in  his  pre 
sence,  that  their  first-born  son  was  so  beautiful  a  child,  that 
the  Duchess  of  Weimar,  and  the  whole  Court  of  Weimar,  and 
other  visitors  at  the  Spa  of  Kissingen,  would  frequently  take 
him  from  the  arms  of  his  nurse,  carry  him  about,  and  show 
him  to  each  other  as  a  prodigy. 

In  the  year  ]  796,  another  boy  was  born  to  David,  who  re 
ceived  the  name  of  Jacob  Leeb.  In  the  following  year,  Rabbi 
David  went  with  his  whole  family  to  Halle,  in  Saxony,  on  the 
River  Saale,  which  belongs  to  Prussia,  and  where  there  is  a 
famous  German  university.  Here  also  he  was  appointed  rabbi 
of  the  Jewish  community.  In  the  year  1800,  little  Wolff 
and  his  younger  brother  were  sent  by  their  father  to  a  Christian 
school,  in  order  to  learn  to  read  the  German  language.  In 
1802,  Rabbi  David  was  appointed  to  a  larger  community  of 
Jews,  who  were  residing  at  Ullfeld,  in  Bavaria.  Here  young 
Wolff  daily  listened,  with  the  highest  interest,  to  the  conver 
sation  of  his  father,  when  the  Jews  assembled  in  his  house  in 
the  evening  time,  and  he  spoke  to  them  about  the  future  glory 
of  their  nation  at  the  coming  of  the  Messiah,  and  of  their  res 
toration  to  their  own  land ;  and  also  about  the  zeal  of  many 
rabbis  who  had  travelled  to  Jerusalem  and  Babylon  as 
preachers  to  the  Jewish  nation.  He  spoke  with  particular 
admiration  of  the  great  Moses  Bar-Mymon,  who  had  been  a 
celebrated  physician  both  among  the  Jews  and  Muhammadans, 

*  Wolff  was  not  strictly  the  surname,  or  super-name,  of  this  family, 
as  the  Jews  observe  the  Oriental  custom  of  bearing  a  single  name,  which 
is  conferred  at  circumcision.  "  Wolff,"  however,  had  often  before  been  a 
name  in  the  family ;  and  the  subject  of  this  memoir  "  wakened  "  or  re 
vived  it  from  his  father's  father. 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  3 

and  was  also  remarkable  for  his  Talmudical  learning  and  holi 
ness  of  life.  Among  other  stories,  he  gave  the  following 
account  of  Mvmon.  •  He  related  how  that  for  many  years 
My mon  was  ignorant  of  the  Jewish  law,  and  of  every  science, 
and  was,  to  all  appearance,  devoid  of  any  talent.  And  that, 
grieved  at  feeling  himself  much  below  his  fellows,  he  left  his 
father's  house,  and  went  into  a  synagogue,  where  he  stretched 
himself  near  the  ark  where  the  law  of  Moses  is  deposited,  and 
remained  there  whole  nights  in  tears,  praying  to  God  that  he 
would  give  him  ability  to  become  skilful  in  the  divine  law,  and 
in  other  sciences.  And  the  Lord  so  eifectually  heard  his 
prayer,  that  he  subsequently  became  the  famous  Mymonides, 
and*  was  the  friend  of  the  Arabian  philosopher  Averoes,  who 
wrote  the  More-Neboochim,  which  tries  to  explain  the  law  of 
Moses  in  a  philosophical  manner,  and  many  other  works. 
Wolff's  father  also  told  his  Jewish  congregation  the  following- 
tradition,  which  made  the  most  astonishing  impression  on  the 
boy.  It  referred  to  the  life  of  Judah-Haseed,  the  holy  man, 
who  became  the  great  light  of  the  Jews  at  Worms,  in  Alsatia. 
When  his  mother  was  with  child  with  him,  she  met  a  Christian, 
who  in  driving  his  cart,  purposely  tried  to  run  over  and  crush 
her.  But  a  wall  by  the  wayside,  in  a  miraculous  manner, 
bowed  itself  over  the  mother,  and  protected  her  from  the  de 
sign  of  the  malignant  Christian. 

Rabbi  David  also  frequently  spoke  about  the  Pope  and  his 
Cardinals,  and  the  grandeur  of  his  empire,  and  the  magnifi 
cence  of  the  city  of  Rome.  And  of  our  blessed  Lord  he  told 
the  young  Wolff  a  curious  tradition,  or  rather  read  it  to  him 
out  of  the  Jewish  Talmud,  which  contains  a  treatise  on  the 
destruction  of  Jerusalem  by  Titus.  Therein  Titus  is  described 
as  the  most  wicked  man  in  existence,  and  it  is  related  of  him 
that  he  died  from  the  tortures  produced  by  a  little  fly  of  copper 
which  entered  his  brain  during  the  seige,  and  increased  in  size 
until  it  became  as  large  as  a  dove,  and  tormented  him  to  death. 
But  when  he  was  dead,  a  man  named  Onkelos  (then  a  heathen 
prince  skilled  in  the  practice  of  sorcery,  though  afterwards  a 
Jewish  convert,  celebrated  for  his  commentaries  on  the  Bible), 
came  forward  and  raised  Titus  to  life  by  magic,  and  then  asked 
him  how  he  would  treat  the  Jews  2  To  which  Titus  replied 
that  he  should  ill-treat  them,  and  inflict  upon  them  every  pos 
sible  torture.  Upon  this,  Onkelos  raised  Jesus  of  Nazareth 
also  from  the  dead,  and  asked  Him  how  the  Jews  ought  to  be 
treated  ?  And  Jesus  of  Nazereth  answered,  u  Treat  them 

This  history  made   a   very  deep  impression    upon    young 

B  2 

4  Travels  and  Adventures 

Wolff,  so  that  he  asked  his  father  who  this  Jesus  was  ?  And 
his  father  said  that  He  had  been  a  Jew  of  the  greatest  talent, 
but,  as  he  pretended  to  be  the  Messiah,  the  Jewish  tribunal 
sentenced  him  to  death.  Young  Wolff'  then  asked  his  father, 
"  Why  is  Jerusalem  destroyed,  and  why  are  we  in  captivity  ?" 
His  father  replied,  "  Alas,  alas,  because  the  Jews  murdered 
the  prophets/'  Young  Wolff  reflected  in  his  mind  for  some 
time,  and  the  thought  struck  him,  "  perhaps  Jesus  was  also  a 
prophet,  and  the  Jews  killed  him  when  He  was  innocent !" — 
an  idea  that  took  such  possession  of  him,  that  whenever  he 
passed  a  Christian  church,  he  would  stand  outside  and  listen  to 
the  preaching,  until  his  mind  became  filled  with  the  thought  of 
being  a  great  preacher,  like  Mymonides  and  Jiulah-Haseed  ; 
and  he  would  frequently  go  to  the  synagogue  and  stretch  him 
self  in  front  of  the  sanctuary  where  the  law  of  Moses  was  de 

He  would  also  place  leaves  torn  from  a  Hebrew  Bible  or 
prayer  book,  in  which  the  name  of  Jehovah  occurred,  under 
his  cap,  in  order  that  he  might  be  enlightened  by  the  Spirit  of 
God,  and  also  be  protected  from  the  devices  of  devils  ;  and  he 
often  put  nettle  leaves  under  his  shirt,  in  imitation  of  holy 
rabbis.  He  believed  everything  that  he  read,  and  was  exceed 
ingly  charmed  with  a  book  called  Eegherette  Baalee  Hayam, 
which  contained  a  lawsuit  carried  on  against  the  human  race 
by  the  animal  kingdom,  before  the  judgment  seat  of  Ashmeday ; 
in  which  the  human  race  were  accused  of  usurpation  of  power 
and  tyranny,  whilst  all  the  lower  animals  tried  to  show  their 
superiority  over  man.  Ashmeday,  however,  gave  his  verdict 
at  last  in  man's  favour,  by  citing  the  words  in  Genesis,  chap.  i. 
v.  28,  "  And  God  blessed  them  ;  and  God  said  unto  them,  be 
fruitful  and  multiply,  and  replenish  the  earth  and  subdue  it  ; 
and  have  dominion  over  the  fish  of  the  sea,  and  over  the  fowl 
of  the  air,  and  over  every  living  thing  that  moveth  upon  the 

The  following  history  also,  which  was  told  to  Wolff  by 
Jews,  in  which  they  tried  to  expose  the  folly  and  simplicity  of 
the  wife  of  a  celebrated  rabbi,  made  so  deep  an  impression  upon 
him,  that  he  not  only  never  forgot  it,  but  it  afforded  a  powerful 
proof  to  him  that  there  are  Jews  who  cannot  rest  in  their 
minds  about  the  conduct  which  their  nation  pursued  against 
Jesus  Christ.  The  history  was  this  : — The  wife  of  a  noted 
rabbi  spent  the  greater  part  of  the  day  in  prayer  before  the 
holy  ark,  weeping  and  fasting,  with  ashes  on  her  head  ;  her 
lips  moving,  but  her  words  were  not  heard.  And  this  was  for 
the  edification  of  all  the  Jews,  and  the  admiration  of  her  hus- 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  5 

band ;  but  in  the  depth  of  the  night  she  got  up  from  her  bed, 
and  shut  herself  in  a  room.  On  one  occasion  her  husband 
watched  her  without  her  observing  it,  and  he  saw  her  kneeling 
down,  embracing  a  crucifix,  and  heard  her  say  these  words : 
"  Oh  !  Jesus,  if  our  nation  was  wrong,  enlighten  me,  that 
I  may  weep  over  thy  sufferings,  and  become  attached  to 
thee  !"  This  so  much  excited  the  indignation  of  the  rabbi, 
and  the  whole  community,  that  the  woman  was  divorced  from 
her  husband.  So  the  story  ends,  and  even  to  this  day  it  has 
always  been  in  the  mind  of  Joseph  Wolff. 

Sometimes  Wolff  wished  to  go  to  Jerusalem,  and  appear 
there  as  a  great  preacher  ;  and  sometimes  he  wanted  to  go  to 
Home,  and  become  a  pope.  He  almost  every  day  visited  a 
barber,  who  was  also  a  surgeon,  and  whose  name  was  Spiess.* 
Here  he  would  talk  about  the  future  glory  of  the  Jews  at  the 
coming  of  the  Messiah.  And  then  in  his  simplicity  he  related 
that  when  the  Messiah  should  come,  He  would  kill  the  great 
fish  leviathan,  who  ate  ten  millions  of  every  kind  of  fish  every 
day  ;  and  who  is  as  large  as  the  whole  world  ;  and  would  also 
kill  a  large  ox,  which  is  as  large  as  the  whole  world,  and  feeds 
every  day  on  the  grass  that  grows  upon  3,000  mountains  ;  and 
the  Jews  would  eat  of  that  fish  and  of  that  wild  ox  when  the 
Messiah  should  come. 

When  Wolff  was  thus  talking,  Spiess  and  his  family  would 
be  all  the  time  in  fits  of  laughter;  but  one  day  old  Spiess,  with 
his  stern  ^ok,  said  to  little  Wolff,  "  Dear  boy,  I  will  tell  you 
who  the  real  Messiah  was  ;  He  was  Jesus  of  Nazareth,  the 
Son  of  God,  whom  your  ancestors  have  crucified,  as  they  did 
the  prophets  of  old.  Go  home  and  read  the  53rd  chapter  of 
Isaiah,  and  you  will  be  convinced  that  Jesus  Christ  is  the  Sou 
of  God."  These  words  entered,  like  a  flash  of  lightning,  into 
Wolff's  heart ;  and  he  can  sincerely  say  that  he  believed, 
and  was  struck  dumb.  No  word  came  out  of  his  mouth,  but 
lie  went  home  to  his  father's  house,  and  read  the  53rd  chapter 
of  Isaiah  in  Hebrew,  with  the  Jewish-German  translation,  and 

*  The  worthy  Spiess  and  his  kindness,  made  such  an  impression  upon 
Wolff,  that  he  never  forgot  him  ;  and  even  so  lately  as  in  the  year  1846, 
he  wrote  from  He  Brewers  to  the  clergyman  of  Ullfeld,  to  ask  what  had 
become  of  his  old  friend  and  his  family  ?  He  was  told,  in  reply,  that 
Spiess  and  his  wife  had  died  only  a  few  years  before,  but  that  his  son  and 
daughter  were  still  alive,  and  recollected  him  very  well;  and  they  said 
that  little  Wolff  was  a  very  droll  boy,  and  that  they  always  liked  him 
when  he  came  to  their  house.  They  added,  that  one  day  he  had  said, 
"If  ever  I  get  a  wife,  and  she  does  not  obey  me,  I  will  put  her  in  prison, 
and  thrash  her,  and  give  her  nothing  to  eat." 

6  Travels  and  Adventures 

then  said  to  his  father,  "  Dear  father,  tell  me  of  whom  does 
the  prophet  speak  here  I "  His  father  stared  at  him,  and  gave 
no  reply ;  and  Wolff  dared  not  to  ask  him  a  second  time,  but 
went  into  another  room,  and  wept.  And  there  he  heard  his 
father  say  to  his  mother,  who  was  also  weeping,  "  God  have 
mercy  upon  us,  our  son  will  not  remain  a  Jew  !  He  is  con 
tinually  walking  about,  and  thinking,  which  is  not  natural." 

Wolff,  the  next  morning,  ran  to  the  clergyman,  who  was  a 
Lutheran,  and  said  to  him,  "  I  will  become  a  Christian,  and 
be  a  preacher.  Will  you  teach  me  Latin  and  French  ?  "  He 
said  to  Wolff,  "How  old  are  you?"  He  replied,  "Seven 
years."  He  said,  "Wonderful,  wonderful  child;  I  cannot 
receive  you,  because  you  are  under  the  tutelage  of  your  father 
and  mother.  Come  back  to  me  when  you  are  more  advanced 
in  age.n  Wolff  kept  a  perfect  silence  about  this  occurrence, 
and  thus  the  time  passed  on. 

When  Wolff  was  eleven  years  of  age,  his  father  came  as 
rabbi  to  Wiirtemberg,  and  sent  him  with  his  brother,  Jacob 
Leeb,  to  the  Protestant  Lyceum  in  Stuttgardt.  Wolff's 
brother  had  no  mind  for  study,  though  he  had  a  great  deal 
more  talent  than  Wolff.  To  sell  old  clothes  was  the  height 
of  Jacob  Leeb's  ambition  \  and  he  actually  did  sell  some  school 
books,  and  bought  with  them  pins  and  needles  to  sell  again. 
Wolff  grew  tired  of  all  this,  so  he  left  his  father's  house,  when 
only  eleven  years  of  age,  and  went  to  Bamberg,  a  Roman 
Catholic  town. 

But,  before  doing  this,  he  paid  a  visit  to  his  father,  who 
asked  him,  "  What  will  you  now  learn?  "  He  said,  "  Greek." 
Then  he  asked  him,  "  What  will  you  become?"  He  replied, 
"  A  physician  and  a  preacher,  like  Mymonides."  The  old 
Jews  who  were  present  stroked  their  hands  over  their  heads, 
and  said,  "  Woe,  woe,  woe  !  Your  son  will  not  remain  a 
Jew ;  he  will  be  mixed  with  the  Gentiles,  and  go  the  way  of 
all  the  Gentiles."  His  father  gave  no  reply.  He  then 
sought  an  interview  with  his  uncle  Asshur,  of  Weilersbach, 
who  said,  "  Wolff,  Wolff,  give  up  studying,  it  will  lead  on  to 
Christianity,  and  I  shall  disinherit  you.  You  will  not  have 
one  farthing  from  me.  I  will  leave  everything  to  my  other 
nephews  " — his  sister's  children.  Wolff  replied,  "  They  are 
more  deserving  of  it  than  myself,  for  they  are  a  staff  to  you  in 
your  old  age."  Wolff*  then  asked  the  blessing  of  his  uncle. 
His  uncle  put  his  hands  upon  him,  and  said,  with  weeping 
eyes,  "  The  Lord  Jehovah  bless  thee,  and  rejoice  over  thee,  as 
over  Ephraim  and  Manasseh."  Then  he  said,  "  Now  go  in 
peace ;  say  the  blessing  over  everything  you  eat ;  don't  eat 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  1 

with  uncovered  head  ;  go  every  day  to  the  synagogue  ;  never 
lie  down  without  having  said,  '  Hear,  Israel,  the  Lord  our  God 
is  one  God,'  etc;  and  never  neglect  to  wear  fringes  upon  the 
four  quarters  of  your  vesture."  This  the  Jews  call  Arba- 
Kanfos,  and  it  answers  to  the  scapularies  of  the  Roman 
Catholics.  Moreover,  all  the  Eastern  Churches,  and  even  the 
Muhammadaris  ;  and  all  the  Hindoos  wear  such  scapularies  ; 
and  there  is  scriptural  authority  for  it,  as  may  be  seen  in 
Deuteronomy,  chap,  xxii.,  v.  12.  And,  therefore,  scapularies 
are  no  marks  of  superstition. 

Thus  it  was  that  Wolff  arrived  at  Bamberg,  where  he  was 
most  kindly  received  by  his  cousin,  Moses  Lazarus  Cohen,  as 
well  as  by  his  wife.     Moses  Lazarus  Cohen  was  a  Jew  of  the 
modern  style,  rather  leaning  towards  infidelity.     He  read  the 
writings  of  Emmanuel  Kant,  Schiller,  and  Gothe ;    and  he 
rather  liked  the  idea  of  Wolffs  love  of  study,  and  introduced 
him  to  the  Lyceum  of  the  Roman  Catholics.     The  famous 
Graser,  a  Roman  Catholic  priest  who  was  married,  entered 
Wolff  as  a  pupil  of  the  Lyceum ;  and  he  was  placed  in  the 
class  taught  by  the  Rev.   Father  Nepff.     One  Wednesday, 
Nepff  said  to  Wolff,  "  Wolff,  to-day  you  need  not  have  come 
to  the  school,   because   I   teach  religion."      Wolff  said,   "  I 
rather  wish  to  be  present  and  to  hear  it."     The  first  Wed 
nesday  he  expounded  the  Sermon  on  the  Mount.     The  second 
Wednesday  he  expounded  the  9th  chapter  of  the  Acts,  con 
taining  the  conversion  of  Paul.     When  he  enlarged  upon  this 
chapter,  he  said,  "  the  church  of  Christ  contained  people  who 
trod   in   the   footsteps   of  Paul :    such   as    Francis    Xavier, 
Ignatius  Loyola,  and  the  many  missionaries  who  went  forth 
to  preach  the  gospel  of  Christ  to  the  nations."     Wolff  was  so 
much  struck  with  amazement,  first  with  the  exactness  of  the 
description  given  of  the  character  of  the  apostle  before  his 
conversion,  and  then  by  the  description  of  the  Jewish  tribunal, 
which  is  so  wonderfully  depicted  in  the  words — "  And  Saul, 
yet   breathing   out   threatenings   and   slaughter   against   the 
disciples  of  the  Lord,  went  unto  the  high  priest,  and  desired 
of  him  letters  to  Damascus  to  the  synagogues,  that   if  he 
found  any  of  this  way,  whether  they  were  men  or  women,  he 
might  bring  them  bound  unto  Jerusalem,"  (Acts  ix.  1,  2,  3) — 
that  he  became  determined  to  join  the  Christian  Church.     So 
he  went  back  to   the  house  of  his    cousin    Moses   Lazarus 
Cohen,   and  said  to  him,  in  the  presence  of  his  wife,  "  My 
mind  is  made  up,  I  will  become  a  Christian,  and  be  a  Jesuit ; 
and  I  will  preach  the  Gospel  in  foreign  lands,  like  Francis 
Xavier."    The  cousin  laughed,  and  merely  said,  "  You  are  an 

8  Travels  and  Advent  ares 

enthusiast !  "  but  his  wife  became  very  angry,  and  threw  a 
poker  at  him,  and  cursed  him,  and  turned  him  out  of  the 

Whilst  Wolff  was  yet  in  his  father's  house,  his  father,  in 
order  to  teach  him  how  to  write  letters,  would  give  him  some 
models  bv  dictation — the  contents  of  one  of  which  were  as 
follows : — "  Dear  father  and  mother,  I  have  found  very  good 
employment  in  the  house  of  one  of  the  rich  Jews  of  the  family 
of  Kaula,  and  have  been  enabled  to  lay  by  five  florins,  which 
I  now  send  to  you,  in  order  to  show  that  I  wish  to  fulfill  the 
commandment,  'Honour  thy  father  and  thy  mother;7  and 
also  to  give  a  proof  of  my  filial  love  towards  you  both." 

When  Wolff,  in  the  course  of  time,  came  to  Frankfort  on 
the  Maine,  he  gave  lessons  to  some  young  Jews,  and  was  able 
to  lay  by  eleven  florins,  so  he  immediately  sat  down,  and 
wrote  a  letter  to  his  father,  saying,  "  My  dear  father,  I  am 
now  doing  what  I  copied  from  your  model ;  but,  instead  of 
sending  five  florins,  I  am  able  to  send  you  eleven." 

Another  of  these  model  letters  was  as  follows : — "  My  dear 
father,  I  have  now  to  inform  you  of  something  new,  which  you 
will  like.  I  was  tutor  in  the  house  of  Rabbi  Schlome  Blowiz, 
a  great  banker  in  Bohemia ;  and  as  he  admired  my  skill  in 
the  Talmud,  he  has  given  me  his  only  daughter  as  a  wife,  and 
with  her  10,000  florins,  as  a  dowry,  so  I  send  you  a  handsome 
present  of  thirty  florins ;  and  I  shall  bring  my  wife  to  receive 
the  blessing  from  you,  that  she  may  become  like  Sarah, 
Rebecca,  Rachel,  and  Leah,  who  have  built  the  house  of 
Israel.  Oh,  that  Jerusalem  may  be  built  soon,  even  in  our 
days.  Amen.""  When  Wolff  did  subsequently  marry,  he 
announced  the  event  to  his  mother,  and  at  the  same  time 
sent  her  £20,  which  he  had  received  from  a  Mrs.  Crofton,  in 
Ireland,  as  an  acknowledgment  of  her  respect  for  him. 

Wolff  left  Bamberg  without  saying  one  word,  and  without 
a  single  farthing  in  his  pocket ;  and  travelled  towards  Wiirtz- 
burg.  On  his  way,  in  a  field,  he  found  a  shepherd,  who  was 
a  Roman  Catholic,  and  he  asked  him  if  he  might  stay  in 
his  house  for  the  night  ?  The  shepherd  replied,  "  Yes,  my 
friend,"  and  brought  him  to  his  cottage.  He  then  asked 
Wolff  if  he  was  a  Roman  Catholic?  Wolff  replied  by  giving 
him  an  account  of  his  history ;  and  after  they  had  partaken 
of  a  frugal  meal,  the  amiable  shepherd  knelt  down  with  his 
family,  to  pray  the  rosary ;  but  previous  to  their  commencing 
the  prayer,  the  shepherd  said,  "Let  us  pray  five  Ave  Marias 
and  one  Paternoster  for  the  good  of  the  soul  of  this  poor  Jew, 
that  the  Lord  may  guide  him  to  his  fold." 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  9 

They  prayed  five  Ave  Marias  and  one  Paternoster;  and  in 
the  morning,  before  Wolff  left,  the  shepherd  said  to  him, 
"  Friend,  you  are  in  distress  ;  allow  me  to  share  with  you 
what  I  have  got.  I  will  give  you  two  florins,  which  will 
carry  you  well  to  Frankfort."  This  loan  Wolff  accepted,  and 
was  afterwards  able  to  return  it  to  that  excellent  man. 

He  arrived  at  Frankfort  on  the  Maine,  where  he  found  the 
Jews  complete  infidels,  but  benevolent  men,  and  the  Protestants 
neolooists.  So  he  remained  there  only  a  few  months,  teaching- 
Hebrew,  to  get  money  that  he  might  travel  further ;  and  then 
he  came  to  Halle,  where  he  fell  in  with  some  professors,  who  were 
rationalists ;  but  he  also  met  with  one,  Professor  Knapp  by 
name,  a  professor  of  theology,  who  said  to  him,  "  Young  man, 
if  you  would  become  a  Christian,  merely  because  you  believe 
that  Jesus  Christ  was  a  great  philosopher,  remain  what  you 
are.  But  if  you  believe  that  Jesus  Christ  is  the  Son  of  God, 
and  God  above  all,  blessed  for  ever — then  pray  to  God  that 
this  belief  may  penetrate  into  your  heart  and  soul." 

Wolff  had  to  contend  at  Halle  with  much  external  oppo 
sition  both  from  Jews  and  from  the  infidelity  of  Christians  ; 
and  he  suffered  also  from  his  own  mind,  which  was  too  much 
in  the  world,  and  there  wras  much  levity  about  him,  which  he 
himself  confesses.  He  left  Halle  in  the  year  1810,  and  came 
to  Prague,  in  Bohemia,  having  now  in  his  purse  money  enough 
to  carry  him  to  Vienna.  On  his  arrival  at  Prague,  the  Eoman 
Catholics  entirely  mistrusted  him,  saying,  "  Jews  here  become 
Christians  by  hundreds,  without  the  slightest  conviction  of  the 
truth  of  Christianity ;  so  that,  if  a  boy  twelve  years  of  age 
does  not  get  from  his  father  what  he  wants,  he  says  to  him, 
'  Father,  if  you  do  not  grant  my  request,  I  will  hitch '  "  (/.  <?., 
apostatize  !  ).  Wolff  therefore  left  Prague  for  Vienna,  and 
from  Vienna  he  went  to  Presburg,  and  then  back  again  to 
Vienna,  when  every  farthing  of  his  money  was  gone.  Here 
he  walked  about  in  deep  sorrow  near  some  barracks  outside  the 
town,  called  the  Alster  Caserne.  But  while  plunged  in  hope 
less  melancholy,  an  officer  of  the  Austrian  army  came  behind 
him,  whose  name  was  Major  Zsigrey,  of  the  Colloredo  regi 
ment,  and  struck  him  on  the  shoulder,  saying,  "  Young  man, 
why  so  absorbed 2"  Wolff  made  him  acquainted  with  his 
history,  and  present  want  of  means ;  and  showed  him  at  the 
same  time  the  testimonials  he  possessed  from  Professors 
Knapp  and  Niemayer.  Major  Zsio-rey  said,  stroking  his 
moustaches,  "  Young  man,  if  you  will  stay  with  me  in  my 
quarters  for  some  months,  and  make  yourself  useful  to  me,  I 
will  give  you  enough  to  eat  and  drink,  until  you  find  some 

10  Travels  and  Adventures 

friend  to  take  care  of  you."  Wolff  went  with  him,  and  one 
clay  he  was  reading  Virgil  to  himself,  when  the  major  said, 
ul)o  you  understand  this  book?  read  a  little,  and  translate  it 
to  me ;  "  and  Wolff  doing  this  to  his  satisfaction,  he  said, 
"  My  dear  young  friend,  you  must  remain  with  me  as  my 
guest,  and  eat  at  my  table  as  long  as  you  will."  Wolff 
stayed  with  him  about  six  weeks,  and  then  left  Vienna  for 

On  his  way  thither,  he  came  to  Molk,  a  celebrated  Monas 
tery  of  Benedictine  Friars.  He  had  read  in  novels,  and  heard 
even  from  Jews,  that  monasteries  are  the  seats  of  learning, 
where  one  can  improve  one's  self  in  science  and  religion.  He 
therefore  went  to  the  Prior,  whose  name  was  Father  Chris 
topher,  and  spoke  to  him  in  Latin.  Father  Christopher  said, 
"  You  must  be  introduced  by  me  to  Father  Florian  Manuli,  I 
can  do  nothing  without  him,  because  he  is  the  catechist,  and  a 
man  of  great  influence  in  the  monastery."  Manuli  at  once 
agreed  to  Wolffs  desire  to  remain  and  receive  religious  instruc 
tion  in  the  monastery,  arid  said  that  he  was  to  teach  Hebrew 
to  the  students,  and  continue  his  own  Latin  studies,  for  which 
he  was  to  receive  ten  florins  a  week  and  his  food.  This  monas 
tery  was  a  very  splendid  one,  and  the  monks  lived  "  in  dolce 
giubilo,"  amusing  themselves  in  all  kinds  of  ways.  But  they 
did  not  like  Wolff,  and  they  frequently  set  on  their  cook,  who 
was  a  very  handsome  woman,  to  tease  him  ;  and  as  Wolff  was 
once  sitting  at  dinner  with  the  students,  all  of  whom  had 
hitherto  respected  him,  the  cook  came  in,  and  asked  Wolff 
whether  he  would  eat  pork  ?  He  said,  "  Yes,"  and  then  she 
began  to  sing  in  German — 

"  Mauschel  ist  tod  !     Mauschel  ist  tod ! 
1st  er  tod  ?     Sei  er  tod. 
Friszt  er  kein  Speck  und  Brod, 
Mauschel  ist  tod,"  &c.* 

On  hearing  this  song,  Wolff  became  so  angry,  that  he  gave 
the  woman  a  slap  in  the  face,  and  fled  the  monastery,  and  came 
to  Munich. 

At  Munich,  the  Jews  were  most  kind  to  him,  and  he  went 
into  the  Gymnasium  to  study  Latin,  Greek,  history,  and  also 
dancing :  all  which  were  prescribed  by  Government.  Wolff, 

*  "  Moses  is  dead !     Moses  is  dead  ! 
Is  he  dead  ?     Let  him  be  dead. 
Then  he  will  eat  neither  ham  nor  bread, 
Moses  is  dead,"  &c. 
" Mauschel"  is  a  German  nickname  for  Moses. 

of  Dr.  Wolf.  11 

however,  did  not  wish  to  attend  the  dancing  school,  and  he 
was  asked  why  he  would  not  ?  So  he  wrote  a  short  statement 
that  he  had  no  talent  for  dancing.  The  director,  professors, 
and  all  the  committee  burst  out  laughing  when  they  read  his 
letter;  and  he  was  forthwith  desired  to  learn  to  draw.  This 
he  also  declined  for  the  same  reason.  The  director  of  the 
Gymnasium,  whose  name  was  Kajetan  Weiler,  a  serious,  stern- 
looking  man,  and  a  cold  philosopher,  but  of  firm  principles, 
insisted  upon  his  learning  both.  He  never  would  draw  a  line, 
however,  but  got  a  friend  to  do  his  work  for  him,  and  all 
admired  his  skill,  until  he  betrayed  himself  by  telling  them 
laughingly  of  the  imposition.  For  this  offence  he  was  flogged 
with  a  birch,  and  imprisoned  for  twenty-four  hours  on  bread 
and  water,  when  the  director,  a  monk  of  the  Order  of  the 
Theatines,  said,  "  Wolff,  you  had  better  wait  some  years  before 
you  are  baptized ;  the  levity  of  your  mind  is  at  present  too 
great."  Besides  this,  Wolffs  relations  at  Munich  protested 
against  his  being  baptized. 

So  he  left  Munich  after  a  residence  of  six  months,  and  came 
to  Anspach,  where  he  fell  in  with  Protestant  professors,  all  of 
whom  were  rationalists.  For  instance,  Professor  Stephani, 
who  wrote  on  the  Lord's  Supper,  a  work  in  which  he  compared 
our  blessed  Lord  with  Cataline.  Wolff  also  read  the  writings 
of  Professor  Paulus,  on  the  New  Testament,  in  which  he  not 
only  denied  the  Divinity  of  Christ,  but  gave  a  most  revolting 
description  of  his  birth,  for  which  the  reader  is  referred  to 
"  Paulus's  Commentary  on  the  New  Testament."  Wolff  also 
read  the  "  Wolffenbiittelsche  Fragmente,"  which  completely 
disgusted  him  with  Protestanism,  and  determined  him  to  be 
baptized  into  no  other  Christian  Church  but  the  Eoman 
Catholic  ;  in  which  resolution  he  was  confirmed  by  the  perusal 
of  the  beautiful  writings  of  Johann  Michael  Sailer. 

At  last,  Wolff  came,  in  the  year  1811,  to  Saxe  Weimar, 
where  he  studied  under  Director  Lenz,  of  the  Lyceum,  son-in- 
law  to  the  famous  Saltzmann,  who  had  the  celebrated  institu 
tion  called  Schnepfenthal,  near  Gotha,  (a  kind  of  preparatory 
college  for  the  University)  for  young  men  from  England  and 
from  other  countries.  Here,  Johannes  Falk,  the  satirical  poet, 
and  afterwards  a  great  benefactor  to  the  poor,  the  son  of  a  wig- 
maker  of  Dantzic,  but  then  Councillor  of  Legation  at  Weimar, 
and  the  intimate  friend  of  Gothe  and  Schiller,  took  much 
interest  in  Wolff,  and  read  with  him  the  Latin  Classics,  and 
Natural  Philosophy  ;  and  gave  him  to  read  his  own  "  Corio- 
lanus"  and  "  Prometheus ;"  but  Falk  was  at  that  time  a  com 
plete  Pantheist.  When  Wolff  told  him  his  design  of  becoming 

12  Travels  and  Adventures 

a  Christian,  and  of  treading  in  the  footsteps  of  Ignatius  Loyola 
and  Francis  Xavier,  he  said  to  him,  "  Wolff,  let  me  give  you 
a  piece  of  advice.  Remain  what  you  are  ;  for,  if  you  remain  a 
Jew,  you  will  become  a  celebrated  Jew,  but  as  a  Christian  you 
will  never  be  celebrated,  for  there  are  plenty  of  other  clever 
Christians  in  the  world."  One  day,  he  was  walking  out  with 
Falk,  when  a  gentleman,  with  a  commanding  and  wonderful 
countenance,  came  towards  them.  Wolff  said  to  Falk,  UI  am 
sure  this  is  Gothe."  Falk  said,  "How  do  you  know  that  ?" 
Wolff  replied,  "  I  have  read  his  *  Egmont,'  and  I  juc^A>e  from 
that.  For  only  a  man  with  such  a  countenance  could  have 
written  '  Egmont.'  r  Gothe  came  towards  Falk,  and  embraced 
him  in  a  cordial  German  manner.  Then  Falk  told  Gothe, 
"  Now,  imagine,  this  boy  knew  you  from  having  read  your 
1  Egmont.'  r  Gothe  was  flattered  with  this,  and  patted  Wolff's 
head.  Falk  then  told  him,  "  He  wants  to  become  a  Christian, 
and  a  man  like  Francis  Xavier ;  but  I  advise  him  to  remain  a 
Jew.  in  which  case  he  will  become  a  celebrated  Jew/'  Gothe 
said  to  Wolff,  "  Young  man,  follow  the  bent  of  your  own 
mind,  and  don't  listen  to  what  Falk  says." 

Wolff  was  not  pleased  with  the  religion  of  Weimar,  for 
although  the  men  he  met  there  were  far  from  being  infidels, 
still  the  religion  of  Herder,  Gothe,  Schiller,  and  Wieland,  was 
a  mixture  of  poetical,  philosophical,  half  Christian,  half  Hindoo 
materials,  and  not  at  all  to  his  taste.  They  swore  by  Prome 
theus,  and  sympathized  with  Ariadne  upon  Naxos  ;  Kant  and 
Fichte  had  been  their  saints,  and  subjects  of  daily  meditation. 
Nevertheless,  out  of  this  school  of  revivers  of  Greek  mythology 
came  Dr.  Valenti,  who  was  at  first  a  liberal  and  a  revolutionist, 
but  afterwards  became  a  full  believer  in  Christ. 

Wolff  loved  Weimar,  but  he  soon  proceeded  to  Heidelberg, 
where  he  used  to  visit  Johann  Heinrich  Voss,  the  translator  of 
Homer,  and  of  almost  all  the  Latin  and  Greek  poets  ;  and  also 
Creutzer,  the  writer  of  the  "History  of  the  Mythology  of  An 
cient  Nations,"  a  man  of  deep  and  firm  principles.  From 
Heidelberg  Wolff  went  to  the  famous  monastery  called  Santa 
Maria  Einsiedlen,  in  the  canton  of  Schwytz  in  Switzerland; 
and  there  he  read  Hebrew  and  Chaldean  with  the  learned 
father  Genhard,  and  Jacob  Briefer,  for  which  they  paid  him  a 
sum  of  money.  With  this  he  travelled  to  Soleure,  where  he 
was  most  kindly  received  by  Father  Giinter,  and  at  once  asked 
his  permission  to  attend  the  lectures  on  philosophy  at  the  college 
of  Soleure.  But  when  he  added  that,  after  he  should  have  been 
well  instructed  in  the  Catholic  religion,  he  wished  to  be  baptized, 
and  become  a  missionary,  Father  Giinter  replied  :  "  My  dear 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  13 

young  man,  there  has  never  before  been  a  Jew  at  this  college, 
and  if  it  should  be  heard  that  one  had  entered  the  place,  it 
would  alarm  the  whole  town.  Yet  I  wish  you  to  remain  here 
for  the  lectures ;  and  you  may  also  corne  to  me  for  religious 
instruction  every  day.  But  you  must  not  tell  anybody  that 
you  are  a  Jew ;  on  the  contrary,  go  to  church  like  the  rest, 
and  you  can  live  in  the  house  of  a  citizen  of  Soleure,  named 
Alleman,  where  another  student  also  boards,  whose  name  is 

Wolff  accordingly  lived  with  and  became  a  great  friend  of 
Biederman,  and  they  slept  in  one  room,  their  two  beds  stand 
ing  opposite  to  each  other.  A  conversation  once  took  place 
between  them,  whilst  they  were  lying  in  their  respective  beds, 
and  the  night  candle  was  burning.  Wolff"  said  to  Biederman, 
"  We  have  now  been  friends  for  some  months.  I  therefore 
wish  to  make  you  acquainted  with  a  circumstance  about  myself, 
but  I  hope  that  our  acquaintance  will  not  be  disturbed  by  it." 
Biederman  replied,  "  You  may  tell  me  anything,  we  always 
shall  remain  friends."  Wolff  asked  Biederman,  "  Who  do  you 
think,  Biederman,  I  am?"  Biederman  replied,  "To  tell  you 
the  truth,  I  have  always  suspected  you  to  be  a  Berner" — (one 
of  the  Protestant  cantons  in  Switzerland  called  Berne),  by 
which  term  the  Swiss  designate  all  Protestants.  Wolff  asked 
him  the  reason  why  he  suspected  him  of  being  a  "  Berner." 
Biederman  replied,  "Because  you  behave  so  strangely  at 
church.  You  sit  when  others  stand  ;  you  kneel  when  others 
sit."  Wolff  replied,  "Now  I  will  tell  you  who  I  am." 
Biederman  said,  "  Who  are  you? "  Wolff  replied,  "  I  am  a 
Jew."  Biederman  was  so  frightened  that  he  screamed,  and 
leaped  out  of  the  bed ;  the  noise  of  which  roused  the  landlord 
and  landlady,  who  came  naked  into  the  room,  and  said, 
"  What's  the  matter, — is  the  devil  here  among  you?"  Bieder 
man  exclaimed,  "  Worse  than  that,  Wolff  is  a  Jew  ! "  They 
were  greatly  shocked,  but  Wolff  calmed  them  in  a  most  won 
derful  manner  by  what  he  said ;  and  by  explaining  to  them 
that  he  had  come  to  Soleure  in  order  to  be  instructed  in 
Christianity,  and  become  a  missionary.  They  were  quieted, 
therefore  ;  but  the  next  day  the  whole  town  was  full  of  the 
news.  However,  it  did  not  produce  any  bad  consequences  to 
Wolff,  except  that  henceforth  he  was  watched. 

One  day,  before  the  dinner  at  this  lodging,  the  family  turned 
their  faces  towards  the  image  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  with  her 
Holy  Child  Jesus  on  her  knees,  but  Wolff  turned  his  towards 
the  window ;  on  which  the  landlady  said  to  him,  "  Sir,  our 
Lord  God  is  not  near  the  window.  Our  Lord  is  here," — 

14  Travels  and  Adventures 

pointing  to  the  image.  Wolff  indignantly  replied,  "  Our  Lord 
is  everywhere ;  this  is  only  a  piece  of  wood."  The  landlord 
went  immediately  to  Father  Giinter ;  and  then  told  Wolff' 
that  Father  Giiuter  desired  him  to  beg  pardon.  This  Wolff 
declined  to  do  ;  and  so  he  left  the  place,  and  arrived  at  Prague, 
in  Bohemia. 

As  Wolff  was  passing  a  church  in  Pragne,  he  heard  a 
Franciscan  friar  preaching  very  beautifully,  and  staid  to  listen. 
And  after  the  sermon  was  over,  he  went  into  the  vestry  and 
told  who  he  was ;  whereupon  the  Franciscan  friar  spoke  very 
kindly,  and  introduced  him  to  Bishop  Haiii,  to  the  prelate 
Caspar  Royko,  and  to  professor  Ulman,  professor  of  the  Hebrew 
language.  When  Wolff  had  related  the  story  of  his  residence 
at  Soleure,  the  bishop  and  the  rest  of  the  gentlemen  said, — 
"  Thou  art  not  a  common  Jew ;  we  shall  write  to  Soleure  to 
Father  Giinter,  and  if  all  is  as  thou  sayest,  we  shall  instantly 
baptize  you."  This  they  did,  and  Father  Giinter  wrote  a  very 
faithful  letter  in  answer,  stating  the  facts  as  Wolff  had  stated 
them  ;  and  so  Wolff  obtained  his  wish  and  was  baptized  at 
Prague,  by  the  Most  Reverend  Leopold  Zalda,  Abbot  of  the 
Benedictine  Monastery  called  Ernaus,  on  the  13th  September, 
1812,  being  then  seventeen  years  of  age.  His  godfathers 
were  Joseph  Veith  and  Charles  Morawetz,  and  he  received  the 
name  of  "  Joseph."  He  then  went  to  Leutmeritz,  where  he 
was  confirmed  by  the  Bishop  of  Leutmeritz  ;  and  he  received 
at  his  confirmation  the  names  of  "  Stanislaus  Wenceslaus," 
which,  however,  he  has  never  nsed. 


State  of  Religion  at  Vienna ;  Five  Religious  Parties ;  C.  M. 
Hoffbauer;  His  Life  and  Habits;  Count  Btolberg  and  his 

\  S  the  Benedictines  of  Emaus  were  sent,  by  order  of 
-^-  Government,  to  Klattau  in  Bohemia,  for  the  purpose  of 
forming  there  a  Lyceum  (or  preparatory  school  for  the  Uni 
versity),  Wolff  was  requested  to  go  with  them,  that  he  might 
assist  them  in  teaching  German  and  Latin,  which  he  accord 
ingly  did.  But  his  popularity  in  that  place  drew  down  on  him 
the  jealousy  of  the  monks.  He  therefore,  after  having  gained 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  15 

some  money  by  teaching,  returned  to  Prague,  on  his  way  to 
Vienna,  where  he  purposed  studying  the  Arabic,  Persian, 
Chaldean  and  Syriac  languages,  as  well  as  philosophy  and 
theology.  The  famous  philologist,  Father  Dombrowsky,  ex- 
jesuit  and  tutor  to  the  children  of  Prince  Nostitz,  furnished 
Wolff  with  letters  of  recommendation  to  Professor  Johannes 
Jahn,  the  great  oriental  scholar;  and  to  Dr.  Kopitar,  the 
great  Sclavonian  scholar;  and  to  the  celebrated  Joseph  von 
Hammer,  the  greatest  oriental  linguist  in  Vienna,  the  trans 
lator  of  Hafiz,— the  editor  of  "  The  Mines  of  the  East/'  and 
the  author  of  "  The  History  of  the  Osman  Empire."  Joseph 
Wolff  arrived  with  these  letters  at  Vienna,  where  he  was  exa 
mined  by  the  Professors,  and  declared  competent  to  give 
private  lectures  on  the  Chaldean,  Latin,  Hebrew,  and  German 
languages ;  and  at  the  same  time,  he  was  matriculated  student 
of  the  ^University,  and  attended  lectures  on  Arabic,  Eccle 
siastical  History,  and  Divinity.  It  was  here  that  he  became 
acquainted  with  Friedrich  von  Schlegel,  the  great  poet,  philo 
sopher,  historian,  and  critic  of  the  poetry  of  all  nations ;  as 
also  with  his  wife,  Madame  Dorothea  von  Schlegel,  who  was  a 
daughter  of  the  famous  Moses  Medelssohn.  Besides  these,  he 
formed  acquaintance  with  Theodore  Korner,  the  talented 
author  of  the  "  Lyre  and  Sword,"  and  other  poems  ;  and  with 
Baron  von  Penkler,  Aulic-counsellor  of  Austria.  The  above- 
mentioned  Schlegel  and  his  wife,  as  well  as  Penkler,  took  the 
greatest  interest  in  Joseph  Wolff;  and  they  introduced  him 
to  their  Father  Confessor,  Clement  Maria  HofFbauer,  Superior- 
general  of  the  order  of  Redemptorists. 

Before  proceeding  with  WolfFs  history,  it  is  necessary  to 
state  the  condition  of  Roman  Catholicism  in  Vienna.  There 
was  the  archbishop,  with  his  canons  and  priesthood,  who 
belonged  to  that  body  of  Roman  Catholic  clergy  who  may 
be  styled  the  "  Roman  Catholics  of  the  Court/'  That  is, 
they  were  pompous,  and  adorned  with  orders  and  crosses, 
the  rewards  of  courtiers,  and  may  be  compared  with  the 
"high  and  dry"  party  of  the  Church  of  England.  Cer 
tainly,  though,  there  were  amongst  them  people  of  a  different 
and  more  spiritual  character,  such  as  Jacob  Frint,  who  was 
confessor  to  the  Emperor,  and  almoner  to  the  Empress ;  and 
who  wrote  eight  volumes  on  the  tenets  of  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church,  in  which  he  tried  to  defend  them  by  the  assistance  of 
the  writings  of  Emmanuel  Kant,  Fichte,  Schelling,  Bardili, 
Wieland,  Schiller,  Herder,  and  Gothe  ;  and  he  was  a  bene 
volent  man.  All  his  party  believed  in  the  Pope's  supremacy, 
but  they  tried  to  keep  the  Court  of  Rome  within  proper  bounds  ; 

16  Travels  and  Adventures 

and  were  opposed  to  what  they  considered  as  encroachments  of 
the  papal  power  upon  the  rights  of  the  national  church. 

Another  party  in  Vienna  was  that  of  the  followers  of 
Johannes  Jahn,  who  were  strictly  attached  to  scripture,  hut 
leant  somewhat  to  German  neology ;  not  with  regard  to  the 
divinity  of  Christ,  and  the  doctrine  of  the  atonement,  but 
upon  the  grand  question  of  inspiration,  and  the  interpretation 
of  prophecy. 

The  third  party  was  that  of  Johannes  Michael  Sailer,  the 
Fenelon  of  Germany,  and  the  great  Friedrich  Leopold,  Count 
of  Stolberg.  These  united  strict  orthodoxy  and  attachment  to 
the  papal  power,  admiration  for  antiquity  and  the  fathers,  firm 
adherence  to  the  dogmas  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  and 
belief  in  the  miracles  of  that  Church,  with  rejection  of  what  is 
called  "pious  opinion."  As,  for  instance,  they  rejected  not 
only  the  immaculate  conception  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  but 
denied  the  necessity  of  asking  the  intercession  of  the  Virgin  or 
of  saints ;  and  their  minds  revolted  at  the  notion  of  worship 
being  addressed  to  any  but  the  Most  High.  They  believed 
in  the  infallibility  of  the  Church,  but  denied  that  of  the 

There  was  a  fourth,  but  small  party,  the  Mystical  Party,  or 
the  so-called  Peschelites.  Peschel  was  an  interpreter  of  the 
Revelation  of  St.  John ;  and  he  taught  that  people  ought  to 
be  so  inflamed  by  the  love  of  Christ,  that  they  might  desire 
with  St.  PauJ  to  "  know  the  fellowship  of  his  sufferings,  being 
made  conformable  unto  his  death.'1  PescheFs  followers  took 
up  this  idea  further,  and  insisted  that  Christians  should  con 
tinue  the  atonement  among  themselves ;  with  which  view  they 
assembled  on  a  Good  Friday  in  a  certain  house,  and  cast  lots 
for  one  to  be  crucified ;  and  he  on  whom  the  lot  fell  was  to  be 
sacrificed.  The  lot  fell  on  the  first  occasion  upon  a  poor 
butcher's  maid-servant,  who  actually  submitted  to  her  fate,  and 
suffered  with  great  fortitude  and  patience.  But  the  next  time 
it  fell  on  a  fat  Roman  Catholic  priest,  who  did  not  relish  the 
thought  at  all ;  and  so  he  gave  notice  to  the  police,  who  took 
the  mystics  into  custody,  and  Wolff  himself  saw  Peschel  in 
prison.  Peschel  was  a  most  amiable-minded  man.  He  never 
retracted  any  of  his  opinions  ;  and  when  the  archbishop  wished 
him  to  recant,  he  replied,  "  You  are  a  blasphemer."  He  never 
theless  confessed  to  Wolff  that  he  had  not  intended  his  fol 
lowers  to  proceed  to  such  lengths  as  they  had  done. 

The  fifth  party  was  that  of  Clement  Maria  Hoffbauer,  who 
was  supported  by  the  elite  of  Germany's  learned  men,  Frie 
drich  von  Schlegel,  and  his  wife,  nee  Dorothea  Mendelssohn, 

of  Dr.  Wolf  17 

Friedrich  Ludwig  Zacharias  Werner,  the  author  of  the  cele 
brated  poem,  "  Weihe  der  Kraft,"  or  "  Martin  Luther/"  and 
Adam  Mtiller,  philosopher  and  historian :  and  around  Hoff- 
bauer  all  the  great  nobility  of  Poland,  and  the  archbishops  and 
bishops  of  Hungary  rallied,  showing  that  they  were  willing  to 
engage  to  serve  under  his  banner.  The  working  clergy  of 
Austria  in  the  country,  and  the  mystical  philosophers  of 
Austria,  the  Pope's  Nuncio,  and  the  great  Cardinal  Consalvi, 
were  all  friends  to  Hoff bauer ;  and  Pope  Pius  VII.  also  coun 
tenanced  him,  and  admired  his  zeal.  To  bring  back  the  spirit 
of  the  Middle  Ages  was  his  great  design  ;  and  he  had  a  firm 
belief  in  the  papal  power.  A  burning  love  towards  the  Virgin 
Mary,  and  all  the  saints,  and  belief  in  the  perpetuity  of  the 
power  of  miracles  in  the  church  of  Rome,  were  doctrines  which 
he  powerfully  impressed  from  the  pulpit,  united  with  a  love  of 
Jesus  Christ. 

We  must  now  describe  the  outward  appearance  of  Hoffbauer. 
He  was  about  five  feet  seven  inches  high,  with  a  penetrating 
shrewd  eye.  He  wore  a  three-cornered  cocked  hat  upon  his 
head,  a  black  gown  of  rough  cloth  over  his  body,  and  a  girdle 
round  his  loins.  Shoes  without  buckles,  and  rough  stockings 
of  coarse  wool  were  on  his  feet.  He  always  knitted  his  own 
stockings,  sitting  upon  a  sofa  of  black  leather.  He  had  in  his 
room  a  little  altar,  upon  which  a  crucifix  was  placed,  with  the 
picture  of  the  Virgin  Mary.  His  room  was  divided  into 
several  parts,  where  his  young  priests  had  each  a  table,  at  which 
they  wrote.  He  rose  at  four  o'clock  in  the  morning,  when  he 
was  heard  reciting  the  Lord's  Prayer  and  Ave  Maria  ;  and 
going  down  stairs,  he  whispered  a  short  prayer  on  his  way  to 
church,  where  he  celebrated  the  mass,  and  heard  confessions. 
He  preached  five  times  a  clay,  always  coming  home  to  dinner 
at  twelve  o'clock  precisely.  Then  he  gave  a  knock  upon  the 
table,  to  summon  all  the  clergy  and  the  young  men  to  assemble 
together  in  his  room,  where  they  knelt  down,  whilst  he  directed 
a  meditation  on  some  spiritual  subject — as,  for  instance,  on  the 
importance  of  spending  our  lives  usefully  in  the  service  of  God, 
and  for  the  good  of  mankind. 

His  sermons  were  most  extraordinary.  Sometimes  he 
preached  the  Gospel  of  Christ  with  such  power,  that  it  could 
never  be  forgotten  by  any  one  who  heard  him.  He  one  day 
preached  about  prayer,  when  he  said,  "  Many  a  great  sinner 
says,  '  I  will  pray  when  I  shall  be  nigh  to  death.'  But  do  you 
recollect  Antiochus,  who  also  prayed  when  the  very  worms 
were  gnawing  him,  and  when  he  was  nigh  to  death?  Yet, 
what  does  the  Spirit  say  of  his  prayer,  '  Uncl  der  Bdsewicht 


18  Travels  and  Adventures 

hub  an,  und  betete  zu  dem  Herrn,  der  sich  nun  niclit  mehr 
liber  ihn  erbarmen  wolte.'  Thus  this  bad  man  prayed,  but  his 
prayer  was  not  heard,  and  so  will  it  be  with  some  of  you  here." 
Sometimes  lie  would  preach  about  apparitions  of  spirits,  who 
came  from  purgatory,  or  even  from  hell ;  and  he  would  describe 
the  appearance  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  with  a  golden  crown  upon 
her  head.  Sometimes  ho  lamented  the  decay  of  the  customs 
and  manners  of  the  monks.  It  is  worth  while  to  give  extracts 
from  some  of  his  sermons. 

"  A  Jew,  converted  to  the  Roman  Catholic  religion,  once 
entered  a  monastery  of  Jesuits,  where  he  was  highly  revered 
for  his  holy  life.  But  one  day,  when  he  was  reading  mass  at 
the  altar,  and  consecrating  the  host,  he  was  overheard  cursing 
Christ  by  one  of  the  monks.  That  monk  denounced  him  to 
the  Superior,  when  he  defended  himself  in  such  a  way,  that 
he  was  unanimously  declared  to  be  innocent.  That  same  night, 
however,  he  entered  the  cell  of  the  monk  who  had  accused  him, 
and  compelled  him,  by  threatenings,  to  deny  his  faith,  after 
which  he  smothered  him.  The  next  day.  the  monk  was  found 
dead  in  his  bed ;  and  all  the  fathers  declared  it  to  be  the  judg 
ment  of  God  upon  him  for  his  calumny  of  the  Jew.  But,  on 
a  certain  day,  when  they  were  all  seated  at  dinner,  the  dead 
man  appeared,  and  told  the  whole  history ;  and  then  he  took 
liold  of  the  Jew  by  the  hair,  and  dragged  him  down  to  the 
lower  world." 

It  may  be  well,  also,  to  mix  up  with  his  sermons,  some  of 
his  private  conversation.  He  once  related  the  following  story 
of  Martin  Luther  :  "  A  preacher,  in  Switzerland,  exclaimed  in 
a  sermon,  '  My  dear  brethren,  shall  I  bring  forth  Luther  from 
hell  V  They  exclaimed,  '  Yes  f  '  Well,'  he  cried,  '  Luther  !' 
And  a  voice  from  outside  was  heard  asking,  '  What  do  you 
want  T  '  Come  in,1  was  the  reply,  '  and  show  yourself  that 
you  are  in  hell !'  Then  Luther  came  in,  in  his  old  gown,  roar 
ing  dreadfully ;  and  with  a  kettle  of  sulphur  upon  his  head, 
with  which  he  made  such  a  stench,  that  all  the  congregation 
ran  out  of  the  church." 

One  day,  Hoffbauer  and  his  clergy  and  pupils  (amongst 
whom  was  Wolff)  were  sitting  at  a  table  reciting  the  breviary 
together.  Hoffbauer  sat  on  his  black  leather  sofa  alone,  with  the 
table  before  him,  on  the  opposite  side  of  which  were  the  clergy 
and  pupils.  He  had  a  snuff-box  before  him,  which  suddenly, 
by  itself,  began  to  hop  up  and  down — to  hop  up  and  down — 
and  to  make  a  noise  like  this  :  "  piff '  pciff- — piff  paff"  Hoff 
bauer  at  once  said,  "  Father  Hiebel  has  died  this  moment  at 
Warsaw,  and  we  must  read  mass  pro  animis  in  purgatorio  " — 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  19 

for  the  souls  in  purgatory.  They  celebrated  the  mass  on  the 
following-  day ;  and  a  fortnight  afterwards  a  letter  arrived  from 
Warsaw,  saying  that  Father  Hiebel,  one  of  the  order  of 
Redemptorists,  had  died  in  odour  of  great  sanctity.  Father 
Hiebel  was  a  most  intimate  friend  of  Hoffbauer. 

Wolff  once  praised  Pope  Ganganelli,  when  Hoffbauer  ex 
claimed,  "  You  are  full  of  Lutheranism  ;  your  very  face  is  that 
of  Luther."  Another  time,  Wolff  observed,  "  I  can  under 
stand  the  reasonableness  of  indulgence  being  a  remission  of 
temporal  punishments  ;  but  I  can  never  understand  what  pur 
gatory  has  to  do  with  it."  Hoffbauer  said,  u  Luther  !  Luther ! 
you  stink  of  Lutheranism.1'  Baron  von  Penkler,  who  was  the 
only  person  that  presumed  to  remonstrate  with  Hoffbauer,  said, 
"  The  openness  of  Wolff  ought  to  be  encouraged  in  the  highest 
degree,  for  I  never  saw  a  young  man  of  the  Jewish  nation  be 
fore  who  said  just  what  he  thought/''  Hoffbauer  then  said, 
"  Ganganelli  was  made  pope  through  the  influence  of  the  Jan- 

Now  then  for  another  of  his  sermons,  from  which  it  is  worth 
while  to  give  an  extract,  as  it  refers  to  the  decay  of  monas 
teries.  He  said  to  the  monks  in  a  public  sermon.  "  Oh,  you 
friars,  who  spend  your  days  in  eating  and  drinking,  and  in 
playing  billiards  and  in  dancing,  let  me  tell  you  a  story.  There 
was  a  monastery  with  which  I  am  well  acquainted  :  the  monks 
there  spent  their  days  in  eating  and  drinking,  and  being  merry. 
And  one  day,  the  lay  brother  was  preparing  to  spread  the 
table,  when  there  entered  the  refectory  a  company  of  strange 
monks,  with  the  abbot  in  their  midst.  The  strange  abbot  said, 
'  Call  down  stairs  the  abbot  and  the  rest  of  your  monks.'  They 
came,  when  that  strange  abbot  commenced  as  follows :  •'  Two 
hundred  and  fifty  years  ago,  we  were  inmates  of  this  monas 
tery,  and  we  lived  the  same  sort  of  life  that  you  do  now ;  and  now 
we  are  all  lost  in  hell.'  Then  the  strange  monks  commenced  with 
a  loud  chanting  voice,  *  Gloria  Patri,  et  Filio,  et  Spiritui 
sancto  ;""  and  the  chorus  replied,  '  Sicut  crat  in  principle,  mine 
et  semper  in  scecula  scvculorum>  Amen?  '  Here  Hoffbauer 
added,  "  This  is  their  condemnation,  that  the  lost  souls  must 
give  glory  to  God  against  their  will ;"  and  then  he  continued, 
"  After  this,  the  strange  monk  exclaimed,  'Domimis  nobiscum ;' 
and  a  voice  was  heard  from  out  of  the  ground,  c  Dominus  non 
vobiscum  ,-'  upon  which  a  fire  came  out  and  destroyed  them 
all  !" 

The  King  of  Bavaria  and  the  Austrian  princes  venerated 
Hoffbauer  so  much,  that  they  would  sometimes  come  to  kiss  his 
hand;  his  alms  were  unbounded,  but  he  frequently  gave  with  a 

c  2 

20  Travels  and  Adventures 

bad  grace.  Once  a  poor  man  came  to  him  for  assistance  ;  he  gave 
him  ten  florins,  but  he  said  at  the  same  time,  "  Nun  gehe  liin, 
und  sage  uherall  die  Pfaffen  stud  grosze  Schurken.'" 

His  zeal  in  the  pulpit,  and  at  the  confessional,  was  very 
great.  One  day,  when  he  had  been  bled,  the  bandage  came 
undone  in  the  pulpit,  and  he  sank  down  fainting ;  but  on  reco 
vering,  he  simply  said  to  one  of  the  priests,  "  Tie  the  bandage 
more  firmly,1'  and  then  he  continued  his  discourse. 

Nevertheless,  there  were  two  traits  of  his  character  which  it 
is  difficult  to  reconcile  witli  his  fame.  These  were,  first,  a 
most  violent  temper,  which  he  occasionally  displayed,  even  for 
the  slightest  trifles;  and  secondly,  the  excess  to  which  he  car 
ried  mental  reservation.  For  instance, — once,  one  of  his  secre 
taries  had  not  come  at  the  moment  he  called  him,  so  he  seized 
a  glass  that  stood  near,  and  smashed  it  to  atoms  ;  and  he  would 
sometimes  strike  his  clergy  at  the  altar,  and  then  excuse  him 
self  by  observing,  u  I  am  determined  not  to  be  like  Eli ;  who, 
for  having  overlooked  the  faults  of  his  children,  broke  his 
neck,  and  wras  rejected  of  God." 

The  mental  reservation  system  was  carried  on  by  him  in  a 
most  remarkable  way.  To  prove  this,  it  is  only  necessary  to 
cite  the  history  of  Rosalia,  the  daughter  of  a  rich  merchant  at 
Vienna,  in  the  year  1812.  She  was  about  23  years  old,  and 
Hoffbauer  was  her  confessor  ;  she  daily  visited  him  in  his  own 
house,  and  he  consigned  her  to  the  spiritual  direction  of  Joseph 
von  Libowsky,  who,  in  Wolff's  judgment,  was  the  most  envious, 
jealous,  uncharitable,  uncouth,  odious,  mischief-making,  heart 
less,  irreligious  fellow  in  existence.  But  he  took  infinite  trouble 
with  Rosalia,  conversed  with  her  in  favour  of  his  Order,  and 
showed  her  the  pictures  of  holy  women  to  excite  her  zeal.  Wolff 
saw  one  of  those  pictures  ;  it  was  that  of  a  fine  and  beautiful 
lady  lying  on  the  ground,  with  a  rosary  in  her  hand.  Her 
eyes  were  directed  to  Heaven ;  but  upon  her  body,  mice  and 
rats  were  gnawing,  and  she  was  covered  with  thorns.  In  this 
state  this  woman  was  represented  to  have  lain  thirty  years  on 
the  ground.  By  such  stimulants  Rosalia's  mind  was  inflamed 
with  the  desire  of  becoming  a  saint. 

Joseph  Wolff  left  Vienna  in  the  year  1814,  for  Count  Stol- 
bergX  and  afterwards  went  to  Rome,  but  on  his  return  to 
Vienna  in  the  year  1818,  he  went  to  Hoffbauer,  and  finding 
that  Rosalia  was  no  longer  there,  he  asked,  with  his  usual  sim 
plicity,  u  What  has  become  of  Rosalia?"  HofFbauer  got  into 
a  rage,  which  was  awful,  and  said,  "  What  have  you  to  do  with 
it  ?  Has  your  curiosity  no  bounds  ?"  Wolff  dared  not  to  say 
another  word,  but  one  of  Hoffbauer's  young  clergy,  Martin 

of  Dr.  Wolf.  21 

Stark  by  name,  took  AVolff  aside,  and  said,  "  Let  me  advise 
you,  WolfF,  never  to  mention  the  name  of  Rosalia  again,  she 
has  disappeared.  Nobody  knows  where  she  has  gone ;  Hoft- 
bauer  has  been  examined,  and  all  of  us,  before  the  consistory, 
and  the  archbishop  himself,  and  by  the  police,  but  nothing  is 
known  about  her,  and  the  police  have  already  spent  50,000 
dollars  (which  is  ^8,000)  to  find  her,  but  in  vain."  Wolff 
believed  it  all. 

One  day,  however,  he  called  upon  a  neighbour  of  Hoff  bauer, 
a  lady  who  was  also  his  own  personal  friend.  This  lady,  whose 
name  was  Bieringer,  was  herself  bent  upon  entering  a  convent. 
She  said  to  Wolff,  in  a  most  significant  manner,  "  Do  you 
think  Hoffbauer  does  not  know  where  Rosalia  is  ? "  Wolff 
replied,  "  So  I  have  been  informed."  Miss  Bieringer  again 
smiled  in  a  most  penetrating  manner,  as  if  she  would  have  said, 
"  I  know  better."  Soon  after  this,  Wolff  came  to  Val-Sainte, 
where  he  met  Joseph  Srna.  He  asked  Wolff,  "  Have  you 
heard  anything  about  what  has  become  of  Rosalia  ?  "  Wolff 
pleaded  ignorance.  Srna  smiled  in  a  very  cunning  way.  At 
last  Father  Joseph  Sabelli  arrived  in  the  Monastery  of  Val- 
Sainte.  The  first  word  he  said  to  Srna  was,  "  At  last  Rosalia 
has  been  discovered;  but,  God  be  praised,  she  has  confessed 
nothing,  except  that  Count  Dahalsky  had  given  her  money  for 
travelling."  Sabelli  continued,  "  I  went  that  same  night  to 
Dahalsky,  and  told  him  how  far  Rosalia  had  confessed."" 
(Count  Dahalsky  was  a  great  friend  of  the  Redemptorists.) 
He  replied,  "  I  don't  care  for  it,  I  may  give  my  money  to 
whom  I  please."" 

In  short,  the  whole  history  of  Rosalia  was  this.  The  Re 
demptorists  wishing  to  establish  a  nunnery,  composed  of  the 
daughters  of  high  people,  and  to  have  the  first  nunnery  at 
Bucharest,  Rosalia  was  to  be  sent  there.  But  as  emigration 
was  not  allowed  in  Austria,  and  as  they  were  well  convinced 
that  her  parents  would  not  give  their  consent,  the  affair  was 
arranged  so  as  to  delude  the  public  as  to  Rosalia's  real  inten 
tion  ;  and  to  enable  the  Redemptorists  to  have  the  appearance 
of  sincerity  if  they  should  be  questioned  about  her  by  the 
ecclesiastical  and  civil  authorities.  She  was  to  go  about  among 
her  friends,  and  say  in  a  joking  manner,  that  she  was  about  to 
go  to  Rome  ;  so  that  if  they  should  be  examined  after  her  dis 
appearance,  whether  she  had  never  given  any  intimation  of  her 
intention,  or  told  them  where  she  was  going,  they  might  answer, 
with  an  appearance  of  candour.  "  Yes,  she  told  us  that  she  was 
going  to  Rome."  And  again,  she  was  to  change  her  name,  and 
to  be  called  "  Phillipina,"  instead  of  Rosalia,  so  that  they 

22  Travels  and  Adventures 

might  say  with  safety,  that  they  knew  not  where  "Rosalia" 

But  the  most  ignoble  part  of  all  this  affair  was,  that  while 
Hoffbauer  himself  was  acquainted  with  the  whole  proceeding ; 
whenever  he  was  examined  before  the  consistory,  or  before  the 
police,  instead  of  answering  the  questions,  he  began  to  preach 
justice  to  them,  and  left  the  whole  defence  upon  the  shoulders 
of  his  younger  ecclesiastics.  Yet  when  he  came  home  from 
the  tribunal,  he  would  reproach  these  very  ecclesiastics  for 
their  criminal  conduct  in  having  meddled  at  all  with  Rosalia. 

One  fact  more  about  Hoffbauer,  and  then  we  shall  have  done 
with  him.  In  the  year  1818  he  was  living  with  some  of  his 
clergy  in  his  private  house,  whilst  a  few  others  of  them  resided 
elsewhere,  among  friends  of  the  Order.  But  these  came  every 
day  to  their  brethren  at  Hoffbauer's,  where  they  all  prayed 
together  from  the  breviary,  and  lived,  to  a  certain  extent,  in 
the  communion  of  their  Order,  though  not  in  strict  observance 
of  its  rules,  which  can  only  be  properly  carried  out  in  a  monas 
tery.  Father  Johannes  Sabelli,  Hoffbauer's  secretary,  how 
ever,  was  not  satisfied  with  this  make-shift  arrangement,  com 
plaining  that  it  was  not  in  accordance  with  his  vows.  And  at 
last  he  asked  to  go  to  a  monastery,  which  a  branch  of  the 
Order  had  established  in  Switzerland,  called  Yal-Sainte, 
near  Fribourg,  but  Hoffbauer  would  not  allow  this.  And  as 
blind  obedience  to  the  Superior  is  their  rule,  Sabelli  could  not 
have  his  own  way.  But,  meanwhile,  to  the  monastery  he  was 
determined  to  go.  And  one  day  he  said  to  Wolff,  "  Now 
mark,  Joseph  Wolff,  in  six  weeks  from  to-day  you  will  witness 
a  spectacle,  which  you  have  never  seen  before  in  this  house. 
And  you  will  see  that  Hoffbauer  will  be  obliged  to  let  me  go 
to  Val-Sainte;11 

After  six  weeks  were  over,  on  the  very  day  that  Father 
Sabelli  had  predicted  something  strange,  the  chief  secretary  of 
the  Pope^s  Nuncio  entered  the  room  of  Hoffbauer,  where  the 
society  were  all  assembled,  and  delivered  to  Johannes  Sabelli 's 
own  hand  a  letter  from  the  Pope.  This  was  most  unusual,  for 
the  Superior  opened  all  letters  ;  for  whomsoever  they  might  be 
directed.  The  letter  was  to  this  effect :  "  You  must  tell  Hoff 
bauer,  respectfully,  that  you  wish  to  go  to  Yal-Sainte,  and  ask 
his  permission.  If  he  lets  you  go,  well.  If  he  objects,  go 
without  his  permission."  Sabelli,  on  receiving  the  letter,  went 
up-stairs  to  read  it,  whilst  the  Nuncio's  secretary  coolly  sat 
down  on  the  black  sofa  with  Hoffbauer,  and  gave  to  him  also  a 
letter  from  the  Pope.  When  Hoffbauer  read  it,  he  flew  into 
a  violent  rage,  and  exclaimed,  "  I  know  what  I  will  do ;  the 

of  Dr.  Wolff\  23 

Court  of  Eome  sliall  fall  down  to  the  ground.  It  is  I  who 
make  Itomaii  Catholics  at  Vienna,  not  the  Pope ! "  And 
having  said  this,  he  left  the  poor  secretary  on  the  sofa,  whilst 
he  walked  off,  to  hear  confession  in  Vienna.  Nor  did  he  waste 
one  single  word  of  remonstrance  upon  Sabelli.  The  Popovs 
Nuncio,  meantime,  evidently  afraid  to  incur  the  displeasure  of 
so  powerful  a  man  as  Hoffbauer,  conciliated  him  in  a  most 
crafty  manner.  On  the  following  day,  the  secretary  (ii-ditore) 
called  again,  and  sat  down  with  him  upon  his  black  leathern 
sofa,  and  said  to  him,  "  Now,  Father  Hoffbauer,  let  us  not 
quarrel ;  the  thing  may  be  remedied  to  your  satisfaction. 
Emigration  is  not  allowed  by  the  Austrian  Government.  I 
will,  therefore,  write  to  Home,  that  Sabelli  cannot  get  permis 
sion  from  the  Austrian  Government  to  go  to  Switzerland,  and 
the  whole  affair  will  be  over." 

The  Pope's  Nuncio  proposed  this  because  he  well  knew  that 
Hoffbauer  would  not  for  one  moment  show  submission  to  the 
power  of  the  Austrian  Government;  and  so  it  proved,  and 
Hoffbauer  consented  at  once  to  Sabelli's  departure. 

We  have  had  almost  enough  of  that  extraordinary  man  who, 
with  the  assistance  of  Messieurs  Schlegel,  Pilat,  and  the  poet 
Werner,  ruled  the  whole  ultra-Montane  party  at  Vienna,  and 
upset  the  influence  of  the  courtier  clergy,  who  went  about  orna 
mented  with  the  stars  of  the  Emperor.  He  could  not  bear, 
however,  the  mystical  pomposity  of  the  German  philosophers 
and  their  philosophical  terminology,  although  he  had  a  high 
regard  for  Schlegel  and  the  Abbot  of  Saint  Gallen.  "  These 
arc  two  very  learned  men,'11  he  said  ;  "  I  can  understand  them, 
but  all  the  rest  doirt  understand  themselves."  Of  Werner  he 
said,  "  He  is  a  man  without  dignity,  and  full  of  vanity  and 
self-conceit."  One  anecdote  more  about  him  will  illustrate  his 
opinion  of  the  German  philosophers.  The  famous  Adam 
Miiller  once  talked  to  him  for  a  whole  hour.  He  allowed  him 
to  go  on,  but  after  he  had  done,  coolly  said  to  him,  "  Pray, 
Adam  Miiller,  can  you  explain  to  me  the  meaning  of  what  you 
have  said  ?  I  have  not  understood  one  single  word." 

Father  Abraham  Santa  Clara  was  Superior  of  the  Monastery 
of  Saint  Augustine  in  Vienna,  under  the  Emperor  Leopold  L 
He  was  a  man  of  most  holy  life,  but  possessed  great  wit  and 
humour.  The  conversions  which  he  made  amongst  the  people 
were  astonishing  ;  but  his  mode  of  preaching  would  scarcely  be 
tolerated  now,  even  at  Vienna,  where  the  people  are,  as  they 
say  in  Yorkshire,  an  "  outspoken"  people.  For  instance,  he 
preached  against  gluttony,  when  he  said,  "  Imagine  these  Jews., 
what  gluttons  they  were  !  They  had  manna  given  them  in  the 

24  Travels  and  Adventures 

desert  which  had  the  taste  of  every  food  in  the  world.  When 
they  wanted  chocolate  of  Spain,*  it  tasted  like  that.  When 
they  wanted  sausages  of  Pomerania,  it  tasted  like  them. 
When  they  wanted  fricasses  of  France,  it  tasted  like  them. 
When  they  wanted  roast  beef  of  Austria,  it  tasted  like  that. 
When  they  wanted  golatsclien  of  Bohemia,  it  resembled  that. 
When  they  wanted  sweet,  it  was  sweet :  if  they  wished  it  acid, 
it  was  so  :  if  they  liked  it  cold,  it  was  cold  :  and  whatever  they 
desired  they  had  ;  but,  after  all,  those  nasty  fellows  wanted  to 
go  back  to  their  garlick  in  Egypt."  Then  again  he  instanced 
Esau,  who  "  went  and  sold  his  birthright  for  a  mess  of  pottage ! 
Now,  if  he  had  sold  it  for  a  piece  of  almond  cake,  there  would 
have  been  some  taste  in  that." 

Again,  he  one  day  preached  about  dancing,  and  said,  "  0 
you  unpolished  people,  everything  you  do  is  sin  :  the  way  you 
dance  is  sin.  The  Virgin  Mary  also  danced,  but  how  did  she 
do  it  ?"  He  then  showed  them  in  the  pulpit  how  she  danced, 
uttering  at  the  same  time  a  slow  and  soft  cadence.  "  But  how 
do  people  dance  now  !"  And  then  Father  Abraham  danced 
about  in  great  fury,  saying,  "  Trallalum,  trallalum,  trallalum  : 
so  that  the  feet  go  over  the  head.'11 

One  day,  he  laid  a  wager  that  he  would  make  one  half  of  his 
congregation  weep,  whilst  the  other  half  should  be  in  fits  of 
laughter.  So  he  preached  a  most  powerful  sermon,  and  the 
church  was  crowded.  It  was  upon  the  Resurrection,  and  he 
spoke  with  such  power  that  those  who  stood  in  front  were 
bathed  in  tears,  whilst  those  who  stood  behind  were  continually 
laughing.  This  was  because  he  had  tied  the  tail  of  a  fox  to 
the  back  of  his  head,  which,  when  he  became  animated,  wagged 
about  in  the  most  absurd  manner.  If  any  one  wishes  to  know 
more  about  Abraham  Santa  Clara,  he  had  better  read  his  book 
of  sermons,  called  "Judas  the  Arch  Scoundrel." 

Whilst  WolfF  was  at  Vienna,  he  went  into  a  church  one  day, 
and  stood  near  the  altar  of  Saint  Peregrine,  where  lie  saw  an 
old  lady  weeping,  who  said,  "  O  Saint  Peregrine,  pray  with 
me  to  Jesus  Christ  and  the  Virgin  Mary,  in  order  that  I  may 
not  starve  with  my  husband  and  my  grandchildren. "  WolfF 
overheard  this,  as  she  was  kneeling  near  to  where  he  was  ; 
and  as  he  had  just  three  ducats  in  his  pocket,  he  gave  them  to 
the  woman,  who,  overpowered  by  his  generosity,  exclaimed, 
"O  Saint  Peregrine,  thy  prayer,  indeed,  has  assisted  me!"' 
This  she  said  with  such  emotion,  that  the  people  crowded 
round  her ;  and  as  she  was  a  person  both  known  and  respected 
in  the  neighbourhood,  they  all  considered  it  a  miraculous  inter 
position  of  God  in  her  behalf.  And  Madlener,  the  famous 

of  Dr.  Wolf.  25 

Redemptorist,  who  loved  Wolff,  addressed  the  people,  and  said, 
"  You  see  that  the  prayer  of  the  righteous  Peregrine  has  pre 
vailed  much ;  and  also  you  see  how  God  has  converted  men 
amongst  the  Jews,  for  Joseph  Wolff  is  of  Jewish  nation." 
The  whole  of  this  was  rumoured  all  about  Vienna,  as  a  mira 
culous  intervention  of  God,  and  that  Joseph  Wolff  had  been 
the  instrument  of  it.  And  Wolff  himself  considers  that  it  was 
a  miracle ;  and  he  openly  avows  that  there  are  miracles  per 
formed  at  this  day,  not  only  in  the  Eoman  Catholic  Church, 
but  also  in  the  Greek  Church,  also  by  Presbyterians,  and  not 
only  by  priests,  but  also  by  laymen  and  women. 

Wolff  lived  two  happy  years  in  Vienna,  and  studied  there 
history,  ecclesiastical  and  profane,  and  Eastern  languages. 
There,  also,  he  cultivated  the  acquaintance  of  many  remarkable 
persons,  and  made  a  journey,  during  the  vacations,  to  Pres- 
burg,  where  he  was  introduced  to  the  famous  Canon  Jordansky, 
and  underwent  an  examination  in  practical  philosophy.  Thence 
he  went  to  Pesth  and  Bude,  and  saw  the  great  Archbishop  of 
Erlau,  Baron  von  Fischer  by  name.  By  making  the  acquaint 
ance  of  Schedius,  Schwardner,  and  Szabo,  the  translator  of 
Homer  and  Virgil  into  the  Hungarian  language,  and  Maron, 
the  author  of  the  "  Hungarian  Grammar,'1  also  the  gentle 
manly  Baron  Szebesy,  in  Erlau,  Wolff  conceived  a  high  idea 
of  the  great  talents  and  learning  of  the  Hungarians,  and  was 
convinced  that  there  are  great  geniuses  among  many  of  those 
nations  who  are  often  considered  to  be  barbarians.  During  his 
journey  from  Presburgh  to  Pesth  he  travelled  in  the  carriage 
of  a  Hungarian  nobleman,  Trevenjack  de  Taktakenyes  by 
name,  who  recited  aloud  the  whole  of  WielamFs  "  Oberon," 
without  making  a  single  mistake. 

When  Wolff  returned  to  Vienna,  he  began  a  translation  of 
the  Bible  into  German,  which  was  admired  by  the  first  scholars 
in  Germany,  to  whom  he  showed  specimens ;  and  after  Fre 
derick  Leopold  Count  of  Stolberg,  had  heard  of  him,  he  sent 
him  an  invitation  to  his  palace,  called  Tatenhaiiscn,  near 
Bielefeld,  in  the  county  of  llavensberg  in  Westphalia.  On 
his  way  thither  he  remained  awhile  with  the  Fcnelon  of  the 
Catholic  Church  in  Germany,  Father  Johannes  Michael  Sailer, 
to  whom  he  was  introduced  by  letters  from  Ignatius  Heinrich 
von  Wessenberg,  the  coadjutor  of  the  Archbishop  Prince 
Primas,  Baron  von  Dalberg,  Archbishop  of  Ratisbon  and 
Bishop  of  Constance.  Sailer  introduced  Wolff  to  the  Pro 
fessors  of  Landshut,  Drs.  Salat,  Zimmer,  and  Ast,  and  they 
asked  him  to  give  a  lecture  on  Hebrew  before  the  University 

26  Travels  and  Adventures 

of  Landshut,  which  was  received  with  enthusiasm.  This  was 
in  the  year  1814. 

Thence  Wolff  proceeded  to  Ratisbon,  and  was  welcomed  at 
the  house  of  the  philosopher  Klein,  who  treated  him  with  the 
greatest  affection,  and  gave  him  introductory  letters  to  Drs. 
Mohler,  Kanne,  and  Schubert,  in  Niirnberg,  where  Wolff 
rested  for  several  days.  And  here  he  was  much  struck  by 
two  remarkable  characters  whom  he  met.  One  was  Kanne, 
who  was  a  mighty  genius,  acquainted  with  the  whole  Eastern 
literature  and  philosophy ;  but  who  for  many  years  denied  the 
greater  part  of  the  history  of  the  Bible,  and  declared  it  to  be 
a  mere  mythos,  until,  suddenly,  he  was  struck  by  the  light 
ning  of  the  grace  of  God,  and  became  a  humble  believer  in  the 
Lord  Jesus :  and  it  was  when  under  the  influence  of  this  con 
viction  that  Wolff  found  him.  The  other  man  was  Schubert, 
who  is  still  alive,  a  philosopher  and  physician.  He  was  on 
the  point  of  becoming  a  Roman  Catholic,  but  retraced  his 
steps,  and  remained  a  pious  believer  in  Jesus,  within  the  pale 
of  the  Lutheran  communion.  Wolff's  stay  was  in  the  house 
of  Dr.  Mohler,  a  Norwegian,  who  had  been  converted  to 
Roman  Catholicism  by  Count  Stolberg,  and  whose  son  is  now 
Professor  of  History  at  Lou  vain  e,  in  Belgium,  and  a  mighty 
champion  for  the  prerogative  of  the  Papal  power,  and  the 
mediaeval  times. 

From  Niirnberg  Wolff  proceeded  to  Aschaffenburg,  where 
he  remained  for  several  days  in  the  house  of  the  philosopher 
Windischman,  the  writer  of  the  "History  of  Magic;"  after 
Avhich  he  stopped  at  Frankfort  on  the  Maine,  where  he  made 
the  acquaintance  of  Brentano,  Bucholz,  Schlosser,  and  Fre 
derick  Schlosser,  who  had  left  the  Lutheran  for  the  Roman 
Catholic  Church.  In  Frankfort  Wolff  gave  an  imitation  of 
Werner's  sermon,  imitating  his  voice  in  so  faithful  a  manner 
that  people  outside,  who  knew  him,  believed  that  Werner 
must  have  arrived  from  Vienna. 

At  that  time  in  those  literary  circles  there  was  a  great  dis 
cussion  about  a  wonderful  nun,  Catherine  Emmerich,  in  West 
phalia,  who  bore  on  her  body  the  wounds  of  our  Lord  Jesus 
Christ.  Upon  her  head  was  the  crown  of  thorns,  and  in  her 
two  sides  were  the  wounds  of  Christ.  The  crown  of  thorns 
and  these  wounds  were  said  to  bleed  every  Friday ;  and  it 
was  asserted  that  no  painter  could  paint  them  with  more 
exactness.  All  the  philosophers  and  the  physicians  who 
examined  her,  and  the  director  of  the  police,  M.  Gamier,  had 
declared  them  to  be  supernatural.  For,  as  the  physicians 
justly  observed,  if  these  wounds  had  been  made  by  art,  they 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  27 

would  become  sore,  which  was  not  the  case  with  them.  She 
expressed  herself  with  dignity  and  beauty  about  religion, 
which,  as  Count  Stolberg  justly  observed,  she  could  not  have 
learned  within  the  precincts  of  the  monastery  in  which  she 
lived,  which  was  an  institution  chiefly  for  the  lower  orders. 
She  said  to  Sophie,  Countess  of  Stolberg,  "  How  happy  are 
we  to  know  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ;  how  difficult  it  was  to  our 
ancestors  to  arrive  at  the  knowledge  of  God ! "  She  never 
admitted  any  one  to  see  her  wounds,  except  those  who  were 
introduced  to  her  by  her  spiritual  director  and  confessor, 
Overberg,  of  Minister;  and  Wolff  boldly  confesses  his  belief 
in  the  genuineness  of  that  miracle,  for  did  not  Paul  carry 
about  with  him  the  marks  of  the  Lord  Jesus?  That  holy 
woman  had  visions,  and  why  should  such  a  thing  be  impos 

At  last  Wolff  arrived  at  the  house  of  Count  Stolberg,  and 
was  quite  overpowered  at  the  first  sight  of  that  holy  man  with 
his  gray  and  bushy  locks,  his  heavenly  eye,  his  voice  so  soft 
in  common  conversation,  but  like  thunder  when  he  spoke  on 
any  important  subject.  Wolff  recited  to  him  on  his  arrival  a 
sermon  of  Werner's,  in  which  he  addressed  the  Virgin  Mary, 
saying,  "  Pray  to  the  Lord  Jesus,  and  to  her"  (the  Virgin) — 
when,  suddenly,  Stolberg  thundered  out,  "  Blasphemy  !  this 
is  not  the  teaching  of  the  Church."  By  and  by  came  in  the 
little  second  wife  of  Stolberg,  the  mother  of  sixteen  children, 
five  feet  high,  and  rather  more  severe  in  manner  than  her 
husband ;  and  soon  after  her  came  the  Chaplain  of  the  House, 
Kcllerman,  who  was  afterwards  Bishop  of  Minister ;  and  then 
came  Vornholdt,  the  second  tutor ;  and  then  the  third  tutor, 
who  had  been  a  gardener,  but  was  educated  above  his  rank, 
entered  the  room  with  a  rosary  in  his  hand.  Last  of  all 
arrived  the  eleven  sons,  and  seven  daughters  of  Stolberg,  the 
young  counts  and  countesses,  eighteen  in  all  —  sons  like 
thunder,  and  daughters  like  lightning.  There  was  also  there 
the  Countess  von  Brabeck,  who  was  born  at  Hildesheim,  and 
had  blue  eyes  and  red  hair,  but  was  full  of  intelligence,  and 
spoke  fluently  German,  Italian,  and  English.  This  yoiiii"1 
lady  was  beautiful  as  the  sun,  fair  as  the  moon,  and  modest  as 
an  angel ;  and  she  was  betrothed  to  Christian,  Count  of  Stol 
berg,  the  second  son. 

It  was  delightful  to  look  at  this  family  when  they  rode  out 
after  dinner  on  horseback;  and  Wolff  felt  himself  transported 
into  the  old  times  of  knighthood,  when  he  saw  the  old  count 
coining  forth  from  the  burgh,  with  his  thundering  boys,  and 
chaste  daughters,  and  the  Countess  Brabeck  accompanying 

28  Travels  and  Adventures 

them.  AVheii  Blucher  visited  Stolberg,  the  daughters  strewed 
roses  before  the  hero's  feet,  and  Count  Stolberg  himself  wrote 
a  poem  on  the  occasion,  which  begins,  "  Wallet  mit  hochge- 
sang  dem  Helden  entgegen,"  which  means,  "  Go  to  meet  with 
high  song  the  hero." 

Wolff  lived  some  months  in  the  house  of  that  beautiful  poet 
and  grand  nobleman,  Count  Stolberg — happy  months,  never  to 
be  forgotten  in  after  life ;  and  whilst  there  was  employed  in 
translating  the  Bible,  of  which  he  read  specimens  to  the 
Count.  The  Count  was  so  much  pleased  with  it  once  or 
twice,  that  he  kissed  and  tickled  Wolff  in  a  droll,  good- 
natured  way,  as  he  was  used  to  do  when  suddenly  charmed. 
Then  the  Countess  said  to  the  Count  in  an  under  voice,  so 
that  Wolff  might  not  hear  it,  "  Papa,  you  will  make  the 
young  man  vain  !  " 

Wolff  observed  that  Stolberg's  system  was  entirely  different 
from  that  of  Schlegel,  because  Stolberg  disliked  the  Middle 
Ages ;  and,  although  adhering  strictly  to  the  dogmas  of  the 
Roman  Catholic  Church,  troubled  himself  very  little  with  its 
so-called  opiniones piw  (pious  opinions).  He  was  against  the 
belief  of  the  immaculate  conception  of  the  Virgin  Mary;  and 
when  Wolff  remarked  that  she  had  been  the  mother  of  Jesus, 
Stolberg  said,  "  and  Eve  was  his  grandmother."  He  dis 
approved,  too,  of  calling  the  Virgin  Mary  the  Queen  of 
Heaven ;  saying  that  God  glorified  himself  here  on  earth  by 
his  Son ;  and  that  He  glorifies  himself  in  every  star  and 
planet  in  a  way  we  know  not  of;  and,  revelation  being  silent, 
there  was  no  reason  for  believing  the  Virgin  Mary  to  be 
placed  over  all.  He  did  not  believe,  either,  the  bodily  As 
cension  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  to  Heaven,  but  simply  the 
Assumption  of  her  soul ;  and  said  that  she  died  at  Ephcsus. 
By  this  he  evidently  opposed,  and,  at  the  same  time,  incurred 
the  displeasure  of  the  whole  ultra-Montane  party. 

One  morning  when  the  family  were  sitting  at  breakfast,  the 
news  arrived  from  Minister  and  Brussels  that  Napoleon  had 
escaped  from  the  Island  of  Elba.  Stolberg  rose  and  said, 
"  This  will  be  his  last  attempt." 

Wolff  walked  out  with  him  that  day,  when  suddenly  Stol 
berg  became  absorbed  in  thought,  and,  like  a  flash  of  lightning, 
ho  burst  forth  as  if  inspired  with  prophetic  vision,  "  Er  fallt  ! 
llm  stiirzt  Gott  der  almachtige.  So  hat  es  beschlossen  der 
Alte  der  Tage."  "  God  Almighty  casts  him  down ;  thus  it 
has  been  decreed  by  the  Ancient  of  days." 

Christian,  Count  of  Stolberg,  a  youth  nineteen  years  of  age, 
returned  from  Berlin,  where  he  had  been  in  the  house  of  the 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  29 

great  historian,  Niebuhr,  and  coming  home  to  his  parents' 
house,  he  embraced  his  betrothed  bride,  and  went  to  Waterloo, 
where  he  fell  in  the  battle,  with  one  of  his  brothers.  Thus 
was  the  prophecy  of  the  old  Count  Stolberg  fulfilled,  which  he 
uttered  in  the  year  1792,  saying,  "My  sons,  the  Stolbergs,  shall 
fall,  and  shall  die  the  beautiful  death,  the  death  for  their  King — 
the  death  for  freedom — the  death  for  their  fatherland."  It 
was  most  heartrending  to  witness  the  separation  of  Christian, 
Count  Stolberg,  from  his  betrothed  lady,  the  Countess  of 
Brabeck.  He  was  but  nineteen  years  old,  and  she  seventeen, 
and  he  had  loved  her  ever  since  he  was  seven  ;  when  he  used 
frequently  to  ride  out  in  the  morning  to  converse  with  the 
little  girl,  then  five  years  old,  who  leant  to  him  out  of  the 
window.  The  old  Countess  said  to  him  when  he  was  de 
parting  for  the  battle  in  which  he  died,  u  Children,  you  know 
it  breaks  my  heart  to  see  you  part ;  but,  Christian,  thou  must 
go.  Duty  and  the  fatherland  call  thee  !  "  and  so  saying,  she 
left  the  room,  bathed  in  tears. 

Too  much  can  scarcely  be  told  of  this  most  interesting 
family  ;  and  therefore  Wolff  quotes  a  passage  from  his  own 
brief  memoir,  which  was  published  about  thirty-five  years  ago. 
"  Count  Stolberg  read  with  me  the  New  Testament ;  and  he 
himself  and  his  wife  often  spoke  with  me  of  the  power  of 
Christ  and  his  resurrection, — of  his  humility,  and  of  his  love 
to  his  elected  people ;  and  he  said  to  me  very  often,  '  I  feel 
great  concern  and  love  for  you,  and  for  your  brethren,  the 
children  of  Abraham/  He  spoke  with  horror  both  of  the 
Inquisition  and  the  Crusades,  and  considered  both  as  abomi 
nable.  He  considered  John  Huss  a  martyr,  and  spoke  of 
Luther  with  great  regard.  It  was  his  intention  that  I  should 
remain  in  his  house  some  years  ;  and  I  also  desired  and 
intended  it,  because  I  found  myself  very  happy  in  the  com 
pany  of  this  great  man.  But  it  was  not  the  will  of  God  that 
I  should  do  so,  and  I  was  there  only  three  months.  When 
Napoleon  returned  from  Elba  to  France,  Count  Stolberg  and 
his  family  were  in  great  distress,  because,  as  he  had  always 
been  an  adversary  of  that  tyrant,  and  had  written  continually 
against  him,  he  was  now,  from  being  so  near  France,  in 
danger ;  and  therefore  determined  to  go  to  Holstein  to  his 
brother,  in  order  to  place  himself  and  children  in  security.  I 
left  his  house  with  tears,  because  I  had  found  in  him  a  real 
friend.  And  believing  his  system  to  be  that  of  the  Roman 
church,  and  seeing  that  it  accorded  with  the  spirit  of  Catho 
licism  in  all  ages,  I  continued  a  faithful  follower  of  the  Church 
of  Rome ;  and  when,  after  my  departure  from  Count  Stolberg, 

30  Travels  and  Adventures 

I  visited  some  learned  men  of  the  Protestant  denomination,  I 
defended  with  great  fire  the  Roman  Church  •  and  when  they 
said  '  The  Catholics  helieve  the  infallibility  of  the  Pope,  and 
command  the  worship  of  images,''  I  denied  it,  and  declared 
that  Count  Stolberg  had  taught  me  the  true  spirit  of  Catho 
licism,  which  was  nothing  else  than  the  true  doctrine  of  the 
Gospel.  They  replied,  c  Stolberg  is  a  good  Christian,  but  he 
has  formed  for  himself  his  own  Catholicism,  which  is  different 
from  that  of  Rome ;  go  to  Rome  and  you  will  be  convinced.'1 
Count  Stolberg  gave  me  when  I  left  him  twenty-eight  guineas 
for  my  journey,  of  which  I  sent  the  greater  part  to  my 

The  subjoined  poem  is  a  translation  from  Stolberg,  made 
many  years  ago  by  Dr.  Wolff's  friend,  Mrs.  Alfred  Gatty, 
and  refers  to  the  death  of  Count  Stolberg's  first  wife  : — 


"  Let  none  complain,  on  whom  a  woman's  love 
Beneath  the  shadow  of  his  homestead  smiles, 
Though  earthly  troubles  like  a  flood  should  pour 
Wave  after  wave  around. 

"  They  cannot  sink  him !     As  the  tears  of  morn 
Dry  quickly  up  before  the  rising  sun, 
Ev'n  so  the  floods  of  sorrow  pass  away 
Before  the  smiles  of  love. 

"  Ye  happy !  Feel  your  God-sent  happiness  ! 
Salute  with  tears  of  joy  the  early  day, 
When  its  young  purple  light  in  glory  streams 
Upon  the  loved  one's  sleep. 

"  Ye  happy  !  Feel  your  God-sent  happiness  ! 
With  tears  of  joy  salute  the  quiet  eve, 
Ere  softly  in  the  flickering  lamp-light's  ray, 
Ye  slumber  by  her  side. 

"  Look  on  me  !  Look ! — None  ever  was  more  blest ! 
The  blessings  beggars  dream  of,  kings  misuse, 
Were  but  as  worthless  fleeting  chaff,  before 
The  fulness  of  my  joy. 

"  For  thou  wert  mine,  thou  sweet  one !     Dear  one,  mine  ! 
Mine,  mine,  thou  darling  with  the  dove-like  eyes ! 
Mine,  mine,  the  fondest  heart  that  ever  beat 
In  loving  woman's  breast. 

"  Thoughtful  and  tender,  with  the  hand  of  love 
She  spun  the  glittering  threads  of  all  my  joy. 
And  the  days  glided  in  the  stream  of  life, 
Wave  after  wave  away. 

of  Dr.  Wolf.  31 

"  Wave  after  wave  bore  up  the  little  bark, 
Wherein  we  two  together  floated  on  ; 
And  on  each  side,  behold !  the  waters  gave 
Her  gentle  features  back. 

"  Oh,  none  was  ever  happier  !     But  the  fool 
Nourished  yet  many  wishes  :  spread  the  sails 
To  many  breezes  of  deceitful  hope, — 
Looked  right  and  left,  around. 

"  Then,  in  a  sudden  storm — behold !  behold ! 
God  took  his  Agnes  from  him  !     Now,  alone 
Upon  the  wreck  he  stands,  and  gazes  round, 
And  speaks  the  warning  words  : 

"  Ye  happy !     Feel  your  God-sent  happiness ! 
Praise  God  awaking,  praising  close  your  eyes ; 
Shut  up  the  fool's  door  of  the  idle  heart 
Against  each  wandering  wish. 

"  Father  of  Love !  whom  tears  propitiate, 
Let  me  weep  on,  while  life  and  light  are  left  : 
When  my  eye  fails  in  death,  let  Agnes  come 
To  lead  me  unto  Thee ! " 


Prince  Hohenlohe  and  Ms  doings ;  Madame  de  Krudcner,  her 
great  influence ;  Eoute  from  Germany  to  Rome. 

WOLFF  left  the  house  of  Count  Stolberg  on  the  3rd  of 
April,  1815,  and  went  to  Elwangen,  and  there  met  again 
an  old  pupil  from  Vienna,  Prince  Alexander  Hohenlohe  Schil- 
lingsfiirst,  afterwards  so  celebrated  for  his  miracles  :  to  which 
so  many  men  of  the  highest  rank  and  intelligence  have  borne 
witness  that  Wolff  dares  not  give  a  decided  opinion  about  them. 
But  Niebuhr  relates  that  the  Pope  said  to  him  himself,  speak 
ing  about  Hohenlohe  in  a  sneering  manner,  u  Questo  far  dei 
miracoli !  "  This  fellow  performing  miracles !  It  may  be  best 
to  offer  some  slight  sketch  of  Hohenlohe's  life,  and  of  the 
opinion  of  Madame  Schlegel  and  Bishop  Sailer  about  him. 

Hohenlohe  was  born  in  the  year  1793,  and  was  put  first  to 
be  educated  by  the  famous  Jean  Paul  Bichter.  His  person 
was  beautiful.  After  that  he  was  placed  under  the  direction 
of  Vock,  the  Roman  Catholic  parish  priest  at  Berne.  One 

32  Travels  and  Adventures 

Sunday  he  was  invited  to  dinner  with  Yock,  his  tutor,  at  the 
Spanisli  ambassador's.  The  next  day  there  was  a  great  noise 
in  the  Spanish  Embassy,  because  the  mass  robe,  with  the  silver 
chalice,  and  all  its  appurtenances,  had  been  stolen.  It  was 
advertised  in  the  paper  but  nothing  could  be  discovered,  until 
Vock  took  Prince  Hohenlohe  alone,  and  said  to  him,  "  Prince, 
confess  to  me;  have  you  not  stolen  the  mass  robe?'1  Heat 
once  confessed  it,  and  said  that  he  made  use  of  it  every  morn 
ing  in  practising  the  celebration  of  mass  in  his  room,  which 
was  true.  He  was  afterwards  sent  to  Tyrnau,  to  the  Eccle 
siastical  Seminary  in  Hungary,  whence  he  was  expelled,  on 
account  of  levity.  But,  being  a  Prince,  the  Chapter  of  Olmiitz 
in  Moravia,  elected  him  titulary  canon  of  the  Cathedral  ; 
nevertheless,  the  Emperor  Francis  was  too  honest  to  confirm 
it.  Wolff  taught  him  Hebrew  in  Vienna.  He  had  but  little 
talent  for  languages ;  but  his  conversation  on  religion  was 
sometimes  very  charming,  and  at  other  times  he  broke  out 
into  most  indecent  discourses.  Sometimes  he  conversed  of  his 
high  attachment  to  the  papal  power.  But  sometimes  again,  he 
broke  forth  in  invectives  against  the  whole  court  of  Rome. 
He  was  ordained  priest,  and  Sailer  preached  a  sermon  on  the 
day  of  his  ordination,  which  sermon  was  published  under  the 
title  of  "The  Priest  without  Reproach."  On  the  same  day 
money  was  collected  for  the  building  of  a  Roman  Catholic 
church  at  Zurich,  and  the  money  collected  was  given  to 
Prince  Hohenlohe,  to  be  remitted  to  the  parish  priest  of 
Zurich  (Moritz  Mayer).  But  the  money  never  reached  its 
destination.  Wolff  saw  him  once  at  the  bed  of  the  sick 
and  the  dying,  and  his  discourse,  exhortations,  and  treat 
ment  of  those  sick  people  were  wonderfully  beautiful.  When 
he  mounted  the  pulpit  to  preach,  one  imagined  one  saw  a  saint 
of  the  Middle  Ages.  His  devotion  was  penetrating,  and  com 
manded  silence  in  a  church  where  there  were  4,000  people 
collected.  Wolff  one  day  called  on  him,  when  Hohenlohe  said 
to  him,  "  I  never  read  any  other  book  than  the  Bible  :  and  the 
crucifix  is  before  me,  as  you  see,  when  I  compose  my  sermons. 
I  never  look  in  a  sermon-book  by  any  one  else,  not  even  at  the 
sermons  of  Sailer."  But  Wolff,  after  this,  heard  him  preach, 
and  the  whole  sermon  was  copied  from  one  of  Sailer's,  which 
Wolff*  had  read  only  the  day  before.  With  all  his  faults, 
Hohenlohe  cannot  be  charged  with  avarice,  for  he  gave  away 
every  farthing  he  got,  perhaps  even  that  which  he  obtained 

They  afterwards  met  at  Rome,  where  Hohenlohe  lodged  in 
the  monastery  of  the  Jesuits,  and  there  it  was  said  he  com- 

.  of  Dr.  Wolff.  33 

posed  a  Latin  poem.  Wolff,  knowing  his  incapacity  to  do  such 
a  thing,  asked  him  boldly,  "Who  is  the  author  of  this  poem!" 
Hohenlohe  confessed  at  once  that  it  was  written  by  a  Jesuit 
priest.  At  that  time,  Madame  Schlegel  wrote  thus  to  Wolff : 
"  Wolff,  Prince  Hohenlohe  is  a  man  who  struggles  with  Heaven 
and  Hell,  and  Heaven  will  gain  the  victory  with  him."  Hohen 
lohe  was  on  the  point  of  being  made  bishop  at  Rome,  but,  on 
the  strength  of  his  previous  knowledge  of  him,  Wolff  protested 
against  his  consecration.  Several  princes,  amongst  them 
Kaunitz,  the  ambassador,  took  Hohenlohe's  part  on  this  occa 
sion  ;  but  the  matter  was  investigated,  and  Hohelohe  walked 
off  from  Rome  without  being  made  bishop.  It  was  in  Alex 
andria,  in  Egypt,  five  years  afterwards,  viz.,  in  1821,  that 
Joseph  Wolff  heard  for  the  first  time  of  the  miracles  of  Prince 
Alexander  Hohenlohe.  In  his  protest  against  this  man,  Wolff 
stated  that  Hohenlohe's  pretensions  to  being  Canon  of  Olmiitz 
were  false ;  that  he  had  been  expelled  from  the  Seminary  of 
Tyrnau ;  that  he  sometimes  spoke  like  a  saint,  and  at  other 
times  like  a  profligate ;  and,  in  short,  he  gave  an  exact  account 
of  his  life,  as  before  described.  Now  to  return  to  Wolff's  own 

In  the  year  1815  he  went  to  Tubingen,  and  entered  the 
Protestant  University  there.  But,  as  he  was  professing  openly 
his  faith  in  the  Roman  Catholic  religion,  every  eye  was  directed 
to  him,  and  every  movement  he  made  was  observed.  His 
instructors  were  Schnurrer,  professor  of  Arabic,  Steudel,  pro 
fessor  of  Hebrew  and  Biblical  literature,  Flatt,  a  holy  and  good 
man,  professor  of  the  interpretation  of  the  New  Testament ; 
and  Eschemnayer,  professor  of  Philosophy.  Wolff  having  had 
to  contend  with  poverty,  asked  the  professors  whether  he  could 
have  the  free  table,  which  is  given  to  a  number  of  students  in 
the  Protestant  cloister  at  Tubingen.  They  unanimously 
declared  that  this  foundation  was  for  Lutherans,  and  not  for 
Roman  Catholics.  Upon  this,  Wolff  wrote  a  letter  to  his 
Majesty  the  King  Frederick  of  Wurtemburg,  and  told  him 
that  he,  Wolff,  had  been  the  personal  friend  of  Count  Stolberg, 
who  had  had  the  honour  of  dining  with  his  Majesty  every  day 
at  St.  Petersburg,  at  the  time  when  his  Majesty  was  a  general 
officer  in  the  Russian  service,  under  Emperor  Paul.  Wolff 
wrote  at  the  same  time  to  Count  Dillon,  a  favourite  of  the  king. 
After  six  days  from  his  writing  these  letters,  an  order  arrived 
from  the  king  that  Joseph  Wolff  must  enjoy  the  privilege  of 
being  admitted  a  free  guest  of  the  cloister  at  Tubingen  ;  and 
at  the  same  time  a  letter  arrived  to  him  from  his  Royal 
Highness  Prince  Dalberg,  Bishop  of  Ratisbon,  the  late  Grand 


34  Travels  and  Adventures 

Duke  of  Frankfort,  granting  him  a  yearly  pension  of  £25 . 
This  enabled  Wolff  to  study  comfortably  at  Tubingen,  and 
take  a  very  good  lodging  in  the  house  of  the  Biirgermeister  of 
Tubingen,  Bossert  by  name.  It  is  related  of  King  Frederick, 
who  married  one  of  the  daughters  of  George  III.  of  England, 
that  he  once  slapped  the  faces  both  of  his  queen  and  also  of 
his  sister  the  Empress  of  Russia.  He  was  so  fat,  that  a  half- 
circle  was  cut  out  of  the  dining  table  to  accomodate  his  person  ; 
and  his  queen  was  equally  obese. 

At  Tubingen  Wolff  studied  with  all  diligence,  the  Oriental 
languages,  and  theology ;  and  he  disputed  with  all  the  pro 
fessors  in  favour  of  the  Roman  Catholic  religion.  But  when 
he  stated  his  views  on  the  dogmas  of  the  Church  of  Rome, 
the  unanimous  opinion  of  the  professors  and  students  was, 
that  his  views  were  not  those  of  the  Church  of  Rome,  but 
those  of  Frederick  Leopold  Count  of  Stolberg,  and  of  Bishop 
Sailer ;  and  that,  though  they  tolerated  at  Rome  that  those 
views  should  be  held  by  Stolberg,  they  would  not  allow 
Joseph  Wolff  to  hold  them  when  he  came  to  Rome,  and 
entered  himself  as  a  pupil  at  the  Propaganda,  which  was  his 

Wolff  must  confess  that  when  he  arrived  at  Tubingen,  he 
was  greatly  disappointed  in  regard  to  giving  lessons,  which  he 
hoped  to  do  for  his  support.  He  soon  found  out  that  the 
students  themselves  beat  him  in  their  critical  knowledge  of  the 
Hebrew  and  Chaldsean  languages  ;  for  there  was  no  University 
in  all  Germany,  at  that  time,  so  well  versed  in  Biblical  litera 
ture  as  the  professors  and  students  of  Tlibingen.  The  students 
not  only  read  the  Hebrew  Bible  with  the  greatest  facility,  but 
also  wrote  most  beautifully  the  pure  Hebrew  language,  for 
which  they  had  a  book  by  Weckherlin,  who  had  composed 
exercises  for  translating  German  theses  into  Hebrew.  Besides 
this,  they  were  disciples  of  the  famous  Storr,  the  greatest 
Biblical  Scholar  in  Europe,  and  the  most  profound  divine  in 
the  Lutheran  Church,  according  to  the  good  old  style.  So 
Wolff  felt  and  acknowledged  his  inability  to  teach  them. 

And  quite  recently,  Wolff  experienced  a  similar  incapacity, 
when  he  met  the  Rev.  William  Barnard,  Vicar  of  Alverston, 
near  Stratford-on-Avon,  whom  he  undertook  to  instruct  in 
Chaldaean  and  Syriac,  and  found  to  be  more  practised  in  them, 
than  Wolff  was  himself;  and  he  predicts  that  this  young  man 
may  some  day  be  a  distinguished  professor  of  Eastern  languages 
in  one  of  our  English  Universities. 

But  to  return  to  Tubingen.  When  a  month  had  nearly 
elapsed,  and  Wolff  had  earned  no  money  to  pay  for  his  lodging 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  35 

and  board,  ho  knelt  down  and  prayed ;  and  scarcely  had  he 
finished  his  prayer,  when  the  postman  entered  his  room,  and 
and  presented  the  letter  from  Prince  Dalberg,  Archbishop  of 
Ratisbon,  which,  as  already  described,  awarded  him  a  pension 
of  £25  a  year. 

Though  Wolff  observed  in  Tubingen,  with  great  delight,  the 
piety  of  the  Lutheran  professors,  Flatt,  Steudel,  and  Bahn- 
mayer,  who  were  far  from  being  Neologists,  and  were  real 
Christians  ; — yet  he  was  disgusted  with  the  harshness  most  of 
them  expressed  against  the  Church  of  Rome,  especially  with 
the  intolerance  of  Schnurrer  and  Gab.  Wolff  left  Tubingen 
in  1816,  to  proceed  towards  Rome,  and  arrived  at  Aarau, 
where  he  lodged  partly  with  the  Roman  Catholic  priest,  Vock, 
who  at  that  time  was  a  latitudinarian,  and  afterwards  an  ultra 
montane  ;  and  partly  with  Zschocke,  the  Walter  Scott  of  Swit 
zerland,  and  the  writer  of  the  history  of  Switzerland.  And  there, 
in  Aarau,  he  made  also  the  acquaintance  of  that  extraordinary 
lady,  Madame  la  Baronne  de  Krudener,  the  authoress  of  the 
novel  called  "  Valerie."  She  had  been  a  lady  of  fashion  at  all 
the  Courts  of  Europe,  and  was  suddenly  converted  by  a  vision ; 
and  appeared,  as  the  Ambassadress  of  Christ,  first  at  Paris,  in 
the  years  1813-14,  after  the  battle  of  Leipzig,  when  the  allied 
Powers  met  in  Paris,  and  exiled  Napoleon  to  the  island  of 
Elba.  She  lived  in  a  hotel,  and  sometimes  she  made  her 
appearance  in  one  of  the  grand  salons,  dressed  like  a  nun  of  "the 
Dominican  Order,  and  though  already  past  fifty  summers,  her 
former  beauty  had  not  yet  passed  away. 

The  Emperor  Alexander  was  struck  with  conviction  of  sin, 
and  converted  through  the  preaching  of  Madame  de  Krudener. 
Talleyrand  also,  and  all  the  princes  of  the  empire  attended  the 
discourses  which  she  delivered  in  French  and  German,  in  the 
presence  of  all  the  grandees  and  Powers  of  Europe.  She 
pointed  to  Christ,  whom  she  continually  styled  "  the  lion  of 
the  tribe  of  Judah,"  who  shall  come  to  fight  the  battle,  and 
subdue  his  enemies.  Jung  Stilling,  too,  the  ex-tailor  and 
the  ex-charcoal  burner,  but  afterwards  the  celebrated  pro 
fessor  of  Marburg  and  Carlsruhe,  was  induced  to  become  her 
disciple  ;  and  it  is  said  that  she  was  the  authoress  of  the  Holy 
Alliance  made  between  the  Powers  of  Europe  for  maintaining 

When  Labedoyere  was  sentenced  to  die,  Madame  Labe- 
doyere  went  to  Madame  de  Krudener,  fell  at  her  feet,  and  asked 
her  to  intercede  for  him  with  the  Emperor  Alexander.  She 
did  so,  but  the  Emperor  Alexander  told  her  that  it  was  not  in 
his  power  to  save  his  life.  Madame  de  Krudener  was  grieved, 


36  Travels  and  Adventures 

but  went  to  the  prison,  spoke  to  him  about  religion,  and  did 
her  utmost  to  comfort  and  strengthen  him.  Labedoyere  was 
executed;  and  after  his  death,  he  appeared  to  Madame  de 
Krudener  by  daylight,  and  said  to  her,  "  Madame,  je  suis 
sauw" — "  Madame,  I  am  saved." 

Wolff  called  on  this  lady  at  Aarau ;  he  went,  by  her  ap 
pointment,  at  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning,  and  remained  with 
her  till  ten  o'clock  at  night.  She  wore  on  her  bosom,  enam 
elled  with  gold,  a  piece  of  the  real  cross  of  Christ.  Her  com 
panions  were,  Monsieur  Empayatz,  who  was  a  Genevan  priest ; 
Madame  d'Armand,  a  follower  of  Madame  de  la  Motte  Guyon, 
and  the  mother  of  M.  Empaytaz,  and  Demoiselle  la  Fontaine. 
She  was  now  no  longer  surrounded  by  the  princes  of  Europe, 
but  by  the  learned;  by  priests  ;  by  the  people  of  Switzerland, 
especially  the  Pietists ;  by  the  poor,  the  blind,  the  lame, 
the  maimed.  Pestalozzi  also  called  on  her,  and  shed  tears  of 
repentance.  She  had  been  exiled  from  Basle  before  she  came 
to  Aarau.  The  moment  she  left  the  town,  a  dreadful  thunder 
storm  was  heard  at  Basle,  which  was  declared  to  be  a  punish 
ment  upon  the  city  for  having  exiled  that  holy  woman.  She 
wrote  in  Wolffs  album  five  sheets,  which  were  penned  with 
an  eloquence  which  astonished  Pope  Pius  VII.,  when  Wolff 
translated  them  to  him.  She  had  such  influence,  that  people 
knelt  down,  confessed  their  sins,  and  received  absolution  from 
her.  But  now  we  must  leave  her.  There  is  only  further  to  be 
said,  that  she  begged  Wolff  to  see  the  infant  seminary,  which 
was  to  be  established  at  Basle,  for  the  sending  forth  of  mis 
sionaries  into  all  the  world ;  of  which,  Dr.  Blumhardt  was 
the  first  inspector,  and  Spittler,  the  secretary.  She  also  fur 
nished  him  with  letters  to  a  very  extraordinary  man,  Professor 
Lachenal  by  name ;  and  to  her  son-in-law  and  daughter, 
Baron  and  Baroness  Bergheim,  who  resided  in  a  little  village 
called  Hornle,  near  Basle;  and  to  Baron  d'Olry,  Bavarian 
ambassador  at  Berne,  a  Roman  Catholic  by  profession,  but 
who  had  been  converted  to  a  living  faith  in  Christ  by  her 
preaching;  and  finally,  to  Madame  la  Baronne  de  Stae'l 
Holstein,  the  famous  author  of  "  Corinne." 

The  members  of  that  infant  seminary  at  Basle  were  of  the 
Reformed  Church,  and  of  true  Gospel  piety;  they  loved 
Christ  with  all  their  heart ;  but  Wolff  disliked  in  them  their 
inveterate  enmity  to  the  Church  of  Rome,  to  which  he  himself 
was  unflinchingly  attached ;  and  he  defended  it  with  a  fire 
which,  as  they  confessed,  carried  them  away.  They  said,  for 
instance, — "  What  do  you  say  to  the  Church  of  Rome  having 
burnt  Huss  and  Jerome  of  Prague  ?n  Wolff  simply  said, 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  37 

"  What  do  you  say  to  John  Calvin  having  burnt  Servetus  ? 
— and  to  the  whole  Lutheran  consistory  having  persecuted 
and  suffered  Kepler,  the  great  mathematician,  to  starve  ?— - and 
to  the  preacher  Ulrich  Zwingli  having  died  in  battle,  like  Ali, 
the  Muhammadan  2"  They  replied,  "  We  don't  ascribe  in 
fallibility  to  them."  And  Wolff  replied,  "  And  the  Church 
of  Rome  does  not  ascribe  infallibility  to  the  murderers  of  Huss 
and  Jerome."  They  replied,  "  The  Church  has  done  it." 
Wolff  replied,  "  The  Church  simply  declared  their  doctrine  to 
be  heretical,  and  the  State  punished  them ;  and  this  is  the 
argument  the  Protestants  use  with  respect  to  Calvin."  They 
replied,  "  The  world  has  become  wiser,  and  more  enlightened 
since  then."  On  which  Wolff  replied,  "And  the  Roman 
Catholic  world  has  also  become  wiser  and  more  enlightened 
since  then.'"1  Blumhardt  said,  "  Rome  has  never  changed." 
Wolff  answered,  "  Rome  is  not  the  Catholic  Church."  They 
replied,  "  You  have  to  believe  the  infallibility  of  the  Pope." 
Wolff  replied,  "  This  I  do  not  believe."  They  said,  "  You 
are  a  Stolbergian,  and  not  a  Roman  Catholic."  And  Blum 
hardt  added,  "With  your  sentiments  you  will  be  banished 
from  Rome."  Wolff*  answered,  "  This  is  still  to  be  ascer 

Now,  as  to  the  character  of  Lachenal.  He  was  a  mystic  by 
nature,  but  the  most  benevolent  man  in  the  world,  so  that  the 
poor  of  Basle  quite  lived  on  his  bounty.  He  was  exceedingly 
attached  to  Wolff,  and  said  to  him  one  day,  a  You  are,  in  one 
respect,  entirely  like  myself:  I  take  religion  to  be  a  matter  of 
heart  and  imagination ;  reasoning  has  nothing  to  do  with  it. 
My  belief  is,  that  Christ  will  appear  upon  earth  with  a  sword 
in  his  hand,  and  dressed  like  a  field-marshal,  and  on  his 
breast  he  will  wear  a  star  covered  with  diamonds  !  "  LachenaFs 
great  friend  was  Jung  Stilling,  who  held  equally  mystical 
ideas  with  himself.  Wolff  and  Lachenal  went  to  Hornle  one 
evening  together,  where  they  found  Baron  and  Baroness* 
Bergheim  at  their  devotions,  with  the  poor  of  the  village ; 
such  being  their  custom.  They  were  just  then  singing, 
"  Christ  upon  Golgotha,"  composed  by  Lavater.  After  this 
was  over,  they  embraced  Wolff,  and  then  they  were  sur 
rounded  by  shoemakers,  tailors,  and  carpenters,  who  embraced 
Baron  Bergheim  as  their  "brother  in  Christ."  Wolff  noticed 
at  once,  with  his  innate  acuteness,  the  pride  and  vanity  pro 
duced  in  those  mechanics,  by  being  allowed  to  embrace  a 
baron !  And  he  took  the  liberty,  afterwards,  to  speak  to 

*  A  daughter  of  Madame  de  Krudener, 

38  Travels  and  Adventures 

Baron  Bergheim  about  it,  and  to  tell  him  that  he  would  do  no 
good  by  allowing  such  liberties  ;  adding  that  he  ought  to 
follow  the  example  of  Count  Stolberg,  who  was  as  pious  a 
man  as  ever  lived,  but  who  addressed  the  tailor,  shoemaker, 
and  peasant,  as  "  Thou  ;"  and  demanded  from  them  that  they 
should  address  him  as  "high  excellency,"  and  "Count  of 
Stolberg."  Baron  Bergheim  was  much  struck,  and  changed 
his  habits  from  that  moment,  and  said,  "Wolff,  you  are  a  man 
who  will  bring  a  new  spirit  into  the  Church." 

Wolff,  after  a  few  days,  took  his  knapsack,  and  went  on  foot 
towards  Fribourg,  in  Switzerland.  On  his  road  to  Fribourg, 
he  met  Protestant  peasants,  who  seriously  asked  the  Roman 
Catholic  friars  to  make  the  sign  of  the  cross  upon  their  sick 
cattle,  in  order  that  they  might  be  cured ;  whilst,  with  the 
same  breath,  they  laughed  at  the  superstition  of  the  Roman 
Catholics,  though  they  were  not  behind  them  in  the  same 
thing.  Wolff  arrived  in  Fribourg,  where  he  met  with  Pere 
Passerat,  the  head  of  the  Redemptorists  there,  who,  observing 
his  Hebrew  bible,  asked  to  look  in  it ;  and  then  said,  "  This 
bible  was  printed  in  Amsterdam."  And  Passerat  took  the 
bible  away  and  would  not  return  it,  because  it  was  printed  in 
a  heretical  town. 

Wolff,  in  great  distress  at  his  loss,  left  Fribourg  and  came 
to  Vevay,  where  he  met  with  the  Protestant  preacher,  Scherer. 
He  called  on  him,  without  knowing  him,  and  said  to  him, 
"Would  you  sell  me  a  Hebrew  bible?  The  Redemptorists 
have  taken  mine  away  in  Fribourg."  He  continued,  "  I  am  a 
Roman  Catholic,  and  am  going  to  Rome  to  enter  the  College 
of  the  Propaganda."  Scherer  answered,  "  I  am  sorry  I  have 
no  Hebrew  bible,  but  will  you  stay  here  and  dine  with  me?" 
Wolff  did  so,  and  during  dinner,  Scherer  became  so  attached 
to  him,  that  he  said,  "  There !  I  see  you  are  an  interesting- 
young  man ;  and  my  wife  and  myself  will  be  happy  if  you  will 
stay  here  a  fortnight :  and  we  will  show  you  the  country 
around  Vevay."  Wolff  remained  there  a  fortnight,  and  made 
the  acquaintance  of  Monsieur  Gaudard,  colonel  of  a  Swiss 
regiment,  who  was  a  man  of  deep  reading,  and  acquainted 
with  all  the  chief  mystical  writers  of  England,  France,  and 
Germany.  He  wrote  to  the  Emperor  Alexander  of  Russia, 
to  assist  him  in  establishing  a  military  knighthood,  for  the 
purpose  of  promoting  Christianity  in  the  depths  of  Siberia. 

Sometimes  during  this  visit,  Wolff"  went  with  a  company  of 
ladies  and  gentlemen  to  an  open  field  near  the  lake  to  enjoy  a 
picnic,  on  which  occasions  they  danced ;  and  Madame  Scherer 
insisted  once  upon  Wolff  dancing  with  her.  But  he,  never 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  39 

accustomed  to  dance,  could  only  hop  about  with  her,  and  at 
last  gave  a  kick  to  her  ancles,  so  that  she  gave  up  all  attempt 
at  dancing  with  him  ever  after. 

At  other  times,  he  went  rowing  about  in  a  boat  with  the 
rest  on  the  lake  of  Geneva,  when  M.  Roselet,  the  assistant  of 
Scherer,  played  the  harp,  and  the  ladies  on  the  shore  accom 
panied  it  with  the  heavenly  melody  of  their  voices.  Previous 
to  his  departure,  M.  Roselet  made  Wolff  a  present  of  a 
Hebrew  bible  5  and  then  he  departed  for  Valais,  where  the 
Redemptorists  again  saw  his  bible,  and  took  it  away,  because 
it  was  printed  in  Leipsic.  Wolff,  however,  who  remained 
over-night  in  the  house  of  the  Redemptorists,  recovered  his 
book  by  stealth,  and  ran  off.  This  bible  we  must  finish  the 
adventures  of,  before  we  go  on  with  our  history. 

Wolff  travelled  with  it  throughout  Italy,  and  arrived  with 
it  at  Rome.  And  on  being  introduced  to  Pope  Pius  VII.,  he 
showed  it  to  him,  and  told  him  its  adventures  ;  on  which  Pius 
VII.  laughed,  and  said,  "There  are  hot-headed  people  to  be 
found  everywhere."  And  both  in  the  Collegio  Romano,  and 
the  Propaganda,  AVolff  studied  up  for  his  examination  out 
of  that  bible,  and  wrote  notes  in  it,  and  was  allowed  to  retain 
it ;  but  two  years  afterwards,  when  he  was  banished  from 
Rome,  the  bible  was,  in  the  confusion,  left  behind.  Wolff 
made  several  attempts  at  getting  it  back,  but  in  vain  ;  and  after 
this,  he  came  to  England,  and,  having  studied  in  Cambridge, 
undertook  his  great  missionary  tour  through  Central  Asia,  and 
finally  reached  the  United  States  of  North  America. 

On  his  arrival  in  Philadelphia,  in  company  with  the  Right 
Reverend  George  Washington  Doane,  Protestant  bishop  of 
New  Jersey,  as  they  were  passing  the  house  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  bishop  of  Philadelphia,  Bishop  Doane,  pointing  to  it, 
said,  "  Wolff,  one  of  your  old  friends  lives  there — the  Roman 
Catholic  bishop  of  Philadelphia."  Wolff  said,  "  Come,  and 
let  us  pay  him  a  visit.1'  On  which,  Bishop  Doane  sent  him 
there  with  one  of  his  clergymen,  and  a  Protestant  Episcopal 
lawyer.  Wolff  announced  his  name  to  the  bishop,  who  came 
down  stairs  to  receive  him,  and  said,  "  Ricordatevi  di  me  2" 
Wolff  at  once  recognized  him,  and  said,  ;'  Yes  !  you  are  Ken- 
rick,  my  fellow-pupil  in  the  College  of  the  Propaganda."  And 
then  they  went  together  to  the  Bishop's  room,  who  took  a 
bible  from  his  table,  and  showing  it  to  Wolff,  said,  "  Take  back 
your  own  !" 

And  that  bible  is  now  in  Dr.  Wolff's  possession  at  He 
Brewers,  which  was  twenty  years  away  from  him.  In 
November,  1859,  Wolff  paid  a  visit  to  Mrs,  Read,  who  resides 

40  Travels  and  Adventures 

at  Sheffield,  and  is  daughter  to  the  same  Scheror  of  Vevay,  in 
whose  house  he  received  the  bible,  which  afterwards  he  twice 
lost  and  twice  recovered. 

But  to  return  to  the  history  of  Joseph  Wolff,  and  the  con 
tinuation  of  his  journey. 

He  went  from  Valais  to  Milan,  where  the  professors  and  the 
librarians  of  the  Ambrosian  Library  paid  him  the  greatest 
attention,  except  Van  der  Hagen,  a  German  ;  a  nasty  jealous 
fellow,  and  disliked  by  his  colleagues.  However,  he  was  re 
markable  for  one  thing.  He  discovered  the  famous  imposture 
and  forgery  of  the  Codex  diplomatic  us,  which  excited  such  a 
sensation  throughout  Europe  in  the  year  1770,  and  was  trans 
lated  by  the  impostor,  Giuseppe  Vella,  and  deposited  in  the 
monastery  of  San  Martino  in  Palermo.  It  is  worth  while  to 
take  some  notice  of  that  imposture. 

A  great  deal  was  said  at  that  time  about  a  correspondence 
which  had  taken  place  centuries  back,  between  the  Kings  of 
Naples  and  Morocco,  and  the  Sultan  ;  when  suddenly  Giuseppe 
Vella,  a  Maltese  and  a  priest,  published  what  professed  to  be 
that  very  correspondence :  one  column  containing  the  supposed 
original,  in  Arabic,  and  the  other  column  Vella's  translation. 
This  interesting  volume  was  deposited  in  the  monastery  of  San 
Martino,  in  Palermo ;  and  Giuseppe  Vella  received  a  pension 
from  Austria  and  from  Naples,  and  was  knighted  by  the 
nionarchs  of  both  those  countries.  Van  der  Hagen,  Professor 
of  the  Eastern  Languages  at  Milan,  who  himself  knew  very 
little  of  Arabic,  had  yet  his  doubts  about  this  document,  so  he 
wrote  to  both  courts,  and  was  charged  by  both  monarchs  to  go 
to  Palermo,  and  examine  it.  On  his  arrival  there,  he  found, 
on  looking  at  the  original,  that  it  was  nothing  but  the  Roman 
Breviary  in  the  Arabic  language.  Giuseppe  lost  his  orders 
and  pensions,  and  was  imprisoned  for  his  imposture. 

The  Italian  Professors  at  Milan,  especially  Don  Giorgio, 
procured  for  Joseph  Wolff  letters  of  introduction  to  Cardinal 
Vedoni,  at  Rome  ;  and,  after  having  stopped  for  some  weeks 
at  Milan,  he  proceeded  on  his  way,  on  foot,  with  a  knapsack 
on  his  back,  like  a  German  student,  to  Novara.  A  torrent  of 
rain  surprised  him,  and  wetted  through  everything  he  had. 
On  reaching  Novara,  late  in  the  evening,  and  having  had  a 
letter  for  a  nun  there,  whose  name  was  Huber  Mieville,  he 
hastened  to  present  it.  These  nuns  were  Salesians — of  the 
Order  of  Fran$ois  de  Sales — and  were  allowed  to  walk  out. 
Wolff  rang  the  bell.  A  sister  came  to  the  door,  and  exclaimed, 
"  Deo  gratias."  The  door  was  opened,  and  Wolff  said  he  had 
a  letter  for  Mother  Huber  Mieville, 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  41 

He  was  shown  to  the  splendid  refectory,  where  he  met  the 
Padre  Confessore,  a  Dominican  friar  5  a  fat  gentleman,  but  of 
an  amiable-looking  countenance,  with  a  rosary  in  his  hand.  He 
began  to  enter  into  conversation  with  Wolff,  while  the  letter 
was  sent  upstairs  to  the  nun  ;  when  suddenly  Huber  Mieville, 
with  the  whole  band  of  nuns  came  down,  shouting,  "  Un  Ebreo, 
un  Ebreo  convertito  !" 

They  immediately  asked  Wolff  to  supper.  Standing  near 
the  table,  the  Padre  Confessore  offered  up  a  prayer,  and  Wolff 
made  the  sign  of  the  cross.  They  all  exclaimed,  "  How  this 
blessed,  blessed  young  man  makes  the  cross  !  Amiable  boy  " 
(Amabile  giovane),  said  they,  in  the  midst  of  their  prayers, 
"  God  bless  him  !" 

Then  the  Padre  Confessore  very  gravely  inquired  of  him, 
"Can  you  say  Pater  N  aster?" 

Wolff  recited  Pater  Noster. 

"  Say  Ace  Maria.'1'' 

Wolff  recited  Awe  Maria. 

"  Say  again  /Salve  Eegina." 

Wolff  recited  the  whole  of  Salve  Regina. 

All  the  nuns  exclaimed  again, 

"  Veramente  un  Santerello  !"     "  Truly,  a  little  saint  !" 

And  the  Dominican  friar  said, 

"  He  will  be  an  apostle,  like  Paul  !" 

He  gave  to  Wolff'  his  large  shirt  to  put  on,  for  lie  was  soaked 
with  wet.  They  procured  him  also  a  night  quarter  in  the 
house  of  the  first  magistrate  of  the  place,  but  Wolff"  was  to 
breakfast  and  dine  with  the  nuns.  After  breakfast,  they  in 
troduced  him  to  the  Abbess,  who  was  a  French  countess, 
seventy  years  of  age.  She  was  seated  upon  a  beautiful  chair, 
and  in  a  most  handsomely  furnished  room.  She  was  just 
finishing  the  words  of  the  psalmist,  which  she  uttered  with 
great  devotion,  "  If  thou  regardest  iniquity,  O  Lord,  who  can 
stand  ?"  Si  observaveris  iniquitates,  Domine,  Domine,  quls 

After  this,  she  gave  Wolff  her  two  cheeks  to  kiss,  which  he 
did  with  great  grace. 

She  then  talked  about  the  decay  of  piety  in  the  Church, 
with  wonderful  dignity ;  and  presented  Wolff  with  a  beautiful 
rosary  of  silver,  and  nice  little  cakes,  called  "  Nuns'  hearts," 
and  ordered  her  nuns  to  provide  him  with  everything,  and  to 
give  him  letters  for  Turin.  He  got  letters  also  for  Cardinal 
Cacciapiati,  and  then  departed  for  Turin. 

On  his  arrival  at  Turin,  he  was  received,  with  the  greatest 
kindness,  by  the  Prussian  ambassador,  Count  Waldbour£- 

42  Travels  and  Adventures 

Truchsess,  who  was  one  of  the  commissioners  from  the  Court 
of  Prussia,  and  accompanied  Napoleon  to  the  island  of  Elba. 
His  wife  was  the  daughter  of  Prince  Hohenzollern  Hechingen, 
a  Roman  Catholic.  Wolff  met  in  their  house  Madame  de 
Stael  Holstein,  August  Wiihelm  von  Schlegel,  and  Count  de 
la  Torre,  a  man  of  great  information  and  piety,  and  well  versed 
in  the  German  language.  And  he  also  met  Kosslossky,  Rus 
sian  ambassador,  and  Monsieur  Potemkin,  nephew  of  the  great 
Potemkin,  favourite  of  the  Empress  Catherine.  Wolff  read 
first  to  Madame  de  Stael,  and  the  whole  party,  what  Madame 
de  Krudener  had  written  in  his  album ;  on  which  Madame  de 
Stael  observed,  that  she  had  the  highest  admiration  for  Madame 
de  Krudener,  because  in  her  one  could  see  enthusiasm  in  its 
highest  perfection.  After  this  Wolff  read  portions  of  his 
poetical  translations  of  Isaiah  and  Jeremiah ;  and  Schlegel 
gave  him  a  hint  about  his  mode  of  reading — finding  fault  with 
him  because  he  continually  read  with  too  much  emphasis,  an 
observation  of  which  he  availed  himself  in  future. 

At  Turin,  he  also  met  in  the  library  two  interesting  persons, 
Professor  Pieron,  professor  of  the  Oriental  languages  and 
librarian,  and  an  English  gentleman,  who  has  ever  since  been 
Wolff's  friend,  and  whom  he  will  again  have  occasion  to  men 
tion  when  he  gives  an  account  of  his  arrival  at  Rome.  This 
was  a  man  of  the  highest  accomplishments,  well  versed  in 
Latin  and  Greek,  and  in  Italian,  German,  and  French  litera 
ture  ;  and  who  is  still  alive,  "  a  fine  Old  English  Gentleman 
of  the  olden  time."  His  name  is  David  Baillie,  Esq.  And 
by-and-by,  after  all  the  ambassadors,  and  Professor  Pieron, 
and  David  Baillie,  and  Abbate  Tosi,  had  furnished  Wolff  with 
letters  of  recommendation  to  the  foreign  ambassadors  and 
cardinals,  and  to  that  celebrated  member  of  the  Inquisition, 
Benedetto  Olivieri,  a  Dominican  friar  in  Rome,  Wolff  was  re 
quested  by  David  Baillie  to  accompany  him  to  Genoa. 

In  Genoa,  he  took  leave'  of  Baillie,  and  embarked  for  Civita 
Vecchia  in  a  little  felucca,  being  accompanied  by  a  pious,  good, 
excellent  Spanish  friar  of  the  Dommician  Order,  whose  name 
was  Padre  Quarienti,  with  whom  he  conversed  about  Don 
Quixote  of  La  Maucha.  But,  as  the  wind  was  contrary,  he 
remained  at  Porto  Fino,  ten  Italian  miles  from  Genoa,  for 
three  weeks.  The  wind  then  changed,  and  after  three  days 
more,  he  arrived  at  Leghorn.  But  when  the  wind  again 
changed  for  the  worse,  and  Wolff's  money  had  decreased  to 
half  a  louis  d'or,  he  was  afraid  that  this  would  soon  be  spent, 
so  he  set  out  on  foot  from  Leghorn  for  Pisa.  This  was  in 
May,  1816,  and  the  heat  at  that  season  was  so  overpowering 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  43 

that  Wolff  found  it  difficult  to  walk,  and  he  was  still  300 
English  miles  from  Rome  ;  and  having  had  no  letters  of  credit 
for  any  of  the  towns  on  the  road,  he  did  not  know  what  to  do. 
So  he  knelt  down  and  prayed.  Scarcely  had  he  prayed  for  a 
few  minutes,  when  a  vettura  came  up  behind  him,  destined  to 
go  to  Rome.  Wolff  arranged  with  the  vetturino  to  take  him 
as  far  as  Pisa,  for  which  he  agreed  to  give  him  a  quarter  of  a 
louis  d'or.  But  there  were  sitting  in  the  carriage  several  passen 
gers,  and  one  of  them  was  struck  with  Joseph  Wolff,  and  asked 
him  where  he  intended  to  go  ?  Wolff  said,  "  I  intend  to  goto 
Rome,  to  enter  the  College  of  the  Propaganda,  and  to  become 
a  missionary."  The  stranger  said,  "Why  do  you  not  agree 
with  the  vetturino  to  take  you  to  Rome  ?  He  w^ould  do  so  for 
six  louis  d'or.1'  Wolff  said,  u  I  have  only  a  quarter  of  a  louis 
d'or  left  myself;  but  will  you  trust  me,  and  pledge  yourself  to 
the  vetturino  that  I  will  pay  him  ?  If  so,  I  will  pay  you  in  a 
day  after  my  arrival  in  Rome.  I  give  you  my  knapsack  as 
security,  until  you  have  the  money."  The  stranger  replied, 
"  I  don't  want  your  knapsack.  I  will  advance  you  the  money, 
for  you  have  honesty  written  in  your  face." 

So  Wolff  continued  his  journey  to  Rome ;  passing  through 
Sienna,  where  he  stopped  to  look  at  the  room  of  Santa  Cata- 
rina  of  Siena,  who  in  her  writings  reproved  the  pomp  of  the 
Popes  with  much  power  and  energy.  And  there  he  saw  the 
paintings  of  Correggio.  During  his  journey,  he  was  joined  by 
two  Franciscan  friars  from  Spain ;  an  old  one,  and  a  young 
one.  The  old  one  was  an  ignorant  jackass  ;  but  the  young  one 
was  a  man  of  the  highest  talent,  who  gave  Wolff  an  insight 
into  the  cruelty  of  the  Inquisition  in  Spain. 

At  last,  Wolff  arrived  at  the  frontier  of  the  Papal  States, 
Avhere  he  saw  the  cross  planted,  with  the  papal  arms  in  the 
centre,  superscribed  with  the  word  Pax,  by  which  Wolff  was 
most  agreeably  surprised.  But  on  his  proceeding  further,  he 
saw  a  gallows,  and  criminals  hanging  upon  it,  whereupon  he 
could  not  help  making  the  remark  to  one  of  his  friends,  "  There 
does  not  seem  to  be  perfect  peace  in  the  Papal  States!" 
Perugia,  thou  art  another  proof  that  the  millenial  time  has  not 
yet  arrived ! 

At  Faenza,  Wolff  made  the  acquaintance  of  a  most  interest 
ing  young  man.  This  was  Orioli,  Professor  of  Chemistry  in 
Bologna.  He  was  versed  in  all  the  writings  of  the  philoso 
phers  of  France,  England,  and  Germany,  and  he  said  to  Wolff, 
"  Look  out  at  Rome,  Wolff;  Con  Dio  e  perdono,  un  prete  non 
perdona  mai — With  God  there  is  pardon,  a  priest  never  par 
dons/'  At  Viterbo  he  saw  the  sepulchre  of  Santa  Rosa, 

44  Travels  and  Adventures 

which  performs  many  miracles.  The  nuns  gave  him  a  piece  of 
her  girdle,  which  he  put  into  his  pocket ;  but  he  lost  it  half  an 
hour  after. 


Rome  and  its  Society ;  Pope  and  Ecclesiastics ;  Collegio  Romano 
and  Propaganda  ;  their  Discipline  ;  is  Expelled  from  Rome. 

A  T  last  Wolff  arrived  in  Rome,  when  he  found  that  he  had 
£*•  travelled  in  the  vettura  in  company  with  Prince  Salignac, 
and  his  interesting  daughter,  ten  years  of  age.  And  the  per 
son  who  had  advanced  him  the  money  was  an  officer  of  the 
Piedmontese  army,  who  had  left  it  in  order  to  go  into  the 
desert  of  Egypt,  and  live  there  as  a  hermit,  and  atone  for  his 
sins.  There  seemed  great  conviction  of  sin  in  this  man. 

Wolff,  on  his  arrival  in  Rome,  met  with  his  friends  Johannes 
and  Philip  Veit,  sons  of  Madame  Schlegel,  and  step-sons  to 
the  great  Friedrich  Schlegel.  Here  Wolff  must  enlarge  a  little 
on  the  family  of  these  two  remarkable  men,  who  were  both 
painters,  of  high  celebrity  in  their  own  country.  Madame 
Schlegel  (who  was  a  daughter  of  Mendelssohn  the  philosopher) 
was  married  first  to  their  father  the  Jewish  banker  Veit ;  but 
Friedrich  Schlegel  became  acquainted  with  her,  and  wrote  in 
her  praise  a  novel  called  "  Lucinde  ;"  to  which  Madame  Veit 
replied  by  another  novel  entitled  "  Florentine."  After  this, 
she  was  divorced  by  Veit ;  but  the  two  sons  followed  their 
mother,  and  were  soon  after  baptized  with  her  and  Schlegel 
himself  into  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  by  Cardinal  Severoli, 
the  Pope's  Nuncio  at  Vienna.  Nevertheless,  the  noble  old 
banker,  Veit,  never  forsook  his  children,  but  made  them  the 
heirs  of  his  fortune.  Johannes  Veit  advanced  the  money  to 
Joseph  Wolff  on  his  bills  on  Germany  at  once  ;  and  he  thus 
was  able  to  repay  the  Piedmontese  officer,  who  continued  his 
journey  into  the  desert  of  Egypt,  to  die  there  as  a  hermit. 
Wolff  looked  out  for  him  afterwards,  on  his  arrrival  in  that 
country,  but  could  never  find  him. 

Painter  Overbeck,  and  the  two  Veits,  and  the  son  of  the 
philosopher  Plattner,  went  the  same  day  with  Wolff  to  that 
extraordinary  man,  the  Abbate  Pietro  Ostini,  of  whom  we 
shall  have  a  great  deal  to  say ;  and  who  took  Wolff  at  once  to 
Cardinal's  Litta's,  and  announced  to  his  Eminence  that  a 

of  Dr.  Wolf.  45 

young  man  of  the  Jewish  nation  had  arrived,  who  wished  to 
enter  the  Propaganda.  Litta  said,  "  This  can  be  nobody  else 
but  Joseph  Wolff.  I  must  immediately  recommend  him  to 
Pius  VII."  Wolff  was  then  called  into  the  room,  where  Litta 
received  him  with  the  greatest  cordiality,  and  said  to  him, 
"  This  evening  your  arrival  will  be  announced  to  his  Holiness 
Pius  VII." 

Here  we  must  make  a  few  remarks  about  Ostini.  Pietro 
Ostini  was  Professor  at  the  Collegio  Romano,  and  taught 
ecclesiastical  history  there,  even  before  the  exile  of  Pius  VII. 
to  Fontainbleau,  and  he  also  continued  to  hold  this  office  after 
the  return  of  that  amiable  pontiff,  and  his  cardinal.  But 
during  their  banishment  Ostini  became  a  partisan  of  Napoleon, 
and  favoured  his  government  in  Rome ;  which  fact  (in  a  sub 
sequent  conversation  he  held  with  Wolff)  he  did  not  attempt  to 
deny,  but  simply  said  in  reply  to  Wolffs  reproaches,  "  I  held 
myself  neutral  at  that  time."  However,  it  had  struck  Ostini 
that  events  might  change,  and  the  Pope  might  return  ;  so  to 
secure  his  approbation,  he  undertook  the  conversion  of  cele 
brated  Protestants  to  the  Romish  Church,  in  which  attempt  he 
wonderfully  succeeded.  He  converted  the  celebrated  painters, 
Overbeck,  Vogel,  and  Schadow,  and  the  poets  Tieck  and 
Werner,  Princess  Gagarin,  and  many  others.  He  was  not  a 
man  of  great  learning,  but  of  much  taste  and  judgment.  He 
knew  very  well  that  the  ultramontane  system  would  not  do 
with  Germans,  and  therefore  he  adopted  the  system  of  Bossuet ; 
and  after  he  had  converted  a  crowd  of  celebrated  Germans,  he 
introduced  them  in  a  body  to  the  confessor  of  the  Pope,  Bishop 
Menocchio,  who  still  remained  in  Rome,  and  was  a  performer 
of  miracles,  healing  the  sick  with  the  sign  of  the  cross ;  and 
Ostini  desired  this  great  man  to  confirm  his  converts.  When, 
however,  the  Pope  returned  from  Fontainbleau  to  Rome,  he 
showed  himself  (it  is  to  be  regretted)  more  severe  than  his 
friends  had  expected.  Many  of  those  who  had  espoused  the 
cause  of  Napoleon  were  exiled  to  Corsica  ;  Cardinal  Maury  was 
seen  by  Wolff  lying  stretched  in  a  black  gown,  at  the  foot  of 
the  altar,  as  a  penance  ;  and  his  Holiness  exclaimed,  "  Ostini 
must  go  to  Corsica."  But  here  Menocchio  interfered  and  said, 
u  Nay,  your  Holiness,  this  must  not  be — for  Ostini  has  been  a 
mighty  intrument  in  the  hands  of  God,  for  bringing  in  many 
great  heretics  to  the  church."  Pius  VII.  pardoned  Ostini 
accordingly,  and  all  Rome  shouted,  "Ostini  ha  cambiato!" 
(Ostini  has  changed  !)  and  so  he  had  ;  for  as  Wolff  observes, 
he  never  saw  such  a  cringing  fellow  as  he  had  become.  When 
ever  he  saw  a  great  man,  whom  he  knew  to  be  intimate  with 

46  Travels  and  Adventures 

the  Pope,  lie  instantly  bowed  to  the  ground,  so  that  his  nose 
almost  touched  the  earth. 

However,  to  return  to  Wolff.  He  was  introduced  by  the 
Prince  of  Saxe  Gotha  to  Cardinals  Consalvi,  and  Pacca,  and 
by  Monsignor  Testa  to  His  Holiness  Pope  Pius  VII.,  who 
received  him  with  the  greatest  condescension  ;  Wolff  had  seen 
him  previously  in  the  Church,  of  St.  Maria  Maggiore,  and  had 
been  deeply  impressed  by  the  sanctity  of  his  appearance,  and 
now  wished  to  kiss  his  feet,  but  he  held  out  his  hand,  which 
Wolff  kissed  with  great  simplicity.  Pius  VII.  talked  with 
him  about  Stolberg,  Schlegel,  and  Hoffbauer,  and  then  desired 
him  to  read  some  part  of  the  Hebrew  Bible.  This  he  did,  and 
the  Pope  said  to  him,  "  You  are  my  son," — (Siete  mio  figlio !) 
— implying  his  affectionate  interest  in  him.  "  The  Propaganda 
is  not  yet  restored  from  its  confusion  during  my  exile,*  but 
you  shall  go  to  my  own  seminary,  and  hear  the  lectures  at  the 
Collegio  Romano,  until  order  is  re-established.  I  shall  give 
directions  for  your  reception."  The  Pope^s  voice  was  as  soft 
as  a  child's,  his  countenance  remarkably  mild,  and  his  eyes 
had  an  habitually  upward  glance,  though  without  pretension 
or  affectation.  Wolff  gently  and  caressingly  patted  his  Holi 
ness  on  the  shoulder,  saying,  "  I  love  your  Holiness  !  "  (To 
amo  la  vostra  santita.)  "  Give  me  your  blessing !  "  Then 
kneeling  down  he  received  the  benediction  of  that  holy  man,  of 
which  he  will  always  treasure  the  most  pleasing  recollection, 
in  spite  of  those  bigoted  Protestants,  who  declare  the  Pope  to 
be  Antichrist  ! 

And  thus  on  the  5th  of  September,  1816,  Wolff  entered  the 
seminary  of  the  Collegio  Romano  ;  a  part  of  the  establishment 
which  is  appropriated  to  the  use  of  young  Italians  who  are 
being  educated  as  Priests  of  the  Diocese  of  Rome.  Wolff  was 
told  that  his  admission  there  was  an  unprecedented  act  of 
favour;  and  that  the  Pope  had  sent  for  the  Rector,  and 
specially  recommended  him.  On  his  entrance  he  received  the 
usual  dress  of  the  pupils,  namely,  a  violet  blue  garment,  and  a 
triangular  hat.  It  was  the  custom  of  the  place,  whenever  a 
novice  arrived,  to  put  him  under  an  elder  pupil,  who  became 
his  u  Angelo  custode,"  and  made  him  acquainted  with  all  the 
usages  of  the  place.  To  the  honour  of  the  pupils  and  pro- 

*  During  the  exile  of  Pope  Pius  VII.  at  Fontainbleau,  the  Collegio 
Urbano  della  Propaganda  Fede  was  partially  used  as  barracks  by  the 
French  soldiers,  and  altogether  thrown  into  confusion.  On  the  return 
of  the  Pope  in  1814,  a  restoration  was  commenced,  but  it  was  not  fully 
completed  until  the  year  1817. 

of  Dr.  Wolf.  47 

fessors  of  that  college,  be  it  said,  that  they  treated  Joseph 
Wolff  with  the  greatest  kindness  and  cordiality.  They  were 
young  men  of  the  highest  intelligence  and  talent ;  lively,  fiery, 
witty,  cordial  Italians  ;  some  of  them  of  high  birth :  among 
others  there  was  Count  Ferretti,  the  present  Pope  Pius  IX., 
a  mild,  pious,  liberal-minded  young  man,  who  was  well  ac 
quainted  with  the  writings  of  Savonarola,  and  warmly  recom 
mended  them  to  Wolff.  And  when  Ferretti  became  Pope  in 
1846,  Wolff  (then  in  England)  remembered  the  advice  of  his 
old  acquaintance,  and  purchased  all  Savonarola's  works,  which 
had  been  so  favourite  a  study  with  the  now  celebrated  man. 

Another  of  Wolff's  co-disciples  at  the  Collegio,  was  Conte 
Mamiani  from  Pesaro,  nephew  to  the  Cardinal  Galeffi.  Ma- 
miani,  then  only  seventeen  years  of  age,  was  a  youth  of  extra 
ordinary  talents,  whose  name  is  mentioned  in  "  Cancellieri's 
Biographies  of  Talented  Italians."  He  was  a  wonderful 
improvisatore,  and  of  remarkably  gentlemanly  conduct  and 

Nevertheless,  there  were  strange  instances  of  ignorance  to  be 
found  among  the  pupils,  of  which  Wolff  once  took  advantage 
in  his  own  favour.  A  fellow-student  was  badgering  him,  as 
was  rather  their  custom  at  first,  about  the  superiority  of  Italy 
over  Germany,  and  urging  the  fact  even  upon  religious 
grounds ; — "  Only  consider  the  number  of  saints  Italy  has 
produced,1'  was  his  argument ;  "  whereas  in  Germany  you 
have  none !  "  Wolff  exclaimed,  "  Be  quiet,  or  I  will  prove 
to  you  that  you  are  a  very  ignorant  fellow  !  "  "  Well," 
answered  the  student,  "if  there  are  any  German  saints,  name 
them,  and  tell  us  how  many."  "Will  you  count  themT' 
asked  Wolff.  "  By  all  means,""  said  the  other.  "  Very 
good,"  said  Wolff,  "now  begin."  And  then  beginning  to 
number  them  off  on  his  own  fingers,  he  said — 


"  Good  !  "  said  the  student.    "  Well,  there  is  one,  certainly." 

"  Who  was  Schiller?  "  continued  Wolff. 

"  That  is  two,  then,"  remarked  the  student. 

"Who  was  Jean  Paul  Richter?" 

The  student  nodded  consent  to  the  third. 

"  And  who  was  Kotzebue  2  " 

"  Come  !  I  must  grant  you  four.1' 

"  Who  was  Baron  Trenk  2  " 

"  There,  there  !  five  !  " 

But  Wolff's  list  was  not  exhausted.  He  went  on  with 
Wieland,  Herder,  &c.,  in  quick  succession,  till  he  came  to  his 
thirtieth  and  last  saint,  Schinderhannes,  the  celebrated  robber, 
and  there  he  stopped. 

48  Travels  and  Adventures 

"  But,  after  all,"  remarked  the  student,  "  what  are  thirty 
saints  for  such  a  country?  The  number  is  pitiful! "  "There 
now  !  "  exclaimed  Wolff,  "  I  told  you  that  if  you  would  not 
be  quiet  I  would  prove  that  you  were  a  very  ignorant  fellow, 
and  that  is  just  what  I  have  done  !  "  And  then  he  explained 
to  him  the  joke. 

When  the  lectures  at  the  Collegio  Romano  commenced, 
Piatti,  professor  of  dogmatics,  opened  the  course,  and  gave  the 
first  on  the  subject  of  predestination. 

Wolff  sat  near  him,  at  his  right  hand,  when  Piatti  dictated 
the  following  words  : — 

"  My  dear  hearers : — This  is  a  most  perplexing  subject,  I 
therefore  must  give  you  a  precautionary  warning.  The  ques 
tion  of  predestination  is  a  very  difficult  one,  therefore  you 
must  neither  take  the  Scripture,  nor  the  Fathers  as  your 
guide,  but  the  infallible  decision  of  the  Roman  Pontiffs.  For 
Pius  V.  has  declared,  in  one  of  his  Bulls,  that  if  any  one 
should  say  that  the  opinion  of  St.  Augustine  on  predestination 
has  the  same  authority  as  the  decision  of  the  Popes,  he  shall 
be  Anathema"  Wolff  at  once  took  fire,  and  said,  before  them 
all,  "Do  you  believe  the  infallibility  of  the  Pope?"  The 
professor  said,  "  Yes."  Wolff  said,  "  I  do  not." 

He  was  at  once  surrounded  by  the  whole  college ;  Bonelli 
was  especially  indignant,  and  exclaimed,  "  Bad  and  impious 
people  seldom  do  believe  the-  infallibility  of  the  Pope ;  but 
if  you  want  to  stay  at  Rome,  drive  away  these  iniquitous 
thoughts  ! — c  Scacciate  questi  pensieri  cattim  ! ' 

Wolff  became  furious,  but  has  since  confessed  that  he  did 
not  show  the  real  spirit  of  Christianity  in  the  opposition  which 
he  offered.  Nay,  he  owns  that  it  argued  a  great  deal  of  vanity 
in  him  as  a  young  man,  to  attempt  to  be  a  Reformer.  For, 
what  would  they  have  said  in  Cambridge,  if  Wolff,  during  a 
lecture  delivered  by  the  Regius  Professor,  had  got  up  and 
protested  against  the  sentiments  of  the  Professor  ?  Would  he 
not  have  been  stopped  by  the  Professor  and  the  whole  audience 
at  once  ?  He  ran  to  Cardinal  Litta,  and  told  him  the  dispute 
he  had  had,  and  that  he  did  not  believe  the  infallibility  of  the 

Litta's  conduct  was  most  delightful.  He  showed  the  meek 
ness  of  an  angel,  merely  saying, 

"  My  son,  do  not  dispute,  I  beseech  you,  with  those  hot 
headed  young  men.  For,  if  you  dispute,  I  cannot  protect 
you.  And  you  will  be  persuaded  of  the  Pope's  infallibility 
when  you  hear  the  reasons." 

Soon  after,  Wolff  took  umbrage  on  another  point.      His 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  49 

curiosity  was  excited  in  the  highest  degree,  to  hear  how  the 
College  of  Rome  would,  in  the*  Course  of  Lectures  upon 
Church  History,  treat  the  "  History  of  the  Reformation,"  by 
Luther,  and  his  excitement  rose  to  such  a  pitch,  that  he  was 
almost  frantic  with  impatience.  Ostini  was,  as  has  been  said, 
the  Professor  of  Ecclesiastical  History ;  and  in  spite  of  not 
being  deeply  learned,  he  was  a  man  of  astonishing  mind  and 
acuteness,  and  had  a  powerful  gift  of  reasoning.  His  lectures, 
therefore,  were  very  interesting,  his  account  of  the  Crusades 
most  beautiful,  and  his  defence  of  celibacy  ingenious.  Wolff 
remarked  too,  that  in  lecturing  on  the  history  of  Henry 
IV.  and  Gregory  VII.,  he  showed  both  prudence  and  candour; 
for  as  long  as  he  was  able  to  defend  the  latter  against  the 
Emperor,  he  did  it ;  but  when  he  came  to  facts  mentioned  of 
the  Pope  which  he  could  not  defend,  he  merely  read  the 
history,  and  left  the  pupils  to  form  their  own  judgment.  At 
last,  however,  he  arrived  in  his  lectures,  at  the  thirteenth  and 
fourteenth  centuries. 

"  Now,"  thought  Wolff,  rejoicingly,  "  now  we  shall  come 
soon  to  the  history  of  Luther  !  "  But  he  was  disappointed ; 
the  moment  Ostini  came  to  the  period  when  Luther  had  to 
make  his  appearance,  he  closed  the  whole  course  of  Eccle 
siastical  history,  and  began  again  with  the  first  century. 

Wolff  asked  him,  openly  in  the  college,  "  Why  do  you  not 
go  on  ! "  He  coolly  replied,  "  It  is  not  the  custom  at  Rome." 

But  Wolff  was  not  only  dissatified  with  Ostini 's  lectures,  but 
with  the  conversations  he  heard  between  him  and  the  other  pro 
fessors.  There  was  nothing  of  religion,  or  of  the  improvement 
of  the  soul  in  what  they  said  ;  but  they  talked  about  the  flat 
tering  letters  His  Holiness  received  from  such  and  such 
a  potentate.  One  could  easily  look  into  the  inmost  soul  of 
Ostini,  when  one  heard  him  say,  "  I  shall  have  a  hand  in  that 
business — Cardinal  Consalvi  patted  my  shoulders.  I  have 
been  even  noticed  by  Count  Blacas,"  &c. 

The  French  interest  was  at  this  time  in  the  ascendant  at 
Rome,  whilst  Austria  was  hated  and  detested  :  so  much  so, 
that  one  day  the  whole  college  exclaimed  to  Wolff,  "  Wolffio, 
rimperadore  &  Austria  e  crepato " — Wolff,  the  Emperor  of 
Austria,  has  died  like  a  beast!  Wolff  replied,  "  I  am  not 
come  here  to  learn  about  Austria  and  France.  I  am  come 
here  to  understand  the  best  mode  of  proclaiming  the  Gospel  of 

There  was  a  great  fuss  made  by  the  Tractarians,  when  Dr. 
Hampden  was  appointed  Bishop  of  Hereford.  They  said  such 
a  thing  had  never  been  heard  of,  as  that  a  man,  who  inclined 


50  Travels  and  Adventures 

to  German  neology  (which  Wolff  never  could  find  out  Dr. 
Hampden  did),  should  be  made  a  bishop.  Some  even  went  so 
far  as  to  say,  "It  is  enough  to  make  one  go  over  to 
Romanism. "  "  The  whole  Church  should  protest  against  the 
appointment."  And  actually  thousands  of  clergymen  put 
down  their  signatures  to  the  protest ;  but  when  Wolff  was 
asked  for  his,  he  declined  giving  it.  Again,  when  they  pro 
tested  against  Gorham's  appointment,  they  said,  "  This  is 
enough  to  make  a  man  become  a  Romanist."  And  Wolff  was 
again  asked  for  his  signature,  but  again  declined  giving  it. 
Upon  which  one  of  the  clergymen  went  so  far  as  to  call  him  a 
"turncoat;"  but  for  this  he  did  not  care  a  farthing.  Now, 
however,  it  is  well  they  should  know  why  he  acted  thus.  It 
was  because  both  Hampden  and  Gorham  were  people  of  un 
spotted  morality,  and  Wolff  has  always  been  the  advocate  of 
liberty  of  opinion. 

But  there  was  Baron  von  Haffelin,  Titular  Archbishop  of 
Elvira,  and  Bavarian  Ambassador  at  Rome,  against  whom  both 
Ostini  and  the  Pope  himself  warned  Wolff,  telling  him  that  he 
should  have  nothing  to  do  with  him ;  because  he  was  convicted  as 
one  of  the  illuminati ;  a  disciple  of  Weisshaupt,  the  atheist ; 
a  jacobin  in  his  politics,  and  with  a  number  of  natural  children 
around  him.  And  yet  that  very  man  was  made  cardinal,  six 
weeks  after  Wolff  was  warned  against  him,  and  without  his 
having  given  the  slightest  symptom  of  change  of  sentiment ; 
and  there  was  only  one  cardinal  who  protested  against  his  ap^ 
pointment,  and  he  did  so  in  vain.  How  foolish,  then,  of  the 
Tractarians  to  say,  that  the  appointments  of  Hampden  arid 
Gorham  were  enough  to  make  them  Romanists !  Let  the 
cases  be  compared  !  When  Wolff  asked  Ostini  why  Haffelin 
was  appointed  a  Cardinal  \  the  answer  he  gave  was,  "  Because 
he  made  a  beautiful  Concordat  between  the  King  of  Bavaria 
and  the  Pope  ! " 

Wolff  foresees  in  spirit  that  Newman  and  Dodsworth  will 
by  this  time  have  felt  the  force  of  Wolff's  observation,  and 
that  they  will  yet  seek  more  than  ever  before,  a  real  unity, 
that  real  unity  that  will  be  when  Christ  shall  come  a  second 
time  in  majesty  and  glory.  And  they  will  see  that  in  the 
Church  of  Rome,  as  well  as  in  the  Church  of  England,  the 
prophecy  of  Ezekiel  is  fulfilled  :  "  Overturn,  overturn,  over 
turn,  until  he  come  whose  right  it  is,  and  I  will  give  it  him." 
(xxi.  27.) 

Another  circumstance  is  to  be  mentioned,  by  which  Wolff 
was  offended,  and  gave  offence. 

Cardinal  Delia  Somaglia  came  to  the  Collegio  Romano,  in 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  51 

the  room  of  the  rector.  He  was  an  extraordinary  man  ; 
powerful  in  scholastic  learning,  gentlemanly  in  his  appearance, 
a  man  who  had  been  exiled  with  Pius  VII.  to  Fontainbleau, 
and  had  withstood  every  encroachment  of  Napoleon.  This 
man,  when  eighty-five  years  of  age,  was  made  Secretary  of 
State  for  Foreign  AfFairs,  and  he  was  dean  of  the  College  of 

When  Wolft*  came  to  him  in  the  rector's  room,  His  Emi 
nence  treated  him  with  great  condescension,  and  asked  him 
his  views  respecting  the  Church  of  Rome,  of  which  Wolff  still 
spoke  with  the  highest  enthusiasm.  He  asked  him,  among 
other  things,  what  branch  of  study  he  most  liked?  Wolff 
answered,  "  The  study  of  the  Bible  in  the  original  tongue." 
Cardinal  Delia  Somaglia  replied,  "  You  must  not  rely  upon 
that ;  and  you  must  never  forget  that  the  Church  is  the  inter 
preter  of  scripture.  I  will  give  you  an  instance.  There  is  a 
word,'7  His  Eminence  continued,  "in  one  of  the  Prophets  (he 
knew  not  which),  which  is  translated,  'A  virgin  shall  conceive 
and  bear  a  son.1  There  was  a  long  dispute  about  it,  whether 
it  means  '  Virgin/  or  not ;  and  people  could  not  agree,  until 
the  Pope  was  asked  ;  and  the  Pope  decided  that  it  meant 
'  Virgin,1  and  then  the  dispute  was  at  an  end.  So,  you  see, 
the  Hebrew  language  is  an  ornament  for  a  priest,  but  no 
necessity ;  for  the  Pope  at  last  must  decide  everything." 

Wolff  replied  with  a  most  unpardonable  sneer,  "  How  can 
the  Pope  decide,  if  he  does  not  know  Hebrew  !  " 

Upon  which  Delia  Somaglia  rose,  and  said,  "  Wolff,  I  am 
afraid  for  you,  that  you  will  become  a  heresiarch  ! "  And 
Ostini  repeated  the  very  words  to  Wolff  afterwards,  "  His 
Eminence,  Cardinal  Delia  Somaglia,  is  afraid  that  you  will 
become  a  heresiarch  !  " 

Although  Wolff  at  this  moment  believes  that  his  reasoning 
was  correct,  yet  he  was  so  much  struck  by  the  meekness  of  Car 
dinal  Delia  Somaglia,  that  on  returning  to  his  own  room  he 
said  to  himself,  "  Cardinal  Delia  Somaglia  has,  after  all, 
shown  a  more  Christian  spirit  than  I  have  done,"  and  he  burst 
into  tears. 

Wolff  does  not  justify  his  frequent  rudeness  to  his  su 
periors  ;  but  one  good  result  certainly  followed  from  his  habit 
of  questioning  the  infallible  authority  of  his  teachers.  His 
desire  for  studying  the  Holy  Scriptures  grew  stronger  and 
stronger,  and  he  would  sometimes  remain  alone  in  his  room  to 
read  them  when  the  other  pupils  went  to  take  exercise  in 
walking,  or  to  assist  in  the  churches ;  and  he  sometimes  even 
took  his  bible  into  the  lecture-room,  to  the  neglect  of  the 


52  Travels  and  Adventures 

lectures  on  scholastic  divinity.  He  had  at  first  no  Oriental 
books,  nor  means  to  provide  himself  with  a  master  at  the 
Seminary  ;  but  when  Mr.  Baillie,  with  whom  he  had  travelled 
from  Turin  to  Genoa,  called  upon  him  and  found  how  he  was 
circumstanced,  he  bought  him  books,  and  gave  him  two 
guineas  monthly,  which  enabled  him  to  take  an  Oriental 
teacher,  and  to  pursue  his  studies.  This  provoked  a  good 
deal  of  animadversion  from  the  other  pupils.  They  said,  "  Of 
what  use  will  the  Holy  Scriptures  and  the  eastern  languages 
be  to  you,  if  you  do  not  know  scholastic  divinity,  which  alone 
can  enable  you  to  refute  the  sophisms  of  heretics  ?" 

Wolif  wept  when  so  urged,  but  did  not  give  up  the  point. 
At  last,  Cardinal  Litta  commanded  him  to  study  the  scho 
lastic  divinity,  which  his  other  pursuits  so  much  interfered 
with,  and  he  did  so  for  a  short  time.  But  he  used  to  get 
weary  very  soon  while  so  engaged,  and  would  often  get  up  and 
walk  about  his  room,  reciting  passages  from  the  Scriptures,  in 
the  deepest  melancholy :  especially  the  following  verse,  in 
Hebrew, — "  Drop  down,  ye  heavens,  from  above,  and  let  the 
skies  pour  down  righteousness ;  let  the  earth  open,  and  let 
them  bring  forth  salvation,  and  let  righteousness  spring  up 
together  ;  T,  the  Lord  have  created  it." 

Nevertheless,  Wolff  was  not  altogether  the  only  one  in  the 
College  who  ventured  upon  freedom  of  thought.  Mamiani  once 
said  to  him,  "Wolff,  I  never  can  be  reconciled  to  the  union  of  the 
sword  with  the  cross :  there  must  be  a  change,  i.  e.  a  severance 
of  the  spiritual  and  temporal  powers."  Mamiani  became 
Prime  Minister  to  Pope  Pius  IX.,  in  the  year  1848,  when  he 
contributed  to  produce,  in  some  degree,  the  change  he  then 
spoke  about.  He  is  now  Minister  of  Public  Instruction  to 
the  King  of  Sardinia.  His  improvisatorial  powers  have  been 
already  mentioned  ;  and  they  were  often  a  source  of  wonder 
and  delight  to  his  fellow-students,  when,  during  their  va 
cations,  they  made  excursions  to  Tivoli — the  ancient  Tibur — 
near  Maecenas1  Villa,  where  the  Collegio  had  a  very  fine  country 
house.  There  Wolff  read  Horace  in  the  Poet's  own  villa,  and 
enjoyed  himself  very  much;  for  the  collegians  continued  very 
kind  to  him,  let  him  say  what  he  would,  and  plenty  of  amuse 
ments  were  provided.  The  Cardinal  sent  ventriloquists  and 
others  for  their  diversion,  and  they  visited  several  monasteries 
in  the  neigabourhood,  as  well  as  all  the  ancient  ruins,  as  of 
the  Sybil's  temple,  &c.  And  on  these  occasions  they  had 
pic-nics,  where  they  drank  aurora,  a  delicious  beverage,  com 
posed  of  coffee,  chocolate,  milk,  and  sugar,  mixed  together; 
eating  with  it  exquisite  pasticci,  And  then  it  was  that 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  53 

Mamiani  would  enchant  them  with  his  improvisatorial  genius. 
Some  one  gave  him  a  theme,  and  he  at  once  broke  forth  into 
a  most  spirited  tragedy,  with  different  persons  and  voices. 
Only  Italians  are  capable  of  thus  improvising. 

One  day,  during  their  stay  at  Tivoli,  Wolff  went  with  his 
fellow  collegians  to  a  Franciscan  monastery,  where  they  were 
celebrating  the  festival  of  St.  Franciscus  Assissi.  All  Bomish 
monks  are  accustomed  to  preach  sermons  on  the  day  of  their 
patron  Saints,  which  they  call  "  Panegyrica  ; "  and  Wolff  on 
this  occasion  heard  the  Panegyricum  of  St.  Francis  of  Assissi, 
preached  by  a  friar  of  the  Order.  He  enlarged  on  his  suffer 
ings  and  miracles,  and  told  them  that  the  church  of  St.  Peter 
was  one  day  on  the  point  of  tumbling  down,  when  St.  Francis 
upheld  it  with  his  shoulder.  He  also  said  that  he  had  on  his 
body  the  five  wounds  of  Christ ;  and  then  he  went  on  to  say, 
"  Francis  of  Assissi  has  taken  upon  himself  the  sins  of  the 
whole  world."  Wolff,  on  coming  out  of  the  church,  said  to 
his  fellow  collegians,  "  That  Franciscan  friar  is  a  jackass." 
To  which  they  all  agreed.  They  then  returned  to  their 
country  house,  where  the  day  finished  with  a  treat  of  beautiful 
music ;  and,  after  a  residence  altogether  of  two  months  at 
Tivoli,  they  returned  to  Home  to  the  college. 

Wolff  is  anxious  here  to  have  his  opinion  of  the  Roman 
Colleges  thoroughly  understood.  Differing,  as  he  constantly 
did,  from  both  teachers  and  pupils  in  their  scholastical  opinions, 
not  in  the  dogmas  of  the  Church,  (as  the  foregoing  anecdotes 
have  shown,)  he  must  yet  uphold  to  admiration  the  moral  and 
religious  training  he  witnessed  in  those  establishments.  Neither 
in  the  Collegio  Romano,  nor  the  Propaganda,  did  he  ever  hear 
an  indecent  observation,  either  from  priests,  prefects  or  pupils ; 
nor  see  one  single  act  of  immorality.  A  strict  surveillance  was 
the  system  of  the  Collegio  Romano. 

The  Prefect,  who  is  a  priest  ordained  merely  upon  having  a 
slight  acquaintance  with  theology,  the  performances  of  the 
mass,  and  how  to  read  the  breviary  and  pray  the  rosary, 
receives  ten  scudi  (XJ2)  a  month,  in  addition  to  his  victuals, 
for  taking  care  of  the  pupils.  Besides  calling  them  every 
morning  to  the  rosary  prayer  and  the  litany,  and  closing  the 
doors  of  their  rooms  every  evening,  he  has  to  keep  watch 
during  the  day  that  they  are  duly  employed  over  their  studies 
in  their  several  apartments.  In  one  of  the  panels  of  the 
doors  of  these  rooms  there  was  always  a  small  hole  filled  with 
glass,  and  covered  outside  with  a  moveable  shutter.  Through 
this  hole  the  prefect  could,  at  will,  peep  from  time  to  time,  and 
ascertain  how  the  students  were  employing  themselves,  No 

54  Travels  and  Adventures 

student  was  allowed  during  the  hours  of  study  to  visit  the  room 
of  another ;  and  by  these  precautions  the  most  watchful  super 
intendence  was  maintained.  The  young  men,  however,  aware 
how  small  an  amount  of  learning  was  necessary  for  the  fulfil 
ment  of  a  prefect's  duties,  always  called  him  "  UAsino" — 
the  donkey — amongst  themselves  ;  and  Wolff  suggests  that  it 
was  perhaps  in  the  Collegio  Romano,  therefore,  that  he  first 
acquired  the  habit  of  calling  people  "  jackasses." 

On  one  occasion,  in  the  afternoon,  the  heat  of  his  room 
having  become  insufferable,  Wolff  undressed  completely,  and 
was  seated  in  his  chair  reading  and  singing,  when  L'Asino, 
lifting  up  the  shutter,  espied  the  unusual  sight.  He  laughed, 
and  shouted  out,  "  Che  fate  ? "  "  What  are  you  doing  ? "  Wolff 
answered,  "  It  is  too  hot."  The  prefect  went  away  laughing  to 
the  Eector,  and  told  him  that  Wolff  was  sitting  in  his  room 
naked  and  singing.  The  Eector  replied,  "  What  is  to  be  done  ? 
He  is  a  German  !  " 

The  Prefect  called  the  pupils  every  day  for  the  rosary  prayer, 
and  closed  the  doors  of  their  rooms  in  the  evening.  On  his 
opening  the  door  and  awakening  them  in  the  morning,  one  of 
them  had  to  recite  the  Litany  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  and  the 
rest  to  cry  ora  pro  nobis.  After  this  they  went  into  the  private 
chapel,  and  read  a  meditation  taken  from  the  book  of  the 
Jesuit  Segneri,  which  contains  many  good  and  beautiful  things. 
But  the  description  of  Hell  and  Paradise  there  given,  is  the 
same  Wolff  once  read  in  a  Rabbinical  book,  and  in  a  Surah 
of  the  Koran.  During  recreation,  after  the  first  studies  of  the 
day  were  over,  the  pupils  (invariably  accompanied  by  the 
Prefect),  walked  out,  and  visited  several  churches,  performing 
a  silent  prayer,  for  a  few  minutes,  in  each  of  them.  After 
which,  they  went  to  the  Porta  Pia,  or  the  Quirinal,  where 
there  is  always  a  gathering,  both  of  the  inhabitants  of  Rome 
and  visitors.  There  they  might  meet,  any  day,  cardinals, 
prelates,  princes,  noblemen,  their  own  friends,  and  strangers 
from  foreign  lands — Germans,  Spaniards,  English,  French — 
even  travellers  from  Chaldsea,  Abyssinia,  Jerusalem,  &c.  And 
thence  they  returned  to  the  college,  where,  after  a  prayer,  each 
pupil  retired  to  his  own  room  for  further  study.  In  the  evening 
again,  they  assembled  in  the  corridor  of  the  building,  where 
their  friends  in  the  town  visited  them,  and  they  conversed 
freely  on  any  matter  they  pleased.  Then  followed  supper, 
and  then,  before  they  retired  to  rest,  they  went  again  to  the 
chapel,  where  a  portion  of  the  Gospel,  and  meditations  from 
Segneri  or  Rodriguez,  were  read  aloud.  Such  was  the  daily 
routine  at  the  Collegio  Romano,  varied,  as  has  beeu  seen, 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  55 

during  vacations  by  expeditions  into  the  country,  and  even 
temporary  absences. 

And  in  the  Propaganda,  to  which  Wolff  went  afterwards, 
the  regulations  were  very  similar,  only  with  this  addition,  that 
in  the  time  of  recreation,  letters  from  all  parts  of  the  world  were 
read,  giving  accounts,  both  of  the  progress  of  missionaries,  and 
of  their  complaints  that  there  should  be  so  few  labourers  in  the 
vineyard.  In  one  of  these  from  one  Du  Burgh,  then  in  the 
United  States  of  North  America,  the  following  outpouring 
occurred  : — 

"  Alas,  alas  !  whole  districts  here  have  embraced  the  Pro 
testant  religion,  because  there  were  no  labourers  of  the  Church 
of  Rome.  Prince  Gallizin  (son  of  Princess  Gallizin  of  Minister), 
has  to  do  all  the  work  alone,  as  missionary  ;  going  about  with 
the  rosary  and  cross  in  one  hand,  and  the  breviary  in  the 
other,  to  convert  the  whole  of  America  to  the  true  faith." 

An  American  gentleman,  Barber  by  name,  originally  be 
longing  to  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  there,  but  who 
had  become  a  Roman  Catholic,  and  was  visiting  the  Propa 
ganda,  heard  Du  Burgh's  letter  read,  and  made  the  observation 
that  almost  all  the  Protestants  in  the  United  States  were 
very  well-intentioned,  although  as  he  now  thought  mistaken. 
To  which  Professor  (afterwards  Cardinal)  Ostini  remarked, 
"  Wolff  is  right  in  maintaining  that  we  ought  not  to  say  all 
Protestants  are  lost ;  for  '  Multse  ovis  foris,  multi  lupi  intus  ' 
— There  are  many  sheep  without  and  man?/  ^colves  within,  the 

Every  true  Christian  must  see  the  value  of  this  remark,  and 
acknowledge  the  liberality  which  dictated  it ;  and  if  the  Mission 
ary  Societies  of  England  would  look  at  the  Roman  Colleges,  with 
the  same  candid  spirit,  they  would  see  many  things  there,  which 
they  might  take  as  a  model  with  great  advantage  to  them 
selves,  instead  of  finding  sweeping  and  indiscriminate  fault 
because  differences  of  religious  opinion  exist.  The  cardinal 
prefect,  and  the  rest  of  the  cardinals,  who  are  members  of  the 
Propaganda,  are  not  mere  patrons,  giving  their  names  and 
subscriptions,  but  never  going  near  the  place,  nor  troubling 
their  heads  about  it,  as  is  the  case  with  patrons  of  English 
Societies  ;  who  leave  everything  in  the  hands  of  a  few  indi 
viduals,  of  whom  even  the  nominal  committee  knows  little  or 
nothing ;  and  who  are  often  retired  tradesmen,  or  unemployed 
naval  officers,  without  either  knowledge  or  interest  in  the 

In  the  Propaganda  the  patrons  are  workmen,  and  do  their 
own  work,  or  see  for  themselves  that  it  is  done.  They  visit 

56  Travels  and  Adventures 

the  college,  will  attend  sick  pupils,  cover  them  up  in  their  beds, 
send  them  suitable  presents,  as  of  cakes,  with  twenty  or  thirty 
candles  burning  on  them  ;  or,  in  cases  where  amusement  is 
necessary,  will  order  actors,  ventriloquists,  and  jugglers  to  be 
fetched  for  their  entertainment :  and  the  Pope  himself  does  not 
disdain  to  visit  among  them.  Surely  this  is  a  contrast  to 
English  customs,  and  not  very  much  in  their  favour  ! 

If  Pius  IX.  would  begin  to  unite  with  the  wonderful  disci 
pline  of  the  Church  of  Rome,  the  highly  spiritual  principles  of 
the  Jansenists,  and  combine  them  with  the  scientific  powers  of 
the  Jesuits,  that  Church  would  become  the  model  of  all 
Churches,  and  a  perfect  union  might  then  take  place.  Spirits 
of  Pascal  and  Quesnel,  unite  your  prayers  with  mine  that  this 
may  take  place  ! 

Again,  on  the  return  of  Propaganda  missionaries  from  places 
where  they  have  been  stationed,  they  are  consulted  by  the 
assembly  of  cardinals,  as  to  what  has  been  done,  and  what 
remains  to  be  done,  in  that  particular  locality  ;  instead  of  being, 
as  in  England,  sent  to  a  poky  lodging-house,  in  High  Holborn, 
and  submitted,  from  time  to  time,  to  the  humiliation  of  being 
lectured  by  some  long-nosed,  snuff-taking  lady,  of  the  so-called 
Evangelical  party,  whose  only  care  is  to  bid  them  beware  of 
Puseyism,  over-formalism,  &c.,  &c.,  &c.,  whatever  happens  to 
be  the  religious  bugbear  of  the  day.  In  short,  at  Rome,  the 
value  of  a  man's  work  is  both  ascertained  and  acknowledged ; 
and  a  missionary  coining  from  a  distant  country  is  frequently 
consulted  privately  by  a  cardinal,  as  well  as  publicly  by  the 
general  assembly  of  cardinals  and  monsignori — the  subject  of 
these  discussions  being  the  necessities  and  results  of  the 
mission.  And,  when  he  is  sent  forth  again,  he  is  not  hampered 
by  instructions  from  a  petty  committee,  or  even  a  cardinal,  but 
he  goes  out  as  Missionarius,  cum  omnibus  facitltatibus  apos- 

All  the  German  artists  and  learned  men — amongst  others 
Bunsen,  and  the  philologist  Becker,  the  editor  of  Plato — • 
called  on  Wolff,  during  their  stay  in  Rome  ;  and  Niebuhr  also, 
who  arrived  there  during  somewhere  about  that  time.  And 
Wolff  delivered  in  the  college  a  lecture  to  the  Germans  gene 
rally,  on  Isaiah  and  Jeremiah,  and  the  historical  books  of  the 
Old  Testament ;  ^'and  visited,  in  company  with  his  fellow- 
pupils,  the  seven  churches  of  Rome,  and  said  an  Ave  Maria  in 
each  church. 

Wolff  has  always  thought  it  delightful  to  see  Rome  still  the 
rendezvous  of  the  most  learned  men  in  the  world.  So  it  has 
always  been,  and  so  it  is  now.  Moreover,  he  is  convinced  of 

of  Dr.  Wolf.  57 

the  liberality  shown  there  to  strangers,  travellers,  and  savan 
of  every  sort.  He  cannot  believe  that  Winkelmann  had  any 
reason  for  committing  the  hypocrisy  of  becoming  a  Roman 
Catholic  in  order  to  make  researches  in  the  Vatican  Library. 
Wolff  himself  has  heard,  in  the  Cafe  Greco,  unbelievers  dis 
cussing  the  merits  of  revelation  with  believers,  perfectly  un 
molested.  From  the  Protestant  German  painter  Vogel  too, 
he  one  day  heard  a  story  which  showed  what  freedom  of  speech 
was  generally  allowed ;  and  the  account  of  which  will  prove 
what  liberty  of  association  the  students  of  the  Collegio  Romano 

The  Saxon  Minister,  Abbate  Adorni,  had  much  wished  to 
convert  Vogel  to  the  Roman  Catholic  faith ;  and  he,  in  self- 
defence,  one  day  asked,  "  Pray  tell  me,  Abbate  Adorni,  if  the 
Roman  Catholic  religion  is  so  much  better  than  the  Protestant, 
how  is  it  that  the  Protestants  are  more  moral  than  the  Roman 

To  which  inquiry  the  Abbate  made  answer, — 

"  I  admit  what  you  say  ;  but  I  will  tell  you  the  reason  in  a 
moment.  The  devil  has  the  Protestants  in  his  hands,  as  it 
were,  leading  them  about  like  dogs  in  a  string  ;  and  thus  being 
sure  of  them  at  last,  he  does  not  trouble  himself  with  tempting 
them  now,  knowing  that  let  them  be  as  moral  as  they  please, 
it  will  do  them  no  good.  Whereas,  if  he  does  not  attack  the 
Roman  Catholics  with  all  his  might,  they  are  certain  to  slip 
through  his  fingers  and  go  to  heaven !  " 

To  hear  this  story  from  Vogel  was  natural  enough,  but  great 
was  Wolff's  astonishment  next  day,  when  Ostini  himself 
alluded  to  it,  saying,  "  Imagine,  Wolff,  the  mischief  done  by 
such  arguments  as  those  of  Abbate  Adorni  with  Vogel?" 

It  is  a  curious  circumstance,  that  years  afterwards,  Vogel 
himself  joined  the  Romish  Communion. 

Wolff  once  proposed  the  foundation  of  a  new  religious 
Order  at  Rome,  to  be  composed  of  painters,  sculptors,  and 
artists  of  all  kinds ;  and  got  the  letter  suggesting  this  de 
livered  to  the  Pope  by  the  Prince  of  Saxe  Gotha.  The  Pope 
replied  to  him  through  Mons.  Testa,  that  he  prayed  God  to 
bless  his  zeal,  and  hoped  great  things  would  one  day  be  done 
by  him ;  and  he  sent  messages  to  the  Superiors  of  both  the 
Collegio  Romano  and  the  Propaganda,  recommending  "his 
dear  son  "  Joseph  Wolff  to  their  attention. 

And  the  kindly  feeling  was  warmly  reciprocated.  Wolff 
saw  many  fine  sights  while  he  was  in  Rome,  for  instance,  the 
Canonization  of  Alfonso  Maria  Liguori,  the  founder  of  the 
Redemptorist  Order,  and  other  imposing  spectacles ;  but  no- 

58  Travels  and  Adventures 

thing  that  ever  impressed  him  so  much  as  when  that  holy, 
good,  trembling  old  man,  Pius  VII.,  with  a  crown  upon  his 
head,  entered  the  church  of  St.  Peter,  and  kneeling  down  at 
the  sepulchre  of  the  Apostle  Peter,  offered  up  a  silent  prayer, 
amidst  the  dead  silence  of  the  whole  crowd  in  the  church. 
Then  Wolff  burst  into  tears. 

Soon  after  Wolff  had  returned  from  Tivoli  to  the  college,  he 
received  a  visit  from  His  Royal  Highness,  the  Crown  Prince, 
afterwards  King  of  Bavaria,  accompanied  by  his  celebrated 
physician  Ringseis,  a  religious  Roman  Catholic,  who  had  added 
to  his  Catholicism  the  mysticism  of  Jacob  Bohme,  the  shoe 
maker,  the  great  theosophist  of  Germany,  soon  after  the  Refor 

But  in  spite  of  the  respect  which  was  shown  him,  he  was 
often  very  unhappy,  for  his  continual  disputes  destroyed  all 
devotional  feeling  and  Christian  meekness ;  and  yet  he  could 
not  resist  engaging  in  them,  although  his  best  friends  counselled 
him  otherwise.  The  painter  Overbeck  said  one  day,  with 
much  justice,  "  We  should  bear  the  prejudices  of  other  men 
with  gentleness  and  humility,  because  we  are  all  more  or  less 

But  Wolff  could  not  see  this  properly  then.  On  the  con 
trary,  he  argued  with  Overbeck  ;  "  The  Protestants  of  Ger 
many  believe  me  to  bo  a  hypocrite  in  entering  the  Roman 
Catholic  Church  ;  and  I  should  be  such  if  I  were  to  consent 
to  their  abuses."  Overbeck's  answer  to  which  was,  "  You  are 
not  yet  able  to  check  such  things  as  these  :  you  must  wait  as 
Christ  did,  till  you  are  thirty  years  of  age.  Nay  you  will 
surely  fall  into  the  same  error,  and  embrace  the  doctrines  you 
now  abhor,  if  you  will  not  hear  the  voice  of  your  friends." 
Nevertheless,  Overbeck  spoke  for  the  time  in  vain,  as  will  bo 

One  day,  indeed,  matters  became  quite  boisterous  at  table  in 
the  Collegio  Romano.  One  of  the  pupils  said,  "  Wolff,  how 
could  you  pat  the  Pope's  shoulders  2  Are  you  not  aware  that 
the  Pope  is  God  f '  Wolff  became  as  red  as  a  turkey  cock, 
and  said,  "  How  can  you  dare  to  say  such  a  thing  I  the  Pope 
is  dust  of  the  earth,  polvere  della  terra.  If  he  was  God,  I 
could  not  have  touched  him."  All  the  collegians,  and  the  pro 
fessors,  and  rectors,  and  vice-rectors,  rose  from  their  seats,  and 
exclaimed,  "  Wolff,  what  are  you  saying  ?"  Wolff  said,  "  This 
fellow  called  the  Pope  God ;  and  I  say  he  is  dust  of  the  earth  ; 
who  is  right  2"  One  answered,  "  Is  it  not  said,  ye  are  gods  f 
Wolff  said,  "  Yes,  which  may  be  broken  to  pieces."  Another 
said,  "  He  is  God  on  earth,  for  he  has  all  power  in  heaven  and 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  59 

on  earth,  and  in  purgatory."  And,  again,  another  said,  "  One 
may  call  him  God,  in  a  large  sense."  "Wolff  replied,  "  I  shall 
not  call  the  Pope  God  either  in  a  large  or  a  small  sense  :  he  is 
dust  of  the  earth."  Another  said,  "  He  may  be  called  God  in 
a  most  pious  sense."  And  to  Wolff's  utter  surprise,  every 
one  of  the  most  learned  men  belonging  to  the  Court  of  Rome 
defended  and  supported  the  expression. 

But  here  one  frank  confession  must  be  made.  It  may  well 
be  asked,  Why  did  Wolff  always  attack  the  abuses  and  irrele 
vant  points  of  the  Church  of  Borne,  when  he  was  only  a  pupil 
in  the  place  for  a  particular  object  I  Protestants,  as  well  as 
Boman  Catholics,  advised  him  not  to  do  so.  Niebuhr,  Stol- 
berg,  and  Cardinal  Litta,  as  well  as  many  others,  all  agreed  on 
the  point.  They  said,  "  You,  Wolff,  are  only  a  pupil  ;  you 
are  neither  bishop  nor  priest ;  be  quiet  till  you  have  heard 
more,  and  have  a  position." 

Wolff  answers  frankly,  that  although  he  hopes  that  love  for 
Divine  truth  has  been  one  of  his  ruling  motives  from  his  youth 
upwards,  yet  his  great  enemies  all  through  life  have  been — 
vanity  and  ambition  ;  cherished  and  encouraged  alike  by  inju 
dicious  friends  and  covert  foes.  He  owns  that  during  his  life 
at  Koine,  his  vanity  made  him  believe  that  he  knew  everything 
better  than  those  by  whom  he  was  surrounded  ;  and  as  people 
told  him  that  he  was  like  Luther  in  outward  appearance,  he 
resolved,  if  possible,  to  be  a  Luther  also  in  his  stormy  and  wild 
career  ;  while,  at  the  same  time,  his  insatiable  ambition  made 
him  wish  and  aim  at  becoming  Pope,  as  he  once  openly  avowed 
in  the  College.  And,  being  then  an  admirer  of  Gregory  VII., 
he  said  he  wished  to  be  like  him  in  daring  and  firmness,  but 
to  do  exactly  the  contrary  to  what  he  did,  and  to  signalize 
himself  by  abolishing  celibacy,  and  the  worship  of  the  Saints. 
He  even  told  his  fellow-pupils  of  the  name  he  intended  to 
assume  when  Pope,  namely,  Hildebrandus  I. ! 

At  last,  in  December,  1817,  the  Propaganda  was  rebuilt,  and 
Wolff  was  about  to  be  transferred  into  that  College.  He  was 
therefore  very  much  engaged  in  packing  up  and  preparing  to 
move,  and  in  changing  his  academical  dress.  So  he  entered 
the  lecture  room  rather  late,  and  made  an  apology,  saying, 
"  Pardon  me,  I  am  very  late,  because  I  am  going  to  make  a 
metamorphosis."  Abbate  Menocchio,  Wolff's  greatest  friend, 
good  naturedly  replied,  loud  enough  for  all  to  hear,  "  Take 
care,  if  you  go  on  disputing  as  you  do  now,  you  will  be  making 
a  third  metamorphosis  ;"  at  which  every  one  burst  into  a  fit  of 
laughter.  But  there  is  a  beautiful  custom  at  Koine,  that  before 
one  enters  upon  a  new  situation,  or  place,  one  goes  to  a  retreat. 

60  Travels  and  Adventures 

Wolff  went,  therefore,  with  all  the  collegians  of  the  Propa 
ganda,  to  a  monastery  built  upon  Monte  Cittorio,  of  the  order 
of  St.  Vincent  de  Paula,  inhabited  by  holy  men,  but  suspected 
to  be  Jansenists ;  and  he  found  among  those  monks  deep  and 
silent  devotion,  not  the  spirit  of  controversy.  They  always 
rose  early  in  the  morning,  and  went  to  the  chapel,  which  was 
only  half  lighted  ;  and  every  day,  on  some  different  subject,  a 
silent  meditation  was  carried  on.  Not  Segneri,  but  Thomas  a 
Kempis  was  read  ;  and,  during  dinner,  the  life  of  Filippo 
Neri.  To  Wolff's  utter  astonishment,  in  the  life  of  Filippo 
Neri,  the  cause  of  Savonarola  was  declared  to  have  been  just, 
and  that  he  was  put  to  death  most  unjustly  by  Alexander  VI. 
Wolff,  now  about  twenty-one  years  old,  lived  fourteen  happy 
days  in  that  retreat,  leaving  it  with  great  regret ;  and  a  few 
days  before  Epiphany,  was  at  last  introduced  into  the  Propa 
ganda,  built  upon  the  Piazza  d'Espagna.  On  the  day  of 
Epiphany,  the  pupils  gave  an  "academia"  in  forty-two  lan 
guages.  This  was  an  exhibition  at  which  the  pupils  publicly 
recited  speeches.  It  was  in  the  evening.  All  the  ambassadors 
were  present,  and  all  the  cardinals,  and  the  German  artists, 
and  French  priests.  Wolff  spoke  in  five  languages,  and 
chanted  so  that  the  hall  rang ;  and  all  the  auditors  were  in 
raptures,  and  applauded  him  ;  and  the  Italian  collegians  of 
the  different  colleges  present  kept  saying,  "  Look  at  him,  look 
at  him,  what  tremendous  eyes  he  makes  !"  "  Guardateli, 
guardateli,  gli  occhi  die  fa  /"  After  the  whole  was  over,  the 
servants  of  the  cardinals,  together  with  their  masters,  slapped 
his  back  and  said,  "  Per  Bacco,  per  Bacco !  die  wee  !  die  wee ! 
die  occhi !  die  occhi  /" 

An  Armenian  Bishop  said,  "  His  voice  goes  up  above  the 

At  last,  the  lectures  commenced,  and  were  attended  by  young 
Irishmen,  by  Armenians,  Bulgarians,  Maronites,  Chaldeans, 
Abyssinians,  Negroes,  and  people  from  Algiers  and  Tunis. 
The  Chinese  pupils  had  their  college  at  Naples,  because  they 
were  not  able  to  bear  the  climate  of  Eome.  The  pupils  in  the 
Propaganda  were  dressed  in  a  long  black  gown,  with  a  red 
girdle  around  it ;  there  were  five  red  buttons  at  the  collar,  in 
dicating  the  five  wounds  of  Christ — the  red  colour  being  the 
symbol  of  the  danger  of  losing  his  life,  to  which  a  Missionary 
is  exposed ;  and  they  wore  three-cornered  cocked  hats :  and 
thus  Wolff  was  dressed.  The  rector  of  the  Propaganda  was 
at  the  same  time  teacher  of  dogmatica,  and  Finucci  was  the 
professor  of  Biblical  literature  and  casuistry.  The  rector  was 
ftaimondo  Serdomenici,  a  dreadful  dogmatist,  of  which  fact 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  61 

one  cannot  give  a  better  idea  than  by  allowing  him  to  speak  for 
himself.  He  once  asked  Wolff,  "Is  it  dogma  that  Jesus 
Christ  died  for  all?"  Wolff  said,  "  Yes  ;  for  Scripture  says, 
he  gave  himself  a  ransom  for  all.1 '  Serdominici  said,  "  No 
such  thing  ;  that  is  not  a  dogma  of  the  Church  ;  it  is  only  a 
dogma  that  he  did  not  die  for  the  elect  only,  against  Calvin. " 
Wolff  said,  "  Why  should  it  not  be  dogma,  for  Scripture  de 
clares  it?"  Serdomenici  said,  "  The  Church  has  not  so  decided  " 
— then  he  continued,  "  it  is  not  yet  dogma,  that  the  Virgin 
Mary  was  born  without  sin  ;  but  the  time  may  come  when  the 
Church  will  so  decide,  with  the  annexation  of  anathema  to  any 
person  who  does  not  believe  it."  A  prophecy  fulfilled  in  1858. 

At  another  time,  the  question  was  proposed,  whether 
Jansenius  was  a  heretic  ?  The  rector  said,  "  One  cannot  ex 
actly  say  that,  for  he  says  at  the  end  of  his  work,  that  he 
submits  everything  he  wrote  to  the  decree  of  the  Church.  But 
if  the  Church  had  burnt  him,  she  would  have  done  well." 
Whereupon  Wolff  exclaimed,  "  The  Church  has  no  right  to 
burn."  The  rector  said,  "  How  do  you  prove  that  ?"  Wolff 
said,  "  It  is  clear — it  is  not  allowed  to  murder.  '  Thou  shalt 
not  kill !' '  The  rector  said,  "May  a  shepherd  kill  a  wolf, 
when  he  enters  the  flock?"  Wolff  replied,  "A  man  is  not  a 
beast."  The  rector  replied,  "  Seventeen  Popes  have  done  it." 
Joseph  Wolff  replied,  "Seventeen  Popes  have  done  wrong." 

During  that  whole  conversation,  two  gentlemen  were  stand 
ing  at  the  door  of  the  room,  and  heard  the  conversation  ;  one 
of  whom  was  Henry  Drummond,  the  late  Member  for  Surrey, 
Wolff's  steady  friend  to  the  last  moment  of  his  (Drummond's) 
life ;  as  he  publicly  declared,  at  Freemason's  Tavern,  in  1827, 
he  was  resolved  to  be.  His  words  were :  "I  will  remain 
Wolff's  friend  to  my  dying  hour,  though  all  England  should 
trample  upon  him  !" — and  he  nobly  carried  them  out.  His 
expression  of  countenance  was  such,  that  to  look  at  was  to  love 
him,  even  when  he  made  the  most  sarcastic  remarks.  The 
other  was  Hallyburton,  afterwards  Lord  Douglas,  of  Edin 
burgh.  Both  delivered  letters  to  Wolff  from  Pestalozzi,  Fel- 
lenberg,  and  Zschockke,  from  Switzerland.  The  first  words  of 
Drummond  were,  "  Wolff,  go  with  me  to  England  !"  Wolff 
replied,  "  No  ;  I  shall  not  stir  until  I  am  turned  out."  The 
next  day,  David  Baillie  came  to  Rome,  and  brought  letters  on 
Wolff's  behalf  from  the  Duchess  Litta,  Cardinal  Litta's  sister, 
from  Milan. 

Wolff,  at  that  time,  had  one  visitor  after  another.  Amongst 
them,  his  friends  Niebuhr,  Bunsen,  and  Brandis,  called  upon 
him ;  and  Niebuhr  told  him,  "  Wolff,  you  are  in  danger.  In 

62  Travels  and  Adventures 

case  you  see  the  blow  coming,  fly  to  the  Prussian  palace." 
Just  at  this  time  also,  a  certain  Baron  Von  Akerblad  called  on 
him,  and  entered  into  conversation  with  him  on  prophecy. 
Akerblad  was  an  unbeliever  ;  he  took  up  the  Bible  and  said, 
"  Now,  Wolff,  what  do  you  make  of  this  prophecy  :  c  He  shall 
establish  his  kingdom  upon  the  throne  of  his  father  David  T  " 
Wolff  answered,  "  This  must  be  understood  spiritually." 
Akerblad  replied,  "  I  have  not  been  made  an  infidel  by  Vol 
taire,  but  I  have  been  made  an  infidel  by  you  divines.  You 
go  to  the  Jew,  and  try  to  throw  down  his  throat  those  few 
prophecies  which  you  deem  to  have  been  fulfilled  literally ;  and 
as  soon  as  the  Jew  turns  round,  and  shows  to  you  prophecies 
which  stare  you  in  the  face,  you  turn  round  and  demand  of 
him  that  he  should  understand  them  spiritually" — Akerblad 
was  right ; — for,  for  one  convert,  the  divines  of  the  present 
day  make  to  Christianity,  they  make  ten  infidels,  with  their 
phantomizing  systems  of  prophecy :  as  Wolff  has  since  learnt 
to  believe. 

Wolff's  stay  at  the  Propaganda  had  now  become  very 
critical ;  yet,  amidst  all  these  controversies,  the  pupils  and 
professors  behaved  very  amiably  towards  him,  as  their  con 
stant  joking  with  him  showed.  Observing  that  he  was  very 
fond  of  tarts,  they  all  one  day  sent  their  tarts  on  a  plate  to 
him,  which  he  carried  up  stairs  to  his  room.  He  then  invited 
for  the  next  day,  all  his  friends,  the  German  artists,  Protest 
ants,  and  Roman  Catholics,  to  his  room,  and  gave  them  a 
dinner;  whilst  the  pupils  and  professors  standing  outside, 
shouted,  in  a  laughing  and  not  angry  way, — "  Here,  look  ! 
Wolff  has  assembled  all  the  heretics  of  the  place  in  his  room, 
and  is  giving  them  a  dinner,"— the  dinner  consisting  chiefly 
of  the  tarts  which  had  been  given  up  in  his  favour  by  them 

Thus  Wolff  spent  his  days,  notwithstanding  all  controver 
sial  quarrels,  most  agreeably  in  the  Propaganda ;  and  had 
frequently  occasion  to  admire,  amidst  the  intolerance  and 
bigotry  of  some  priests  of  the  lower  order,  the  highly  liberal- 
minded  principles  of  Pope  Pius  VII.  And  even  the  bigotry 
he  witnessed  forced  his  respect  at  times,  as  being  the  develop 
ment  of  undoubted  piety.  Wolff  recalls  now  a  young  man, 
who  often  provoked  him  by  entreating  him  not  to  eat  more 
than  eight  ounces  of  food  upon  a  fast  day,  because  the  theo 
logians  had  ruled  that  that  was  the  proper  quantity;  but 
whose  countenance  as  he  spoke  was  nothing  short  of  hea 
venly  in  expression.  With  this  youth,  Pedrucci  by  name, 
from  Perugia,  Wolff  had  a  dispute  one  day  about  the  nature  of 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  63 

hell  fire ;  Wolff  naintaining  that  it  could  not  be  a  material  fire, 
which  so  offended  Pedrucci's  stern  faith,  that  he  called  -him 
"  beast."  Wolff  then  became  incensed,  and  appealed  to  autho 
rities,  and  Menocchio  looked  up  the  matter  in  the  theological 
dictionary,  and  found  that  most  of  them,  and  among  them  St. 
Johannes  Damascenus,  contended  for  a  metaphorical  interpre 
tation.  Whereupon,  poor  Pedrucci  wept  for  his  undue  zeal, 
and  begged  WolfFs  pardon  like  a  child. 

A  circumstance  happened  which  hastened  Joseph  Wolff's 
removal.     All  the  pupils  became  discontented  with  the  new 
rules  given  to  them,  and  rose  in  open  rebellion  against  the 
rector.     Wolff  sided  with  the  pupils,  and  declared  the  rules 
monkish.     One  evening  a  letter  arrived  from  Henry  Drum- 
mond,  saying,  "  Wolff,  ^come  out  of  Babylon."     But  although 
the  letter  reached  Wolff,  it  was  first  read  by  the  College,  and 
thus  Drummond's  words  became  known  to   the  authorities. 
Now,  a  custom  prevails  in  the  College,  that  every  night  after 
prayer,  the  door  of  every  pupil's  room  is  shut.     But  Wolff" 
observed,    through    a   little  window  which  was  in  the  door 
of  the   room,    that  after  his  was    locked,  the  rooms  of  the 
rest  were  left  open  ;  and  that  one  after  the  other  the  students 
were  called  to  the  Rector's   room ;    and   the   next   morning 
Wolff  heard  from  his  fellow  pupil,  Rese,  who  is  now  Bishop  of 
Michigan  in  America,  that  all  the  pupils  had  been  examined 
about  Wolff's  sentiments.     That  same  day  Wolff  was  asked 
by  the  Rector  whether  it  was  dogma  that  Christ  had  died  for 
all !     He  answered  "  Yes,"  but  the  Rector  said  "  No."     On 
which  Wolff  asked  "  Why?"  when  the  Rector  replied,  "Be 
cause  the   Church  has  not  decided,   and   has   only   declared 
heretical  the  doctrine  of  the  Calvinists,  that  Christ  died  for 
some,  and  has  reprobated  the  rest."     Wolff  exclaimed,  "  It 
needs  no  decision  of  the  Church,  for  Scripture  has  clearly 
decided,  which  says,  '  He  gave  himself  a  ransom  for  all.' " 
The  pupils  took  Wolff's  part,  and  one  of  them,  Dragano  by 
name,  from  Bulgaria,  said,  with  all  the  warmth  of  a  Bulgarian, 
"  If  Christ  died  not  for  all,  we  need  not  all  worship  Him." 
Wolff' wrote  instantly  to  Cardinal  Litta,  and  said,  "  The  Pro 
testants   of   Germany   were   right,    the    Propaganda   teaches 
errors ;"  and,  unfortunately,  Wolff  added  in  his  own  name, 
the  argument  used  by  Dragano  (in  order  not  to  compromise 
Dragano),  that,    if  Christ  died  not  for  all,  all  need   not  to 
worship  Him.     Next  day  Litta  himself  entered  the  College  of 
the  Propaganda,  and  went  at  once  to  Wolff's  room,  and  sat 
down.     Wolff  attempted  to  kneel  before  him,  but  His  Emi 
nence  told  him  to  sit  down.     Cardinal  Litta  said,   "  I  have 

64  Travels  and  Adventures 

read  your  letter,  in  which  there  is  a  great  deal  of  nonsense 
(de*  spropositi).  First,  ask  any  theologian  you  please,  and  he 
will  tell  you  that  Christ  died  for  all  is  not  dogma,  because  the 
Church  has  not  so  decided ;  and  the  words  of  Scripture,  there 
fore,  may  mean,  that  He  died  for  '  many '  (as  it  is  said  also 
once) ;  and  as  to  your  argument  that  if  He  died  not  for  all,  we 
need  not  all  worship  Him,  it  is  most  absurd  ;  for  we  do  not 
worship  Him  because  He  died  for  all,  but  we  worship  Him 
because  He  is  God."  Wolff  gave  up  the  argument  entirely. 
The  whole  demeanour  of  Cardinal  Litta  was  that  of  a  highly- 
dignified  prince,  devoted  priest,  affectionate  father,  and 
believing  Christian. 

At  that  same  time  Wolff  received  letters  from  Monsignore 
Testa,  private  secretary  of  the  Pope,  a  learned,  amiable,  and 
pious  prelate,  warning  him,  in  the  most  affectionate  manner ; 
telling  him  that  a  tempest  was  over  his  head,  that  his  senti 
ments  were  disapproved  by  the  Propaganda,  that  he  was  in 
danger  of  being  turned  out.  Testa  wrote  to  Cardinal  Litta  at 
the  same  time,  and  spoke  to  him  as  well,  recommending 
Wolff  to  his  protection.  Litta  replied,  "I  can  no  longer  save 
him."  A  few  days  after  this,  a  tailor  came  to  Wolff's  room, 
(the  tailor  of  the  Propaganda,)  and  took  the  measure  of  his 
clothes.  In  the  same  way,  the  shoemaker  came  and  took  the 
measure  of  his  'feet ;  the  hatter  came  and  took  the  measure  of 
his  head.  Wolff  was  in  great  apprehension,  and  did  not  know 
what  to  do.  And  presently  his  friends,  the  painters  and 
artists  at  Koine,  heard  that  something  was  going  on  amiss 
with  him  ;  so  they  came  to  him,  and  said,  "  We  have  come 
here  to  tell  you  that  we  will  all  go  in  a  body  to  the  Pope,  if 
anything  is  done  to  you  !" 

At  last,  on  the  15th  of  April,  1818,  Cardinal  Litta  sent  for 
Wolff.  The  messenger  merely  said  u  Cardinal  Litta  wants 
you."  Wolff  went.  He  was  instantly  admitted  to  the  Car 
dinal's  presence.  His  Eminence  said,  "  Your  sentiments,  my 
dear  Wolff,  are  clearly  known  ;  your  correspondence  is  known;* 
and  we  know  by  that  correspondence  your  opinions  and  manner 
of  thinking.  1  therefore  have  to  announce  to  you  the  sentence 
of  Pope  Pius  VII.,  who  is  acquainted  with  all  the  circum 
stances  ;  and  though  I  feel  as  if  my  right  arm  was  being  cut 
off,  it  is  better  that  I  should  lose  my  right  arm,  than  the  whole 
body ;  so  you  must  leave  us,  for  if  you  remain  longer,  you  will 
spoil  all  the  rest  (mi  guastate  tutti  gli  altri).  You  are  not  for 

*  Wolff  had,  in  spite  of  several  warnings,  corresponded  in  a  very 
unguarded  manner,  with  Bunsen  and  other  German  friends ;  and  these 
letters  had  been  intercepted  and  read. 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  65 

the  Propaganda;  your  views  differ  from  our's  ;  you  must 
return  to  Vienna.  Here  are  two  letters,  the  one  for  Cardinal 
Lante  in  Bologna,  who  is  Cardinal  Legate  in  that  town ;  and 
the  other  for  Count  Leardi,  the  Pope's  Nuncio  in  Vienna; 
and  now  you  must  go  with  a  gentleman  who  will  accompany 
you  to  a  house,  where  you  must  remain  till  you  set  out."  In 
the  adjoining  room  Wolff  found  the  clothes  for  which  all  the 
measurements  had  been  taken.  He  put  them  on  ;  an  excellent 
glass  of  wine  was  given  to  him,  it  was  Tokay ;  he  drank  it, 
and  was  refreshed.  Then  he  left  the  house  with  the  "  gentle 
man"  Cardinal  Litta  had  mentioned,  and  who  was,  in  fact,  a 
member  of  the  Holy  Office,  i.  e.  the  Inquisition,  and  on  the 
road  he  met  with  Chevalier  Bunsen.  He  said  to  him,  "  Dr." 
(for  he  was  not  yet  Chevalier)  "  Bunsen,  I  am  taken  to  the 
Inquisition."  Bunsen  ran  to  Niebuhr,  and  told  him  of  it. 
Wolff  was  brought  to  Signer  Degeler,  the  lawyer  of  the  Holy 
Office ;  in  whose  house  he  was  put  under  arrest  for  fifteen 
hours,  watched  by  a  little  dwarf,  and  not  permitted  to  see  his 
friends.  He  wished  to  walk  out,  but  that  of  course  was  not 
allowed.  Writing,  however,  was  not  forbidden  ;  so  he  sent  a 
letter  of  farewell  to  his  friend  Vogel,  the  painter,  which  was 
safely  delivered  to  him.  Wolff  was  asked  questions,  which  he 
is  not  at  liberty  to  disclose,  as  he  took  at  the  time  an  oath  not 
to  do  so,  and  he  never  will  disclose  them. 

But  to  do  the  Propaganda  justice,  we  may  be  allowed  to 
observe,  that  the  statements  of  his  sentiments  were  correctly 
reported,  and  that  no  injustice  was  done  to  him  ;  for,  with  the 
opinions  he  entertained,  many  of  which  were  totally  in  opposi 
tion  to  those  taught  at  Rome,  he  certainly  never  was  a  Roman 
Catholic,  in  the  sense  which  could  have  justified  the  Propa 
ganda  in  sending  him  out  as  a  missionary. 

At  three  o'clock  in  the  morning,  the  courier  of  the  cabinet 
of  the  Pope  (what  is  called  here  a  "  king's  messenger")  ap 
peared  with  a  carriage,  escorted  by  five-and-twenty  gens 
d'armes,  and  bringing  the  member  of  the  Inquisition  before 
spoken  of;  and  Wolff  having  got  in,  was  thus  rolled  out  of  the 
Holy  City.  Wolff  said,  in  relating  this  story,  "  My  mind  was 
overclouded  with  gloom."  A  gloom  which  the  presence  of 
his  guard-like  companion  was  not  at  all  calculated  to  dispel : 
moreover,  he  was  apprehensive  of  the  contents  of  the  letters 
that  he  had  with  him,  which  were  sealed.  At  last,  after  ponder 
ing  the  matter  over  in  his  mind  for  some  time,  he  said  to  himself, 
"  If  these  letters  contain  an  order  to  put  me  in  prison,  I  shall 
try  to  effect  my  escape.  Otherwise,  I  shall  go  on  arid  tell  the 
people  candidly  that  I  opened  their  letters  to  see  what  was  in 


66  Travels  and  Adventures 

them  about  myself;  and  that  I  considered  I  was  entitled  as  a 
prisoner  to  do  so."  Wolff  accordingly  opened  the  letters,  in 
which,  however,  he  found  himself  highly  recommended. 

But  he  was  not  satisfied,  even  then.  He  knew  that  his 
companion  had  other  letters,  and  tortured  himself  by  conjec 
turing  that  they  possibly  contained  the  true  orders  about  him  ; 
whereas  the  letters  put  into  his  own  hands  might  have  been 
actually  intended  as  a  blind,  the  probability  of  his  opening 
them  having  been  anticipated  !  This  was  a  terrible  idea ;  and 
Wolff,  on  the  strength  of  it,  watched  an  opportunity  when  his 
friend's  eyes  had  been  closed  for  a  short  time,  to  attempt  to 
abstract  the  letters  from  his  pocket.  But  at  the  first  touch, 
the  man  (who  was  disguised  as  a  soldier)  observed,  quite 
coolly,  opening  his  eyes  and  keeping  Wolff  off,  "  It  is  of  no 
use.  I  am  not  asleep.  /  do  not  intend  to  sleep  T 

After  this,  of  course,  Wolff  had  no  resource  but  to  submit 
to  his  fate,  and  so  they  proceeded  to  Bologna,  where,  on  his 
arrival,  he  delivered  the  letter  to  Cardinal  Lante,  and  said 
that  he  had  opened  it,  because  he  considered  that,  as  a  prisoner, 
he  had  a  right  so  to  do  ;  and  that  had  it  contained  an  order  for 
imprisonment,  he  should  have  made  his  escape. 

Cardinal  Lante  reported  this  to  Cardinal  Litta,  who  wrote  a 
very  affectionate  letter  to  Wolff  on  the  subject,  only  regretting 
that  Wolff  should  have  so  little  confidence  in  him,  as  to  believe 
him  capable  of  treachery.  And  he  ordered  the  Pope's  Nuncio 
at  Vienna  to  show  to  Wolff,  on  his  arrival  there,  the  private 
letters  which  had  been  written  by  the  Propaganda  about  him, 
by  the  perusal  of  which  Wolff  perceived  that  they  had  acted 
throughout  towards  him  with  the  kindest  intentions,  without 
treachery  or  dissimulation.  This  was  confirmed  so  recently  as 
on  the  4th  February,  1861,  when  Wolff  dined  with  David 
Baillie  at  14  Belgrave  Square,  and  they  talked  over  Wolff's 
banishment  from  Home,  and  Mr.  Baillie  said,  "  Soon  after  your 
departure,  I  came  back  to  Rome  from  the  East,  and 
immediately  called  on  Cardinal  Litta,  and  asked  him  the  cause 
of  your  dismissal.  The  Cardinal  spoke  of  you  in  the  highest 
terms  but  said,  we  could  keep  him  no  longer,  for  his  sentiments 
were  totally  at  variance  with  ours  ;  so  we  sent  him  away  with 
all  the  consideration  due  to  his  character/'  All  this  shows 
that  Achilli  and  Gavazzi  gulled  the  English  public,  when  they 
described  the  Cardinals  as  altogether  destitute  of  principle  and 
good  feeling.  Cardinal  Litta's  letter  (which  reached  Wolff  at 
Vienna)  throws  such  light  upon  his  character  and  feelings, 
that  a  translation  of  it,  in  full,  is  subjoined. 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  67 


i(  The  letter,  which  you  have  written  to  me  from 
Bologna,  although  it  has  made  more  poignant  that  sorrow 
which  I  have  ever  felt  from  the  moment  that  I  was  obliged  to 
take  the  resolution  of  sending  you  away  from  Rome,  gives  me, 
nevertheless,  some  ground  for  consolation,  since  you  assure  me 
that  you  will  ever  love  the  holy  Catholic  Church.  I  fear,  on 
the  other  hand,  that  in  your  understanding,  and  perhaps  in 
your  heart,  you  make  a  distinction  between  the  Catholic 
Church,  and  its  head,  who  is  the  Pope.  But  I  flatter  myself 
that  in  future  your  sentiments  may  be  more  sincere  than  they 
have  been  in  times  past.  I  myself  warned  you  personally,  and 
through  the  medium  of  Ostini,  many  times,  to  break  off  your 
dangerous  correspondences  ;  you  did  not  obey  me  ;  and  having 
had  more  confidence  in  some  pretended  friends,  than  in  persons 
who  sincerely  wished  and  acted  well  towards  you,  you  mani 
fested,  even  without  restraint,  your  opinions  and  intentions. 
From  this  it  was  seen  clearly,  that  instead  of  being  grateful 
and  attached  to  that  See  of  Rome  which  nourished  you,  and 
which  is  the  true  centre  and  mistress  of  the  universal  Church, 
you  cherished,  on  the  contrary,  sentiments  of  aversion — nay, 
even  of  horror — for  this  good  mother :  that  secretly  you  were 
beginning  to  be  in  a  disposition  to  render  of  no  avail  the  cares 
of  the  Propaganda,  by  proposing  to  yourself,  if  sent  to  the 
East,  objects  and  purposes  totally  different  from  those  which 
the  Holy  College  has  in  view.  With  such  sentiments  you 
would  have  corrupted  your  companions,  brought  up  in  true  obe 
dience  and  attachment  to  the  Holy  See.  In  consequence  of 
these  things,  which  I  stated  before  announcing  to  you  your 
departure,  and  which  you  could  not,  nor  can  now  deny,  it  be 
came  necessary  to  remove  you  from  the  College  of  Pope"  Urban. 
Nevertheless,  even  in  this  case,  it  was  proposed  to  retain  you 
some  time  longer  at  Rome,  in  consideration  of  that  countenance 
and  support  which  you,  conscious,  perhaps,  of  the  danger  to 
which  your  practices  exposed  you,  contrived  to  procure  for 
yourself.  You,  who  judge  me  capable  of  punishing  without  a 
just  motive,  and  without  forewarning,  or  listening  to  reason, 
will  not  believe  me  if  I  tell  you  that  this  resolution,  to  which 
I  was  unavoidably  led,  has  given  me  the  greatest  pain  ;  but 
God  knows  how  much  I  have  suffered,  and  how  much  I 
still  suffer  !  I  never  supposed  you  to  be  a  member  of  the  Bible 
Society,  in  which  there  is  no  wonder  that  many  good  persons 
have  unawares  enrolled  themselves,  because  the  venerable  name 
of  the  Holy  Scriptures,  which  are  the  writing  and  word  of  God, 
naturally  must  attract  minds  zealous  for  the  Divine  glory,  and 


68  Travels  and  Adventures 

the  salvation  of  their  neighbours.  But  it  is  precisely  of  the 
most  excellent  things  that  the  greatest  abuse  is  made.  I  hope, 
however,  in  the  mercy  of  the  Lord,  and  in  His  omnipotence  and 
infinite  wisdom,  that  He  will  bring  good  out  of  evil,  as  He  has 
brought  forth  light  from  darkness,  and  the  creature  from 
nothing.  But  without  a  special  aid,  which  we  ought  to  hope 
for  from  God  towards  his  Church,  certain  it  is,  that  the  enter- 
prize  of  translating  the  Holy  Scriptures  into  all  languages, 
even  the  lowest  and  the  most  barbarous,  and  of  multiplying 
and  pouring  forth  copies  of  it,  in  order  to  give  them  into  the 
hands  of  all  persons,  even  the  most  stupid  and  rash,  without 
the  aid  of  anything  to  explain  the  obscure  meanings  of  it,  and 
to  solve  those  great  difficulties  which  were  obstacles  even  to  the 
acute  and  sublime  understandings  of  the  Augustines  and 
Jeromes,  cannot  be  denied  to  be  a  most  dangerous  thing ;  as 
opening  the  way  to  a  thousand  errors,  which  has  been  shown 
before  now  in  the  examples  of  the  heretics,  and  as  is  seen  more 
clearly,  in  the  present  day,  by  the  more  monstrous  absurdities 
of  the  Methodists,  and  the  other  innumerable  sects,  who  think 
that  they  see  in  the  word  of  God  their  own  ravings.  What 
must  one  say,  moreover,  if,  in  the  regulations  of  this  Society, 
it  is  laid  down  as  a  fundamental  point,  that  the  most  authentic 
version  must  be  the  English,  which  has  been  convicted  by  our 
Irish  Bishops  and  English  Vicars,  of  many  errors,  made  by 
the  pretended  Reformers  2  What  if,  even  among  the  German 
versions,  there  are  adopted  faulty  and  corrupt  ones,  as  that  of 
Luther,  so  much  the  more  seducing  than  the  others,  from  the 
purity  and  elegance  of  its  language?  The  Holy  Roman 
Catholic  Apostolic  Church  does  not  shut  up  the  heavenly  trea 
sure  of  the  Divine  Scriptures,  as  some  calumniously  say  it  does, 
under  the  title  of  the  Court  of  Rome ;  of  which  title  I  am  not 
ashamed,  but  even  boast,  and  ever  have  boasted  ;  even  amongst 
the  disgraces  of  our  exile,  professing  myself  to  be  a  member  of 
the  Court  of  Rome,  and  on  that  very  account  more  united  to 
the  centre  of  unity,  and  to  the  sovereign  See,  the  depository  of 
the  doctrine  and  power  of  Jesus  Christ.  This  See  of  Rome, 
to  which  error  cannot  have  access,  as  the  experience  of  so  many 
ages  demonstrates,  inasmuch  as  her  faith  is  made  sure  by  the 
never-failing  promises  of  Jesus  Christ, — this  See,  which  teaches 
to  all  the  truth  of  the  faith,  has  prescribed  the  rules  and  the 
cautions  with  which  any  one,  who  remains  attached  to  the 
doctrines  of  the  Fathers,  and  to  the  interpretation  of  the 
Church,  ought  to  treat  this  precious  gift  of  God,  and  not  surely 
to  profane  it  rashly,  and  to  abandon  it,  as  it  were  a  vile  and 
trivial  thing,  into  the  hands  of  idiots  and  impure  persons.  Our 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  69 

holy  father,  Pius  the  Seventh,  himself,  has,  in  his  briefs, 
spoken  against  such  an  abuse.  But  enough  of  this  argument. 
I  send  you  a  letter  for  HofFbauer.  Profit  by  this  disgrace, 
which  you  owe  to  yourself,  for  not  having  obeyed  that  which  I 
ordered  you,  through  the  medium  of  Ostini.  I  am  not  angry 
with  you,  although  my  duty  has  obliged  me  to  take  a  resolu 
tion  which  has  given  me  great  pain.  I  wish  to  help  you  in 
any  other  way,  and  you  can  write  to  me  with  freedom.  I  pray 
God  that  He  will  preserve  you  from  evil  companions,  and  per 
fect  in  you  that  great  gift  which  He  has  bestowed  upon  you, 
in  calling  you  to  the  faith . 

"  Your  most  affectionate 


"  P.S. — By  the  first  opportunity,  your  own  books  and  some 
others  will  be  sent  to  you  from  the  Propaganda." 


Returns  to  Vienna ;  Monastic  Life  in  Switzerland ;  Henry 
Drummond ;  Becomes  a  Member  of  the  Church  of  England ; 
Lewis  Way,  the  Philanthropist ;  Studies  at  Cambridge ; 
Charles  Simeon  ;  Is  turned  out  of  the  Synagogue. 

WHILST  Wolff  was  at  Bologna,  he  was  introduced  by 
Cardinal  Lante  to  Mezzofanti,  a  gentleman  acquainted 
with  76  languages  and  112  dialects,  whose  reputation  has 
since  been  very  great.  He  also  renewed  there  his  acquaintance 
with  Orioli,  who  received  him  with  the  greatest  kindness.  At 
length  Wolff  left  Bologna  for  Vienna,  Cardinal  Lante  having 
provided  him  with  a  companion,  who,  like  the  last,  was  a 
member  of  the  "  Holy  Office."  And  thus  he  arrived  with  a 
company  of  travellers  in  a  vettura,  at  Venice.  One  of  the 
travellers  it  is  worth  while  to  describe  a  little.  He  was  a 
painter  of  the  Italian  school,  and  he  came  up  to  Wolff  and 
said,  "  I  see  what  it  is  disquiets  your  mind,  I  will  comfort 
you ; "  adding,  "  Wolff,  my  dear  friend,  you  cannot  do  better 
than  submit  yourself  to  the  Church ;  reflect  well  upon  this 
text,  '  Thou  art  Peter,  and  upon  this  rock  will  I  build  my 
church."  These  are  terrible  words,  full  of  meaning.  The  best 
thing  one  can  do,  is  to  submit  to  the  Pope,  who  has  the  keys 

70  Travels  and  Adventures 

of  Heaven.  Since  I  have  become  an  obedient  child  to  him,  I 
have  kept  from  vice,  and  I  sing  the  hymn  to  the  Virgin  Mary, 
*•  Salve^  gran  madre  e  Vergine,  abbi  di  noi  pieta,  nel  celeste, 
tramite,  passa  di  sfera^  in  sfera^  e  la  natura  intiera^  muta 
osservando  sta. ' ' 

Wolff's  appointed  companion  on  the  road  to  Vienna  was 
Dottore  Mazio,  a  native  and  resident  of  Bologna,  and  he  suc 
ceeded  that  other  member  of  the  Inquisition  who  had  brought 
him  from  Koine  to  Bologna.  Mazio  was  enthusiastically 
attached  to  the  order  of  Jesuits.  He  always  said,  "  I  like 
the  Jesuits,  for  they  know  human  nature,  and  make  due 
allowance  for  human  frailties." 

On  their  arrival  at  Venice,  Wolff  at  once  called  on  the 
Governor- General,  Count  de  Goes,  and  told  him  that  he  was 
the  prisoner  of  a  member  of  the  Inquisition.  His  Excellency 
bade  him  go  quietly  to  Vienna,  where  he  would  be  protected 
by  the  police.  On  reaching  Leibach,  Wolff  called  on  the 
Benedictine  Monks  (for  Mazio  permitted  him  to  go  about 
alone  on  parole).  These  friars  were  acquainted  with  his 
doings  at  Rome,  and  were  much  interested  in  him,  and  they 
reported  his  case  to  their  friends  at  Vienna. 

At  last  Wolff  arrived  at  Vienna,  but  in  a  most  melancholy 
frame  of  mind.  The  recollection  of  having  been  sent  away 
from  his  friends  at  Rome,  without  being  able  to  embrace  them 
before  his  departure — that  he  had  been  banished  by  Pius  VII., 
whose  private  piety  he  so  deeply  respected,  and  whom  he  liked 
very  much, — that  he  had  been  separated  from  a  visible  Church, 
and  condemned  by  its  Bishop, — the  idea  that  he  should  now 
become  an  object  of  persecution, — all  these  things  stood  clearly 
before  his  mind ;  as  well  as  the  probability  that  his  career  was 
now  stopped,  and  that  he  should  never  be  able  to  preach  the 
Gospel  to  his  brethren.  And,  in  his  distress,  he  wrote  a  letter 
to  Hoffbauer,  of  whose  piety  he  always  had  a  high  opinion. 
But  even  before  he  received  this  letter,  Hoffbauer,  having 
heard  of  Wolff's  banishment,  and  the  reason  of  it,  came  to  see 
him  in  his  lodgings,  and  conveyed  him  to  his  own  house.  At 
first,  too,  he  seemed  inclined  to  take  Wolff's  part,  and  to  be 
irritated  against  the  Church  of  Rome ;  but  in  three  clays  he 
changed  his  tone,  and  said,  "  Rome  is,  notwithstanding,  mis 
tress  of  the  Catholic  Church,  and  the  Pope  the  true  successor 
of  St.  Peter.  Rome  was  the  only  Church  which  believed  in 
the  true  divinity  of  Christ  in  the  time  of  the  Arians,  and  you 
have  not  done  well  in  disclosing  the  shame  of  the  Universal 
Mother."  Nevertheless,  he  was  received  with  kindness  by  all 
his  old  friends.  Friedrich  von  Schlegel  and  his  wife,  Werner 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  71 

the  poet,  Madleiier  the  mathematician,  and  others,  all  rallied 
round  him.  Hoffbauer  had  numbered  many  great  men  among 
his  recent  converts ;  among  others  the  philosopher  Giinter, 
and  the  mighty  genius  Dr.  Emmanuel  Veit,  besides  Men 
delssohn  the  philosopher.  These  all  argued  with  Wolff,  and 
overpowered  him  by  the  force  of  their  reasoning.  They  asked 
him  if  he  knew  the  sad  condition  of  those  German  Roman 
Catholics  who  denied  the  authority  of  the  Pope  ;  namely,  that 
they  had  become  Socinians,  or  embraced  an  allegorical,  so- 
called  philosophical  system  of  Christianity  ;  which  was  true  in 
many  cases,  there  was  no  doubt ;  but  still  Wolff's  mind  was 
not  altogether  satisfied.  He  remained  for  a  while  with  Hoff 
bauer,  however,  and  resumed  his  usual  cheerfulness,  and  then 
he  determined  to  enter  the  monastery  and  embrace  the  Order 
of  which  Hoffbauer  was  the  Vicar-General. 

While  in  this  establishment,  Wolff's  turn  for  mimicry  and 
practical  jokes  was  often  exercised  for  the  amusement  of  his 
fellow-students.  On  one  occasion,  when  Madlener,  the  mathe 
matician,  who  had  a  habit  of  abstractedly  repeating  his  re 
marks  over  and  over  again,  was  in  the  act  of  delivering  a 
lecture,  and  pointing  out  some  proposition,  he  suddenly  said, 
"  This  proposition  has  never  been  made  out — this  proposition 
has  never  been  made  out ; "  and  was  continuing  to  repeat 
these  words,  when  Wolff  broke  in,  "  A  peasant's  son  found  it 
out  long  ago."  Madlener  was  absorbed,  and  did  not  answer. 
"  A  peasant's  son  found  it  out,"  said  Wolff.  Madlener  did 
not  reply,  and  Wolff  repeated  his  remark.  At  last  the  mathe 
matician  was  roused,  and  said,  crossly,  "Why  do  you  disturb 
me?  What  did  he  find  out?1'  "That  two  and  two  make 
four,1'  was  the  pert  reply ;  which  set  the  assembly  in  a  roar  of 
laughter,  in  which,  after  making  a  face  of  woeful  perplexity, 
Madlener  joined  heartily  himself. 

Wolff  observed  with  astonishment  the  immense  influence 
which  Hoffbauer  (a  man  who  seemed  to  have  returned  from 
the  Middle  Ages)  had  obtained  among  the  clergy  and  nobility 
in  Vienna  ;  for  the  most  learned  men  of  the  University  had 
become  ultramontane,  and  noble  ladies  came  and  kissed  his 
hand.  At  last  Wolff  desired  him  to  send  him  to  his  monas 
tery  at  Val-sainte  ;  but  to  this  Hoffbauer  would  not  make  up 
his  mind ;  and  indeed  he  began  daily  more  and  more  to 
tyrannize  over  Wolff,  continually  reproaching  him  for  his 
behaviour  at  Rome ;  which  treatment,  although  he  bore  it 
with  the  greatest  submission,  making  excuses  for  Hoffbauer's 
irritable  temperament,  was  very  distressing  to  him.  At  length 
he  decided  to  leave  Vienna  on  a  certain  day.  So  he  went  to 

72  Travels  and  Adventures 

the  vestry  of  Hoffbauer's  church,  where  he  met  Father 
Johannes  Sabelli,  who  had  just  ended  the  celebration  of  the 
mass  ;  and  who  said  to  Wolff,  after  hearing  his  determination, 
"  I  predict  to  you  two  things  ;  the  first  thing  is,  that  you  will 
not  leave  Vienna  to-day ;  the  second  thing  is,  you  will  not 
remain  in  Val-sainte.  I  see  this,  as  in  a  vision,  after  having 
performed  holy  mass.1'  So  Wolff  tried  to  leave  Vienna  that 
very  day,  in  order  to  prove  to  Johannes  Sabelli  that  he  was  a 
false  prophet ;  but  although  he  did  his  best  to  accomplish  his 
object,  he  was  not  able  to  get  away,  as  there  was  a  delay 
occasioned  over  procuring  his  passport.  Johannes  Sabelli 
therefore  had  cause  to  crow  over  him.  At  last  Wolff*  left 
Vienna,  in  the  month  of  October,  1818,  for  Val-sainte,  having 
obtained  Hoffbauer's  consent.  He  travelled  through  Austria, 
and  was  affectionately  received,  with  great  hospitality,  by  the 
Benedictine  friars  of  Krems-Miinster,  who  were  well  versed  in 
German  literature,  but  were  complete  neological  Protestants 
in  their  sentiments.  And  as  they  had  in  their  hands  the 
education  of  youth,  one  needed  to  have  only  a  moderate  talent 
for  prophecy  to  foresee,  that  a  great  revolution  would  one  day 
take  place  in  Austria,  which  might  upset  the  whole  fabric  of 
the  great  Hoffbauer. 

In  the  Benedictine  Monastery  of  Lambach,  on  the  frontiers 
of  Austria,  Wolff  found  the  monks  enthusiasts  for  the  fine 
arts.  At  Salzburg  he  met  with  the  great  oriental  scholar 
Sandbichler,  occupied  with  the  study  of  unfulfilled  prophecy, 
and  reading  the  Apocalypse.  He  said,  "  Revelation  is  not 
given  for  the  purpose  of  keeping  us  in  the  dark  respecting 
future  events,  but  to  enable  us  to  find  out  what  God  has 
unveiled  for  the  edification  of  the  Church."  This  divine  be 
lieved  in  the  future  personal  reign  of  Christ,  the  restoration  of 
the  Jews,  the  renovation  of  the  earth,  and  the  coming  of 
Antichrist.  Wolff  also  met  with  an  interesting  man,  the  poet 
Weissenbach,  who  was  very  witty,  as  the  following  anecdote 
of  him  will  show.  Weissenbach  came  one  day  to  visit  Fried- 
rich  Schlegel ;  when  Schlegel,  and  his  wife,  and  the  rest  of  his 
company,  went  into  an  adjoining  closet  to  confess  their  sins  to 
Hoffbauer,  and  to  receive  absolution  :  after  which  they  desired 
Weissenbach  to  go  to  Hoffbauer  and  confess  also ;  whereupon 
he  began  to  search  the  pockets  of  his  coat,  waistcoat,  and 
trousers,  and  then  he  said,  in  a  most  serious  way,  "  I  am 
sorry  to  find  that  I  quitted  Salzburgh  in  such  a  hurry,  that  I 
left  all  my  sins  behind  me ;  so  I  have  not  one  to  confess 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  73 

Weisseubach  wrote  in  Wolff's  album  the  following  verses: 

"  Dick  hat  Golf  hcreingervfen 
Welt  von  fern  in  sein  Hans 
Und  von  seines  altars  stufen 
Sendet  er  dick  wieder  aus." 

God  has  called  thee  from  far 
Into  his  house  : 
And  He  sends  thee  out  again 
From  his  altar  steps. 

From  Salzburgh,  Wolff  entered  Bavaria,  where  he  found 
the  whole  of  the  clergy  in  arms  against  the  concordat,  lately 
concluded  between  the  Pope  and  the  King  of  Bavaria.  Pro 
ceeding  into  Switzerland,  he  first  of  all  went  to  the  canton  of 
Schwytz,  where  he  heard  a  great  deal  of  an  "  estatica,"  a  nun 
who  was  continually  translated  into  the  air,  and  had  the  five 
wounds  of  Christ  in  her  body,  and  spoke  like  a  prophetess. 
She  had  just  died,  but  many  were  said  to  be  cured  by 
her  miracles  after  her  death.  Wolff  has  read  what  she  said  in 
a  trance,  and  all  the  expressions  were  most  beautiful.  From 
thence  he  went  to  the  celebrated  Monastery  of  Maria-Ein- 
siedlen,  to  which  pilgrims  resorted,  travelling  thither  for  hun 
dreds  of  miles.  Wolff  remained  there  certain  days,  and  read 
Hebrew  with  several  of  the  monks  ;  and  then  lie  passed  on  to 
the  monastery  of  his  destination  at  Val-sainte. 

This  religious  house  formerly  belonged  to  the  Order  of  La 
Trappe,  but  now  to  the  Bedemptorists — the  name  of  the  Su 
perior  being  Pere  Passerat — a  tall,  meagre-looking  gentleman, 
who  spoke  very  eloquently.  On  entering  the  monastery, 
Wolff  saw  these  words  inscribed  on  the  gate,  Jejunabis^  ct 
plorabis,  eras  enim  morieris.  Wolff",  like  an  obedient  novice, 
knelt  down  before  Passerat,  and  received  his  blessing,  and 
begged  his  permission  to  read  the  Vulgate  translation  of  the 
Scriptures  in  Latin.  He  also  made  himself  useful  by  teaching 
German  and  Latin  to  the  pupils.  Every  Friday  evening  they 
assembled  in  a  dark  room,  put  out  the  candles,  and  then  every 
one  flagellated  himself.  Wolff  attempted  to  join  in  this  self- 
discipline  ;  but  he  gave  himself  only  one  stroke,  and  then  ad 
ministered  all  the  other  blows  to  his  leather  trousers,  which 
were  pushed  down  to  his  knees,  and  it  made  a  loud  sound. 
The  others,  observing  this  device,  laughed  very  heartily ;  and 
several  of  them  afterwards  followed  Wolffs  example — especi 
ally  one,  who  stood  near  the  wall,  and  gave  it  also  the  benefit 
of  the  lash.  His  name  was  Joseph  ' 

74  Travels  and  Adventures 

It  must  be  confessed  that  Hoffbauer,  with  all  his  violence, 
had  far  more  judgment  and  good  taste  than  Father  Passerat ; 
and  Wolff  has  not  the  least  doubt  but  that,  on  account  of 
Passerat's  want  of  judgment,  many  of  the  most  distinguished 
members  of  the  Order  left  the  monastery  in  disgust,  and  be 
came  secular  priests.  For  instance,  the  poet  Werner,  Em 
manuel  Veit,  and  others  besides,  would  not  submit  to  the 
degradation  of  Passerat's  manners  ;  and  were  driven  away  by 
them.  Wolff  got  his  share  of  Passerat's  monastic  excess ; 
for  when  he  once  talked  with  him,  in  the  presence  of  the 
others,  and  was  sitting  before  him  upon  the  stove,  he  received 
from  him  three  blows  upon  the  head,  which  inflicted  severe 
pain.  Passerat  ordered  another  of  the  members  to  hold  out 
his  hand,  which  he  struck  with  a  whip.  This,  however,  was 
not  done  in  a  fit  of  violence,  but  for  the  purpose  of  inspiring 
humility  and  meekness,  which  is  a  part  of.  the  monastic 
system.  For  the  same  end  he  desired  Wolff  to  kiss  the  feet 
of  the  monks,  an  order  which  he  obeyed,  but  at  the  same  time 
bit  their  toes.  He  would  also  put  one  student  to  shame  before 
the  rest,  which  it  was  evident  none  of  them  liked.  Besides 
this,  his  views  were  most  contracted ;  as,  for  example,  once, 
when  at  dinner,  a  student  said  "  the  Church  had  no  right  to 
burn,"  and  wished  to  discuss  the  subject  after  they  had 
finished  eating.  But  Passerat  replied,  in  the  coolest  way,  and 
to  cut  the  matter  short,  "  Why  cannot  the  Church  burn  ? 
They  burn  in  Spain  to  this  day,"  And  then  he  repeated  the 
grace,  Laudate  Dominum  in  excelsis,  &c.,  and  all  discussion 
was  at  an  end. 

At  the  request  of  Wolff,  whilst  the  others  were  dining,  one 
of  the  students  read  aloud  Count  Stolberg's  Ecclesiastical 
History ;  but  when  the  reader  came  to  the  passage  in  which 
the  author  expresses  himself  against  mental  reservation,  thus 
— "  that  if  the  system  of  mental  reservation  were  to  become 
the  universal  system  of  the  Catholic  Church,  the  whole 
Church  would  become  a  gang  of  rascals,"  the  reading  was 
forthwith  stopped. 

Another  thing  which  oifended  Wolff  was,  that  there  was  so 
much  double  dealing  in  the  monastery.  It  had  only  been  es 
tablished  a  few  years,  and  the  Government  of  the  Swiss  Can 
ton  only  permitted  them  to  embody  sixteen  members  in  their 
Order ;  yet  they  knew  how  to  manage  so  as  to  have  above 
thirty  members.  Wolff,  therefore,  lost  all  respect  for  the 
whole  Order  :  so  much  so  that  he  began  to  transgress  every 
rule  of  it,  and  turn  the  whole  into  jest.  Every  Saturday  eve 
ning,  before  prayer,  all  the  members  were  accustomed  to  kneel 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  75 

down  before  the  Hector,  Passerat,  and  to  accuse  themselves 
openly,  before  the  rest,  of  little  faults.  This  did  not  amount 
to  confession,  but  was  merely  an  act  of  self-humiliation. 
Wolff,  when  the  turn  came  to  him  to  accuse  himself  before  the 
rest,  always  accused  somebody  else.  So,  for  instance,  one  day 
he  said,  "  Father  Berset  looks  like  a  peasant,  and  has  a  head 
like  a  stone."  The  pupils  were  so  amused,  that  they  cried, 
"  Go  on ! "  On  which  he  continued,  "  Father  Sabelli  is  as 
cunning  as  a  fox."  Again,  "When  Father  Joseph  snores,  he 
alarms  the  whole  monastery."  Of  another  he  said,  "  He  looks 
like  a  freemason."  However,  there  was  one  who  was  very  angry 
about  it,  and  said,  "  If  I  was  the  Father  Rector,  I  would  have 
turned  that  fellow  out  long  ago  ! "  On  the  Saturday  fol 
lowing,  Wolff  accused  this  man  of  impertinence — and  so  it 
went  on  for  a  while. 

But,  at  last,  Wolff  observed  that  spies  were  set  over  him, 
and  that  these  spies  were  his  own  pupils.  They  were  asked 
by  the  Rector  whether  he  had  never  given  any  one  of  them 
letters  for  Protestants  ;  and  actually  one  of  them,  Hilper  by 
name,  urged  him  on  to  give  him  letters.  Wolff  knew  at  once 
for  what  reason  he  wanted  them,  viz.,  to  deliver  them  at  once 
over  to  the  Superior,  Pere  Passerat.  So  Wolff  wrote  a  letter 
to  Pere  Passerat,  in  which  he  said,  "  My  dear  Superior. 
Hiiper  is  continually  wanting  me  to  write  letters  to  heretics. 
I  therefore  denounce  him  to  you  as  a  consummate  scoundrel," 
This  letter  Wolff  sealed,  and  after  writing  on  the  envelope  the 

"  To  the  Right  Reverend 

The  Protestant  Bisop  of 


he  gave  it  to  Hiiper,  saying,  "  There!  take  this  to  the  post,  and 
don't  say  a  word  to  the  Rector  about  it."  This  was  just  what 
he  did  not  do,  but  carried  it  at  once  to  the  Rector,  as  Wolff 
had  expected.  When  they  met  at  dinner  there  was  a  general 
laugh,  in  which  the  Rector  and  his  secretary,  Sabelli,  heartily 
joined.  Wolff  knew  the  cause  of  it,  and  told  the  Rector  that 
it  was  not  right  to  act  in  this  way,  and  set  spies  over  him. 
The  Rector  protested  that  he  had  orders  to  do  so,  but  did  not 
tell  him  whence  the  orders  came  ;  but  no  doubt  they  were 
from  Rome. 

Amidst  all  this,  Wolff  saw  that  he  got  daily  further  from 
his  object  of  becoming  a  missionary ;  and  besides  this,  the 
Rector  and  all  saw  that  he  was  totally  unfit  for  monastic  life, 
and  decided  that  he  was  only  fit  for  being  among  crowds  of 
people.  During  this  time  of  anxiety,  he  was  dreadfully 

76  Travels  and  Adventures 

afflicted  with  headaches ;  he  had,  however,  to  ask  more  than 
twenty  times  for  his  dismissal,  before  it  was  granted. 

At  last  they  gave  him  a  testimonial  of  good  conduct,  and 
allowed  him  to  depart.  He  then  came  to  an  old  friend  at 
Vevay — Monsieur  Gaudard  by  name — a  mystic,  but  an  excel 
lent  Christian — a  disciple  of  Jacob  Bdhme.  Thence  Wolff 
went  to  Lausanne,  where  a  rather  curious  incident  occurred. 

He  was  walking  in  the  street,  when  a  lady,  who  appeared  to 
him  to  be  an  Englishwoman,  happened  to  be  passing  him. 
Wolff  stopt  her,  and  asked  her  whether  she  was  an  English 
lady?  She  said,  "Yes!"  Then  said  Wolff,  "Do  you 
know  Henry  Drammond!" 

She  replied,  "  Yes,"  and  like  a  flash  of  lightning,  she  asked 
Wolff,  -Are  you  Abbe  Wolff?"  Wolff  said,  "Yes,"  and 
she  said,  "  Come  with  me  then,"  and  forthwith  brought  him 
to  the  house  of  Professor  Levade.  She  said,  "  I  have  been 
looking  out  for  you  for  some  time.  I  was  at  Rome,  and  heard 
all  that  happened  to  you  there,  and  here  is  a  letter  which  I 
have  for  you.  You  must  go  to  England ;  Henry  Drummond 
is  waiting  for  you,  and  we  shall  send  you  at  our  expense  to 

Wolff,  who  had  intended  to  remain  at  Lausanne,  giving 
lessons  in  Hebrew,  Chaldean,  &c.,  until  he  had  collected 
money  enough  to  take  him  to  Jerusalem,  found  all  his  plans 
changed  by  this  proposal.  The  name  of  that  lady  was  Miss 
Greaves,  whose  sister  is  still  alive  at  Torquay ;  and  Wolff  saw 
her  cousin  Joseph  Greaves  again  in  January,  1860,  at  Tor 
quay.  Miss  Greaves'  character  must  not  be  altogether  passed 
over.  She  was  a  lady  of  the  highest  benevolence,  and  was 
very  active  in  circulating  the  Scriptures.  But,  soon  after 
Wolff  left  her,  she  was  converted  to  Quietism  by  Chevalier 
D' Yvon  ;  as  were  also  her  brothers  and  sisters.  Her  brother, 
Alexander  Greaves,  was  ordained  in  the  Church  of  England ; 
but  he  returned,  and  became  a  kind  of  Quaker.  Her  brother 
Joseph  was  a  great  admirer  of  Pestalozzi,  and  a  disciple  of 
Jacob  Bohme  ;  and  he  supported  himself  for  some  time  by 
eating  only  one  egg,  and  drinking  Hunt's  coffee,  every  day  ; 
but  his  constitution  gave  way  under  this  regimen.  Mrs. 
Gardiner,  a  sister  of  Miss  Greaves,  is  still  alive  and  a  holy 
woman.  Another  Greaves,  her  brother,  went  to  Miss  Fan- 
court,  who  had  been  bed-ridden  for  nine  years,  and  was  given 
up  by  all  her  physicians,  and  he  said,  "  In  the  name  of  Jesus 
Christ,  arise  and  walk!"  which  she  did,  and  was  perfectly 
cured;  and  she  married,  and  died  twenty-five  years  after 
wards,  leaving  children  strong  in  body,  and  tender-hearted 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  77 

like  their  mother.  Dr.  Wolff  asserts  with  Maitland,  the 
librarian  to  the  late  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  and  with 
Claudius  of  Germany,  and  with  Jung  Stilling  of  Germany, 
that  the  Lord  glorifies  Himself,  even  in  this  age,  by  miracles  ; 
and,  therefore,  that  the  miracle  wrought  by  Mr.  Greaves  upon 
Miss  Fan  court,  is  not  to  be  derided,  and  Wolff  firmly  believes  it. 

Wolff  thanked  God  in  prayer  for  his  providential  meeting 
with  that  lady.  There  was  just  then  at  Lausanne,  an  Eng 
lish  clergyman,  the  reader  at  the  Whitehall  Chapel,  whose  name 
was  the  Rev.  Thomas  Jones,  and  who  said  that  he  should  be 
happy  to  take  Wolff  back  with  him  to  London  ;  an  offer  which 
was  accepted.  They  arrived  at  Geneva  in  the  month  of  July, 
1819;  where  he  met  with  his  old  friends,  Empaytaz  and 
Madame  d^Armand,  whom  he  had  known  in  the  year  1816, 
with  Madame  de  Krudener.  They  all  exclaimed  at  once, 
"  Cher  Wolff  !  Cher  Wolff !  Enfant  de  la  Nature— Enfant 
de  la  Providence — Enfant  de  Jesus  Christ  !" 

Madame  (TAnnand  was  in  bed,  not  quite  well.  She  made 
the  sign  of  the  cross,  and  said,  "  I  am  a  follower  of  Madame 
de  la  Motte  Guyon."  Madame  de  la  Motte  Guy  on  was  the 
foundress  of  the  Quietists,  who  converted  Fenelon,  and  made 
him  write  his  book  on  Divine  Love.  Her  autobiography  was 
declared  by  her  subsequent  enemy  Bossuet,  to  be  the  finest 
book  he  ever  read,  after  the  Bible.  She  was  the  writer  of  that 
beautiful  hymn, 

"  Could  I  be  cast  where  thou  art  not, 
This  were  indeed  a  dreadful  lot !" 

Through  these  friends  Wolff  became  acquainted  with  Mon 
sieur  Mulline,  who  introduced  him  to  Professor  Pictet,  who 
belonged  to  the  "  Eglise  Nationale,"  and  recommended  him  by 
letters  to  the  Huguenot  clergy  at  Lyons,  amongst  whom  was 
Monsieur  Monod. 

A  very  curious  thing  happened  to  Wolff  at  Lyons.  He, 
who  never  was  able  to  divest  himself  of  a  hankering  after 
Romish  priests,  called  on  a  Romish  clergyman.  Wolff  stared 
this  man  so  fully  in  the  face,  that  he  became  frightened,  and 
told  the  servant  to  remain  in  the  room  until  that  stranger  had 
gone.  Wolff  said,  "  Well,  if  you  are  afraid  of  me,  I  need  not 
remain  here."  He  said,  "  No,  no,  stay  here,  I  will  talk  to  you, 
but  I  do  not  know  you.11  Wolff  gave  him  some  outlines  of 
his  life.  The  priest  asked  him  to  sit  down.  They  conversed 
for  a  while.  The  priest  said,  "  I  see  the  end  of  your  career — 
I  am  sorry  for  you.  '  Vous  deviendrez  heresiarque/  "  This 
was  the  second  prediction  of  the  kind.  The  first  was  in  the 

78  Travels  and  Adventures 

same  words  by  Cardinal  della  Somaglia,  the  second  by  this 

Wolff  then  continued  his  journey  from  Lyons  to  Paris,  in 
company  with  Mr.  Jones,  who  entered  into  conversation  with 
him  about  religion,  and  then  said,  "  You  will  never  be  able  to 
get  on  with  any  Missionary  Society  in  England,  for  you  take 
the  authority  of  the  Church  and  tradition  as  your  guide." 

Wolff  arrived  with  him  at  Paris,  where  he  met  with  a  most 
interesting  man,  Mr.  Kobert  Haldane,  a  Scotch  gentleman  of 
large  fortune,  who  had  originated  a  dissenting  party  in  the 
Scotch  Church,  which  went  by  his  name,  the  "  Haldanites." 
He  had  written  a  Commentary  on  St.  Paul's  Epistle  to  the 
Romans  ;  and  his  brother  is  the  celebrated  James  Haldane, 
whose  wife  was  related  to  Sir  Walter  Scott. 

Robert  Haldane  was  very  much  pleased  with  Joseph  Wolff, 
and  so  was  his  wife,  and  they  begged  him  to  go  with  them  to 
London,  as  they  were  great  friends  of  Henry  Drummond. 
Wolff  therefore  asked  Jones  if  he  might  go  with  them,  and  as 
Jones  had  something  to  do  in  Paris,  he  willingly  consented  to 
it ;  and  Wolff  confesses  that  he  was  rather  glad,  for  he  observed 
in  Robert  Haldane  more  spirit  and  talent  than  in  Jones. 

Jones  could  only  tell  him  that  the  Church  of  England  was 
better  than  other  churches,  but  Robert  Haldane  entered  with 
him  into  the  depths  of  scripture,  and  laid  before  him  most 
beautifully  the  doctrine  of  justification  by  faith,  which  perfectly 
agreed  with  the  views  of  Father  Dens  and  Cardinal  Bellar- 
mine.  And  thus  they  went  on  conversing  as  they  travelled  in 
Haldane's  carriage,  until  they  arrived  together  at  Calais. 
Landing  at  Dover  from  Calais,  Wolff  believed  every  English 
man  he  saw  to  be  a  robber,  so  he  told  Haldane  that  he  was 
afraid  that  all  his  countrymen  were  thieves. 

"  What !"  said  Haldane,  "  the  women  too. 

"  Certainly,"  replied  Wolff,  "  every  one  of  them.  Will  you 
protect  me?" 

Haldane  laughed  immensely,  and  said,  u  Never  mind,  I  am 
with  you,  I  will  keep  them  aloof." 

And  thus  it  was  that  Wolff  came  at  last  to  London,  and 
went  to  Charing  Cross  to  Drummond's  bank,  where  lie  found 
his  friend  Henry  Drummond  himself. 

Mr.  Drummond  took  him  at  first  to  a  private  boarding-house, 
No.  60,  Paternoster  Row,  the  house  of  Mrs.  Stennet  and  her 
two  daughters,  and  a  week  afterwards  to  his  own  residence, 
Norland  House,  Kensington  Gravel  Pits. 

And  here  began  to  be  verified  the  words  which  Count  Stol- 
berg  said  to  Wolff  when  they  parted  :  "  Do  not  become  vain, 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  79 

Wolff,  about  what  I  shall  tell  you  now,  namely,  that  you  are 
a  young  man  who  will  become  the  friend  of  men  of  principle 
and  influence  wherever  you  go  :  such  men  will  be  sure  to  take 
an  interest  in  you."  Wolff  has  experienced  the  truth  of  this 
at  all  periods  of  his  life.  He  became  at  this  time,  as  a  youth, 
the  friend  of  Drummond,  Lewis  Way,  and  Simeon ;  and  has 
now  for  more  than  fourteen  years  rejoiced  in  the  friendship  of 
a  man  as  holy  and  sincere  as  they  were- — the  uncompromising 
and  highly-principled  George  Anthony  Denison,  and  his  most 
excellent  wife. 

Wolff  learned  to  understand  the  English  language  very 
quickly,  and  on  his  first  Sunday  in  London  attended  the  service 
of  the  Baptists,  accompanying  Mr.  Drummond  to  it.  After 
it  was  over,  Drummond  asked  him  how  he  liked  it  2  Wolff 
replied,  "  Not  at  all."  There  was  not,  he  said,  the  slightest 
reverence  in  that  service,  and  he  therefore  wished  Drummond 
to  take  him  to  the  Vicar  Apostolic  of  the  Pope,  Dr.  Poynter. 
Drummond  replied,  "  I  will  take  you  to  another  place  of  wor 
ship.1'  And  accordingly  he  took  Wolff  to  Mr.  Evans,  another 
Baptist  minister,  but  Wolff  was  no  better  pleased. 

Then  he  took  him  to  a  Quakers'  meeting,  where  they  sat  for 
two  hours  without  talking,  and  playing  with  their  walking- 
sticks  ;  but  Wolff  would  have  nothing  to  do  with  them.  He 
said,  "This  is  nothing/' 

Then  another  friend  took  him  to  a  Methodist  minister,  the 
famous  Richard  Watson,  a  holy  and  excellent  man,  who  ex 
plained  the  views  of  their  community,  which  Wolff  found  to 
resemble,  in  many  points,  the  Church  of  Rome  in  its  good 
phases.  But  still  this  did  not  suit  Wolff.  At  last  Drummond 
said,  "  I  see  what  it  is  you  want,  Wolff!"  and  took  him  to  the 
Episcopal  Jewish  Chapel  in  Palestine  Place,  Bethnal  Green, 
Hackney,  where  the  service  was  performed  according  to  the 
rites  of  the  Church  of  England,  by  the  Rev.  Charles  Sleech 
Hawtrey.  Wolff  was  now  enchanted  with  the  devotion  and 
beauty  of  the  ritual,  as  performed  by  Mr.  Hawtrey,  and  at  once 
expressed  himself  satisfied.  Drummond  said,  "  I  see  you  will 
belong  to  the  Church  of  England ;  nevertheless,  you  will  find 
a  great  deal  of  pride  and  annoyance  in  that  Church,  as  well  as 
in  the  Church  of  Rome." 

Henceforth  accordingly  Wolff  considered  himself  to  be  a 
member  of  the  Church  of  England,  but  his  liberality  towards 
other  denominations  was  without  bounds.  So  much  so,  that  he 
took  the  sacrament  from  Dr.  Steinkopf  of  the  Lutheran  Church 
one  Sunday ;  and,  on  the  next,  from  a  clergyman  of  the  Church 
England.  His  view  then  being  (as  it  is  to  a  great  degree  now), 

80  Travels  and  Adventures 

that  members  of  the  living  Church  of  Christ,  L  e.  those  who 
in  the  last  days  shall  compose  the  Church  which  is  to  be  the 
Bride  of  the  Lamb,  are  to  be  found  among  the  baptized  mem 
bers  of  all  denominations  ;  whilst  on  the  other  hand  he  main 
tains  that  the  only  divinely-constituted  Church  is  that  which 
has  preserved  the  Apostolic  Succession. 

Drummoud  and  Hawtrey  introduced  Wolff  to  that  holy  and 

food  man,  the  Rev.  Lewis  Way,  whose  history  is  remarkable. 
le  was  a  barrister  of  small  fortune,  when  one  day  a  Mr.  John 
Way,  a  gentleman  totally  unconnected  with  him,  passed  Mr. 
Lewis  Way's  chambers,  and  saw  his  name  written  on  the  door. 
He  made  his  acquaintance,  and  soon  afterwards  that  old  man 
died,  and  left  to  the  barrister  ^300,000,  with  the  condition 
that  he  should  employ  it  for  the  glory  of  God.  Lewis  Way 
immediately  took  Holy  Orders  in  the  Church  of  England  ;  and 
his  design  was  to  devote  his  life  to  the  conversion  of  the  Jewish 
nation,  and  the  promotion  of  their  welfare,  temporal  and  spiri 
tual.  Which  desire  and  object  he  expressed  in  the  beautiful 
paraphrase,  made  by  him,  of  the  62nd  chapter  of  Isaiah : — 

"  For  Zion's  sake  I  will  not  rest, 

I  will  not  hold  my  peace  : 
Until  Jerusalem  be  blessed, 

And  Judah  dwell  at  ease. 

"  Until  her  righteousness  return, 

As  daybreak  after  night — 
The  lamp  of  her  salvation  burn, 

With  everlasting  light. 

"  And  Gentiles  shall  her  glory  see, 

And  kings  proclaim  her  fame, 
Appointed  unto  her  shall  be 

A  new  and  holy  name." 

Lewis  Way  then  heard  that  there  was  a  Society  existing, 
composed  of  churchmen  and  dissenters,  for  the  purpose  of  con 
verting  the  Jews ;  and  that  society  was  very  much  in  debt. 
Upon  which  he  nobly  came  forward,  and  offered  to  liquidate 
the  whole  debt,  which  amounted  to  <£20,000 ;  on  condition 
that  the  dissenters  should  retire,  and  leave  the  whole  manage 
ment  to  churchmen.  They  accepted  his  terms,  and  he  took 
sixteen  Jews  into  his  house,  and  baptized  several  of  them ; 
but,  soon  after  their  baptism,  they  stole  his  silver  spoons,  and 
one  of  them,  Josephson  by  name,  was  transported  to  Aus 
tralia,  having  forged  Mr.  Way's  signature.  However,  nothing 
disturbed  him  in  his  purpose ;  so  he  went  to  the  Congress  of 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  81 

Aix-la-Chapelle,  and  interested  all  the  Powers  of  Europe  in 
favour  of  the  Jews.  Noble  Lewis  Way  had  one  Jew  still 
under  his  care,  a  young  man  of  extraordinary  talents,  named 
Nehemiah  Solomon,  whose  beard  he  had  shaved  off";  and  after 
he  had  got  him  instructed  in  Latin  and  Greek,  he  had  him 
ordained  Deacon,  by  Dr.  Burgess,  the  Bishop  of  St.  David's. 
After  this,  Lewis  Way  set  out  on  a  Missionary  tour  to  Russia, 
and  read  with  the  Emperor  Alexander  the  44th  chapter  of 
Isaiah,  and  when  he  came  to  the  passage  in  the  28th  verse, 
that  says  of  Cyrus — 

"  He  is  my  shepherd,  and  shall  perform  all  my  pleasure, 
even  saying  to  Jerusalem,  thou  shalt  be  built,  and  to  the 
Temple,  thy  foundation  shall  be  laid." 

Lewis  Way  looked  significantly  at  Alexander,  and  Alex 
ander  looked  at  him, — both  thinking  that  perhaps  the  Em 
peror  might  be  the  instrument,  even  as  Cyrus  was,  for  bringing 
back  the  Jews  to  their  own  land. 

Lewis  Way  was  accompanied  on  this  expedition  by  Solomon, 
his  Jew  protege,  and  by  Sultan  Kategerry-Krimgherry,  a 
Tatar  nobleman,  who  was  sent  by  the  Emperor  Alexander  to 
Edinburgh  to  study.  Sultan  Kategerry-Krimgherry,  a  Mu- 
hammadan  by  birth,  was  baptized  in  Edinburgh,  and  was 
made  a  member  of  the  Kirk  of  Scotland  ;  and  married  in 
Edinburgh  a  Miss  Nielson. 

On  reaching  the  Crimea  with  these  two  converts,  Lewis 
Way  desired  Solomon  to  preach  to  the  Coraite  Jews  in  the 
place  called  Jufut-Kaleh,  near  Bakhtshe-Seray ;  but  whether 
Solomon  preached,  or  did  not  preach,  admits  of  a  doubt. 

It  was  after  this  expedition,   and  when  Lewis  Way  had 

'••nmi.,1     '.i     lvi<jl:«  rid.     s'ix..     i'i    rii       \  ••;<"<•     ISIf)      t\>\\\     .!<•• 
\V'"IH'  in- -i     rlu.i-    ^-.,\-n^<\    iniiii.  -till    H.-iriiinx:  'vitii    I'H  ••    for   r!i»- 

/.•:.]  ..I'  jinnii.'liiijj-  ill-'  «.nS|»»-l  ••!'  «  'lii-isf  ;,iii.ui'j  lilt-  .l-ui-ii 
UU-tlon.  I'i  MI-  V'.-.r  |S*J<i.  S-.i..i,|..ii  r '!tini"«'i  i»  in-  j^'nui 
iiwii.  iii^  Criiiiea,  |»r--i  it  ih.v 

Trinity.  Lewis  Way  sent  him  to  Scott,  the  commentator,  in 
order  that  his  mind  might  be  settled  upon  that  important 
point ;  and  so  it  seemed  to  be  after  a  stay  of  three  months. 
But  Wolff  saw  him  afterwards,  and  said  to  Henry  Drummond, 
"  This  man  is  not  sincere ;  lie  will  break  out  terribly  some 

However,  Solomon  was  ordained  a  priest ;  and  seemed  to  be 
going  on  well,  when,  to  make  his  story  short,  he  suddenly  ran 
away,  after  having  drawn  £300  from  the  Society,  and  was 
never  heard  of  afterwards. 

Nothing,  however,  disturbed  Lewis  Wav  :  and  soon  after  he 

82  Travels  and  Adventures 

went  to  Palestine ;  but  there  he  was  shamefully  deceived  by  a 
Mount  Lebanon  Christian,  and  was  so  distressed  by  the  cir 
cumstance  that  it  made  him  burst  into  tears ;  yet  he  continued 
his  operations  among  the  Jews,  with  the  same  earnestness  as 
ever,  and  at  last  the  dear  man  died  at  Leamington,  broken 

Wolff  was  introduced  in  London  to  that  man  of  God,  the 
Rev.  Charles  Simeon,  Fellow  of  King's  College,  Cambridge, 
himself  of  Jewish  extraction,  who  waited  more  than  50  years 
for  the  salvation  of  the  Lord  to  the  Jewish  nation;  and, 
besides  him,  to  Dr.  Marsh  of  Colchester,  and  to  Hawtrey  ;  all 
of  whom  decided  that  Wolff  should  go  to  Cambridge,  at  the 
expense  of  the  Society  for  Promoting  Christianity  amongst  the 
Jews,  for  they  wished  to  train  him  as  a  missionary  ;  and  that 
he  should  study  theology  under  Simeon's  private  tuition,  and 
the  oriental  languages  under  the  great  Samuel  Lee,  who  had 
been  brought  up  a  carpenter.  This  remarkable  man  went  one 
day,  when  a  youth,  to  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  and  heard 
the  mass  performed  in  the  Latin  language.  Displeased  with 
himself,  because  he  could  not  understand  one  word  of  it,  he 
bought  a  Latin  grammar,  and  learnt  it  by  heart.  After  this, 
he  sold  the  grammar,  bought  a  second-hand  Latin  dictionary, 
and  thus  by  degrees  made  himself  acquainted  with  Latin, 
Hebrew,  Chaldean,  Syriac,  Arabic,  Persian,  Hindoostanee, 
and  Sanscrit ;  and  he  became  the  celebrated  Regius  Professor 
of  Cambridge  University. 

Under  Dr.  Lee,  Wolff  read  Arabic,  Persian,  Chaldean,  and 
Syriac ;  and  on  the  first  day  after  his  arrival  in  Cambridge,  he 
received  a  visit  from  the  great  Sanscrit  professor  of  Germany, 
Dr.  Bopp,  who  presented  him  with  his  translation  of  the  cele 
brated  Sanscrit  poem,  "  Nalus."  Wolff  was  pleased,  and 
wishing  to  have  a  second  copy  for  one  of  his  friends,  and 
having  in  his  pocket  just  then,  exactly  the  <£*!,  which  was  the 
price  of  the  book,  in  a  bank-note  (such  as  were  at  that  time  in 
use),  he  paid  it  at  once  for  the  book.  Bopp  put,  as  he 
thought,  the  bank-note  into  his  pocket,  arid  gave  Wolff 
another  copy  of  his  poem.  Wolff,  coming  to  his  old  friend 
Mrs.  Dornford,  also  a  great  friend  of  Simeon's,  said  to  her,  fi  I 
have  bought  this  book  for  a,  £\  bank-note,  which  was  just  the 
sum  I  had  in  my  pocket."  Whilst  Wolff  was  saying  this,  he 
put  his  hand  into  his  pocket,  and  drew  out  the  identical  bank 
note  for  £1.  Mrs.  Dornford  stared,  and  he  exclaimed,  "  This 
is  certainly  extraordinary ;  I  had  one  £1  bank-note  in  my 
pocket,  which  I  gave  to  Dr.  Bopp,  and  he  put  it.  into  his 
pocket  in  my  presence ;  and  I  could  take  my  oath  that  I  had 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  83 

only  one  £l  bank-note  in  my  pocket ;  and  I  could  also  take 
my  oath  that  Bopp  put  the  very  bank-note  into  his  pocket, 
and  did  not  give  it  back  to  me*  Yet  now  I  find  the  very 
same  bank-note  in  my  pocket.  There  is  withcraft  in  this,  of 
which  I  have  heard  a  great  deal  among  the  Jews." 

Scarcely  had  Wolff  finished  speaking,  when  the  servant  of 
Dr.  Bopp  arrived  with  a  letter  containing  the  following 
account :  "  My  dear  Wolff,  you  made  a  mistake  last  night ; 
for  you  gave  to  me,  instead  of  the  bank-note,  the  enclosed 
advertisement  of  a  grocer's  shop."  So  the  mystery  was 

Wolff  proceeded  zealously  in  his  studies.  He  read  fourteen 
hours  every  day.  He  rose  at  2  o'clock  in  the  morning,  and 
gave  himself  little  time  for  eating.  He  had  a  companion  with 
him  in  his  room  for  a  while,  whose  name  was  La  Roche,  who 
excited  his  emulation  by  his  diligence  and  zeal.  La  Roche 
was  sent,  by  the  Church  Missionary  Society,  to  Benares,  six 
weeks  after  Wolffs  arrival  in  Cambridge.  He  had  also  studied 
in  Tubingen.  He  was  a  fine,  noble  soul,  of  great  piety,  and  of 
an  enlarged  mind ;  and  Wolff  regretted  his  departure  much. 
However,  that  excellent  man  remained  not  long  in  India. 
Worn  out  by  continual  labours,  and  from  the  total  igno 
rance  of  the  directors  of  the  Society,  how  to  regulate  his 
great  genius,  he  returned  to  this  country,  and  died  on  board 
ship,  just  as  it  was  entering  the  Thames. 

Wolff  went  every  Saturday  to  Simeon,  and  read  a  theme  on 
a  theological  subject.  He  translated  Limborch's  controversy 
with  the  Jew  Orobio,  from  the  Latin  into  English.  To  Lim- 
borcli's  book,  the  life  of  Uriel  Da  Costa  was  affixed.  What  an 
awful  life,  and  what  an  awful  end,  was  that  of  Da  Costa ! 
Uriel  Da  Costa  was  a  descendant  of  those  Jews  in  Spain,  who 
were  forced  to  become  Roman  Catholics  by  the  Inquisitor  Tor- 
quemada,  and  Cardinal  Ximenes.  But  centuries  passed  on, 
and  the  descendants  of  those  forced  converts  had  become 
Roman  Catholics  by  birth,  parentage,  and  education.  Such 
was  the  case  with  Uriel  Da  Costa,  his  mother,  brother,  and 
sister,  nephew,  and  cousin  ;  and,  having  been  brought  up  for 
the  Romish  priesthood,  he  became  Canon  in  the  Cathedral  of 
Oporto.  But,  in  spite  of  centuries  having  elapsed  since  his 
ancestors  were  Jews,  Da  Costa  never  forgot  the  fact,  and  one 
day  he  said  to  his  mother  and  relations,  "  Is  it  not  extraordi 
nary  that  our  ancestors  have  been  Jews,  and  that  they  were 
forced  to  embrace  the  Roman  Catholic  religion  ?  Come,  and 
let  us  read  the  Old  Testament,  and  see  what  the  Jews  be 
lieve  f  They  did  so,  and  then,  with  one  consent,  said,  "  Let 


84  Travels  and  Adventures 

us  fly  to  Amsterdam,  and  embrace  the  Jewish  religion  —  the 
religion  of  our  ancestors  —  which  is  better  than  that  of  the 
Roman  Catholics." 

Amsterdam  is  a  place  to  which  those  Christians  resort  who 
wish  to  embrace  the  Jewish  religion  ;  and  it  continues  to  be 
their  custom  to  find  refuge  there  at  this  day.  Soon  after  this, 
Uriel  Da  Costa,  with  all  his  relations,  went  to  Amsterdam, 
and  they  were  solemnly  and  openly  received  into  the  Jewish 
synagogue,  about  160  years  ago.  But  the  inquiring  mind  of 
Uriel  Da  Costa  soon  observed  that  the  Jews  had  corrupted 
many  laws  of  Moses  ;  and  he  spoke  his  mind  freely  about  it, 
and  called  them  the  per  vert  ers  of  the  Law  of  Moses.  Where 
upon  the  Jews,  in  order  to  convince  him  that  they  were  right, 
and  lie  wrong,  inflicted  on  him,  several  times,  forty  stripes 
save  one.  Uriel  Da  Costa  put  an  end  to  his  existence  by 
suicide,  after  he  had  written  his  own  life,  which  ends  with 
these  words,  "  Reader,  be  not  angry  with  me,  I  sought  the 
truth,  but  did  not  find  it." 

Tn  the  year  1820,  150  years  after  the  time  of  Uriel  Da 
Costa,  his  great  grand-nephew,  Isaac  Da  Costa,  who  was  born 
and  educated  to  the  Jewish  religion,  had  become  a  most  dis 
tinguished  and  celebrated  lawyer  of  Holland,  and  a  great  poet 
in  the  Dutch  language.  He  was  also  a  gentleman  of  great 
wealth  and  learning,  and  lived  with  his  mother,  brother, 
sister,  cousin,  and  nephew,  in  Amsterdam.  He  read  the  life 
of  Uriel  Da  Costa,  and  said  to  his  mother  and  family,  "  Is  it 
not  extraordinary  that  our  ancestors  were  brought  up  in  the 
Christian  religion  ?  Come,  and  let  us  examine  the  merits  of 

vv-ni  to  I  l-:-i-!-'M».  »••  1»iU-r'iii.-i<  tli-  j  .....  I.  ,-iii'i.  read  tV-  gospel 
with  l-ini.  .!  I  -•  t  h«-'n  (••-'"HI  ni<-ii.  ,<n«!  '•'-..<!  it  ^  ith  iii.-  family,  and 

;,!.-••   lii"    '\  fit  i  '('_:>   ••»'  S.    |  I'-M-II:-  f«i    rtii'i     rii«"in;i.-    .  \  «|  il  i  .u;«  >,  '  Ihl    ;>\<» 

the  works  of  the  Dutch,  reformers  ;  and  ilp-n  Isaac  I'-..  Ooata, 
with  Ins  whole  tamily  and  iviaiions,  were  oaptized,  in  the 
name  of  the  Father,  Son,  and  Holy  Ghost  ;  and  he  imme 
diately  began  to  preach,  and,  through  the  grace  of  God,  became 
the  instrument  of  the  conversion  of  Dr.  Kapadose,  a  celebrated 
physician  in  Amsterdam.  Wolff  heard  Da  Costa  in  after 
times,  on  his  return  from  his  journey  to  the  East. 

Wolff  also  heard  Kapadose  preach,  and  describes  his  ser 
mons  as  being  like  a  clap  of  thunder  ;  and  maintains  that  only 
those  Jews,  who  are  converted  in  such  an  extraordinary  way, 
are  worth  anything. 

Thus,  for  instance,  Neander  in  Berlin  ;  Emanuel  Yeit,  in 
Vienna  ;  the  two  Yeits  step-sons  to  Friedrich  Schlegel  ; 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  85 

Monsieur  Ratisbon  of  Strasbourg;  all  ot'wlioiu  are  true  lights 
in  the  Church  of  Christ.  But  Jews  who  are  converted  by 
Societies,  are  like  Eastern  fruits  cultivated  in  green-houses  in 
Europe,  and  have  not  the  flavour  of  those  which  are  naturally 

And  there  is  a  great  deal  in  what  the  Apostle  Paul  says,  in 
the  first  epistle  of  Timothy,  first  chapter,  16th  verse.  "  How- 
beit  for  this  cause  I  obtained  mercy,  that  in  me  first  Jesus 
Christ  might  show  forth  all  long-suffering,  for  a  pattern  to 
those  which  should  hereafter  believe  on  him  to  life  ever 

Paul's  conversion  has  been  a  type  of  .the  way  in  which 
many  Jews  shall  be  converted  after  him,  namely,  suddenly, 
by  miracle,  by  inspiration.  For  the  grace  of  God  comes  often 
suddenly,  as  genius  came  upon  Corregio,  as  a  boy,  so  that, 
when  in  afterlife  he  stood  before  the  masterpieces  of  Raphael, 
he  was  able  proudly  to  exclaim,  "  Ancli  io  sono  pittore!  "  (and 
I  also  am  a  painter  !  )  So  the  landscape  painter,  Koch,  origi 
nally  a  shepherd's  boy,  by  looking  at  the  beauties  of  nature  in 
the  Tyrol,  whilst  his  goats  fed  around  them,  was  inspired  to 
paint.  His  master  flogged  him  for  it,  and  lie  ran  away,  but 
eventually  became  the  most  distinguished  landscape  artist  in 

WolfF  remained  in  Cambridge  for  two  years.  He  read 
almost  all  the  works  of  St.  Augustine,  and  Bishop  Butler ; 
also  the  astronomical  discourses  of  Chalmers,  Bishop  Kidder's 
writings,  and  the  German  divines ;  as  well  as  the  works  of 
Bishops  Bull  and  Andrews,  and  Robert  HalFs  sermons. 

Everything  he  undertook  he  succeeded  in  learning,  except 
one  thing,  which  Simeon  tried,  but  in  vain,  to  teach  him, 
namely,  how  to  shave  himself.  Mr.  Simeon  actually  appointed 
an  hour  (12  o ''clock)  to  instruct  him,  in  the  first  place,  how  to 
sharpen  a  razor ;  but  the  moment  Wolff  tried,  although 
Simeon  had  told  him  to  keep  the  blade  flat,  lie  did  just  the 
contrary,  and  cut  the  razor-strop  in  two.  Simeon  gave  him  a 
slap,  laughed,  and  gave  up  the  shaving  lesson. 

One  day,  Wolff  came  to  him  quite  wet  through  from  the 
rain,  and  read  a  dissertation,  which  he  had  written.  Simeon 
rubbed  his  hands,  and  said,  "  I  am  rejoiced  to  observe  that 
your  mind  is  expanding,  I  am  quite  delighted  with  this  ;  you 
have  fully  entered  into  the  subject,  come  to  me  on  Monday.'11 
Next  Monday  Woltt*  went,  when  Simeon  said,  "  Now  I  want 
to  make  you  glad  ;  here  is  a  beautiful  umbrella  for  you,  but  1 
know  that  you  will  lose  it,  so  I  have  put  my  own  name  upon 
it,  and  then,  if  you  do  lose  it,  they  will  bring  it  back  to  me, 

86  Travels  and  Adventures 

and  I  will  return  it  to  you."  But,  most  unfortunately,  the 
umbrella  was  stolen,  and  nobody  brought  it  back  ;  so  Wolff  in 
despair  went  to  Mrs.  Dornford  and  said,  "  I  don't  dare  to  go 
any  more  to  Mr,  Simeon,  because  the  umbrella  he  gave 
me  has  been  stolen."  Mrs.  Dornford  replied,  "I  will  now 
give  you  a  piece  of  advice ;  write  a  very  good  essay,  and  if 
you  see  that  Mr.  Simeon  is  pleased  with  it,  tell  him  your  mis 
fortune."  Wolff  remained  up  all  night,  and  wrote  an  essay 
with  all  his  learning  in  it.  Simeon  rubbed  his  hands  again, 
and  said,  "  I  am  rejoiced ;  you  have  become  quite  a  man  in 
your  thoughts  ;  "  and  then  the  following  dialogue  took  place 
between  them. 

Wolff. — "  Mr.  Simeon,  are  you  really  pleased  2" 
Simeon. — "  Very  much  pleased  indeed ;  quite  rejoiced." 
Wol/.—"  Could  I  tell  you  anything  I  wished  ?  " 
Simeon. — "Anything,  I  shall  never  be  displeased  with  you." 
Wolff. — "  Your  umbrella  is  gone  !  " 
Simeon. — "  This  is  nothing  more  than  I  expected." 
Wolff  was  more  convinced  than  ever,  when  he  arrived  at 
Cambridge,  that  he  had  been  wrong  at  Rome  in  getting  up 
in   the    Lecture-room,  and   contradicting  the    Professor  and 
whole  body  of  students  ;  for,  when  he  once  contradicted  Pro 
fessor  Lee  in  the  same  manner,  who  was  lecturing  on  Isaiah, 
Dr.  Lee  at  once  said,  "Wolff,  this  is  not  allowed  at  Cam 
bridge."     Wolff  was  exceedingly  struck  by  this,  and  said  to 
himself,  "What  extraordinary  patience  they  must  have  had  at 
Borne,  to  have  tolerated  what  is  not  allowed  in  a  Protestant 
University,  and  in  a  land  of  liberty  !  " 

When  Wolff  was  once  at  tea' at  Mrs.  DornftmTs,  Mr.  Whish, 
a  clergyman  from  Bristol  said  to  him  in  the  presence  of  Joseph 
Dornford,  "Wolff,  you  have  a  better  Pope  in  Mr.  Simeon 
than  you  had  at  Borne."  To  which  Wolff  replied,  "  In  order 
that  I  might  have  no  Pope,  I  left  Borne  ;  and  I  will  not  have 
another  Pope  at  Cambridge."  Mrs.  Dornford  said,  "  I  hope 
you  will  not  contradict  Mr.  Simeon,  when  he  tells  you  any 
thing."  Wolff  answered,  "  I  would,  if  I  thought  he  was  not 
right."  Joseph  Dornford  said,  "  You  are  perfectly  right  in 
not  acknowledging  Mr.  Simeon  as  Pope."  Simeon  then 
entered  the  room,  and  when  the  case  was  stated  to  him,  he 
said,  "  You  are  perfectly  right,  my  love,  and  I  embrace  you 
for  your  sincerity." 

On  another  occasion,  Wolff  drank  tea  at  Mrs.  Dornford's, 
her  son,  Joseph  Dornford,  and  Mr.  Gladwin,  afterwards  an 
incumbent  at  Liverpool,  being  present.  They  talked  together 
about  the  British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society,  when  Wolff 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  87 

asked,  "  Why  do  not  all  the  Bishops  patronize  this  society  ?  " 
Joseph  Dornford  said,  it  was  a  most  difficult  case,  and  Gladwin 
explained  the  reason.  "Only  consider,"  he  said,  "that  the 
British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society  is  composed  of  members  of 
every  sect  which  does  not  acknowledge  episcopal  authority  ; 
and  you  will  see  in  what  an  awkward  position  the  Bishops  are 
placed,  when  they  attend  the  meetings  of  the  society,  and  a 
Socinian  may  be  in  the  chair.  And  what  guarantee  can  they 
have,  that  the  society  will  not  publish  Socinian  translations  2  " 

Wolff  describes  his  stay  at  Cambridge  as  a  happy  time.  He 
was  called  by  the  members  of  the  University  Mr.  Simeon's 
and  Professor  Lee's  "  pet."  The  society  of  Baptist  Noel,  and 
Lucius  O'Brien,  and  Crawford  in  King's  College,  and  of  Lamb 
and  Scolefield,  who  was  afterwards  master  of  Bennet  College, 
electrified  him  daily  more  and  more  with  ardour  for  proceeding 
as  a  missionary  to  the  Jews  and  Muhammadans  in  Jerusalem, 
and  other  parts  of  the  East. 

Wolff  now  relates  what  took  place  one  day  at  a  public 
meeting  of  the  Church  Missionary  Society,  where  Mr.  Simeon, 
Daniel  Wilson,  afterwards  Bishop  of  Calcutta,  and  Gerald 
Noel  were  speaking.  Simeon  said,  "  I  have  accompanied  on 
board  the  ship,  when  they  set  forth  as  missionaries,  men  like 
Thomason,  Claudius  Buchanan,  and  Henry  Martyn,  and  I 
hope  to  accompany  many  more  such  next  May,"  and  saying 
this,  he  jumped  about  like  a  dancing  dervish.  Upon  which, 
Daniel  Wilson  rose  on  the  platform,  and  said,  "  If  all  were  to 
leap  about  with  the  vigour  of  youth,  as  our  elderly  friend  Mr. 
Simeon  has  done,  all  prejudices  would  soon  disappear ; "  and 
then  Daniel  Wilson  also  jumped  and  danced  about,  like  his 

With  nothing  was  Wolff  more  pleased  than  with  the  perusal 
of  Henry  Martyn' s  Life ;  and  even  now  he  frequently  recites 
the  translation  by  Henry  Martyn  of  the  song  of  a  Persian 
muleteer,  which  is  as  follows  : — 

"  Think  not  my  heart  can  ever  dwell 

Contented  far  from  thee ; 
How  can  the  fresh-caught  nightingale 
Enjoy  tranquillity  ?  " 

"  Oh,  then,  forsake  thy  friend  for  nought 

That  envious  tongues  may  say 

The  heart  that  fixes  where  it  ought, 

No  power  can  rend  away,"  &e. 

Wolff  deeply  sympathised  with  Henry  Martyn's  sufferings 
in  Sheeraz,  and  the  contradictious  he  suffered  from  Sabat,  the 

88  Travels  ami  Adventures 

pretended  convert  from  Muhaminadaiiism  to  Christianity,  who 
lifter  wards  died  as  a  pirate. 

After  Joseph  Wolff  had  been  nearly  two  years  at  Cambridge, 
he  received  a  letter  from  Henry  Drummond  to  the  following 

XT      j  J 

enect : — 


"  I  am  grieved  to  the  very  heart  that  you  should  allow 
yourself  to  he  kept  so  long  by  the  London  Society  for  Pro 
moting  Christianity  among  the  Jews.  What  can  you  learn 
from  them  which  you  do  not  already  know  ?  Tell  them  that 
you  must  go  out  immediately,  and  if  they  don't  send  you,  I 
will  send  you  out  at  once.  There  is  as  much  pride  in  the 
Church  of  England  as  there  is  in  the  Church  of  Home." 

Wolff  replied  to  him— 


"  They  want  me  to  stay  here  a  little  longer,  that  I  may  get 
more  knowledge  of  the  world.  The  Jews1  Society  for  Pro 
moting  Christianity  has  been  disappointed  by  every  Jew  they 
took  up.  One  became  a  Muhammadan,  another  a  thief,  a  third 
a  pickpocket :  and  I  am  determined  to  remain  here  to  show 
there  is  a  sincere  Jew  in  the  world.  They  want  me  to  spend, 
also,  a  few  months  with  Lewis  Way,  in  order  to  get  more 
knowledge  of  the  world." 

Drummond  wrote  to  Wolff  in  answer — 

"  You  are  almost  as  great  an  ass  as  my  friends  Lewis  Way 
and  Charles  Simeon  are.  What  knowledge  of  the  world  can 
you  learn  in  Stansted  Park  ?  Knowledge  of  the  world  can 
only  be  gained  in  the  world." 

Nevertheless  Wolff  went  on  a  visit  to  Stansted  Park,  whence 
he  was    determined  to  go   to   Portsmouth,  to   preach  to   the 
Jews ;  therefore  he  wrote  a  note  and  sent  it  to  Lewis  Way's 
room,  which  note  contained  the  following  :— 

"  I  knew  that  you  would  make  a  fuss,  if  I  told  you  that  I 
wanted  to  go  and  preach  to  the  Jews  in  Portsmouth  ;  I  have, 
therefore,  gone  there,  without  your  leave." 

Wolff  set  out  on  foot  from  Stansted  Park,  when  Mr.  Alex 
ander — now  Dr.  McCaul  —  came  after  him  at  full  gallop, 
and  brought  him  back,  as  he  was  afraid  that  the  Jews  would 
tear  him  to  pieces.  Simeon  also  came  to  Stansted,  and 
said,  "  My  dear  Wolff,  you  ought  to  stay  a  little  longer,  for 
two  reasons :  first,  in  order  to  acquire  more  experience  of  the 
inner  life  of  a  Christian ;  secondly,  in  order  to  learn  how  to  shave 
yourself.  How  can  you  be  a  missionary,  without  knowing  how 
to  shave  yourself,  or  even  how  to  make  tea,  for  you  lately  put  the 

of  Dr.  Wo///:  89 

kettle  011  Mrs.  Dornford's  table  \  "  Wolff  said  to  himself,  i;  It 
is  time  to  set  out,  for  if  I  am  to  stay  until  I  learii  how  to 
shave  myself,  I  shall  never  start  at  all."  So  lie  wrote  to 
Henry  Drummond,  who  wrote  to  Lewis  Way,  and  to  the 
Committee,  in  a  most  angry  manner — 

"  You  are,  indeed,  a  real  Jew's  Society  !  Eye  for  eye,  and 
tooth  for  tooth,  is  your  rule.  I  will  not  allow  you  to  keep 
Wolff  any  longer — I  will  send  him  out  myself!  " 

Wolff  was  then  called  before  the  Committee,  and  asked, 
"  Whether  he  looked  with  respect  and  regard  on  the  Society  I " 
He  replied,  "  Not  only  with  respect  and  regard,  but  also  with 
gratitude  for  their  kindness  ; "  and  added,  "  that  he  should 
always  cherish  a  feeling  of  affection  towards  them  all.1' 

Sir  Thomas  Baring,  the  President  of  the  Society,  now  at 
once  gave  Wolff  letters  to  his  friends  at  Gibraltar  and  Malta  ; 
but  before  we  leave  Cambridge  altogether,  we  must  survey  it 
a  little,  as  we  have  already  surveyed  Rome.  One  cannot  but 
be  struck  with  this  fact  in  coming  from  Rome  to  Cambridge. 

Rome  appears  at  once  in  all  its  institutions,  in  all  its 
manners,  as  the  Capital  of  the  Papal  power, — of  a  power 
which,  with  all  its  learning  and  all  its  disasters,  and  in  spite 
of  the  mighty  schism  of  Martin  Luther,  has,  nevertheless,  not 
yielded  an  inch  to  the  Protestant  communion.  And  every 
one  entering  Rome  will  at  once  say,  "  Here  is  the  Pope  ;  the 
infallible  head  of  a  Church  which  cannot  change!"  Cam 
bridge,  on  the  other  hand,  is  in  all  its  institutions,  in  all  its 
regulations,  the  representative  and  mistress  not  of  an  ultra- 
Protestant  Church,  but  of  a  Church  which  has  striven  to 
retain  all  the  good  that  is  in  the  Church  of  Rome,  and  to 
remove  Romish  abuses  from  her,  as  well  as  the  ultra-Pro 
testantism  of  the  Continental  communities.  And  the  struggle 
is  going  on.  She  has  certainly  not  yet  succeeded  in  extermi 
nating  Antinomianism  from  her  Church  ;  for  Wolff  was  horri 
fied  with  the  spirit  of  some  naval  officers,  who  had  entered 
Catharine  Hall  as  students,  when  he  was  there,  and  who, 
scarcely  knowing  even  the  elements  of  Divinity,  set  them 
selves  up  as  teachers.  There  was  one,  especially,  who  wa^ 
always  falling  into  a  passion,  and  would  then  excuse  himself 
by  saying,  "  I  am,  after  all,  a  child  of  God  !  "  The  good 
Charles  Simeon,  on  the  one  hand,  withstood  the  formalism  of 
that  portion  of  the  Church,  called  by  Conybeare  the  "  High 
and  Dry ;  "  and,  on  the  other  hand,  the  filthy  Calvinism  of 
some  of  those  preaching  lieutenants  of  the  Navy  who  have 
been  alluded  to.  Simeon  was  a  good  and  stuuch  churchman.  His 
sermon  on  baptism  is  beautiful ;  and,  besides  this,  he  admitted 

90  Travels  and  Adventures 

the  holiness  of  a  man  like  St.  Bernard.  Whereas,  one  of 
those  preaching  lieutenants,  who  had  never  read  a  word  of  St. 
Bernard's  writings,  actually  called  that  great  and  holy  man  a 
(i  villain  "  in  Wolff's  presence.  Wolff  speaks  to  this  day, 
with  affection,  of  the  beautiful,  eloquent,  and  learned  sermons 
of  Benson,  afterwards  Master  of  the  Temple ;  also  of  the 
learned  Dr.  Marsh,  Bishop  of  Peterborough"^  sermons ;  and 
though  he  does  not  consider  Professor  Lee  to  have  been  a  good 
preacher,  yet  he  admired  the  simplicity  of  his  character ;  and 
he  learned  also  to  love  others  at  Cambridge,  who  entirely 
differed  from  his  views,  such  as  Baptist  Noel,  Layland  Noel, 
Gerard  Noel,  and  Mr.  Mudge. 

Wolft  was  once  asked  to  which  Universities  he  gave  the 
preference — the  German  or  those  of  Oxford  and  Cambridge. 
He  replied,  without  the  slightest  hesitation,  "  I  prefer  Oxford 
and  Cambridge  to  the  most  celebrated  Universities  of  Ger 
many.  For,  though  in  Germany  more  branches  of  science 
may  be  taught,  yet,  with  regard  to  solidity  and  discipline, 
which  alone  form  good,  great,  and  religious  men,  Oxford  and 
Cambridge  are  very  far  superior  to  any  other  establishments 
of  the  sort.  The  German  professors  are  the  slaves  of  the 
boys,  their  pupils  ;  and  should  one  of  them  dare  to  displease  a 
student,  the  rest  of  the  students  would  all  to  a  man  combine, 
and  march  out  of  the  town,  and  could  only  be  induced  to 
return  by  the  professors  following  them,  and  humbly  apolo 
gizing.  And  this  is  especially  the  case  in  the  Protestant 
Universities  of  Germany.  I  once,1'  added  Wolff,  "  asked 
Professor  Lee,  of  Cambridge,  'What  would  your  Cambridge 
professors  do  if  the  students  threatened  to  leave  the  Univer 
sity  2 '  He  at  once  replied,  '  We  would  expel  every  one  of 
them  !  "  And  so  it  should  be.  It  is  quite  ridiculous  in  Ger 
many  to  hear  a  beardless  boy  feay,  '  Da  fiihlt  man  sich ' 
(literally,  '  One  feels  oneself — is  conscious  of  the  powers 
within  one).  I  was  struck  with  horror,"1  said  Wolff  in  con 
clusion,  "  on  meeting  in  Mocha,  in  Arabia,  a  German  youth, 
a  student  of  one  of  their  Universities,  who  had  taken  arms 
under  the  Egyptian  tyrant,  Ibrahim  Pasha,  and  who  boasted 
of  being  a  revolutionist  and  an  atheist.  He  said  to  me,  c  It 
was  in  the  University  that  I  learnt  to  feel  myself,  and  to  dis 
obey  the  professor.'  I  replied,  using  his  own  words,  '  And 
now  you  have  learnt  to  feel  yourself,  it  has  made  you  the  slave 
of  a  Muhammadan  tyrant.' ' 

Before  Wolff  left  England,  the  first  time,  he  visited  the 
Jewish  Synagogue  in  Duke-street,  London.  It  was  on  a 
Friday  evening,  and  the  congregation  were  performing  Divine 

of  Dr.  Wolff,  91 

worship.  Wolff,  however,  disregarding  the  fact  that  they 
were  engaged  in  their  religious  service,  began  to  circulate 
tracts  published  by  the  London  Society  for  promoting  Christi 
anity  among  the  Jews.  The  Jews  justly  indignant  at  this 
unwise  proceeding,  not  only  turned  Wolff  out  of  the  Syna 
gogue,  but  actually  beat  and  kicked  him,  and  took  away  his 
hat,  which  they  afterwards  threw  after  him  into  the  street. 
But  it  must  not  be  omitted  that  the  more  respectable  Jews 
subsequently  apologized  for  this  rude  behaviour. 


Gibraltar;  Argues  with  Jews;  Malta,  further  arguments; 
Clear  do  Naudi ;  Alexandria ;  argues  ivitli  Mar  pur  go ;  Mr. 
Salty  Sir  Gardiner  Wilkinson ;  Magic ;  Cairo ;  Messrs. 
Came  and  Clarke ;  Mount  Sinai ;  taken  prisoner  by  Arabs ; 
return  to  Cairo. 

WOLFF  embarked  for- Gibraltar  on  the  17th  of  April,  1821, 
accompanied  on  board  by  Augustus  Bayford,  now  Dr. 
Bayford,  then  a  boy  about  fifteen  years  of  age  ;  and  amidst  a 
storm,  which  perhaps  others  did  not  think  anything  of,  but 
which  frightened  Wolff,  who  was  a  great  coward  at  sea,  they 
arrived  at  Gibraltar.  Here  he  was  kindly  received  by  John 
Bailey,  Esq.,  Lieutenant  R.N.,  at  whose  house  he  soon  took 
up  his  residence ;  also  by  Dr.  Parker ;  and  the  Wesleyan  mis 
sionaries,  Rees  and  Croscombe.  Wolff  was  requesed  to  pray 
in  the  Wesleyan  Chapel,  which  he  did,  but  with  some  hesita 
tion  of  speech.  The  whole  congregation,  however,  groaned,  as 
if  much  touched.  When  he  had  done,  Rees  prayed  in  turn, 
and  it  was  a  beautiful  outpouring  of  devotion,  addressed  to  the 
majesty  of  heaven.  But  the  whole  congregation  was  silent ; 
which  is,  among  these  people,  a  sign  of  disapprobation.  After 
Wolff  left  the  meeting-house,  Rees  said  to  him,  "  Now  you  see 
a  little  of  the  spirit  of  my  flock ;  I  am  not  popular  among  them, 
and  so  they  groaned  when  you  prayed  :  and,  though  I  cer 
tainly  prayed  with  as  much  fervour  as  you  did,  they  were 
silent."  Wolff  was  so  much  disgusted  with  the  spit efuln ess  of 
the  congregation,  and  no  less  so  with  the  remark  of  their  minis- 
tor,  who  should  not  have  minded  their  groans,  that  he  said  to 
him,  "  You  will  never  catch  me  praying  in  your  meeting-house 

^J2  rrarek  and  Ad  ceitt  tires 

again."  Nevertheless,  lie  kept  up  hid  friendship  with  Mr. 
Reeg,  and  was  taken  by  him  and  Mr.  Croscombe  to  the  house 
of  a  very  intelligent  and  respectable  Jew,  named  Gabay,  with 
whom  he  had  both  then  and  afterwards  some  very  interesting 

llabbi  Gabay  was  considered  by  the  Jews  themselves  to  be 
the  most  learned  man  among  them,  and  they  called  him  "  The 
wise  man.""  He  had  travelled  in  Germany,  France,  and  Eng 
land  ;  spoke  Hebrew,  Italian,  Spanish,  and  English,  and  had 
learned  Arabic  from  a  Moorish  gentleman. 

When  Wolff  first  visited  him,  he  found  him,  surrounded  by 
his  wife  and  children,  interpreting  a  Rabbinical  book  to  two 
Jews.  Gabay  received  him  with  the  utmost  kindness,  and 
then  proceeded  to  try  him,  first  in  Italian,  then  in  Arabic, 
then  in  Hebrew,  to  ascertain  what  he  knew  ;  after  which,  he 
showed  him  the  travels  of  Niebuhr,  translated  into  French, 
which  language  he  understood  pretty  well.  On  WolfFs  ask 
ing  for  an  Arabic  Bible,  he  brought  him  the  Arabic  translation 
of  the  Old  Testament,  published  by  the  Bible  Society;  and 
then  they  read  together  a  great  part  of  the  first  chapter  of 

After  this  was  over,  Wolff  being  anxious  to  hear  something 
of  the  state  of  the  Jews  at  Gibraltar,  asked  Gabay  "s  permission 
to  question  him  on  the  subject ;  and  this  being  granted,  the 
following  dialogue  ensued  : — 

Wolff.—"  How  many  Jews  are  there  at  Gibraltar  2" 

Gabay. — "  Three  or  four  thousand." 

Wolff.—"  Have  they  a  chief  Rabbi  P 

Gabay. — "  Yes;  his  name  is  Rabbi  Joseph,  from  Morocco.*" 

Wolff.—"  Is  he  a  learned  man?" 

Gabay. — "  In  the  Talmud  only." 

Wolff. — "Are  the  Jews  at  Gibraltar  all  Talmudists*  or 
Coraeem?"  f 

Gabay. — "  There  are  no  Coraeem  :  all  are  Talinudists  ;  but 
we  hear  there  are  some  Coraeem  at  Morocco." 

Wolff  then  told  Gabay  of  the  conversations  Lewis  Way  had 
had  with  the  Coraeem  Jews  in  the  Crimea,  and  of  his  journey 

*  The  sect  who  hold  to  Rabbinical  interpretations  of  Scripture,  and 

f  The  sect  who  reject  tradition,  and  admit  Scripture  only  as  their  rule. 
How  Dr.  McCaul,  in  his  pamphlet  on  Marriage  with  a  deceased  Wife's 
Sister,  could  dare  to  assert  that  the  Coraecni,  or  Camites  only  began  to 
exist  in  the  12th  century,  is  inconceivable',  because  Muhammad's  mother 
was  a  Jewess  of  the  daughters  of  Koraita,  as  the  Coraeem  arc  called  in 
the  Arabic  language.  See  Mawodee. 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  93 

to  Aix-la-Chapelle,  with  which  account  Gabay  was  very  much 
pleased,  and  -said,  "Love  produces  a  much  greater  effect  than 
anything  else" 

To  this  all  present  assented,  and  Wolft'  remarked  that  true 
Christians  in  every  age  have  loved  the  Jews. 

He  then  inquired  further,  whether  the  Jews  at  Gibraltar 
had  a  king?  To  which  Gabay  replied,  "No;  for  the  Jews 
are  now  without  king,  and  without  prophet,  and  without 

Yet,  although  this  was  true  as  regards  a  regularly-appointed 
and  anointed  king,  the  Jews  at  Gibraltar  have  the  custom  of 
giving  the  title  of  "  king1'1  to  one  of  their  number.  At  the 
time  of  Wolft" s  visit,  this  Jewish  king's  name  was  Carthosa,  a 
man,  it  was  said,  of  liberal  mind  ;  but  as  he  was  unluckily  just 
then  on  a  visit  to  Lord  Chatham  in  England,  Wolft'  did  not. 
see  him. 

The  conversation  between  Gabay  and  Wolff  continued  by 
the  latter  inquiring  whether  Gabay  had  heard  of  the  new  syna 
gogue,  which  the  Jews  in  Germany  had  established. 

Gabay  asked,  "  What  are  their  principles?" 

Wolft' answered,  "  They  are,  alas  !  Deists,  viz.,  neither  Jews 
nor  Christians."''  To  which  Gabay  replied,  "  They  are  the 
beast  spoken  of  in  the  Revelation  of  St.  John  ! "  After  which 
lie  showed  Wolff  a  Hebrew  Bible,  with  the  commentary  of 
Jonathan  (Targum  Jonathan).* 

Wolft'  looked  at  it,  and  said,  "  Has  Targum  Jonathan  the 
same  authority  among  the  Jews  here  as  Targum  Onkelos?"  f 

Gabay  exclaimed,  "  Yes !  for  Targum  Jonathan  is  written 
by  inspiration  of  the  Holy  rlhopt."  Wolff  asked,  "How  vnpv 

r(ii>    \><    proved  ?V       <•';.'•;,  \     ;.ns\\  >T-'<I    :••     OTIC?.     "   '»V    'I'-.-iliti    i  .' 

••  li\r  w  !i;ii  tradition;""  inquire  \V..!H'  ••  l»\  r!i;..i  »\'  Hi* 
ll:.i>i  iv"  u:..<  tli^  .l"\\'>  i-.-|ij\-.  •  IJiii."  persisted  V\',,IM'.  Uli6~\v 
do  v'oii  [>rov<  the  truth  •  •;  ih:  i  tradition  o  '  the  Rabbis  '."  Tin.-- 
was  a  close  question,  ami  uai^ty  retunu-d  uu  jiu»\ver,  bat  hroke 
oft",  and  turned  the  conversation  to  another  subject ;  a  mode  of 
getting  out  of  the  difficulty  which  he  practised  again  when 
Wolft'  showed  him  the  sermon  on  the  Mount,  and  asked  what 
he  thought  of  the  doctrine.  Gabay  answered  at  first,  that  he 
considered  the  whole  as  a  history;  but  when  Wolff" pressed  him 
further  by  inquiring  whether  he  approved  of  it,  he  just  said, 
c'  I  like  fine  and  grand  words;"  and  once  more  broke  oft'  the 

*  Targum  is  the  name  given  to  Chaldee  Paraphrases  of  the  Old  Tes 

t  See  page  5. 

94  Travels  and  Adventures 

Before  Wolff  left,  however,  Gabay  asked  him  whether  they 
should  read  the  Bible  together  in  Hebrew,  to  which  he  gave  a 
ready  assent,  and  then  received  from  G-abay  a  warm  invitation 
to  take  up  his  abode  in  his  house.  This  he  did  not  do,  but 
called  on  him  several  times  afterwards,  that  they  might  speak 
together  about  religion. 

Just  before  parting,  on  the  first  occasion,  Wolff  asked  con 
cerning  the  Jews  generally  at  Gibraltar,  whether  they  were  in 
the  habit  of  reading  the  Old  Testament. 

But  the  answer  to  this  may  be  easily  anticipated.  Gabay 
exclaimed,  "Alas!  no!  for  Gibraltar  is  too  much  a  town  of 
business."  Shortly  after  this  interview,  a  rich  Jew,  named 
Hassan,  who  had  become  a  convert  (though  of  rather  a" luke 
warm  sort)  to  Protestantism,  requested  Wolff  to  call  on  him ; 
and  at  his  house  Wolff  met  his  brother,  Joseph  Hassan,  a  great 
Hebrew  scholar,  and  still  a  strict,  but  reasonable  Jew. 

Wolff  spoke  to  this  man  at  once  about  Christianity,  and  gave 
him  the  fourth  and  fifth  chapters  of  St.  Matthew  to  read.  He  did 
so,  and  was  much  struck  when  he  came  to  the  passage,  "  Think 
not  that  I  am  come  to  destroy  the  law  or  the  prophets  :  I  am 
not  to  come  to  destroy,  but  to  fulfil.""  He  read  it  twice  over, 
and  continued  to  read,  till  Wolff  asked,  "  Do  you  approve  of 
this  doctrine?"  Joseph  Hassan  answered,  *c  I  cannot  yet  give 
you  my  decided  opinion,  for  I  have  never  read  the  New  Testa 
ment  ;  "I  know  only  the  Old  Testament,  but  I  will  tell  you  my 
view  about  the  Messiah,  and  about  Jesus.  The  design  of  the 
Messiah  was,  according  to  the  prophets,  to  restore  Israel  into 
their  own  land,  and  to  make  them 'kings  and  priests  ;  to  redeem 
them  from  captivity,  and  to  make  them  a  righteous  people. 
And  He,  the  Messiah,  must  be  their  king,  and  mighty  to  save. 
But  Jesus  was  sacrificed,  it  may  have  been  for  a  very  good 
purpose,  but  this  very  circumstance  shows  that  He  was  not  the 

Wolff  replied,  earnestly,  "  I  am  entirely  of  the  same  opinion 
that  the  Messiah  will  come  one  day,  and  restore  Israel  to  their 
own  land,  and  every  true  Christian  believes  it ;  but  they  must 
first  look  on  Him  whom  they  have  pierced,  and  mourn." 

But  although  Wolff  believed  this  at  that  time  in  a  general 
way,  he  had  not  yet  those  definite  ideas  of  the  second  advent 
of  our  Lord,  which  afterwards  enabled  him  to  combat  success 
fully  this  favourite  argument  of  the  Jews.  His  visit  to  the 
Hassans  was  followed  by  another  to  Gabay,  when  they  dis 
coursed  for  two  hours  upon  the  interpretation  of  different  pas 
sages  of  Scripture  referring  to  the  Messiah,  but  with  no  par- 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  95 

ticular  result,  although  with  unabated  good  feeling  on  both 

Another  Jew,  with  whom  Wolff  became  acquainted  at 
Gibraltar,  was  Mr.  Ben  Oliel,  who  was  said  to  be  not  only  the 
richest  Jew,  but  the  richest  man  in  the  place.  He  was  Consul- 
General  of  the  Emperor  of  Morocco,  and  gave  Wolff  and  his 
friends,  Lieutenant  Bailey  and  Dr.  Parker,  who  accompanied 
him,  a  most  cordial  reception,  inviting  them  to  his  country 
house,  and  offering  to  give  all  the  information  he  could  about 
the  East.  Nor  did  his  kindness  abate,  or  he  betray  any  dis 
pleasure,  even  when  Wolff  told  him  that  he  was  a  Jew  by 
birth,  who  had,  through  conviction,  entered  the  Christian 
Church.  On  the  contrary,  he  promised  to  give  him  letters  for 
the  Prior  of  the  Spanish  Convent  at  Jerusalem,  asking  for  an 
introduction  for  Wolff  to  the  Jews  at  Jerusalem.  He  was 
pleased  to  find  that  Wolff  could  talk  with  him  in  Hebrew,  and 
also  in  Arabic,  and  was  glad  to  hear  accounts  of  the  Jews  re 
siding  at  Paris  and  in  Germany. 

By  Mr.  Ben  Oliel,  Wolff  was  soon  after  introduced  to  the 
presidents  of  the  three  chief  synagogues  at  Gibraltar,  and 
from  them  he  learnt  that  there  were  not  above  1,600  Jews  in 
the  place ;  and  that  the  Jews  of  Portugal  were  much  more 
faithful  to  their  religion  than  those  of  Spain.  Mr.  Ben  Oliel 
accompanied  Wolff  and  his  friend,  Lieutenant  Bailey,  to  their 
synagogue  also,  but  Wolff  was  not,  of  course,  allowed  to 

On  a  third  visit  to  Gabay,  he  went,  by  appointment,  in  the 
forenoon,  at  half-past  eleven,  to  read  Spanish,  and  was  met  at 
the  gate  by  Gabay^s  son,  who,  when  he  saw  Wolff,  ran  in  to 
tell  his  father ;  and  on  entering  the  room,  he  found  there  Gabay 
and  three  Jews  with  white  beards,  dressed  after  the  Turkish 
manner,  besides  four  other  respectable  Jews,  of  the  Portuguese 
persuasion,  and  several  Jewish  ladies.  They  all  arose  as  Wolff 
came  in,  and  Gabay  shook  hands  with  him,  and  he  made  his 
bow  to  the  others,  who  responded  kindly,  showing  by  their 
countenances  a  mixture  of  respect  for  him  with  confidence  in 
themselves.  Wolff'  began  by  desiring  Gabay  to  read  the  Bible 
with  him  in  the  Spanish  tongue ;  on  which  Gabay  inquired 
what  chapter  he  would  like  to  read  ? 

Wolff  declined  choosing,  for  although  he  longed  to  name  a 
chapter  in  which  the  Messiah  is  spoken  of,  he  did  not  know 
whether  Gabay  would  like  to  argue  with  him  in  the  presence 
of  other  Jews.  He  therefore  told  Gabay,  as  his  master,  to 
choose  the  chapter.  Gabay  did  so,  and  took  Isaiah  xi. — "  And 
there  shall  come  forth  a  stem  of  Jesse,"  &c. ;  and  when  Wolff, 

On  Travels  and  Adventure* 

continuing  to  read,  came  to  verse  6, — "  The  wolf  also  shall 
dwell  with  the  lamb,  and  the  leopard  shall  lie  down  with  the 
kid,"  Gabay  interrupted  him,  and  asked,  "What  is  the  sense 
of  this  verse  f 

Wolff  answered,  "  That  there  shall  be  universal  peace." 
After  the  chapter  was  concluded,  a  silence  of  several  minutes 
followed ;  the  Turkish  Jews  sitting,  in  these  moments  of  me 
ditation,  as  is  their  custom,  with  their  hands  on  their  beards. 
At  last  a  young  Jew,  whose  countenance  expressed  solidity 
and  seriousness,  opened  the  Hebrew  Bible,  and  all  the  others 
followed  his  example,  and  the  young  Jew  asked  :  "  Mr.  Wolff, 
do  you  understand  the  contents  of  this  chapter?" 

Wolff  answered,  "  The  prophet  speaks  here  of  the  Messiah." 
On  which  the  young  Jew  asked  again,  "  Does  the  wolf  dwell 
with  the  lamb,  and  does  the  leopard  lie  down  with  the  kid  ?*" 

Wolff's  reply  to  this  was  a  warm  assertion  of  his  faith  in 
the  crucified  Saviour  as  the  true  Messiah :  and  he  spoke  it 
with  a  force  and  an  agitation  that  must  have  fully  persuaded 
liis  hearers  that  he  believed  what  he  professed  to  believe.  And 
"  no  anger,  no  gnashing  of  teeth,  no  laughter,  no  blasphemy 
followed"  (as  Wolff  himself  recorded  at  the  time  in  his  journal), 
adding,  "  God  be  praised  for  it  !" 

Nevertheless,  the  young  Jew,  whose  countenance  and  eyes, 
whilst  looking  at  the  aged  ones  who  were  searching  the  Scrip 
tures,  expressed  his  desire  to  cut  Wolff  in  pieces  ;  not  with 
violence,  but  with  the  force  of  his  arguments,  and  with  the 
sword  of  the  Scripture,  pressed  him  again  by  saying,  "  You 
have  poured  out  your  feelings,  but  I  desire  arguments."  To 
which  all  the  Jews  responded  together,  "Arguments!  Argu- 
ni'Mits  !'  And  Hi"!,  once  more  \W»|fV  I.SS^T:*?'!.  ••  Th»--  \t  — 
-ii'li.  i.-'  «'«MII-'.  '  \  n«l  '»i  !«•.£•  nioj-H  rh*--  vi'ini'j  .'-'v.  rL  it  >•!•;.  t  M,| 

••  Km  fh-  l.Miiii  does  li"1  «iw-ll  \vitii  Hi-  \v,|f';  rli-n-  is  i|,.t  \  ••» 
Mi:. I  i>iil  \ •-•!•<:.  I  ["•: 

iVolft  answered,     ii.,..  will  take  , ..._. 

To  which  the  young  Jew  objected,  "  How  do  you  prove  two 
coinings  of  the  Messiah  ?" 

Wolff  said,  "  When  we  find  the  greatest  part  of  the  pro 
phecy  respecting  the  Messiah  fulfilled^  in  one  who  declared  him 
self  to  be  that  Messiah,  then  we  must  believe  that  he  was  the 
Messiah,  and  are  bound  to  believe  what  he  revealeth  unto  us. 
Messiah  has  come,  and  he  tells  us  he  shall  come  again.  Many 
of  the  prophecies  are  not  yet  fulfilled,  and  he  must  come  a 
second  time  to  fulfil  them/'  Which  argument  was  right  as  far 
as  it  went,  but  Wolff  had  not  yet  learnt  to  combat  the  strong 
hold  of  the  Jews  from  the  words  of  the  Messiah  himself — 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  97 

"0  fools,  and  slow  of  heart,  to  believe  ALL  that  the  prophets 
have  spoken,"  &c.,  as  will  be  more  fully  shown  hereafter. 

Wolff  was  detained  longer  at  Gibraltar  than  he  originally- 
purposed,  and  so  had  other  interviews  with  his  friend  Rabbi 
Gabay,  and  made  further  acquaintances.  Among  them,  that 
of  Mr.  Ben  Aruz,  respected  by  all  the  officers  of  the  garrison 
as  an  honest  man  and  a  gentleman.  He  was  also  a  man  of 
property,  and  it  is  to  be  remarked  that  Wolff  found  the  richer 
and  more  educated  Jews  much  more  willing  to  listen  to  his 
arguments,  and  think  well  of  his  efforts,  than  the  poorer 

One  conversation  with  Mr.  Ben  Aruz  was  interesting  enough 
to  be  worth  citation.  Mr.  Cohen,  another  Jew,  in  whom 
Wolff  had  taken  great  interest,  but  who  subsequently  turned 
out  very  unsatisfactory,  took  him  to  the  house  of  Ben  Aruz, 
and  the  dialogue  between  them  was  as  follows  :  — 

Ben  Aruz. — "  I  am  very  much  obliged  for  the  New  Testa 
ment  ;  I  say  always  to  my  friend  Cohen  that  Mr.  Wolff  is  a 
very  sensibfe  man,  of  great  talent,  who  gains  much  money,  and 
eats  well,  and  drinks  well,  and  believes  in  his  heart  what  he 
likes  ;  all  the  Jews  in  Gibraltar  are  a  parcel  of  fools,  who  argue 
with  you  about  the  prophets  and  the  law.  I  was  in  the  world, 
andjniow  the  world  very  well ;  I  have  done  myself  just  what 
you  Mr.  Wolff  are  doing — I  went  about  with  bishops  arm  in 
arm  ;  I  lived  many  times  in  convents,  and  was  the  galant 
homme  of  all  the  ladies,  but  in  the  midst  of  all  these  things  in 
my  heart  I  was  a  Jew — and  so  you  are,  Mr.  Wolff — and  you 
are  right  !" 

Wolff. — "  It  is  sad  indeed  that  you  know  so  little  of  the 
spirit  of  the  law  of  Moses  and  the  Prophets  as  to  think  that  a 
man  may  be  a  hypocrite^  and  nevertheless  be  a  good  Jew.  If 
you,  Mr.  Ben  Aruz,  have  acted  thus  in  your  youth,  for  a  little 
meat  and  drink,  you  have  acted  wrong,  and  I  tell  you  that  you 
have  not  been  happy  that  whole  time.  And  do  you  think  that 
I  should  be  such  a  fool  as  to  deny  my  God,  my  Saviour,  for 
money,  for  meat  and  drink  ?  There  will  be  a  day  of  resur 
rection,  a  day  of  universal  judgment,  and  if  I  should  then  be 
in  such  a  state  as  you  suppose,  my  wretched  soul  would  be  in 
an  awful  condition.  But  no,  no  ;  I  believe  with  all  my  heart, 
all  my  soul,  in  Jesus  Christ,  my  Saviour,  my  Redeemer  !" 

Mr.  Cohen  here  got  up  and  went  away,  and  Wolff  was  left 
a  little  while  alone  with  Ben  Aruz. 

Ben  Aruz. — "  Mr.  Wolff,  I  am  a  man  of  honour,  a  man  of 
secrecy,  and  I  assure  you  with  an  oath,  that  I  will  not  betray 
you, — but  tell  me  sincerely,  do  you  believe  in  Jesus  Christ?" 


98  Travels  and  Adventures 

Wolff.  —  "  In  Jesus  Christ,  my  Lord,  my  Clod  —  in  Jesus 
Christ,  my  Lord,  my  God  —  in  Jesus  Christ,  my  Lord,  my 
God  —  the  heaven  above  is  my  witness,  and  the  earth  beneath." 

Ben  Aruz.  —  "  Of  what  use  is  the  Son  ?  we  have  the  Father, 
and  in  Him  we  believe  !" 

Wolff.  —  "Do  you  believe  in  the  Father?" 

Ben  Aruz.  —  "  I  believe." 

Wolff.  —  "  And  all  that  He  commands  ?" 

Ben  Aruz.  —  "  And  all  that  He  commands  I  am  obliged  to 

Wolff.—"  The  Father  commands,  '  Kiss  the  Son  r  r 

Ben  Aruz.  —  "  I  tell  you  Mr.  Wolff,  yon  will  cry  out  at 
your  death,  '  I  have  sinned,  I  have  committed  iniquity,  I  have 
done  wickedly/  ' 

Wolff.  —  "  Yes,  you  are  right,  I  shall  cry  out  indeed,  c  I  have 
sinned,  I  have  committed  iniquity,  I  have  done  wickedly,5  but 
at  the  same  time  I  hope  to  add,  '  I  trust  in  thee,  Jesus,  my 
Lord,  and  my  Redeemer,  and  my  God  r  ' 

On  a  subsequent  occasion,  Rabbi  Gabay  attacked  Wolff 
again  with  the  word  nB/#  (Isa.  vii.)  and  said,  "  It  is  true  that 
DJ?y  signifies  to  hide,  but  I  will  show  you  that  nD1?^  niay  sig 
nify  something  else  ;  but  first  of  all  show  me  your  proofs  that 

Wolff.  —  "  I  will  give  you  three  ;  —  1.  From  the  origin  of  the 
word  itself.  2.  From  the  oldest  translations.  3.  By  citations 
from  the  New  Testament.  1.  Origin  tfryliide,  nD^  a  woman 
hidden,  after  the  manner  and  custom  of  the  East,  until  she  is 
ripe  for  marriage.  2.  The  Greek  Translators  one  hundred  and 
eighty  years  before  Christ  translated  it  Virgin.  3.  The  Evan 
gelist  Matthew  would  have  not  been  so  bold  as  to  translate  it 
Virgin,  if  the  Jews  had  not  generally  understood  Virgin 
under  HD^-  And  there  are  other  passages  to  the  same  effect." 

Gabay.  —  "  I  will  prove  to  you  by  Kimchi's  Dictionary, 
that  Q^iy  must  have  another  original  signification  beside  /tide." 

Here  he  opened  Kimchi,  and  showed  Wolff  D\*J^^  which 
Kimchi  translated  ^tOIH  wiiiwr,  but  Gabay  did  not  read  all 
through  Kimchi's  interpretation  ;  but  suddenly  stopt  short, 
whereupon  Wolff  exclaimed  with  great  vehemence,  "Mr. 
Gabay,  go  on  !  go  on  !  go  on  !" 

And  according  Gabay  was  obliged  to  continue,  and  then  it 
appeared  that  Kimchi  mentioned  the  reason  why  QVJ1?^  has 
the  signification  of  sinner,  viz.  ,  —  because  lie  acts  in  secret 
places.  The  above-mentioned  Ben  Aruz,  who  was  a  friend  of 
M.  Gabav  entered  the  room  here,  and  beginning  to  talk,  used 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  99 

the  same  arguments  that  he  had  done  the  day  before,  but  Wolli' 
maintained  his  ground. 

Ben  Aruz. — "  You  are  obliged  to  confess  the  name  of 

Wolff. — "  Yes,  you  are  right,  I  am  obliged  to  confess  the 
name  of  Christ,  constrained  by  the  grace  of  the  Lord !" 

Ben  Aruz. — "  Because  all  your  present  welfare  depends  upon 
this  profession,  you  mean." 

Wolff. — "  All  my  present  and  future  happiness  and  welfare 
depend  upon  it !" 

Ben  Arus.—"  Courage,  Mr.  Wolff !" 

Wolff. — "Which  Jesus  Christ  my  Lord  will  give  me  !" 

Ben  Arux.-—"  Hold  Him  fast." 

Wolff.—"  I  it-ill  l>y  Ms  grace  hold  Him  fast" 

Ben  Aruz. — "  Or  you  lose  yourself?" 

Wolff. — i(  Or  lose  myself  for  ever." 

Ben  Aruz. — "  You  have  a  great  talent." 

Wolff. — "  I  am  a  poor  weak  creature,  a  sinner  who  hopes  to 
be  saved  by  Christ  Jesus,  by  his  blood !" 

Gabay. — "He  neither  slumbers  nor  sleeps,  the  Watchman 
in  Israel !"  (He  said  this  in  Hebrew.) 

Wolff. — "  He  neither  slumbers  nor  sleeps,  the  Watchman 
in  Israel !"  (Wolff]  in  Hebrew.) 

Gabay. — "  Hear,  Israel,  the  Lord  our  God  is  one  Lord  !" 
(in  Hebrew  again.) 

Wolff. — "  Hear,  Israel,  the  Lord  our  God  is  one  Lord — and 
Jesus  is  the  Messiah  !"  (Wolff,  in  Hebrew.) 

Tears  stood  in  the  eyes  of  Gabay,  at  Wolffs  earnestness, 
and  Ben  Aruz  himself  became  more  serious.  And  Wolff  had 
at  any  rate  the  comfort  of  feeling,  that  no  one  present  could 
suspect  him  of  a  trifling  spirit. 

Another  day,  five  or  six  Catholic  priests  asked  Wolff  to  go 
with  them  to  their  house;  where  they  brought  him  into  a  dark 
room — where  nobody  looked  him  in  the  face — and  there-they 
began  to  talk  about  the  Pope.  They  used  the  Latin  tongue. 
Wolff  told  them  he  loved  Pius  the  Seventh  very  much  on 
account  of  his  liberality.  One  of  the  priests  told  him,  un 
asked,  that  he  was  at  Eome  in  1817  (just  when  Wolff  was  in 
the  Propaganda),  and  knew  well  Cardinal  Litta.  Wolff  said 
to  him,  I  received,  after  my  departure  from  Eome,  a  very 
affectionate  and  interesting  letter  from  that  very  Cardinal 

Litta."  Then  they  began  to  argue  about  the  Pope's  Infalli- 
,  .,.  «/  o  o  r 


<  Wolff. — "  Ecclesia  Gallicana  non  credit  Papam  esse  infalli- 


100  Travels  and  Adventures 

Capucin. — "Ecclesia  Gallicana  credit  minus  quam  debet" 

Wolff. — "  Quomodo  probas  ?" 

Capttdin* — "  Papa  est  caput  ecclesiw,  ergo  infallibilis  esse 

Wolff. — "  Verbum  digito  Domini  scriptum,  non  dicit  hoc" 

Capucln. — "  Nee  tibi^  nee  mihi,  sacra  scriptura  data  fuit, 
sed  ecclesice" 

Though  there  was  a  good  deal  of  sound  reasoning  in  that 
Friar's  remarks,  yet  they  were  spoken  in  such  an  unamiahle 
and  hostile  manner,  that  Wolff  was  not  at  all  easy  in  the  com 
pany  of  these  priests,  and  was  glad  to  come  out  from  them. 
He  suspected  by  their  countenances  that  they  hated  him,  and 
would  have  consigned  him  to  the  Inquisition  if  it  had  been  in 
their  power.  On  the  other  hand,  some  of  the  ^Protestant 
Christians  at  Gibraltar  feared  that  WolfTs  life  was  not  safe 
among  the  Jews ;  but  this  was  quite  an  unreasonable  appre 
hension,  as  little  circumstances  constantly  proved.  For 
instance,  one  day  he  strolled  out  of  the  town  alone ;  and  in 
returning  to  Lieutenant  Bailey's  mistook  the  road  and  came 
into  a  solitary  place  ;  where  he  met  several  Jews,  who  smiled, 
and  brought  him  in  the  right  way.  He  went  alone  too  into 
their  houses,  and  to  their  synagogues,  and  they  shook  hands 
with  him  on  those  occasions  quite  kindly.  He  always  showed 
himself  very  serious  to  them,  in  order  to  keep  up  that  respect 
which  he  felt  to  be  necessary  among  them. 

Of  the  many  Jews  with  whom  Wolff  associated  at  Gibraltar, 
there  was  only  one,  Jonas  by  name,  who  treated  Wolff  with 
real  enmity,  and  he  was  very  violent,  even  trying  to  raise  a 
mob  against  him  ;  in  which  attempt,  however,  he  did  not 
succeed.  But  Wolff  was  much  grieved  by  some  of  the  English 
Christians,  who  were  high  Calvinists  ;  especially  by  a  long- 
face  pulling  lady  with  a  whining  voice,  a  daughter  of  that  holy 

man,  S of  P Q ,  in  whom  indwelling  holiness 

had  triumphed  over  his  Calvinistic  views,  as  true  Christianity 
of  the  heart  will  always  counteract  the  practical  tendency  of 
every  false  system.  But  his  daughter  did  not  inherit  this 
largeness  of  mind.  She  was  continually  bothering  Wolff  not 
to  argue  with  the  Jews  about  the  truths  of  the  Gospel,  but 
only  to  preach  to  them  the  sovereignty  of  grace,  and  the  doc 
trines  of  election  and  reprobation. 

On  the  16th  June,  1821,  after  having  remained  two  months 
at  Gibraltar,  Wolff  embarked  on  board  the  Shamrock,  a  mer 
chant  vessel,  commanded  by  Captain  Senner,  of  Liverpool, 
bound  for  Malta.  Among  the  passengers  there  was  one  very 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  101 

interesting  one,  Lieutenant  Toole  by  name,  a  young  gentleman 
of  the  highest  talent  and  acquirements. 

Wolff  gave  him  the  "  Researches  of  Claudius  Buchanan"  to 
read,  in  which  Toole  took  the  greatest  interest,  especially 
where  that  excellent  writer  points  out  those  passages  of  Scrip 
ture,  relating  to  the  dispersion  of  the  Jews,  on  which  ho 
observes,  "  The  Hindoo  persecutes  the  Jew  without  knowing 
the  reason  of  his  doing  so." 

Toole  kept  continually  saying,  as  he  read,  "An  extraordi 
nary  fact,  an  extraordinary  fact !"  and  from  that  time  he 
became  more  serious,  and  read  his. Bible  every  day  during  the 
passage  to  Malta. 

That  excellent  young  man  afterwards  died  in  Africa,  where 
he  went  with  Clapperton  to  Bornou. 

On  his  arrival  in  Malta,  Wolff  was  obliged  to  perform 
quarantine,  as  there  had  been  fever  at  Gibraltar.  And  here 
the  Maltese  doctor,  Cleardo  Naudi,  agent  for  the  British  and 
Foreign  Bible  Society,  and  for  the  London  Society  for  Pro 
moting  Christianity  among  the  Jews,  who  also  translated  the 
New  Testament  and  various  tracts  into  Maltese  for  the  Church 
Missionary  Society,  called  on  Joseph  Wolff,  and  invited  him, 
when  released  from  quarantine,  to  take  up  his  abode  at  his 
house.  A  short  sketch  of  the  life  of  this  remarkable  man  will 
interest  the  reader. 

He  began  his  career  in  1816,  when  he  attracted  the  notice 
of  Henry  Drummond,  then  at  Malta.  He  had,  at  that  time, 
written  a  tract  in  Italian,  entitled  "  The  Fear  of  Man." 
Drummond  asked  him  to  lend  him  this  tract,  and,  soon  after, 
Naudi  saw  his  own  tract  printed  at  his  friend's  expense,  with 
the  name  of  Cleardo  Naudi  affixed  to  it.  This  brought  him 
into  notice  in  England,  and  the  Bible  and  Missionary  Socie 
ties  gladly  employed  him  as  their  agent  at  Malta:  after  which, 
he  also  became  member  of  the  committees  of  all  the  societies 
then  existing  in  Malta,  as  auxiliaries  to  those  in  London.  At 
last,  through  the  acuteness  of  the  Kev.  William  Jowett, 
missionary  from  the  Church  Missionary  Society,  (or,  as  he 
was  ridiculously  called,  the  "literary  representative  of  the 
Church  Missionary  Society ;"  a  title  he  wisely  gave  up  after 
wards,  moved  thereto  by  the  sarcastic  but  just" remarks  of  the 
late  Henry  Drummond,)  suspicions  began  to  be  entertained 
with  regard  to  Naudi,  which  led  to  the  Church  Missionary 
and  Bible  Societies  dismissing  him  from  their  service.  Yet, 
for  some  years,  he  was  still  employed  by  the  London  Mis 
sionary  Society,  but,  after  a  while,  he  lost  that  post  also.  He 
then  persuaded  Keeling,  the  Wesley  an  missionary,  that  he 

102  Travels  and  Adventures 

had  converted  a  number  of  Maltese  to  the  tenets  of  the  Wes- 
leyan  connection  ;  but  that,  as  yet,  they  were  unwilling  to 
give  their  names ;  and  having  on  the  death  of  his  first  wife, 
who  was  a  Maltese,  married  an  Englishwoman,  he  introduced 
her  to  the  Wesley  an  missionaries  as  a  Roman  Catholic  lady 
from  England,  who  was  desirous  of  embracing  the  Protestant 
faith  ;  and  to  the  Roman  Catholics  as  a  Wesleyan,  anxious  to 
return  to  the  bosom  of  the  true  Church.  So,  at  certain  hours 
of  the  day,  she  received  instruction  in  the  Protestant  religion 
from  the  Weslcyan  missionary,  Keeling ;  and,  at  other  times, 
she  was  catechised  by  a  Roman  Catholic  priest  in  the  tenets 
of  the  Church  of  Rome.  And  one  Sunday  morning,  at  nine 
o'clock,  she  accompanied  her  husband  to  the  Wesleyan  chapel, 
and  abjured  the  errors  of  Popery ;  and  three  hours  after,  at 
twelve  o^clock,  she  went  to  the  private  chapel  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  bishop,  and  solemnly  renounced  the  damnable  heresies 
of  the  Methodist  persuasion  ! 

Nor  did  this  end  the  deception.  On  the  contrary,  she 
received  the  holy  communion  every  week  in  the  Roman 
Catholic  chapel  in  the  morning ;  and  in  the  evening  related 
her  "experiences,"  in  company  with  Naudi,  in  the  class- 
meeting  of  Mr.  Keeling,  describing  her  conversion,  and  how 
there  "fell  from  her  eyes,  as  it  had  been  scales;"  and  that 
since  then,  as  she  worded  it,  she  had  not  sinned,  but  back 
slidden  ! 

At  last,  in  1834,  Naudi  was  completely  unmasked,  and 
dismissed  by  the  London  Society  for  Promoting  Christianity 
among  the  Jews.  His  career,  however,  was  not  yet  ended. 
In  1835,  he  set  out  for  England ;  and  when  Wolff  heard  that, 
he  said  to  his  darling  wife,  and  to  other  friends  in  Malta, 
"  Now,  mark  my  words,  this  fellow  will  go  to  the  Irvingite 
chapel,  and  break  forth  in  an  unknown  tongue,  and  he  will 
return  to  us  an  Evangelist  of  the  sect."  In  1843,  Wolff  and 
his  wife,  Lady  Greorgiana,  paid  a  long  visit  to  Henry  Drum- 
mond,  and  then  heard  that  Naudi  had  come  to  England  in  Ihr 
year  1835  ;  had  really  gone  to  the  Irvingite  chapel,  and  heard 
the  unknown  tongues ;  and  then,  suddenly  inspired,  broke 
forth  himself.  And  in  the  list  of  the  officers  of  the  Irvingite 
religion,  which  Wolff  saw  that  year,  the  name  of  Cleardo 
Naudi  appeared,  as  Evangelist  for  the  Island  of  Malta.  This 
extraordinary  man  returned  to  Malta  during  the  time  of  the 
cholera,  where  he  really  distinguished  himself  by  his  attend 
ance  on  the  sick  and  dying,  from  morning  to  night,  with  a  zeal 
which  gained  him  the  respect  of  all  the  inhabitants  of  the 
place,  and  of  the  British  Government  there.  And,  finally  ^ 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  103 

poor  Cleardo  Naudi  died  the  victim  of  those  righteous  labours, 
having  caught  the  disease  himself;  in  consequence  of  which  a 
pension  was  granted  to  his  widow  :  and  thus,  odd  to  say,  the 
name  of  this  curious  man  is  now  remembered  with  gratitude 
and  respect.  And  Wolff  thinks  that  the  pompous  coldness 
with  which  he  was  treated  at  the  outset,  by  some  of  the  mis 
sionaries,  may  have  contributed  to  make  him  what  he  was, 
though  exactly  what  that  was,  it  is  difficult  to  judge.  Schiller 
is  right  in  saying,  "  That  we  are  still  in  need  of  a  Linnaeus,  to 
classify  the  motives  of  the  human  heart." 

But  to  return  to  Wolff's  visit  to  Malta  'in  1821.  He  took 
up  at  that  time  his  abode  with  Naudi,  who  gave  him  every 
assistance  in  his  power,  in  his  missionary  pursuits.  Mr.  Joseph 
Greaves  introduced  him  to  a  rich  Jew,  Ben  Simra  by  name, 
who  was  just  then  in  his  warehouse,  in  the  midst  of  many 
Jews  and  English  Christians. 

Mr.  Greaves  said — "  Mr.  Ben  Simra,  1  introduce  to  you 
Mr.  Wolff,  who  has  been  strongly  recommended  to  me  from 
England."  Mr.  Ben  Simra  stood,  with  his  hands  behind  him, 
looking  at  Wolff  in  a  contemptuous  manner;  and,  turning  away 
from  him,  said  to  Joseph  Greaves,  "This  man  must  not  come 
into  my  house.  He  ought  to  follow  a  better  trade."  They  bowed 
and  left  him.  It  was  a  bad  beginning.  However,  that  same 
day  Wolff  had  the  visits  of  two  Jews,  the  one,  Luzena  by 
name,  a  Jew  from  Ragusa,  whose  whole  object  was  to  find  out 
whether  Wolff  could  introduce  him  to  rich  merchants. 
Roguery  was  in  his  eyes.  The  other  Jew,  Cohen  by  name, 
was  a  fool,  and  made  a  fool  of  Wolff.  He  complained  that  the 
Jews  persecuted  him,  and  pressed  him  to  pay  his  debts, 
because  he  wanted  to  become  a  Christian.  Wolff  at  last  found 
out  that  this  man  was  not  sincere,  for  the  observation  fre 
quently  made  by  Hoffbauer  was  verified  in  that  fellow — 
"  Most  fools  are  knaves."  He  one  day  came  to  Wolff,  and 
told  him  that  he  had  had  a  dream  that  he  should  find  a  trea 
sure  in  a  certain  place,  and  he  actually  made  a  fool  of  a  Mal 
tese  who  came  to  assist  him  in  digging  after  that  treasure,  but 
they  found  nothing. 

Wolff  attempted  to  preach  in  the  synagogue,  and  entered  it 
with  several  English  officers  and  civilians  for  that  purpose. 
The  officers  and  civilians  were  asked  politely  to  sit  down,  but 
Gomez,  the  churchwarden  the  chief  of  the  Jews,  came  up  to 
Wolff,  and  said,  "  Thy  memory  and  thy  name  be  blotted  out 
from  the  book  of  life  !  Instantly  you  leave  !" 

Wolff  said,  "  You  have  no  right  to  turn  me  out  from  a  place 
of  public  worship." 

104  Travels  and  Adventures 

Gomez  said,  "  This  is  private  place  of  worship,  and,  if  you 
ever  dare  to  come  in  again,  you  will  be  insulted." 

Wolff  left  with  his  friends,  and  returned  to  Naudi,  where  he 
had  an  encounter  with  a  Maltese  Catholic,  an  architect,  who 
was  a  complete  atheist,  and  whose  name  was  Gronniet.  Wolff 
lost  too  much  time  in  conversing  with  that  profane  infidel  and 
revolutionist;  but  his  English  Christian  friends,  together  with 
Naudi,  always  took  his  part  on  such  occasions.  To  show  the 
weak  and  ignorant  way  in  which  such  people  argue,  part  of  a 
dialogue  between  Wolff  and  Gronniet  is  subjoined  :— 

Signor  Gronniet. — "  The  whole  of  Christianity  is  an  impos 
ture  of  the  priests." 

Wolff. — "  You  were  born  a  Roman  Catholic,  and,  having 
seen  the  superstition  of  your  Church,  you  think  that  the  true 
system  of  Christianity  consists  in  that." 

Gronniet. — "  I  do  not  believe  in  any  divine  revelation." 

Wolff. — "  What  reasons  have  you  for  not  doing  so  2" 

Gronniet. — "If  God  had  desired  that  man  should  act  and 
think  after  his  pleasure,  He  could  have  clone  it,  and  all  men 
would  be  constrained  to  think  as  He  likes." 

Wolff. — "  How  should  you,  a  worm,  dare  to  prescribe  a  rule 
for  God,  how  He  should  act?  Head  the  Bible,  and  I  hope  you 
will  have  other  views." 

Gronniet. — "  Every  nation  pretends  to  have  a  revelation 
from  God.  What  nation,  now,  is  in  the  right  way  ?" 

Wolff. — "  The  very  circumstance  you  mention,  that  every 
nation  pretends  to  have  had  a  revelation  from  God,  should 
satisfy  you  that  there  must  be  some  truth  in  it.  Examine, 
therefore,  the  documents  of  the  several  nations,  and  read — I 
tell  you  again — the  Bible." 

Gronniet. — "  The  Bible  is  an  imposture." 

Wolff. — You  have  not  read  the  Bible  and  cannot  prove  it." 

Gronniet. — "  Volney  proves  it." 

Wolff. — "  I  do  not  argue  with  Volney  ;  1  argue  with  you." 

Gronniet. — "  The  world  was  from  eternity." 

Wol/.—"  Prove  it." 

Gronniet. — "  What  would  God  have  done  before  He  created 
the  world?" 

Wolff. — "  Will  you  prove  a  thing  by  your  ignorance  T 

Gronniet. — "  You  admit  that  God  is  the  soul  of  all  things  ?" 

Wolff. — -"  T  do  not  understand  this  spinozistical  nonsense, 
that  God  is  the  soul  of  all  things  ;  He  is  the  Creator  of  all 

Gronniet.—*"  The  word  Baracli  in  Hebrew  docs  not  signify 
Create,  but  make" 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  105 

Wolff. — "  Barach  signifies  nothing-,  for  there  is  not  such  a 
word  to  be  found  in  Hebrew.  You  have  heard  something, 
but  not  well.  It  is  Barak)  and  signifies  create ;  but,  if  I  should 
admit  that  it  signifies  make,  you  told  me  just  now  that  the 
whole  Bible  is  an  imposture,  and  you  nevertheless  would 
prove  your  infidelity  by  the  authority  of  the  Bible.  I  must, 
therefore,  draw  this  conclusion,  that  you  are  an  impostor  ; 
but  I  tell  you  again  that  N"O  signifies  create.  Here  is  the 

Gronniet. — u  I  do  not  understand  Hebrew." 

Wolff. — "  Then  you  must  not  assert  a  thing  which  you 
do  not  understand." 

Gronniet. — "  Volney  proves  it." 

Wolff. — "  Volney  is  a  liar  !  Prove  the  contrary,  if  you  are 

Gronniet. — "  The  Koran  is  better  than  the  Bible." 

Wolff. — "  You  have  never  read  the  Koran ;  I  know  it. 
You  have  never  looked  into  the  Koran." 

Gronniet. — "  In  the  Bible  is  one  contradiction  after  another." 

Wolff. — "Here" — (he  produced  a  Bible) — "show  me  one,  if 
you  are  able.  I  challenge  you  to  show  ine  one." 

Gronniet. — "  I  will  bring  you  a  book  which  will  prove  to 
you  that  there  arc  contradictions  in  it,  for  I  myself  have  too 
much  to  do." 

Wolff. — "  But  you  must  confess  that  you  have  proved 
nothing,  and  that  you  will  never  be  able  to  defend  your  absur 
dities  by  one  reasonable  proof.  My  dear  friend,  you  are  in  an 
awful  state.  Head  the  Bible,  where  you  will  find  the  way  of 
salvation,  Jesus  Christ ;  without  Him  you  will  undoubtedly 

Gronniet. — "Why  does  He  not  punish  me,  if  there  is  a  God, 
at  this  moment.  I  speak  against  Him." 

Wolff. — "  You  are  punished  at  this  moment,  for  your  con 
science — (I  know  it) — reproves  you,  while  you  are  blaspheming 
the  Lord." 

Gronniet. — "  There  is  no  such  thing  as  blasphemy." 

Wolff. — "  You  are  a  blasphemer." 

Gronniet. — "  There  are  many  great  men  who  did  not  be 

Wolff. — "  Yes  ;  all  those  who  wish  to  continue  an  immoral 
life.  But  truly  great  men,  such  as  Sir  Isaac  Newton,  Hugo 
Grotius,  and  Leibnitz,  have  been  believers." 

Gronniet. — "  I  will  come  again,  and  bring  the  books  of 
Volney  and  Voltaire  with  me." 

Wolff.—"  I  shall  be  very  Mad*" 

106  Travels  and  Adventures 

Mr.  Sheridan  Wilson,  Minister  of  the  Independent  denomi 
nation,  and  missionary  of  the  London  Missionary  Society, 
invited  Wolff  to  preach  openly  in  his  chapel,  which  offer  Wolff 

It  was  his  first  attempt  at  public  preaching ;  and  not  only 
he  himself,  but  all  his  friends,  felt  great  anxiety ;  one  espe 
cially,  who  was  a  gentleman  in  every  respect,  by  education, 
learning,  and  conduct — the  medical  officer  of  the  English  regi 
ment  then  there — Dr.  Gaisford  by  name. 

It  will  be  as  well  to  describe  his  appearance.  He  was  always 
dressed  in  regimentals,  as  all  in  the  military  service  are.  lie 
was  exceedingly  good-natured,  six  feet  high,  and  immensely  fat. 

He  said,  "  Mr.  Joseph  Wolff,  I  never  felt  so  attached  to  a 
missionary  in  my  life,  as  I  do  to  you.  I  very  ardently  desire 
that  you  should  acquit  yourself,  in  your  first  attempt  at  public 
preaching,  with  eclat.  You  must,  therefore,  Avrite  your  sermon 
to-day"  (this  was  on  a  Monday),  "and  I  shall  come  twice 
every  day  to  hear  you  recite  it." 

All  the  other  friends  of  Wolff'  were  extremely  amused  with 
the  interest  Dr.  Gaisford  took  in  the  young  missionary,  whom 
he  declared  to  be  amiable  in  the  extreme ;  and  they  said  they 
also  must  be  present  to  see  how  old  Gaisford  drilled  Joseph 

They  all  accordingly  came,  ladies  as  wrell  as  gentlemen,  and 
were  seated  in  Dr.  Naudis's  large  room  ;  when  at  last,  old,  tall, 
flit  Dr.  Gaisford  entered,  and  said  to  Wolff,  "  Now,  first  of  all, 
imagine  here  is  the  pulpit :  you  must  mount  it  in  a  grave  way, 
put  the  handkerchief  on  the  pulpit  cushion,  and,  when  you  find 
yourself  a  little  exhausted,  you  can  take  it  up  and  wipe  your 
forehead  with  it.  Every  word  must  be  pronounced  distinctly  ; 
and  with  emphasis,  where  emphasis  is  required  ;  clearly  and 
slowly.  Now  begin — let  us  hear  !" 

So  saying,  he  seated  himself  at  a  little  distance,  and  bent  his 
head  in  an  attitude  of  close  attention  :  and  when  he  thought 
that  Wolff"  had  failed  in  giving  proper  emphasis,  he  got  up  and 
corrected  him,  walking  towards  him  in  a  military  manner. 

However,  on  the  Thursday  he  said,  "  I  see  I  shall  be  able 
•safely  to  advise  all  my  friends  to  come  to  your  preaching,  also 
the  Roman  Catholics  who  understand  English.  I3ut  on  Satur 
day  I  shall  inspect  you  again."  Which  he  accordingly  did, 
and  then  said,  "  Now  I  am  satisfied.  I  see  that  we  may  all 

On  the  Sunday  following,  Wolff  had  an  immense  congrega 
tion,  and  acquitted  himself  a  mer^eiUe,  as  Gaisford  himself  ex 
pressed  it  to  all  the  people  as  they  came  out.  "However/' 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  107 

said  he,  "  it  is  no  wonder  !  I  have  taken  considerable  trouble 
with  him,  and  he  will  turn  out  a  good  missionary."  Then 
turning  to  Wolff,  he  remarked,  "  Now  I  shall  have  something 
to  say  to  the  Jews  for  having  treated  you  so  rudely."  So  he 
went  to  the  synagogue,  and  called  them  a  set  of  ragamuffins, 
not  fit  to  breathe  "the  air,  for  having  treated  so  ill  an  amiable 
and  talented  man,  who  they  ought  to  have  known  was  his 
friend  ! 

The  poor  Jews  were  frightened  to  death,  and  were  apprehen 
sive  that  great  tribulation  would  fall  upon  the  holy  congrega 
tion  of  Israel  for  their  misbehaviour.  But  Wolff  conversed 
with  a  few  of  them,  and  they  were  a  little  conciliated.  That 
excellent  man,  Gaisford,  died  in  1823,  of  dropsy. 

Wolff  remained  for  some  time  longer  in  Malta,  and  made 
many  acquaintances  in  the  house  of  Charles  Henry  Smith, 
Superintendent  of  the  Dockyard.  He  was  introduced  also  to 
several  interesting  characters,  two  of  whom  are  well  worthy  of 
being  noticed.  The  one  was  Professor  Rossetti,  who  wrote 
the  remarkable  commentary  upon  Dante  Alighieri,  in  which  he 
tries  to  prove  that  Dante  was  a  Carbonari.  His  commentary 
is  fanciful,  but  Wolff  was  charmed  with  Eossctti  himself;  nor 
can  he  ever  forget  his  terrible  recitation  of  the  death  of  Ugolino 
and  his  children  in  the  Tower,  and  how  he  gnawed  at  the  head 
of  his  enemy  in  hell.  Rossetti  extemporized  a  most  wonderful 
poem,  describing  the  cruelty  of  Archbishop  Ruggieri.  He 
was  evidently  acquainted  with  all  the  scholastic  writers  of  his 
church . 

By  the  side  of  this  scholar  used  often  to  sit  a  hero,,  General 
Carascosa,  who  had  fled  from  Naples  ;  and  both  these  men  took 
the  deepest  interest  in  Wolff,  and  said,  "  Wolff,  your  amiable 
conduct  will  carry  you  through  the  world.*" 

Nevertheless,  Rossetti  advised  him  not  to  go  to  Alexandria 
as  he  had  purposed,  because  the  war  with  the  Greeks  had  just 
broken  out.  But  he  went  notwithstanding,  proceeding  in  a 
Maltese  ship  ;  and,  on  his  arrival,  found  the  town  exactly  as  it 
is  described  by  Volney.  The  change  from  European  life  was 
complete  ;  everything  was  now  Eastern.  A  Janissary  came 
on  board  the  ship,  asking  for  letters.  He  was  the  Janissary  of 
the  English  Consul,  Mr.  Lee.  And  there  was  there  also  the 
British  Consul- General  of  Egypt,  who  commonly  resided  at 
Cairo — Henry  Salt,  Esq.,  the  fellow-traveller  of  Lord  Valentia, 
in  Abyssinia ;  a  man  of  deep  learning,  very  skilful  in  reading 
inscriptions,  and  most  eminent  in  drawing — cold  in  manner, 
but  kind  in  heart.  Mr.  Salt  complained  that  the  London 
Society  for  promoting  Christianity  among  the  Jews  had  just 

108  Travels  and  Adventures 

sent  a  most  unfit  missionary  to  Jerusalem,  Melchior  Tschudy 
by  name,  with  his  little  wife  :  a  man  who  was  evidently  a  mere 
speculator.  He  had  already  offered  the  Pasha  to  drill  the 
Arabs  in  military  tactics  in  the  Desert,  provided  he  was  made 
Governor  of  Arabia,  and  Commander-in-Chief  of  the  troops  I 
He  played  the  quack  also,  and  sold  medicine  to  the  ladies,  in 
order  that  they  might  be  blessed  with  children  ;  moreover,  he 
pretended  to  know  witchcraft.  Wolff  wrote  all  this  home,  and 
got  the  fellow  dismissed. 

At  Alexandria  Wolff  met  with  more  success  among  the  Jews 
than  in  Malta.  He  was  first  introduced  to  Dr.  Marpurgo,  the 
Jewish  physician  of  the  Pasha,  who  had  desired  his  acquaint 
ance.  Marpurgo  had  been  for  many  years  in  Egypt,  and 
spoke  Arabic,  Turkish,  French,  Italian,  English,  and  German, 
with  the  greatest  facility.  He  was,  however,  one  of  those 
Jews  who  believe  nothing.  Pie  had  married  a  Jewess  of 
Egypt,  who  certainly  was  not  the  lady  for  him,  as  none  of  the 
Eastern  ladies  can  be,  for  a  well-educated  European.  All  their 
talk  is  about  dress,  and  their  gait  is  that  of  an  elephant ;  and 
Marpurgo's  own  view  about  them  was,  that  they  were  all 
daughters  of  the  devil.  Nevertheless,  his  father-in-law  was  a 
worthy  old  Egyptian  Jew,  with  a  fine  venerable  beard  ;  and 
Marpurgo  used  to  say  to  Wolff,  "  How  I  should  laugh  if  you 
were  to  succeed  in  baptizing  my  father-in-law  f"  Wolff  visited 
him  first  one  evening,  when  he  had  with  him  a  traveller  from 
Prussia,  Dr.  Hemprich,  a  naturalist,  who  was  investigating 
subjects  of  natural  history,  between  Egypt  and  Abyssinia  :  and 
the  two  came  down  upon  Wolff,  and  argued  for  three  hours  on 
religion.  Hemprich  said  at  last,  he  could  not  conceive  that 
anybody  would  go  to  the  East,  and  expose  himself  to  such  an 
unhealthy  climate,  and  to  so  many  dangers,  for  the  missionary 
cause,  unless  he  were  a  fanatic :  but  to  this  Wolff  replied  that 
Hemprich  himself  had  been  sent  out  by  his  Government  to 
acquire  more  knowledge  in  natural  history,  and  found  the  mo 
tive  sufficient.  Was  it  incredible  that  some  should  take  pity 
on  the  degraded  state  of  Jews  and  Muhammadans,  and  desire 
to  give  them  the  knowledge  of  better  things  ?  Marpurgo  then 
remarked,  that,  if  Wolff  would  but  consider  the  conduct  of  the 
several  denominations  of  Christians  in  the  East,  who  were 
ready  to  murder  each  other  before  the  altar,  whilst  Jews  and 
Muhammadans  lived  together  in  perfect  peace,  he  would  no 
longer  wish  to  join  the  Jews  to  such  communions.  To  which 
Wolff  protested  that  his  object  was  to  make  them  acquainted 
with  the  word  of  God,  and  with  their  Saviour  ;  and  then  they 
might  become  a  light  to  enlighten  those  Gentiles,  who  called 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  1.09 

themselves  Christians,  but  were  so  unworthy  of  the  sacred 
name.  The  conversation  was  in  German,  and  was  conducted 
in  the  most  friendly  manner ;  the  disputants  sitting  together 
on  a  sofa  to  talk.  In  conclusion,  they  evidently  left  the  vic 
tory  to  the  missionary,  whom  they  afterwards  introduced  to 
the  rest  of  the  Jews.  Among  others  to  a  rich  one,  Sananas  by 
name,  who  had  two  wives,  for  polygamy  is  allowed  to,  and 
practised  by,  the  Jews  in  the  East.  He  had  a  young  wife  and 
an  old  one  ;  and  at  this  Jew's  house  Wolff  was  surrounded  by 
the  greater  part  of  the  Jewish  community,  to  whom  he  preached 
the  Gospel  in  the  Hebrew  tongue.  He  was  also  invited  to 
dinner  by  Sananas,  and  conversed  with  many  of  the  guests 
upon  the  subject  of  Jesus  being  the  Messiah.  Meantime,  his 
acquaintance  with  Drs.  Marpurgo  and  Hemprich  was  continued 
from  the  first.  They  called  on  him  together  at  the  British 
Consulate,  and  Dr.  Marpurgo  gave  him  an  account  of  a  manu 
script  of  the  Pentateuch,  preserved  in  one  of  the  synagogues  at 
Cairo,  which  was  supposed  to  have  been  written  by  Ezra,  and 
which  was  considered  so  sacred,  that  an  anathema  was  pro 
nounced  by  the  Rabbis  at  Cairo,  against  every  one  who  should 
open  the  door  of  the  chest  wherein  it  was  preserved.  Mar 
purgo  added  that  he  had  intended  to  take  it  out,  but  sickness 
had  prevented  him.  He  also  told  Wolff  of  another  manuscript 
of  the  law  of  Moses  (n"Vin  ")3D)  Sepher  Torah,  preserved  by 
twelve  Jewish  families,  at  a  place  called  Malta  (not  the  island), 
near  Cairo,  which  was  supposed  to  have  been  written  a  thou 
sand  years  before,  and  which  was  said  to  have  performed  many 
miracles.  Many  Jews  from  Cairo,  and  other  places,  performed 
pilgrimages  to  that  Sepher  Torah  ;  and  one  day,  afterwards, 
Wolff  asked  permission  to  see  it,  and  was  allowed  by  the  Jews 
to  do  so,  when  the  worship  in  the  synagogue  was  over,  and 
most  of  the  congregation  had  dispersed.  The  sanctuary  was 
then  opened,  and  the  Torah  taken  out,  and  Wolff  read  in  it ; 
after  which,  he  said,  "  This  Word  ought  to  be  read  day  and 
night,  for  it  is  the  Word  of  God,  which  He  gave  by  Moses 
upon  the  Mount  Sinai,  amidst  thunder  and  lightnings ;  and 
we  ought  to  be  thankful  to  the  Jews  that  they  have  preserved 
this  law,  and  even  counted  the  letters,  in  order  that  we  may  be 
sure  it  is  the  same  Word  which  was  given  to  Moses  upon  the 
holy  Mount."  He  spoke  this — half  in  Italian,  half  in  Hebrew, 
and  sometimes  in  Arabic, — and  all  the  Jews  present  applauded 
his  sentiments. 

But  to  return  to  Marpurgo's  visit  with  Dr.  Hemprich. 
After  speaking  of  these  manuscripts,  it  was  clear  they  wished 
to  talk  more ;  and  a  question  or  two  from  Wolff  soon  brought 

110  Travels  and  Adventures 

on  another  discussion.  He  addressed  himself  to  Dr.  Hem- 
prich,  and  asked, — 

"  What  is  the  chief  object  of  your  travelling-  ?  With  what 
branch  of  knowledge  do  you  intend  to  enrich  our  native  coun 
try,  our  dear  Germany?" 

Hemprich. — "  The  chief  object  of  my  research  is  natural 

Wolff. — "  A  very  important  research.  It  is  worth  while  to 
undertake  labours  and  hardships  in  every  research  which  tends 
to  promote  the  truth.'1 

Hemprich. — "  Quite  true,  especially  as  one  of  our  German 
philosophers  says,  c  Those  sciences  will  always  pay  for  their 
labour  which  are  below  and  nigh  unto  us,  the  physical 
sciences ;  but  the  inquiry  into  metaphysics  always  loses  itself 
in  the  clouds,  and  we  know  as  little  as  before.'" 

Wolff  quite  understood  what  Dr.  Hemprich  meant,  and  was 
now  very  anxious  to  continue  the  discourse,  that  he  might,  by 
God's  blessing,  show  these  men  that  belief  in  Holy  Revelation 
was  not  an  inquiry  in  the  clouds.  He  had  not  now  to  do  with 
ignorant  pretenders,  but  with  men  who  had  studied,  and  were 
skilful  in  argument.  So  he  addressed  Dr.  Hemprich  again  as 
follows  : — 

Wolff'. — "  Where  did  you  study  philosophy  ?" 

Hemprich. — "  At  Breslau." 

Wolff. — "  What  is  the  name  of  the  Professor  at  Breslau, 
who  gives  public  lectures  in  philosophy?" 

Hemprich. — "  Dr.  Stephens." 

Wolff. — "Does  not  Dr.  Stephens  follow  the  system  of 

Hemprich. — u  Yes;  but  I  went  to  hear  him  only  for  amuse 
ment.  It  is  true  ho  is  a  man  of  great  talent,  but  his  lectures 
often  consist  of  nothing  but  mere  bombastical  expressions." 

Wolff. — "  This  is,  alas  !  too  often  the  case  with  teachers  of 
philosophy  in  Germany ;  but  I  should,  notwithstanding  all 
this,  never  wish  to  hear  a  lecture  upon  philosophy,  or  a  lecture 
about  truth,  with  the  mere  view  of  amusing  myself ;  for  if  we 
go  for  our  mere  amusement  only,  we  must  be  already  preju 
diced  and  conceited  •  and  thus  we  are  in  great  danger  of 
remaining  in  darkness,  while  believing  ourselves  to  be  wise." 

Hemprich. — "  I  do  not  say  that,  at  the  first,  I  went  with 
the  intention  of  amusing  myself,  but  I  did  so  afterwards,  when 
I  heard  his  pompous  expressions." 

Wolff. — u  I  know  very  little  of  the  philosophy  of  Schelling, 
but  I  have  read  a  dissertation  of  his  some  years  ago,  entitled, 
'  The  Deity  of  Samothrace,'  in  which  there  is  much  truth, 

of  Dr.  Wolff  111 

although  some  parts  arc  very  obscure.  Count  Stolberg  himself, 
who  did  not  like  the  system  of  Schelling,  acknowledges  the 
excellency  of  that  treatise." 

Hemprich. — "  Count  Stolberg  was  fond  of  mysticism." 

Wolff. — "  I  myself  reject  mysticism,  in  a  certain  sense  ;  but 
that  term  being  often  used  in  different  senses,  I  should  be  glad 
if  you  would  be  so  kind  as  to  tell  me  what  you  understand  by 

Hemprich. — "  I  am  ready  to  lay  before  you  the  profession 
of  my  faith,  that  you  may  understand  what  I  mean  by  the 
word  mysticism.  I  believe  in  the  existence  of  a  Grod  who  has 
created  the  whole  of  Nature,  and  has  given  a  certain  law  by 
which  this  universe  must  be  governed ;  but  He  does  not 
depart  from  that  law  which  He  has  laid  down,  and  I  do  not, 
therefore,  believe  in  the  miracles  related  in  the  Bible." 

Wolff. — "  That  the  Lord  governs  the  world  by  a  certain 
law  which  he  has  laid  down,  concede  majorem ;  that  He  does 
not  depart  from  that  law  without  a  great  design  or  purpose, 
concede  mlnorem  ;  but  that  He  does  not  depart  from  that  cer 
tain  law,  even  for  the  execution  of  a  great  design,  nego 
minor  em  ;  ergo,  conclusio  tua  est  absurda." 

Hemprich. — "  If  He  should  be  obliged  to  alter  that  law,  Ho 
would  not  be  omniscient.  Why  did  He  not  create  all  things 
in  such  a  manner  that  He  never  should  have  need  to  suspend 
the  law  of  Nature?" 

Wolff. — "  You  yourself  must  be  first  omniscient,  to  be  able 
to  decide  what  the  Omniscient  ought  to  do.  Now  it  is  in  his 
law  to  alter  the  usual  way  of  Nature,  for  the  execution  of 
great  purposes ;  but  it  is  very  presumptuous  for  a  creature 
who  knows  so  little  of  the  usual  course  of  Nature  (for  you 
would  not  make  so  many  great  voyages  if  you  already  knew 
all  the  laws  of  Nature) — it  is  very  presumptuous  for  such  a 
creature  to  ask,  Why  did  the  Creator  act  thus,  and  not  thus?" 

Hemprich. — "  The  existence  of  the  supreme  Being — of  the 
Creator — is  proved  by  the  order  which  we  observe  in  tins 
universe.  If  such  an  extraordinary  event  as  a  miracle  should 
take  place,  the  order  of  Nature  would  be  destroyed ;  but  God 
cannot  be  the  author  of  disorder !  " 

Wolff.—"  We  cannot  call  it  disorder,  if  the  Maker  of  the 
world  gives  an  extraordinary,  turn  to  Nature  which  is  beyond 
what  we  can  conceive ;  we  have  seen  many  phenomena  in 
Nature  which  we  have  not  yet  been  able  to  explain,  and 
certainly  nobody  will  say,  on  that  account,  that  such  phe 
nomena  are  disorder"* 

*  Monsieur  Ratisbonne,  the  famous  converted  Jew,  who  wrote  the 

112  Travels  and  Adventures 

Here  Marpurgo  turned  the  conversation  in  another  di 
rection,  by  asking,  Why,  if  God  is  omniscient,  He  created 
men,  of  whom  He  knew  that  He  must  root  them  out  again  by 
means  of  a  deluge  ? 

Wolff. — "He  is  omniscient ;  He  knows  therefore,  why  He 
did  create  them.  I  myself,  who  am  not  omniscient,  do  not 
pretend  to  know  the  reason." 

Hemprich. — "  According  to  your  system,  we  are  obliged 
to  believe  all  the  miracles  which  the  Hindoos  and  Pagans 

Wolff. — "  No ;  we  must  take  into  consideration  the  ten 
dency  of  these  miracles.  The  tendency  of  the  miracles  re 
lated  in  the  Old  Testament  was  to  show  that  God  would  re 
deem  his  people  Israel  out  of  the  bondage  of  Egypt,  and  that 
God — Jehovah  alone — must  be  adored.  The  tendency  of  the 
miracles  related  in  the  New  Testament,  was  to  persuade  men 
that  Jesus  was  the  Saviour  of  the  world,  who  should  recon 
cile  us  again  with  our  heavenly  Father, — an  undertaking,  the 
truth  of  which,  according  to  the  promise  of  it,  was  well  worthy 
of  being  proved  by  extraordinary  circumstances,  to  make  it 
manifest  that  He  it  is  who  takes  away  the  sins  of  the  world." 
.Hemprich. — "According  to  your  belief,  sin  cannot  exist, 
for  you  admit  the  Divine  influence  in  everything ;  and  God 
cannot  be  the  author  of  sin.  Who  is  the  author  of  sin  !  " 

Life  of  St.  Bernard,  gives  the  most  sublime  view  of  miracles,  the  most 
exalted  idea  of  the  condition  of  man  before  the  Fall,  and  the  most 
glorious  glimpse  of  what  he  shall  be  hereafter,  in  the  following  passage  : 
— "Miracles  are  the  most  striking  proofs  of  the  restoration  of  man  to 
his  primitive  rights  ;  they  recall  the  power  which,  in  the  beginning,  he 
received  to  rule  over  nature,  and  to  command  it,  in  the  name  of  its 
Creator.  That  power,  that  high  prerogative,  may  be  regained  by  every 
man ;  for  all,  in  virtue  of  the  Creative  Word,  bear  within  themselves 
the  force  which  subdues  the  elements,  rules  over  creatures,  and  com 
mands  the  earth.  But  this  force  is  latent,  degenerate,  in  chains;  and 
the  noble  chief  of  creation,  the  uncrowned  king  of  this  world,  has,  by 
the  original  catastrophe,  fallen  to  the  level  of  the  creatures  whom  he 
was  called  to  govern  :  and  even  to  depending  on  those  whom  it  was  his 
mission  to  free.  Hence,  as  says  St.  Paul,  the  groanings  of  all  terrestrial 
things,  who  sigh  after  their  deliverance,  and  wait  for  the  manifestation 
of  the  children  of  God  :  hence,  the  laborious  work  of  liberation  and  of 
purification  which  man  has  to  accomplish  on  this  earth  ;  and  in  pro 
portion  as  he  raises  himself,  and  is  restored  to  harmony  with  his  eternal 
principle,  in  the  same  proportion  he  recovers,  with  the  gifts  of  God,  his 
glorious  prerogatives ;  and  participates  once  again,  in  the  mighty  power 
of  God."  (James  iii,  7.) 

of  Dr.  Wolf,  113 

Wolff1. — "  Thus  you  see  the  necessity  of  sacred  history. 
All  men  are  under  the  government  of  God.  Men  should, 
therefore,  be  supposed  to  be  good ;  but  I  feel  in  my  heart 
a  will  rebelling  against  the  Divine  will.  Whence  does  it 
come,  0  Lord,  that  all  my  imaginations  are  so  evil  every  day, 
that  I  rebel  against  the  law  of  God  I  Those  who  worship  two 
principles  fall  into  the  most  monstrous  absurdities.  Where 
can  I  find  the  origin  of  my  depraved  nature  satisfactorily  ex 
plained  ?  I  answer,  I  open  the  Book  of  books,  and  therein  I 
meet  with  the  following  words  :  '  God  created  man  in  his  own 
image  \  in  the  image  of  God  created  He  him.  And  the  Lord 
God  commanded  the  man,  saying,  Of  every  tree  of  the  garden 
thou  mayest  freely  eat,  but  of  the  tree  of  knowledge  of  good 
and  evil  thou  shalt  not  eat  of  it,  for  in  the  day  that  thou 
eatest  thereof,  thou  shalt  surely  die/  Eve,  by  the  serpent's 
device,  '  took  of  the  fruit  thereof,  and  did  eat,  and  gave  unto 
her  husband,  and  he  did  eat ;  and  then  they  knew  that  they 
were  naked;'  and  hence  came  sin  into  the  world,  of  which 
God  is  not  the  author,  but  only  man's  weakness.  But, 
thanks  be  unto  the  Lord,  He  left  us  not  in  despair  ;  He  has 
promised  that  *  the  seed  of  the  woman  shall  bruise  the  ser 
pent's  heel/ — even  Christ  Jesus,  who  reconciles  us  again  with 
God,  through  his  death.'" 

On  hearing  this,  Marpurgo  made  the  remarkable  obser 
vation  : — 

"  But  the  Hindoos  have  almost  the  same  tradition." 

To  which  Wolff  replied, — 

"  Which  proves  that  this  important  occurrence  actually  took 
place,  or  the  tradition  could  not  be  so  universal." 

Marpurgo  now  complimented  Wolff  upon  his  knowledge  of 
Hebrew,  and  Wolff  expressed  a  wish  to  read  the  fifty-third 
chapter  of  Isaiah  with  him,  which  they  subsequently  did  ;  and 
Marpurgo  showed  Wolff  his  library,  and  pointing  to  a  copy  of 
Seneca,  observed,  "Seneca  is  my  daily  prayer-book/'  Wolff 
afterwards  heard  that  Dr.  Marpurgo  had  spoken  of  him  with 
the  greatest  regard. 

Marpurgo  died  in  two  or  three  years  ;  and  as  his  mother- 
in-law  told  Wolff,  slapping  her  hands  together  at  each  state 
ment,  u  We  cried,  we  howled,  we  wept,"  (sarakhna,  aayadna, 
bakeena^)  "  as  is  customary  among  us,  but  when  we  looked  for 
the  money,  there  was  none  !" 

With  Mr.  Salt  Wolff  conversed  about  the  mighty  enter 
prises  of  the  Romish  Propaganda  in  Abyssinia ;  and  of  the 
wisdom  of  Father  Payse,  who  instructed  the  youth  of  that 
country  ;  and  then  allowed  them  to  argue  with  the  old  Abyssi- 


114  Travels  and  Adventures 

nian  priests,  in  order  to  prove  to  them  the  superiority  of  Euro 
pean  learning  over  the  learning  of  the  Abyssinians  in  general.* 

While  at  Alexandria,  Wolff  performed  Divine  service,  in 
the  English  language,  in  the  British  Consulate,  in  the  presence 
of  all  the  English  subjects ;  and  he  visited  there  also  the 
Eastern  Christians,  giving  away  Bibles  to  all,  without  money 
and  without  price.  He  preached,  moreover,  to  the  Italians  ; 
but  when  Salt  rode  out  with  him  to  show  him  the  monuments 
of  the  Jewish  Cemetery,  he  found  but  little  interest  in  them, 
never  scarcely  caring  for  anything,  except  to  see  men  of  dif 
ferent  races  and  characters.  Indeed,  he  was  six  times  in  Cairo 
before  he  saw  Pompey's  Pillar,  or  took  any  notice  of  it.  One 
day,  an  old  Polish  Jew,  seventy  years  of  age  at  least,  of  a  tall 
stature,  and  with  a  white  beard,  called  at  the  Consulate,  bring 
ing  with  him  his  Bible,  and  the  Commentary  of  Rabbi  Solomon 
Isaac  ;  and  with  him  Wolff  was  really  delighted.  Nor  can  he 
forget  to  this  day  the  impression  which  this  man  made  upon 
him  ;  for  he  was  in  appearance  like  Abraham  of  old  times,  and 
had  left  his  country  in  order  to  spend  the  remainder  of  his  days 
in  Jerusalem,  and  there  await  the  arrival  of  the  Messiah. 

Wolff  began  by  asking  him  to  write  down  his  name  upon  a 
piece  of  paper  which  he  gave  him ;  and  the  old  man,  after  say 
ing  that  he  felt  honoured  that  such  a  great  man  should  show 
him  so  much  attention,  wrote  as  follows,  in  Jewish-German 
characters :  "  Yehiel,  the  son  of  Feibish,  from  the  land  of 
Russia,  from  the  Government  of  Mohilev,  from  the  city  of 
Sklov.  He  resides  now  at  Jerusalem,  waiting  for  the  coming 
of  the  Messiah." 

Yehiel  then  told  Wolff  he  had  heard  that  a  Jew  who  had 
been  converted,  was  going  to  Jerusalem  to  prove  that  the 
Messiah  was  come.  Wolff  answered,  "  I  am  going  to  Jeru 
salem  !"  Yehiel  replied,  "  Sir,  none  will  be  converted;  for  we 
have  been  scattered  now  for  more  than  1,700  years  among  all 
nations  ;  persecuted  and  despised ;  our  holy  city  destroyed, 
and  the  1,700  years  have  been  passed  in  constant  and  con 
tinual  endeavour  by  the  Gentiles,  to  persuade  us  that  Jesus 
was  the  Messiah;  but,  at  the  end  of  the  1,700  years,  we  dis 
believe  it  still !"  He  added,  "  Centuries  and  centuries  have 
passed,  since  Christians  have  tried  to  convert  us,  by  pouring  out 
our  blood,  and  by  persecuting  us.  And  centuries  and  cen- 

*  Archdeacon  Mackenzie,  who  is  now  going  to  Africa,  ought  to  make 
search  in  those  places,  whither  Father  Lobo  went,  and  where  he  left 
marks  of  his  labours.  Also,  he  ought  to  look  after  the  Roman  Catholic 
Christians  in  Ganga,  and  to  study  Hitter's  Geography. 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  115 

turies  have  passed,  and  yet  we  stand  a  people  separated  from 
the  nations,  and  exclaim  every  day,  '  Hear,  Israel,  the  Lord 
our  God  is  one  Lord.' r 

Good,  mistaken,  old  man,  upon  Wolff's  speaking  to  him  of 
the  signs  and  miracles  of  our  blessed  Lord,  he  said,  "  Yes,, 
Jesus  performed  wonders  and  signs,  but  remember  the  words 
of  Moses — the  peace  of  God  be  upon  him  ! — in  Deuteronomy 
xiii.  1st  to  part  of  5th  verse,  '  If  there  arise  among  you  a 
prophet,  or  a  dreamer  of  dreams,  and  giveth  thee  a  sign  or  a 
wonder,  and  the  sign  or  the  wonder  come  to  pass,  whereof  he 
spake  unto  thee,  saying,  Let  us  go  after  other  gods,  which  thou 
hast  not  known,  and  let  us  serve  them  ;  thou  shalt  not  hearken 
unto  the  words  of  that  prophet,  or  that  dreamer  of  dreams : 
for  the  Lord  your  God  proveth  you,  to  know  whether  ye  love 
the  Lord  your  God  with  all  your  heart  and  with  all  your  soul. 
Ye  shall  walk  after  the  Lord  your  God,  and  fear  him,  and  keep 
his  commandments,  and  obey  his  voice,  and  ye  shall  serve  him, 
and  cleave  unto  him.  And  that  prophet,  or  that  dreamer  of 
dreams,  shall  be  put  to  death ;  because  he  hath  spoken  to  turn 
you  away  from  the  Lord  your  God."  "  &c.  Here  he  wept 
awhile,  but  then  continued,  "  Jesus  of  Nazareth  came  and 
performed  wonders  and  signs,  and  said  unto  our  ancestors^ 
4  Let  us  go  after  three  Gods  whom  our  fathers  knew  not ;'  and 
therefore  He  was  put  to  death  by  our  forefathers  justly,  with 
all  his  wonders  and  signs."  He  said  this  with  the  greatest 
animation,  and  Wolff  then,  in  order  to  prove  to  him  that  Christ 
never  advised  any  such  thing  as  the  worship  of  three  Gods, 
told  him  that  Jesus  had  taught  his  disciples  to  address  them 
selves  in  prayer  to  Jehovah  as  "  Our  Father,  which  art  in 
heaven  ;  Hallowed  be  (not  the  name  of  other  gods,  but)  Thy 
name ;  Thy  kingdom  come."  And  he  also  showed  him  the 
passage  in  Matthew,  where  it  is  said,  "  Think  not  that  I  am 
come  to  destroy  the  law,  or  the  prophets  ;  I  am  not  come  to 
destroy,  but  to  fulfil."  After  further  conversation  Yehiel  left 
him,  promising  to  call  again. 

Wolff  was  introduced  by  Salt  to  an  American  gentleman,  a 
captain  in  the  navy  of  the  United  States  of  North  America, 
who  had  become  Muhammadan  from  conviction,  Mr.  George 
Bethel  English  by  name,  but  who  now  called  himself  "  Mu 
hammad  Effendi,"  and  with  him  he  determined  to  travel  to 
Cairo.  They  set  out  in  a  boat  accordingly,  and  travelled 
together  from  Alexandria  to  Cairo  ;  and  the  first  day  had  an 
argument  which  lasted  fourteen  hours  uninterruptedly  !  Mr. 
English,  cold  in  his  manner,  smoked  negligently  at  the  same 
time  ;but  Wolff  neither  ate,  drank,  nor  smoked,  but  was  in  a 


116  Travels  and  Adventures 

continual  fire  throughout.  At  the  end  of  their  conversation, 
English  burst  into  tears,  and  said,  "  Wolft',  you  have  done  two 
things ;  you  have  totally  undeceived  me  in  one  respect,  for, 
before  I  saw  you,  I  never  thought  that  it  was  possible  that  a 
•  Jew  could  be  such  a  firm  believer  in  the  divinity  of  Jesus 
Christ.  Secondly,  I  now  see  more  than  ever  I  did  that  the 
Christian  religion  is  a  religion  of  the  heart ;  and,  though  you 
have  not  solved  all  my  difficulties,  yet  you  have  done  one  thing, 
you  have  spoken  to  my  heart.  I  have  ceased  to  be  a  Muham 
madan,  and  you  may  tell  Mr,  Salt  and  Mr.  Lee  that  you  have 
spoken  to  my  heart."  An  Albanian  Muhammadan  was  also 
in  the  boat,  and  Wolff  attempted  to  speak  to  him;  but  the 
fanatic  only  replied,  "  Allah,  Ilia,  Allah,  Oo-Muhaminad 
Arrasool  Ollah  ;"  "  God,  but  God  and  Muhammad,  the  pro 
phet  of  God  ;"  and  he  threatened  to  throw  his  Christian  inter 
rogator  into  the  Nile.  Mr.  English  told  Wolff  that  he  had 
been  made  a  Muhammadan  by  reading  Eichorn's  Commentaries 
on  the  Bible  ;  Bishop  Marsh's  translation  of  Michaelis  ;  and 
Warburton  on  the  discrepancies  of  Scripture. 

Thus  Wolff  arrived,  peaceably  and  quietly,  with  his  Ameri 
can  companion  at  Cairo,  or  properly  Caheirah- Almeser,  "Egypt 
the  Exalted ;"  and,  by  Mr.  Salt's  orders,  his  Chancellor,  San- 
tini,  an  Italian,  assigned  a  room  to  Wolff  in  the  British  Con 
sulate.  But  Santini  was  not  a  nice  man  ;  he  cheated  Wolff  by 
making  him  believe  that  the  best  present  one  can  give  to  a 
Bedouin  chief  is  a  small  bottle  of  castor-oil ;  so  Wolff  bought 
from  him  some  hundred  bottles  for  ^10,  which  made  all  the 
English  people  laugh  from  Cairo  to  England  \  and  Wolff  heard 
of  it  from  Henry  Drummond,  on  his  arrival  at  home,  years 
after  ;  who  said  to  him,  "  How  could  you  be  such  an  ass  as  to 
be  taken  in  with  castor-oil?  You  ought  to  have  told  him  that 
you  would  give  him  £10  if  he  would  drink  it  himself." 

But  Wolff  was  fully  indemnified  for  the  trick  which  had 
been  played  upon  him,  by  forming  the  acquaintance  here  of 
both  Captain  Caviglia,  and  with  Mr,,  now  Sir  Gardiner, 

Caviglia  was  an  Italian,  a  Genoese,  captain  of  a  merchant 
vessel.  His  ship  was  wrecked  on  one  of  the  shores  of  Greece, 
but  he  was  saved  in  a  providential,  almost  miraculous,  manner. 
Then  he  said  to  himself,  "  Now  I  will  devote  my  life  to  the 
investigation  of  nature,  the  works  of  God,  and  to  the  study  of 
antiquity."  Whereupon,  he  went  to  Egypt,  and  spent  the 
greater  part  of  his  days  in  the  Pyramids ;  and  found  most 
mighty  monuments  of  ancient  time,  which  he  sent,  under  the 
protection  of  Mr.  Salt,  to  the  British  Museum.  His  great 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  117 

study,  however,  was  the  Bible,  especially  the  Old  Testament. 
He  compared  the  contents  of  it  with  the  existing  monuments 
in  the  Pyramids  of  Egypt,  and  with  the  ancient  history  of 
that  country ;  and  came  to  the  conclusion  that  the  Pyramids 
of  Egypt  had  not  been  the  sepulchres  of  ancient  kings,  but 
colleges  in  which  freemasonry  was  taught  and  practised  ;  in 
fact,  that  they  had  been  lodges  for  freemasons  and  ancient 
mysteries.  His  grand  books,  after  the  Bible,  were  the 
u  Mysterium  Magnum "  of  Jacob  Bohme,  and  St.  Martin. 
He  believed  that  angels  have  bodies;  and,  with  Tertullian, 
that  the  soul  is  a  body.  He  one  day  sat  down  and  wrote 
against  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  but  retracted  everything 
that  he  wrote  a  short  time  after.  With  regard  to  science  and 
theology  he  said,  the  system  of  reserve  must  be  used.  The 
deacon  is  not  allowed  to  speak  as  much  on  religion  as  the 
priest ;  and  the  priest  not  so  much  as  the  bishop ;  nor  the 
bishop  as  much  as  the  archbishop  ;  and  the  archbishop  not  as 
much  as  the  pope. 

When  Wolff  asked  him  the  reason  of  all  this,  his  reply  was 
simply  (after  looking  first  around  him,  as  if  he  was  watched 
by  an  unseen  spirit),  "  In  the  temple  of  Solyman  were  two 
pillars,  the  name  of  the  one  was  Jachin,  and  Boaz  was  the 
name  of  the  other."  When  Wolff  asked  him  to  explain,  he 
merely  replied,  "  Piu  non  vi  posso  dire"  (more  I  cannot  tell 
you).  Wolff  at  that  time  thought  that  all  this  was  absurdity, 
and  told  Caviglia  so,  which  made  him  remain  a  long  time 
away,  to  Wolff's  great  regret  and  sorrow,  that  he  had  been 
so  severe  in  his  ridicule. 

But  now  Wolff  understands  the  whole  reason  for  this  mys 
tical  answer,  and  Caviglia  was  quite  right  not  to  tell  it.  And, 
though  Wolff  knows  now  what  prevented  Caviglia  from  speak 
ing  more  plainly,  he  can  himself  only  repeat  to  the  reader  the 
same  words — Piu  non  m  posso  dire.  Once  Wolff  asked  his 
friend  how  old  he  was  ?  Caviglia  replied,  "  Four  times  fifteen." 
When  Wolff  asked  why  he  replied  in  this  way,  he  answered, 
"  Piu  non  vi  posso  dire."  And  so  Wolff  must  again  say  to 
the  reader,  although  he  knows  the  reason  for  that  reply — Piu 
non  m  posso  dire  !  Caviglia  also  one  day  asked  Wolff  where 
he  came  from,  and  whither  he  was  going  ?  Wolff  said  he 
came  from  England,  and  was  going  to  Jerusalem.  Caviglia 
said  it  was  not  the  answer  he  expected.  Wolff  asked,  what 
answer  then  must  he  give?  Caviglia  replied,  this  he  must 
find  out ;  and  he  has  since  found  out  the  expected  answer,  but 
cannot  tell  it  to  others  ! 

As  to  Mr.,  now  Sir  Gardiner,  Wilkinson,  no  description  of 

118  Travels  and  Adventures 

him  is  required.  His  writings  on  the  "  Manners  and  Customs 
of  the  Ancient  Egyptians,"  and  his  gigantic  lahours  in  Upper 
Egypt,  are  too  well  known  to  the  world.  Wolff  may  only 
observe  that  he  is  in  every  respect  a  most  excellent,  amiable, 
and  highly-principled  gentleman. 

Now  for  something  about  magic ;  for,  although  the  event 
about  to  be  recorded  happened  after  Wolff's  second  journey 
into  Egypt,  he  will  give  it  in  this  place.  Wolff  was  asked 
whether  he  believed  in  magic ;  to  which  he  replied  that  he 
believed  everything  that  is  found  in  the  Bible ;  and  even, 
though  all  the  philosophers  should  ridicule  him,  he  boldly 
repeats  that  he  believes  everything  in  the  Bible;  and  the 
existence  of  witches  and  wizards  is  to  be  found  there,  of  whom, 
doubtless,  the  Devil  is  the  originator ;  and  Wolff  believes  that 
there  are  spirits  in  the  air,  for  the  Apostle  tells  us  so ;  and 
Wolff  believes  also  that  the  Devil  has  access,  even  now,  into 
Heaven,  to  calumniate  man,  for  so  we  read  in  the  Book  of 
Job,  and  in  the  12th  chapter  of  the  Apocalypse.  However, 
with  regard  to  witchcraft,  he  has  seen  it  with  his  own  eyes, 
and  here  he  tells  the  story. 

He  was  sitting  one  day  at  the  table  of  Mr.  Salt,  dining  with 
him.  The  guests  who  were  invited  were  as  follows  :  Bokhti, 
the  Swedish  Consul- General,  a  nasty  atheist  and  infidel ; 
Major  Ross,  of  Eosstrevor,  in  Ireland,  a  gentleman  in  every 
respect,  and  highly  principled  ;  Spurrier,  a  nice  English  gen 
tleman  ;  Wolff  himself;  and  Caviglia,  who  was  the  only 
believer  in  magic  there.  Salt  began  to  say  (his  face  leaning 
on  his  hand),  "  I  wish  to  know  who  has  stolen  a  dozen  of  my 
silver  spoons,  a  dozen  forks,  and  a  dozen  knives."  Caviglia 
said,  "  If  you  want  to  know,  you  must  send  for  the  magician." 
Salt  laughed,  and  so  did  they  all,  when  Salt  suddenly  said, 
"  Well,  we  must  gratify  Caviglia."  He  then  called  out  for 
Osman,  a  renegade  Scotchman,  who  was  employed  in  the 
British  Consulate  as  janissary  and  cicerone  for  travellers. 
Osman  came  into  the  room,  and  Salt  ordered  him  to  go  and 
fetch  the  magician.  The  magician  came,  with  fiery  sparkling- 
eyes  and  long  hair,  and  Salt  stated  to  him  the  case,  on  which 
he  said,  "  I  shall  come  again  to-morrow  at  noon,  before  which 
time  you  must  either  have  procured  a  woman  with  child,  or  a 
boy  seven  years  of  age  ;  either  of  whom  will  tell  who  has  been 
the  thief."  Bokhti,  the  scoffing  infidel,  whom  Salt  never 
introduced  to  Wolff,  for  fear  he  should  make  a  quarrel  betwixt 
them,  said,  "  I  am  determined  to  unmask  imposture,  and, 
therefore,  I  shall  bring  to-morrow  a  boy  who  is  not  quite  seven 
years  of  age,  and  who  came  a  week  ago  from  Leghorn.  He 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  119 

has  not  stirred  out  of  my  house,  nor  does  he  know  anybody, 
nor  is  he  known  to  anybody,  and  he  does  not  speak  Arabic ; 
him  I  will  bring  with  me  for  the  magician." 

The  boy  came  at  the  time  appointed,  and  all  the  party  were 
again  present,  when  the  magician  entered  with  a  large  pan  in 
his  hand,  into  which  he  poured  some  black  colour,  and  mum 
bled  some  unintelligible  words ;  and  then  he  said  to  the  boy, 
"  Stretch  out  your  hands."  He  said  this  in  Arabic,  which 
the  boy  did  not  understand.  But  Wolff  interpreted  wha  tthe 
magician  had  said,  and  then  the  boy  stretched  out  his  hand 
flat,  when  the  magician  put  some  of  the  black  colour  upon  his 
palm,  and  said  to  him,  "  Do  you  see  something?"  which  was 
interpreted  to  the  lad.  The  boy  coolly,  in  his  Italian  manner, 
shrugged  his  shoulders,  and  replied,  "  Vedo  niente"  (I  see 
nothing).  Again  the  magician  poured  the  coloured  liquid  into 
his  hand,  and  mumbled  some  words,  and  asked  the  boy  again, 
"Do  you  see  something?"  and  the  boy  said  the  second  time, 
"  I  see  nothing."  Then  the  magician  poured  the  colour  into 
his  hand  the  third  time,  and  inquired,  "  Do  you  see  something?" 
on  which  the  boy  suddenly  exclaimed,  and  it  made  every 
one  of  us  turn  pale  and  tremble  in  both  knees,  as  if  we  were 
paralyzed,  "  lo  vedo  un  uomo  /"  (I  see  a  man).  The  fourth 
time  the  stuff  was  poured  into  his  hand,  when  the  boy  loudly 
screamed  out,  "  lo  vedo  un  uomo  con  un  capello"  (I  see  a  man 
with  a  hat,)  and,  in  short,  after  a  dozen  times  of  inquiry,  he 
described  the  man  so  minutely,  that  all  present  exclaimed, 
"Santini  is  the  thief!"  And  when  Santini's  room  was 
searched,  the  silver  spoons,  &c.,  were  found. 

Wolff  must  remark  that  no  one,  except  the  boy,  could  see 
anything ;  all  the  other  witnesses  only  saw  the  colour  which 
the  magician  poured. 

However,  here  is  another  story  in  which  imposture  was 
practised,  but  not  by  that  magician,  but  by  Osman,  Mr.  Salt's 
janissary.  Osman  also  pretended  to  know  magic,  and  was 
called  to  a  house  where  a  theft  had  been  committed.  He  sus 
pected  a  certain  person,  who  was  present,  of  being  the  thief. 
He  took  a  pan,  and,  after  he  had  mumbled  some  words  in  the 
pan,  he  said,  with  a  loud  voice,  "  If  the  thief  does  not  send 
back  to  a  certain  spot  the  thing  which  he  has  stolen,  this 
night,  at  a  certain  hour,  the  devil  will  take  his  soul  out  of  his 
body,  and  tear  it  into  a  thousand  pieces."  Whereupon  the 
thief,  who  stood  by,  was  so  frightened  at  the  prospect  of  such 
an  end,  that  he  brought  back  the  stolen  property  at  the  hour 

It  would  be  wrong  to  pass  over  in  silence  another  traveller, 

120  Travels  and  Adventures 

Burckhardt  by  name,  from  Switzerland,  who  assumed  the 
name  of  Sheikh  Ibrahim,  and  travelled  as  a  Muhammadan,  in 
order  to  be  able  to  go  to  Mecca.  He  once  called  on  Muham 
mad  Ali,  the  Pasha  of  Egypt.  Muhammad  AH  asked  him 
where  he  was  going  ?  He  replied,  "  I  am  going  to  Mecca,  to 
perform  my  devotion  to  the  Kaaba  of  the  Prophet,  the  comfort 
of  God,  and  peace  upon  him  ! "  Muhammad  Ali  said,  "  I  ask 
you  one  favour,  and  will  give  you  every  assistance  in  my 
power  to  reach  Mecca  safely.  Whenever  you  write  your  book, 
don't  say  that  you  made  me  believe  that  you  were  a  Muham 
madan,  for  I  know  that  you  are  not/' 

Wolff  would  here  make  a  remark  upon  the  point  of  Euro 
peans  travelling  as  though  they  were  Muhainmadans ;  and 
trying  to  make  people  believe  that  they  have  not  been  known 
as  Europeans.  They  are  always  known,  and  the  fact  is,  that 
there  is  no  necessity  for  any  one  to  go  incognito ;  for,  the 
moment  one  says,  "  God  is  God,  and  Muhammad  is  the  pro 
phet  of  God,"  one  is  a  Muhammaden,  ex  ipso  facto.  There  is 
no  need  to  deny  that  one  has  been  a  Jew  or  a  Christian  before; 
and  the  only  thing  travellers  do,  by  trying  to  make  people 
believe  that  they  were  not  discovered  to  be  Europeans,  is,  that 
they  lie  in  addition  to  the  sin  of  apostacy  and  hypocrisy.  We 
have  now  to  treat  of  the  character  of  Muhammad  Ali,  and  of 
the  Europeans  in  general,  whom  Wolff  met  in  Egypt. 

Muhammad  Ali  was  a  janissary  of  the  English  Consul,  Mr. 
Chasseaud,  at  Cabala,  the  native  place  of  Muhammad  Ali, 
where  he  was  born  in  1768,  the  same  year  which  gave  birth  to 
Napoleon  and  the  Duke  of  Wellington.  He  went  as  a  soldier 
of  fortune  to  Egypt,  in  order  that  if  Kismat — i.e.  "  Fate" — 
granted  it.  he  might  become  Pasha,  He  soon  distinguished 
himself  as  a  soldier ;  and,  with  the  assistance  of  the  Mam- 
looks,  he  became  at  last  Pasha  of  Egypt. 

But  the  Mamlooks,  that  dangerous  body,  who  elected  and 
deposed  Pashas  just  as  they  pleased,  were  a  thorn  in  his  eye. 
So  he  invited  them  to  dinner  in  the  great  castle  in  Cairo, 
called  Yussuf-Kalah,  Castle  of  Joseph  (not  from  Joseph  the 
Patriarch,  but  from  Joseph,  one  of  the  Khalifs  of  Arabia),  and 
received  them  at  the  top  of  the  castle.  But  while  they  were 
seated  at  table,  he  gave  a  hint  to  the  artillery,  who  fired  upon 
them,  and  out  of  700  Mamlooks,  699  were  killed ;  and  the  one 
who  escaped,  mounted  his  horse,  and  leaped  down  from  the 
height  of  the  castle.  The  horse  was  killed,  but  the  rider  was 

Ibrahim  Pasha,  his  tiger  son,  finished  the  work,  by  exter 
minating  all  the  Mamlooks  in  the  country,  Muhammud  AH, 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  121 

soon  after,  subdued  the  Wahabites,  and  took  Mecca  from  their 
hands.  He  then  entirely  enslaved  Egypt,  and  became  the 
only  merchant  in  the  country.  All  the  commerce  was  in  his 
hands  ;  even  the  manure  was  sold  by  him,  and  he  traded  in 
everything.  He  was  the  first  who  introduced  the  flogging  of 
women,  in  order  to  get  from  them  all  the  jewels  they  wore 
around  their  necks.  He  even  carried  on  civilization  in  the 
Turkish  method;  and  flogged  those  children  who  would  not  go 
to  school.  He  was  "  the  cruel  lord  who  ruled  over  Egypt," 
mentioned  in  Isaiah.  But  he  sent  young  men  to  friends  in 
England  to  be  educated,  especially  from  the  Copts  and  Arabs. 
His  prime  minister  was  an  Armenian,  Yussuf  Boghos  by  name, 
i.  e.  Joseph,  son  of  Paul ;  a  man  who  spoke  French,  Italian, 
Persian,  Arabic,  and  Turkish,  with  the  utmost  fluency.  The 
judgment  of  Muhammad  Ali  about  Wolff  is  published  in  the 
"  Jewish  Expositor."  He  praised  his  talent  and  enthusiasm, 
and  encouraged  his  idea  of  establishing  schools,  but  suggested 
several  difficulties. 

Among-  the  young  men  he  sent  to  England,  Osman  Nured- 
din  Effendi  was  the  most  distinguished.  He  was  a  young- 
Turk  from  Albania,  who  learned  the  European  languages  with 
great  facility,  and  was  made  superintendent  over  the  College 
at  Boulak  ;  and  at  last  became  Pasha  under  his  early  patron  ; 
but,  to  the  astonishment  of  all,  he  left  Muhammad  Ali  the 
moment  he  rebelled  against  the  Sultan. 

At  last,  two  English  travellers  arrived  in  Cairo,  Messrs. 
Clarke  and  Came,  both  of  them  nephews  of  the  famous  Metho 
dist,  Dr.  Adam  Clarke  :  and  Wolff  determined  to  go  with 
them  to  Mount  Sinai  and  Mount  Horeb.  He  took  with  him 
Bibles  and  Testaments  in  Arabic  and  Greek,  and  even  some  in 
Hebrew,  though  there  were  no  Jews  in  Mount  Sinai ;  and 
then  he  was  asked,  "Why  do  you  take  Hebrew  Bibles  and 
Testaments  with  you  to  a  place  where  there  are  no  Jews  ?"  to 
which  he  replied,  "  Perhaps  some  day  a  Jew  may  come  there, 
then  he  will  find  the  word  of  God  in  his  own  language." 

His  friends  called  this  wild  enthusiasm  ;  but,  fifteen  years 
after,  when  Wolff  returned  to  Mount  Sinai  the  second  time, 
he  found  that  a  Jew  from  Bulgaria  had  been  there,  and  had  read 
the  Bible  and  Testament  in  the  Monastery  of  St.  Catherine,  as 
the  Monastery  upon  Mount  Sinai  is  called;  and  had  been 
baptized  by  the  Superior  of  the  Greek  monks.  And,  to  his 
great  surprise,  this  man  wrote  a  book  on  the  second  coming  of 
Christ,  which  was  found  there,  in  manuscript,  by  Wolff',  and  it 
had  been  read  by  the  monks  :  and,  at  this  second  visit,  Wolff 
found  that  they  were  all  believers  in  the  personal  reign  of 

122  Travels  and  Adventures 

Christ ;  in  the  restoration  of  the  Jews,  and  the  renovation  of 
the  earth. 

Previous  to  Wolff's  setting  out  for  Mount  Sinai,  in  October, 
1821,  Rabbi  Soloman  from  Wilna,  residing  at  Jerusalem, 
called  on  him,  and  introduced  to  him  Rabbis  Abraham  and 
Hirsch,  both  from  Bucharest,  and  now  residing  at  Jerusalem. 
They  asked  Wolff  where  he  was  intending  to  go?  Wolff 
replied,  "  To  Mount  Sinai."  Rabbi  Soloman,  from  Wilna, 
replied  that  he  would  prove  to  Joseph  Wolff  that  this  is  not 
Mount  Sinai  which  at  present  is  so  called. 

Wolff  asked  for  proofs.  Soloman  replied  that  ho  would 
prove  it  by  a  parable. 

"  There  was  a  Queen,  and  that  Queen  was  married  to  a 
King,  who  died.  Now  could  you  suppose  that  that  Queen 
would  ever  marry,  after  the  death  of  the  King,  the  King's 
minister,  or  a  menial  servant  ?  Certainly  not.  Mount  Sinai 
is  that  Queen.  It  was  married  to  the  Holy  One — blessed  be 
his  name  !  the  Holy  one  did  come  down  upon  Sinai,  and  gave 
his  holy  law  upon  it.  Would  He,  therefore,  admit  or  allow 
that  a  convent  of  monks  should  be  built  upon  that  mountain  ? 
No.  It  is,  therefore,  impossible  that  that  mountain,  upon 
which  a  convent  stands,  should  be  the  Mount  Sinai  where  the 
law  was  given,  amidst  thunders  and  lightnings.  Mount  Sinai 
is  in  England.  Even  Mount  Tabor  is  in  Europe.  But,"  he 
continued,  "  you  will  make  the  objection,  why  is  Jerusalem 
deserted  and  become  a  widow  ?  I  answer,  this  was  predicted  ; 
but,  with  respect  to  Sinai,  we  do  not  meet  with  any  predic 

Wolff  now  hired  several  camels,  took  a  German  servant, 
Franz  Six  by  name  ;  and  Carne  and  Clarke  had  a  Sclavonian 
servant,  Michael  by  name ;  and  on  the  29th  October — it  was 
a  Monday — they  set  out  for  Sinai.  The  Germans,  to  whom 
Wolff  had  preached  on  Sunday,  the  28th,  came  to  accompany 
him  out  of  the  gate  of  the  city,  where  Wolff  mounted  his 
camels,  and  then,  accompanied  by  Carne  and  Clarke,  set  forth. 
On  the  30th  of  October  they  arrived  at  Suez,  where  they  were 
received  hospitably  by  the  Greek  Consul,  Michael  Manuli,  an 
Arab  Greek  Christian,  to  whom  Wolff  gave  a  Bible  and 
preached ;  and  to  the  rest  of  the  Greeks  there  he  also  gave 
Bibles,  and  preached. 

The  son  of  Michael  Manuli  was  a  highly  interesting  young 
man.  He  was  acquainted,  from  simply  conversing  with  tra 
vellers,  with  the  names  of  Fichte,  Schelling,  Kant,  Bardili, 
Hegel,  and  Eschenmayer ;  Go  the,  Schiller,  Wieland,  and 
Herder ;  Sir  Walter  Scott  and  Lord  Byron. 

of  Dr.  Wolff,  123 

On  the  3rd  of  November  following,  the  travellers  arrived  at 
the  Wells  of  Moses,  in  Arabia ;  among  the  Bedouin  Arabs, 
where  Wolff  preached  at  once  to  them.  On  the  4th  they 
reached  the  valley  of  Paran.  "  The  Law  came  from  Sinai, 
and  the  Holy  One  from  Mount  Paran  :"  and  on  the  6th  they 
were  approaching  their  destination.  It  was  a  clear  night,  the 
sky  was  ornamented  with  stars,  and  at  a  distance  the  voices  of 
the  Arabs  were  heard,  and  the  fires  of  the  Arabs  around  their 
tents  were  blazing  through  the  Desert.  Wolff  said  to  Carne 
and  Clarke,  his  imagination  being  excited  in  the  extreme, 
"  Now  I  shall  meet  with  Moses  and  his  host."  They  pro 
ceeded,  and  at  last  they  saw  before  them  the  monastery  of 
Saint  Catherine,  standing  high  on  Mount  Horeb,  which  is 
called  by  the  Arabs,  Jibbel-Moosa,  i.  e.  Mount  of  Moses.  As 
the  monks  never  open  the  gates  below,  Wolff  and  his  party 
had  to  be  drawn  up  by  a  rope  to  a  window  ;  and  Wolff  relates 
that,  when  the  Sclavonian  servant,  a  clever  man  but  a  great 
rogue,  was  being  drawn  up,  he  and  his  friends  threw  stones  at 
him  for  fun — Wolff  calling  out  at  the  same  time  that  if  he  fell 
down  there  would  be  no  one  to  weep  for  him,  but  Michael  only 
turned  his  head  and  looked  down  at  them,  saying,  "  I  defy 
you  all !" 

At  last  they  were  all  brought  safely  into  the  convent, 
though  Wolff's  ascent  was  possibly  a  little  critical,  for  no 
basket  was  let  down,  as  from  the  window  of  RahaVs  house, 
but  only  a  rope  with  a  loop  at  the  end,  into  which  the 
admitted  guest  thrust  his  foot — and  Wolff  was  always  more 
remarkable  for  bodily  endurance  than  bodily  activity — but  no 
matter.  His  room  was  said  to  be  on  the  very  spot  where 
Moses  saw  the  bush  burning,  and  it  was  not  consumed. 
"  This,"  said  he  to  himself,  "  is  the  country  where  Moses  lived 
40  years  with  his  father-in-law,  Jethro,  keeping  his  sheep. 
Here  it  was  the  Lord  kept  his  own  people,  like  the  apple  of  his 
eye.  Here  it  was  that  He  gave  the  law,  amid  thunder  and 
lightnings.  Here  it  was  that  He  carried  them  on  eagles' 
wings," — and  Wolff  wrote  from  thence  to  his  friends,  Henry 
Drummond  and  Bay  ford,  all  the  ebullitions  of  a  heart,  filled  with 
these  grand  remembrances  ;  and  on  the  next  day  he  called  the 
monks  together,  and  gave  them  Bibles  in  Arabic  and  Greek, 
the  Hebrew  Bible  also,  and  the  New  Testament  in  Hebrew ; 
and  he  made  the  principal  monks  write  to  Henry  Drummond 
and  Bay  ford,  expressing  the  interest  they  took  in  the  distribu 
tion  of  the  Bible  in  every  language  throughout  the  world. 
They  were  delighted  to  hear  that  Bishop  Hilarion,  a  member 
of  their  monastery,  was  the  chief  translator  of  the  Bible  into 

124  Travels  and  Adventures 

modern  Greek,  and  was  employed  by  the  British  and  Foreign 
Bible  Society.  At  larst  Game,  Clarke,  and  Wolff  determined 
to  take  a  survey  of  Mount  Sinai,  and  of  the  remarkable  anti 
quities  surrounding  it.  They  desired  to  see  the  spot  where 
Moses  went  up,  while  the  elders  tarried  for  him  and  Joshua. 
All  the  monks  regretted  that  they  did  not  dare  to  accompany 
them  in  their  exploration,  on  account  of  a  tribe  of  Arabs  who 
were  living  around  the  Mount,  and  with  whom  they  were  at 
enmity,  because  those  Arabs  demanded  provisions  of  them, 
and  they  were  not  able  to  supply  them.  The  Arabs  had  also 
complained  that  the  monks  were  in  possession  of  the  original 
book  of  Moses,  from  which  if  they  would  but  pray,  rain  would 
fall  in  abundance  ;  but  that  the  monks  were  lazy  fellows,  and 
would  not  pray  as  they  ought !  As  the  monks,  therefore, 
were  not  able  to  accompany  the  travellers,  they  charged  the 
Arabs,  who  were  in  their  service,  to  accompany  them,  and  lead 
them  to  the  summit  of  Mount  Sinai,  and  to  the  rock  of  Meri- 
bah,  and  to  the  height  of  St.  Catherine,  and  to  the  summit  of 
the  mount  where  Moses  was  forty  days  and  forty  nights. 
Wolff  there  read,  to  the  company  in  English,  and  to  himself  in 
Hebrew,  and  to  the  Arabs  in  Arabic,  the  xxxii.  chapter  of 
Deuteronomy,  "  Give  ear,  O  ye  heavens,  and  I  will  speak ; 
and  hear,  0  earth,  the  words  of  my  mouth."  And  in  the 
xxxiii.  chapter  of  Deuteronomy,  "  The  Lord  came  from  Sinai, 
and  rose  up  from  Seir  unto  them :  he  shined  forth  from  Mount 
Paran."  And  Wolff  wrote  from  that  spot  to  Drummond, 
quoting  this  text ;  and  added,  in  parenthesis,  "  Where  your 
friend  Joseph  Wolff  now  stands." 

He  then  read  to  the  company,  Exodus  xx.,  containing  the 
ten  commandments,  and  then  he  read  chapter  xxiv.,  1st  verse, 
"  And  he  said  unto  Moses,  Come  up  unto  the  Lord,  thou,  and 
Aaron,  Nadab,  and  Abihu,  and  seventy  of  the  elders  of  Israel ; 
and  worship  ye  afar  off.  And  Moses  alone  shall  come  near 
the  Lord  ;  but  they  shall  not  come  nigh  ;  neither  shall  the 
people  go  up  with  him."  And  he  also  read  some  parts  of 
the  Psalms  and  of  the  New  Testament ;  and  he  wrote  to 
Drummond  and  Bay  ford,  "  Tell  my  people,  the  Jews  in 
England,  that  I  prayed  for  their  salvation  at  the  very  place 
where  our  ancestors  were  buried,  six  hundred  thousand 
of  them,  beside  women  and  children.*  I  did  not  address 
myself  to  Moses,  for  his  intercession,  for  he  died  in  the  land  of 

*  The  children  of  Israel,  who  came  out  of  the  land  of  Egypt,  were 
buried,  it  is  said,  in  the  territory  around  Mount  Sinai,  the  whole  of 
which  goes  under  the  name  of  "  Mount  Sinai." 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  125 

Moab,  and  no  man  knows  where  he  is  buried  to  this  day  ;  but 
I  addressed  myself  to  Him,  who  is  not  hidden,  who  died  and 
rose  again.  I  prayed  to  Him  that  his  blood  might  come 
indeed  upon  Israel  and  their  children,  and  cleanse  them  from 
their  sins ;  that  blood  which  speaketh  better  things  than  the 
blood  of  Abel."  Wolff  also  prayed  for  the  whole  of  England 
and  Germany,  for  Malta  and  Gibraltar ;  yea,  and  he  remem 
bered  also  the  family  of  Count  Stolberg,  who  had  been  his  dear 
and  kind  friends.  On  the  10th  of  November,  1821,  in  the 
morning,  they  went  to  take  a  view  of  the  rock  of  Meribah ; 
and,  to  use  again  the  words  of  Wolff  to  his  friend  Drummond, 
"  Where  my  people  thirsted,  and  where  they  rebelled."  Wolff 
maintains  (and  he  is  not  single  in  the  belief)  that  this  is  the 
real  rock ;  for  here  is  the  mark  of  Moses'  staff,  and  the  twelve 
holes  from  which  the  water  gushed  out,  according  to  the 
twelve  tribes  of  Israel.  Pocock  also,  who  had  visited  the  spot, 
believed  this. 

Years  after  this  time,  Lord  B ,  the  present  Earl  of 

,  was  on  Mount  Sinai ;  and  when  Wolff  met  him  in  the 

year  1828,  on  board  of  the  Cambrian,  commanded  by  Captain 
Rohan  Hamilton,  he  asked  him  what  had  become  of  the  Bibles 
which  had  been  left  there  by  himself  and  his  party  in  1821  ? 

to  which  Lord  B replied,  that  the  monks  had  destroyed 

them  all.  But  Wolff  felt  convinced,  even  at  the  time,  from 
his  lordship's  manner,  that  he  knew  nothing  about  it ;  and,  on 
revisiting  the  monastery  himself,  fifteen  years  afterwards,  he 
found  the  Bibles  still  there. 

After  Lord  B 's  answer  to  his  inquiry,  Wolff  said  to 

Andrew  Buchanan,  (now  British  Ambassador  in  Spain,) 
"  How  far  you  can  rely  upon  this  traveller's  account,  you  will 
soon  find  out  by  another  question  which  I  will  ask  him."  He 
then  said,  "  Has  your  lordship  seen  the  rock  of  Meribah  V9 

Lord  B replied,   "  Yes,  I  drank  water  out  of  it."     Wolff 

asked,  "  What  kind  of  water  was  it?"  He  answered,  "  Very 
good  indeed  ;  clear  as  crystal."  "  Then,"  said  Wolff,  "your 
lordship  must  have  struck  the  rock  again,  for  no  water  flows 
out  of  it  now."  The  captain  laughed,  and  said,  "  Your  lord 
ship  is  not  very  successful  this  time." 

Just  as  the  party  were  about  to  leave  the  rock  of  Meribah, 
there  came  up  a  Bedouin  Arab,  who  shouted  to  them,  "You 
are  my  prisoners  !"  Wolff  replied,  "  We  shall  go  back  to  the 
monastery."  The  Arab  said,  "  There  is  no  monastery  for 
you ;  you  are  my  prisoners  !"  Wolff  explained  the  remarks 
of  the  Arab  to  his  friends  ;  when  Clarke  drew  out  a  pistol  to 
shoot  the  man,  but  Wolff  threw  the  pistol  away.  The  Arab, 

126  Travels  and  Adventures 

having  observed  that  Clarke  was  going  to  present  a  pistol  at 
him,  put  his  fingers  to  his  mouth,  and  whistled  very  strongly  ; 
and,  in  an  instant,  the  three  travellers  were  surrounded  by  a 
crowd  of  Arabs,  who  cursed  both  them  and  the  monks.  One 
of  them  wanted  forthwith  to  shoot  Clarke,  but  Wolff  walked 
forward,  and  said,  "  Mind  what  you  do  ;  we  are  Englishmen !" 
This  stopped  their  violence.  They  then  consulted  with  each 
other,  and  said,  "  Now,  you  are  come  at  a  very  happy  mo 
ment,  for  these  Greek  monks  are  sons  of  the  devil — sons  of  the 
wicked  one,  and  dogs.  They  are  in  possession  of  the  book  of 
Moses  ;  and  whenever  there  is  no  rain,  if  they  would  begin  to 
pray  out  of  this  book,  rain  would  always  come  in  abundance. 
But  now  we  have  had  no  rain  for  a  considerable  time,  which  is 
a  great  injury  to  our  palm  trees ;  and  we  daily  come  to  them, 
and  ask  them  to  pray,  but  they  are  such  scoundrels  that  they 
never  want  to  pray.  You  must,  therefore,  mount  your  camels, 
and  we  will  go  with  you  to  the  monastery,  and  call  up  to 
them,  and  ask  them  whether  they  will  pray  or  not  ?  If  they 
pray,  and  rain  conies,  then  you  may  go  in  peace,  and  be  with 
them  again  ;  but,  if  not,  you  must  stay  with  us  till  the  day  of 

•  A  most  amusing  scene  followed.  When  they  came  near 
the  monastery,  one  of  their  chiefs,  Sheikh  Hassan  by  name, 
called  out,  "  Dogs  !  will  you  pray  or  not  2"  They  called  down 
in  reply,  "  Children,  we  pray  ;  but  it  is  in  the  hands  of  God 
alone  to  bring  rain  or  not  f 

The  Arabs  got  into  a  tremendous  rage  at  this,  and  repeated, 
"  You  dogs  !  You  dogs  !" 

After  which  they  made  their  prisoners  ride  their  camels 
towards  the  Valley  of  Paran,  and  a  beautiful  valley  it  was. 
Wolff's  companion,  Came,  who  has  written  his  amusing 
"  Letters  from  the  East,"  was  highly  interested  with  the 
adventure,  and  said  continually,  "  When  I  go  home  to  Pen- 
zance,  I  shall  amuse  the  ladies  at  the  tea-table  by  relating  my 

Arriving  in  the  camp  of  the  Bedouins,  they  pitched  a  tent 
for  their  prisoners,  constructed  out  of  old  black  rags,  and  near 
the  tents  of  their  women.  One  of  the  women  put  her  hand 
through  one  of  the  holes,  and  literally  took  a  neckerchief  from 
Wolff's  throat.  Wolff  ran  out  of  the  tent,  (as  Carne  says  in 
his  book,)  as  if  from  a  wild  beast ;  nevertheless,  Carne  was 
always  urging  Wolff  to  tell  what  the  lady  had  said  to  him. 

It  is  a  remarkable  fact,  that  when  Wolff  returned  to  Mount 
Sinai,  fifteen  years  afterwards,  the  very  children  who  were  not 
born  at  his  first  visit,  knew  not  only  Joseph  Wolff's  name, 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  127 

but  the  names  of  his  companions ;  and  also  that  one  of  the 
ladies  had  taken  his  neckerchief.  They  knew  too,  that 
Wolff  had  a  servant,  whose  name  was  Franz  Six :  and  that  his 
companion,  Came,  had  a  servant  whose  name  was  Michael ; 
also  that,  whilst  Wolff  was  always  afraid  that  his  servant  was 
starving  himself  to  death,  the  rascal  in  fact  was  drunk  from 
morning  to  night. 

From  this  we  see  how  these  sons  of  the  desert  hand  down  the 
slightest  events  from  father  to  son ;  and  Dr.  Wolff  therefore 
says,  that  he  has  more  confidence  in  the  traditions  of  the  Arabs, 
than  in  all  the  criticisms  of  Robinson  and  Stanley.  So,  in 
spite  of  Robinson  and  Stanley,  he  believes  the  authenticity  of 
those  places,  as  the  A  rabs  point  them  out ;  and  Wolff  believes 
the  same  respecting  the  holy  places  in  Jerusalem, — that  those, 
as  pointed  out  by  the  Arabs,  Christians,  and  Jews,  are  authen 
tic  ;  the  tomb  of  our  blessed  Lord,  pointed  out  as  such,  is  the 
very  tomb  where  He  was  laid,  and  the  stone  which  is  pointed 
out  as  the  stone  rolled  away  by  the  angel  is  the  identical  stone. 
What  Stanley  says  is  altogether  absurd,  that  the  apostles  did 
not  care  for  the  places,  because  they  were  neither  German  Pro 
fessors,  nor  Fellows  of  any  College,  either  of  Oxford  or  Cam 
bridge  :  they  felt  and  thought  as  children  who  love  every  relic 
of  their  parents,  and  honoured  them  as  such.  Is  not  this  even 
confirmed  by  the  Bible  itself?  For  does  not  David  say  about 
Jerusalem,  "Thy  servants  favour  the  dust  thereof?"  and  did 
not  our  ancestors,  Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob,  wish  to  be 
buried  where  their  fathers  were  ?  did  not  Jonah  look  toward 
the  holy  temple  ?  All  which  facts  are  proofs  that  those  places 
where  the  demonstrations  of  G-od^s  kindness  were  visible  were 
treasured  and  respected.  And  does  not  Stanley  honour  the 
place  where  his  father  is  buried,  with  all  his  European  philoso 
phy  ?  However,  his  book  is  of  the  highest  use,  and  full  of 
profound  research.  Stanley  unites  deep  learning  with  humility 
and  liberality ! 

Whilst  the  travellers  were  detained  by  the  Arabs,  they 
allowed  them  to  send  their  servants  to  the  monastery  for  their 
utensils.  And,  as  Wolff  was  in  desperate  need  of  being- 
shaved,  in  order  not  to  have  his  beard  filled  with  certain  ani 
mals  peculiar  to  the  Arabs,  he  asked  a  Bedouin  to  shave  him. 
The  man  took  the  razor,  which  he  used  for  shaving  the  crown 
of  his  own  head,  and  shaved  WW  without  either  soap  or 
water,  quite  clean,  and  without  giving  him  the  slightest  pain. 
Wolff  remembered  this  barber's  name  well-— it  was  Juma.  He 
was  always  a  smiling  good-natured  fellow,  and  fifteen  years 
aftery  he  reminded  Wolff  that  he  had  shaved  him  on  that 
occasion,  and  that  he  received  nothing  but  a  piece  of  bread  and 

128  Travels  and  Adventures 

cheese  for  the  job — no  present  in  money.  So  Wolff  then  gave 
him  one  dollar,  for  old  acquaintance'  sake. 

However,  to  be  short ;  the  chiefs  of  the  Arabs  assembled 
near  Wolff's  tent,  and  asked  him  to  write  a  letter  to  the  Pasha 
of  Egypt,  telling  him  of  the  dreadful  wickedness  of  the  Greeks ; 
how  they  had  refused  to  pray  for  rain  from  day  to  day,  in  spite 
of  all  that  could  be  said  to  them  •  and  asking  him  to  send  them 
an  order  that  they  should  pray.  Wolff  replied  that  he  had  no 
power  to  write  to  the  Pasha,  but  that  he  would  write  to  the 
Consul.  So,  as  he  wrote  in  English,  he  sent  an  account  of  the 
whole  affair  to  Mr.  Salt,  and  an  express  messenger  was  de 
spatched  with  the  letter  a  six  days1  journey  through  the  desert. 
But,  previous  to  his  return,  the  neighbouring  Sheikhs  and  the 
rest  assembled  again  ;  and  Wolff  in  the  midst  addressed  them 
in  Arabic,  and  told  them  the  contents  of  the  letter  he  had  sent, 
and  that  they  would  be  in  danger  of  having  their  tents  taken 
away,  their  camels,  flocks,  and  wives  also,  by  the  Turks,  if 
they  did  not  release  them.  The  Arab  Sheikhs  were  thus  per 
suaded,  and  began  immediately  to  be  in  a  great  hurry  to  let 
them  go  ;  and  they,  moreover,  begged  them  to  write  to  the 
Pasha,  and  tell  him  that  they  had  flogged  those  Arabs  who 
had  taken  them  prisoners.  The  travellers  replied  that  they 
could  not  tell  a  lie,  but  that  they  would  intercede  for  them,  and 
nothing  should  be  done  to  them. 

Then  they  brought  Wolff  and  his  friends  in  haste  to  Cairo, 
where  Wolff  arrived  dressed  half  like  an  Arab,  half  like  an 
European  ;  and  thus,  he  rode  upon  a  camel  through  the  vast 
town  of  Cairo,  affording  amusement  to  both  Europeans  and 

When  they  asked  the  Arabs  what  they  had  to  pay  them  for 
this  work,  the  fellows  wanted  pay  not  only  for  the  journey 
direct  to  Cairo,  but  also  for  having  made  them  prisoners,  and 
for  taking  them  to  the  valley  of  Paran  ;  all  which  was  of  course 
refused.  Wolff  having  thus  returned  to  Cairo,  was  received 
a^ain  most  kindly  by  Mr.  Salt,  the  Consul-General,  and  by 
his  beautiful  wife,  an  Italian  from  Leghorn. 

At  table,  during  supper  that  night,  Wolff  was  so  full  of  his 
journey  through  the  Desert,  and  his  imprisonment,  and  his  stay 
in  Mount  Sinai,  and  his  distribution  of  Bibles,  that,  when  the 
dish  with  plum-pudding  was  handed  round,  he  took  the  whole 
of  it  on  his  plate.  Mr.  Salt,  and  all  the  party,  were  bursting 
with  laughter  ;  but  Wolff  did  not  observe  it.  At  last,  after  he 
had  eaten  up  the  greater  part,  he  said  calmly,  that  Mr.  Salt 
had  given  him  rather  too  much.  Salt,  pretending  he  wanted 
some,  said,  "  Where  is  the  pudding,  Wolff?" 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  129 

So,  the  next  evening1,  when  they  sat  down  to  dinner,  Salt 
began  again  to  interest  Wolff  with  the  journey  to  Mount  Sinai, 
and  then  handed  to  him  a  dish  upon  which  was  a  whole  goose 
roasted.  But  Wolff  observed  the  trick  this  time,  and  said  he 
had  not  yet  digested  his  plum -pudding  ! 

The  last  discussion  that  took  place  between  Wolff  and  Mr. 
Salt  is  too  interesting  to  be  omitted.  They  were  talking  at 
night  about  Cicero,  and  Mr.  Salt  remarked  that  all  the  ancient 
philosophers  were  in  doubt  or  darkness  about  the  resurrection 
of  the  dead.  Wolff"  was  delighted  with  the  observation,  and 
they  agreed  that  the  doctrine  was  at  that  very  time  clearly 
revealed  by  God  to  the  Jews,  through  the  mouths  of  the  pro 
phets.  Thus,  the  Lord  alluded  to  it  by  Moses  (Deut.  xxii.), 
"  I  kill,  and  make  alive/'  And  Hannah  rejoiced  in  the  Lord, 
and  said,  "  He  bringeth  down  to  the  grave,  and  bringeth  up" 
(1  Sam.  ii.  6).  And  again  (Hosea  vi.  2),  "After  two  days 
will  he  revive  us :  in  the  third  day  he  will  raise  us  up,  and  we 
shall  live  in  his  sight."  And  hear  what  Job  saith,  "  For  I 
know  that  my  Redeemer  liveth,  and  that  he  shall  stand  at  the 
latter  day  upon  the  earth :  and  though  after  my  skin  worms 
destroy  this  body,  yet  in  my  flesh  shall  I  see  God  :  whom  I 
shall  see  for  myself,  arid  mine  eyes  shall  behold,  and  not 
another;  though  my  reins  be  consumed  within  me""  (Job  xix. 
25).  Hear,  too,  what  Ezekiel  saith  (xxxvii.  5),  "  Thus  saith 
the  Lord  God  unto  these  bones ;  Behold,  I  will  cause  breath 
to  enter  into  you,  and  ye  shall  live.  And  I  will  lay  sinews 
upon  you,  and  will  bring  up  flesh  upon  you,  and  cover  you  with 
skin,  and  put  breath  in  you,  and  ye  shall  live ;  and  ye  shall 
know  that  I  am  the  Lord."  And  also  Daniel  (xii.  2),  "  And 
many  of  them  that  sleep  in  the  dust  of  the  earth  shall  awake, 
some  to  everlasting  life,  and  some  to  shame  and  everlasting 
contempt.  And  they  that  be  wise  shall  shine  as  the  bright 
ness  of  the  firmament ;  and  they  that  turn  many  to  righteous 
ness  as  the  stars  for  ever  and  ever."  And  thus,  likewise,  the 
Psalmist,  "  Oh  thou  that  hearest  prayer,  unto  thee  shall  all 
flesh  come.1'  And  so,  again,  the  Prophet  Isaiah  (xxvi.  19), 
"  Thy  dead  men  shall  live,  together  with  my  dead  body  shall 
they  arise.  Awake  and  sing,  ye  that  dwell  in  dust :  for  thy 
dew  is  as  the  dew  of  herbs,  and  the  earth  shall  cast  out  the 

There  are  people  who  try  to  undervalue  Revelation,  by  say 
ing,  that  the  Jews  were  indebted  to  the  Chaldseans  for  their 
belief  in  the  resurrection  of  the  dead,  and  that  Daniel  received 
this  knowledge  in  Chaldoea.  Now  Wolff  asks  whether  God,  in 
his  wisdom,  cannot  impart  a  revelation  to  a  chosen  servant,  in 


130  Travels  and  Adventures 

the  mountains  of  Chaldsea  as  well  as  upon  Mount  Sinai  and 
Zion?  and  he  insists  that  men  have  to  adore  the  wisdom  as 
well  as  goodness  of  God  in  the  distribution  of  his  will.  Wolff 
himself  is  perfectly  convinced  that,  among  all  the  inspired 
writers  of  the  Old  Testament,  Daniel  the  prophet  has  set  forth 
the  doctrine  of  the  Resurrection  with  the  greatest  clearness, 
Moses  even  not  excepted.  And,  oh,  what  wisdom  is  in  that 
very  fact  !  for  it  was  Daniel  also  who  was  the  first,  as  we  read 
(Dan.  ix.  8 — 20),  to  set  his  face  to  the  Lord  Clod  by  prayer 
and  supplication,  that  He  might  make  known  to  him  the  final 
destiny  of  Jerusalem ;  and  that  very  angel,  Gabriel  by  name, 
who  announced,  in  the  fulness  of  time,  to  the  Virgin  Mary  the 
wonderful  birth  of  her  Son  and  her  Lord,  he,  the  same  angel, 
made  known  to  Daniel  (Dan.  ix.  26)  that  Messiah  should  be 
cut  off,  but  not  for  Himself;  and  he,  then  (Dan.  xii.  2,  3), 
caught  by  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord,  predicted  that  that  Messiah, 
who  was  to  be  cut  off,  was  to  bring  life  and  immortality  to 
light  through  the  Gospel ;  so  that  he  bursts  sublimely  forth  in 
these  words,  "  Many  of  them  that  sleep  in  the  dust  of  the  earth 
shall  awake,  some  to  everlasting  life,  and  some  to  shame  and 
everlasting  contempt.  And  they  that  be  wise  shall  shine  as 
the  brightness  of  the  firmament ;  and  they  that  turn  many  to 
righteousness  as  the  stars  for  ever  and  ever!" 

Wolff  now  began  to  think  of  departing  through  the  Desert 
for  Jerusalem ;  but  before  we  see  him  proceeding  to  that  Holy 
City,  we  must  give  some  of  his  remarks  with  regard  to  travel 
lers  who  come  to  Egypt. 

It  cannot  be  denied  that  many  of  them  are  Europeans  of 
learning  and  research ;  antiquarians,  painters,  natural  histo 
rians,  investigators  of  the  monuments  of  Thebes,  Luxor, 
Gorno,  Carnak,  and  the  ruins  of  Dendyra  ;  and  travellers  who 
go  as  far  into  the  interior  as  the  second  Cataract ;  decipherers 
of  the  hieroglyphics  in  the  Pyramids,  and  diggers  after  the 
beautiful  rooms  which  are  found  there,  decorated  with  monu 
ments  of  the  freshest  colour.  But  there  are  also  others  who 
get  considerably  imposed  upon.  As  some,  for  instance,  who 
have  boasted  of  having  found  mummies  of  the  most  interesting 
nature ;  which,  when  examined,  have  proved  to  be  nothing- 
better  than  a  lady  who  had  recently  died.  Again,  there  was 
an  American  gentleman,  whom  Wolff  afterwards  met  at  Jaffa, 
near  Jerusalem,  his  name  was  George  Rapelye,  and  he  had  the 
most  funny  ideas.  As  for  example,  respecting  the  hierogly 
phics  and  Pompey's  pillar  in  Alexandria,  he  said,  with  the 
American  snuffle,  "  These  are  nothing  but  figures  marked  upon 
stones,  like  figures  upon  gingerbread."  He  believed  that 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  131 

there  must  be  a  town  underneath  the  Pyramids ;  and  that,  if 
they  had  the  Pyramids  in  America,  they  would  make  Ameri 
can  hotels  of  them  ! 

There  were  also  medical  gentlemen,  from  Paris,  who  arrived 
with  a  prepossession  that  the  plague  was  always  raging  there 
abouts  ;  and  every  sick  man  who  died,  they  tried  to  prove  had 
died  of  the  plague.  So  that  actually  one  of  these  doctors 
induced  the  sanitary  board  to  proclaim  all  Egypt  to  be  in 

But  the  most  disreputable  set  of  travellers  are  those  revolu 
tionists,  who  leave  their  native  countries,  Itaty,  France,  and 
Germany,  because  they  will  not  submit  to  authority  at  home. 
Some  of  these  whom  Wolff  knew,  entered  the  service  of  the 
tyrant,  Muhammad  Ali,  where  they  became  venal  servants  of 
that  worst  of  tyrants,  to  execute  all  his  oppressive  commands. 

Muhammad  Ali  seems  to  Dr.  Wolff  to  be  that  "cruel  lord" 
predicted  by  the  prophet  Isaiah  (Isa.  xix.  4),  "And  the 
Egyptians  will  I  give  over  into  the  hand  of  a  cruel  lord  ;  and 
a  fierce  king  shall  rule  over  them,  saith  the  Lord,  the  Lord  of 


Desert;  Gaza;  Jaffa;  the  Samaritans;  Mount  Carmel  ; 
Acre  ;  Sidon  ;  Argument  with  a  Roman  Catholic  ;  Mount 
Lebanon]  robbed  by  Bedouins;  arrives  at  Jerusalem. 

let  us  leave  Cairo  for  Jerusalem.  The  day  before 
Wolffs  departure,  a  Jew,  of  high  talent,  came  "to  him, 
Cerf-Beer  by  name  ;  who  confessed  to  him  that  he  had  no 
peace,  although  he  had  three  times  professed  himself  a  Muham- 
madan,  in  order  to  make  his  fortune  ;  and  had  divorced  a 
dozen  wives,  &c.  Wolff  preached  to  him  the  Gospel  of  Christ, 
and  admonished  him  to  repentance. 

At  last  Wolff  set  out,  with  twenty  camels  loaded  with 
Bibles,  and  accompanied  by  his  drunken  German  servant, 
Franz  Six,  for  that  Jerusalem,  whither  the  tribes  went  up, 
even  the  tribes  of  the  Lord  :  where  David's  lyre  had  told  the 
triumphs  of  our  King,  and  wafted  glory  to  our  God,  and 
made  the  gladdened  valleys  ring  —  the  cedars  bow  —  the 
mountains  nod  :  to  that  Jerusalem,  which  is  joined  and  com- 

K  2 

132  Travels  and  Advent  ares 

pactcd  together  with  the  Jerusalem  above.  Alas  !  Jerusalem 
the  city  is  now  solitary,  and  a  widow  ;  but  she  shall  be 
comforted,  when  the  glory  of  the  Lord  shall  be  revealed,  and 
all  flesh  shall  see  it  together  ! 

He  travelled  with  his  camels  through  the  Desert ;  and,  as 
he  proceeded,  he  read  those  portions  of  Genesis,  which  contain 
the  journeyings  of  Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob.  Sometimes 
the  Arab  Sheiks  came  around  him,  and  wished  to  know  the 
names  of  the  grand  vizier  of  England ;  of  the  head  of  the 
British  army  ;  of  the  grand  mufftee  of  England,  and  of  the 
king  and  his  wives.  Wolff  named  Lord  Liverpool  as  the 
grand  vizier ;  the  Duke  of  Wellington  as  the  scraskir,  which 
means  "  head  of  the  soldiers ; "  and  Sutton,  archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  as  grand  mufftee.  They  wrote  down  these  names 
in  Arabic  characters,  which  sounded"  most  funny  to  their  ears. 
Wolff  pitched  his  tents  in  the  little  Desert,  opposite  the  for 
tresses,  if  they  may  be  called  so,  in  the  camps  of  Khankah 
and  Balbees.  Afterwards,  in  the  year  1828,  when  on  his 
third  journey  through  the  Desert  of  Egypt,  with  his  deal- 
wife,  Wolff  heard  at  this  spot  the  unexpected  sounds  of  musical 
bands,  belonging  to  Egyptian  troops,  who  were  playing,  as 
skilfully  as  Europeans,  the  melodies  of  Europe. 

A  J*ew  was  in  the  caravan,  and  when  Friday  evening 
approached,  (the  commencement  of  his  Sabbath,)  the  whole 
caravan,  composed  chiefly  of  Muhammadans  and  Eastern 
Christians,  remained  in  the  Desert,  in  order  that  the  Jew 
might  be  able  to  celebrate  his  sabbath,  according  to  his  law. 
Wolff  purposely  asked  the  Arabs,  why  they  showed  so  much 
respect  to  that  Jew,  since  the  Jews  are  universally  despised, 
and  even  tortured  I  They  replied,  "  This  is  ancient  custom  ; 
for  Abraham — the  peace  of  God  upon  him  ! — observed  the 
Jewish  sabbath ;  and  nobody  ventures  to  disturb  the  Jew  in 
the  observance  of  the  sabbath  ;  and  the  Jew  himself  would  be 
killed  if  he  did  not  observe  it."  Ancient  custom  seems  to  be 
observed  and  respected  by  all  nations ;  but  how  especially 
remarkable  is  its  power  among  these  ruder  people  !  Wolff 
remarked  the  same  on  his  arrival  at  Jerusalem,  when  he  saw 
the  Jew  allowed  to  go  where  the  ancient  temple  formerly 
stood ;  whilst  the  Christian  was  not  permitted  to  come  near 
the  spot;  and  this  was  in  conformity  with  ancient  custom  ;  or, 
as  the  Arab  expresses  it,  Aada  men  Kadeem,  which  means, 
"  Custom  from  ancient  times."  And  every  missionary  ought 
to  respect  the  customs  cf  ancient  times,  whenever  he  goes  to 
any  of  those  countries. 

Wolff  had  also  in  the  Desert  the  society  of  an  Armenian 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  133 

gentleman,  of  high  respectability,  Makarditsh  byname,  a  most 
amiable  man.  He  was  travelling  to  Jerusalem,  with  two 
female  relatives,  to  perform  his  devotion.  He  came  every 
evening  to  Wolff's  tent,  and  related  stories  to  him  of  the 
children  of  Hayk — namely,  the  Armenian  nation  ;  and  of  the 
holiness  of  Melchizedek,  who  blessed  Abraham.  He  talked 
too  of  Abgar,*  one  of  the  ancient  kings  of  Edessa,  who  lived 
in  the  time  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  and  was  said  to  have 
been  cured  by  our  Lord  himself;  after  which  Abgar  became  a 
faithful  believer,  and  invited  our  Lord  to  become  his  guest  in 
the  city  of  Edessa,  where  he  offered  to  give  him  every  pro 
tection  against  the  persecution  of  the  Jews.  But  our  blessed 
Lord  declined  the  invitation,  because  He  was  now  to  proclaim 
good  tidings  among  the  lost  sheep  of  the  house  of  Israel.  The 
correspondence  between  Christ  and  Abgar  is  to  be  found  in 
Eusebius'  Ecclesiastical  History. f 

*  Sometimes,  but  not  correctly,  written  Agbar. 

f  The  correspondence  is  as  follows,  as  related  by  Eusebius : — 

Copy  of  the  Letter  written  by  King  Abgarus  to  Jesus,  and  sent  to 
Him  at  Jerusalem,  by  Ananias  the  courier. 

"  Abgarus,  prince  of  Edessa,  sends  greeting  to  Jesus  the  excellent 
Saviour,  who  has  appeared  in  the  borders  of  Jerusalem.  I  have  heard 
the  reports  respecting  thee  and  thy  cures,  as  performed  by  thee  without 
medicines,  and  without  the  use  of  herbs.  For  as  it  is  said,  thou  causest 
the  blind  to  see  again,  the  lame  to  walk,  and  thou  cleansest  the  lepers, 
and  thou  castest  out  impure  spirits  and  demons,  and  thou  healest  those 
that  are  tormented  by  long  disease,  and  thou  raisest  the  dead.  And 
hearing  all  these  things  of  thee,  I  concluded  in  my  mind  one  of  two 
things ;  either  that  thou  art  GOD,  and  having  descended  from  heaven, 
doest  these  things,  or  else  doing  them,  thou  art  the  son  of  GOD.  There 
fore  now  I  have  written  and  besought  thee  to  visit  me,  and  to  heal  the 
disease  with  which  I  am  afflicted.  I  have  also  heard  that  the  Jews 
murmur  against  thee,  and  are  plotting  to  injure  thee  ;  I  have,  however, 
a  very  small  but  noble  state,  which  is  sufficient  for  us  both." 

The  Answer  of  Jesus  to  Kiny  Abgarus,  by  the  courier  Ananias : — 

"Blessed  art  thou,  0  Abgarus,  who,  without  seeing,  hast  believed  in 
me.  For  it  is  written  concerning  me,  that  they  who  have  seen  me  will 
not  believe,  that  they  who  have  not  seen,  may  believe  and  live.  But  in 
regard  to  what  thou  hast  written,  that  I  should  come  to  thee,  it  is  neces 
sary  that  I  should  fulfil  all  things  here,  for  which  I  have  been  sent. 
And  after  this  fulfilment,  thus  to  be  received  again  by  Him  that  sent 
me.  And  after  I  have  been  received  up,  I  will  send  to  thee  a  certain 
one  of  my  disciples,  that  he  may  heal  thy  affliction,  and  give  life  to  thee 
and  to  those  who  are  with  thee." 

134  Travels  and  Adventures 

Thus  they  arrived  at  Al-Arish,  where  Napoleon  fought  a 
battle  against  the  renowned  Mamlook  chief,  in  which  the 
Mamlooks  were  defeated.  Thence  they  proceeded  to  Gaza, 
where  Samsoin  killed  the  Philistines,  and  took  the  doors  of 
the  gate  of  the  city,  and  the  two  posts  ;  and  went  away  with 
them,  bar  and  all.  Here  Wolff  observed  that  this  custom  is 
preserved  all  over  the  East,  that  whenever  a  conqueror  takes 
a  town,  he  carries  away  the  gates  of  it.  Thus  Lord  Ellen- 
borough  carried  away  the  gate  of  Sumnauth  from  the  city  of 

Wolff  left  Gaza  on  the  28th  of  December,  1821,  and  on 
reaching  Jaffa  took  up  his  abode  in  the  house  of  Antonio 
Damiani,  whose  father  was  consul  there  for  80  years  ;  and  ho 
himself  was  a  venerable  old  man,  with  a  three-cornered  hat, 
and  a  gold-lace  brim  upon  it.  He  wore  a  large  coat  of  taffeta, 
and  carried  a  staff  in  his  hand,  with  a  silver  button  at  the  top 
of  it.  At  Wolff's  request,  on  his  hearing  that  some  Sa 
maritans  were  there,  he  brought  to  him  the  most  learned  of 
them.  His  name  was  Israel ;  he  came  from  Nablous,  and 
was  in  correspondence  with  Abbe  Gregoire,  at  Paris,  bishop 
of  Blois.  Lord  Guildford,  who  was  known  there  as  Lord 
North,  was  also  one  of  this  Samaritan1  s  correspondents.  He 
showed  to  Wolff  three  Samaritan  manuscripts  ;  the  first  was 
part  of  the  books  of  Moses  ;  the  second  was  a  book  called 
Mimra,  containing  old  sermons  of  their  priests ;  and  the  third 
contained  a  catechism  for  the  Samaritan  youth.  All  these 
were  written  in  the  Samaritan  language.  Wolff  asked  Israel 
whether  he  would  sell  them?  He  replied  in  the  negative. 
On  Wolff's  asking  if  they  had  the  prophets  Isaiah,  Jeremiah, 
Ezekiel,  and  the  Psalms  of  David,  he  replied,  "  We  acknow 
ledge  none  of  them  :  our  only  prophet  is  Moses,  and  Moses 
told  us,  '  Ye  shall  not  add  to  the  word  which  I  command  you, 
neither  shall  ye  diminish  ought  from  it,  that  ye  may  keep  the 
commandments  of  the  Lord  your  God,  which  I  command 
you.'  r  He  said  that  many  things  are  contained  in  the  book 
of  Moses,  but  in  a  hidden  manner  ;  and  that  they  who  study 
them  will  find  them  out ;  but  they  must  do  it  with  fasting  and 
prayer.  Wolff  asked  them  whether  they  believed  in  the  Mes 
siah,  and  he  replied,  "Yes,  for  He  is  prophesied  of  in  the  book 
of  Moses.  We  call  him  Tahib,  which  moans,  '  He  that  is  given.' 
He  shall  be  of  the  tribe  of  Joseph,  of  whom  it  is  written, 
in  Genesis  xlix.  22 — 24,  '  Joseph  is  a  fruitful  bough,  even  a 
fruitful  bough  by  a  well ;  whose  branches  run  over  the  wall : 
The  archers  have  sorely  grieved  him,  and  shot  at  him,  and 
hated  him :  But  his  bow  abode  in  strength,  and  the  arms  of 

of  tor.  Wolff.  135 

his  hands  were  made  strong  by  the  hands  of  the  mighty  God 
of  Jacob  ;  (from  thence  is  the  shepherd,  the  stone  of  Israel.'") 
The  Samaritan  added,  "  But  there  shall  be  two  Messiahs ; 
the  one  was  Joshua,  the  son  of  Nun,  the  disciple  of  Moses ; 
but  the  chief  shall  be  of  the  tribe  of  Joseph,  and  He  shall 
surely  come,  and  his  coming  will  be  glorious  !  A  fiery 
column  shall  descend  from  heaven,  and  we  shall  see  signs  and 
wonders  before  his  coming." 

Wolff  then  asked,  "Who  is  meant  by  the  Shiloh  Moses 
mentioned  in  the  10th  verse  of  the  49th  chapter  of  Genesis, 
where  it  is  said,  '  The  sceptre  shall  not  depart  from  Judah, 
nor  a  lawgiver  from  between  his  feet,  until  Shiloh  come ;  and 
unto  him  shall  the  gathering  of  the  people  beT' 

He  replied,  "This  was  Solomon,  for  he  was  a  great 

Wolff  asked  him  for  proofs  of  this  assertion  from  the  books 
of  Moses. 

He  said,  "  The  proof  is  clear  in  the  llth  and  12th  verses  of 
the  49th  chapter  of  Genesis, — '  Binding  his  foal  unto  the  vine, 
and  his  ass's  colt  unto  the  choice  vine ;  he  washed  his  gar 
ments  in  wine,  and  his  clothes  in  the  blood  of  grapes :  His 
eyes  shall  be  red  with  wine,  and  his  teeth  white  with  milk.'r 

Wolff  then  asked  him,  "Whether  the  Samaritans  have  any 
communication  with  the  Jews  ?" 

Israel  replied,  "  No  :  an  enmity  from  the  time  of  Joseph  the 
son  of  Jacob,  whose  descendants  we  are,  has  existed  between 
us  ;"  and  then  he  continued,  "  Joseph  was  a  good  child,  and 
fair,  and  beautiful,  and  beloved  of  his  father ;  but  his  brethren, 
Simeon  and  Levi,  hated  him.  Cursed  be  they,  and  cursed  be 
their  descendants  !  When  his  father  sent  his  beloved  son  to 
Dodaim,  they  endeavoured  to  kill  him  ;  but  Judah,  who  had 
great  authority  among  them,  persuaded  them  to  sell  him  to  a 
caravan  of  merchants  who  were  going  to  Egypt,  where  he  be 
came  the  first  man  after  Pharaoh ;  and  there  he  begat  Ma^- 
nasseh  and  Ephraim,  and  we  are  his  descendants.  Joseph, 
our  father,  forgave  them  ;  but  we,  his  children,  can  never  for 
get  that  Joseph,  our  father,  was  so  harshly  treated  by  them. 
And  from  that  time  the  division  between  them  and  us  has 
lasted  till  now.  We  worship  upon  Mount  Gerizim,  and  they 
worship  upon  Mount  Siou.  The  prophet  Elijah  increased  the 
division  and  enmity.  He  was  an  old  man,  and  respected  not 
Ahab,  our  king,  who  was  a  young  man  without  a  beard.  He 
continually  came  and  said,  <  In  Judah  is  God  known,1  until 
Ahab  turned  him  out  of  the  country.1" 

Wolff  desired  Israel  to  give  him  letters  for  Nablous,  the  an* 

136  Travels  and  Adventures 

cient  Samaria  ;  and  lie  replied,  "  With  joy  and  pleasure  :  for 
we  know  that  when  nations  from  afar  shall  come  to  inquire 
into  our  state,  the  time  of  redemption  by  Tahib  shall  come, 
when  our  nation  shall  be  redeemed."  Wolff  asked  him, 
whether  he  had  read  the  Gospel  2  To  his  utter  surprise  Israel 
knew  by  heart  the  fourth  chapter  of  John.  And  yet,  a 
canting  lady  from  England,  who  was  at  Nablous,  asserted 
that  Israel,  the  Samaritan,  had  never  read  the  Gospel, 
although  it  had  been  given  to  him. 

After  this  conference  many  years  passed  by ;  and  when  the 
Samaritan,  Jelebee  by  name,  who  was  a  nephew  of  Israel, 
came  to  England  in  1857,  he  told  Wolff  that  Israel  had  after 
wards  said,  "  Wolff  I  shall  never  forget ;  "  and  Jelebee  added 
that  Israel  sat  dumb  and  silent  in  the  synagogue  for  thirty 
years,  except  when  defending  Christianity ;  so  much  so,  that, 
when  Jelebee  went  to  England,  the  Samaritan  high-priest  bad 
said  to  him,  "  My  son,  our  number  is  already  too  small :  do 
not  go  near  Wolff:  remember  the  silent  conduct  of  Israel,  and 
how  his  last  words  in  his  dying  hour  were,  i  Wolff  is  right  T  ' 
Dr.  Wolff  asked  Jelebee  by  what  had  Israel  asserted  that  he 
had  been  most  struck  in  their  discussions  together  ?  He  re 
plied,  "  Your  observing  that  he  ought  to  forgive  his  enemies, 
even  as  Joseph  had  forgiven." 

But  what  is  remarkable — very  much  so  indeed — is,  that 
Jelebee,  on  arriving  in  England,  was  most  anxious  to  visit 
Dr.  Wolff.  And  when  this  poor  Samaritan  arrived  at  He 
Brewers,  neither  Dr.  Wolff  nor  his  wife  were  at  home ;  and  as 
the  servants  had  strict  orders  not  to  admit  any  strangers  during 
their  absence,  the  poor  fellow  remained  in  the  yard  waiting ; 
as  he  would  not  depart  without  seeing  Dr. '  Wolff.  The 
servants,  in  their  difficulty,  sent  for  a  neighbouring  lady,  who 
speaks  French  ;  but  all  Jelebee  could  say  was, — "  See  Wolff; 
see  Wolff  in  Samaria  ! "  Most  fortunately,  Lady  Georgiana 
Wolff  returned  home,  and  soon  afterwards  Dr.  AVolff  in  com 
pany  with  Mr.  Rogers,  the  Consul  of  Caifa,  near  Jerusalem  ; 
and  then  they  gave  him  a  good  reception  ;  and  Jelebee  cooked 
a  dinner  at  the  Vicarage,  in  the  Samaritan  fashion,  which  was 
liked  by  all.  One  day,  Dr.  and  Lady  Georgiana  Wolff 
walked  out  with  Mr.  Rogers  and  Jelebee,  when  some  pigs 
passed  by,  which  are  a  horror  in  the  eyes  of  the  Samaritans  ; 
and  Jelebee  said  in  Arabic,  Allah  yalan  al-khan-zeer  kulla- 
Jioom,  which  means,  "  God  curse  the  pigs,  every  one  of  them." 
This  was  explained  to  the  parishioners,  and  they  got  angry 
with  Jelebee,  because  he  had  "overlooked"  their  pigs  with 
tin  evil  eye  $  and,  unfortunately,  next  day  one  of  these  pigs 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  137 

was  drowned  :  on  which,  all  said,  "  If  only  this  fellow,  with 
his  singular  dress,  was  out  of  the  place,  we  should  be  very 
glad."  Wolff  could  scarcely  get  105.  for  him,  because  he  had 
cursed  the  pigs  ;  but  the  gentry  and  clergy  were  generous, 
and  subscribed  about  £20  for  the  Samaritan  before  his  de 

Wolff  was  now  quite  near  Jerusalem,  Jaffa  being  only 
thirty-five  miles  distant  from  the  holy  city ;  but  he  did  not 
yet  like  to  enter,  because  he  was  not  acquainted  with  the 
Syriac  dialect  of  the  Arabic  language.  He  conversed,  mean 
while,  with  learned  Muhammadans,  and  gave  them  the  Gospel. 
One  of  them,  Assad  Akliia,  was  well  acquainted  with  the  his 
tory  of  Sabat,  the  Arabian  convert,  who  had  professed  Christ 
ianity  at  Calcutta,  and  been  fellow-traveller  of  Henry  Marty  11, 
but  had  afterwards  apostatized.  Assad  Akhia,  to  Wolff's 
surprise,  defended  the  whole  conduct  of  Sabat,  for  he  said, 
4 'that  he  had  only  embraced  Christianity  in  order  to  enter 
better  into  all  the  ways  of  the  Christians,11  and  he  justified 
this  dissimulation. 

Wolff  having  now,  for  the  reason  just  given,  decided  to  go 
northwards  for  a  time,  proceeded  to  Mount  Carmel,  where  the 
holy  challenge  took  place  between  Elijah  and  the  priests  of 
Baal ;  and  there  he  read  to  the  Christians  the  passage  from  the 
Book  of  Kings.  At  last,  he  arrived  at  St.  Jean  d'Acre, 
where  he  met  two  most  interesting  people  at  the  house  of  Mr. 
Abbott,  the  British  Consul.  One  was  Mr.  Berggren,  chaplain 
to  the  Swedish  Ambassador  at  Constantinople.  He  travelled 
as  a  naturalist,  at  the  King  of  Sweden's  expense,  and  was  in 
tent  on  discovering  coal  mines  and  collecting  MSS.  He  had 
the  thorough  countenance  of  a  Swede — a  fine  red  face — not 
the  red  of  wine,  but  the  red  of  a  cold  country.  Wolff  had 
before  known  him  in  Alexandria.  He  was  very  sententious  in 
his  conversation,  and  said  to  Joseph  Wolff  that  he  was  about 
to  visit  an  island  to  which  very  few  Scandinavians  had  ever 
come,  except  Niebuhr,  the  great  traveller,  about  sixty  years  be 
fore  ;  the  name  of  that  island  was  Bombay  !  He  then  gave 
Wolff  an  account  of  his  having  discovered  coals  in  Mount 
Lebanon,  and  of  his  having  stopped  about  three  months  in  the 
monastery  of  the  Italian  and  Spanish  Friars  in  the  holy  city 
of  Jerusalem,  and  he  said,  "In  order  to  keep  them  good- 
natured,  I  managed  them  in  the  following  manner  : — '  Reverend 
Fathers/  I  said,  '  I  shall  remain  with  you  three  months,  making 
my  researches  in  and  around  Jerusalem  ;  and  every  evening 
on  my  return  to  your  hospitable  monastery,  I  shall  listen  with 
great  interest  to  the  arguments  by  which  you  prove  the  high 

138  Travels  and  Adventures 

importance  of  belonging  to  the  church  of  Home/  Thus  I 
agreed  with  everything  they  said  for  three  months  ;  after 
which,  on  the  morning  of  my  departure,  they  expected  me  to 
abjure  my  faith,  when  I  said  unto  them,  '  Oh,  my  Reverend 
Fathers,  it  is  not  come  to  this  point  yet,  for  I  am  firmly 
attached  to  the  faith  of  the  Christian  religion,  as  it  was  taught, 
and  still  is,  in  Sweden,  by  Gustavus  Vasa.'  And  they  became 

very  angry,  but  I  gave  them  a  very  handsome  present  for  their 
"by,    and   reconciled   the  worthy    Fathers.       On  my 
arrival,"  he  continued,  "in  Nazareth,  I  went  to  the  monastery 

of  the  Italian  Friars  which  is  there,  and  where  Spanish  Friars 
also  are,  as  in  the  one  at  Jerusalem.  And  there  a  room  was 
assigned  me,  but  I  met  with  rather  a  rough  reception  from  one 
of  the  Spanish  Friars,  who  came  up  to  me,  held  his  fist  in  my 
eyes,  and  said,  '  You  heretic,  you  will  perish  if  you  do  not  be 
come  a  Roman  Catholic.1  I  said  unto  him,  c  If  you  do  not 
know  better  manners,  I  shall  write  to  iny  Ambassador  in  Con 
stantinople,  who  will  report  it  to  my  exalted  King,  the  cele 
brated  Bernadotte,  who  will  write  to  the  Pope,  and  you  will  be 
recalled.'  While  this  struggle  was  taking  place  between  me 
and  the  Friar,  the  Superior  entered,  and  turned  him  out  of  the 
room.  And  after  this  I  remained  only  a  short  time  in  the 
monastery  ;  and  now  here  I  am  in  Acre,  which  is  the  ancient 
Ptolemais,  and  from  hence  I  shall  set  out,  by  sea,  for  Constan 

Wolff  lodged  at  Acre,  in  the  house  of  the  newly-arrived 
consul,  Mr.  Abbot,  who  procured  him  passports,  called  "  buy- 
urdee,"  for  Mount  Lebanon.  However,  before  Wolff  departed 
from  Acre,  he  met  with  another  traveller,  of  whom  a  short 
sketch  must  be  given.  His  name  was  Mayr,  from  Switzerland, 
and  he  was  completely  cracked.  He  had  been  converted  by 
the  preaching  of  Madame  de  Krudener,  and  he  believed  him 
self  to  be  inspired  of  God,  like  the  Apostles  of  old,  and  that 
the  whole  world  ought  to  obey  him.  He  related  that  the  Friars 
of  Jerusalem  had  ill-treated  him,  because  he  wished  to  see  the 
Holy  Sepulchre  at  an  hour  not  convenient  to  them,  though  it 
was  so  to  him,  and  for  this  reasoirthe  Friars  had  sent  him  out 
of  Jerusalem  in  chains.  Wolff  and  the  Consul  made  him  a 
present  of  some  pounds,  when  he  proceeded  to  Beyrout. 

When  Wolff  was  going  to  Beyrout,  he  fell  in,  at  the  moment 
of  his  leaving  Acre,  with  two  Jews,  believers  in  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,  who  had  been  converted  to  Christianity  by  the  preach 
ing  of  that  unworthy  subject,  Melchior  Tschudy  by  name  :  or 
rather  by  his  simply  giving  them  the  New  Testament  in 
Hebrew.  They  spoke  of  Christ  and  the  Gospel,  with  the 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  139 

highest  enthusiasm  ;  but  whether  they  have  remained  faithful 
mifco  the  end  is  doubtful.  Still,  even  the  Jews  themselves  be 
lieved  them  to  have  been  sincere ;  and  what  else  but  sincerity 
could  have  made  them  make  a  confession  of  their  faith  in  Christ 
Jesus  ? 

One  other  circumstance  Wolff  has  to  mention,  before  he 
leaves  Acre,  from  which  a  just  estimate  may  be  formed  of  the 
gratitude  of  Turks.  There  was  a  Jew,  Haym  Farkhi  by 
name,  a  man  of  immense  wealth,  and  who  had  been  chief 
banker  to  Jesr  Pasha,  a  ruler  who  had  successfully  resisted 
Napoleon's  attack ;  and  the  name  Jesr  means  "  Butcher,"  for 
this  man  had  cut  off  the  noses  and  ears  of  his  principal  sub 
jects  ;  and  Wolff  saw  many  of  those  who  had  suffered  this  in 
dignity,  and  who  had  replaced  their  lost  ears  and  noses  by 
papier  ones,  and  were  called  "  Jesr's  children."  By  being  the 
banker  of  this  tyrant,  Haym  Farkhi  the  Jew  had  increased  in 
power  from  day  to  day,  until  the  time  of  Jesr's  death,  when 
there  was  a  vacancy  in  the  Pashaship ;  and  through  the  great 
influence  of  Haym,  a  man  named  Abd-allah  was  proclaimed 
Pasha.  Haym  Farkhi's  influence  became  so  great  that  the 
Jews  began  to  believe  him  to  be  the  Messiah,  and  even  the 
Turks  stood  in  much  awe  of  him ;  and,  moreover,  he  had  mil 
lions  in  his  possession.  But  suddenly,  and  without  provoca 
tion,  Abd-allah  Pasha,  Haym's  client,  gave  orders  that  his 
head  should  be  cut  oft" ;  and  then  the  children  of  Israel  were 
in  mourning,  as  they  expressed  themselves  to  Wolff,  from  Dan 
to  Beer-sheba, — weeping  and  wailing,  "  Our  father  and  our 
prince  is  gone,  and  the  beauty  of  Israel  is  slain  upon  the  high 
places  !  How  is  the  mighty  fallen  !  how  is  the  mighty  fallen!" 

Wolff  had  also,  one  day,  an  argument  with  a  Jewish  Rabbi 
for  three  hours ;  but,  although  he  silenced  him,  the  man  re 
mained  unshaken  in  his  faith.  Wolff  at  last  left  Acre,  and  as 
he  was  going  out  of  the  town,  he  met  with  Game  and  Clarke, 
his  fellow-travellers  to  Mount  Sinai.  They  had  now  in  their 
company  a  Levantine  Christian,  who  was  about  to  go  to  Eng 
land,  in  order  to  make  his  fortune  by  selling  one  single  grain 
of  corn,  upon  which  there  was  written  the  Fatha,  I.  c.  the 
opening  chapter  of  the  Koran,  consisting  of  the  following 
words : — 

"  In  the  name  of  the  most  merciful  and  compassionate  God, 
the  king  on  the  day  of  judgment  :  we  serve  thee,  we  look  up 
to  thee  ;  guide  us  the  right  way — the  way  of  those  to  whom 
thou  art  merciful,  not  the  way  of  the  reprobate,  nor  the  way 
of  those  who  are  in  error.  Amen." 

All  this  could  be  distinctly  read  with  a  microscope.      How- 

140  Travels  and  Adventures 

ever,  Woltf  doubts  whether  he  ever  came  to  England,  for  he 
saw  him  ten  years  afterwards  at  Constantinople,  and  he  had 
not  yet  sold  his  grain  of  corn  !  This  Levantine  tried  to  make 
Came  marry  a  beautiful  woman  of  Damascus  ;  for  Game's 
chief  object  in  his  journey  to  the  East  was  to  marry  a  lady  as 
beautiful  as  those  described  in  the  Arabian  Nights.  Wolff, 
however,  dissuaded  him  from  doing  so,  by  telling  Game,  "  You 
may,  perhaps,  easily  succeed  in  finding  a  lady  with  amiable 
lips,  and  with  her  eyebrows  painted  with  yellow  colours  ;  yet 
she  may  be  stupid  as  a  cow,  and  with  hind  quarters  like  an 
elephant,  and  so  she  will  come  home  to  you  !"  Thus  Wolff 
succeeded  in  disgusting  Carne  to  such  a  degree  with  the  Eastern 
ladies,  that  he  abandoned  the  idea  of  marrying  any  of  them  ; 
and  he  said,  "  Now  I  shall  go  home,  and  as  I  have  not  suc 
ceeded  in  marrying  an  Eastern  lady  for  beauty's  sake,  I  shall 
marry  an  English  one  for  the  sake  of  her  money." 

We  must  at  once  finish  Carne\s  history.  He  returned  to 
Penzance  in  Cornwall,  found  a  lady  in  a  stage-coach,  who  wan 
rather  beautiful  in  appearance,  and  he  married  her.  Yet  with 
all  his  eccentricities,  he  was  a  good-hearted  gentleman,  of  a 
romantic  turn  of  mind.  He  got  himself  ordained  a  clergyman 
of  the  Church  of  England  by  Bishop  Luscoinbe,  the  late  chap 
lain  of  the  British  Embassy  in  Paris  ;  but  he  subsequently 
re-took  the  title  of  John  Carne,  Esq. 

Wolff  came  to  Sidon,  by  way  of  Tyre,  where  he  assembled 
a  good  many  Jews,  to  whom  he  proclaimed  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ.  He  went  also  to  Mount  Lebanon,  and  obtained  per 
mission  from  the  Prince  of  the  Mountain,  who  has  the  title  of 
Sheikh  Busheer,  to  remain  in  the  monastery  of  Ayin  Warka, 
inhabited  by  monks  of  the  Maronite  nation,  who  acknowledge 
the  authority  of  Home,  but  have  their  own  patriarchs.  These 
reside  at  a  place  called  Canoobeen,  and  arc  usually  men  of  great 
vigour  and  power.  The  monastery  of  Ayin  Warka  received 
Wolff  with  open  arms.  He  made  it  his  home  for  three  months, 
employing  his  time  in  reading,  writing,  and  speaking  Arabic 
with  the  monks  from  morning  to  night.  They  tried  to  convert 
Wolff  to  the  Church  of  Rome,  but  he  answered  all  their  ob 
jections  and  arguments,  and  they  acknowledged  the  force  of 
many  of  his  proofs.  He  then  made  acquaintance,  as  far  as  it 
is  possible  to  do  so,  with  the  religion  of  the  Druses,  of  whom 
Wolff  believes  that  they  are  a  remnant  of  the  Druids  of  old  : 
for  it  is  believed  of  the  Druses  that  they  worship  an  oak.  They 
practise  astrology,  like  their  fellow-mountaineers,  the  Anzai- 
rees,  of  whom  it  is  said  that  they  worship  Alilath,  the  Syrian 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  141 

One  visit  Wolff  made  during  his  stay  here,  was  to  the 
Apostolic  Vicar  in  Lebanon,  Monsignor  Luigi  Gandolfi.  He 
had  often  wished  to  have  an  opportunity  of  arguing  with  a 
Roman  Catholic  missionary,  and  it  was  now  afforded  him  in  a 
contest  with  a  French  priest,  who  resided  with  Gandolfi,  and 
who  had  been  for  thirty  years  Missionarius  Apostolicus  cum 
omnibus  facultatibus  Episcopi. 

This  Frenchman,  Pere  Renard,  opened  the  discourse  as  fol 
lows  : — 

Pere  Renard. — "  The  endeavour  to  convert  the  Jews  is  a 
vain  thing." 

Wolff. — "  All  the  prophets  and  St.  Paul  contradict  your 

Pere  Renard. — "  They  shall  be  converted  to  the  Catholic 
Church,  but  not  to  the  Protestant." 

Wolff. — "  Neither  to  the  Catholic,  nor  to  the  Protestant 
Church,  but  to  Christ ;  to  Him  they  shall  look  and  mourn." 

P'ere  Renard — (in  a  very  rough  manner).  "  We  must  have 
Peter  and  his  successors  for  the  judge  of  our  faith,  if  we  believe 
in  Christ." 

Wolff. — "  The  Scripture  knows  nothing  of  it." 
Pere  Renard. — "  Tu  es  Petms,  et  super  hanc  petram  ccdifi- 
cabo  ecclesiam  meam^  (Matt.  xvi.  18.) 

Wolff. — aAnd  this  he  did  when  he  opened  his  discourse, 
and  three  thousand  of  his  hearers  received  the  word  of  God 
gladly,  and  were  baptized." 

Pere  Renard. — "  Mr.  Wolff,  I  should  be  ashamed  to  come 
forward  with  that  spiritus  pruatus  of  the  Protestants  ;  we 
must  have  a  spiritus  communis ;  we  must  not  wish  to  be  wiser 
than  so  many  councils  and  so  many  fathers.  Do  you  know 
that  St.  Augustine  has  said  '  Evangelic  non  crederim,  si  ecclesia 
mihi  non  dixerit"1  ?" 

Wolff. — "  I  come  not  forward  with  my  spiritu  private  ;  I 
tell  you  only  what  the  Scripture  says.  The  Scripture  never 
tells  us  that  we  must  have  councils  and  fathers  for  our  guides ; 
but  says,  first,  'Search  the  Scriptures'  (John  v.  39).  And 
that  the  Scripture  is  sufficient  for  our  salvation,  becomes  clear 
by  the  words  of  St.  Paul  (2  Tim.  iii.  15,  16),  'The  Holy 
Scriptures  are  able  to  make  thee  Avise  unto  salvation,  through 
faith,  which  is  in  Christ  Jesus.1  '  All  Scripture  is  given  by 
inspiration  of  God,  and  is  profitable  for  doctrine,  for  reproof", 
for  correction,  for  instruction  in  righteousness.1  This  appears, 
again,  by  St.  Paul  (Rom.  xv.  4),  and  by  Psalms  cxix.  105, 
'Thy  word  is  a  lamp  unto  my  feet,  and  a  light  unto  my  path.11" 
P.  Renard. — "  There  are  many  dubious  points  in  Scripture. 

142  Travels  and  Adventures 

What  can  you  do  when  you  meet  with  a  passage  you  cannot 

Wolff-'. — "  Pray  to  God  for  His  Holy  Spirit ;  and  I  am  en 
couraged  to  do  so,  for  He  saith  (Luke  xi.  13),  '  How  much 
more  shall  your  heavenly  Father  give  the  Holy  Spirit  unto 
them  that  ask  Him  !'  And  Scripture  is  not  difficult  to  be  un 
derstood  ;  the  Holy  Spirit  itself  tells  me  so  :  '  The  word  is 
very  nigh  unto  thee,1  and  *  things  revealed  belong  unto  us'  ' 
(Deut.  xxx.  14;  xxxix.  2,9). 

P.  Renard. — "  Look  in  my  face,  if  you  are  able." 

Wolff  looked  steadfastly  in  his  face. 

P.  Renard. — "  Then  you  think  that  Luther,  qui  fuit  impu- 
dicus,  who  married  a  nun,  and  Henry  the  Eighth,  and  yon,  Mr. 
Wolff,  are  alone  able  to  explain  Scripture,  and  that  so  many 
fathers  and  bullw  doqmaticw  Summorum  Pontificum  have1 

Wolff. — "  Neither  Luther,  nor  Henry  the  Eighth,  nor  the 
lullce  dogmaticcc  Summorum  Pontificum,  are  guides  of  my 
faith.  The  Scripture  alone  is  my  guide." 

P.  Renard. — "  Is  it  not  an  intolerable  pride,  to  think  that 
God  will  o-ive  you  alone  the  Holy  Spirit  on  account  of  your 

p  to  J9>t  r 

fervent  prayer? 

Wolf. — "  Not  on  account  of  the  fervency  of  my  prayer,  but 
for  the  sake  of  the  name,  and  the  blood  of  Christ ;  nor  unto 
me  alone,  but  also  to  many  others,  and  all  who  ask  it." 

P.  Renard. — "  That  cursed  spiritus  p rivatus  /" 

Wolff. — "  I  have  not  told  you  my  private  opinion,  but  what 
the  Scripture  tells  us  ;  and  you  are  an  unbeliever  if  you  do  not 
receive  it." 

P.  Renard. — "  I  shall  now  tell  you  something  which  you 
will  not  be  able  to  answer,  for  my  argument  will  be  invincible, 
and  it  is  as  follows  : — You  Protestants  say  that  we  Catholics 
may  be  saved  ;  should  you,  therefore,  not  rather  cast  yourself 
into  the  arms  of  a  Church  where  you  yourself  confess  that  you 
may  be  saved,  than  remain  in  a  Church  where  the  way  to  sal 
vation  is  dubious  ?" 

Wolff. — u  I  know  this  argument,  for  it  is  of  the  time  of 
Henry  the  Fourth,  King  of  France ;  but  I  confess  that  I  was 
never  able  to  satisfy  myself  of  the  force  of  it ;  for,  first,  the 
Protestants  say,  a  Catholic  may  be  saved,  distinguo;  a  Catholic 
is  saved  if  he  believes  in  Jesus  Christ,  concede ;  but  that  the 
Protestants  should  say  that  a  Catholic  is  saved  without  faith 
in  Christ  Jesus,  nego.  Secondly,  the  assertion  of  the  Catholic, 
that  a  Protestant  is  condemned  if  he  remain  a  Protestant,  dis- 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  143 

tinguo;  without  faith  in  Christ  he  is  condemned,  concede;  with 
faith  in  Christ  he  is  condemned,  nego  ;  and  on  this  account  I 
cannot  perceive  in  the  least  the  force  of  the  argument.  But  I 
will  ask  you  a  question  :  When  two  persons  do  not  agree  upon 
a  subject,  and  wish  to  discuss  it,  what  is  to  be  done  ?" 

P.  Renard. — "  They  must  take  that  point  for  a  basis  upon 
which  both  agree." 

Wolff. — "  You  believe  in  Scripture,  and  I  believe  in  Scrip 
ture  ;  let  us  place  the  Scriptures  before  us,  and  decide  the 

P.  Renard. — "  But  there  is  one  judge  between  us,  which  is 
the  Church.  Tell  me  why  will  you  not  become  a  Roman 
Catholic  r 

Wolff.—"  I  cannot  believe  in  the  infallibility  of  the  Pope." 

P.  Renard  (interrupting  Wolff). — "  This  is  not  a  dogma  of 
the  Church  ;  I  myself  do  not  believe  it." 

Wolff. — "  Go  to  Rome,  and  you  will  be  there  considered  as 
temerarius  et  impiusy*  for  the  divines  at  Rome  say  thus,  <  Non 
temere,  sedpi'e  creditur  infallibilitas  Papce  in  cathedra  loquentis." 

P.  Renard. — "  The  Propaganda  has  done  this  :  not  the 

Wolff. — "  With  the  approbation  and  sanction  of  the  Pope." 

P.  Renard. — "  What  other  doctrine  induces  you  not  to 
believe  in  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  T 

Wolff. — "  The  doctrine  of  the  worship  of  the  Virgin  Mary, 
of  saints,  and  images." 

P.  Renard. — "  We  do  not  tcorship  the  Virgin  Mary ;  but 
for  more  convenience  we  go  to  his  mother,  as  the  English  na 
tion  go  not  immediately  to  their  king,  but  to  his  ministers." 

Wolff. — "  I   must    observe,   this"  comparison   between   an 

*  According  to  scholastic  distinctions,  a  doctrine  may  be  either  a  fide 
orproximum  ad  fidem.  A  fide  is  every  doctrine,  the  disbelief  of  which 
would  make  a  man  a  heretic,  and  which  is  already  distinctly  so  decided 
upon  by  popes  and  councils ;  and  proximum  ad  fidem  is  every  doctrine 
not  yet  distinctly  decided  on  by  popes  and  councils,  but  remaining  as  the 
opinion  of  the  theologians,  and  the  disbelief  of  which  would  make  a  man 
a  temerarius,  though  not  a  heretic.  Among  the  first  is  the  Infallibility 
of  the  General  Councils,  and  Transubstantiation ;  among  the  second,  the 
Infallibility  of  the  Pope,  and,  a  few  years  ago,  the  Immaculate  Conception 
of  the  blessed  Virgin  (since  ruled  as  a  dogma)  ;  and  whether  Christ  died 
for  all.  Doctrines  a  fide  are  dogmas.  Doctrines  proximum  ad  fidem  are 
pi(B  opimones.  This  was  before  alluded  to  in  speaking  of  Count  Stolberg, 
who  adhered  to  the  dogma  only,  and  did  not  hold  himself  bound  by  the 
pia>  opimones.  Nevertheless,  this  liberty  was  not  allowed  at  Rome,  as 
Wolff  had  experienced. 

144  Travels  and  Adventures 

earthly  king  and  the  King  of  kings,  is  most  abominable  and 

P.  Renard. — "  Omnis  comparatio  claudicat ;  but  prove  it, 
that  we  worship  the  Virgin.11 

Wolff. — "  '  Salve  regina,  mater  misericordice,  mta,  dulcedo, 
et  spes  nostra,  salve ;  ad  te  clamamus  exules  filii  Hevse,  ad  te 
suspiramus,  gementes,  flentes  in  hac  lacrymarum  valle  :  Eja 
ergo,  adwcata  nostra?  etc. — and  as  adwcata  is  synonymous 
with  mediatrix,  it  is  in  open  contradiction  of  Scripture,  which 
says,  there  is  but  one  Mediator  between  God  and  man." 

There  were  present  at  this  discussion,  Bishop  Giovanni 
Marone,  Vicar-General  to  the  Patriarch ;  the  Apostolic  Vicar, 
Gandolfi ;  Giovanni  Stambuli,  Wolff's  Arabic  master,  and 
others ;  and  Bishop  Marone  said  openly,  that  ."Rome  com 
manded  too  many  things  to  bo  believed ;  and  Stambuli  (also 
openly)  told  Wolff  that  truth  was  on  his  side ;  and  they 
further  remarked  that  Pere  Renard  never  answered  one  of  the 
texts  from  Scripture. 

In  quoting  this  discussion  with  Pore  Renard,  Wolff  wishes 
to  remark  that,  although  he  subscribes  still  to  the  general  prin 
ciples  he  then  brought  forward,  he  admits  that  he  did  not 
speak  on  the  occasion  in  a  quite  Church  spirit.  He  allowed 
too  little  to  the  authority  of  the  Church. 

Wolff  was  rejoiced,  long  after  this  occurrence,  when  he  found 
that  his  views  of  the  Jesuits  were  shared  by  one  of  the  orna 
ments  of  the  Church  of  England,  who  was  very  far  from  be 
longing  to  the  Tractarian  party,  but,  on  the  contrary,  was 
rather  opposed  to  them,  so  long  as  opposition  did  not  degene 
rate  into  hatred,  intolerance,  and  persecution  :  and  this  man 
was  eminent  among  the  Broad  Church  party,  and  agreed  with 
Wolff  that  the  Jesuits,  as  a  body,  are  not  only  thoroughly 
learned,  but  endowed  with  great  piety  and  zeal :  amongst  them 
Cardinal  Bellarmine  need  only  be  mentioned,  whose  piety 
breathes  in  all  his  writings.  Never  can  Wolff  forget  the  em 
phasis  with  which  the  late  Sir  Robert  Inglis  said  to  him,  "  I 
am  not  so  blinded  by  my  anti-Roman  tendencies  as  to  deny 
that  Bellarmine  was  one  of  the  most  holy  and  excellent  men  in 
the  Church  of  Christ ;  and  so  were  Massillon  and  Bourdaloue." 
Wolff  has  enjoyed  the  acquaintance  of  many  Jesuits  distin 
guished  by  their  learning,  their  philosophical  genius,  their 
piety,  and  their  benevolence ;  and  he  will  mention  some  of 
their  names.  There  was  Johannes  Michael  Sailer,  Bishop  of 
Ratisbon,  whose  pastoral  theology  is  used  in  the  Protestant 
university  of  Tubingen  :  also  Father  Wiedmnn,  who  himself  cir 
culated  thousands  of  Bibles  in  German v.  One  day  Wolff 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  145 

heard  in  London  a  lecture  on  the  fate  of  Poland,  which  was 
universally  applauded  by  the  audience,  but  Wolff  despised  it  as 
a  specimen  of  the  most  ignorant  description  ;  for  the  lecturer 
said  that  the  Jesuits  had  been  the  cause  of  Poland  not  becom 
ing  independent  of  Russia :  whereas  Wolff  with  his  own  ears 
had  heard  Jesuits  and  Redemptorists  at  Vienna  continually 
expressing  a  desire  that  Poland  should  have  its  own  king  again 
of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church.  Father  Koehler,  a  Jesuit, 
stood  godfather  to  the  child  of  the  celebrated  historian,  Pro 
fessor  Raumer,  who  belonged  to  the  Lutheran  Church.  And 
Wolff  is  certain  of  this  fact,  for  Raumer  told  him  so,  when  he 
paid  him  a  visit  at  Rome  in  the  Collegio  Romano,  and  was 
accompanied  by  Professor  Van  der  Haagen,  the  translator  of 
the  Niebelungenlled.  The  Jesuits  have  been  the  greatest  mis 
sionaries  upon  earth — in  Abyssinia,  and  also  in  China  and 

Wolff  was  once  asked,  what  religion  is  most  addicted  to 
idolatry  and  the  invocation  of  saints  I  and  he  replied  "  There 
is  no  religion  upon  earth  which  is  entirely  free  from  image- 
worship,  and  the  invocation  of  saints."  Among  the  Jews, 
they  have  the  Cherubim  in  the  Temple  ;  and  to  this  day  they 
have  the  images  of  Cherubim  in  some  of  .the  synagogues  of 
Germany.  In  the  years  1806-8,  Wolff  saw  them  at  Jeben- 
hausen,  near  Goeppingen  in  Wurtemberg.  In  the  Desert, 
upon  Mount  Sinai,  and  in  the  Temple  was  the  brazen  serpent 
too :  and  these  were  images  sanctioned  by  Holy  Writ.  The 
Jews  have  also  the  worship  of  angels.  On  Friday  evening, 
when  the  Jews  come  out  of  the  synagogue,  and  go  to  their  own 
houses,  the  father  of  the  family,  on  entering  the  sitting-room, 
begins,  "  Peace  upon  you,  serving  angels — angels  of  the 
Highest,  of  the  King  of  kings,  the  Holy  One,  blessed  be  He  ! 
Peace  upon  you,  angels,  in  your  coming  in,  and  in  your  going 
out,  &c."  The  Jews  also  go  to  the  tombs  of  their  holy  men, 
and  kiss  the  ground.  They  also  kiss  the  tomb  of  Zachariah 
at  Jerusalem.  This  devotion  is  in  the  human  heart,  and 
nothing  will  eradicate  it. 

The  Muhammadans  worship  the  black  stone  at  Mecca ;  and 
call  on  Omar,  Abu-Bekr,  Osman  and  Ali,  Husseyn  and  Hassan, 
for  aid  and  assistance,  and  bring  their  camels  to  be  cured  by 
them.  Their  worship  of  the  rags  of  their  saints  is  most  dis 

Among  the  ultramontanes  of  the  Church  of  Rome,  it  cannot 
be  denied  that  image-worship  and  worship  of  saints  are  carried 
to  excess.  But  among  the  Lutherans,  Luther  and  Melancthon 
are  frequently  spoken  of  as  demi-gods.  The  inhabitants  of 


146  Travels  and  Adventures 

Weimar  worship  Schiller,  Wieland,  Gothe,  and  Herder.     In 
short,  Carlyle  is  right :  there  is  hero-worship  in  the  world. 

The  spirit  of  persecution  has  also  prevailed  among  all  reli 
gions.  The  Jews  were  charged  by  our  Lord,  "  which  of  the 
prophets  have  you  not  killed  2"  and  a  regular  tribunal  of  perse 
cution  was  established  in  the  so-called  Sanhedrin.  The 
Jewish  religion  is  the  mother  of  the  Inquisition.  Judas 
Tscariot  seems  like  a  spy  sent  by  the  Inquisition.  The  Mu- 
hammadans  boldly  maintain  that  for  the  infidel  there  are  three 
things  from  which  he  must  choose — the  sword,  tribute,  or  con 
fession  of  faith.  In  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  there  is  in 
deed  the  Inquisition  ;  but,  it  must  be  admitted,  that  S.  Bernard 
and  Simeon  Stylites  preached  against  the  persecution  of  the 

There  was  not  a  greater  persecutor  in  any  age  than  that 
sour-looking,  vinegar- faced  fellow  and  traitor,  John  Calvin. 
He  first  invited  Servetus  to  come  to  him  at  Genoa, 
and  then  went  and  delivered  his  poor  guest  to  the  temporal 
power,  which  burnt  him.  Even  the  meek,  Philip  Melancthon, 
defended  the  propriety  of  burning  heretics  ;  and  it  was  only 
that  mighty  genius,  Martin  Luther — to  his  praise  be  it  spoken 
— who  was  against  the  persecution  of  heretics.  There  have 
been  no  greater  persecutors  than  the  Lutherans  in  Germany, 
and  the  Calvinistic  party  in  Holland.  Was  not  Kepler,  the 
great  mathematician,  starved  by  the  Lutherans  ?  and  was  not 
Hugo  Grotius  imprisoned  by  his  countrymen,  the  Dutch,  be 
cause  he  did  not  believe  that  God  had  created  some  men  for 
eternal  damnation  !  And  let  us  come  to  the  Church  of  Eng 
land.  Not  only  Henry  VIII.,  but  Queen  Elizabeth,  perse 
cuted  holy  men  ;  and  what  did  the  Puritans,  John  Knox,  &e., 
but  persecute  2  Persecution,  however,  is  not  confined  to  reli 
gionists,  for  philosophers  persecute  each  other.  Schelling 
persecuted  Jacobi,  and  Jacobi  persecuted  Schelling. 

Another  place  Wolff  visited  in  the  same  neighbourhood,  was 
the  Armenian  Convent  Kraim.  Here  he  found  the  Grand 
Prior,  Wartanes,  very  warmly  disposed  towards  him,  arid 
manifesting  a  great  desire  to  have  Armenian  colleges  estab 
lished  in  England  and  India,  after  the  manner  of  that  at 
Venice.  Wolff  encouraged  their  feelings  on  this  subject,  but 
availed  himself  of  the  opportunity  to  implore  them  to  be  recon 
ciled  in  Christian  love  towards  certain  of  their  brethren  in  Italy, 
with  whom  he  had  heard  they  had  quarrelled,  on  account  of 
some  slight  differences  of  opinion.  He  spoke  as  follows  : — 

"  My  brethren, — I  know  that  there  are  divisions  among  the 
Armenians,  not  only  between  those  converted  to  the  Church  of 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  147 

Rome,  and  those  of  the  old  orthodox  Armenian  faith,  but  like 
wise  between  different  portions  of  those  converted  to  the  Church 
of  Rome  as  you  are.  The  Armenian  members  of  the  Propa 
ganda  at  Rome  persecute  the  zealous,  pious,  learned,  and  gen 
tlemen-like  Armenians,  called  Mehitarists,  at  Venice;  and 
this  on  account  of  a  word : — they  persecute  those  as  heretics, 
as  enemies  of  Christ,  who  promote  the  word  of  God,  the  word 
of  Christ,  with  such  a  holy  zeal.  The  Mehitarists  have  estab 
lished  a  printing-press  at  Venice,  and  have  already  printed,  not 
only  many  thousand  books  of  several  kinds  about  spiritual  con 
cerns,  but  likewise  the  word  of  God  itself.  Oh,  my  dear 
brethren,  I  could  weep  when  I  perceive  such  things  amongst 
Christians  !  My  dear  brethren,  let  Christians  not  become  a 
reproach  to  the  Mussulman,  Jew,  and  heathen.  I  know  that 
you  are  members  of  the  Romish  Propaganda  ;  I  beg  you,  there 
fore,  to  reconcile  yourselves  with  the  Mehitarists  of  S.  Lazarus 
at  Venice." 

Another  Priest,  "  Daniele,"  who  was  present,  answered  at 
once,  "  By  God^s  grace  we  shall  be  reconciled  with  them,  and 
we  will  go  hand  in  hand  to  promote  the  light  of  Christianity 
throughout  the  world." 

Wartanes  added,  "  I  have  a  great  desire  to  awaken  my  na 
tion  :  I  hope  you  will  help  us."  Wolff  then  promised  to  write 
letters  for  them  to  England,  and  after  more  conversation  took 
his  departure.  But  he  visited  them  again,  and  gave  them  the 
promised  letters,  to  Henry  Drummond,  Mr.  Bayford,  and  Mr. 
Ward.  And  then  they  gave  him  to  read  the  prayer  of  S. 
Nierses  Ghelajensis,  patriarch  of  the  Armenians  in  the  second 
century,  a  specimen  of  devotion  well  worthy  record.  It  is  as 
follows : — 

"  In  faith,  I  confess  and  adore  Thee,  0  Father,  Son,  and 
Holy  Spirit !  Creator  of  angels  and  of  men,  have  mercy  on 
thy  creatures. 

"  In  faith,  I  confess  and  adore  Thee,  0  indivisible  Light,  most 
holy  Trinity,  and  one  God  !  Creator  of  light,  and  Destroyer 
of  darkness,  expel  from  my  soul  the  darkness  of  sin  and  igno 
rance,  and  enlighten  my  soul  at  this  moment,  that  I  may  be 
able  to  pray  unto  Thee  after  thy  good  pleasure,  and  obtain  from 
Thee  my  requests.  Have  mercy  upon  a  great  sinner  like  me. 

"  Heavenly  Father,  true  God,  Thou  who  hast  sent  thy  be 
loved  Son  to  seek  the  lost  sheep,  I  have  sinned  against  heaven 
and  before  Thee— accept  me  as  Thou  didst  accept  the  prodigal 
son,  and  clothe  me  in  the  primitive  dress  of  which  I  have  been 
deprived,  and  have  mercy  upon  thy  creatures,  and  upon  me,  a 
miserable  sinner. 


148  Travels  and  Adventures 

"  Son  of  God,  true  God,  who  didst  descend  from  the  bosom 
of  the  Father,  and  tookest  a  body  upon  Thyself  in  the  holy 
Virgin  for  our  salvation,  who  hast  been  crucified,  and  buried, 
and  raised  up  from  the  dead,  and  hast  ascended  up  into  hea 
ven,  I  have  sinned  against  heaven  and  before  Thee — remember 
me  as  Thou  didst  the  thief  on  the  cross,  when  thou  shalt  come 
into  thy  kingdom.  Have  mercy  upon  thy  creatures,  and  upon 
me,  a  great  sinner. 

"  Spirit  of  God,  who  didst  descend  in  the  river  Jordan,  and 
hast  enlightened  me  with  the  baptism  of  thy  holy  fountain,  I 
have  sinned  against  heaven  and  before  Thee ;  purify  me  again 
with  thy  fire  divine,  as  Thou  didst  purify  the  Apostles  with 
the  tongues  of  fire.  And  have  mercy  upon  thy  creatures,  and 
upon  me,  a  miserable  sinner. 

"  Christ,  Thou  living  fire,  kindle  in  my  heart  the  fire  of  thy 
love,  which  Thou  hast  scattered  upon  earth,  that  it  may  con 
sume  the  uncleanness  of  my  heart,  and  purify  my  conscience  ; 
and  kindle  in  my  intellect  the  light  of  thy  knowledge.  And 
have  mercy  upon  thy  creatures,  and  upon  me,  a  miserable 

Wolff  also  met  in  Mount  Lebanon  two  Italian  adventurers, 
who  had  left  their  country  on  account  of  their  political  opinions. 
It  was  rather  amusing  to  hear  them  laugh  at  their  own  follies, 
and  those  of  their  compatriots,  in  leaving  their  native  land  for 
the  sake  of  liberty,  only  to  find  a  scanty  and  needy  livelihood 
by  becoming  the  slaves  of  Muhammadan  tyrants.  However,  it 
was  refreshing  to  be  on  Mount  Lebanon,  and  to  hear,  all  over 
the  mountain,  the  sound  of  the  bell,  and  the  Kyrie  Eleison, 
Christe  Eleison,  resounding  from  all  the  Christian  churches. 
Years  afterwards,  Wolff,  to  his  great  astonishment,  discovered 
that  his  residence  in  Mount  Lebanon  had  created  a  great 
excitement  in  all  that  neighbourhood. 

He  now  returned  to  Acre,  and  preached  again  to  crowds  of 
Jews ;  and,  when  he  was  again  not  far  from  Jaffa  (the  ancient 
Joppa),  he  was  robbed  by  the  Bedouins,  and  stripped  of  his 
clothes,  after  which  they  let  him  go.  Arriving  in  Jaffa,  he 
met  with  Major  Mackworth,  in  the  house  of  Damiani,  the 
Consul ;  and  he  furnished  him  with  clothes.  The  next  day  he 
started  on  a  mule  for  Ramlah  (the  ancient  Arimathea),  and 
slept  in  the  Armenian  monastery  ;  and  thence  proceeded  for 
wards  through  the  camp  of  Aboo-goosh,  who,  with  his  band  of 
robbers,  stopped  him  for  a  short  time  ;  but,  after  a  present  of  a 
small  sum  of  money,  allowed  him  to  go  on.  Aboo-goosh  pos 
sessed  and  showed  him  the  portrait  of  Sir  Sydney  Smith. 

After  this  Wolff  had  to  travel  over  vast  heaps  of  stones, 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  149 

which  were  strewed  along  the  highways  to  Jerusalem.  So 
that,  when  the  Psaha  of  Damascus,  who  at  that  time  ruled 
over  Jerusalem,  came  that  way,  the  Arabs,  in  order  to  honour 
him,  exclaimed,  "  Make  straight  the  highway!"  This  reminds 
one  of  the  passage  in  Isaiah,  where  that  prophet,  proclaiming 
the  future  glories  of  Jerusalem,  says,  "  Cast  up,  cast  up  the 
highway,  gather  out  the  stones,  lift  up  a  standard  for  the 
people."  Arriving  near  Jerusalem  one  hears  a  cry  proclaimed 
from  the  walls,  "  God  is  God  !  and  Muhammad  is  the  prophet 
of  God."  Which  reminds  one  of  the  words,  in  Isaiah  Ixii.  : 
"  I  have  set  watchmen  upon  thy  walls,  O  Jerusalem,  which 
shall  never  hold  their  peace  day  nor  night :  ye  that  make 
mention  of  the  Lord,  keep  not  silence."  At  last,  at  five 
o'clock  in  the  evening  of  March  8,  1822,  Wolff  came  up  to 
the  gates  of  Jerusalem.  The  gates  were  shut  from  fear  of 
Aboo-goosh  the  robber,  who  frequently  entered  the  town  to 
plunder  it.  They  were,  therefore,  obliged  to  send  to  the 

fovernor  for  the  keys,  before  Wolff  could  be  admitted.  The 
eys  were  brought,  and  the  gates  were  loosed,  for  the  keys  in 
use  are  pieces  of  wood,  which  do  not  lock,  but  in  a  manner  tie 
the  gates  together.  This  explains  that  passage,  Matthew  xvi. 
18,  19,  "I  will  give  unto  thee  the  keys  of  the  kingdom  of 
heaven  :  and  whatsoever  thou  shalt  bind  on  earth  shall  be 
bound  in  heaven  :  and  whatsoever  thou  shalt  loose  on  earth 
shall  be  loosed  in  heaven."  The  expressions  bind  and  loose 
here  used  are  explained  by  the  nature  of  the  keys  above 

While  the  messenger  went  for  the  keys,  Wolff  was  singing 
the  beautiful  paraphrase  of  the  noble-minded  Lewis  Way  : — 

"  For  Zion's  sake  I  will  not  rest, 

I  will  not  hold  my  peace ; 
Until  Jerusalem  be  blest, 

And  Judah  dwell  at  ease. 

"  Until  her  righteousness  return, 

As  daybreak  after  night, 
The  lamp  of  her  salvation  burn 

With  everlasting  light. 

"  And  Gentiles  shall  her  glory  see, 

And  kings  proclaim  her  fame  : 
Appointed  unto  her  shall  be 

A  new  and  holy  name." 

150  Travels  and  Adventures 

Wolff  also  chanted,  to  a  melody  composed  by  himself, 

"  Far  from  Zion,  far  from  home, 
Earth  beholds  the  captive  band, 

Wretched  strangers  here  we  roam 
Thinking  of  our  native  land." 

At  last  he  slipped  into  Jerusalem. 


Jerusalem^  its  Inhabitants  and  Neighbourhood;  Controversies 
with  Rabbis  Mendel  and  Markowiz. 

"  O  Jerusalem !  my  lady  so  fair  and  so  beautiful, 

How  many  years  have  I  not  seen  thee. 

Sorrow,  grief,  and  the  waywardness  of  thy  children 

Are  the  cause  that  thy  beauty  has  withered  away. 

And  there  are  wrinkles  in  thy  face, 

But  there  are  traces  of  former  beauty. 

Yet  thy  elders  sit  no  longer  in  the  gates, 

Thy  young  men  cease  from  their  music." — WOLFF. 

NO  sooner  had  Wolff  entered  the  city  gate  than  both  John 
Carne,  and  Mr.  Gethin,  a  gentleman  from  Longford,  in 
Ireland,  met  with  him,  and  embraced  him,  and  brought  him  to 
their  room  in  the  monastery  called  Terra  Santa,  belonging  to 
the  Italian  Friars  of  the  Franciscan  Order,  who  are  there  with 
their  Superior,  who  is  called  Riverendissimo,  and  who  received 
him  with  the  greatest  kindness.  Wolff  ever  regrets  having 
left  that  monastery  the  next  day,  and  exchanged  it  for  the 
Armenian.  For,  though  the  Armenians  received  Dr.  Wolff 
with  the  greatest  kindness,  and  gave  him  a  beautiful  room  in 
the  monastery,  yet  he  insulted  and  hurt  the  feelings  of  the 
good  Italian  Friars  by  leaving  them.  But  he  must  confess 
that  one  consideration  induced  him  to  do  so,  and  this  was,  that 
he  was  apprehensive  that  he  might  be  expelled  at  last,  when 
they  should  observe  his  missionary  operations  among  the  Jews. 
And  certainly  such  would  have  been  the .  case  ;  for  the  same 
thing  happened  to  an  extraordinary  young  man,  who  was  sent 
to  Palestine  and  Aleppo  (in  which  latter  place  that  holy  man 
died),  by  Wolff's  gallant,  bold,  and  firm  friend,  Henry  Drum- 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  151 

mond.  The  name  of  that  young  man  was  Burckhardt,  he  was 
cousin  to  the  great  traveller,  but  of  an  entirely  different  cha 
racter.  He  was  a  man  of  prayer,  in  the  strictest  sense  of  the 
word,  fearless  of  consequences,  and  he  circulated  the  word  of 
God  in  the  streets  of  Jerusalem ;  but  he  was  at  last  turned  out 
by  the  Friars  of  Terra  Santa  ;  and  from  Jerusalem  to  Aleppo 
he  circulated  the  word  of  God  in  every  quarter ;  and  at  Aleppo 
he  died,  it  is  suspected  by  poison. 

However  to  come  back  to  Jerusalem ;  Wolff  was  thus 
comfortably  placed  in  the  Armenian  monastery,  where  the 
Patriarch  Gabriel  received  him  with  the  greatest  delight,  and 
sent  a  live  sheep  to  his  room,  as  a  mark  of  respect,  and  good 
Jerusalem  wine,  made  by  the  Armenians.  Gethin  and  Carne 
came  to  him,  and  partook  of  his  dinner,  and  two  of  the  Friars 
joined  the  party,  and  a  German,  Leutzen  by  name.  And  very 
soon  Wolff's  room  was  crowded  by  Jews,  Armenians,  Roman 
Catholics,  and  Turks,  to  whom  he  proclaimed  the  Gospel  of 
Christ  in  Italian,  Hebrew,  Arabic,  German,  and  English.  He 
went  with  Gethin  and  Carne  to  the  Greek  monastery  to 
pay  a  visit  to  the  Bishop  Daniel  Nazareth,  Vicar -General  to 
the  Patriarch,  because  the  Patriarch  himself  resided  in  Con 
stantinople,  on  account  of  the  persecution  which  the  Greeks  had 
to  suffer  from  the  Turks.  And  surprised,  indeed,  was  Dr. 
Wolff  to  find  in  this  Greek  monastery,  that  Procopius,  one  of 
the  monks,  was  furnished  with  Arabic,  Greek,  and  Hebrew 
Bibles  and  Testaments,  which  had  been  left  to  him  by  a  mis 
sionary  of  the  Church  Missionary  Society,  Connor  by  name, 
and  by  Levi  Parsons,  the  American  missionary.  Procopius 
circulated  these  among  the  inhabitants  of  Jerusalem.  There 
also  came  to  Joseph  Wolff,  at  the  Armenian  monastery,  Papas 
Isa  Petrus,  a  man  of  great  talents,  who  spoke  Arabic,  Greek, 
Persian,  Turkish,  Italian,  and  French  with  the  greatest  faci 
lity.  Gethin  observed  that  such  an  interesting  sight  had  never 
been  seen  at  Jerusalem  before,  and  the  Armenians  themselves 
said  the  same  thing,  for  there  had  never  been  so  many  persons 
of  different  nations  assembled  in  their  monastery  since  the 
monastery  of  Mar-Yakoob  (which  means  "the  Holy  James;" 
namely,  the  Apostle,  who  was  the  first  Bishop  of  Jerusalem) 
existed,  as  Joseph  Wolff  had  now  brought  together  there.*  It 

*  Carne  wrote  of  Wolff  to  his  brother  at  this  time  :— "  His  manners 
are  agreeable,  but,  like  all  others  engaged  in  this  cause,  perhaps,  rather 
enthusiastic.  He  is,  I  believe,  from  all  that  can  be  judged  on  so  short 
an  acquaintance,  a  sincerely  pious  man.  Considering  the  delicate  ground 
he  here  treads  upon,  he  has  certainly  met  with  more  success  than  could 

152  Travels  and  Adventures 

must  be  observed  that  the  body  of  Mar-Yakoob  is  buried  in 
the  monastery,  but  his  head  is  buried  in  San  Jago ;  and  many 
miracles  are  performed  both  by  the  body  buried  in  Jerusalem, 
and  by  the  head  in  Spain. 

Makarditsh,  Wolff's  fellow-traveller  through  the  Desert 
from  Cairo  to  Gaza,  lived  also  in  the  monastery,  and  paid  a 
visit  to  Joseph  Wolff;  and  also  Stephen,  an  Armenian,  who 
resided  in  Bagdad,  but  had  come  to  Jerusalem  for  the  Eastern 
Feast.  Stephen  was  a  mighty  man,  and  a  great  traveller.  He 
had  with  him  a  beautiful  narghili  (water-pipe),  which  he  fre 
quently  offered  to  Wolff  to  smoke,  and  this  was  the  first  pipe 
which  Wolff  ever  smoked  in  his  life.  Stephen  had  been  in 
Calcutta,  and  was  well  acquainted  with  the  English  customs 
and  manners  there,  as  also  with  the  operations  of  the  mis 
sionaries  in  India.  When  Wolff  waited  on  the  Patriarch 
Gabriel,  he  urged  him  to  write  to  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury 
and  to  Henry  Drummond,  a  letter,  expressing  his  desire  of 
having  friendly  intercourse  with  the  Church  of  England;  and 
the  Patriarch  had  promised  to  do  so,  when  Stephen  interposed, 
to  Wolff's  great  astonishment,  and  said  to  the  Patriarch, 
"  My  lord  Patriarch,  be  on  your  guard  :  the  missionaries  are 
only  a  small  body  of  believers,  but  the  English  in  general  are 
atheists,  followers  of  Voltaire,  and  of  a  man  still  worse  than 
Voltaire,  Martinus  Lutherus,  who  worshipped  a  cock." 
Another  Armenian  interposed  and  said,  "  It  was  not  a  cock 
but  a  swan  ;  and,  before  Luther's  time,  there  was  a  man  bad 
as  himself,  who  worshipped  a  goose." 

This  description  of  Martin  Luther,  and  the  worshipper  of 
the  goose,  is  most  extraordinary,  because  it  rests  upon  a  tra 
ditional  source,  which  is  this :  "  One  hundred  years  before 
Luther,  John  Huss,  of  Prague,  arose  as  a  Reformer,  and  the 
name  of  "  Huss"  means,  in  the  Bohemian  language,  Goose ; 
and  the  name  of  "  Luther,"  which  is  also  a  Bohemian  word, 
means  Swan ;  and  at  the  time  when  he  was  about  to  be  burnt, 
he  said  to  the  people  who  witnessed  his  execution,  "  One  hun 
dred  years  after  me  a  swan  shall  appear,  whom  they  shall 
neither  roast  nor  boil  !"  This  belief,  therefore,  of  Luther 
worshipping-  a  swan,  and  of  the  man  before  him  worshipping  a 
goose,  had  its  origin  in  that  traditional  story.  Wolff,  however, 

have  been  anticipated.  A  number  of  the  Jews,  among  whom  are  a  few 
of  the  chief,  have  accepted  Testaments  of  him,  and  there  is  a  general 
impulse  excited  among  them.  He  once  had  fifty  at  a  time  in  his 
chamber.  The  Rabbi,  rather  alarmed  at  this,  has  interfered  a  little,  and 
is  to  have  a  dispute  with  Mr.  Wolff." 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  153 

succeeded,  in  a  quiet  way,  in  convincing  Stephen  that  there 
were  a  great  many  good  Christians  in  England  ;  and  that  the 
English  abhor  Voltaire,  and  do  not  take  Luther  as  their 
guide ;  and,  moreover,  that  Luther  was  not  quite  so  bad  as  he 

Wolff  struck  up  a  great  friendship  with  two  of  the  monks, 
Boghos  Tiutiungi,  which  means  "  Paul  the  pipe-maker,"  and 
Boghos  Episcopus,  or  "  Paul  the  bishop."  Boghos  Tiutiungi 
had  studied  in  Rome,  and  spoke  Italian  very  fluently.  Wolff, 
in  company  with  these  two  monks,  visited  the  Mount  of  Olives, 
and  read  with  them  in  the  Bible ;  and  with  his  friends  Gethin 
and  Carne,  and  with  the  Jews  he  read  the  words  of  David  ; 
and,  ascending  the  Mount  of  Olives,  "  he  wept  as  he  went  up;" 
and  also  he  read  the  words  of  Zechariah,  14th  chapter,  3rd  and 
4th  verses,  "  Then  shall  the  Lord  go  forth,  and  fight  against 
those  nations,  as  when  he  fought  in  the  day  of  battle.  And 
his  feet  shall  stand  in  that  day  upon  the  Mount  of  Olives, 
which  is  before  Jerusalem  on  the  east."  And  then  he  went 
with  them  to  Bethlehem,  to  the  shepherds'  field,  and  to  the 
manger,  where  our  blessed  Lord  was  laid,  wrapped  up  in 
swaddling  clothes  ;  and  there  he  saw  the  field  of  the  shepherds, 
and  there  he  read  the  words  of  St.  Luke,  which  contain  the 
song  of  the  glorified  angels  in  heaven,  who  sang,  "  Glory  to 
God  in  the  highest,  Peace  on  earth,  and  good-will  towards 
men."  There  he  also  saw  the  little  room,  where  St.  Jerome 
translated  the  Holy  Bible  from  Hebrew  into  Latin  ;  and  from 
thence  Wolff  went  to  the  river  Jordan,  and  to  the  place  where 
Sodom  and  Gomorrah  stood,  and  to  the  Monastery  of  Mar- 
Saba.  Then  he  returned  to  Jerusalem,  and  went,  accompanied 
by  his  friends,  to  the  tomb  where  our  blessed  Lord  was  buried, 
and  where  Mary  Magdalene  first  took  him  for  the  gardener, — 
and  the  mistake  was  not  great,  for  our  blessed  Lord  was  a 
gardener,  because  He  planted  the  garden  of  God,  the  Church, 
where  the  fruits  ripen,  and  are  made  fit  for  the  kingdom  of 
heaven.  And  on  Mary  Magdalene's  recognizing  the  Lord, 
she  said,  "  Babboni,  my  Master  and  my  Lord ;"  and  He  said, 
"  Mary ; "  and  this  expressed  how  the  union  was  established 
between  Christ  and  the  believer. 

But  now  it  is  time  to  describe  his  visit  to  the  Jews.  There 
are  four  parties  of  Jews  in  Jerusalem ;  the  one  party,  who  are 
the  most  powerful  and  richest,  are  the  Sephardim  ;  these  Jews 
are  descended  from  the  Spanish  Jews,  who  were  expelled  from 
Spain  by  King  Ferdinand  and  Queen  Isabella.  They  are  the 
richest,  but  they  are  not  the  most  learned.  Another  party 
are  the  Ashkeuazim,  who  are  chiefly  descendants  of  the  Ger- 

154  Travels  and  Adventures 

man  and  Polish  J  ews  ;  the  word  Ashkenazim  means  people  of 
the  land  of  Germany ;  for  Germany  is  called  by  the  Jews 
Ashkenaz,  from  a  man  called  Ashkenaz,  who  was  a  descendant 
of  Togarmah,  who  again  was  a  descendant  of  Japhet.  (Genesis 
x.  3.)  The  Ashkenazim  are  again  divided  into  two  parties — 
the  Pharisees,  i.  e.  the  strict  literal  observers  of  the  law,  and 
the  traditions  of  the  Elders ;  and  the  Haseedim,  who  also 
observe  the  law  and  the  traditions  of  the  Elders,  but  still  they 
say  this  is  not  the  chief  thing :  the  chief  thing  of  all,  being 
the  intention  of  the  heart.  These  are  the  Puritans  of  the 
Jewish  synagogue.  Besides  these  two  divisions  of  the  Ash 
kenazim,  there  is  another,  viz.,  that  of  the  Coraeem,  or  B'nee 
Mikra,  i.  e.  those  who  only  believe  in  those  things  which  they 
can  actually  read  in  Moses  and  the  Prophets.  The  name 
Coraeem  means  reading,  and  B'nee  Mikra  means  the  children 
of  the  book.  The  latter  are  not  natives  of  Jerusalem,  but  come 
from  the  place  called  Hit,  near  Bagdad,  a  beautiful  oasis  in  the 
Desert.  They  also  come  from  the  Crimea,  especially  from  the 
place  called  Jufut-Kaleh  (Jew- Castle),  situated  upon  a  high 
mountain,  near  the  Tartar  town,  called  Bakhtshe-Seray, 
which  means  the  Gardener  of  the  Palace.  Dr.  McCaul  says, 
in  his  pamphlet  upon  Marriage  with  a  deceased  Wife's  Sister, 
that  the  Coraeem  had  their  origin  in  the  twelfth  century  after 
Christ,  in  which  statement  Wolff  considers  him  to  be  entirely 
wrong  ;  for,  by  their  own  account,  they  had  their  origin  in  the 
Babylonish  captivity;  but  separated  themselves  from  the 
Jews,  when  that  people  mixed  up  Chaldean  notions  with  the 
law  of  Moses,  and  under  their  Rabbi  Annan,  formed  a  sepa 
rate  community.  Wolff  went  with  the  Sephardim  and  Ash 
kenazim  Jews  to  the  wall  of  the  west  side  of  the  temple,  and 
sang  with  them  the  following  hymn  : — 

"The  mighty  shall  build  the  City  of  Zion, 
And  give  her  to  Thee. 
Then  shall  he  raise  from  the  dust  the  needy, 
And  from  the  dunghill  the  poor. 
The  Blessed  One  shall  build  the  City  of  Zion, 
And  give  her  to  Thee,"  &c.,  &c. 

They  also  sang  the  following  hymn  : — 

"  Thou  art  mighty  to  build  thy  temple  speedily, 
Lord,  build,  build  thy  temple  speedily — 
In  haste,  in  haste,  in  haste,  in  haste, 
Even  in  our  days — 
Build  thy  temple  speedily." 

On  his  return  home,  he  called  on  Saadiah  and  Solomon,  two 

of  Dr.  Wolf.  155 

Jews  of  the  Coraeem  nation.  Their  wives  were  very  beautiful, 
and  cleanliness  reigns  in  their  houses,  which  is  not,  as  a  rule, 
the  case  among  other  Jews.  He  copied  from  their  liturgy  a 
hymn,  of  which  he  has  given  a  translation  in  his  former  jour 
nals,  in  the  years  1821-22;  and  which  translation  has  been 
adopted  by  Baron  von  Haxthausen  in  his  "  Travels  in  the 
Crimea,"  without  any  acknowledgment  that  it  is  Wolff's, 
though  he  has  given  the  extracts  in  the  very  same  order  as 
Wolff  did. 

Here  Wolff  again  recites  the  hymn. 

Rabbi.  On  account  of  the  palace  which  is  laid  waste, 

People.  We  sit  lonely  and  weep. 

Rabbi.  On  account  of  the  temple  which  is  destroyed, 

People.  We  sit  lonely  and  weep. 

Rabbi.  On  account  of  the  walls  which  are  pulled  down, 

People.  We  sit  lonely  and  weep. 

Rabbi.  On  account  of  our  majesty  which  is  gone, 

People.  We  sit  lonely  and  weep. 

Rabbi.  On  account  of  our  great  men  who  have  been  cast  down, 

People.  We  sit  lonely  and  weep. 

Rabbi.  On  account  of  the  precious  stones  which  are  burned, 

People.  We  sit  lonely  and  weep. 

Rabbi.  On  account  of  the  priests  who  have  stumbled, 

People.  We  sit  lonely  and  weep. 

Rabbi.  On  account  of  our  Kings  who  have  despised  Him, 

People.  We  sit  lonely  and  weep. 

Another  hymn  may  also  be  given. 

Rabbi.  We  beseech  Thee  have  mercy  upon  Zion, 

People.  And  gather  the  children  of  Jerusalem. 

Rabbi.  Make  haste,  O  Redeemer  of  Zion ! 

People.  Speak  to  the  heart  of  Jerusalem. 

Rabbi.  May  beauty  and  majesty  surround  Zion. 

People.  Turn  with  thy  mercy  to  Jerusalem. 

Rabbi.  Remember  the  shame  of  Zion. 

People.  Make  new  again  the  ruins  of  Jerusalem. 

Rabbi.  May  the  royal  government  shine  again  over  Zion. 

People.  Comfort  those  who  mourn  at  Jerusalem. 

Rabbi.  May  joy  and  gladness  be  found  upon  Zion. 

People.  A  branch  shall  spring  forth  at  Jerusalem. 

Wolff  asked  Saadiah  whether  the  Coraeem  in  the  Crimea 
offered  up  sacrifices.  Saadiah  took  hold  of  Wolff's  arm,  and 
went  with  him  to  the  window,  opposite  Omar's  Mosque,  and 
then  said,  "  Do  you  see  that  Mosque  of  the  Mussulmans  ? 
There  our  temple  stood,  on  that  very  spot.  It  is  destroyed, 

156  Travels  and  Adventures 

alas  !  alas  !  alas  !  and  ever  since  has  Israel  been  many  days 
without  sacrifice,  without  ephod,  and  without  Teraphim." 
Wolff  afterwards  preached  before  Saadiah  and  others,  on 
Isaiah  liii.,  and  from  other  portions  of  Scripture. 

Wolff  was  presently  sent  for  by  "the  Light  of  Israel," 
respected  and  revered  by  Sephardim,  and  Ashkenazim,  by 
Pharisees  and  Hasidim,  and  by  Coraeem  Jews,  the  children  of 
the  Bible.  His  name  was  Rabbi  Mendel.  He  was  a  little 
man,  of  a  kind  countenance,  but  with  penetrating  eyes  ;  and 
when  Wolff  came  to  him,  the  phylacteries  were  on  his  head, 
the  Talmud  was  before  him.  the  pen  was  in  his  hand.  He 
was  able  to  preach,  as  the  Jews  told  Wolff,  about  every  word 
of  the  Law  of  Moses,  for  longer  than  three  hours,  and  could 
all  the  time  rivet  the  attention  of  his  hearers.  He  apologized 
for  having  sent  for  Wolff,  saying  that  he  never  went  out  him 
self,  and  should  therefore  be  glad  to  see  him  every  day  at  his 
house.  He  had  been  the  instrument  of  the  conversion  of 
Polish  counts  and  noblemen  to  the  Jewish  religion ;  and  he 
evidently  was  bent  upon  converting  Joseph  Wolff. 

When  Wolff  was  in  his  childhood,  his  father  had  told  him 
a  great  deal  of  the  learning,  holiness,  and  miraculous  powers  of 
Rabbi  Eliahu,  of  Wilna,  in  Poland,  whose  power  of  working 
miracles  was  so  great,  that  being — when  a  young  man  of 
only  nineteen  years  of  age — in  love  with  a  girl  who  lived 
800  miles  distant  from  him,  whom  he  wished  to  marry,  he 
made  her  come  to  him  in  less  than  three  minutes,  and  forth 
with  married  her.  Another  miracle  is  also  told  of  Rabbi 
Eliahu,  as  well  as  of  other  holy  rabbis,  and  this  is  that  he 
had  what  the  Jews  call  a  Golem,  i.e.,  a  lump  of  clay  formed 
into  the  figure  of  a  man,  which  walked  about  for  him  in  the 
capacity  of  a  servant,  and  cooked  his  dinner  on  the  Sabbath 
day.  Rabbi  Eliahu  was  highly  versed  in  the  science  of  Cabala, 
and  was  acquainted  with  the  whole  workmanship  of  the  chariot 
of  God,  and  knew  the  exact  hour  when  the  angels  around  the 
throne  of  God  perform  their  morning  and  evening  prayers ;  and 
and  when  they  sing,  "  Holy,  holy,  holy,  Lord  God  of  Sabaoth, 
all  the  earth  is  full  of  thy  majesty." 

Now  Rabbi  Mendel  was  the  most  distinguished  disciple  of 
that  Eliahu  of  Wilna ;  and,  on  Wolff's  coming  to  him,  all  the 
Jews  crowded  around  to  listen.  Wolff  said  to  him,  on  hearing 
that  Jews  of  thirteen  and  fourteen  years  of  age  marry,  "  Why 
do  the  Jews  marry  so  early  f  Rabbi  Mendel  replied,  "  Have 
you  not  read  the  Psalms  of  David?  It  is  said  in  the  127th 
Psalm,  'As  arrows  in  the  hand  of  a  mighty  man,  so  are 
children  of  the  youth.' '  He  then  offered  to  read  Hebrew 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  157 

with  Wolff  every  day  ;  and  when  Wolff  came  again  to  him,  he 
gave  him  to  understand  that  he  wished  him  to  be  converted 
back  to  Judaism.  Of  course  Wolff  could  not  agree  to  that,  and 
entered  into  conversation  with  him  on  the  authenticity  of  the 
New  Testament.  Several  arguments  were  used,  which,  as  they 
are  old  and  well  known,  it  is  not  worth  while  to  repeat. 

But  the  opening  of  their  first  discourse  together  was  curious, 
and  may  be  found  interesting  by  many  people. 

Wolff. — "Before  I  enter  into  conversation  with  you  about 
the  truth  of  Judaism,  I  must  make  before  you  the  profession 
of  my  faith  :  I  do  not  worship  images,  nor  the  wooden  cross  ; 
but  I  believe,  '  Hear  O  Israel,  the  Lord  our  God  is  one  Lord,' 
and  I  firmly  believe  that  Jesus  of  Nazareth  was  the  Messiah, 
the  Son  of  God,  and  that  He  came  to  suffer  for  our  iniquities, 
and  that  He  shall  come  again,  and  be  the  Redeemer  of  Israel. 
I  beg  of  you  Rabbi,  to  tell  me  the  meaning  of  Gen.  iii.  15." 

Rabbi  Mendel. — "  Let  us  consider,  first,  the  spot  where  men 
and  beasts  were  before  Adam's  fall ;  they  were  in  the  paradise 
of  God ;  and  it  were  absurd  to  think  that  an  unclean  body 
should  be  in  the  garden  of  God ;  and  we  must,  therefore,  con 
clude,  that  men  and  beasts  were  originally  endowed  with  a 
glorified  body.  But  the  serpent,  the  inducer  to  evil,  the  Satan, 
the  leader  astray  from  the  path  of  God,  persuaded  Hava  (Eve) 
to  eat  of  the  tree  of  knowledge,  that  is,  to  trangress  one  of  the 
seven  commandments  which  He  gave,  and  then  the  glorified 
body  of  Adam,  and  the  animals,  became  sinful  and  miserable. 
But  the  Holy  One  said  to  Satan,  I  will  put  enmity  between 
thee,  Satan,  and  the  woman,  for  thou  shalt  try  to  lead  her 
astray  from  me,  but  she  shall  hate  thee,  ;  And  I  will  put 
enmity  between  thy  seed,'  the  passions,  or  bad  men,  '  and  her 
seed,'  the  Messiah,  and  the  people  beloved.  He  shall  finally 
overcome  thee,  and  take  thy  power :  '  It  shall  bruise  thy  head, 
and  thou  shalt  bruise  his  heel,' — the  heel  of  Messiah,  the  Son 
of  Ephraim,  that  is,  He,  the  Son  of  Ephraim,  shall,  by  the 
devices  of  the  devil,  be  killed ;  and  that  Messiah,  the  Son  of 
Ephraim,  was  Jeroboam.  He,  in  the  beginning,  was  a  pious 
and  good  man,  for  '  Jeroboam  was  a  mighty  man  of  valour;' 
but  as  soon  as  Satan  had  bruised  his  heel,  Jeroboam  made 
Israel  sin ;  but  the  Lord  has  given  him  his  kingdom  ;  he  shall, 
therefore,  be  the  first  Messiah  who  shall  be  put  to  death  ;  and 
they  shall  look  upon  that  Messiah  whom  they  have  pierced, 
and  mourn ;  for  Satan  has  bruised  his  heel,  and  Satan  bruises 
likewise  the  heel  of  poor  Israel,  for  we  poor  Jews  are,  alas !  in 
captivity.  For  Satan  has  induced  us  to  sin  ;  he  is  the  cause 
that  we  poor  Jews  sit  alone,  and  nobody  considers  us ;  but 

158  Travels  and  Adventures 

redemption  will  soon  come  to  poor  Israel,  and  those  children  of 
Jacob,  who  said  to  their  brother  Joseph,  '  Shalt  thou  indeed 
reign  over  us ;  or  shalt  thou  indeed  have  dominion  over  us  f 
(Gen.  xxx vii.  8)  have  said  to  Joseph,  in  a  prophetical  tone, 
'  And  we  will  also  be  my  Lord's  servants  ;  Ephraim  shall  not 
envy  Judah,  and  Judah  shall  not  vex  Ephraim.1  For  Messiah 
Ben  Ephraim,  and  Messiah  Ben  David,  shall  live  together  in 
peace,  and  then  the  mystery  of  the  three  initial  characters  of 
the  three  words,  thousand,  two  hundred,  and  ninety  (Dan. 
xii.  11),  DW™  DVIND  •£*  shall  be  fulfilled;  for  the  initial 
letter  of  fi&N  is  N,  of  DYWD  is  D,  of  DW/1  is  n.  Those  three 
characters  joined  together  form  the  word  /"1DN,  "truth;"  for 
the  whole  world  will  be  converted  to  the  truth,  J1DN  !" 

Rabbi  Mendel  was  at  this  time  occupied  in  compiling  several 
books  ;  one  on  the  beauty  of  creation — the  sun,  the  moon,  and 
the  stars ;  for  he  said  '  We  have  to  consider  the  heavens,  the 
moon,  and  the  stars,  in  order  to  see  the  beauty  of  God.  It  is 
true  that  many  philosophers  have  written  upon  this  subject, 
but  they  have  only  mentioned  the  stars  and  the  sun.  They 
have  forgotten  the  Creator  of  all  those  things ;  and  it  has  been 
verified  in  them  what  the  Prophet  says : — '  Also  he  hath  set 
the  world  in  their  heart,  so  that  no  man  can  find  out  the  work 
that  God  maketh  from  the  beginning  to  the  end.1 ' 

It  was  very  grievous  to  see  how  this  great  man  distorted  the 
clearest  passages  in  order  to  find  out  reasons  for  observing  the 
laws  of  the  Talmud.  He  translated  the  plain  words  in  Levi 
ticus  xviii.  30,  "  Ye  shall  keep  my  ordinance,"  by  "  Ye  shall 
make  an  ordinance  to  my  ordinance  ;"  for,  he  said,  "  As  poor 
Israel  was  to  wander  into  captivity,  it  was  possible  that  doubts 
would  arise  as  to  the  meaning  of  the  laws  of  Moses,  which 
would  make  it  impossible  for  them  to  be  kept,  and  therefore  the 
Rabbis  have  made,  in  addition,  317  other  laws,  in  order  to 
explain  the  first,  and  to  teach  by  what  method  they  could  be 
most  easily  kept ;  as  also  to  furnish  rules  whereby  they  could 
be  prevented  from  transgressing  them." 

Wolff,  then,  in  order  to  get  out  Mendel's  whole  opinion,  so 
as  better  to  show  to  him  the  truth  of  Christianity,  allowed  him 
to  speak  entirely  alone.  For  Wolff  observed  that  he  frequently 
agreed  with  the  Gospel  in  what  he  said ;  therefore  he  had  not 
to  combat  him,  but  merely  point  out  in  what  respects  the 
agreement  existed. 

Thus,  for  instance,  Mendel  spoke  about  spirits  moving  in  the 
air  ;  on  which  Wolff  immediately  referred  him  to  the  words  of 
Paul,  "  the  Prince  of  the  power  of  the  air." 

He  talked  also  about  the  two  Jerusalems — Jerusalem  be- 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  159 

neath  and  Jerusalem  above.  Then  Wolff  referred  him  to 
Revelation  xxi.,  where  it  is  spoken  about  Jerusalem  coming 
down  from  Heaven,  &c. 

But  the  acuteness  of  the  man  was  surprising,  for  he  imme 
diately  found  out  why  Wolff  allowed  him  to  go  on,  and  said, 
"I  am  afraid  to  speak,  and  tell  you  my  views,  for  you  at  once 
apply  it  all  to  your  own  purpose  !" 

Here  a  Jew  came  into  the  room,  and  said,  "  Why  do  you 
talk  with  Joseph  Wolff?  He  only  became  a  Christian  in  order 
to  become  rich." 

Rabbi  Mendel,  with  great  emphasis,  answered,  "  No,  I  will 
not  allow  that,  nor  admit  it.  There  is  undoubtedly  great  wis 
dom  in  Christianity.  There  is  a  spirit  of  inquiry  among  Jews, 
and  among  the  nations  at  large  in  our  present  time ;  and 
although  the  Jews  have  kept  themselves  for  nearly  2000  years 
aloof  from  idolatry,  that  spirit  (idolatry)  is  reviving  again  in 

So,  after  all,  Mendel  could  not  abstain  from  conversing  with 
Wolff;  and,  one  day,  Wolf  recited  the  Lord's  Prayer  to  him  ; 
when,  for  every  sentence,  Mendel  recited  a  verse  exactly  in 
harmony  with  it,  out  of  the  Old  Testament.  Wolff  then  said, 
"  I  thank  you,  Rabbi,  that  you  have  given  me  so  many  texts 
by  which  I  may  prove  to  the  Jews  that  Christ  came  not  to 
abolish  the  law,  but  to  fulfil  it !" 

A  Polish  Rabbi,  Joseph  Markowiz  by  name,  who  was  sup 
posed  to  be  a  Baal-Shem,  i.e.,  "  possessor  of  the  ineffable  name 
of  Jehovah,""  with  which  he  pretended  to  have  cured  many  sick 
persons,  and  performed  other  miracles,  and  had  so  gained  many 
thousand  piasters,  called  on  Wolff,  and  said,  "  I  will  now  speak 
with  you  as  a  friend,  and  tell  you  things  by  which  you  will 
perceive  that  you  have  not  to  do  with  a  fool.  The  Lord  said 
unto  Samuel,  4  Fill  thine  horn  with  oil  and  go,  and  I  will  send 
thee  to  Jesse  the  Bethelemite,  for  I  have  provided  me  a  king 
among  his  sons.'  And  Samuel  said,  '  How  can  I  go  ?  If  Saul 
hear  it  he  will  kill  me.'  And  the  Lord  said,  '  Take  an  heifer 
with  thee,  and  say  I  am  come  to  sacrifice  to  the  Lord.' " 

Rabbi  Joseph  Markowiz  inferred  from  this,  that  we  are  not 
obliged  to  die  as  martyrs  for  the  truth,  and  that  although  a  man 
believes  in  Christ,  he  need  not  confess  his  name  before  men,  if 
he  should  be  in  danger  from  doing  so  of  being  persecuted,  and 
deprived  of  his  property,  and  perhaps  of  his  life. 

Wolff  replied  that  the  passage  referred  to  merely  shows  that 
a  person  is  not  always  obliged  to  tell  the  whole  truth  to  those 
who  have  no  business  to  ask  for  it ;  but  as  soon  as  the  welfare 
of  immortal  souls  comes  to  be  concerned,  we  are  obliged  to 

160  Travels  and  Adventures 

declare  the  truth  whatever  it  may  cost  us ;  and  that  many 
prephets  had  died  for  the  truth.  Wolff  took  this  man  as 
instructor  to  read  the  Talmud  with ;  for  which  assistance  he 
paid  him.  Markowiz  said  to  Wolff,  "  I  will  show  you  some  pas 
sages  in  the  Talmud,  by  which  you  may  confute  and  astonish 
Rabbi  Mendel.  To-morrow  go  and  show  him  the  following 
passage  from  the  treatise  called  Nidda  (sect.  9,  page  61)  : — 
Rabbi  Joseph  says,  Thus  say  the  Rabbis,  '  the  command 
ments  shall  be  abolished,  when  he  that  is  to  come  shall  come.'' 
Then  argue  with  him,  and  say,  '  You  complain  that  Jesus 
abolished  the  ceremonial  law,  whilst  it  was  his  duty  to  do  this, 
if  He  was  the  true  Messiah.1  r  "He  that  is  to  come  shall 
come,""  is  a  common  expression  in  the  Talmud  when  referring 
to  the  Messiah.  So,  next  day,  Wolff  went  to  Rabbi  Mendel, 
and  produced  that  argument ;  whereupon  Rabbi  Mendel  at 
once  said,  "  This  you  have  not  got  from  yourself,  but  from 
that  hypocrite  Rabbi  Joseph  Markowiz.  He  shall  not  be  sent 
forth  as  apostle  for  collecting  money  for  the  congregation  of 

Just  then,  Rabbi  Joseph  Markowiz,  who  lived  close  by, 
slipped  into  the  room,  and  Rabbi  Mendel  remonstrated  with 
him  for  what  he  had  done,  and  told  him,  "  You  shall  not  be 
sent  forth  as  apostle."  But  Markowiz  denied  the  whole. 
Wolff,  however,  was  obliged  to  admit  the  fact,  but  the  impu 
dence  of  the  fellow  was  astonishing  ;  for,  although  he  had 
denied  his  own  interference  so  positively,  yet,  the  very  next 
time  that  Wolff  came  to  him  for  his  lesson,  he  showed  to  him 
a  passage  still  more  forcible  in  the  very  same  treatise.  The 
word  Khazir,  which  means  pig  or  pork,  is  analyzed,  and  it  is 
said  that  the  first  meaning  is  overturned',  thereupon,  the 
question  is  asked,  "Why  has  it  that  meaning?"  and  the 
answer  given  is  this,  "  That  the  moment  the  Messiah  shall 
arrive,  the  law,  with  regard  to  eating  pork,  shall  be  overturned 
or  upset." 

Once  more  Wolff  went  to  Rabbi  Mendel,  but  when  he 
showed  him  that  passage,  Rabbi  Mendel  said  again,  "  This  is 
not  from  your  own  learning :  this  is  again  Rabbi  Joseph 
Markowiz  !  " 

Young  Rabbi  Isaac,  son  of  Solomon,  the  engraver,  who  was 
about  fifteen  years  old,  of  a  most  beautiful  countenance,  and 
already  married,  was  so  angry  with  Rabbi  Joseph  Markowiz, 
that  he  said,  "  I  shall  go  and  tear  out  the  beard  of  that  old 
hypocrite ;  but,  first  of  all,  I  will  go  to  Joseph  Wolff,  and  will 
show  to  him  the  beauty  of  the  Talmud,  and  how  much  he 
will  be  a  loser,  when  the  Messiah  shall  come,  by  having  em- 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  161 

braced  the  Christian  religion."  So  this  youth  came  to  Joseph 
Wolff,  and  showed  to  him  in  the  Talmud,  the  following 
passage  : — 

"  Rabbi  Ellazar  was  wandering  in  the  desert,  when  he  saw 
two  geese  who  were  so  fat,  that  their  grease  dropped  from 
them,  and  ran  through  the  desert,  and  formed  a  river.  Now, 
Ellazar  knew  that  these  geese  were  to  be  kept  for  the  feast, 
which  the  Messiah  will  give  to  the  Jews  when  he  comes, 
so  said  he  to  one  of  them,  '  Oh,  thou  goose  !  what  part  shall  I 
eat  of  thee  ? ' — and  the  goose  showed  him  one  leg  :  then  he 
asked  the  same  question  of  the  other  goose,  and  the  other 
goose  showed  him  one  wing.  Ellazar  then  began  to  sigh,  and 
exclaimed,  '  Oh,  that  Israel  may  soon  cease  from  sinning,  in 
order  that  I  may  enjoy  the  wing  from  the  one  goose  and  the 
leg  from  the  other  !  ' 

Wolff,  who  never  laughed  at  anything  which  was  told  him 
seriously,  maintained  a  perfectly  grave  face,  and  said,  "  I 
thank  you  very  much,  Rabbi,  for  this  passage — a  most  inter 
esting  passage  it  is  !  " 

Rabbi  Isaac,  son  of  Solomon,  was  delighted  at  this  ;  and, 
running  at  once  to  Rabbi  Joseph  Markowiz,  said  to  him, 
"  Now,  I  have  shown  to  Rabbi  Wolff  a  passage  as  an  antidote 
to  those  you  have  pointed  out  to  him ;  "  and  he  told  him  the 
passage,  whereupon,  the  old  fellow  burst  into  a  fit  of  laughter, 
and  said,  "  Oh,  that  thou  may'st  have  a  black  year  !  *  Wolff' 
will  now  laugh  the  whole  day,  when  he  is  by  himself."  To 
which  Rabbi  Isaac  replied,  "  Thou  old  epicurean !  •(•  Wolff 
had  at  least  the  decency  not  to  laugh  in  my  presence,  but  thou 
laughest  already  in  my  very  face." 

Another  time,  Rabbi  Joseph  Markowiz  read  with  Wolff  the 
cabalistic  exposition  of  Genesis  xlix.  10,  in  the  remarkable 
book  called  Zohar,  when  his  wife  entered  the  room,  and  ex 
claimed,  'fOh  Rabbi,  may  you  live,  oh  my  love,  a  hundred 
years  !  I  am  afraid  that  by  your  spending  the  whole  night 
with  Rabbi  Joseph  Wolff,  the  whole  congregation  of  Israel  in 
Jerusalem  (may  it  soon  be  established  and  built  again  !)  will 
talk  about  it."  Rabbi  Joseph  Markowiz  replied  to  his  wife, 
<f  Go  home,  and  sleep  sweetly,  and  live  a  hundred  years,  and 
let  the  whole  congregation  of  Israel  talk  about  it ;  for  I  am 
Rabbi  Joseph  Markowiz,  and  surely  one  word  of  mine  will 
silence  the  whole  congregation  of  Israel."  They  then  pro 
ceeded  with  their  book,  which  was  composed  by  Rabbi  Simon 
Ben  Yohay,  where,  in  the  explanation  of  the  word  "  Shiloh," 

*  A  Jewish  curse. 

f  So  they  commonly  called  the  apostate  Jews. 


162  Travels  and  Adventures 

it  says,  "  This  is  Messiah,  and  it  is  spelt,  not  like  Shiloh  the 
city,  with  the  letters  Joel  and  Vau,  but  with  the  letters  JOB 
and  HE,  which  compose  the  name  of  God  ;  and  this  is  so, 
because  the  fulness  of  the  Godhead  is  bodily  in  the  Messiah." 
On  perusing  this  with  Rabbi  Joseph  Markowiz,  the  old  fox 
remarked,  "  This  will  make  Kabbi  Mendel  dance  !  " 

Next  day,  Wolff  came  to  Rabbi  Mendel,  and  read  the  pas 
sage  to  him,  together  with  those  words  of  St.  Paul,  "  The 
fulness  of  the  Godhead  dwelt  in  him  bodily."  Rabbi  Mendel 
said  at  once,  "Here,  again,  I  smell  Rabbi  Joseph  Markowiz!" 
And,  in  the  midst  of  the  anger  which  he  and  the  others  felt, 
in  came  Rabbi  Joseph  Markowiz  himself  again ;  and  the  whole 
party  of  Jews  fell  upon  him,  and  called  him  "  An  old  rascal." 
Markowiz,  as  was  his  custom,  sat  all  the  while  in  a  chair, 
leaning  on  his  stick,  and  swinging  to  and  fro,  and  he  said, 
"  Why  am  I  a  rascal  ?  Ought  we  not  to  prepare  Wolff  for 
defending  himself?  Will  it  make  us  Christians  if  we  do  so? 
The  passage  has  stood  for  ages  in  our  books,  and  yet  we  are 
still  Jews." 

They  shouted  out,  "  You  shall  be  excommunicated." 
"What  use  will  this  be  to  you?"  cried  he.  "Your  name 
and  remembrance  shall  be  blotted  out  from  the  book  of  life  ! " 
they  rejoined  ;  whereupon  Rabbi  Joseph  Markowiz  walked 
off,  his  shoulders  shaking  with  laughter  5  and,  said  he  to 
Wolff,  "  See  how  I  support  you  !  " 

It  should  be  remarked  that  this  conduct  of  Rabbi  Joseph 
Markowiz  taught  Wolff  a  very  valuable  lesson,  for  it  caused 
him  to  study  the  Rabbinical  writings  with  all  possible  earnest 
ness  and  attention. 

This  Rabbi  Joseph  Markowiz  was  a  most  extraordinary 
fellow.  Once  he  travelled  to  Sidon,  and  found  a  blind  Jew 
there.  This  blind  Jew  asked  him  to  give  him  a  charm,  in 
order  that  he  might  receive  his  sight ;  for  which  he  paid  him 
in  advance,  several  dollars.  After  Markowiz  had  got  the 
dollars,  he  walked  off,  saying  to  Rabbi  Abraham,  who  accom 
panied  him,  "  There  is  one  thing  quite  certain, — the  man  will 
never  see  those  dollars  again  !  " 

One  story  more  of  an  absurd  method  resorted  to  for  con 
verting  Joseph  Wolff,  and  then  shall  follow  some  affecting 
histories  of  these  Jews  at  Jerusalem.  Rabbi  Mendel  said  one 
day  to  his  disciples,  "  I  shall  make  a  last  attempt  at  converting 
Joseph  Wolff,  which  I  hope  will  succeed.  I  shall  invite  him 
to  dine  with  me  some  day,  on  a  Saturday,  when  1  will  give 
him  a  good  deal  of  hug  el  to  eat,  over  which  I  shall  ask  the 
blessing ;  and  I  hope  that  the  saying  will  be  verified  in  him. 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  163 

'  he  that  eateth  much  kugel  on  the  sabbath  will  become  a  good 
Jew.' '  Kugel  is  a  sort  of  dumpling.  Wolff  was  invited, 
and  Rabbi  Mendel  very  much  enjoyed  seeing  his  appetite,  and 
after  he  had  eaten  a  great  deal  of  kugel,  Rabbi  Mendel  asked 
him,  "  What  do  you  think  now  of  the  Talmud  2 "  Wolff 
replied,  "  The  Talmud  is  a  lie  from  the  beginning  to  the  end." 
Poor  R^bbi  Mendel !  Soon  after  Wolff's  departure  from 
Jerusalem,  the  Turkish  governor  sent  for  that  worthy  man. 
and  got  him  bastinadoed  on  the  soles  of  his  feet,  in  order  to 
extort  money  from  him.  Most  fortunately,  however,  the 
Spanish  Consul,  and  Mr.  Lewis,  a  missionary,  were  there,  and 
claimed  him ;  and  so  he  was  released  from  the  Governor's 
house.  Now  for  some  affecting  stories  after  these  ridiculous 

Rabbi  Isaac  Ben  Solomon,  the  interesting  young  Jew 
already  described,  had  a  sister  who  was  married  to  another 
Jew,  Zacharias,  the  son  of  Jeremiah,  by  name,  who  was  also  a 
most  interesting  young  man,  with  a  beautiful  countenance  and 
bushy  locks.  Zacharias1  wife  died,  namely,  the  sister  of  Isaac 
Ben  Solomon,  and  six  weeks  afterwards  he  married  again. 
Isaac  Ben  Solomon  henceforth  became  a  deadly  enemy  of 
Zacharias,  because  he  could  so  soon  forget  his  sister.  Wolff 
exhorted  him  to  forget  and  forgive,  but  in  vain.  But  Zacha 
rias,  the  son  of  Jeremiah,  began  to  be  very  ill,  and  his  beauty 
began  to  wither  away.  One  day  he  entered  the  synagogue, 
when  Solomon  was  also  there ;  and  Zacharius,  son  of  Jeremiah, 
exclaimed,  with  his  eyes  lifted  up  to  heaven,  and  with  a 
broken  voice  and  pale  countenance,  "  How  goodly  are  thy 
tents,  O  Jacob,  and  thy  tabernacle,  0  Israel  !  "  Rabbi  Isaac 
burst  into  tears  on  seeing  the  broken  countenance  of  his  former 
brother-in-law,  and  he  said  to  him,  "Zacharias,  0  my  brother! 
Zacharias,  O  my  brother  !  pardon  me  !  "  And  Zacharias 
said  unto  Isaac,  "  Isaac,  pardon  me  ;  for  both  of  us  are  sons  of 
Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob.  Pardon  me,  pardon  me  !  "  And 
they  fell  around  each  other's  necks. 

Rabbi  Mendel  read  one  day  to  Joseph  Wolff  the  most 
affecting  story  of  an  incident  said  to  have  happened  soon  after 
the  destruction  of  Jerusalem  by  Titus.  Two  heathen  mer 
chants  met  together  in  an  inn  in  the  Desert.  "  I  have  a  male 
slave,"  said  one  to  the  other,  "  the  like  to  whose  beauty  is  not 
to  be  seen  in  the  whole  world."  And  the  other  said,  "  I 
have  a  female  slave,  the  like  of  whose  beauty  is  not  to  be  seen 
in  the  whole  world."  Then  they  agreed  to  marry  these  two 
together,  and  to  divide  the  children  between  them  ;  and  in  tho 
evening  both  the  slaves  were  brought  into  a  room.  One  stood 

M  2 

164  Travels  and  Adventures 

in  one  corner,  and  the  other  in  the  other  corner,  and  the  male 
slave  said,  "  I,  a  priest,  and  the  son  of  a  high-priest,  should  I 
marry  a  slave  I  "  and  the  female  said  in  the  other  corner  of 
the  room,  "  I,  a  priestess,  the  daughter  of  a  high-priest, 
should  I  marry  a  slave  2  "  and  when  the  morning  approached, 
they  discovered  that  they  were  brother  and  sister.  They  fell 
upon  each  other's  necks,  and  wept,  and  wept,  and  wopt,  until 
the  souls  of  both  departed.  And  it  is  on  account  of  this  that 
Jeremiah  said,  "  Over  these  I  weep,  I  weep  ;  mine  eye,  mine 
eye,  runs  down  with  water.1"1 

Another  story  of  the  same  sort.  A  boy,  seven  years  of  age, 
soon  after  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem,  was  put  into  prison  on 
account  of  the  debts  which  had  been  incurred  by  his  father. 
Rabbi  Hannan,  a  rich  learned  Jew,  and  one  who  was  a  light  in 
Israel,  heard  that  there  was  a  young  boy  in  the  prison,  of 
beautiful  countenance  and  high  intellect.  Eabbi  Hannan, 
therefore,  called  through  the  gate  of  the  prison,  "What  is  it 
that  gave  Jacob  to  the  spoil,  and  Israel  to  the  robbers  ?"  and  the 
boy  from  the  prison  replied,  in  a  melodious  voice,  "  Is  it  not 
because  we  would  not  walk  in  his  ways,  nor  obey  his  com 
mandment?"  Eabbi  Hannan  said,  "  I  shall  not  stir  from  this 
place,  until  I  have  ransomed  this  boy."  And  what  became  of 
that  boy  in  after-times  ?  He  was  none  else  but  Ishmael,  the 
high-priest,  the  son  of  Elijah,  the  high-priest. 

After  all  this,  Wolff  paid  a  visit  to  Bethlehem,  and  on  the 
road  he  delayed  at  the  tomb  of  Rachel,  the  mother  who 
refused  to  be  consoled  over  her  sons,  because  they  were  not. 
In  Bethlehem  he  read  in  the  very  field  of  the  shepherds  that 
song  of  the  glorified  spirits,  which  sounded  down  upon  earth 
from  their  native  sky,  "  Glory  to  God  in  the  highest ;"  and, 
in  anticipation  of  that  universal  peace  which  shall  be  estab 
lished  at  the  second  coming  of  the  Holy  Child  Jesus,  the 
spirits  added,  "  Peace  on  earth,  good-will  towards  men."  He 
also  visited  the  monastery  of  Mar-Saba,  on  his  road  to  the  river 
Jordan,  and  Sodom  and  Gomorrah ;  and  he  cannot  help 
thinking  that  it  was  somewhere  around  Saba  that  the  ancient 
Zoar  ("Is  it  not  a  little  one?")  stood;  and  that  there  Lot^s 
wife  looked  back,  as  we  frequently  look  back  to  the  scenery  of 
our  frail  life.  When  he  reached  Sodom  and  Gomorrah,  the 
place  seemed  awful ;  the  water  of  the  Dead  Sea  was  like  alum  ; 
and  who  can  deny,  when  looking  at  that  spot,  that  some  dire 
disaster  must  have  happened  there  ? 

Wolff  afterwards  returned  to  Bethlehem,  where  St.  Jerome 
translated  the  Bible ;  accompanying  his  labours  with  deep 
meditation  and  prayer.  How  often  are  his  words  before  Dr. 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  165 

Wolff's  mind,  as  lie  spoke  them  in  his  humility,  "  Tamar  has 
been  more  righteous  than  I  !"  (Genesis  xxxviii.,  26.)  Dr. 
Wolff,  like  Niebuhr,  is  a  great  admirer  of  St.  Jerome's  trans 
lation,  commonly  called  the  Vulgate.  He  even  prefers  reading 
it  to  the  original  Hebrew ;  and  modern  German  Protestants, 
with  all  their  vast  learning,  have  never  published  a  translation 
of  the  Bible  which  he  thinks  equal  either  to  the  Vulgate  in 
Latin,  or  to  the  authorized  English  version,  or  to  the  transla 
tion  of  the  great  Martin  Luther  into  German,  or  the  French 
translation  by  De  Sacy. 


Lady  Hester  Stanhope  and  her  Prophet;  Earthquake  at  Aleppo ; 
Massacre  of  Christians  at  Nicosia ;  Mediterranean ;  Stay  at 
Alexandria;  Holy  Land. 

WOLFF  went  from  Bethlehem  back  to  Jerusalem,  and  set 
out  on  his  journey  by  Jaffa  and  Samaria  to  Mount 
Lebanon,  circulating  everywhere  the  word  of  God.  He  then 
came  to  Trablous,  the  ancient  Tripolis.  Wolff  relates  that  he 
saw  there  the  Dowager  Mrs.  Katziflis,  and  her  twin  sons,  and 
her  three  daughters,  of  whom  he  asserts  that  they  were 
undoubtedly  the  most  beautiful  people  throughout  the  East ; 
and,  if  the  zeal  in  the  object  of  his  mission  had  not  preponde 
rated,  he  should  have  been  tempted  to  pay  his  court  to  Mrs. 
Katziflis.  She  combined  with  her  beauty  such  real  ladylike 
behaviour  as  he  never  before  or  afterwards  saw  among  the 
ladies  of  the  East.  Her  twin  sons  were  the  beau  ideal  of  well- 
educated,  well-informed  Eastern  gentlemen, — one  of  them 
being  the  English  Consul,  and  the  other  the  Austrian  Consul. 
Wolff  was  really  in  love  with  their  mother ;  so  that  Jonas 
King,  the  American  missionary  observing  it,  said  to  him, 
"Wolff,  say  what  you  please,  you  are  in  love  with  Mrs. 
Katziflis."  Wolff  replied,  "  You  need  not  say  to  me,  ;  Say 
what  you  please,1  for  I  never  told  you  I  was  not  in  love  with 
her."  Jonas  King  said,  "  Good-bye,  then,  to  the  mission  to 
the  Jews."  Wolff  replied,  "  I  will  just  ask  her  one  question, 
and  if  she  answers  that  satisfactorily,  she  shall  be  Mrs.  Wolff 
to-morrow."  And  Wolff  asked  this  lady  what  she  thought  of 
the  conversion  of  the  Jews  \  when  she  replied,  that  if  the  Jews 
ever  became  Christians,  she  would  herself  become  a  Turk,  and 
curse  the  Jews  for  having  forced  her  to  forsake  her  beautiful 
and  holy  religion ! 

166  7 ravels  and  Adventures 

Wolff.—"  But  I  have  been  a  Jew  !" 

Mrs.  Katziflis, — "  We  all  here  say,  that  you  are  so  different 
from  all  the  Jews  in  features,  look,  and  actions  ;  that  we  are 
persuaded  you  must  have  been  the  illegitimate  son  of  some 
Christian  nobleman." 

Wolff  left  her  at  that  very  moment  when  she  spoke  ;  just 
as  the  Knight  Delorges  left  the  Lady  Kunigund  when  she 
sent  him  down  into  the  arena  to  fetch  her  glove,  as  described 
by  Schiller  in  his  Handschuh. 

Wolff  proceeded  to  Latakia,  and  lived  in  the  house  of  Moses 
Elias,  a  most  respectable  native,  who  acted  as  English  Consul. 
He  circulated  the  word  of  God  among  the  Mussulmans,  but 
this  aroused  their  fanaticism  in  a  most  alarming  manner,  so 
that  they  exclaimed,  "  The  time  seems  approaching  when 
Christians  shall  again  take  the  country !"  However,  the 
ferment  passed  over  without  serious  consequences. 

Wolff  witnessed,  at  Latakia,  the  result  of  an  engagement 
between  the  widow  lady,  Madame  Lanusse,  and  a  French 
attache.  Although  the  lady  was  of  French  extraction,  she 
had  received  an  Eastern  education,  and  her  mode  of  thinking 
was  entirely  Eastern.  She  said  to  her  lover,  who  had  pro 
posed  to  marry  her,  "  I  will  wait  for  you  twelve  months,  and 
if  you  do  not  come  then  and  marry  me,  I  shall  marry  Mon 
sieur  Vidal."  Her  lover  did  not  come  after  one  year,  neither 
did  Vidal ;  so  she  was  disappointed  in  both  suitors ;  and 
Wolff  heard  that  she  coolly  said,  "  Now,  I  must  try  a  third, 
and,  if  this  does  not  succeed,  a  fourth." 

Wolff  went  with  Monsieur  Vidal  to  the  French  Consul  of 
Bagdad,  and  then  they  proceeded  to  Antioch  together.  On 
their  way,  Wolff,  in  all  earnestness,  committed  the  egregious 
folly  of  asking,  in  the  midst  of  the  Desert,  that  a  Bedouin 
would  make  him  a  good  cup  of  chocolate.  This  caused  Vidal 
to  burst  with  laughter ;  and  with  this  very  pleasant  compa 
nion,  Wolff  at  last  arrived  in  Antioch,  and  was  received  in  the 
most  cordial  manner  by  John  Barker,  ;Esq.,  Her  Majesty's 
British  Consul-General  for  Aleppo.  This  gentleman  was  mar 
ried  to  a  Miss  Abbot,  whose  mother,  Mrs.  Abbot,  was  still 
living  at  Aleppo,  a  lady  of  extraordinary  character,  and  whom 
we  must  at  once  describe.  Mrs.  Abbot's  parents  were  both 
Greek,  and  her  husband  was  also  born  of  a  Greek  mother,  and 
a  Levantine  Englishman.  This  good  lady  was  most  fana 
tically  attached  to  her  Church ;  so  much  so,  that  one  day, 
when  the  Greek  bishop  left  Aleppo,  he  felt  safe  in  leaving  all 
the  secular  affairs  of  the  Church  under  her  care.  When  a 
Boinan  Catholic  missionary  once  called  upon  her,  with  the 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  167 

intention  of  converting  her,  she  combated  with  him  from  the 
Fathers  and  the  Bible 5  and  when  he  still  continued  to  urge 
upon  her  the  necessity  of  submitting  to  the  Pope,  she  said, 
"  Fiddle-de-dee  the  Pope."  She  then  put  aside  the  water-pipe 
which  she  was  smoking,  and,  sitting  near  the  fire-place,  she 
exclaimed,  taking  hold  of  the  poker,  "  If  you  don't  walk  out,  I 
will  give  you  such  an  argument  with  this  poker  as  you  will 
find  a  little  hard,  and  you  will  find  it  an  impressive  one,  I 
warn  you  !"  She  was  a  fat,  active,  determined,  well-read  lady, 
and  the  Roman  Catholic  ran  away  as  fast  as  he  could,  wishing 
to  spare  himself  martyrdom  for  some  better  occasion. 

But  to  return  to  the  reception  Dr.  Wolff  met  with  from  Mr. 
Barker,  the  British  Consul-General.  This  gentleman  was 
living  a  little  way  out  of  Antioch  at  that  time,  where  he  culti 
vated  the  ground  of  his  garden,  at  his  country-house  in  a  little 
village  called  Suedia. 

Wolff  talked  over  with  him  many  high  characters  of 
England,  and  at  last  the  conversation  fell  upon  Lady  Hester 
Stanhope,  who  was  settled  at  Mar-Elias,  in  Mount  Lebanon. 
She  had  then  living  with  her  as  guest,  and  protege,  Monsieur 
Lustaneau,  whom  she  called  par  excellence,  and  ordered  all  her 
servants  to  caller  excellence,  "Le  Prophete." 

This  Monsieur  Lustaneau,  a  Frenchman  of  high  birth,  had 
served  for  many  years  among  the  Mahrattas  in  India,  as 
General  to  Tippoo  Saib,  against  the  English.  He  had  re 
ceived  from  that  prince,  on  account  of  his  bravery  and  skill, 
the  title  of  "  Lion  in  war,  and  Tiger  in  battle,"  a  fact  which 
he  himself  told  Dr.  Wolff  in  the  year  1823,  and  which  was 
confirmed  to  him  in  India  by  Colonel  J.  Skinner,  of  the  Light 
Horse,  in  1832.  General  Lustaneau  had  lost  an  arm  in 
battle,  and  was  once  possessor  of  the  largest  diamond  in  the 
world ;  but  he  was  cheated  out  of  it,  but  in  what  manner  was 
unknown  to  Dr.  Wolff.  Tired  of  an  active  life,  he  formed  the 
resolution  of  becoming  a  hermit  upon  Mount  Carmel,  in  1812  ; 
and  in  the  year  1815,  when  Lady  Hester  Stanhope  met  him 
upon  Mount  Carmel,  he  said  to  her,  "Madame,  le  moment  que 
je  parle  avec  vous,  V  Empereur  Napoleon  a  echappe  de  V  lie 
d'  Elbe!"  Lady  Hester  took  down  the  date  of  this  conver 
sation  ;  and  several  months  afterwards,  she  received  a  letter 
from  England,  giving  her  the  tidings  of  the  escape  of  Na 
poleon,  and  at  that  very  day  and  hour  when  it  was  predicted 
to  her  by  Monsieur  Lustaneau.  Her  ladyship  received  him 
into  her  house,  which  she  called  Mar-Elias,  near  Saida  ;  and 
she  ordered  her  household  strictly  to  address  him  as  "the 
Prophet."  On  his  afterwards  attempting  to  convert  her  lady- 

168  Travels  and  Adventures 

ship  to  Christianity,  for  she  had  become  a  Druse,  she  turned 
him  out  of  the  house ;  and  then  he  took  shelter  in  the  house 
of  Monsieur  lleignauld,  the  French  Consul  of  Saida,  where  he 
carried  on  with  Lady  Hester  a  violent  correspondence.  She 
wrote  to  him  one  day,  as  he  himself  told  Wolff,  "  I  have 
never  been  a  Christian,  nor  shall  I  ever  be  one."  He  wrote 
to  her,  in  answer,  u  If  you  become  a  Christian,  God  will  not 
gain  anything  by  it, — if  you  don't  become  a  Christian,  He  will 
not  lose  anything  by  it."  Whether,  however,  this  man 
really  predicted  the  escape  of  Napoleon,  Dr.  Wolff  cannot 
vouch  for,  but  the  following  fact  he  is  sure  of,  and  could  affirm 
with  an  oath. 

Wolff  arrived  in  the  hospitable  dwelling  of  John  Barker, 
Esq.,  British  Consul-General  of  Aleppo  and  Antioch,  in  the 
year  1822,  and  the  conversation  turning  upon  Lady  Hester 
Stanhope,  Barker  said  to  Wolff,  "She  is  undoubtedly  crazy, 
and  as  a  proof  of  it,  I  will  show  yon  this  letter."  Her  letter 
was  written  in  April,  1821.  Wolff  was  in  Antioch  with  Mr. 
Barker  in  May,  1822  :  the  letter  was  as  follows  : — "  My  dear 
Mr.  Barker,  I  beseech  you  not  to  go  to  Aleppo  or  Antioch,  for 
both  cities  will  be  utterly  destroyed  in  about  a  year.  I  tell 
you  this  in  the  name  of  the  prophet  Lustaneau."  Barker  and 
Wolff  both  smiled,  and  soon  afterwards  Wolff  proceeded  to 
Aleppo,  remaining  there  as  the  guest  of  Monsieur  Masseyk, 
the  Dutch  Consul-General.  Aleppo  was  a  beautiful  town ; 
the  climate  most  delicious  ;  the  houses  were  like  palaces  ;  the 
people  lived  together  in  harmony,  and  visited  one  another — 
Europeans,  Arabs,  Christians,  and  Turks.  In  the  evening,  if 
one  walked  about  upon  the  terraces  of  the  town,  ladies  and 
gentlemen  would  be  seen  smoking  narghili,  studded  with  dia 
monds  and  pearls ;  and  a  dervish,  from  Bagdad,  would  be 

"  If  this  beautiful  lady  of  Sheeraz 

Would  give  me  her  heart, 

I  would  give  for  one  mole  of  her  cheek 

All  the  treasures  of  Samarcand  and  Bokhara." 
Another  would  sing-— 

"  To  attempt  to  possess  God  and  the  world 

Is  altogether  vain  imagination  and  folly.'' 

Wolff  circulated  the  word  of  God  amongst  all  the  inhabi-* 
tants  of  Aleppo  in  Hebrew,  and  Arabic,  and  Persian. 

One  day,  during  his  residence  here,  Jews  came  to  him,  of 
high  respectability,  and  asked  of  him  the  grand  question, 
44  Who  Jesus  was!"  Wolff  replied,  "the  Son  of  God  I  God 
above  all,  blessed  for  ever."  He  felt  great  joy  in  making  this 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  169 

confession  ;  but  the  Jews  rose  in  indignation,  and  exclaimed, 
"  We  have  neither  heard  nor  seen  it,"  and  walked  off.  Spirits 
of  those  deceased  Rabbis,  you  have  both  heard  and  seen  it 
now  !  One  remarkable  fact  occurred.  One  of  the  Jews  thus 
argued  with  publicly  proclaimed,  "Wolff  is  right:"  and  on 
the  next  day  he  was  found  dead  in  his  bed. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  month  of  August,  1822,  Wolff  was 
invited  to  dine  with  Monsieur  Lesseps,  the  French  Consul- 
General  of  Aleppo,  a  gentleman  of  the  highest  consequence,  a 
personal  friend  of  Napoleon  le  Grand ;  Chevalier  de  la  Legion 
d'Honneur,  and  who  had  been  ambassador  to  Morocco.  He 
was  father  to  the  present  Monsieur  Lesseps,  who  is  now  in 
Egypt.  Whilst  Wolft  was  sitting  at  dinner,  Monsieur 
Derche,  interpreter  to  the  French  Consul,  a  gentleman  of 
great  accomplishments,  with  much  French  action,  and  who 
had  just  arrived  from  Lady  Hester  Stanhope,  was  asked  by 
Monsieur  Lesseps,  "What  does  Lady  Hester  say?"  Derche 
replied,  "  She  warned  me  with  great  earnestness,  not  to  go  to 
Aleppo  ;  for,  she  said,  in  less  than  a  fortnight,  in  the  name  of 
the  Prophete  Lustaneau,  Aleppo  and  Antioch  will  be  de 
stroyed."  Monsieur  Lesseps  asked,  "in  what  way ?"  When 
Derche,  waving  both  his  hands,  answered,  "par  une  tremble- 
ment  de  terre  "  (by  an  earthquake). 

A  few  days  after  this  occurrence,  Wolff,  accompanied  by  his 
servant,  left  Aleppo  with  a  small  caravan  of  not  more  than  six 
people.  They  quitted  Aleppo  in  the  afternoon,  and  went  as 
far  as  Juseea  (on  their  way  to  Latakia),  about  ten  miles  from 
Aleppo,  and  they  spread  out  their  carpets,  in  the  midst  of  the 
Desert,  and  encamped  for  the  night,  at  about  a  hundred  yards 
from  the  village  itself.  Juseea  was  inhabited  by  the  ancient 
Anzairees,  worshippers  of  the  Syrian  Alilath,  and  they  came 
out  and  asked  Wolff  why  he  would  not  come  to  their  houses 
in  the  village  and  sleep  ? — begging  him  to  do  so.  But  he  de 
clined,  saying  he  preferred  to  sleep  in  the  open  air ;  for,  truly, 
those  Eastern  villages  are  often  much  infested  by  vermin. 

The  Anzairees,  therefore,  remained  for  a  while  with  Wolff, 
and  they  all  smoked  together;  there  being  also,  at  about 
twenty  yards  from  them,  a  party  of  Bedouin  Arabs,  who  had 
their  tents  pitched  there  at  the  time,  and  were  sitting  round 
their  fires.  Wolff  presently  took  out  his  Bible,  and  began  to 
read  from  it  to  the  Anzairees,  when  suddenly  he  felt  some 
thing  move  under  him,  as  if  a  pocket  handkerchief  had  been 
drawn  from  below  him.  Immediately  after,  all  at  once,  the 
very  earth  moved  in  a  horizontal  direction,  accompanied  by  a 
howling  and  thundering  like  that  of  cannon.  Wolft  believed 

170  Travels  and  Adventures 

the  howling  to  be  that  of  the  tormented  spirits  in  hell 
itself.  All  the  party  at  once  rose,  and  springing  up,  tried 
to  hold  themselves  fast,  as  it  were  by  the  air.  And  now, 
before  their  very  eyes,  the  houses  of  their  village  Juseea 
fell  clown,  and  one  universal  cry  arose.  The  Anzairees  ex 
claimed,  "  Ya  Lateef !  Ya  Lateef!  Ya  Lateef!"  Beneficent 
God!  Beneficent  God!  The  Arabs  shouted,  "Allah  Ak- 
bar  !  "  God  is  the  greatest !  Then  the  Anzairees  hastened 
to  the  spot  where  their  houses  had  stood  but  a  few  seconds 
before,  and  came  back  crying,  "  Merciful  God!  our  houses  arc 
gone,  our  wives,  our  children,  our  cattle,  are  all  gone  ! "  The 
first  grand  shock  lasted  two  minutes.  After  this,  shocks 
occurred  about  every  half  hour,  sometimes  ten,  twenty,  thirty, 
or  even  eighty  shocks  at  a  time. 

Oh,  what  a  change  had  come  over  the  Desert !  A  few 
moments  before,  it  was  silent  as  night ;  and  now  it  was 
covered  with  the  wild  Arabs  and  Bedouins,  who  were  flying 
over  the  plain  on  their  horses  in  their  barnooses,  with  the 
hoods  drawn  over  their  heads,  like  eagles  cleaving  the  air. 
The  horses  frequently,  whenever  a  shock  was  felt,  mounted 
upon  their  hind  legs,  threatening  to  pull  down  the  horseman, 
but  the  Bedouin,  stretching  himself  upon  the  whole  horse,  put 
him  down  again  upon  his  fore  legs,  while  he  continually  ex 
claimed — "  This  is  of  the  Lord,  this  is  of  the  Lord  !  "  This  is 
beautiful  in  the  East,  that  the  people  always  come  to  the 
prime  cause  in  everything — to  God  Himself.  They  do  not,  as 
Europeans  do,  invariably  dwell  upon  second  causes  ;  but  they 
refer  every  event  at  once  to  the  Overruler  of  the  world.  And 
Wolff  thinks  that,  as  light  came  in  former  times  from  the 
East,  so  it  will  shine  from  the  East  again  ;  and  he  thinks  that 
our  Lord  meant  the  same  by  his  words,  "As  the  lightning 
cometh  from  the  east,  and  shineth  to  the  west,  so  shall  be  the 
coming  of  the  Son  of  Man."  He  thinks,  too,  that  this  future 
light  is  not  to  come  only  from  the  Jews,  but  also  from  the 
Greek,  Armenian,  and  Jacobite  Christians.  And  that  Light 
shall  chiefly  come  after  the  FULNESS  OF  THE  GENTILES,  i.  e. 
the  Ten  Tribes  shall  come  in ! 

Wolff  immediately  sent  an  express  messenger,  through  the 
Desert,  to  Mr.  Barker,  who,  he  had  heard,  had  escaped,  in  a 
miraculous  manner,  by  creeping  forth  from  the  ruins  of  his 
house,  untouched,  with  their  child  of  six  years  old  !  The 
whole  of  Aleppo,  Antioch,  Latakia,  Hums,  and  Hama,  had 
been  destroyed,  and  all  the  villages  within  twenty  miles 
round  ;  and  60,000  people  had  been  thus  plunged  into  an  aw 
ful  eternity.  He  proceeded  to  Latakia,  where  he  found  the 

of  fir.  Wolff.  171 

inhabitants  outside  the  town,  with  pale  faces ;  and  dead  bodies 
were  lying  in  the  streets.  Wolff  said  to  these  people,  and  to 
the  Greek  and  Italian  Christians,  "  Come,  and  let  us  kneel 
down  and  pray  : "  and  he  offered  up  an  Italian  prayer.  But, 
in  the  midst  of  his  prayer,  like  the  wreck  of  a  ship,  came 
another  shock,  and  they  all  rose,  exclaiming,  "  Merciful  God, 
the  day  of  judgment  has  come  !"  To  increase  the  confusion, 
a  magician  arrived  at  the  spot,  and  said,  "  This  evening  a 
deluge  will  come,  and  the  whole  world  will  be  destroyed.  All 
mankind  shall  be  again  destroyed  !"  Wolff  exclaimed,  "Thou 
art  a  liar,  for  thou  hast  contradicted  the  Scriptures,  which  say 
that  the  earth  shall  never  again  be  destroyed  by  water."  A 
cavalcade  now  arrived  from  Aleppo,  composed  of  Jews,  Arabs, 
Turks,  soldiers,  women,  and  children;  and  amongst  them  was 
a  dervish,  whose  voice  was  heard  from  a  distance,  singing — 

"  And  thus,  thus,  O  Aleppo,  and  thus,  thus,  Aleppo, 
All  thy  beauty  is  gone !" 

The  Turks  looked  pitifully  at  Wolff,  and  said,  "  How  do 
you  do  ?"  He  replied,  "  Well.""  They  answered,  "  God  be 
praised ;"  and,  beating  their  breasts,  they  exclaimed,  one, 
"My  father  is  dead;"  another — "My  brother  is  dead;"  a 
third — "  My  wife  is  dead."  And,  two  years  afterwards,  when 
Wolff  returned  to  Aleppo,  the  survivors  had  not  yet  rebuilt 
their  houses,  and  were  still  exclaiming,  "  Oh,  God !  oh,  God  ! 
Thou  hast  broken  our  bones,  and  joy  and  gladness  have  gone 
away."  Thus  was  the  passage  in  the  Psalms,  li.,  8th  verse, 
explained,  "Make  me  to  hear  joy  and  gladness,  that  the  bones 
which  thou  hast  broken  may  rejoice." 

One  or  two  very  curious  incidents  must  not  be  forgotten. 
The  house  where  Mrs.  Abbot  lived,  the  lady  already  alluded 
to,  was  entirely  destroyed,  except  her  own  room  and  the 
kitchen.  When  all  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  ran  out,  and 
built  themselves  little  huts  or  tents,  she  remained  quiet  and 
unmoved,  and  said,  "  Why  should  I  be  such  a  fool  as  to 
trouble  myselt  to  move ;  I  am  comfortable  here,  and  smoke 
quietly  my  galyoon.  I  am  not  such  a  fool  as  to  expose  my 
life  to  the  falling  houses ;  and  I  shall  drink  my  coffee  as  usual, 
and  my  servants  will  remain  with  me."  And,  one  month  after 
the  event  had  occurred  this  very  Mrs.  Abbot  waddled  out  of 
the  town  to  see  how  her  relations  were  going  on,  and  found 
them  in  Ketab,  the  little  village  of  huts  which  had  just  been  built. 
Several  were  dead ;  but  those  she  found  she  lectured  upon  their 
folly ;  and,  after  a  few  hours'  stay,  returned  to  her  house  in  Aleppo. 

Another  still  more  remarkable  circumstance  was  this.     A 

172  Travels  and  Adventures 

great  tyrant  lived  at  Aleppo,  feared  equally  by  Jews,  Euro 
peans,  and  Muhammadans.  He  had  been  raised  by  the  Em 
peror  of  Austria  to  the  rank  of  Nobleman,  and  Consul-General 
of  the  whole  of  Syria.  He  was  of  an  illustrious  family  of  the 
Spanish  Jews,  whose  descendants  had  been  compelled  to  em 
brace  the  Christian  religion  under  Ferdinand  and  Isabella. 
His  name  was  Ezra  de  Picciotto.  He  had,  one  hundred  days 
before  the  earthquake,  sent  an  Austrian  subject  out  of  the  town 
in  irons.  One  of  the  Turks  who  heard  of  this,  said,  quite 
coolly,  and  without  moving  his  muscles,  the  beads  being  in  his 
hands,  "  Count  to-day  one,  to-morrow  two,  till  you  have  counted 
one  hundred  days.  After  one  hundred  days,  Ezra  de  Picciotto 
will  die.  Masseyk,  the  Dutch  Consul-General,  a  man  who 
never  lied,  told  Wolff  that  he  had  counted  ninety-nine  beads, 
as  the  Turk  had  said,  and  when  he  was  about  to  count  the  one- 
hundreth  the  earthquake  happened,  and  Ezra  was  killed  by  the 
first  shock. 

Wolff  went  from  Latakia  to  the  island  of  Cyprus,  and 
landed  in  Larnaca,  which  is  one  of  the  chief  towns.  There, 
on  the  sea  coast,  he  heard  from  the  British  Consul,  Vondiziano, 
that  the  Greek  Christians  in  Nicosia  were  in  the  highest 
danger,  for  a  massacre  of  them  was  being  perpetrated  by  the 
Turks,  who  falsely  accused  them  of  joining  with  the  rebels 
against  the  Turkish  empire.  Wolff  therefore  hastened  on  to 
Nicosia,  and  when  he  arrived  there  the  Archbishop,  Kurillos 
by  name,  and  127  Christians  besides,  had  already  been  put  to 
death.  Wolff  heard  from  the  Greek  and  European  inhabi 
tants  all  the  particulars  of  this  slaughter :  and  was  told  that 
the  Archbishop  had  been  offered  his  life  on  consideration  that 
lie  would  become  a  Muhammadan.  But  the  Archbishop  pointed 
to  his  white  beard,  and  said,  "  I  have  served  my  Lord  as 
Bishop  of  this  flock  for  fifty  years ;  and  I  can  say,  with  Poly- 
carpus  of  old,  that  my  Lord  has  not  only  done  me  no  harm, 
but  has  saved  my  soul ;  and  should  I  be  so  ungrateful  as  to 
deny  his  name  ?"  Then  he  made  the  sign  of  the  cross,  and 
exclaimed,  "  Children,  I  set  you  an  example  ;"  and,  continuing 
to  make  the  holy  sign,  he  kept  on  saying,  "  Kyrie  eleison, 
Christe  eleison,"  until  he  was  decapitated. 

Wolff  saved  the  lives  of  six  of  the  Christians  by  his  earnest 
intercession  ;  and  t\vo  of  them  saved  their  own  miserable  ex 
istence  by  becoming  Muhammadans.  Wolff  also  took  under 
his  protection  many  of  the  children  of  the  primates  who  had 
lost  their  lives  ;  and  he  sent  some  of  them  to  England,  where 
they  remained  for  twenty  years,  under  the  patronage  of  Henry 
Drummond,  Lady  Carnegie,  Bishop  Terrot,  of  Edinburgh, 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  173 

and  Mr.  Storie,  of  Roseneath.  Amongst  those  thus  rescued, 
was  Demetrius  Pierides,  who  is  at  present  Inspector  of  Schools 
in  Cyprus. 

Paul  Pierides,  his  brother,  was  for  twenty  years  assistant- 
surgeon  to  the  Lunatic  Asylum  at  Perth,  in  Scotland,  and  is 
now  a  useful  physician  in  the  Isle  of  Cyprus  ;  and  Georgius 
Constantinides  is  an  influential  member  of  the  Greek  Govern 
ment  at  Athens. 

Wolff  went  from  the  Isle  of  Cyprus  on  an  excursion  to 
Damiat,  where  he  preached  to  the  Jews,  and  lodged  in  the 
house  of  the  British  vice-consul,  Mr.  Surur,  a  little,  clever, 
consequential  man ;  for  all  men  of  little  size  are  consequential, 
and  stand  up  for  their  rights  in  an  extraordinary  manner.  He 
one  day  said  to  Wolff,  "  To-day  you  will  see  me  in  my  glory, 
when  I  shall  appear  before  the  governor  of  Damiat,  as  repre 
sentative  of  his  most  excellent  Majesty,  the  King  of  England." 
He  then  dressed  himself  in  a  red  coat,  with  two  immensely 
large  epaulets,  such  as  no  general  of  the  British  army  ever 
wore.  His  silver  buttons  were  gilt  over  ;  he  wore  a  large 
three-cornered  hat,  with  feathers  two  feet  high,  and  boots  in 
which  three  dragoons  might  have  stood.  He  was  scarcely  able 
to  march  in  this  costume,  and  spoke  so  loud  that  one  could 
hear  him  from  an  immense  distance.  When  Dr.  Wolff  asked 
him  why  he  spoke  with  such  aloud  voice?  he  replied,  u  Great 
men  speak  with  a  loud  voice,  little  men  with  a  small  voice." 

Wolff  was  introduced  by  Mr.  Salt  to  his  highness  Muhammad 
All,  with  whom  he  conversed  on  the  importance  of  education, 
and  who  said  to  Wolff  that  he  was  often  forced  to  use  the  stick 
in  order  to  make  the  villagers  go  to  school.  Muhammad  Ali 
was  certainly  one  of  the  greatest  tyrants  that  ever  lived. 
Every  step  he  took  was  not  for  the  purpose  of  making  people 
happy,  but  for  the  establishment  of  his  own  power. 

Wolff  returned  to  Malta,  where  he  remained  a  few  weeks, 
and  then  joined  two  American  missionaries,  with  whom  he 
traversed  Alexandria,  Cairo,  and  Upper  Egypt.  And  when 
they  arrived  at  Alexandria,  neither  Mr.  Lee,  the  British 
consul,  nor  any  other  of  Wolff's  friends  happened  to  be  there, 
for  they  had  all  gone  to  Cairo,  so  that  Wolff*  and  his  fellow- 
missionaries  could  not  get  a  room  in  the  house  of  the  consulate. 
Therefore,  Signer  Vedova,  the  cancelliere  to  the  English  con 
sulate,  advised  them  to  go  and  stay  in  the  house  of  a  Jewess, 
Miss  Stella  by  name.  Soon  after  their  arrival  at  her  house, 
Wolff  and  his  companions,  Fisk  and  King,  sat  down  on  a 
divan,  and  they  began  to  smoke  the  Turkish  pipe,  according  to 
Eastern  custom,  when  several  Jews  and  Jewesses  came  in,  and 

174  Travels  and  Adventures 

sat  down  at  the  missionaries'  feet.  Wolff  then  began  to  speak 
to  them  of  Jesus  the  Son  of  David  ;  and  he  read  to  them 
several  chapters  out  of  the  Hebrew  Bible,  which  proved  that 
Jesus  of  Nazareth  was  He  of  whom  Moses  and  the  Prophets 
did  write.  Among  them  was  a  very  intelligent  Jew, 
and  Stella  .was  an  intelligent  Jewess ;  both  understood  the 
Hebrew,  and  they  asked  Wolff,  "What  do  you  believe ?" 
Wolff  replied,  "  I  believe  in  Moses  and  the  Prophets,  who  say 
that  Jesus  Christ  is  the  Messiah,  the  Son  of  God,  the  Holy 
One — blessed  be  He,  and  blessed  be  His  name ! "  Wolff  con 
tinued,  "  And  now  I  will  ask  you,  what  is  your  belief  ?"  All 
the  Jews  at  once  exclaimed,  "  We  believe  that  the  Holy  One 
— blessed  be  He,  He  who  is  blessed  in  Himself — is  truth ;  and 
Moses  is  truth ;  and  the  Prophets  are  truth  !" 

Wolff  replied,  "  You  do  neither  believe  in  the  Holy  One — 
blessed  be  He — nor  in  Moses,  nor  in  the  Prophets."  The  Jews 
answered,  in  a  stormy  manner,  "  God  forbid  that  we  should 
not  believe  in  Moses  and  the  Prophets."  Wolff  replied,  open 
ing  his  bible,  "  I  will  prove  by  this  very  book  that  you  do  not 
believe."  Miss  Stella,  the  Jewess,  with  a  dignified,  bold,  and 
determined  face,  acted  as  moderator ;  and  exclaimed,  with  a 
thundering  voice,  to  the  Jews,  "  Oh,  ye  cursed,  be  quiet  that 
Wolff  may  prove  it." 

Wolff  then  opened  his  bible,  and  read,  "  I  will  raise  them 
up  a  prophet  from  among  their  brethren  like  unto  thee,  and 
will  put  my  words  in  his  mouth,  and  he  shall  speak  unto  them 
that  I  shall  command  him ;  and  it  shall  come  to  pass  that 
whosoever  will  not  hearken  unto  my  words  which  he  shall 
speak  in  my  name,  I  will  require  of  him."  Then  Wolff  spoke 
for  two  hours,  proving  that  Jesus  of  Nazareth  had  been  that 
prophet  like  unto  Moses.  The  Jew  replied,  "  I  must  refer  to 
the  Talmud." 

Wolff  answered,  "  The  Talmud  is  a  lie  ;"  and  then  he  con 
tinued,  "  The  Talmud  is  a  lie  !  a  lie  ! !  a  lie  ! ! !"  He  then  showed 
them  the  passage  in  Zechariah,  chap.  xii.  verse  10,  "  And  I 
will  pour  upon  the  house  of  David,  and  upon  the  inhabitants 
of  Jerusalem  the  spirit  of  grace  and  of  supplication,  and  they 
shall  look  upon  him  whom  they  have  pierced,  and  mourn  ;" 
and  then  Wolff  proved  to  them  that  Jesus  was  He  whom  they 
had  pierced.  The  Jewess,  in  a  rage,  said  to  the  rest,  "  Oh, 
you  cursed  fellows,  you  have  not  been  able  to  answer  him ; 
why  do  you  not  answer  him."  Thus  Wolff  and  his  two  mis 
sionary  companions  spent  a  most  delightful  night,  conversing 
with  the  Jews. 

The  next  morning,  other  rabbis,  who  had  come  from  Poland, 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  175 

arrived  at  the  house,  and  attempted  to  argue,  but  they  said  at 
last,  "  My  Lord  Joseph  Wolff,  we  are  come  from  a  distant 
land,  and  we  have  been  sea-sick  with  great  sea-sickness,  and 
our  mind  is  therefore  confused  with  great  confusion.  So  we 
cannot  speak  to-day  great  words  of  wisdom,  and  understanding, 
and  skill ;  for  you  must  know,  my  lord,  that  we  are  wise  with 
wisdom,  and  we  are  beautiful  men,  and  we  are  honoured  with 
great  honour,  and  we  sit  in  the  first  seat  at  the  tables  of  the 
rich.  We  will  return  unto  you,  and  open  our  mouth  with 
wisdom,  and  speak  about  the  Holy  One — blessed  be  He,  and 
blessed  be  His  name  !"  They  then  left  Wolff,  but  before  they 
departed,  he  wrote  down  their  names  in  Hebrew  characters. 
When  they  saw  how  quickly  he  wrote,  they  said,  "  My  lord, 
you  are  very  strong  in  the  pen."  Here  the  conversation  ended. 
The  behaviour  of  the  hostess,  and  all  the  party,  was  very 
proper ;  and  they  showed  the  highest  respect  to  Wolff  and  his 
missionary  friends. 

The  next  morning,  Wolff  called  on  his  great  friend  Mr. 
Dumreicher,  the  Danish  Consul-General  of  Alexandria.  He 
received  him  with  the  greatest  kindness,  and  then  asked  Wolff, 
in  the  presence  of  about  twenty  Europeans,  "  Where  do  you 
lodge?"  Wolff  replied  "At  Miss  Stella's  the  Jewess ;"  when 
the  whole  party  burst  into  a  fit  of  laughter,  and  Dumreicher 
said,  "  Ah  !  this  is  a  fine  thing.  Do  you  know  who  Miss 
Stella  is  ?"  Wolff  asked,  "  Who  is  she?"  In  short,  she  was 
a  Kahab.  Wolff  said,  "  It  is  not  my  fault.  It  is  the  fault  of 
the  English  canceUiere,  Signor  Vedova  :  for  it  was  he  who  sent 
us  there.1' 

Wolff  immediately  went  home,  and  informed  his  friends 
Fisk  and  King.  But  Fisk  was  a  most  determined  fellow,  and 
said,  "  We  are  missionaries ;  and  to  whom  are  missionaries 
sent  but  to  sinners  ?  God  has  sent  us  here,  and  here  we  will 
remain  until  we  leave  Alexandria ;  and  if  the  devil  will  make 
a  fuss  about  it,  let  him  do  so.  And  so  they  remained.  The 
first  people  in  the  place  called  on  them.  Wolff  performed 
Divine  Service  in  the  house,  and  preached  in  Arabic,  German, 
Hebrew,  and  Italian ;  Fisk  in  English  and  modern  Greek ; 
and  King  in  French.  The  French  and  Italian  consuls  were 
among  the  congregation ;  and  Stella  and  all  the  Jews  behaved 
with  the  greatest  propriety ;  and  Wolff  will  surprise  the  public 
in  England  when  he  states,  that  throughout  his  journey  in 
Arabia  Felix,  he  found  such  houses  to  be  almost  the  only  inns 
in  existence. 

The  missionaries  divided  their  labours  among  themselves. 
Pliny  Fisk  and  Jonas  King  were  the  names  of  Wolff's  com- 

176  Travels  and  A  dventures 

panions.  Fisk  preached  in  the  Greek  language,  and  King  in 
French,  and  Wolff  in  Arabic,  Hebrew,  Italian,  Persian,  and 
German.  He  made  on  that  occasion  the  acquaintance  of 
Ishmael  Gibraltar,  and  also  of  a  young  Turk,  who  was  after 
wards  created  Pasha  by  the  Sultan  ;  and  this  was  the  first 
conversation  Joseph  Wolff  ever  had  with  Turks  of  high  con 
dition.  Whilst  in  Upper  Egypt,  with  his  friends,  who  occu 
pied  themselves  chiefly  in  measuring  and  examining  the  ruins 
of  Luxor,  Gorno,  Carnac,  and  Dendyra,  and  in  collecting  anti 
quities  and  mummies,  Wolff  was  employed  in  preaching  the 
Gospel  among  the  Coptic  people  in  Thebes,  Assuan,  Akmeem, 
where  Nestorius  lived,  and  Kenne  ;  and  then  he  returned  with 
Fisk  and  King  towards  Cairo.  WTolff  does  not  remark  in  any 
invidious  spirit  on  the  anxiety  of  these  American  missionaries 
to  make  themselves  acquainted  with  the  ruins  and  antiquities 
of  Egypt,  for  it  must  have  been  of  the  highest  interest  to 
citizens  of  the  New  World,  to  investigate  the  remains  of  some 
of  the  most  ancient  cities  of  the  world,  and  the  cradle  of  civi 

On  their  arrival  at  Cairo,  they  made  preparations  for  prose 
cuting  their  journey  through  the  Desert  to  Jesusalem.  Wolff 
went  on  in  perfect  harmony  with  these  good  men,  and  as  lie 
had  made  that  journey  before,  he  will  pass  swiftly  through  it 
now,  for  nothing  happened  except  an  adventure  with  a  dervish, 
who  had  sold  to  Wolff  a  drawing  of  the  city  of  Mecca,  to 
which  a  description  of  the  city  was  appended. 

On  his  arrival  in  Jerusalem,  this  dervish  called  on  Joseph 
Wolff,  in  the  Greek  monastery,  and  desired  him  to  lend  him 
the  drawing,  in  order  that  he  might  copy  something  out  of  it. 
Wolff  immediately  suspected  that  he  would  not  bring  back  the 
drawing  with  the  description  it  contained,  and  therefore  told 
him  that  he  must  make  his  copy  in  the  house.  To  this  the 
dervish  would  not  agree ;  so  the  next  day,  the  dervish  returned, 
and  brought  a  second  dervish,  and  he  told  Wolff  and  his  com 
panions  that  the  second  dervish  would  remain  with  them  until 
the  first  dervish  had  brought  back  the  picture.  Wolff  said, 
lie  could  not  keep  a  dervish  as  hostage,  for  being  a  dervish 
himself,  he  could  not  think  of  putting  such  an  insult  upon 
a  brother.  They  then  both  departed. 

On  the  following  day  a  summons  was  sent  by  the  Cadi  of 
Jerusalem  to  Wolff  and  the  American  missionaries,  ordering 
them  to  appear  instantly  before  the  tribunal  of  the  Cadi,  with 
the  drawing  of  Mecca,  which  the  dervish  had  lent  to  Joseph 
Wolff.  Joseph  Wolff  sent  word  to  the  Cadi  that  it  was  against 
the  capitulation  with  England  and  the  Sultan,  for  him  to 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  Ill 

appear  before  the  Cadi ;  and  that  an  Englishman  could  only 
be  sent  for  by  the  Governor  of  the  city  of  Jerusalem.  And 
so  all  three  missionaries  went  to  the  Governor,  accompanied  by 
the  English  Consul  of  Jerusalem,  who  had  come  with  them  to 

The  Governor,  a  most  polite  and  gentlemanly  man,  received 
them  with  the  greatest  respect ;  for  those  governors  who  came 
from  Stamboul,  as  he  did,  and  who  had  been  educated  at  the 
sublime  Porte,  are  perfect  gentlemen — surpassing  even  French 
men  in  their  elegant  deportment.  The  Governor  at  once  said 
that  the  dervish  had  also  been  to  him,  but  he  saw  in  his  face 
that  he  was  telling  a  lie,  so  he  sent  him  away.  This  was 
Turkish  justice — to  judge  by  the  outward  appearance  of  the 
accuser,  rather  than  examine  into  the  case.  But,  he  added, 
that  as  he  had  given  trouble  to  Wolff  and  his  friends,  he  would 
order  him  to  be  bastinadoed.  Wolff  begged  his  Excellency 
not  to  do  anything  so  severe,  but  simply  to  send  for  him  and 
reprimand  him  for  his  conduct.  The  Governor  sent  accord 
ingly  ;  but,  instead  of  the  dervish,  the  Santone  came,  who  is 
the  superior  of  all  the  dervishes  in  Jerusalem — in  fact,  the 
chief  dervish — and  begged  his  Excellency  to  pardon  the  der 
vish  for  his  indiscreet  conduct,  inasmuch  as  he  was  a  madman. 
Wolff  and  his  friends  were  glad  to  take  tins  view,  and 
assured  the  Santone  that  they  had  already  begged  him  off; 
and  thereupon  they  bowed  and  departed.  The  next  morning 
the  Santone  sent  Wolff  the  money  which  he  had  given  to  the 
dervish  for  the  picture  of  Mecca,  and  begged  him  to  send  it 
back,  as  the  dervish  was  so  mad  that  he  would  rather  die  than 
leave  the  picture  in  his  hands.  Wolff  sent  the  money,  together 
with  the  picture,  to  the  Governor,  and  begged  his  Excellency 
to  return  both  to  the  dervish,  through  the  Santone.  This 
arrangement  made  a  most  favourable  impression  on  all  the 
inhabitants  of  Jerusalem. 

Wolff  and  his  companions  remained  three  months  in  that 
city,  circulating  the  word  of  God  among  the  inhabitants.  Fisk 
and  King  then  se^  out  for  Mount  Lebanon,  but  Wolff,  desirous 
to  be  longer  in  Jerusalem,  among  the  Jews,  remained  behind. 
One  month  after  his  friends  had  departed,  Wolff  was  seized 
with  Jerusalem  fever ;  and  on  the  very  day  he  was  taken  ill, 
an  English  officer  arrived  in  the  Holy  City  from  Cairo,  accom 
panied  by  two  servants.  As  was  always  the  case,  without  one 
single  exception,  whenever  Wolff  was  in  trouble,  a  British 
officer  was  sent  to  him  by  God — so  Wolff  always  considered — 
and  many  times  he  experienced  the  same  aid.  The  name  of 


178  Travels  and  Adventures 

this  officer  was  Colonel  the  Hon.  Hobart  Cradock,  now  Lord 

He  nursed  Wolff  like  a  brother,  and,  after  Wolff  was  con 
valescent,  they  travelled  together  to  Tyre,  and  from  thence  to 

When  thus  arrived  at  Sidon,  Wolff  said  to  Colonel  Cradock, 
"  I  have  a  letter  with  me  for  Miss  Williams,  who  resides  with 
Lady  Hester  Stanhope.  This  I  will  send  to  her,  and  write 
her  a  civil  line ;  but  I  shall  not  mention  Lady  Hester  Stan 
hope's  name."  So  the  letter  was  sent  to  Mar-Elias,  Lady 
Hester  Stanhope's  residence,  and  an  Arab  servant  conveyed 
it.  But  instead  of  a  letter  from  Miss  Williams,  one  came  for 
Wolff  from  Lady  Hester  herself,  which  ran  as  follows : — 

"  I  am  astonished  that  an  apostate  should  dare  to  thrust 
himself  into  observation  in  my  family.  Had  you  been  a 
learned  Jew,  you  never  would  have  abandoned  a  religion  rich 
in  itself,  though  defective ;  nor  would  you  have  embraced  the 
shadow  of  a  one — I  mean  the  Christian  religion.  Light 
travels  faster  than  sound,  therefore  the  Supreme  Being  could 
not  have  allowed  his  creatures  to  live  in  utter  darkness  for  nearly 
two  thousand  years,  until  paid  speculating  wanderers  deem  it 
proper  to  raise  their  venal  voice  to  enlighten  them. 

To  this  Wolff  replied  :— 



"  MADAM — I  have  just  received  a  letter  which  bears  your 
ladyship's  signature,  but  I  doubt  its  being  genuine,  as  I  never 
had  the  honour  of  writing  to  your  ladyship,  or  of  mentioning 
your  name  in  my  letter  to  Miss  Williams.  With  regard  to 
my  views  and  pursuits,  they  give  me  perfect  rest  and  happi 
ness,  and  they  must  be  quite  immaterial  to  your  ladyship. 

"  I  have  the  honour  to  be 
"  Your  most  humble  and  obedient  servant, 


Wolf  sent  this  answer  by  the  same  servant  as  before.  On 
Lady  Hester  receiving  it,  she  perused  it,  and  desired  the  man 
to  wait,  that  she  might  give  him  a  present.  She  then  came 
out  with  a  whip,  kicked  the  poor  fellow  behind,  and  sent  him 
away.  He  came  back  lame  to  Wolff,  and  told  him  that  the 
daughter  of  the  King  of  England  had  beaten  him.  Wolff,  in 
order  to  satisfy  him,  gave  him  a  dollar,  for  which  he  dares  say 
the  man  would  have  gladly  undergone  another  beating  at  the 
same  price,  from  the  daughter  of  the  King  of  England. 

On  leaving  Saida  for  Damascus,  Wolff  met  in  the  monastery 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  179 

of  Aintoura,  the  "Rev.  Lewis  Way.  He  would  only  remark 
about  this  excellent  man,  that  with  a  noble  soul,  he  was  dis 
appointed  and  cheated  by  impostors,  and  left  Syria  soon  after 
wards,  without  having  seen  Jerusalem,  having  been  frightened 
out  of  Syria  by  that  jealous  and  misanthropic  woman,  Lady 
Hester  Stanhope. 

Noble  soul,  Lewis  Way  !  With  all  thy  disappointments, 
and  acts  which,  though  perhaps  over  sanguine,  always  be 
trayed  a  noble  heart,  thou  wilt  now  be  among  the  spirits  of 
just  men  made  perfect  !  He  wrote  of  Joseph  Wolff  to 
England  in  the  following  manner : — "  Wolff  is  so  extraordinary 
a  creature,  there  is  no  calculating  a  priori  concerning  his 
motions.  He  appears  to  me  to  be  a  comet  without  any  peri 
helion,  and  capable  of  setting  a  whole  system  on  fire.  When 
I  should  have  addressed  him  in  Syria,  I  heard  of  him  at 
Malta ;  and  when  I  supposed  he  was  gone  to  England,  he  was 
riding  like  a  ruling  angel  in  the  whirlwinds  of  Antioch,  or 
standing  unappalled  among  the  crumbling  towers  of  Aleppo. 
A  man  who  at  Rome  calls  the  Pope  '  the  dust  of  the  earth/ 
and  tells  the  Jews  at  Jerusalem  that  '  the  Gemara  is  a  lie ;' 
who  passes  his  days  in  disputation,  and  his  nights  in  digging 
the  Talmud,  to  whom  a  floor  of  brick  is  a  feather-bed,  and  a 
box  a  bolster ;  who  makes  or  finds  a  friend  alike  in  the  perse 
cutor  of  his  former  or  present  faith;  who  can  conciliate  a 
Pacha,  or  confute  a  patriarch ;  who  travels  without  a  guide ; 
speaks  without  an  interpreter ;  can  live  without  food,  and  pay 
without  money  ;  forgiving  all  the  insult  he  meets  with,  and 
forgetting  all  the  flattery  he  receives  ;  who  knows  little  of 
worldly  conduct,  and  yet  accommodates  himself  to  all  men, 
without  giving  offence  to  any  !  Such  a  man  (and  such  and 
more  is  Wolf)  must  excite  no  ordinary  degree  of  attention  in 
a  country  and  among  a  people,  whose  monotony  of  manners 
and  habits  has  remained  undisturbed  for  centuries. 

"  As  a  pioneer,  I  deem  him  matchless,  '  aut.  inveniet  warn, 
aut  faciet  /  but,  if  order  is  to  be  established,  or  arrangements 
made,  trouble  not  Wolff.  He  knows  of  no  church  but  his 
own  heart ;  no  calling,  but  that  of  zeal ;  no  dispensation,  but 
that  of  preaching.  He  is  devoid  of  enmity  towards  man,  and 
full  of  the  love  of  God.  By  such  an  instrument,  whom  no 
school  hath  taught — whom  no  college  could  hold,  is  the  way 
of  the  Judean  wilderness  preparing.  Thus  is  Providence, 
showing  the  nothingness  of  the  wisdom  of  the  wise,  and  bring 
ing  to  nought  the  understanding  of  the  prudent.  Thus  are 
his  brethren  provoked  to  emulation,  and  stirred  up  to  inquiry. 
They  all  perceive,  as  every  one  must,  that  ichatever  he  is,  he 


180  Travels  and  Adventures 

is  in  earnest :  they  acknowledge  him  to  be  a  sincere  believer  in 
Jesus  of  Nazareth ;  and  that  is  a  great  point  gained  with 
them  ;  for,  as  you  know,  the  mass  of  the  ignorant  and  uncon 
verted  deny  the  possibility  of  real  conversion  from  Judaism. 
In  this  they  are  right,  in  another  sense,  since  Abraham  is  the 
father  of  us  all :  and  if  we  be  Christ's,  then  are  we  Abra 
ham"^  seed,  and  kept  by  the  power  of  God,  through  faith,  unto 
salvation,  and  none  shall  pluck  us  out  of  his  hand."  *  *  * 

Wolff  now  proceeded  to  Damascus,  and  took  with  him  a 
servant,  a  Jew,  who  pretended  to  be  converted  5  but  the  man 
was  found  out  by  his  master  to  be  an  impostor.  On  his  arrival 
at  Damascus,  Wolff  asked  the  Turk,  who  had  acted  as  agent 
to  the  English  Consul  of  Beyrout,  to  send  a  person  with  him 
to  bring  him  to  the  monastery  of  the  Capuchin  Friars.  That 
agent  sent  a  donkey  driver  with  him,  and  the  fellow  coolly  sat 
on  the  donkey  himself,  and  let  Wolff  run  after  him  all  the 
way.  Damascus  was,  at  that  time — namely,  the  year  1823 — 
as  it  is  now,  the  most  fanatical  town  in  the  Turkish  Empire, 
for  it  was  called  the  "  Gate  of  Mecca." 

Wolff  came  to  the  Capuchin  Monastery,  composed  of  Ita 
lians  :  they  received  him  with  the  greatest  cordiality;  and 
when  he  was  attacked  with  the  Damascus  fever,  soon  after  his 
arrival,  those  Capuchin  friars  treated  him  with  the  utmost  ten 
derness  and  kindness. 

The  friars  of  the  Spanish  monastery  called  on  Joseph  Wolff, 
and  invited  him  to  pay  them  a  visit.  An  elderly,  tall,  stout- 
looking  friar  entered  into  an  argument  with  Wolff,  who  thought 
at  once  to  take  the  bull  by  the  horns,  and  asked  the  friar, 
"  Reverend  father,  can  you  prove  to  me  the  propriety  of  an 
Inquisition  ?"  He  replied,  "  My  argument  is  very  short.  You 
think  that  it  is  not  proper  to  have  an  Inquisition  ?" 

Wolff  replied,  "  Certainly,  I  think  so." 

The  friar  answered,  "  Then  don't  go  to  Spain."  (Dunque 
non  andate  in  Spagna  !) 

Wolff. — "  But  this  does  not  appear  to  me  to  be  an  argu 

Friar. — "  You  don't  think  this  to  be  an  argument  2" 

Wolff. — "  Certainly,  no  argument." 

Friar. — "  Dunque  non  andate  in  Spagna" 

Wolff. — "But  I  wish  to  be  convinced  !" 

Friar. — "  Will  not  this  convince  you  2" 

Wolff.—"  No  !" 

Friar. — "Dunque  non  andate  in  Spagna." 

Wolff. — "  Show  me  Scriptural  proof  for  the  propriety  of  the 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  181 

Friar. — "  You  want  Scriptural  proof  for  the  propriety  of 
the  Inquisition?" 

Wolff.—"  Yes,  certainly  !" 

Friar. — "  Dunque  nan  andate  in  Spagna" 

Wolff. — "  Then  you  leave  me  to  die  in  my  hatred  of  the 

Friar.—"  Shall  I  T 

Wolff.—"  Yes  !" 

Friar. — "  Dunque  non  andate  in  Bpagna? 

The  Jews  at  Damascus  were,  at  that  time,  in  great  trouble 
respecting  the  greatest  man  among  them,  Raphael  Farkhi.  He 
was  esteemed  and  respected  both  by  Jews  and  Muhammadans, 
and  was  called  the  "  Ameer  Al  Hadg,"  which  means  the 
"  Prince  of  the  Pilgrims  to  Mecca;"  because  he  had  to  provide 
them  with  all  the  necessaries  of  life,  and  was  their  banker  on 
their  route.  He  was,  too,  the  asylum  of  all  the  Jews,  who 
came  from  all  parts  of  the  East ;  and,  wherever  Jews  were  in 
trouble,  in  all  parts  of  Palestine,  they  appealed  to  Raphael 
Farkhi,  and  were  instantly  relieved  and  protected ;  for  Raphael 
Farkhi  had  the  power  to  depose  governors. 

This  same  Farkhi  was,  one  Friday  evening,  in  the  syna 
gogue,  when  some  Turkish  soldiers  entered  it,  and  one  of  them 
with  a  firman  in  his  hand,  with  which  he  had  just  arrived  from 
Stamboul.  When  Farkhi  asked,  haughtily,  "What  do  you 
want  in  our  synagogue  f  he  replied,  "We  want  you  /"  At 
the  same  time  he  gave  a  signal,  and  the  great  Farkhi  was 
dragged  out  of  the  synagogue  in  irons.  All  the  Jews  were 
terror-struck,  left  the  synagogue,  and  dispersed.  Wolff  called 
on  them  at  several  houses,  and  found  them  all  in  mourning. 
They  said,  "  The  shepherd  is  slain,  and  the  sheep  are  scat 
tered."  Wolff  spoke  comfortably  to  them,  and  said,  "  Oh, 
that  the  salvation  of  Israel  were  come  out  of  Zion,  to  turn  the 
captivity  of  his  people,  that  Jacob  might  be  glad,  and  Israel 
rejoice  !"  The  Jews  replied,  "  Amen."  Poor  Raphael  Farkhi 
remained  one  year  in  prison,  but  then  was  restored  to  his  high 
office  :  and  the  Greek  agent,  who,  during  Raphael  Farkhi's 
disgrace,  had  occupied  the  office  (but  was  a  renegado  to  Mu- 
hammadanism,  and  was  found  out  to  have  made  in  secret  the 
sign  of  the  cross)  was  decapitated. 

Wolff  visited  the  school  of  the  Spanish  friars,  where,  to  his 
utter  astonishment,  he  found  that  the  pupils  (several  hundred 
of  them)  had  Arabic  Testaments  and  Arabic  Psalters,  printed 
by  the  British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society  ;  and  a  Spanish  friar, 
who  superintended  the  school,  said  to  Joseph  Wolff,  "  Thus 

182  Travels  and  Adventures 

we  promote,  and  have  ever  promoted,  the  faith  of  the  Holy 
Catholic  Apostolic  Church." 

And  if  Protestant  missionaries  would  content  themselves 
with  giving  the  word  of  God,  without  entering  into  controver 
sies  with  the  missionaries  of  the  Church  of  Rome,  a  beautiful 
union  might  possibly  be  established  between  the  missions  of 
both  Churches,  without  their  irritating  one  another.  And  one 
would  not  hear  so  much  of  the  burning  of  Bibles,  printed  at 
the  expense  of  the  British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society.  For 
they  are  the  same  as  those  translated  and  printed  by  the 
Eoman  Catholics  in  the  College  of  the  Propaganda  of  Rome. 
The  best  translations  of  foreign  Bibles  issued  by  our  Bible  So 
ciety  are  reprints  from  those  made  by  the  Propaganda  at  Rome. 
For  example,  the  Italian  version,  is  a  translation  by  Arch 
bishop  Martini. 

It  is  a  pity  that  the  spirit  of  the  great  secretaries  of  the 
Bible  Society — the  Reverend  John  Owen,  rector  of  Fulham, 
and  Brandram,  and  of  their  excellent  agent,  the  Reverend 
Henry  Leeves,  of  Athens — has  not  been  followed  up  in  that 
Society,  and  that  the  Trinitarian  Bible  Society  has  marred  the 
operations  of  the  great  Bible  Society.  However,  enough  of 

Strange  to  say,  in  that  fanatical  town  of  Damascus,  Wolff 
was  invited  by  a  great  Moollah  of  the  Muhammadans,  to  come 
in  the  night-time  to  argue  over  the  merits  of  Christianity. 
And  the  Friar  of  the  Spanish  monastery,  and  the  Superior  of 
the  Spanish  monastery,  went  with  Wolff,  and  argued  over  the 
subject.  And  the  next  night  a  Maronite  Christian,  who  had 
become  a  Muhammadan  to  the  great  sorrow  of  his  brother,  a 
respectable  Maronite  Christian  of  the  village  called  Salahia, 
made  his  escape,  and  became  a  Christian  again.  His  brother 
wished  Wolff  to  remain  with  him  all  the  days  of  his  life,  but 
Wolff  hastened  on  a  second  time  to  Aleppo,  on  his  way  to 

He  arrived  first  at  Hammah,  (the  Hamath  of  Scripture, 
Isaiah  xi.  11,)  and  then  at  Aleppo,  accompanied  by  Reuben 
Coster,  a  Jew  converted  to  Christianity  by  Dr.  Gordon,  in 
Edinburgh.  His  parents,  Jews  of  respectability,  lived  in 
Utrecht.  Reuben  Coster  was  brought  from  Europe  to  Pales 
tine  by  Lewis  Way,  who  took  him  into  his  service,  but  he  was 
not  able  to  agree  with  Mr.  Lewis,  one  of  Mr.  Way's  compa 
nions  ;  so  Wolff  took  him  with  him  to  Aleppo,  and  he  is  there 
to  this  day,  married  to  a  Christian  lady. 

It  was  now  the  year  1824,  and  although  two  years  had 
passed  since  the  earthquake,  the  inhabitants  had  not  yet  re- 

of  Dr.   Wolff.  183 

turned  to  their  town,  but  were  living  outside  in  the  little  huts 
before  described.  One  thing  struck  Wolff  forcibly  and  awfully. 
The  Muhammadans,  all  of  them,  had  allowed  their  beards  to 
grow — no  razor  had  come  upon  their  heads — expressing  thereby 
their  continued  deep  sorrow  and  repentance  for  their  sins, 
which  sins  they  considered  as  the  cause  of  the  earthquake. 
And  also  the  Roman  Catholics  and  Jews  of  the  East,  by  fast 
ing  and  prayer,  showed  their  grief,  and  tried  to  avert  the  wrath 
of  God  by  continued  humiliation.  But  Europeans — Roman 
Catholics,  as  well  as  Jews,  from  Leghorn,  from  Piedmont,  and 
other  parts — laughed  when  Wolff  spoke  to  them  about  repent 
ance  ;  and  it  is  for  this  reason  that  Joseph  Wolff  continually 
says,  "  I  shall  never  have  confidence  in  the  reform  which  is 
brought  about  by  miserable  revolutionists  of  Italy  and  France ; 
and  I  shall  always  declare  the  outcry,  Liberte,  Egalite,  Fra- 
ternite,  to  be  nothing  else  but  Tyranny,  Beggary,  Butchery. 
And  all  these  revolutionary  movements,  verify  the  words  of 
Ezekiel,  xxi.,  27,  'Perverted,  perverted,  perverted,'  or  '  Over 
turn,  overturn,  overturn,  until  He  come  whose  right  it  is,  and 
I  will  give  it  Him.'  One  revolution  shall  take  place  over 
another,  and  men  shall  strive  to  establish  happiness  and  peace, 
but  by  their  own  efforts,  and  without  the  Author  of  happiness 
and  peace.  And  they  shall  be  disappointed  until  the  rightful 
possessor  of  the  earth  shall  come  to  his  own." 

There  was  deep  meaning  in  the  exclamation  of  an  enthu 
siastic  Jew  at  Jerusalem  some  years  back,  when  a  rich  Jew 
from  Europe  came,  and  wished  to  build  up  Jerusalem.  The 
enthusiast  exclaimed,  "  Here  all  is  in  ruin,  and  pulled  down  ; 
here  nothing  must  be  builded  up  !  To  the  Messias,  the  Lord 
alone,  is  it  permitted  to  build  up,  and  to  remove  the  ruins." 
In  saying  this,  that  Jew,  perhaps  unwittingly,  confirmed  the 
prophecy  contained  in  Amos  ix.,  11,  12,  and  referred  to  as  yet 
unfulfilled  in  the  15th  chapter  of  the  Acts,  v.  16  and  J7, 
"  After  this  I  will  return,  and  will  build  again  the  tabernacle 
of  David  which  has  fallen  down,  and  I  will  build  again  the 
ruins  thereof,  and  will  set  it  up."  Only  this  great  event  and 
consummation  will  bring  about  a  real  change  and  reformation 
in  the  world;  for  the  Apostle  proceeds,  in  the  17th  verse, 
"  That  the  residue  of  men  might  seek  after  the  Lord,  and  all 
the  Gentiles,  upon  whom  my  name  is  called,  saith  the  Lord, 
who  doeth  all  these  things." 

Wolff  lived  again  at  Aleppo  with  his  old  friend  Masseyk, 
where  he  heard  a  great  deal  of  Burckhart,  the  famous  Sheik 
Ibrahim,  who  enlivened  the  Europeans  of  Aleppo  with  his  fun. 
Wolff  confesses  he  is  no  great  admirer  of  Burckhart,  for  he  was 

184  Travels  and  Adventures 

continually  preparing  for  his  work  of  going  to  Africa,  and  never 
executed  it.  In  Aleppo  he  amused  himself  with  breaking  the 
roasting-pan  of  Madame  Magi,  an  amiable  old  lady.  She, 
being  angry,  called  him  a  rascal  and  a  pimp.  He  then  ap 
peared  the  next  day  before  her  dressed  in  sackcloth,  and  a 
fool's  cap  upon  his  head,  written  outside,  "  Mercy  to  the  rascal 
and  pimp." 

Wolff  heard  also  a  great  deal  there  of  the  Count  Rzewusky, 
a  celebrated  Polish  Count,  at  whose  expense  "  The  Mines  of 
the  East/1  les  Mines  d'Orient,  were  published  by  Joseph  Von 
Hammer.  He  was  a  favourite  of  all  the  ladies,  but  left  Aleppo 
in  debt,  which  he  never  paid.  Strange  to  say,  on  the  very 
first  evening  Wolff  arrived  again  in  Aleppo,  a  tremendous 
shock  of  an  earthquake  was  felt,  which  awoke  all  from  their 
sleep,  but  no  harm  was  done.  Wolff  prepared,  after  two 
months,  to  leave  Aleppo  a  second  time;  having  occupied  that 
time  in  disputing  with  the  Jews,  and  preaching  to  the  European 
Christians,  chiefly  Roman  Catholics  (which  sermons  were  also 
attended  by  the  seven  Jewish  Consuls),  in  the  house  of  Mr. 
Barker,  the  British  Consul-General  of  Aleppo. 

It  is  a  remarkable  fact,  that  at  that  time,  seven  Jews,  all 
brothers,  were  Consuls  there.  They  were  of  the  family  of 
Picciotto,  descendants  of  those  Picciottos,  so  many  of  whom 
had  been  forced  to  become  Christians  in  the  time  of  Ferdinand 
and  Isabella  of  Spain.  The  father  of  these  seven  consuls  (all 
of  whom  Wolff  knew)  was  Raphael  Picciotto,  and  he  had 
been  Consul-General  in  Aleppo  for  fifty  years,  and  afterwards 
retired  to  Tiberias  in  Palestine,  to  spend  his  days  in  the  land 
of  Israel.  He  was  a  most  inquiring  gentleman,  very  fond  of 
conversing  with  Roman  Catholic  priests,  on  the  merits  of 
the  Christian  religion ;  and  Dr.  Wolff  here  observes,  that  he 
cannot  help  thinking  that  many  of  the  descendants  of  those 
Picciottos,  who  had  received  holy  baptism,  have  retained  a  pre 
dilection  for  Christianity,  transplanted  into  themselves  by 
virtue  of  that  sacred  rite,  which  their  forefathers  had  received  ; 
and  he  believes  that  the  power  of  baptism  is  so  great,  that  it 
may  even  produce  fruits  in  the  souls  of  those  unbaptized  persons, 
whose  ancestors  received  the  holy  rite.  Wolff  has  certainly 
known  many  Jews,  whose  ancestors  were  baptized,  and  who, 
centuries  afterwards,  were  struck  with  conviction  (though 
educated  in  Judaism),  and  became  zealous  Christians.  Such 
was  the  case  with  Isaac  da  Costa  and  his  whole  family,  whose 
ancestors  centuries  before  were  Christians  in  Spain ;  and 
although  they  were  educated  in  Judaism  in  Amsterdam,  they 
are  now  faithful  believers  in  Christ,  and  bold  ambasadors  of 

of  Dr.   Wolf.  185 

Him  in  that  city  at  this  very  day.     Yes,  baptism  produces 
regeneration  in  a  most  wonderful  manner. 

But  to  return  to  the  seven  Jewish  Consuls.     One  of  them, 
poor  Hilel  Picciotto,  was  half-witted,   but  a  rich  man,  and 
seeing  that  all  his  brothers  were  Consuls,  he  went  to  Mr. 
Masseyk,  Wolff's  old  friend,  the  Dutch  Consul- General,  whose 
advice  is  sought  by  people  of  the  highest  station  in  Aleppo, 
and  Hilel  said,  u  Mr.  Masseyk,  can  you  advise  me  how  I  can 
become  a  Consul,  as  all  my  brothers  are ;  so  that  I  might  wear 
like  them,  a  uniform,  and  call  other  Consuls  my  colleagues?' ' 
Masseyk  told  him,   u  Write  to  the  Prussian  Ambassador  in 
Constantinople,  and  send  him  a  handsome  present,  and  then  he  • 
will  make  you  Prussian  Consul  of  Aleppo."     Hilel  did  so,  and 
succeeded.     He  immediately  had  a  splendid  uniform  made  for 
himself,  and  had  a  janissary  walking  before  him,  as  all  the  rest 
had  ;  and  then  he  walked  about  in  the  town,  and  said  to  his 
friends,  "  I  also  am  a  Consul."    And  when  Monsieur  Lesseps, 
the  French  Consul-General  arrived  in  Aleppo,  he  took  hold  of 
Lesseps1  hands,  and  said,  "  lo  sono  vostro  collega."     (I  am 
your  colleague.)      "  Do   you  know  the   Prussian  Consul   in 
Cyprus?"      Monsieur  Lesseps  answered,  "  Yes,  I  know  him."" 
Hilel  then  said,  "  Audi'  egli  e  mio  collega."     (He  also  is  my 
colleague.)     He  then  smoked  a  pipe  with  great  gravity,  drank 
sherbet,  and  took  a  doze,  snoring  at  the  same  time,  and  then 
he  walked  off,  saying,   "  I  am  going  now  to  visit  my  other 

The  younger  Raphael  Picciotto  was  Consul-General  of  the 
King  of  Naples.  He  was  made  bankrupt,  and  was  obliged  to 
fly.  He  cheated  Wolff  of  150  dollars,  when  he  met  him  in 
the  Island  of  Cyprus. 

Those  seven  Jewish  Consuls  gave  the  tone  to  all  the  rest  of 
the  respectable  inhabitants  in  Aleppo.  Each  of  them  held  a 
levee  on  Sunday,  and  whenever  one  of  the  visitors  retired,  the 
Consul  to  whom  the  visit  was  made,  rose,  and  accompanied  him 
to  the  door,  whilst  all  the  family  remained  standing  till  the 
high  and  mighty  Consul  returned  to  the  room,  and  sat  down, 
when  they  all  followed  his  example. 

Once  a  most  ridiculous  thing  happened.  A  captain  of  the 
Austrian  navy  arrived ;  he  was  a  blunt  Venetian,  and  he  be 
came  the  guest  of  Elia  Picciotto,  Austrian  Consul-General. 
The  captain,  either  not  knowing  the  Picciottos  were  Jews,  or 
forgetting  himself,  said  to  them  in  the  presence  of  all  the 
visitors  who  had  called  upon  him  (as  it  is  the  custom  whenever 
a  stranger  arrives  in  Aleppo),  "  Tanti  Ebrei  sono  in  Aleppo,  si 
trovaiio  da  per  tutto  questi  maladetti  Ebrei."  (So  many  Jews 

186  Travels  and  Adventures 

are  in  Aleppo ;  one  finds  everywhere  these  cursed  Jews).  Al 
though  Wolff  has  the  art  of  keeping  his  countenance,  he 
could  scarcely  keep  from  laughing  on  this  occasion. 


Mesopotamia ;  Ur  of  the  Chaldees ;  Haran  ;  Padan-Aram ; 
Kurdish  Robbers ;  Jacobite  Christians ;  Devil-  Worshippers  ; 

T  last,  he  set  out  in  the  company  of  some  native  Christians 
and  Arabs — about  sixty  in  number — and  with  a  servant 


from  Mesopotamia,  who  had  originally  been  a  Jacobite,  but 
was  now  a  Roman  Catholic.  This  was  a  man  of  the  worst 
character — a  thief,  a  traitor,  and  a  cheat.  Wolff  was  also 
accompanied  by  a  Frenchman  (Digeon  by  name),  born  in  Scio, 
who  was  the  greatest  scoundrel  he  ever  encountered.  He  had 
been  exiled  to  Bagdad,  where  he  became  second  dragoman  to 
the  French  Consul-Greneral,  but  he  soon  lost  the  situation,  and 
was  declared  infame,  upon  which  he  became  a  Muhammadan 
in  Cairo. 

Wolff  crossed  the  Euphrates,  (or  Murad,  as  it  is  sometimes 
called  by  the  natives)  at  Biri ;  and  as  Biri  is  a  very  rocky 
place,  he  cannot  understand  why  some  travellers  say  there  are 
no  rocks  near  the  Euphrates,  and  therefore  find  a  difficulty  in 
understanding  that  passage  in  Jeremiah  xiii.  4,  which  says, 
"  Take  the  girdle  that  thou  hast  got,  which  is  upon  thy  loins, 
and  arise,  go  to  Euphrates,  and  hide  it  there  in  a  hole  of  the 
rock."  The  rocks  at  Biri  are  not  high,  but  are  full  of  holes  or 
caves  ;  in  one  of  which  Wolff  himself  slept.  And  the  natives, 
even  to  this  day,  sometimes  hide  treasures  in  the  holes  of 
those  rocks.  Wolff  met  at  Biri  some  Jews,  who  resided  at 
Orpha,  which  is  two  days'  journey  from  Biri.  He  then  went 
on  with  the  small  caravan,  and  that  scoundrel  Digeon  to 
Orpha.  On  his  arrival  there,  he  took  up  his  abode  in  one  of 
the  Khans,  or  as  they  are  also  called,  Caravanserai. 

Wolff  cannot  express  the  feelings  which  he  had  on  entering 
the  town  of  his  Father  Abraham.  He  must  now  try  exactly 
to  describe  them,  and  says,  "  I  felt  just  as  if  I  had,  after  a 
long  journey,  been  brought  back  to  the  house  of  my  Father  ; 
and  that  I  saw  him  deeply  engaged  in  prayer,  and  thought  he 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  187 

said  to  me,  '  At  last  thou  art  come,  where  the  Holy  One 
(blessed  be  He)  called  me ;  and  I  crossed  the  Euphrates.,  just 
where  thou  thyself  didst  cross/  I  thought  I  looked  at  him 
with  astonishment,  and  wept,  and  said,  '  Thy  children  in  my 
country  have  not  that  faith  which  thou  hadst,  and  which  made 
thee  leave  thy  own  country  for  one  which  thou  didst  not 
know.' '  In  short,  Dr.  Wolff'  describes  himself  as  feeling 
thoughts  and  sensations  at  that  time  which  he  never  had 
before  or  afterwards  experienced. 

He  then  went  to  see  the  place  where  Abraham  is  said  to 
have  been  born.  It  was  a  cave.  The  legend  is,  that  Nimrod, 
the  "  mighty  hunter,"  (which  does  not  mean  a  hunter  of  wild 
beasts,  but  "  a  persecutor  of  the  servants  of  God,")  threw 
Abraham  into  a  fiery  furnace ;  when  he  prayed  to  God,  and 
the  furnace  was  changed  into  a  beautiful  lake,  so  that  he  came 
out  untouched  by  the  fire.  And  Wolff'  saw  that  lake,  which 
is  inside  the  town  of  Orpha,  and  is  called  "  Abraham's  Lake." 
The  fishes  which  live  in  it  are  so  tame,  that  they  approach  the 
shore  of  it  whenever  a  stranger  comes,  and  throws  bread  in  for 
them,  and  eat  it  with  eagerness.  It  was  at  Orpha  that  Abra 
ham  preached  against  idolatry,  and  pointed  to  Jehovah  as  the 
only  living  God ;  and  he  went  from  thence  to  Haran,  every 
where  preaching  the  name  of  Jehovah ;  and  from  Haran  he 
went  to  the  land  of  Canaan,  singing  in  melodious  strains 
praises  to  the  Lord  as  he  travelled. 

Abraham  is  considered  to  have  been  the  great  Apostle  of 
Jehovah  among  all  the  people  of  the  East ;  and  the  words  in 
Genesis  xii.  5,  "  And  the  souls  that  they  had  gotten,"  mean 
the  infidels  they  had  converted  by  melodious  songs.  Thus 
both  Jews  and  Jacobite  Christians  in  the  East,  understand 
the  passage. 

Let  us  delay  a  little  longer  at  Orpha,  which  is  now  inha 
bited  by  Turks,  Kurds,  Jacobite  Christians,  Armenians,  and 
Arabs  ;  while  around  it  dwell  Sabeans  and  Shamseea — id  est 
—worshippers  of  the  sun.  Orpha  is  called  by  the  Jews  "  CJr- 
kasdim;"  by  the  Shamseea  and  by  the  Syrian  Christians, 
"  Orpha  ;"  "  Ruha  "  by  the  Arabs  ;  "  Edessa  "  by  the  Arme 
nians  ;  and  the  Arabs  also  call  the  place  by  the  same  name  as 
they  call  Hebron  in  Palestine,  namely,  "  Khaleel  Rahman," 
which  means,  "  The  friend  of  the  merciful  God,"  a  name 
which  Abraham  has  several  times  in  Scripture.  In  Orpha, 
Abraham  is  called  "  Orpha-ee" — id  est,  "  the  Orphaite;"  and 
if  you  translate  this  into  Greek,  it  is  "  Orpheos."  Wolff  com 
municated  this  to  Hookham  Frere,  who  said  to  Coleridge, 
"  Wolff  believes  Abraham  to  be  Orpheus ;"  and  Coleridge 

188  Travels  and  Adventures 

replied,  "  Wolff  is  perfectly  right."  Orpha  is  remarkable  on 
account  of  other  historical  events  which  happened  there ;  as, 
for  instance,  it  is  mentioned  by  Tasso,  in  his  "Jerusalem 
Liberata,"  that  some  of  the  Crusaders  settled  there. 

A  dreadful  event  happened  at  Orpha  during  Wolff's  resi 
dence  there.  A  Tatar  arrived  from  Constantinople,  bringing 
an  order  from  the  Sultan,  commanding  the  inhabitants  to  pay 
tribute,  which  they  had  not  done  for  five-and-twenty  years. 
The  Governor  read  this  order  in  a  public  divan,  and  the  whole 
assembly  cursed  the  Sultan,  his  grandfather,  grandmother, 
and  grandchildren;  and  they  hanged  the  Tatar  in  the  market 
place,  with  the  Sultan's  order  in  his  hand. 

We  come  now  to  another  circumstance.  Several  Jews  paid 
a  visit  to  Joseph  Wolff,  who  addressed  him  in  the  following- 
manner  :  "  Blessed  art  thou,  0  Joseph  Wolff,  who  comest  in 
the  name  of  the  Lord.  Hearing,  we  have  heard  that  thou  art 
a  wise  man,  and  we  have  a  proverb  at  Ur  of  the  Chaldees, 
'When  two  wise  men  meet  together,  they  push  with  their 
horns  like  oxen ;'  let  us  therefore  push."  They  meant  to  say, 
by  this  address,  that  they  wished  him  to  argue  with  them. 
Wolff,  accommodating  himself  immediately  to  their  mode  of 
speech,  said  to  them,  "  Prepare  your  horns,  and  push/1  They 
then,  for  more  than  an  hour,  went  on  "pushing  their  horns  " 
indeed  !  For  instance,  they  told  Wolff  that  Vashti  refused  to 
appear  before  the  Court  of  Ahasuerus,  because  the  moment 
she  wanted  to  appear,  a  large  tail  grew  out  from  behind  her, 
which  disfigured  her.  And  so  it  was  that  Esther  became 
Queen,  &c.  They  then  asked  Wolff  "How  they  had  pushed?" 
He  replied,  "  Exactly  like  an  ox."  They  were  much  pleased 
with  this  compliment,  and  then  asked  him  to  push  in  reply. 
64 1  am  sorry,"  said  Wolff,  "  that  I  cannot  push,  for  I  have 
got  no  horns."  But  he  read  to  them  from  the  1st  Epistle  of 
Paul  to  the  Corinthians,  1st  chapter,  from  the  20th  verse  to 
the  end ;  and  he  preached  to  them  the  glad  tidings  of  salvation 
through  Jesus  Christ. 

But  let  us  not  depart  from  Orpha  until  we  have  also  paid  a 
visit  to  the  spiritual  and  baptized  children  of  Abraham  ;  for, 
through  Abraham,  not  only  were  the  literal  sons  of  Abraham 
to  be  blessed,  but  also  all  the  nations  of  the  earth.  Let  us, 
then,  pay  a  visit  to  the  Jacobites  and  their  bishop.  These 
Jacobites  are  the  lineal  descendants  of  the  children  of  Israel, 
who  were  converted  to  the  knowledge  of  Jesus  Christ  through 
the  preaching  of  the  Apostle  James  at  Jerusalem.  They  in 
troduced  Wolff  to  their  churches,  and  he  found  that  their 
whole  mode  of  worship,  their  mode  of  bowings,  £c.,  all  proved, 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  189 

as  well  as  their  physiognomy,  that  they  are  literally  children 
of  Abraham. 

Wolff  also  saw  the  Armenians — those  descendants  of  Hayk, 
whom  he  has  described  at  different  times.  They  were  very 
formidable  in  a  fortified  castle,  near  Orpha,  called  "Room- 
kalah,"  which  was  once  in  the  possession  of  the  Crusaders. 
Wolff  could  not  help  thinking,  whilst  travelling  through 
Mesopotamia,  that  all  these  nations  have  remained  unchanged 
for  centuries  and  centuries,  and  he  felt  as  if  he  must  himself 
have  lived  throughout  those  times. 

Wolff  then  left  Ur  of  the  Chaldees,  and  went  to  the  village 
of  Haran.  There  is  the  grave  of  Terah,  the  father  of  Abra 
ham,  to  which  the  Jews  perform  their  pilgrimage  from  all  the 
neighbourhood  round ;  for  they  say  that  he  was  converted  to 
the  knowledge  of  God  by  Abraham  his  son.  Terah,  was  thy 
dwelling  as  simple  as  the  houses  are  now?  One  conclusion 
must  be  come  to  :  that  the  open  acknowledgment  by  Abraham 
of  one  God,  must  have  formed  a  great  and  important  epoch  in 
the  world's  history,  because  the  whole  East  is  full  of  the 
traditions  of  Abraham ;  from  Mesopotamia  to  the  Oxus,  and 
from  the  Oxus  to  Lazza  in  Thibet.  In  the  latter  place  they 
have  a  statue  dedicated  to  him.  In  the  temple  of  Mecca — a 
long  time  before  Muhammad  rose  and  declared  himself  a 
prophet — Abraham  was  represented  there  by  a  statue  holding 
arrows  and  spears,  and  he  was  worshipped  as  God.  And 
when  Muhammad  appeared  there,  he  pulled  down  the  statue 
in  indignation,  and  said,  "Thus  do  you  disfigure  my  Father 
Abraham."  Wolff  could  never  divest  himself  of  the  conviction, 
that  the  Brarnah  of  the  Hindoos  is  one  and  the  same  person 
with  Abraham. 

We  now  continue  WolfFs  journey.  He  next  visited  Tel- 
feidan,  the  ancient  Pandan-aram.  There  it  was  that  thou, 
Jacob,  didst  meet  with  Rachel.  So  the  Arabs  say,  and  the 
Kurds  too,  and  the  Jews  also  ;  and  Wolff  does  not  wish  to  be 
disturbed  in  his  belief  of  the  same.  He  then  went,  with  a 
caravan,  and  Digeon  the  scoundrel,  towards  Mardeen.  The 
stormy  weather  and  rain  had  effaced  all  tracer  of  the  road. 
None  of  the  travellers  could  find  it,  and  were^in  much  per 
plexity,  when  one  of  the  Kurds  came  riding  towards  them  on 
horseback,  with  a  pipe  in  his  mouth.  Wolff  addressed  him, 
saying,  "  Brother,  show  us  the  road."  The  Kurd  replied, 
"  Give  me  first  one  real" 

Wolff  complied,  and  when  the  Kurd  had  got  his  real,  he 
rode  off  at  once,  without  taking  any  further  trouble. 
Wolff  called  out,  "  Give  back  my  real!" 

1 90  Travels  and  Adventures 

The  sarcastic  Kurd  answered,  for  a  sarcastic  people  they 
are,  u  If  thou  livest  till  thou  seest  that  real  again,  thou  shalt 
never  die !" 

A  Kurdish  woman  soon  afterwards  approached,  on  horse 
back,  with  a  pipe  in  her  mouth  ;  and  Wolff  called  to  her  also, 
"  Mother,  show  us  the  road  to  Mardeen." 

She  replied,  "  Give  me  one  real  first."  Wolff  gave  her  one 
real,  and  then  she  also  rode  off. 

Wolff  called  after  her,  "Give  me  back  mjreal!"  "On 
thy  wedding  day  ! "  cried  the  woman,  and  disappeared  in  the 

At  last,  Wolff  and  his  caravan  walked  on  (the  road  being 
too  bad  for  riding  on  the  mules),  Ala  Bab  Allab,  as  the  Arabs 
say,  "  at  the  gate  of  God,"  that  is,  "  trusting  in  Providence," 
when  suddenly  they  were  surrounded  by  a  troop  of  Kurds, 
who  took  them  prisoners,  and  brought  them  to  a  beautiful 
oasis  where  there  was  a  village  called  Guzelli.  When  they 
arrived  there  they  sat  down,  and  Wolff  conversed  on  religion 
with  one  of  the  Yezeedi,  worshippers  of  the  Devil,  during 
which  time  Digeon  the  scoundrel  whispered  something  in  the 
ear  of  the  chief  of  the  Kurds,  called  Sayed  Khanbek,  on  which 
that  man  came  to  Wolff  in  a  fury,  and  said  to  him,  "  Do  you 
come  here  to  upset  our  religion  2" 

Wolff  answered,  "  I  come  here  to  show  you  the  way  of 

The  Kurds  forthwith  tied  Wolff  down,  and  gave  him  200 
lashes  on  the  soles  of  his  feet ;  and  after  robbing  him  of  every 
thing,  and  the  scoundrel  Digeon  of  everything  too,  they  brought 
them  both — Wolff  tied  by  his  own  people  on  the  back  of  his 
mule,  as  he  was  unable  to  walk — towards  the  neighbourhood 
of  Mardeen.  But  the  moment  the  caravan  came  under  the 
protection  of  the  cannon  of  Mardeen,  the  Kurds,  afraid  to  go 
further,  retired.  And  thus  Wolff  was  brought  to  the  gate  of 
Mardeen,  where  he  lay  down  exhausted,  for  as  it  was  night 
time.  The  gate  was  not  opened,  from  fear  of  the  Kurds,  but 
people  came  out  armed  from  Mardeen,  and  protected  Wolff 
from  any  further  injury  from  the  Kurds. 

In  the  morning,  very  early,  the  party  entered  that  city  of 
Mesopotamia,  of  which  the  following  history  is  told : — 

When  Tamerlane  had  besieged  it  for  seven  years,  and  was 
still  unable  to  take  it,  and  when  at  last  famine  had  almost 
forced  the  inhabitants  to  think  of  surrendering,  an  old  woman 
came  forward  and  said,  "  Do  not  yet  think  of  surrendering  :  I 
will  save  the  town."  And  then  she  began  to  run  about  the 
streets,  exclaiming,  "  Who  buys  milk  ?  Who  buys  milk  ? 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  191 

Plenty  of  milk  !  Plenty  of  milk  !  I  sell  it  very  cheap  ! " 
Tamerlane  heard  that  voice  from  outside,  and  said,  "  If  the 
town  has  still  so  much  food  as  to  feed  their  cattle  and  cows, 
and  to  sell  milk  cheap,  there  must  be  provision  in  abundance. 
Let  us  depart ! "  And  thus  the  town  was  saved  by  an  old 
woman ! 

Wolff  now  entirely  quitted  the  company  of  the  scoundrel 
Digeon,  and  took  up  his  abode  with  the  Bishop  of  the  Jaco 
bite  Christians,  Abd  Alahd  by  name.  When  he  first  came  to 
him,  he  found  this  bishop  surrounded  by  his  flock,  the  Jaco 
bites,  all  of  them  being  seated  on  the  ground  cross-legged. 
They  were  in  the  midst  of  a  discussion  about  the  proper  time 
for  beginning  the  Lent  fast.  Wolff  delivered  the  letter  of 
introduction  which  he  had  from  the  patriarch  of  their  nation, 
who  resided  at  Damascus,  with  another  bishop,  Mar  Atha- 
nasius  by  name.  Abd  Alahd  read  this  letter,  and  said,  "We 
are  in  great  perplexity,  for  there  is  a  doubt  when  Lent  ought 
to  commence,  and  we  should  fast  forty  days."  The  discussion 
was  so  sharp,  that  one  of  the  flock  who  sat  on  the  ground, 
smiting  his  fist  violently  on  the  floor,  said,  "  The  first  who 
dares  to  fast  before  such  a  time  as  is  appointed  by  us  here, 
shall  be  struck  dead  by  me." 

The  case  was  now  laid  before  Joseph  Wolff,  and  his  opinion 
asked  of  fasting.  They  inquired,  "  What  he  thought  about 
it?"  Wolff  said,  "  I  do  not  disapprove  of  fasting,  but  let  me 
read  to  you  a  passage  in  Scripture,  Isaiah  Iviii.,  v.  3,  &c., 
'  Wherefore  have  we  fasted,  say  they,  and  thou  seest  not  \ 
wherefore  have  we  afflicted  our  soul,  and  thou  takest  no  know 
ledge  ?  Behold,  in  the  day  of  your  fast,  ye  find  pleasure,  and 
exact  all  your  labours.  Behold,  ye  fast  for  strife  and  debate, 
and  to  smite  with  the  fist  of  wickedness  :  ye  shall  not  fast  as 
ye  do  this  day.' "  This  brought  the  dispute  to  an  end.  They 
ceased  to  argue  about  it. 

The  Jacobites  are  a  wild  people,  but  good-natured,  and  with 
all  their  wild  nature,  they  have  produced  great  men — such  as 
St.  Ephrem,  Jacob  Nisibenus,  and  Jacob  Almalfan,  or  Jacob 
the  Doctor.  They  have  learned  men  among  them  to  this  day. 
At  the  time  Wolff  was  there,  they  had  still  alive  their  great 
patriarch,  residing  in  the  monastery  Deiralsafran  ;  but  who 
had  resigned  his  office  as  patriarch  on  account  of  his  great  and 
unexampled  age,  for  he  was  130  years  old.  When  Wolff  was 
introduced  to  him,  he  found  him  sitting  cross-legged  on  a 
carpet  in  a  fine  room.  He  was  a  small  thin  man,  rather 
crumpled  up  in  figure,  with  a  penetrating  eye,  a  sweet  and 
handsome  face,  his  beard  silvery  white,  and  hair  the  same, 

192  Travels  and  Adventures 

hanging  down  in  curls.  He  was  somewhat  childish  in  mind, 
but  spoke  beautifully  about  the  final  redemption  of  his  people. 
He  convinced  Wolff  that  they  were  descended  from  the  chil 
dren  of  Israel.  He  deplored,  however,  that  on  the  rising  of 
Muhammad,  and  after  his  time,  some  of  the  bishops  had  for 
saken  Christ  and  become  Muhammadans.  Wolff  told  him 
that  he  was  travelling  about  for  the  purpose  of  making  the 
Jewish  nation  believe  that  Jesus  was  the  Messiah.  He  replied 
that  he  had  lived  to  be  ISO  years  of  age,  and  yet  had  never 
heard  of  such  an  undertaking  until  that  day.  Wolff  asked  the 
blessing  of  that  old  man,  who  wept,  and  scarcely  would  allow 
Wolff  to  leave  him,  holding  him  fast  by  the  hand. 

Mar  Athanasius,  one  of  the  bishops  of  the  Jacobite  nation 
(spoken  of  before),  paid  a  visit  to  Dr.  Wolff,  sixteen  years 
afterwards,  at  High  Hoyland,  in  Yorkshire,  when  above  3,000 
persons  assembled  in  that  village  to  see  him.  He  preached  in 
Wolff's  church  in  the  Arabic  language,  and  Wolff  interpreted 
every  word  he  said  as  he  went  on. 

The  bishops  from  the  neighbouring  mountain  of  Tor,  came 
to  Mardeen  to  pay  their  respects  to  Joseph  Wolff.  They  were 
good  people,  but  wild,  and  frequently  led  their  followers  in 
battle  against  the  Kurds.  After  Wolff's  feet  were  somewhat 
healed,  he  visited  those  bishops  in  the  mountains,  and  left 
Bibles  there,  and  made  them  acquainted  with  the  tenets  and 
history  of  the  Church  of  England,  and  with  the  history  of 
other  churches.  The  Jacobites  pray  seven  times  a  day,  be 
cause  David  says  in  Psalm  cxix.  164,  "  Seven  times  a  day  do 
I  praise  thee." 

Wolff  had  also  a  call  from  a  Jacobite,  who  had  become  a 
Roman  Catholic,  Elias  Shaadi  by  name.  He  was  banker  to 
the  Government  of  Mardeen,  but  afterwards  had  his  head  taken 
off,  by  order  of  the  Sultan,  because  he  was  rich. 

He  invited  Wolff  to  dinner,  with  the  rest  of  the  Jacobites, 
and  wished  Wolff  to  lodge  with  him.  Wolff  met  there  two 
Armenian  bishops,  who  belonged  to  the  Roman  Catholic 
church,  and  were  members  of  the  Propaganda,  and  who  spoke 
Italian  very  fluently.  The  name  of  the  one  was  Bishop 
Abraham,  of  the  other,  Tasbas. 

They  were  well-informed,  kind-hearted  men,  without  bigotry; 
but  Wolff  got  into  a  terrible  scrape  with  them,  owing  to  a  fit 
of  mental  absence.  In  the  heat  of  discussion  and  argument, 
he  got  hold,  accidentally,  of  a  small  paper  picture  of  our  Lord, 
which,  in  accordance  with  a  bad  habit  he  had  when  excited, 
he  put  into  his  mouth,  and  bit  at  and  chewed,  till  he  had, 
by  degrees,  swallowed  it  altogether.  Of  course,  he  was  quite 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  193 

unconscious  of  what  he  was  doing ;  but  he  could  not  persuade  the 
Bishops  and  company  that  it  was  an  accident,  and  they  were 
greatly  scandalized,  and  expressed  much  indignation  against  him. 

Subsequently,  at  Bagdad,  the  Roman  Catholic  bishop  there 
expostulated  with  him  on  his  conduct,  but  Wolff  succeeded  in 
convincing  him  that  the  offence  was  purely  unintentional.  Ten 
years  afterwards,  however,  when  Frank  Newman  and  Lord 
Congleton  were  at  Mardeen,  they  were  told  the  story  by  the 
Catholics  there,  who,  in  speaking  of  Wolff,  called  him,  Wolff, 
Jakhsh ;  u  jakhsh"  being  an  Arabic  word,  only  used  in  Meso 
potamia,  signify  ing  jackass;  its  root-meaning  being,  "  One  who 
extends  his  ears" 

A  little  sect  also  presented  themselves  to  Wolff,  who  are 
named  the  Shamseea,  which  means,  u  The  worshippers  of  the 
sun."  They  outwardly  conform  to  the  worship  of  the  Jaco 
bite  Christians,  but  have  their  secret  worship,  in  which  they 
pray  to  the  sun.  Their  history  is  this  : — Sultan  Murad 
Bayazeed's  father,  who  ruled  over  the  Turkish  empire,  issued 
an  order  that  all  those  religious  sects  who  have  not  a  "Book" 
(by  which  he  meant  either  the  law  of  Moses,  or  the  Gospel,  or 
the  Koran,)  should  either  at  once  become  Mussulmans,  or  lose 
their  lives.  Upon  this,  the  Shamseea  hastened  to  the  moun 
tain  of  Tor,  in  Mesopotamia,  and  submitted  to  "baptism  ;  and 
thus  obtained  the  protection  of  the  Jacobites,  who  live  in  a 
state  of  independence,  as  all  mountaineers  do,  to  this  day. 

But  there  is  not  the  slightest  enthusiasm  or  love  for  Chris 
tianity  in  those  Shamseea.  Wolff  was  struck  by  one  fact,  in 
the  very  first  question  he  put  to  them,  and  that  was,  that  when 
you  ask  any  Christian  Church  in  the  East,  Whether  they  are 
Christians  ?  they  immediately  affirm  it  by  making  the  sign  of 
the  cross.  But  not  so  the  Shamseea.  When  Wolff  asked 
them,  "  Are  you  Christians  ?"  they  only  nodded  their  heads, 
with  the  greatest  indifference. 

"  Do  you  believe  in  Christ  ?" — Again  a  nod. 

"  In  whose  name  are  you  baptized  ?"  "  Like  all  the  rest  of 
the  Jacobites." 

"  What  did  your  fathers  believe  in  ancient  time?" 

They  answered  this  last  question  with  all  marks  of  enthusiasm. 

"  We  worshipped  the  sun,  the  moon,  and  the  stars.  The 
sun  was  our  Malech,  our  king.1' 

Dr.  AVolff  here  asks  the  query,  "  Are  the  Shamseea  not  the 
worshippers  of  Moloch,  mentioned  in  Amos  v.  26,  and  Acts 
vii.  43  r  "  And  to  whom  Solomon  built  an  high  place  ?"  1 
Kings  xi.  7 — namely,  to  Moloch ! 

Wolf  left  Mardeen  in  a  caravan  of  about  5000  people,  the 


194  Travels  and  Adventures 

greater  part  of  whom  were  soldiers  ;  for  the  Governor  of  the 
city,  having  been  recalled  to  Bagdad  at  that  particular  moment, 
by  order  of  Daood  Pasha,  took  with  him,  as  escort,  a  large 
body  of  soldiers,  and  to  these,  a  number  of  Armenian  and 
Syrian  Christians,  Muhammadan  Moollahs  and  dervishes,  were 
glad  to  join  themselves. 

The  caravan  made  short  stages.  They  stopped  at  Nisibene, 
where  a  council  of  the  Church  was  held  during  the  first  cen 
turies  ;  and  at  last  they  arrived  opposite  that  mountain  which 
is  called  the  Terror  of  all  the  Caravans — i.  e.  the  mountain  of 
Sanjaar,  the  Shinar  of  Scripture,  where  several  English  officers 
and  French  travellers  had  been  killed  by  the  murderers  who 
inhabited  it;  viz.,  the  Yezeedi — the  worshippers  of  the  devil. 
Fearful,  indeed,  is  that  spot !  Dark  and  dim  lights  wander 
about  it — they  are  the  ghosts  of  the  slain.  At  certain  times 
one  hears  bowlings :  they  are  the  bowlings  of  the  damned, — 
shrieks  and  grinsings  (snarlings  !)  of  wicked  spirits. 

Once  every  year,  in  the  night-time,  they  perform  a  dance  all 
around  the  ruins  of  Babylon,  in  honour  of  the  Sagheer,  i.  e. 
the  little  God — the  devil.  For  they  never  call  him  devil. 
Layard  says  that  they  do  not  know  the  name  Mani ;  but 
Wolff  has  heard  them  say,  "  Mani,"  and  "  Feme,"  and 
"  Horo,"  which  names  are  also  known  by  the  Buddhists  of  Thibet, 
and  they  are  the  names  of  their  prophets.  Wolff  suspects  the 
Yezeedi  to  be  a  remnant  of  the  old  Manichseans.  A  remark 
able  prophecy  came  into  WolfFs  mind,  the  very  moment  the 
fact  of  their  dancing  around  the  ruins  of  Babylon  was  men 
tioned  to  him, — Isaiah  xiii.,  from  verses  19  and  20, — "And 
Babylon,  the  glory  of  kingdoms,  the  beauty  of  the  Chaldees' 
excellency,  shall  be  as  when  God  overthrew  Sodorn  and  Go 
morrah.  It  shall  never  be  inhabited,  neither  shall  it  be  dwelt 
in  from  generation  to  generation :  Neither  shall  the  Arabian 
pitch  tent  there ;  neither  shall  the  shepherds  make  their  fold 
there.  But  wild  beasts  of  the  desert  shall  lie  there  ;  and  their 
houses  shall  be  full  of  doleful  creatures ;  and  owls  shall  dwell 
there,  and  satyrs  shall  dance  there." 

Now  the  word  which  is  translated  Satyr,  is  in  Hebrew 
Sagheer ;  and  is  translated  more  correctly  in  the  Arabic  trans 
lation  of  Isaiah,  made  by  Warka  the  Jew,  Shaytan  ;  i.  e.  devil. 
And  by  Luther,  Wald  Teufel.  And  by  Jerome,  Demones. 
Here  we  see,  throughout,  a  literal  fulfilment  of  prophecy. 

However,  we  must  stop  a  little  longer  near  that  awful  moun 
tain.  Opposite  to  it,  Wolff  saw  an  old  man,  with  a  white 
beard,  and  riding  upon  a  mule,  who  waved  his  hand,  and  said, 
verbatim,  the  following  words : — u  Will  the  Lord  have  ever 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  195 

mercy  upon  you  again  !  Will  He  ever  bring  you  back  to  his 
fold,  O  ye  mountaineers  of  Sanjaar  ?  0  Lord,  bring  them  back, 
bring  them  back !" 

Wolff  felt  a  great  interest  in  the  observation  of  this  old  man, 
and  asked  him,  "  Could  you  give  me  the  history  of  this  moun 
tain  ?"  He  said,  "  The  inhabitants  of  it,  150  years  ago,  were 
all  believers  in  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ;"  here  he  crossed  him 
self  and  continued  :  "  All  believed  the  glorious  doctrine  of  the 
Trinity — Father,  Son,  and  Holy  Ghost — three  Persons,  but 
one  God.  But  alas,  alas !  when  times  of  persecution  came — 
when  they  were  persecuted  by  the  mountaineers  of  Mahal- 
lamia,  who  were  apostates  from  Christianity  to  Muhamma- 
danism,  and  by  the  mountaineers  of  Miana,  who  were  devil- 
worshippers,  the  mountaineers  of  Sanjaar  assembled  around 
their  bishops,  priests,  and  deacons,  and  said,  '  Our  fathers,  we 
can  no  longer  endure  V  and  they  replied,  '  Our  children,  we  can 
no  longer  endure  !'  And  although  one  aged  bishop  exclaimed, 
'  Look  up,  your  Saviour  lives  !  He  is  mighty  to  save,  even  to 
the  uttermost,1  they  refused  to  listen,  and  exclaimed,  '  Let  us, 
too,  become  Yezeedi  T  And  then  they  pulled  down  their 
churches,  and  were  thenceforth  worshippers  of  the  devil .'" 

So  far  the  history  of  the  old  man.  How  important  is, 
therefore,  the  lesson  given  by  Paul  to  the  Romans,  "  Behold, 
therefore,  the  severity  and  goodness  of  the  Lord  :  severity  on 
them  which  fell,  and  goodness  towards  thee,  if  thou  continue 
in  his  goodness.  If  not,  thou  also  shalt  be  cut  off/" 

When  the  caravan  left  the  neighbourhood  of  the  mountain 
of  Sanjaar,  although  it  was  5,000  strong,  the  party  rode  for 
fifteen  hours  in  one  day,  in  order  to  pass  through  the  country 
as  quickly  as  possible,  on  their  mules  and  horses.  The  thirst 
Wolff  underwent  is  indescribable ;  and  the  drought  was  so 
great  that  twenty  mules  died  from  want  of  water.  Arriving  in 
the  oasis,  called  Jalakha,  they  encamped,  and  there  Wolff 
preached  in  Hebrew  and  Arabic — having  the  Bible  open  before 
him — to  the  Jews,  Arabs,  and  Kurds  dwelling  in  tents. 
Wolff  asked  the  Jews,  "  Has  neverany  oneofyou  turned  Yezeedi, 
or  Mussulman?"  They  replied,  with  a  holy  indignation, 
"  Hear,  Israel,  the  Lord  our  God  is  one  Lord  !  Blessed  be 
his  glorious  name :  his  kingdom  endureth  for  ever."  And 
then  they  added,  "  Oppression  cannot  bow  us,  nor  tyranny 
shake  us  !" 

Whilst  Wolff  was  thus  employed,  surrounded  by  5,000  men, 
a  Bedouin  cavalier  approached,  Dismounting  his  horse,  he 
pressed  through  the  crowd  until  he  came  to  Wolff,  when  he 
looked  in  his  Bible,  and  to  Wolffs  greatest  surprise,  he  began  to 

o  2 

196  Travels  and  Adventures 

read  Hebrew.  Wolff  asked  him,  "  who  he  was  2"  He  replied, 
"  I  am  one  of  the  descendants  of  Hobab,  Moses'  brother-in- 
law  ;  and  of  that  branch  called  the  B'nee-Arhab,  children  of 
Rechab,  who  live  in  the  deserts  of  Yemen.  We  drink  no 
wine,  plant  no  vineyards,  sow  no  seed,  and  live  in  tents.  And 
thus  you  see  how  the  prophecy  is  fulfilled — '  Jonadab,  the  son 
of  Rechab,  shall  not  want  a  man  to  stand  before  me  for  ever.1 "" 
Saying  this,  he  rode  off,  leaving  behind  him  the  strongest  evi 
dence  of  the  truth  of  sacred  writ.  Wolff  saw  the  whole  body 
of  Rechabites,  twelve  years  after,  near  Sanaa  (see  Gen.  x.  27), 
where  it  is  called  Uzal — as  it  is  called  to  this  day  by  the  Jews 
-of  Yemen. 

At  last  they  arrived  at  Mossul,  the  ancient  Nineveh,  where 
Wolff  alighted,  in  the  palace  of  Archbishop  Elias,  who  is  the 
shepherd  of  the  Jacobite  church  there.  Wolff  presented  him 
with  a  Bible,  printed  by  the  Society  for  Promoting  Christian 
Knowledge,  which  is  in  high  esteem  there  ;  and  was  examined 
by  him  about  his  faith ;  and  he  translated,  as  an  answer,  the 
apostolic  creed,  and  the  creed  of  the  Council  of  Nice,  and  that 
of  St.  Athanasius,  into  the  Arabic  language ;  on  which  Mar 
Elias  embraced  Wolff  as  a  brother  in  Christ.  He  said,  how 
ever,  "  The  human  nature  of  Christ  is  absorbed  into  the  Divine, 
as  sand  into  glass.  But  about  this  we  will  not  dispute.  Thou 
art  our  brother  in  Christ,  and  guile  is  not  in  thee."  Wolff 
then  went  to  the  church,  and  heard  the  Bishop  preach  on  the 
sufferings  of  Christ — the  bitter  gall  in  his  mouth,  and  the  nail 
in  his  hand — till  the  assembly  melted  into  tears. 

The  Jacobites  abstain  strictly  from  eating  pork.  Wolff  ob 
jected  to  this,  the  vision  of  Peter.  The  archbishop  replied, 
with  great  acuteness,  "  The  vessel  returned,  and  none  had 
touched  what  it  contained,  and  it  was  only  shown  to  Peter  by 
this  vision,  that  all  kinds  of  nations,  whatever  they  eat,  will  be 
accepted  by  Christ  through  faith."  He  added,  "  Pork  is,  be 
sides  this,  distinctly  forbidden  by  the  Apostle,  in  the  Acts,  xv., 
4  That  they  should  abstain  from  blood,  and  things  strangled, 
and  pork1" — (iropveias).  And  Wolff  believes  they  are  right.* 

He  stopped  at  Mossul,  and  conversed  with  the  Jews  for  a 
fortnight ;  and  was  struck  with  amazement  to  find  that  a  Jew, 
who  was  a  great  Rabbi  at  Mossul,  one  hundred  years  ago,  had 

*  Some  read  iropvr]  instead  of  Tropveia.  The  interpretation  above  given 
is  the  one  held  by  many  in  the  Eastern  churches,  and  therefore  they 
abstain  from  pork  to  the  present  day.  In  the  year  1 838,  Wolff  dined  at 
Lord  Normanby's,  in  Phoenix  Park,  Dublin,  when  Archbishop  Whately 
•was  present,  who  was  much  struck  with  his  view  of  this  subject,  told  him 
it  had  always  been  his  own  idea,  and  requested  Wolff  to  write  what  he 
thought  to  Bishop  Coplestone,  late  Bishop  of  Llandaff,  which  he  did. 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  197 

translated  the  New  Testament  into  Hebrew  from  the  Arabic, 
by  his  own  impulse,  and  for  his  own  edification.  Wolff  gave 
the  New  Testament  to  the  Jews,  which  offended  the  Christians 
of  Mossul  exceedingly;  and  they  said  to  Wolff,  "Why  dost 
thou  throw  pearls  before  swine  ?"  Wolff,  thereupon,  had  a 
regular  argument  on  that  point  with  the  Christians. 

He  then  went  to  Karkush,  where  he  was  surrounded  by 
Christians  of  the  Jacobite  nation,  who  wished  him  to  give 
them  the  history  of  the  conversion  of  England  to  Christianity. 
They  then  said,  "  We  see  thus,  that  you  have  got  the  apostolic 
succession  from  Peter,  whilst  we  have  got  it  from  St.  James." 

Wolff  observed  that  these  Jacobites  entertain  a  great  hatred 
against  the  Roman  pontiff,  from  an  extraordinary  circumstance, 
viz.,  because  the  Pope  wears  the  cross  upon  his  shoe,  which, 
they  say,  originated  in  the  following  manner : — That  a  Jew 
had  become  Pope,  and,  as  he  was  in  his  heart  still  a  Jew,  and 
therefore  hated  Christ,  he  wore  the  cross  upon  his  foot,  in 
order  to  stamp  upon  it  with  the  other ;  but  he  said  to  his 
people  that  he  had  it  upon  his  foot  to  compel  every  one  to 
kneel  down  before  it. 

Wolff  then  asked  them  to  give  him  an  account  of  the  con 
version  of  Assyria  to  the  Christian  religion,  when  one  of  the 
priests  began  thus — a  dead  silence  prevailing — "  The  whole  of 
Assyria  was  converted  to  Christianity  through  the  preaching 
of  the  Apostle  Thaddeus,  except  the  King  Sennacherib,  his 
daughter  Sarah,  and  his  son  Behenam.  They,  and  his  whole 
court  and  soldiers,  still  continued  to  worship  false  and  fabled 
deities,  when  a  bishop,  who  passed  by  the  name  of  the  Old 
Man  of  Marmatay,  prayed  to  Christ,  saying,  'Christ,  thou 
living  fire,  kindle  in  the  heart  of  Sennacherib,  and  of  his  son 
Behenam,  and  of  his  daughter  Sarah,  the  fire  of  thy  love,  in 
order  that  the  banner  of  thy  cross  may  be  planted  upon  the 
throne  of  Assyria  !  ' 

"  Thus  that  old  man  prayed  for  a  long  time,  until,  at  last, 
Behenam  and  Sarah  were  converted,  and  came  out  to  converse 
with  him,  after  which  they  were  b'aptized  in  the  name  of  the 
Father,  the  Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost,  and,  together  with 
them,  forty  attendants.  When  Sennacherib  heard  of  this,  he 
gave  orders  that  his  son  and  daughter,  and  the  forty  attendants, 
should  be  put  to  death.  The  order  was  executed,  and  from 
that  moment  Sennacherib  fell  into  madness  and  despair.  He 
frequently  left  his  palace  dumb  and  silent,  and  walked  near 
the  river  Tigris,  and  imagined  that  that  river  contained 
nothing  but  the  blood  of  Behenam  his  son,  Sarah  his  daughter, 
and  the  forty  men  whom  he  had  slain.  One  day,  he  walked 

198  Travels  and  Adventures 

in  the  evening  upon  the  mountain,  and  his  servant  stood  at  a 
respectful  distance  from  him,  when  he  suddenly  broke  forth  in 
these  words,  '  What  have  I  done?  I  have  slain  Behenam  my 
son,  Sarah  my  daughter,  and  the  forty  men  !  1  He  then  ran 
on,  and  came  near  a  cottage,  whence  a  light  was  glimmering, 
hut  he  dared  not  open  the  cottage  door, — his  conscience  forbade 
him.  Then  he  heard  a  voice  coming  out,  '  Oh,  thou  Behenam 
my  son,  thou  Sarah  my  daughter,  and  ye  forty  martyrs,  ye 
have  been  slain  by  your  father  and  by  your  king  !  "* 

'•Sennacherib  opened  the  cottage  door  and  saw,  standing 
before  him,  the  Old  Man  of  Marmatay,  who  at  once  recognized 
the  King,  and  addressed  him  thus  :  '  Murderer  of  thy  son,  and 
thy  daughter,  and  the  forty  martyrs,  Salvation  is  even  for 
thee ;  forgiveness  and  pardon  of  sin  are  even  for  thee.'  And 
he  preached  to  him  Jesus  Christ  and  Him  crucified ;  and 
Sennacherib  believed,  and  was  baptized. 

"Returned  to  his  palace,  Sennacherib  spent  his  days  in 
carrying  on  his  government  in  equity  and  righteousness,  and 
his  nights  in  singing  penitential  psalrns,  accompanying  them 
with  the  sound  of  the  lyre,  like  David  in  ancient  times.  Deep 
sorrow,  and  contrition  for  sin,  and  repentance,  were  painted  on 
his  countenance  ;  and  they  heard  him  exclaiming  frequently, — 

"  4  Behenam  my  son, — 

"  '  Sarah  my  daughter, — 

"  '  And  the  forty  martyrs  !  "* 

"  One  day  he  was  lying  upon  the  couch,  and  dreaming  he 
sail — 'And  when  the  blood  of  Thy  martyr  Stephen  was  shed,1 
and  he  added 

'"Behenam  my  son, — 

"  'Sarah  my  daughter, — 

"  ;  And  the  forty  martyrs  ! ' 

"  Little  children  came  and  asked  his  blessing.  The  good  old 
man — blinded,  at  last,  by  tears  and  much  weeping — blessed 
them,  and  said,  l  Blessed  children  !  When  I  was  a  child,  I 
knew  not  Jesus  ;  and  now,  that  Lord  Jesus  bless  you,  and 
keep  you,  and  let  the  light  of  his  countenance  shine  upon  you.1 

"And  the  hour  of  his  death  came,  and  he  looked  up  to 
heaven  and  said,  '  The  Blood  of  Jesus  has  pardoned  me.  I  go 
to  Jesus,1  and  so  Sennacherib  died,  and  went  to  Jesus,  where 
he  saw  Behenam  his  son,  Sarah  his  daughter,  and  the  forty 
martyrs.  And  the  ladies  of  Kurdistan  still  remember  good  old 
Sennacherib,  Behenam  his  son,  Sarah  his  daughter,  and  the 
forty  martyrs.1' 

Leaving  Karkush,  Wolff  and  his  party  arrived  at  a  village 
called  Eafti,  near  the  water  called  Sarp.  It  was  inhabited  by 
Mussulmans  and  Yezeedi  of  the  tribe  of  Manmsia,  who  differ 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  199 

in  some  respects  from  those  of  Sanjaar.  A  Syrian  from  Mar- 
deen  brought  one  of  these  Yezeedi  to  WolfTs  room,  that  he 
might  converse  with  him,  and  they  spoke  together  as  follows  : — 

Wolff.—"  Who  was  the  founder  of  your  sect  2 " 

Yezeedi. — "  Yazid  Ihn  Mowea." 

Wolff. — "  Do  you  never  pray  2  " 

Yezeedi. — "  Upon  Sanjaar  they  never  pray  ;  but  the  Ye 
zeedi  Almamusia,  of  whom  I  am,  pray  one  night  in  the  year  j 
that  night  is  called  by  us  Lailat  Almahhya,  i.  e.  night  of  life." 

Wolff. — "  How  many  sects  are  there  among  you  2  " 

Yezeedi. — "  Many ;  as  Danadeea,  Mamusia,  Khaldea, 

Wolff. — "  Where  do  you  pray  on  the  Lailat  Almahhya  2  " 

Yezeedi. — "  In  the  open  air." 

Wolff. — "Is  Manes  known  among  you 2"  (Wolff  asked 
this,  believing  them  to  be  Manichseans.) 

Yezeedi.—"  No  ;  "  others  told  him,  "yes." 

Wolff. — "  What  do  you  pray  2  " 

Yezeedi. — "  I  cannot  tell  you  this." 

Wolff. — "  What  do  you  think  of  the  devil  2 " 

Yezeedi.  (looking  fearfully  about  as  if  somebody  stood 
behind  him). — "  I  cannot  speak  of  that  thing.1' 

Wolff.—"  What  do  you  think  of  Christ  2  " 

Yezeedi  (first  looking  about  to  see  that  no  Turk  was  pre 
sent). — "He  was  God:  we  call  Him  Jod  Nurani  (Jesus  the 
enlightened)  ;  He  was  Kilma,  i.  e.  the  Word.  Kyafa  and 
Pilapus,  his  faithful  and  good  disciples,  drew  the  nails  from 
his  feet,  so  that  He  never  died." 

Wolff.—"  Do  you  never  fast  2 " 

Yezeedi. — "  Thrice  in  the  year." 

Wolff. — "  Do  you  drink  wine  and  brandy  2 " 

Yezeedi. — "  Yes,  we  drink  both  in  large  plates  the  whole  day." 

The  inference  which  Wolff  drew  from  this  interview  is,  that 
these  Yezeedi  are  undoubtedly  Manichaeans,  and  their  views 
have  spread  among  the  Bhuddists.  Kyafa  and  Pilapus  are 
none  else  than  Caiaphas  and  Pilate. 


Arrives  at  Bagdad  ;  the  Cuthites  ;  Bossora  ;  Sabeans  ;  Buskire  ; 
Sheer az ;  Sheah  and  Soonnee  ;  Argues  icith  Sooffees  ;  Jews 
quarter  in  Sheeraz. 

OM  Kafti  Wolff  proceeded  to  Arbeel  (the  Arbelaof  old), 
where  Alexander  fought  his  first  battle  against  Darius. 

200  Travels  and  Adventures 

And  from  Arbeel  to  Kushta,  and  Kantara  (called  in  Turkish, 
Altoon  Kcpri)',  whence  he  intended  to  have  gone  by  water  to 
Bagdad,  being  extremely  fatigued ;  but  an  observation  made 
by  a  Syrian  Turk  (a  soldier),  induced  him  to  change  his  mind. 
He  said,  "  As  you  have  gone  so  far  with  us,  continue  the 
journey  with  us  by  land  ;  for  at  Karkook  there  is  a  consider 
able  number  of  Jews.,  with  whom  you  may  make  a  mejaadelah  " 
(i.  e.  enter  into  an  argument).  Such  a  suggestion  from  a 
Turk  was  remarkable  enough,  and  Wolff  acted  upon  it,  tired 
as  he  was,  and  so  went  on  with  the  caravan  to  Karkook,  where 
Daniel  was  buried.  This  place  is  still  inhabited  by  Christians, 
Jews,  and  most  amiable  Kurds,  who  are  hospitable  and  kind  ; 
for  the  image  of  God  is  not  entirely  defaced  in  any  nation. 
Wolff  has  never  seen  but  one  individual  in  whom  it  seemed  to 
be  entirely  defaced,  and  this  was  Abd-ul-Samut  Khan,  the 
instigator  of  the  murder  of  Stoddart  and  Conolly  in  Bokhara. 

Before  he  arrived  at  Karkook,  Wolff,  being  quite  exhausted, 
said  to  a  Christian  of  the  Chaldean  nation,  "Could  I  get  in 
one  of  the  houses  of  the  Christians  a  comfortable  room,  in 
order  that  I  might  rest,  and  recover  from  my  fatigue?"  and 
saying  this,  he  wept.  The  Christian  replied,  "  Brother,  we 
would  willingly  give  you  a  room,  but  it  would  not  be  a  com 
fortable  one,  for  we  are  poor  and  oppressed.  Then  a  Sayd, 
(i.  e.  one  of  the  family  of  Muhammad)  who  was  riding  near, 
said,  "  This  is  my  care  ;  so  I  will  take  it  upon  me."  He  then 
rode  on  before  the  rest ;  and  the  son  of  the  Muhammadan 
Governor  came  out,  and  straightway  went  up  to  Joseph 
Wolff,  and  said,  "  My  father  wishes  you  to  come  to  the 
palace,  where  a  good  room  will  be  given  to  you,  and  you  will 
be  provided  with  all  the  comforts  of  life." 

Wolff  was  then  brought  to  what  he  will  call  the  drawing- 
room  of  the  Governor — his  best  apartment — which  was  covered 
with  carpets  and  cushions  to  lean  upon.  When  Wolff  was 
stretched  upon  these,  he  wept  again  ;  and  he  was  in  such  an 
hysterical  state  that  when  the  Governor  entered,  and  most 
kindly  laid  his  hands  upon  his  breast,  and  said,  "  Thou  art 
welcome  ; "  he  only  looked  at  him,  and  replied,  "  Pray,  do 
not  disturb  me."  And  the  poor  man  went  humbly  out  of  his 
own  room  ;  but  Wolff,  collecting  himself,  ran  after  him,  and  fell 
down  upon  his  knees,  and  kissed  the  old  man's  hand,  and 
asked  his  pardon.  But  the  good  Governor  said  to  him,  "  You 
need  not  ask  my  pardon.  I  know  that  you  continually  speak 
about  religion — that  you  are  a  Dervish  from  Frankistan ; 
and  I  know  that  you  have  suffered  from  the  villany  of  the 
Frenchman  in  your  company,"  (alluding  to  the  scoundrel 

of  Dr.  Wolf.  201 

Digeon,)  "  sorrow  upon  him  !  "  He  then  actually  sent  his 
wife  to  wash  Wolff's  feet,  and  himself  poured  rosewater  over 
his  head,  and  gave  him  lemonade  to  drink — which  they  make 
better  than  in  any  part  of  Europe — and  he  brought  him  pilau, 
and  excellent  meat,  and  sweet  things  to  eat ;  and  thus  Wolff 
remained  there  four  days,  well  treated  by  all. 

During  this  time,  Wolff"  was  so  very  unwell,  that  he  was  quite 
unable  to  visit  the  Jews,  or  even  to  see  any  one.  At  the  end  of 
the  four  days,  however,  being  somewhat  better,  the  party  went 
forward;  sleeping  several  nights  in  succession  in  Arab  tents. 
At  last  Wolff  left  the  caravan,  and,  accompanied  by  only  one 
Arab,  proceeded  on  his  journey,  and  arrived  in  a  place  where, 
centuries  ago,  there  was  only  one  garden,  which  is  called  in  Per 
sian,  Bagh,  and  that  garden  belonged  to  a  rich  man  whose 
name  was  Dad ;  and  the  place  is  therefore  now  called  Bagdad. 
This  is  the  capital  of  the  Khalifs  of  Arabia  ;  and  even  to  this 
day  the  Pasha  of  Bagdad  has  the  title  of  Khalif.  Haroun  Al 
Raschid  lived  there,  immortalized  in  the  "  Arabian  Nights." 

And  thus,  exhausted  and  depressed  by  his  many  fatigues ; 
poor,  despoiled  of  all  he  had,  with  wounds  still  in  his  feet,  did 
AVolff  arrive  in  Bagdad,  after  his  wanderings  ;  and  he  was  re 
ceived  in  the  splendid  house  of  Agha  Sarkees,  an  Armenian 
gentleman,  who  acted  as  British  agent,  with  the  greatest  hos 
pitality.  And  (as  was  ever  the  case  when  Wolff  was  in  diffi 
culty)  he  met  with  British  officers  to  assist  him.  These 
officers,  and  a  Scotch  surgeon,  had  delayed  their  departure  for 
some  weeks,  on  account  of  having  heard  that  Wolff  was  on  the 
road  to  Bagdad.  The  names  of  these  gentlemen  were  as  fol 
lows  : — Colonel  the  Hon.  George  Keppel,  now  Earl  of  Albe- 
marle  ;  Captain  Hart,  son  of  General  Hart,  of  Ireland  ; 
Captain  Hamilton  ;  and  Dr.  Lamb,  surgeon  to  the  East  India 
Company.  All  of  them  had  come  from  India  by  the  way  of 
Bushire  and  Bossora,  and  they  gave  Wolff  every  assistance  in 
their  power.  They  gave  him  clothing  and  linen,  and  took  his 
bills  on  England,  and  had  precious  conversations  with  him  on 
his  adventures  in  Mesopotamia ;  and  Lamb  cured  his  feet,  and 
then  they  departed. 

There  was  also  an  interesting  gentleman  at  Bagdad,  whose 
name  was  Monsieur  Raymond,  who,  though  of  French  extrac 
tion,  was  formerly  in  the  military  service  of  the  East  India 
Company.  He  came  to  Bagdad  with  Sir  Hartford  Jones, 
British  Resident  at  that  time  ;  and,  without  permission,  he 
entered  the  military  service  of  the  Pasha  of  Bagdad.  When 
Sir  Hartford  Jones  went  to  the  camp  where  the  Pasha's 
soldiers  were  drilled,  and  was  about  to  arrest  him,  Raymond 

202  Travels  and  Adventures 

drew  a  pistol,  and  threatened  to  shoot  the  first  Englishman 
who  came  near  him ;  and  then  he  claimed  protection  under  the 
French  Consul-General  of  Bagdad,  as  a  Frenchman ;  for  the 
law  in  France  is,  a  person,  once  a  Frenchman,  is  always  a 
Frenchman.  Raymond  was  declared  in  Bombay  to  be  a  de 
serter,  and  he  accepted  service  under  the  French  Consulate. 
But  his  heart  was  with  England  ;  and  he  asked  Wolff  to  speak 
on  his  behalf  to  Colonel  Taylor,  in  Bossora,  which  he  did,  and 
with  success,  too,  for  Raymond  was  afterwards  pardoned,  and 
returned  to  Bombay,  where  Wolff  lost  sight  of  him. 

As  to  Digeon,  the  scoundrel,  he  made  the  bishop,  Monsig- 
nore  Couperey,  acquainted  with  Wolff's  having  eaten  the  sacred 
picture  at  Mardeen,  for  which  the  Bishop  remonstrated  with 
Wolff;  and  the  bishop  told  him  that  Digeon  said  he  had  done 
it  on  purpose.  Wolff  replied  that  Digeon  was  a  liar,  and  this 
he  repeated  in  his  presence.  Digeon  then  began  to  abuse  the 
King  of  England,  when,  with  Raymond's  assistance,  Wolff 
made  him  so  frightened,  that  he  wrote  an  apology.  In  short, 
his  conduct  was  so  bad  at  Bagdad,  that  he  was  declared  an  in 
famous  fellow  by  his  own  Government,  and  dismissed. 

The  Jews  are  mighty  and  rich  in  Bagdad,  and  many  are 
learned  among  them,  and  their  great  man  has  still  the  title, 
"  The  Prince  of  the  Captivity."  Mr.  Claudius  Rich,  the  dis 
tinguished  son-in-law  of  Sir  James  Mackintosh,  who  was  the 
Resident  for  the  Honourable  East  India  Company,  made  the 
name  of  Englishman  respected,  not  only  at  Bagdad,  but 
throughout  the  country  around,  by  his  high  talents,  mtregrity, 
munificence,  and  firmness.  And  one  day,  when  he  thought 
himself  insulted  by  the  Pasha,  he  planted  in  his  palace  a  can 
non,  upon  the  terrace  in  his  garden,  and  threatened  to  bombard 
the  palace  of  the  Pasha  ;  and  the  Pasha  of  a  town  of  200,000 
inhabitants  was  forced  to  yield  to  Mr.  Rich,  who  had  with  him 
thirty  sepoys,  Captain  Alexander  Taylor  of  the  Indian  army, 
Bellino,  his  secretary,  a  German ;  and  only  one  cannon  ! 

Wolff  remained  at  Bagdad  a  whole  month,  preaching  to  the 
Jews  and  circulating  hundreds  of  Bibles ;  and  then  he  em 
barked  upon  the  river  Tigris,  called  Dajla  in  Arabic,  towards 
Bossora,  on  the  Arabian  Gulf,  in  company  with  Monsieur 
Vigoroux,  who  had  vacated  his  situation  as  French  Consul- 
General  at  Bagdad,  in  favour  of  Monsignore  Couperey,  Arch 
bishop  of  Babylon.  They  passed  the  Shat  Al  Arab,  where  the 
Tigris  and  the  Euphrates  meet,  and  where  the  Paradise  stood 
in  former  times ;  and  there  Wolff  lost  a  coat,  which  an  Arab, 
swimming  from  the  other  side,  and  putting  his  hands  in  the 
boat  without  being  seen,  contrived  to  steal.  Wolff  felt  some- 

of  Dr.  Wolf.  203 

thing  moving  under  him,  and  calling  out,  "  What  is  that  ?" 
got  up  ;  but,  before  he  could  turn  round  to  see  what  was 
going  on,  the  coat  was  gone  !  M.  Vigoroux  was  a  curious 
man :  he  travelled  with  a  picture  of  his  wife,  before  which  he 
knelt  down  and  worshipped  every  morning  and  evening 

And  thus  they  came  to  the  village  of  Cuthamara,  whence 
the  Cuthites,  who  intermixed  with  the  children  of  Israel  in 
Samaria,  came.  The  Cuthites  "  feared  the  Lord,  and  served 
other  gods."  Here  they  remained  one  night,  and  thence  came 
to  Gorno  and  Sook-Alsheeokh,  two  places  chiefly  inhabited  by 
that  remarkable  people,  who  are  called  by  three  names,  Sabeans, 
Mandai-Haya,  and  Mandai- Yahya ;  and  thus  they  arrived  at 
Bossora,  where  Wolff  was  received  with  the  greatest  kindness 
by  Colonel  Robert  and  Mrs.  Taylor,  and  by  Captain  Alexander. 

Colonel  Robert  Taylor,  who  died  only  six  years  ago  at 
Boulogne,  and  who  was,  at  that  time,  resident  in  Bossora,  was 
a  most  extraordinary  man.  He  knew  sixteen  languages,  which 
he  spoke  with  great  fluency  ;  and  he  was  a  great  Arabic  and 
Persian  scholar,  and  could  read  the  most  difficult  Arabic  manu 
scripts  with  the  greatest  ease.  He  read  with  Wolff  the  his 
torical  book  of  Masoodi,  which  contains  a  splendid  description 
of  Muhammad,  and  the  Temple  at  Mecca;  and,  also,  of 
the  attempt  of  the  Jews  to  convert  the  Arabs  to  their  own  reli 
gion,  before  Muhammad  arose,  in  which  they  so  far  succeeded 
as  to  convert  the  tribe  of  Tob,  whose  descendants  are  existing 
at  this  day. 

Colonel  Taylor  also  read  with  Wolff,  "  Tabestan,"  in  Persian, 
which  contains  an  account  of  the  different  religions  ;  and  it 
convinced  Wolff  more  than  any  book  he  ever  read,  that  his 
view  of  the  prophets  having  been  dervishes  is  correct ;  and 
that  Isaiah  was  a  dervish,  and  walked  about  naked  (vide 
Isaiah  xx.  2,  3)  ;  and  that  the  prophets  and  the  dervishes  of 
the  present  day  symbolize,  by  this  nakedness,  events  which 
are  to  take  place  upon  earth. 

Wolff  also  visited,  on  the  first  days  after  his  arrival,  the 
Jews  in  Bossora ;  an  excellent  people,  with  whom  he  had 
whole  days'  conversation  about  Christ.  Here,  too,  the  Syrian 
chief  priests,  who  belong  to  the  Roman  Catholic  Church, 
allowed  Joseph  Wolff  to  preach  to  the  Roman  Catholic  congre 
gation,  both  in  the  Arabic  and  Persian  languages  ;  on  which 
occasions,  Wolff  put  on  the  mitre  belonging  to  a  Roman 
Catholic  bishop,  and  wound  around  him  the  Stola  and  the  Cin- 
gulum,  and  made  the  sign  of  the  cross,  as  the  priests  do.  He 
was  listened  to  with  the  greatest  attention. 

At  last,  Wolff  was  burning  with  anxiety  to  see  the  Mandaye 

204  Travels  and  Adventures 

Haya,  also  called  Mandaye  Yahya,  also  Sabeans.  All  three 
names  are  most  important ;  and  it  is  worth  while  that  people 
should  visit  them,  especially  missionaries,  in  order  to  make  them 
selves  and  the  Church  fully  acquainted  with  that  most  interest 
ing  people.  Dear  people,  yes,  timbrel  and  dance  have  ceased  from 
your  eyes  and  your  ears,  as  you  used  to  say  to  me!  You, 
brothers  of  Abraham,  why  do  you  so  dislike  your  brother 
Abraham  ? 

Colonel  Taylor  sent  for  two  of  this  tribe  ;  the  first  was 
Sohoron,  who  was  a  layman  ;  the  name  of  the  second  was 
Rabba  Adam,  who  was  the  high-priest,  and  whose  title  was 
Ganz-Aura,  which  means,  "  One  who  has  read  through  the 
book."  He  was  the  representative  of  Jesus  Christ.  Both  the 
layman,  as  well  as  the  high-priest,  gave  to  Joseph  Wolff  a  per 
fect  description  and  idea  of  the  history  of  their  people.  The 
first  thing  Wolff  asked  them  was,  to  give  him  the  real  meaning 
of  the  names  by  which  they  are  known. 

Sabean  is  a  nick-name,  given  to  them  by  Muhammadnns, 
and  it  means,  "  Those  who  have  changed  their  religion,  and 
turned  in  their  prayers  towards  the  north."  But  they  call 
themselves  by  two  names : — first,  Mandaye  Haya,  i.  e.  "  Fol 
lowers  of  the  living  God;"  and  they  worship  that  living  God 
under  three  names  : — the  first,  Haya  Kadamaya,  /.  e.  "  The 
living  in  the  first  degree;"  secondly,  Haya  Tinyana,  i.  e. 
"  The  living  in  the  second  degree ;  thirdly,  "  Haya  Tlitaya, 
i.  e.  "  The  living  in  the  third  degree."  They  say" that  "  The 
living  in  the  second  degree,"  is  Jesus  ;  but  that  these  three 
are  one.  They  are  also  called  Mandaye  Yahya,  i.  e.  "  Fol 
lowers  of  John  the  Baptist." 

That  extraordinary  young  man,  Sidney  Pusey,  who  has 
more  knowledge  of  the  religions  of  the  East  than  Wolff  has 
ever  found  in  England,  Italy,  or  Germany,  and  whose  au 
thority  may  be  depended  upon,  recently  showed  Wolff  a  pas 
sage  in  the  Sadra  Rabba,  translated  into  Latin  by  Norbert, 
with  the  Sabean  text  at  the  side,  which  convinced  Wolff  that 
the  love  which  these  people  profess  for  Christ  is  not  universal, 
and  that  there  is  a  jealousy  between  the  disciples  of  John  the 
Baptist  and  the  Christians,  which  must  have  existed  in  the 
most  ancient  times.  Pusey  knew  almost  the  whole  book  by 
heart,  and  he  is  certainly  a  most  remarkable  scholar. 

There  are,  in  the  world,  some  miserable  plagiarists. 
Wolff's  description  of  the  disciples  of  John  the  Baptist,  has 
been  literally  copied  from  the  "Jewish  Expositor,"  by  the 
traveller  Bode ;  and  the  hymns  of  the  Caraites  as  translated 
by  Wolff,  have  been  copied  by  Haxthausen,  in  his  travels  : 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  205 

and  the  missionary  from  Basle,  Mr.  Hohenacker,  has  again 
literally  copied  Wolff's  description  of  the  Chaldean  Churches, 
without  saying  where  he  took  it  from.  Indeed,  there  are  not 
greater  plagiarists  than  some  of  the  missionaries.  The  in 
teresting  writer  of  the  "  Court  of  Dahomey,"  Commander 
Forbes,  justly  complains  of  that  plagiarizing  system,  which  is 
practised  by  some  missionaries. 

Now  a  little  more  respecting  the  history  of  these  poor  Man- 
daye.  Their  language  is  Chaldean,  with  characters  entirely 
their  own.  They  come  from  Haran,  where  Terah,  the  father 
of  Abraham,  lived  and  died.  They  are  the  descendants  of 
Abraham's  brothers ;  and,  when  Abraham  proclaimed  the 
unity  of  one  God,  they  became  his  followers ;  but,  when  he 
established  the  right  of  circumcision,  they  separated  from,  and 
abhorred,  him.  They  never  take  a  knife  in  their  hands,  so 
they  never  eat  meat,  because  it  has  to  be  cut. 

They  have  two  books ;  the  one  is  called  Sadra  Rabba,  which 
means  the  "Grand  Order;"  the  other,  Sadra  Nishmata,  which 
means  the  "  Order  of  the  Soul."  The  first  book  contains 
laws,  precepts,  and  histories;  the  second  book  is  their  Liturgy. 
They  have  two  kinds  of  priests.  The  one  is  called  Ganz- 
Aura,  and  means  "  He  that  is  acquainted  with  the  whole 
book  " — he  is  the  representative  of  Jesus  Christ ;  the  other  is 
called  Tarmeeda,  i.e.  "  The  awakened  out  of  sleep"" — he  has 
to  sleep  a  certain  number  of  days,  until  he  is  declared  to  be 
the  representative  of  John  the  Baptist.  They  baptize  their 
followers  every  Sunday  ;  and  the  Gauz-Aura,  the  representa 
tive  of  Jesus  Christ,  is  himself  baptized  every  Sunday  by  the 
Tarmeeda,  the  representative  of  John  the  Baptist. 

In  commemoration  of  our  Lord's  being  baptized  by  John 
the  Baptist,  they  baptize  in  the  name  of  Haya  Kadamaya, 
the  living  in  the  first  degree ;  Haya  Tinyana,  the  living  in 
the  second  degree  ;  Haya  Tlitaya,  the  living  in  the  third 
degree.  The  authors  of  the  Sadra  Rabba  are  said  to  be  Seth, 
Adam's  son  ;  Abraham,  and  John  the  Baptist. 

They  relate  that,  after  they  had  separated  from  Abraham, 
they  lived  with  his  descendants  in  peace  and  amity,  and  went 
with  the  children  of  Israel  into  the  captivity  of  Egypt,  and 
remained  with  them  in  captivity,  and  shared  their  affliction, 
and  went  with  them  out  of  Egypt,  guided  by  Artabanes  ;  and 
were  with  the  children  of  Israel  upon  Mount  Sinai,  until  cir 
cumcision  was  again  established,  which  rite,  they  say,  was  in 
troduced  by  Abraham,  and  again  by  his  followers  upon  Sinai, 
on  account  of  dissolute  conduct.  Then  they  settled  by  the 
river  Jordan,  and  received  from  John  the  Baptist,  when  he 
arrived,  Baptism. 

206  Travels  and  Adventures 

There  are  two  coincidences  worth  observing.  First,  they 
relate  that  they  went  out  of  Egypt  with  the  children  of  Israel, 
which  confirms  the  words  of  Exodus  xii.  38,  that  a  mixed  mul 
titude  went  up  with  the  children  of  Israel.  Secondly,  they 
call  themselves  the  disciples  of  John  the  Baptist ;  and  it  is 
again  and  again  mentioned  in  the  New  Testament,  that  John 
the  Baptist  had  disciples,  separate  from  those  of  our  Lord ; 
nor  did  they  ever  unite  together.  The  Sabeans  also  believe 
that  Herod  tried  to  kill  John  the  Baptist,  but  did  not  suc 
ceed  ;  and  that  John  the  Baptist  came  to  Persia,  and  died  at 
last  in  Shustar,  the  ancient  Shushan  of  the  book  of  Esther, 
where  they  now  reside.  For  they  always  choose  for  a  resi 
dence  a  place  near  a  river,  and  so  are  therefore  found  residing 
at  Sookalshiukh,  Gorno,  Despul,  and  Bossora. 

Father  Agadhangelus,  a  missionary  of  the  Church  of  Rome, 
tried  to  convert  these  Sabeans  130  years  ago,  and  actually 
baptized  the  whole  body.  But  on  the  Sunday  following,  he 
relates  that  he  sent  spies  to  that  river,  and  all  of  them  were 
being  baptized  again  in  their  own  way.  He  asked,  "  Why 
they  had  been  baptized  again."  They  replied,  "  We  like 
water."  He  asked,  "  Are  you  not  Roman  Catholics?"  They 
replied,  "  We  will  be,  on  the  following  conditions  : — First,  the 
Pope  must  write  to  the  Sultan  for  us  to  be  relieved  from 
tribute.  Secondly,  the  Pope  must  give  us  a  pension.  Thirdly, 
at  the  hour  of  death,  no  Roman  Catholic  priest  must  come 
near  us.  Fourthly,  we  must  be  allowed  to  retain  our  own 
religion  unmolested  ! " 

Rabbi  Adarn,  the  Ganz-Aura  priest,  was  an  extraordinary 
man.  He  practised  magic ;  and  a  Muhammadan  lady,  who 
wished  to  have  a  child,  came  to  him ;  so  he  wrote  some 
illegible  words  upon  her  stomach.  The  Muhammadan  Gover 
nor  heard  of  this,  and  got  Rabbi  AdanVs  tongue  cut  out,  and 
his  right  arm  cut  off;  but  Habbi  Adam  cut  out  the  remainder 
of  his  tongue  which  had  been  left,  and  then  he  spoke  again. 

Although  this  sounds  quite  incredible — so  much  so  that 
Colonel  Taylor  advised  Wolff  never  to  relate  it  (although  he 
was  a  witness  to  it  himself) — it  is  nevertheless  a  strict  fact. 
And  the  same  thing  happened  to  a  relation  of  the  Prince 
Bushir,  in  Mount  Lebanon,  whose  tongue  was  cut  out ;  for  by 
a  further  excision  he  recovered  the  power  of  speech.  Of 
course  these  people  spoke  with  difficulty,  but  they  were  quite 
articulate  ;  and  Rabbi  Adam  used  to  come  to  Wolff  daily,  and 
taught  him  the  Sabean — called  the  Mandaye — language, 
though  without  his  tongue ;  and  he  wrote  all  he  had  to  write 
with  his  left  arm.  Wolff  gave  this  account  to  several  persons 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  207 

in  Malta,  who  repeated  it  to  Sir  Frederick  Cavendish  Pon- 
sonby,  the  Governor  of  Malta,  and  he  said,  "  I  will  believe  any 
thing  that  Wolff  says,  for  he  has  already  told  me  several 
things  which  sounded  most  incredible,  but  which  turned  out  to 
be  completely  true." 

Dr.  Wolff  has  received  a  letter,  dated  14th'  March,  1861, 
from  Edward  Twisleton,  Esq.,  of  3,  Rutland  Gate,  London, 
in  which  that  gentleman  refers  to  the  following  passage  in  Sir 
John  Malcolm's  "Sketches  of  Persia,"  vol.  ii.  p.  115: — 
"  This  mandate "  (the  excision  of  Zal  Khan's  tongue)  "was 
imperfectly  executed ;  and  the  loss  of  half  this  member  de 
prived  him  of  speech.  But  being  afterwards  persuaded  that 
its  being  cut  close  to  the  root  would  enable  him  to  speak  so  as 
to  be  understood,  he  submitted  to  the  operation,  and  the  effect 
has  been  that  his  voice,  though  indistinct  and  thick,  is  yet  in 
telligible  to  persons  accustomed  to  converse  with  him.  This 
I  experienced  from  daily  intercourse.  He  often  spoke  to  me 
of  his  sufferings,  and  of  the  humanity  of  the  present  king,  who 
had  restored  him  to  his  situation,  as  head  of  his  tribe,  and 
governor  of  Khisht.  I  am  not  an  anatomist,  and  therefore 
cannot  give  a  reason  why  a  man  who  could  not  articulate  with 
half  a  tongue,  should  speak  when  he  had  none  at  all ;  but  the 
facts  are  as  stated,  and  I  had  them  from  from  the  very  best 
authority,  old  Zal  Khan  himself."  Mr.  Twisleton  further 
wrote,  "On  reading  this  passage,  I  wrote  to  Sir  John  Macniel 
formerly  British  Ambassador  in  Persia,  from  whom  I  received 
a  letter,  in  which  he  informed  me  that  several  persons  whom 
he  had  known  in  Persia,  and  had  been  subjected  to  a  muti 
lation  of  the  tongue,  spoke  so  intelligibly  as  to  be  able  to 
transact  important  business.  He  added,  '  More  than  one  of 
them,  finding  that  my  curiosity  and  interest  were  excited, 
showed  me  the  stump,  and  one  of  them  stated  that  he  owed 
the  power  of  speech  to  the  friendship  of  the  executioner,  who, 
instead  of  cuting  off  the  tip  as  he  was  ordered,  had  cut  off  all 
that  was  loose  in  the  mouth ;  that  is,  all  that  could  be  ampu 
tated  by  a  single  cut  from  below.  The  conviction  in  Persia  is 
universal,  that  the  power  of  speech  is  destroyed,  by  merely 
cutting  off  the  tip  of  the  tongue,  and  is  to  a  useful  extent  re 
stored  by  cutting  off  another  portion  as  far  back  as  a  perpen 
dicular  section  can  be  made  of  the  portion  that  is  free  from 
attachment  at  the  lower  surface.  I  never  happened  to  meet 
with  any  person  who  had  suffered  this  punishment,  who  could 
not  so  speak  as  to  be  intelligible  to  his  familiar  associates.  I 
have  met  with  several  of  them.' '' 

Wolff  now  paid  a  visit  to  Zubeir,  a  large  Arab  village  near 

208  Travels  and  Adventures 

Bossora,  where  the  inhabitants  are  sons  of  Abraham  by  his 
wife  Keturah ;  and  to  these  Wolff  gave  the  Bible,  and  re 
turned  to  Bossora,  where,  with  the  kind  assistance  of  Colonel 
Taylor,  he  established  a  school,  to  which  all  the  Armenian 
Christians  subscribed  ;  and  the  most  clever  of  all  the  children 
was  the  son  of  Rabbi  Adam,  the  Mandaye. 

After  several  months'  residence  in  Bossora,  Wolff  proceeded 
to  Bushire,  where  he  was  most  kindly  received  in  the  house  of 
Colonel  Stannes,  who  died  as  Governor  of  the  College  of 
Addiscombe,  Sir  Ephraim  Stannes.  He  preached  in  the 
Residency,  where  he  made  the  acquaintance  of  Captain  Jervis, 
the  excellent  Dr.  Riach,  who  is  now  at  Plymouth,  and  united 
to  that  party  called  the  Plymouth  Brethren  ;  Lieutenant 
Strong,  Captain  Mellard,  Captain  Wilson  of  the  India  Navy, 
and  others.  With  their  assistance,  and  the  assistance  of 
Armenian  gentlemen  and  ladies,  he  established  a  school  at 
Bushire  also.  At  the  opening  of  the  school,  the  Armenian 
ladies  came  out  of  their  hareem,  and  took  the  arms  of  the 
British  officers  there,  and  went  to  church  for  the  first  time  in 
their  lives.  Many  of  the  young  ladies  said,  "I  am  ashamed." 
However,  they  went,  and  Wolff'  made  a  speech  in  the  church 
in  Persian  after  the  service,  in  which  he  enlarged  on  the 
importance  of  Christian  education. 

Among  the  ladies  was  also  Mrs.  Lazar,  the  wife  of  an 
Armenian  merchant,  who  was  sister  to  the  wife  of  Colonel 
Taylor,  of  Bossora,  and  who  is  now  Lady  Congleton,  and  re 
sides  in  London.  Mrs.  Colonel  Taylor  had  given  Wolff  a 
letter  to  her,  and  told  her  that  she  should  admit  him  to  the 
hareem,  where  he  saw  all  the  Armenian  beauties. 

The  lives  of  those  two  ladies  were  very  extraordinary. 
Both  of  them  were  the  daughters  of  an  Armenian  family  of 
Sheeraz.  The  Prince  of  Sheeraz,  when  they  were  quite 
young,  had  ordered  them  to  be  brought  to  his  hareem.  But  the 
parents  put  them  both  in  a  basket,  and  by  bribing  some  of  the 
Persians  got  them  brought  to  Bushire,  where  Mr.  Bruce,  the 
British  Resident  there  at  that  time,  got  them  respectably- 
educated  ;  and  the  one  became  the  wife  of  Colonel  Taylor,  and 
the  other  married  the  Armenian  merchant,  Lazar.  Colonel 
Taylor  had  to  go  to  Bombay,  and  told  his  wife  to  follow  him. 
She  took  as  her  companion,  an  old  Mussulman  servant,  and 
both  were  made  slaves  by  the  Arab  pirates  of  the  desert 
around  Muscat,  who  were  at  that  time  at  war  with  England. 
But  Mrs.  Taylor  and  her  faithful  servant,  in  the  darkness  of 
the  night,  made  their  escape  in  a  boat  of  the  Arabs,  and 
drifted  out  to  sea,  where  they  were  found  very  soon  by  an 
English  ship,  and  were  taken  in  safety  to  Bombay. 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  209 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lazar,  in  the  time  of  the  plague,  left  Bushire, 
and  took  up  their  abode  in  Bagdad,  at  the  time  when  Colonel 
Taylor  was  Resident  there.  There  Lazar  died,  and  Mrs. 
Lazar  was  left  a  widow.  At  that  time  four  missionaries 
arrived  in  Bagdad,  Mr.  Groves,  the  dentist ;  Dr.  Groning,  a 
homoeopathic  doctor  ;  Mr.  Parnell,  son  of  Sir  Henry  Parnell ; 
and  Frank  Newman.  Mr.  Parnell  succeeded  in  converting- 
Mrs.  Lazar  to  the  tenets  of  the  Plymouth  Brethren,  and  then 
he  married  her ;  and  Colonel  and  Mrs.  Taylor,  and  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Parnell  came  to  England.  Colonel  Taylor  died  at 
Boulogne,  but  Mrs  Parnell  is  now  Lady  Congleton,  her  hus 
band  having  succeeded  to  the  title ;  and  both  sisters  are  living 
in  London — ladies  who  are  highly  revered  by  Dr.  Wolff. 

Let  us  depart  from  Bushire.  Wolff,  after  having  preached  in 
the  Armenian  church,  proceeded  on  his  way  to  Sheeraz,  the 
most  scientific  and  poetic  town  in  Persia.  Dr.  Riach  and 
Lieutenant  Strong  accompanied  him  as  far  as  Borasgoon ;  the 
Armenian  Arootyoon,  who  had  given  ^200  to  the  school, 
being  with  them  also.  Lieutenant  Strong  told  an  amusing 
story — and  it  must  be  observed  that  Lieutenant  Strong  was 
one  of  the  handsomest  men  Wolff  ever  saw.  The  story  was 
this  : — The  Duke  of  York  called  on  his  brother  George  IV. 
one  day,  and  asked  his  Majesty  to  assist  him  with  ^200,  as  he 
was  in  debt.  The  moment  the  Duke  of  York  got  his  cheque 
for  ^200,  he  walked  out  singing,  "  God  save  Great  George  our 

Having. heard  this  story,  and  eaten  a  good  dinner  at  Bo 
rasgoon,  which  had  been  prepared  by  Arootyoon,  Wolff  got  on 
his  horse,  and  rode  off  with  his  servant  for  Kasseroon.  He 
was  much  struck,  both  at  Borasgoon  and  Kasseroon,  with  the 
houses  of  the  Persian  noblemen,  who  have  the  pictures  of 
great  men  painted  upon  the  walls  of  their  rooms ;  which  the 
Sheah  permit,  but  the  Soonnee  consider  an  abomination.  At 
Kasseroon,  Wolff  visited  the  Jews,  when  he  was  distressed  to 
see  them  in  the  greatest  misery  and  poverty.  He  made 
himself  known  to  them  as  one  of  their  nation,  who  came  to 
preach  Jesus  Christ. 

It  is  distressing  to  record  an  awful  truth,  that  civilization, 
without  true  religion,  will  never  make  a  nation  or  an  individual 
more  humane.  For  the  Persians,  though  by  far  more  intel 
lectual  than  the  Turks,  are  also  much  more  cruel,  greater  liars, 
and  more  atrociously  immoral  in  every  respect.  So  that,  in 
fact,  increased  civilization,  without  religion,  only  developes  a 
greater  amount  of  wickedness,  and  it  is  generally  accompanied 
by  hypocrisy. 


210  Travels  and  Adventures 

Wolff  had  taken  up  his  abode  at  Kasseroon,  in  the  upper 
story  of  a  house.  At  night,  torrents  of  rain  fell,  and  he  was 
conversing  with  the  Persians  in  the  house  upon  religion,  during 
this  storm,  when  suddenly  an  earthquake  shook  the  house. 
Wolff,  like  a  flash  of  lightning,  though  without  shoes  and 
stockings,  and  without  a  coat,  leapt  down  the  stairs,  with  a 
swiftness  and  quickness,  which  produced  a  burst  of  laughter 
from  all  present.  And  although  the  earthquake  had  caused 
no  injury — for  it  was  only  the  remnant  of  the  great  earthquake 
of  Sheeraz,  which  had  happened  five  months  before,  and  had 
destroyed  part  of  Sheeraz,  and  the  neighbouring  cities — Wolff 
slept  that  night  in  the  open  air,  with  the  rain  pouring  down 
upon  him. 

The  next  day,  Wolff  proceeded  to  Sheeraz,  over  a  horrid 
mountainous  road;  and  he  arrived  after  a  few  days  in  the  city, 
which  is  the  most  learned  town  in  all  Persia ;  and  where  the 
tombs  of  Hafiz,  the  Anacreon  of  the  Persians,  and  of  Sadi, 
the  great  poet,  and  author  of  Gulistan  and  Bustan,  are  outside 
the  walls.  They  are  both  buried  in  a  garden,  which  is  kept 
by  a  dervish.  Wolff  first  took  up  his  abode  in  the  house  of  a 
Persian,  who  acted  as  British  agent,  and  who  promised  to 
invite  the  chiefs  of  the  Sheah  religion  to  argue  with  him,  for 
all  the  inhabitants  of  Persia  are  Sheahs. 

The  whole  Muhammadan  nations  are  divided  into  two 
classes — the  Sheah  and  the  Soonnee.  Whenever  a  great  reli 
gious  contest  takes  place  in  the  world,  two  classes  always 
appear,  like  these  two ;  the  one  party  says  that  a  written  book 
is  not  enough,  there  is  also  need  of  tradition,  which  will  serve 
to  explain  the  written  word  ; — the  other  party  says,  the 
written  word  is  quite  enough  in  itself. 

Wolff  holds  with  the  first  party,  for,  though  tradition  may 
be,  and  has  been,  abused  and  exaggerated,  yet  the  principle  is 
true,  that  the  written  word  cannot  be  exactly  understood  with 
out  tradition.  And  it  has  been  the  invariable  experience  of 
Wolff,  that  all  those  who  belong  to  the  anti-traditional  party 
have  their  own  pet  traditions.  Thus  it  is  the  case  with  the 
Jews,  who  divide  themselves  into  Rabbanim,  i.  e.  "  Believers 
in  the  tradition  of  the  Rabbis;"  and  Coraeem,  "Believers  in 
the  Bible."  But  yet  those  Coraeem,  who  are  the  anti-tradi 
tional  Jews,  have  their  own  traditions.  Thus  it  is  the  case, 
also,  with  the  Muhammadans.  There  are  two  great  parties 
amongst  them,  the  Soonnee.  traditionalists,  to  which  party 
belong  the  Turks,  Arabs,  and  Turkomauns  ;  and  the  Sheah, 
anti-traditionalists,  who  are  the  Persians — the  Protestants 
against  the  Soonnee.  Yet  these  have  their  traditions  too, 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  211 

which  they  call  "  Hadees."  And  is  it  not  so  in  the  Christian 
church?  Dr.  Wolff  asks..  The  Roman  Catholic  and  Eastern 
churches  take,  as  their  guide,  the  ancient  Fathers  ;  and  the 
innumerable  branches  of  the  Protestant  communion  have  their 
own  traditions,  without  number,  which  are  often  no  more  than 
the  mere  opinions  of  the  leaders  of  each  sect. 

Now,  however,  back  to  Sheeraz.  The  Sheah  of  Sheeraz 
divide  themselves  into  two  parties,  like  all  the  other  religious 
bodies  :  into  Moollahs,  "  those  who  follow  the  opinions  of  the 
Doctors,  and  are  for  outward  forms  ;"  and  the  other  party  are 
called  Sooffee,  which  means  "  pure,"  for  they  say  the  mind  in 
itself  must  be  pure,  and  outward  form  is  good  for  nothing. 
Wolff  cannot  refrain  from  making  the  following  etymological 
observation.  The  Greek  word  "  Sophos"  (wise)  is  derived 
from  the  Arabic  word  "  Soof"  (pure);  and  the  Greek  word 
"  Philosophos"  might  be  translated  "  Friend  of  purity." 

Wolff  visited  the  colleges  of  the  Sooffees.  Their  principles 
are  rather  liberal,  which  principles  they  have  taken  from  a 
book  called  Masnavi,  whose  author's  name  is  Moollah  Roomee. 

Let  us  give  some  sentences  from  that  book : — 

"  Say  of  every  one,  whose  morals  are  good,  that  he  is  good." 

"  If  any  one  says  that  the  Koran,  which  came  from  the  hand 
of  Muhammad,  is  not  of  God,  he  is  an  infidel." 

This  is  a  most  ambiguous  statement :  for  their  principle  is, 
that  everything  comes  from  God ;  and,  therefore,  nothing  can 
be  that  does  not  come  from  God.  And  they  themselves 
explain  their  statement  so,  from  a  sentence  of  the  Koran, 
"  From  God  we  come,  and  to  God  we  return." 

That  book  also  says,  "  If  we  attempt  to  enjoy  together  both 
God  and  the  world,  we  are  altogether  devil-possessed." 

Since  the  time  of  Henry  Martyn  they  have  also  embodied 
in  their  faith  the  words  of  John  iii.  5  :  "If  ye  are  not  born 
again  of  water  and  the  Spirit,  ye  shall  not  enter  again  the 
kingdom  of  heaven."  And  they  explain  this  almost  exactly 
as  the  Evangelicals  in  England  do,  viz.,  by  spiritualizing  the 

They  sit  in  their  college,  with  their  heads  bowed  down, 
wrapped  up  in  a  prophet's  mantle  and  belch,  because,  they  say, 
that  they  are  filled  with  the  mystical  wine  of  truth  ;  which, 
Wolff  observed,  consisted  of  the  wine  of  the  grape,  which  is 
produced  in  Sheeraz.  They  also  intoxicate  themselves  by 
smoking  Jars,  which  is  a  kind  of  opiatic  plant.  Wolff  dares 
say  that  there  are  some  good  men  among  them ;  but,  in 
general,  he  trusted  them  less  than  the  orthodox  Moollahs 

i>  2 

212  Travels  and  Adventures 

Their  spirituality  consists  in  sensuality  of  the  most  out 
rageous  and  unmentionable  kind,  and  they  are  liars  and  cheats. 
Dear  Henry  Martyn  seems  to  have  been  imposed  upon  by 
them  ;  yet,  by  his  writings,  he  has,  after  all,  excited  the  atten 
tion  and  drawn  the  minds  of  people,  not  only  in  Sheeraz  and 
Persia,  but  in  other  parts  of  the  Muhainmadan  empire,  into 
inquiring  after  Christianity  ;  so  that,  after  all,  he  did  not 
labour  in  vain,  which  is  all  that  can  be  expected  from  a  mis 
sion  amongst  Muhammadans. 

The  Sooffees  are  divided  into  different  classes  :  some,  who 
try  to  excite  themselves  into  devotion  with  musical  instru 
ments  and  the  drum — so  much  so,  that  they  fall  down  in 
ecstacies,  until  they  fall  into  a  trance,  and  are  unconscious  of 
what  they  say  or  do  ;  and  then  they  sometimes  speak  in  a 
sublime  manner. 

When  Wolff  travelled  in  the  Crimea,  he  found  a  clairvoyant, 
who,  after  Mr.  Kylius,  in  whose  house  she  lived,  had  laid 
hands  upon  her,  began  to  sleep,  and  spoke  in  a  most  sublime 
manner.  Wolff,  at  that  time,  had  with  him  Mirza  Ibrahim, 
whom  he  afterwards  sent  to  England  ;  and  he  asked  him, 
"  What  do  you  think  of  this  lady  ?  Have  you  ever  seen  such 
a  thing  in  your  life  before  2"  He  replied,  "  Over  and  over 
again  in  Persia,  both  in  Sheeraz  and  Ispahan,  among  the 

There  is  also  a  class  of  Sooffees,  who  are  called  the  Saaket, 
which  means,  "the  silent  ones,"  for  they  never  speak.  Here 
we  have  the  counterpart  of  the  order  of  La  Trappe. 

Wolff  also  visited  the  colleges  of  the  orthodox  party  ;  a 
proud  people,  full  of  arrogance,  with  whom  wisdom  has  died 
out.  Some  young  men,  with  whom  he  argued,  asked  him,  the 
day  following,  whether  he  had  been  able  to  sleep  after  having 
heard  such  powerful  arguments  as  they  had  produced  ?  Wolff 
replied,  that  arguments  never  disturbed  his  sleep.  However, 
some  of  their  arguments  must  be  produced. 

Wolff  said,  "  Christ  converted  the  world  by  persuasion  ;  by 
the  sublimity  of  his  doctrine,  by  prophecies,  and  by  miracles. 
Muhammad  converted  the  nations  by  the  sword."  They  re 
plied,  "There  are  two  physicians:  the  one  cures  the  sick  by 
sweet  medicine ;  he  is  a  good  physician.  Other  physicians 
give  the  sick  bitter  medicine,  and  they  are  cured.  Thus,  he 
is  a  good  physician  too.  Again,  there  are  too  generals ;  the 
one  takes  the  city  by  storm, — he  is  a  good  general.  Another 
takes  the  city  by  persuasion, — he  is  a  good  general  too." 

Wolff  said,  u  The  sword  cannot  be  a  good  medicine  ;  for  if 
it  kills  the  enemy,  he  is  prevented  from  being  persuaded  into 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  213 

the  right  faith.  And  if  it  frightens  him  into  submitting 
against  his  belief,  it  makes  a  hypocrite  of  him."  Then  they 
said,  as  to  miracles.  "  The  Koran  itself  is  a  miracle  ;  for  no 
body  was  ever  able  to  write  such  beautiful  Arabic  as  the  Koran 
is  written  in."  Wolff  said,  "  This  cannot  be  proved,  for  it  is 
a  matter  of  taste." 

Then  they  came  to  prophecies,  and  said,  "  The  name  of 
Muhammad  is  predicted  in  the  Bible.  He  is  called  in  Hebrew, 
Bimod  Mead."  Wolff  could  not  imagine,  for  a  long  time, 
what  on  earth  they  meant,  and  only  discovered  it  at  last  by 
their  calling  for  a  renegade  Jew,  who  showed  Wolff,  in  Gen. 
xvii.  20,  u  And  as  for  Ishmael,  I  have  heard  thee  :  Behold,  I 
have  blessed  him,  and  will  make  him  fruitful,  and  will  multiply 
him  exceedingly."  Now  the  letters  which  compose  this  word 
exceedingly,  i.  e.  Bimod  Mead,  viz.  Beth,  Mim,  Aleph,  Daleth, 
Mim,  Aleph,  Daleth,  when  considered  as  letters  expressing 
numbers,  which  is  their  common  use  also,  amount  to  ninety- 
two.  And  so,  in  like  manner,  the  four  letters  of  the  name 
Muhammad,  viz.  Mim,  Kheth.,  Mim,  Daleth,  when  summed 
together  as  numbers,  amount  also  to  ninety-two  ;  and  there 
fore,  said  the  Muhammadans,  exceedingly  must  mean  Muham 
mad !  an  argument  not  very  likely  to  have  disturbed  Wolff's 
rest.  This  ingenious  argument,  which  the  Muhammadans  had 
learned  from  an  apostate  Jew,  was  further  confirmed  by  the 
fact  that  Muhammad  was  a  descendant  of  Ishrnael,  and  multi 
plied  exceedingly. 

But  there  wras  another  thing  which  they  brought  forward  in 
the  same  verse  ;  "  Twelve  princes  shall  he  beget."  These, 
said  they,  were  the  twelve  Imaums — the  twelve  successors  of 
Muhammad  (which  only  the  Sheah  acknowledge).  Wolff  said, 
"  But  the  word  exceedingly  cannot  beget.  On  the  contrary,  it 
is  said  that  Ishmael  shall  beget  twelve  princes,  and  the  names 
of  these  twelve  princes  are  mentioned  afterwards  in  Gen.  xxv. 
13-15,  viz.,  Nebajoth,  Kedar,  Adbeel,  Mibsam,  Mishma, 
Duniah,  Massa,  Hadar,  Tema,  Jetur,  Naphish,  and  Kedemah." 
On  hearing  this,  they  said,  "  We  must  be  candid  ;  he  has 
answered  us  completely." 

They  then  asked  Wolff  "  how  he  liked  best  to  argue  :  whether 
from  tradition  or  from  reason  ?"  He  said,  "  he  liked  to  argue 
chiefly  from  tradition,  and  then  from  reason.*"  "  For,"  he  said, 
"  reason  can  only  reach  to  a  certain  point,  but  tradition  tells 
us  things  which  God  has  revealed.  But.  besides  tradition  and 
reason,  there  is  an  internal  evidence ;  the  heart  is  also  given 
by  God,  and  if  the  heart  comes  into  collision  with  reason, 
something  must  be  wrong.  And  the  heart  tells  us  that,  as 

214  Travels  and  Adventures 

faith  is  the  gift  of  God,  we  must  pray  for  it."  They  all  ex 
claimed,  "  Good !  very  good  !"  They  then  asked  Wolff, 
"  What  he  believed  Jesus  to  be."  He  replied,  "  The  Son  of 
God/'  They  said,  "  God  has  no  wife."  Wolff  replied,  "  There 
are  different  kinds  of  fathers.  One  the  father  by  marriage, 
another  is  father  by  being  the  educator,  bringer  up,  and  be- 
stower  of  benefits.  And  God  is  a  father  by  creating  and  by 
preserving,  by  bestowing  of  benefits,  and  by  his  very  act  of 
chastising  his  children." 

Then  they  said,  "  Then  we  are  all  children  of  God." 

Wolff  replied,  "  Yes ;  all  of  us,  in  a  different  sense.  But 
Jesus  was  God,  for  in  Him  the  fulness  of  the  Godhead  dwelt 

They  said,  "  Then  Jesus  is  less  than  God.'1 

To  which  Wolff  replied,  "  Look  at  the  sun.  The  sun  gives 
light  and  heat  to  all  the  earth,  yet  the  light  and  heat  is  one 
with  the  sun." 

They  again  exclaimed,  "  Good  !  very  good  !"  and  then  said, 
"What  objection  have  you  to  Muhammad's  doctrine f 

Wolff  answered,  "  Muhammad  did  not  act  in  conformity 
with  God's  actions,  which  are  quite  different  from  his." 

They  asked,  "  How  do  you  know  God's  actions  ?" 

Wolff. — "  By  his  loving  all  mankind." 

They. — "  How  do  you  see  that  ?" 

Wolff. — i(  In  his  creation.  Look  at  the  sun,  which  comes 
from  God,  which  shineth  upon  the  good  and  the  bad,  the  Jew, 
the  Christian,  the  Muhammadan,  and  the  worshippers  of  fire 
— the  Parsee.  But  Muhammad  commands  his  followers  not 
to  love  the  Christian,  who  is  yet  the  creature  of  God." 

Once  more  they  exclaimed,   "  Good  !  very  good  f 

To  his  great  surprise,  Wolff  was  soon  after  invited  with  the 
Muhammadans  to  a  rich  Jew,  who,  in  order  to  save  his  riches, 
had  become  a  Muhammadan  himself.  This  man  kept  con 
tinually  exclaiming  to  Wolff,  in  Hebrew,  "  The  voice  is  the 
voice  of  Jacob,  but  the  hands  are  the  hands  of  Esau."  Wolff' 
understood  at  once  the  meaning  of  those  words  :  namely,  that 
he  himself  was  still  at  heart  a  Jew,  although  in  outward  ap 
pearance  a  Muhammadan.  Wolff  sighed,  and  thought  it  not 
well  to  press  the  poor  man  with  arguments  in  the  presence  of 
Muhammadans  ;  and  he  continued  to  speak  to  the  Muham 
madans  on  the  fulfilment  of  many  of  the  prophecies  contained 
in  the  Old  Testament  respecting  Jesus. 

Now  let  us  accompany  Wolff  to  his  brethren,  the  Jews,  in 
a  town  which  boasts  of  the  highest  civilization.  In  passing 
through  the  streets  of  Sheeraz,  he  went  through  the  large 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  215 

bazaar,  built  by  Kareem  Khan,  formerly  ruler  of  Sheeraz. 
The  upper  part  is  entirely  covered  in  by  a  vaulted  ceiling,  and 
below  there  are  magnificent  shops.  As  he  was  going  through 
and  through  the  rest  of  the  town,  there  were  shouts  from  all 
sides,  "Here  is  Joseph  Wolff,  who  proclaims  that  Jesus  is  the 
Son  of  God  !" 

One  day,  Shanasar,  and  David  Makardeetch  David,  two 
Armenians  who  were  at  enmity  with  each  other,  called  acci 
dentally  on  Wolff,  at  the  same  time,  so  that  they  met ;  and 
they  began  to  talk  to  him,  and  said,  "  We  will  go  now  with 
you  to  the  Jews.  Do  you  know  what  happened  last  night  ? 
One  of  the  chief  Moollahs  of  Sheeraz  went  to  the  prince,  and 
advised  him  to  call  on  you  to  dispute  publicly  on  the  merits  of 
Islam  ;  and  that  if  you  were  beaten  in  argument,  you  must 
either  embrace  Islam  or  die  !  but  scarcely  had  the  Muham- 
madan  proposed  that,  when  he  was  struck  with  apoplexy,  and 
died."  They  added,  that  such  excitement  had  never  been  be 
fore  in  Sheeraz." 

But,  before  making  them  any  answer,  Wolff,  who  knew 
their  feelings  towards  each  other,  said  to  them,  "First  of  all,  both 
of  you  being  Christians,  I  command  you,  in  the  name  of  Jesus 
Christ,  to  make  peace  together,  before  you  go  with  me  to  the 
Jews,  to  whom  I  go  to  proclaim  the  Gospel  of  peace.*"  Where 
upon  Shanasar  and  David  Makardeetch  David  embraced  and 
kissed  each  other ;  and  Wolff  drank  with  them  a  glass  of 
Sheeraz  wine  to  celebrate  the  restoration  of  their  friendship  ; 
and  then  they  accompanied  him  to  the  Jews'1  Quarter,  where 
they  aided  him  greatly  in  conversing  in  the  Persian  language. 

Wolff  had  been  warned  what  he  must  expect  in  visiting  the 
J  ews  at  Sheeraz,  and  the  description  of  their  misery  had.  not 
been  exaggerated.  A  Persian  Mussulman,  of  whom  he  had 
inquired  their  condition  some  time  before,  had  said,  First. 
Every  house  at  Sheeraz  with  a  low,  narrow  entrance,  is  a  Jew's 
house.  Secondly.  Every  man  with  a  dirty  woollen  or  dirty 
cameFs-hair  turban  is  a  Jew.  Thirdly.  Every  coat  much 
torn  and  mended  about  the  back,  with  worn  sleeves,  is  a  Jew"s 
coat.  Fourthly.  Every  one  picking  up  old  broken  glass  is  a 
Jew.  Fifthly.  Every  one  searching  dirty  robes,  and  asking 
for  old  shoes  and  sandals  is  a  Jew.  "  Sixthly.  That  house  into 
which  no  quadruped  but  a  goat  will  enter  is  a  Jew's."  All 
which  things,  of  course,  came  into  Wolffs  mind,  as,  in  com 
pany  with  the  two  Armenians,  he  approached  the  street  where 
the  Jews  resided. 

And  what  a  sight  it  presented  !  It  was  in  the  month  of 
January,  1825,  and,  therefore,  in  the  depth  of  winter — and  all 

216  Travels  and  Adventures 

was  cold  and  frozen.  The  street  was  only  a  few  yards  in 
width  ;  all  the  houses  were  like  pig-styes,  and  even  these  were 
in  ruins  from  the  effects  of  the  recent  earthquake.  Men, 
women,  and  children  were  lying  about  the  street — many  of 
them  ill,  naked,  or  in  rags — women  with  their  children  at  the 
breast,  exclaiming,  "  Only  one  pool,  only  one  poolT  (pool 
being  the  Persian  word  for  farthing.)  "  I  am  a  poor  Israeli. 
I  am  a  poor  Israeli."  Wolff  crept  into  some  of  their  houses, 
and  spoke  to  them  about  Jesus  being  the  Messiah.  They 
asked,  "  What  shall  we  do  ?  What  shall  we  do  ?"  in  a  sing 
song  tone.  Wolff  told  them  to  believe  in  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ,  and  be  baptized  in  his  name.  They  wept.  But  how 
to  baptize  them — but  how — in  a  town — with  all  its  civilization 
— of  the  most  fanatical  Muhammadans  ?  "  Poor  Israeli  of 
Sheeraz  P  exclaims  Dr.  Wolff,  "I  shall  see  many  of  you  in 
heaven  !  Around  the  throne  of  Jesus  !  You  were  baptized 
with  the  baptism  of  misery,  and  suffering,  and  poverty  !  God 
forbid  that  one  harsh  thought  should  enter  my  mind  against 
you  !  His  blood  has  come  upon  you  :  but  that  blood  speaks 
better  things  than  the  blood  of  Abel." 

The  A  rmenians  reported  the  whole  proceedings  of  Wolff  to 
their  brethren  in  Calcutta  ;  telling  them  how  he  had  made 
peace  between  Shanasar  and  David  Makardeetch  David,  who 
were  at  enmity  with  each  other.  And  after  all  this  was  over, 
he  called  on  the  Prince  of  Sheeraz  at  his  palace. 

Fire  from  heaven  must  come  down  upon  a  court  like  that  ! 
Let  no  person  dare  to  ask  Wolff  to  give  a  description  of  such  a 
cursed  court.  Such  a  court  never  can  be  converted,  with  all 
their  politeness  and  elegance  !  "  Let  God  arise  and  let  his  ene 
mies  be  scattered :  let  them  also  that  hate  Him  flee  before  Him  !" 
Wolff  left  the  place  the  following  day,  and  the  day  after 
preached  amidst  the  ruins  of  Persepolis,  called  TaJcht-jam- 
sheed  by  the  Persians,  to  thousands  of  Persians.  On  his 
returning  to  the  caravanserai,  where  he  had  taken  up  his 
lodging,  two  Rah-dar  came  (namely,  u  those  who  repair  the 
roads")  and -asked  Wolff  to  pay  money.  Wolff  replied  that 
he  was  an  Englishman,  and  need  not  pay.  They  threatened 
to  put  him  to  death.  He  gave  them  a  good  scolding ;  but 
had,  after  all,  to  pay  six  rupees  (about  twelve  shillings).  But 
the  next  day  Persians  came  that  road,  who  had  arrived  from 
Mecca ;  and  they  also  were  called  upon  by  the  Rahdars  to  pay 
money  for  the  road.  They  replied,  they  were  Hadshees,  and, 
therefore,  had  not  to  pay.  A  regular  battle  ensued ;  and, 
after  they  had  almost  broken  each  other's  heads,  the  whole 
company  of  Hadshees  paid  half  a  pool! 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  217 


Ispahan:  Teheran:  Tabreez:  introduced  to  Abbas  Mirza: 
Tiflis:  Erivan:  Armenia,  attacked  by  typhus  fever:  Cir- 
cassia:  Crimea:  crosses  from  Odessa  to  Constantinople:  reaches 

A  FTER  twenty  days'  journey  forward,  Wolff  arrived  near 
-^*-  the  great  city  of  Ispahan,  of  which  the  saying  is,  Ispahan 
Neem-Jehaun — "  Ispahan,  half  the  world."  It  was  built  by  a 
man,  the  wonder  of  the  earth — King  Solomon — who  had  tra 
velled  through  the  world  in  the  air — carried  by  genii — as  far 
as  Cashmeer  !  Asa  proof  of  the  truth  of  this  story,  there  is 
to  this  day  even,  in  Cashmeer,  a  mountain  called  Takhti- 
Suliman,  the  throne  of  Solomon.  However,  if  Jewish  tradi 
tion  is  to  be  credited,  Solomon's  history,  as  told  by  the  Per 
sians,  may  be  liable  to  some  objections. 

The  history  given  by  the  Jews  of  Solomon  is  this,  and  it  is 
more  to  the  credit  of  Solomon  than  the  other. 

Solomon  had  in  his  power  one  of  the  apostate  angels,  Ash- 
meday  by  name,  whom  he  carried  about  in  a  chain,  like  a  dog. 
One  day  Solomon  said  to  him,  "  How  entirely  I  have  got  you 
in  my  power !"  Ashmeday  replied  to  him,  "  Only  let  me 
loose  for  a  little  moment,  and  then  you  will  see  what  I 
can  do  !*" 

Solomon  granted  his  request,  and  Ashmeday  gave  him  such 
a  kick,  that  he  was  flung  many  thousand  miles  from  his 
country,  and  wandered  about  as  a  beggar  in  all  the  countries 
of  the  earth.  During  his  absence,  Ashmeday  reigned  in  Jeru 
salem,  and  sat  upon  Solomon's  throne,  in  the  very  figure  and 
shape  of  Solomon.  And  it  was  not  Solomon  who  had  one  thou 
sand  wives,  but  Ashmeday,  in  the  figure  of  Solomon.  And  it 
was  not  Solomon  who  committed  idolatry,  but  Ashmeday,  in 
the  figure  of  Solomon.  And  it  was  not  Solomon  who  oppressed 
the  people,  but  Ashmeday,  in  the  figure  of  Solomon. 

At  last,  after  many  years,  Solomon  returned  from  his  wan 
derings,  when  he  found"  Ashmeday  sitting  upon  his  throne,  in 
his  very  figure.  Then  he  said,  "I  am  Solomon,  and  thou  art 
a  deceiver  !"  And  Ashmeday  said,  "  I  am  Solomon,  and  thou 
art  a  deceiver !" 

They  appealed  to  the  great  Sanhedrin.  The  Sanhedrin 
decided  that  some  one  should  examine  the  feet  of  both  ;  and  it 
was  found  out  that  Solomon  the  exile  had  the  feet  of  a  man, 
but  Ashmeday  the  feet  of  a  cock.  So  they  expelled  Ashme- 

218  Travels  and  Adventures 

day  from  the  throne  by  the  ineffable  name,  and  he  was  again 
put  in  chains  by  the  authentic  Solomon. 

But  Wolff  remarked,  that  one  of  his  ancestors,  Rabbi  Jona 
than  Eubeschiitz,  had  Ashmeday  perfectly  in  his  power.  One 
day,  Ashmeday  took  a  little  child,  and  carried  it  away  in  the 
air,  amidst  its  own  screams  and  those  of  its  parents.  They 
indeed  lamented  and  wept,  but  could  not  get  back  their  child, 
for  it  very  soon  was  invisible  in  the  air,  and  more  distant  than 
the  stars.  Rabbi  Jonathan  Eubeschiitz  was  informed  of  this 
by  the  parents  and  family  of  the  child,  who  desired  his  help, 
but  he  said,  grumbling,  "  Why  do  you  disturb  me  ?"  They 
replied.  "  Our  child  !  "our  child  !"  "  Well,"  said  he,  "  send 
for  the  trumpeter  "  (who  sounds  the  trumpet  on  the  new  year's 
day  of  the  Jews). 

The  trumpeter  came  with  the  trumpet.  The  Rabbi  said, 
"  Set  on,  and  blow." 

The  trumpet  gave  one  sound,  but  no  symptom  of  the  return 
of  the  child  was  perceived. 

"Sound  again,  a  second  blast  of  the  trumpet!"  cried  the 

But  still  there  was  no  symptom  as  yet  of  the  child. 

"  Blow  again !"  repeated  the  Rabbi. 

No  symptom  as  yet  of  the  child. 

Then  Rabbi  Jonathan  Eubeschiitz  ordered  the  trumpeter  to 
blow  the  trumpet  much  louder  than  before  ;  when,  suddenly, 
the  screaming  of  an  infant  was  heard,  and  Ashmeday  appeared 
with  it  in  his  arms,  crying  out,  "  Here  is  the  child — take  it, 
and  let  me  alone;  make  not  such  a  noise! — Anything  for  a 
quiet  life  !"  Eubeschiitz,  however,  was  accused  by  the  Jews 
at  last  of  believing  that  Shabatay-Zebee  had  been  the  real 
Messiah  ;  but  he  denied  it  most  decidedly.  The  history  of 
Eubeschiitz's  son  is  remarkable.  He  resided  at  Dresden, 
and,  on  account  of  his  riches,  was  made  a  Baron  of  the  holy 
Roman  Empire,  and  took  the  title  of  Baron  von  Adlerfeld ; 
but  he  was  a  complete  atheist,  and  scoffed  at  all  religions.  His 
father  was  dead,  but  one  night  he  appeared  to  him  just  as  he 
was  going  to  bed,  and  said,  "  My  son,  if  thou  diest  in  thy 
present  condition,  thou  wilt  go  to  eternal  perdition.  Repent, 
and  remember  that  thou  art  a  son  of  Abraham,  Isaac,  and 
Jacob,  and  exclaim  '  Hear,  0  Israel,  the  Lord  our  God  is  one 
Lord!11'  These  words  made  such  an  impression  on  Baron 
von  Adlerfeld,  that  henceforth  he  became  a  penitent  Jew. 

Wolff  will  now  give  some  idea  of  the  Jewish  accounts 
respecting  the  dominion  of  pious  Jews  over  the  infernal  powers. 
One  Saturday  evening,  the  Jews  of  Ullfeld  assembled  in  the 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  219 

house  of  Rabbi  David  Wolff,  (Joseph  Wolff's  father,)  to  hear 
his  Exposition  of  one  of  the  Prophets.  It  was  about  two 
hours  after  the  sun  went  down,  when  the  Jews  close  their 
Sabbath  ;  and  then  Rabbi  David  Wolff  told  them  of  a  pious 
Jew  who  was  regularly  proclaimed  king  by  all  the  devils,  who 
formed  a  guard  around  his  house,  or  rather  palace,  and  were 
dressed  in  a  golden  livery.  And  when  this  Jew  entered  his 
room  of  state,  devils  were  placed  there,  who  introduced  the 
people  to  his  Majesty ;  and  when  he  died,  they  were  all 
dressed  in  mourning,  and  accompanied  his  funeral,  singing 
funeral  songs.  Wolff  gives  this  as  a  specimen  of  Jewish 
belief,  as  it  existed  about  50  years  ago. 

There  is  another  story  which  he  also  heard  from  the 
Jews  ;  and  which  is  believed  not  only  by  the  Jews,  but  by 
the  Eastern  nations  at  large — it  is,  that  all  the  creatures 
which  are  upon  earth  are  also  found  in  the  sea.  It  is  said, 
there  are  mermaids  in  the  sea,  for  the  confirmation  of  which, 
Wolff  heard  the  following  story : — One  day,  a  gentleman  came 
to  a  city  and  entered  a  large  shop,  where  there  were  jewels 
and  many  beautiful  things  to  be  sold.  He  bought  up  the 
whole  stock,  which  he  paid  for  with  golden  doubloons,  and  he 
carried  away  all  that  he  had  bought.  He  had  hardly  reached  the 
seashore,  when  the  merchant  ran  after  him,  for  all  the  golden 
doubloons  had  changed  into  fishes'  scales.  The  merchant 
tried  to  stop  him,  but  he  plunged  with  all  his  merchandize 
into  the  sea,  spread  his  fins,  and  disappeared. 

The  Jews  lay  a  great  stress  on  the  virtue  of  a  loud  voice, 
and  there  was  once  in  Poland  a  Rabbi  who  had  a  most  powerful 
voice.  When  his  house  was  attacked  by  robbers,  there  lived 
a  nobleman  six  miles  distant  from  him  who  was  surrounded  by 
soldiers  and  servants.  So  the  Rabbi  lifted  up  his  voice,  and 
exclaimed,  "Hear  Israel,  Jehovah  our  God,  Jehovah  One  !" 
The  nobleman  came  immediately  to  the  rescue  with  his 
soldiers,  and  took  the  robbers  prisoners,  and  they  were 

To  return  to  Ispahan.  On  Wolff's  arrival  there,  the 
Governor  handed  him  letters  from  that  excellent  man,  Sir 
Henry  Willock,  his  British  Majesty's  Envoy  at  the  Court  of 
Persia,  informing  him  that  he  had  recommended  him  to  the 
Governor-General  of  Ispahan  ;  and  Wolff  took  up  his  abode  in 
New  Jiilfa,  a  town  in  the  outskirts  of  Ispahan.  This  town  is 
entirely  in  the  hands  of  the  Armenians,  descendants  of  those, 
who,  centuries  back,  were  brought  by  the  great  Shah  Abbas 
from  Old  Julfa,  in  the  Turkish  Empire,  to  Ispahan,  in  order 

220  Travels  and  A  dventures 

to  cultivate  the  ground,  and  introduce  industry  into  his 
empire.  Julfa  contained,  in  former  times,  above  60,000  Ar 
menians  ;  who  had  built  there  a  beautiful  monastery,  in  which 
AVolff  lodged,  and  houses  like  palaces.  But  just  at  this  time 
the  place  was  greatly  deserted,  on  account  of  the  tyranny  of 
the  Persian  Government. 

Wolff  conversed  with  Armenians  and  Jews  there  for  a 
whole  month,  and  then  proceeded  to  Teheran,  the  capital  of 
Fat-Oolah  Shah,  who  had  300  wives.  Several  of  his  wives 
were  Jewesses,  and  it  is  the  custom  in  Persia  for  all  the  wives 
at  court  to  get  distinguished  names ;  as,  for  instance,  Esther, 
which  is  taken  from  the  Persian  word,  Astara,  "  A  star,"  but 
which  was  not  the  Jewish,  but  the  court  name  of  that  queen — 
her  Jewish  name  being  Hadasah.  Another  court  name  is 
Lulli,  which  means  a  "  Pearl,"  and  so  on. 

Wolff  was  received  at  Teheran,  in  the  house  of  Sir  Henry 
Willock,  where  he  also  met  with  Doctor  McNeil,  a  highly- 
talented  gentleman,  who  was  sent  to  Persia  by  the  East  India 
Government,  as  Surgeon  to  the  Embassy ;  and  his  talents 
subsequently  raised  him  to  the  dignity  of  British  Envoy  in 
Persia,  and  he  is  now  the  Right  Honourable  Sir  John  McNeil, 
who  was  also  sent  to  the  Crimea,  as  one  of  the  commissioners 
of  investigation.  Sir  Henry  Willock  and  Dr.  McNeil  intro 
duced  Wolff  to  all  the  ministers  of  his  Majesty  ;  highly-bred 
and  well-informed  gentlemen  they  were. 

It  is  worth  while  to  describe  three  of  them.  Daood  Khan 
was  a  gentleman  who  was  acquainted  with  the  history  of  the 
Church  of  Christ,  and  with  the  authors  of  it,  such  as  Eusebius, 
Baronius,  and  the  French  Fleuri.  He  knew  the  writings  of 
these  men,  which  was  really  astonishing,  and  was  acquainted 
with  the  heresies  which  were  in  the  Church  of  Christ ;  and  he 
made  this  most  surprising  remark,  though  a  Muhamrnadan 
himself,  that  "  Muhammad  seemed  to  have  been  a  disciple  of 
Cerinthus  and  Arius." 

The  second  of  those  gentlemen  was  Mirza  Abd-Alwehab, 
who  took  an  interest  in  all  the  exertions  of  the  British  and 
Foreign  Bible  Society ;  and,  especially,  in  the  controversies  of 
Henry  Marty n,  and  whom  Abd-Alwehab  told  Wolff,  that  forty 
learned  men  had  tried  to  answer  his  arguments,  and  could  not. 
Mirza  Abd-Alwehab  had  a  most  pleasant  countenance,  and 
was  of  a  more  serious  turn  of  mind  than  the  majority  of  Per 
sians  are. 

The  third  was  Khosrof  Khan,  and  a  most  extraordinary 
man.  A  Georgian  by  birth,  he  was  chief  eunuch,  and  one  of 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  221 

the  king's  prime  ministers  ;  and  he  may  be  called  the  Muharn- 
madan  Swedenborg.  He  maintained,  like  Swedenborg,  that 
he  had  intercourse  with  the  inhabitants  of  the  other  world. 
He  was  of  a  highly-intellectual  mind,  and  could  converse  on 
every  subject  in  the  most  rational  manner ;  when,  suddenly, 
he  would  fall  down  upon  his  face,  and  then  rise,  saying,  "  I 
have  had  a  most  remarkable  conversation  with  the  prophets 
Isaiah,  Jeremiah,  and  Samuel ;"  and  then  he  would  give  a 
most  interesting  description  of  their  figures  and  appearance. 

Wolff  would  here  remark,  that  he  never  speaks  ironically  on 
such  points  as  this,  but  he  believes  its  possibility  and  proba 
bility.  There  is  now  a  tendency  in  the  Church  to  deny  visions 
and  miracles,  not  only  those  which  happened  after  the  Apostolic 
age,  but  even  those  mentioned  in  the  Bible  ;  and  the  continual 
outcry  is,  "  We  must  progress  with  the  time  and  we  must  go 
forward."  But  Wolffs  motto  is,  "  Backward !  backward!" 
Wolff  says  we  are  to  remember  the  days  of  old,  to  ask  the  fathers 
of  old  and  they  can  tell  us,  and  the  elders  of  old  who  announce 
to  us  what  God  has  done  im  ancient  days.  No  geology  will 
ever  make  any  impression  on  Joseph  Wolff :  nor  will  even 
Copernicus  or  Sir  Isaac  Newton  induce  him  to  disbelieve  one 
single  word  of  Scripture,  nor  to  try  to  interpret  it  so  as  to 
make  it  consistent  with  the  experience  of  those  philosophers ; 
for,  after  all,  no  one  has  seen  the  earth  walk,  and  the  sun 
stand  still.  Wolff  believes  in  the  science  of  astrology :  and 
Hookham  Frere  was  perfectly  right  when  he  said,  that  in  our 
day  we  have  lost  the  key  to  the  knowledge  and  sciences  in 
which  the  ancients  were  versed :  and  all  we  can  say  is,  that  we 
know  nothing  about  it. 

Wolff  took,  as  it  was  always  his  wont  to  do,  whenever  he 
remained  in  a  town  for  a  while,  a  teacher  of  languages  ;  so  he 
took,  while  there,  one*  of  the  first  scholars  of  Persia,  whose 
name  was  Mirza  Ibrahim.  And,  as  Ibrahim  expressed  a  wish 
to  go  to  England,  and  Wolff  had  observed  his  great  talents,  he 
took  him  with  him  as  far  as  Constantinople.  Thence  Wolff 
sent  him,  at  his  own  expense,  to  London ;  where  Sir  Gore 
Ouseley  recommended  him  to  the  Haileybury  College,  where 
Ibrahim  became  professor  of  Persian  and  Arabic  ;  and,  having 
learned  Latin  and  Greek,  he  translated  Herodotus  into  Persian, 
and  he  remained  at  Haileybury  from  the  years  1826  to  1847, 
when  he  retired,  with  a  pension,  to  Persia. 

After  Wolff  had  conversed  with  the  Muhammadan  Moollahs, 
and  the  ministers  of  the  king,  at  Teheran,  Sir  Henry  Willock 
asked  him,  after  they  left  the  room,  "  Do  you  know  what  they 
told  me  ?  Thev  said,  '  This  man  rivets  the  attention  to  every- 

222  Travels  and  Adventures 

thing  he  says,  for  he  speaks  with  such  force,  as  none  of  the 
most  eloquent  of  our  nation  could  do ;  and,  in  spite  too,  of  his 
foreign  pronunciation,  and  his  foreign  manners,  he  rivets  us, 
because  sincerity  speaks  out  of  him  [' ' 

From  Teheran,  Wolff  proceeded  to  Caswin,  the  ancient  re 
sidency  of  the  kings  of  Persia  ;  where  he  preached  the  Gospel 
of  Christ  to  Muhammadans,  Jews,  and  Daoodee,  a  people  who 
believe  in  the  divinity  of  David ;  and  to  the  Ali-Oollahe,  who 
believe  in  the  divinity  of  Ali.  They  are  known  by  the  follow 
ing  question  : — u  Where  do  you  drink  water?"  Then,  if  they 
are  really  Ali-Oollahe,  they  will  answer,  stretching  out  their 
tongue,  and  say,  "  From  the  upper  lip." 

And  one  of  the  Princesses  of  the  King  of  Persia,  who  re 
sided  there,  sent  to  Wolff  for  a  Persian  Testament,  and  an 
English  penknife.  Wolff  was  glad  to  be  able  to  furnish  her 
Highness  with  both. 

And  thence  he  proceeded  to  Tabreez,  where  he  took  up  his 
abode  with  that  most  excellent  man,  Dr.  Cormick,  who  was 
married,  by  Henry  Martyn,  to  a  Chaldean  Christian  lady,  who 
introduced  Wolff  to  his  royal  Highness  the  great  Abbas  Mirza, 
Prince  Regent  of  Persia.  The  history  of  that  man  is  this  : — 

He  was  the  eldest  son  of  Fat-Oollah  Shah,  King  of  Persia. 
When  his  father  became  old  and  stricken  in  years,  and,  in 
short,  too  lazy  to  reign  any  longer ;  and  was  spending  his  days 
in  counting  his  jewels,  visiting  his  hareem — each  time  amidst 
the  beating  of  drums — and  visiting,  sometimes,  places  in  his 
empire,  and  threatening  to  visit  others,  in  order  to  squeeze  out 
money  from  the  poor  subjects ;  he  assembled  all  his  sons 
together,  and  commanded  them  to  bow  down  before  Abbas 
Mirza,  their  elder  brother,  and  acknowledge  him  as  the  rightful 
successor  to  the  throne ;  and  obey  him  from  that  time  and 
henceforth,  as  the  Nayeb  Sultanah,  whicfi  means,  "  The  Lieu 
tenant  of  Royalty,"  or,  what  we  call  in  this  country,  "  Prince 
Regent."  They  all  bowed  before  Abbas  Mirza,  except  one  of 
the  younger  brothers,  Muhammad  Ali  Mirza,  Prince-Governor 
of  Kermanjah,  who  sternly  said  to  his  Majesty,  "As  long  as 
you,  my  royal  father,  are  alive,"  here  bowing  his  head,  "  I 
shall  obey  ;  but,  as  soon  as  your  eyes  are  closed,"  (here  point 
ing  to  his  sword,)  "  this  sword  must  decide  who  shall  be 

Then  they  retired  from  his  Majesty's  countenance,  and  from 
the  presence  of  his  "  exalted  beard,"  which  is  one  of  the  greatest 
wonders  of  the  world,  if  Sir  Alexander  Burns  may  be  credited; 
and  this  he  assured  Fat-Oollah  Shah  to  his  very  face. 

Muhammad   Ali    Mirza  "withdrew  to  his   Government,    in 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  223 

Kermanjah,  and  had  his  soldiers  drilled  under  Messieurs  De- 
vaux,  Court,  Avitabile,  and  Ventura.  Abbas  Mirza  also 
retired  to  the  seat  of  his  Government,  Tabreez,  the  capital  of 
Aderbijan,  and  he  had  his  soldiers  drilled  by  English  officers, 
who  were  sent  to  him  by  the  East  India  Company,  such 
as  Majors  Hart  and  Monteith,  and  giant-like  Sir  Henry 

Muhammad  Ali  Mirza  then  tried  to  distinguish  himself,  and 
marched  against  Bagdad ;  but  he  died  on  that  expedition,  as 
it  is  believed,  by  poison ;  and  thus  was  Abbas  Mirza  liberated 
from  his  greatest  enemy. 

Wolff  conversed  with  Abbas  Mirza  on  religion,  and  he 
argued  from  reason.  After  that,  Abbas  Mirza  desired  Wolff 
to  establish  a  school  at  Tabreez,  and  begged  him  to  tell  the 
English  to  send  out  teachers. 

Wolff,  on  returning  to  Dr.  Cormick,  was  embraced  by  an  old 
friend,  whom  he  had  known  in  the  College  of  the  Propaganda, 
Bishop  Shawris.  Bishop  Shawris  was  a  Chaldsean  bishop, 
under  the  obedience  of  the  Church  of  Home.  Some  of  the 
Chaldseans  are  under  their  own  bishops,  and  have  their  own 
Patriarch  and  Church  ;  and  these  are  called  Nestorians.  The 
rest  are  those  who  were  converted  from  the  Nestorian  to  the 
Roman  Catholic  Church ;  and  of  these  was  Bishop  Shawris. 

Nevertheless,  he  had  been  consecrated  Bishop  by  Nestorian 
bishops  ;  but,  after  a  time,  because  this  gave  offence  to  his  own 
people,  they  informed  against  him  at  Rome ;  and  he  was  sum 
moned  by  the  Propaganda  to  come  to  Rome,  and  justify  him 
self  for  having  exercised  the  office  of  a  bishop,  without  being 
canonically  consecrated.  He  arrived  in  Rome  in  the  year 
1802,  and  presented  himself  to  the  Cardinal  Prefect  of  the 
Propaganda  in  his  episcopal  robes.  He  was  desired  to  take 
them  off,  until  his  case  had  been  thoroughly  sifted  ;  and  there 
he  remained  until  the  year  1817,  without  ever  having  had  his 
case  examined  or  attended  to. 

Wolff  was  one  day  laughing,  and  very  cheerful,  in  the  Pro 
paganda,  in  his  company,  when  he  said,  in  the  presence  of 
others,  "  Now  you  are  laughing,  but,  should  you  ever  fall  into 
the  hands  of  these  cardinals,  you  will  weep  blood." 

Wolff,  struck  with  his  words,  wrote  what  he  had  said  to 
Niebuhr ;  but  the  letter  was  intercepted  by  the  College  of  the 
Propaganda,  and  it  was  one  of  the  accusations  brought  against 
Wolff,  afterwards,  that  he  had  "  uncovered  the  Mother's 

Nevertheless,  what  Wolff  had  done  had  its  fruits,  as  he  heard 
from  Bishop  Shawris  seven  years  afterwards,  at  their  meeting 

224  Travels  and  Adventures 

at  Teheran ;  for,  eight  months  after  Wolffs  own  banishment 
from  Rome,  Shawris  received  permission  from  the  Propaganda 
to  return  to  his  country,  though  without  being  allowed  to  ex 
ercise  episcopal  functions.  And  he  now  told  Wolff,  that  Car 
dinal  Consalvi  had  said  to  him,  "  Now,  you  must  pass  through 
Vienna,  and  show  yourself  to  Joseph  Wolff,  that  he  may  see 
that  justice  has,  after  all,  been  done  to  you." 

At  the  very  time  that  Wolff  met  Shawris  at  Tabreez,  he  re 
ceived  a  letter  from  the  Rev.  Henry  Leeves,  who  told  him  to 
try  and  find  out  Bishop  Shawris,  to  whom  Leeves  had  given 
money,  in  order  to  procure  a  translation  of  the  Bible  into  the 
Kurdish  language.  Wolff  therefore  went,  with  Shawris,  to 
Ooroomia,  the  native  place  of  Zoroaster,  where  the  Chaldsean 
Catholics  chiefly  reside,  and  where  Bishop  Shawris  had  hopes 
of  finding  some  one  who  would  undertake  the  translation. 

On  their  way  to  Ooroomia,  both  the  Bishop  and  Wolff  came 
to  Salmast,  where  they  met  with  Alexander  Mirza,  a  relation 
of  the  late  King  of  Georgia — the  Georgian  kings  having  their 
genealogy  from  King  David.  Wolff  preached  to  the  dial- 

wt/  O  IT 

dseans,  Muhamrnadans,  and  Jews  there,  as  well  as  at  Bashkala, 
and  Hosrowa,  and  Ooroomia,  where  thousands  of  Muhamma- 
dans  came  to  hear  him ;  and,  besides  expounding  the  Gospel 
to  them,  he  gave  them  Bibles. 

The  Georgian  king  had  been  expelled  from  his  capital,  at 
Tiflis,  by  the  Russians,  who  took  possession  of  his  country  ; 
and  he  retired  into  Persia  to  Salmast,  where  he  died.  Alex 
ander  Mirza  begged  AVolff  to  get  the  interest  of  the  King  of 
England  to  place  him  upon  the  Georgian  throne,  but  Wolff 
could  give  him  no  hopes. 

Wolff  is  entirely  convinced  that  Asael  Grant,  the  celebrated 
missionary  of  the  Americans,  is  correct  with  regard  to  the 
Chaldsean  Christians  being  descended  from  the  ten  tribes  of 
Israel.  They  call  themselves  the  children  of  Israel ;  and  what 
right  have  we  to  doubt  the  account  which  they  give  of  them 
selves  ? 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  his  countrymen,  the  American 
missionaries,  assailed  poor  Asael  Grant  for  that  belief.  Yet, 
it  is  not  to  be  wondered  at,  for  the  Americans  are,  in  the 
strictest  sense  of  the  words,  citizens  of  the  new  world.  All 
their  ideas  are  new,  and  they  take  all  their  notions  of  history 
and  theology  from  the  writings  of  the  German  neologians, 
(which  word  may  be  literally  translated  new-doctriners — a 
word  coined  by  Joseph  Wolff);  those  u  new-doctriners"  do 
for  the  most  part  laugh  at  the  very  existence  of  the  ten  tribes  ; 
and  even  Baron  Yon  Bunsen.  in  a  conversation  he  had  with 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  225 

Wolff,  exclaimed  against  the  mania,  as  he  expressed  himself, 
of  the  Englanders  about  the  ten  tribes. 

Shawris  found  a  person  in  Ooroomia  who  undertook  to 
translate  the  Bible  into  the  Kurdish  language  ;  but,  after  all, 
it  came  to  nothing.  The  Patriarch  of  the  Nestorians  resided, 
at  that  time,  at  Cochanes,  in  the  mountain.  Those  patriarchs 
are  the  lineal  descendants  of  St.  Peter ;  and,  whenever  the 
mother,  whose  son  is  to  be  the  successor  of  the  Patriarch,  is 
with  child,  she  eats  no  meat ;  and,  if  a  son  is  born,  he  is  to  be 
a  patriarch,  and  if  it  is  a  daughter,  she  is  to  become  a  nun. 

Wolff  now  returned  to  Tabreez,  and  departed  for  Tiflis.  On 
his  way  to  Tiflis,  he  arrived  in  the  last  frontier  town  of  Persia, 
called  Erivan,  which  was  then  (1825)  in  the  possession  of 
Persia.  The  Persians  believed  that  Erivan  never  could  be 
taken  by  the  Russians,  because  it  was  protected  by  a  talisman  ; 
but  the  Russians  convinced  them  that  they  could  un charm  a 
talisman,  for  they  became  masters  of  the  town  in  the  year 
1826,  when  it  was  taken  by  General  Paskewitsch, 

Wolff  rode  from  Erivan  to  Etsh-Miazin,  which  means, 
"  The  descent  of  the  Only-Begotten,11  and  which  is  situated  at 
the  foot  of  Mount  Ararat,  near  the  spot  where  Noah  alighted 
and  sacrificed,  and  where  there  is-  now  a  city  built,  called 
Nakht-shavan,  which  means,  u  Noah's  descent."  Upon  the 
height  of  Mount  Ararat,  the  ark  of  Noah  is  said  to  be  still 
standing ;  but  to  no  human  being  is  granted  the  privilege  of 
ascending  the  height,  and  beholding  it.  St.  Jacob  Nisibenus 
attempted  it,  and  arrived  halfway,  but  fell  asleep  there ;  and 
an  angel  appeared  to  him,  and  said,  "  Jacob,  Jacob,  desist 
from  thy  purpose  ;  but,  in  order  that  thou  mayest  be  satisfied, 
and  that  others  may  see  that  thou  art  favoured,  thou  shalt 
find  a  good  piece  of  the  ark  on  thy  being  awake."  And  so  it 
came  to  pass,  that  when  Jacob  awoke,  he  found  a  piece  of  the 
ark,  which  he  brought  to  Etsh-Miazin,  where  it  is  preserved 
to  this  day,  as  Wolff  can  testify,  for  he  has  seen  it. 

Gregory  Lusaworitsh,  or  "  Gregory  the  Enlightner," 
preached  in  Etsh-Miazin;  and  124,000  Armenians  were  con 
verted  and  baptized  in  the  river  Euphrates.  Gregory  then 
prayed  to  God,  that  he  would  show  him  the  place  where  he 
should  build  Him  a  church,  and  the  Only-Begotten  descended 
from  heaven  and  showed  him  the  spot*;  and  there  is  now  a 
mighty  monastery  standing,  and  three  churches.  Gregory 
sent  many  of  the  Armenian  youths  for  study  to  Athens.  Two 
of  them,  Mesrop  and  Isaac,  gave  new  characters  to  the  Arme 
nian  languages  and  Mesrop  translated  the  Bible  into  the 
Armenian  tongue.  Tlu>  Armenian*  then  wont  about. 

226  Travels  and  Adventures 

preached  the  Gospel ;  and  thus  the  Armenian  nation  was  con 

The  Patriarch  Ephrem  was  absent  when  Wolff  arrived  in 
Etsh-Miazin,  and  he  wrote  to  him  several  letters,  thanking 
him  for  the  high  interest  he  took  in  the  Armenian  nation,  and 
expressed  a  great  desire  that  Wolff  should  exert  himself  in 
England,  that  they  might  establish  colleges  in  England  in  the 
place  where  he  was  dwelling,  which  they  proposed  doing  at 
their  own  expense. 

From  Etsh-Miazin  Wolff  proceeded  to  Tiflis  ;  and,  after  six 
days'  journey,  he  arrived  at  the  Russian  cantonment ;  and  it 
is  extraordinary  how,  the  moment  he  arrived  there,  he  felt  that 
he  was  under  European  power.  Russian  officers  immediately 
received  him  into  their  small  houses,  vacated  their  beds,  and 
offered  him  a  bed  to  sleep  in.  Then  he  arrived  at  a  village 
where  all  the  people  spoke  German — for  one  of  the  seven 
churches  built  by  Wiirtembergians  stood  there  ;  and  the  emi 
grants,  who  cultivated  the  ground,  were  believers  in  Jacob 
Boehme.  This  Teutonian  Theosophos  was  originally  a  shoe 
maker,  and  his  mystical  writings  occupied  and  engaged,  in 
former  times,  the  minds  of  Leibnitz  and  Sir  Isaac  Newton, 
as  well  as  those  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  German  cottages. 

From  thence  Wolff  proceeded  to  Tiflis,  capital  of  Georgia, 
where  he  was  received  in  the  kindest  manner  by  General  Yer- 
maloff,  the  Governor-general,  and  also  by  General  Kotzebue, 
son  of  the  great  writer,  Kotzebue,  who  was  killed  by  Sand. 
There  Wolff  delayed  for  several  weeks,  and  stopped  with  the 
missionary  of  the  Basle  Missionary  Society.  Wolff  preached 
in  Tiflis  in  German  and  English,  and  in  Jewish  German  to 
the  Polish  Jews,  who,  though  sometimes  kicked  and  pelted  by 
Georgians  and  Russians,  are,  nevertheless,  cheerful  and  happy. 
They  were  just  commemorating  a  wedding  in  the  open  street, 
which  they  never  could  do  in  Persia.  While  there,  he  ar 
ranged  a  plan  with  Saltet,  the  missionary,  to  visit  that  extra 
ordinary  man,  Count  Zareinba,  missionary  of  the  Basle 
Missionary  Society,  at  the  station  called  Shushee,  in  the 
province  of  Carabagh,  in  Armenia  Major. 

On  his  journey  thither,  he  made  acquaintance  with  the 
German  colonists  of  Elisabethenthal,  and  Kornthal,  and 
Helenendorf,  &c.  They  were  all  believers  in  the  personal 
reign  of  Christ,  and  believed  themselves  to  be  the  woman  who 
was  to  fly  into  the  wilderness,  until  Christ  should  come  in 
glory  and  in  majesty. 

Wolff  preached  in  all  t.hese  villages.  He  met  there  a  Ger 
man  missionary,  Hohnacker  by  name,  who  had  come  from 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  227 

Sliushee,  where  he  had  left  Zaremba.  Holmacker  was  be 
trothed  to  a  German  colonist  girl,  who,  he  thought,  had  been 
sent  to  him  by  God,  when  he  found  her  labouring  in  the  field  ; 
and,  at  the  very  first  moment,  asking  her  if  she  would  have 
him  as  a  husband,  she  replied,  "  Yes  ! " 

Wolff  next  arrived  at  Shushee,  where  he  came  to  a  house, 
in  the  corner  of  a  room  of  which  he  saw  a  man  in  deep  medi 
tation  and  prayer.  Wolff  walked  up  to  him,  and  asked  him, 
"  Are  you  Zaremba  2"  He  replied  in  the  affirmative.  Wolff 
said,  "  I  am  Wolff."  Zaremba  fell  around  Wolff's  neck,  and 
kissed  him,  and  shouted  for  joy.  Zaremba  then  gave  a  holi 
day  to  his  school,  which  consisted  chiefly  of  Armenian  children, 
but  with  a  few  Tatars  and  Muhammadans  mixed.  Zaremba's 
history  is  interesting. 

Zaremba  was  a  Russian  count,  private  secretary  to  Capo 
(Flstria,  Chancellor  of  Russia,  in  the  time  of  Alexander  I. 
He  was  an  immense  reader  of  every  book  he  could  meet  with, 
and  spoke  twelve  languages  with  the  greatest  fluency.  He 
read  the  wanderings  of  Jung  Stilling,  and  the  Bible,  which 
made  him  resign  every  worldly  prospect  of  promotion,  and 
give  up  everything  to  become  a  missionary  ;  for  which  end  he 
went  to  Basle,  where  in  due  time  they  sent  him  to  Tatary. 
Zaremba  was  of  that  branch  of  the  Counts  of  Zaremba,  who 
became  Lutherans  at  the  time  of  the  Reformation.  But 
Zaremba  had  completely  the  spirit  of  antiquity  in  him ; 
and  though  he  was  not  a  thorough  mediaeval  man,  yet  he 
admired  all  that  was  grand  in  that  age.  He  was  a  missionary 
indeed :  and  if  all  had  been  of  his  spirit  the  German  mission 
aries  would  never  have  been  banished  from  Russia. 

Wolff  remained  with  him  for  about  ten  days,  and  then 
returned  to  Tiflis,  where  he  had  left  his  Persian  companion. 
Here  he  fell  exceedingly  ill,  but  still  he  left  Tiflis  and  came  to 
Vlaticaucass,  a  miserable  village  at  the  foot  of  Mount  Caucasus. 
His  complaint  was  typhus  fever ;  and,  by  the  time  he  reached 
Vlaticaucass,  he  was  too  ill  to  go  on,  and  laid  himself  down  in 
the  street,  expecting  to  die  there.  There,  however,  he  fell 
asleep,  and  a  British  officer  passing  by  in  his  carriage,  saw 
him,  took  him  up,  assisted  him  into  the  carriage,  and  conveyed 
him  to  Mostock,  under  the  post- escort  with  which  he  was  tra 
velling  for  security  against  the  Circassians.  The  posts  were 
always  escorted  by  artillery,  and  travellers  were  glad  to  avail 
themselves  of  it.  This  gentleman  was  Colonel  Russel,  after 
wards  Sir  James  Russel  of  Ashestiel,  only  lately  dead. 
Colonel  Russel  left  Wolff  in  the  monastery  of  the  Jesuits  at 
Mostook  ;  but  n.s  PMv  Henri,  the  Jesuit,  continually  bothered 

228  Travels  and  Adventures 

him  during  his  delirium,  by  trying  to  convert  him,  Wolff 
actually  crept  out  of  the  house,  and  was  again  found  by  Colonel 
Russel  before  he  had  got  far  from  the  place,  and  was  taken  by 
him  to  a  German  physician.  The  German  physician  treated 
Wolff  very  judiciously,  so  that,  after  ten  days,  he  was  able  to 
proceed  to  Karrass,  a  town  in  the  midst  of  Circassia,  but 
belonging  to  the  Russians.  There  he  was  exceedingly  well 
received  by  the  missionaries,  but  now  was  seized  with  ague. 

One  morning  tremendous  shrieks  were  heard.  Wolff  asked 
the  reason.  The  Circassians  had  broken  through  the  Russian 
line,  and  while  calmly  smoking  their  pipes,  took  prisoners 
sixteen  German  boys ;  and  having  placed  the  boys  upon 
their  dromedaries,  were  flying  with  the  swiftness  of  eagles 
towards  the  mountain.  Wolff  wrote  an  account  of  this  to 
Mr.  Venning  in  St.  Petersburg ;  who,  after  Wolff's  departure, 
sent  to  the  parents  several  thousand  roubles. 

Wolff  next  set  out  in  a  German  wagon,  driven  by  a  German 
colonist,  to  Nicolayef,  where  he  was  treated  in  the  kindest 
manner  by  Admiral  Greig,  a  Scotch  gentleman,  but  Lord 
High  Admiral  of  the  Russian  Fleet,  who  gave  him  letters  for 
Count  Woronzoff,  Governor- General  of  Odessa.  He  did  not 
leave  Nicolayef  until  he  had  preached  to  the  Jews,  though  he 
was  still  very  weak.  From  thence,  passing  Cherson,  where 
he  met  Jews  of  the  highest  intellect,  to  whom  he  preached  the 
Gospel,  he  at  last  arrived  at  Taganrog,  where  his  Majesty, 
the  Emperor,  sent  to  him  Baron  Friedrich  and  General  Die- 
bitsch,  and  desired  them  to  tell  Wolff  that  he  would  receive 
him  next  week  in  person  ;  but  that  amiable  Emperor,  Alexan 
der  I.  died  in  the  meantime. 

Wolff  preached  at  Taganrog  to  thousands  of  Germans,  and 
thence  he  went  on  to  Kertsch  and  Theodosia,  also  called 
"  Kaffa,"  in  the  Crimea ;  and  thence  to  Simpheropol,  where 
he  lodged  in  the  house  of  a  Tatar  Sultan,  Kategerry  Krim- 
gherry,  who  had  been  sent  some  years  before  to  Scotland  by 
Alexander,  had  embraced  the  Christian  religion  among  the 
Presbyterians,  and  had  married  Miss  Nielson. 

Wolff"  from  thence  made  an  excursion  to  the  settlement  of 
the  Caraite  Jews,  who  had  been  there  from  time  immemorial. 
The  place  is  called  Jufut-Kaleh,  the  "  Castle  of  the  Jews," 
upon  the  height  of  the  town,  called  Bakhtshe-Seray.  The 
Empress  Catharine  was  about  to  impose  a  tax  upon  the'm, 
when  they  sent  in  a  petition,  proving  to  her  satisfaction,  that 
they  were  of  that  tribe  of  Jews  who  had  had  no  hand  in  the 
crucifixion  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ.  The  Empress  there 
upon  graciously  freed  them  from  the  tribute ;  and  it  is  most 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  229 

remarkable,  that  though  proselytism  is  prohibited  in  Kussia, 
those  Caraites  have  converted,  not  by  their  preaching,  but  by 
the  integrity,  uprightness,  and  honesty  of  their  conduct,  many 
of  the  Russians  to  the  Jewish  religion.  Let  us  cease  from 
talking  about  the  tyranny  and  despotism  of  Russia.  The 
Crimea,  from  the  moment  that  it  fell  into  the  hand  of  Russia, 
prospered.  Mighty  cities  were  erected,  the  wandering  Nogay 
Tatars,  who  live  in  the  Oural  mountains,  and  even  around 
Bokhara,  and  feed  on  human  flesh,  settled  down  in  nice 
cottages  in  the  Crimea,  and  lived  in  harmony  and  peace  with 
the  Germans,  the  Russians,  and  Greeks  there. 

On  being  with  the  Caraite  Jews.  Wolff  found  that  they 
well  recollected  that  noble  soul,  Lewis  Way.  They  went 
with  Wolff  to  the  Cemetery,  where  he  was  much  struck  by  an 
epitaph,  written  in  Hebrew,  on  a  simple  stone, 

"  Thou  hast  been  like  to  me, 
I  shall  be  like  to  thee." 

Wolff  returned  now  to  his  friend  the  Sultan  and  his  Scottish 
wife  in  Simpheropol,  and  proceeded  in  a  German  wagon  to 
Odessa,  where  he  stopped  in  the  house  of  Superintendent- 
General  Bottiger,  a  good-natured  unfortunate  man,  who  wept 
over  his  sins  while  he  still  continued  to  commit  them,  and 
ended  his  days  in  Siberia. 

Wolff  was  allowed,  by  Count  Woronzoff,  to  preach  to  the 
Jews,  not  only  in  their  synagogues,  but  in  the  open  street. 
He  met  at  Odessa,  a  young  German,  Schauffler  by  name,  a 
turner  by  trade,  who  copied  Wolff's  journal.  Wolff  observed 
his  great  talent  for  languages,  and  his  piety ;  and  resolved  to 
take  him  with  him  to  Constantinople.  Wolff  remained  in 
Odessa  till  February  1826,  when  he  determined  to  proceed  to 
Constantinople  in  an  English  merchant  vessel,  called  fct  The 
Little"  and  commanded  by  a  captain  also  called  "Little," 
who  had  his  wife  with  him  on  board.  On  being  applied  to  for 
a  passage,  the  captain  told  Wolff  that  his  ship  was  too  "  little,'1 
and  that,  besides  that,  he  did  not  like  parsons  on  board, 
because  they  bring  bad  weather.  He  therefore  left  for  Con 
stantinople  without  Wolff.  Wolff  then  made  an  agreement 
with  the  captain  of  another  English  merchant  vessel — Captain 
Newton  of  the  "  Thetis,"  and  taking  Schauffler  and  the  Per 
sian  with  him,  he  sailed  off.  After  four  days  a  heavy  fog 
coming  on,  Captain  Newton  said,  "  Now  let  us  kneel  down  and 
pray,  we  are  in  a  most  dangerous  place ;  "  all  parts  of  the 
Black  Sea  being  of  very  difficult  navigation.  Wolff  offered  up 
prayers,  and  the  vessel  sailed  on,  and  arrived  safely  in  the 

230  Travels  and  Adventures 

harbour  of  Constantinople.  There  Captain  Newton  took  out 
the  trumpet,  and  asked,  "  Has  Captain  Little  arrived  \  "  The 
answer  was  (also  through  a  trumpet),  "  No,  he  and  his  wife, 
and  every  man  on  board,  perished  just  at  the  entrance  !  " 

Wolff  was  received  most  kindly  and  hospitably  at  Constan 
tinople,  in  the  house  of  the  Rev.  Henry  Leeves,  a  man  who 
has  succeeded  in  conciliating  both  Greeks  and  Armenians,  and 
has  translated  the  Bible,  with  the  assistance  of  a  Greek 
Bishop,  into  the  modern  Greek  language ;  and  has,  moreover, 
drawn  the  interest  of  thousands  to  the  promotion  of  the  circu 
lation  of  the  Word  of  God. 

Wolff  sent  his  friend  Schauffler  to  an  hotel,  and  told  him 
to  eat  and  drink  just  as  he  pleased,  and  he  would  pay  for 
him  ;  but  as  Schauffler  never  came  for  money,  Wolff  asked 
him,  "  Why  do  you  never  come  to  me  for  money  2 " 

He  replied,  "  I  have  sold  my  watch,"" — such  was  the  deli 
cacy  of  this  man.  Wolff  then  went  to  the  hotel  and  told  the 
people,  that  they  must  not  ask  his  friend  for  money,  but  that 
he  would  pay. 

Wolff  found  out  here  that  several  Jews  to  whom  he  had 
preached  at  Jerusalem,  had  become  Christians,  and  were  at 
Constantinople.  He  also  made  an  excursion  to  Adrianople, 
which  almost  cost  him  his  life,  for  when  he  arrived  there  he 
preached  not  only  to  Jews,  but  also  to  Muhammadans.  and 
circulated  the  Word  of  God  among  them  openly,  just  at  a  time 
when  the  Muhammadans  were  in  the  wildest  state  of  frenzy 
and  hatred  against  the  Christians,  because  the  revolution  of 
the  Greeks  was  at  its  height. 

So  Wolff  had  scarcely  left  Adrianople  half  an  hour,  when 
the  janissaries  marched  out  to  cut  him  to  pieces.  However, 
he  managed  to  escape,  and  arrived  safely  in  Constantinople 
again,  where  he  was  introduced  to  Sir  Stratford  and  Lady 
Canning,  with  whom  he  dined.  Sir  Stratford  warned  Wolff 
not  to  go  amongst  Mummadans  at  this  critical  moment ;  an 
injunction  which  he  obeyed. 

After  this,  he  was  introduced  to  Sir  Hudson  Lowe, 
who  was  Governor  of  St.  Helena  in  the  time  of  Napoleon. 
Wolff  was  delighted  with  him,  he  was  so  full  of  information  ; 
and  will  stand  up  for  him,  in  spite  of  all  that  is  said  against 
him  by  O'Meara  and  Las-Casas.  Wolff  then  took  up  his 
abode  with  the  Armenians  at  Constantinople,  and  learnt 
Turkish.  When  he  left  Constantinople,  he  proceeded  to 
Broosa,  where  Hannibal  died ;  and  there  he  lived  in  the 
house  of  an  English  gentleman,  and  employed  himself  in 
reading  Lord  Byron's  "English  Bards  and  Scotch  Reviewers," 
and  "Irving's  Orations." 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  231 

A  Greek  Prince  soon  called  upon  him,  accompanied  by  his 
son  ;  both  these  poor  people  had  been  exiled  by  the  govern 
ment  to  Broosa,  and  they  were  very  anxious  to  hear  political 
news  from  Wolff.  The  old  Prince  began  his  inquiries  in  this 
way : 

"  You  are  Signore  Wolff?" 

Wolff  replied,  "  Yes/' 

The  Prince. — a  Dunque  che  dicono  le  Potenze ?  "  (What 
do  the  sovereign  powers  say  ?) 

Wolff  answered,  "  Really  I  don't  know." 

The  Prince. — "  Oh,  we  know  that  you  are  a  man  of  great 
information.  Dunque  che  dicono  le  Potenze?" 

Wolff. — "  My  mind  was  occupied  with  other  things.1' 

The  Prince. — "Have  you  known  Sir  Stratford  Canning?  " 

Wolff.—"  Very  well." 

The  Prince. — "  Dunque  che  dicono  le  Potenze  ?  " 

And  so  on,  till  at  last,  after  finding  he  could  not  succeed  in 
hearing  anything,  he  went  home. 

Wolff  proceeded  next  to  Smyrna,  where  he  preached  to  the 
Jews,  and  gave  lectures  to  the  English  and  Italians,  who  were 
there ;  and  then  he  embarked  on  board  the  English  ship 
"  Eblana,"  commanded  by  Captain  Small ;  and  after  amusing 
himself  for  the  two  months  he  was  there,  by  reading  Rowland 
Hill's  "  Dialogues,"  preaching  to  the  sailors,  and  making  a 
collection  from  them,  for  the  Society  for  Promoting  Christianity 
among  the  Jews,  he  arrived  safely  in  the  harbour  of  Dublin, 
in  Ireland,  in  the  month  of  May,  1826. 

Wolff  gave  the  following  lively  account  of  the  conclusion  of 
his  voyage,  in  a  letter  to  Sir  Thomas  Baring : — "  We  arrived 
in  Dublin  harbour  at  midnight,  after  a  voyage  of  two  months. 
We  were  not  allowed  to  land  for  three  days,  and,  as  we  were 
quite  starved  out,  I  sent  on  shore  for  a  splendid  dinner  for 
myself,  as  well  as  for  the  captain  and  his  wife, — ordering 
salmon,  turkey,  turtle  soup,  pudding,  apple-pie,  jelly,  and  a 
handsome  dessert,  so  that  the  hotel-keeper,  when  reading  over 
the  list,  said,  '  This  reverend  gentlemen  knows  also  about  the 
good  things  of  this  world  ! ' 

232  Travel*  and  Adventure* 


Leaves  Dublin  for  London  ;  Edward  Irmny  ;  Lady  Gcorgiana 
Walpole\  Discussions  at  Albury  Park;  Marries  and  is 
Naturalized  as  an  Englishman  ;  Visits  Holland ;  Sails  for 
Gibraltar  ;  Malta  ;  Smyrna  ;  Egina  ;  Navarin. 

DURING  his  stay  in  Dublin,  Wolff  spoke  in  the  Rotunda, 
and  he  afterwards  spent  some  days  with  Lord  Roden  and 
the  Archbishop  of  Tuam;  and  in  the  palace  of  tho  latter  he 
was  shaved  by  an  old  woman,  who  made  him  pay  2*.  6d.  for 
the  job. 

For  his  public  addresses  he  was  attacked  by  the  Roman 
Catholics  in  Ireland.  Lalor  Sheil  called  him  "  Baron  von 
Munchausen,"  "  Katerfelto,"  "  Mendez,"  "  Wolff,  the  Old 
Clothesman,  of  Monmouth  Street,  London,"  &c.,  &c.  And 
Wolff,  in  anger — certainly  not  in  the  true  spirit  of  Christ — 
called  him  a  liar  in  return.  He  also  wrote  a  wild  letter  to 
Bishop  Doyle,  offering  to  visit  him,  and  stay  in  his  house  for 
some  days,  for  the  purpose  of  arguing  with  him — a  foolish 
proceeding,  which  Bishop  Doyle  received  in  a  dignified  but 
cold  manner,  writing  to  him  to  the  effect,  that  he  was  perfectly 
well  acquainted  with  the  reasons  for  which  the  Cardinal-prefect 
removed  Mr.  Wolff  from  the  Propaganda  ;  and  that  he  would 
receive  him,  but  not  as  a  guest,  should  he,  when  weary  of  his 
present  pursuits,  wish  to  return  to  the  sobriety  of  true 

It  is  here  to  be  observed,  that,  even  in  the  midst  of  WolfFs 
public  diatribes  against  the  Church  of  Rome,  he  invariably 
spoke  of  Pope  Pius  VII.,  and  Cardinal  Litta,  with  the  regard 
and  affection  he  really  felt  for  them,  and  acknowledged  the 
good  he  had  received  from  his  residence  in  the  Propaganda  ; 
but,  in  spite  of  this,  the  Irish  Roman  Catholics,  naturally 
excitable,  and  driven  to  greater  lengths,  probably,  by  wild 
Protestant  outcries,  continued  to  abuse  Wolff  in  no  measured 
terms,  and  Wolff  retorted  upon  them  in  their  own  style.  By 
the  Protestant  party  in  Ireland,  it  need  scarcely  be  said  that 
he  was  received  with  the  most  cordial  kindness,  both  on  this 
occasion,  and  every  other,  of  his  visiting  that  country. 

At  the  end  of  a  few  weeks,  Henry  Drummond  and  Irving 
sent  for  Wolff'  to  come  to  London  ;  and,  as  he  had  been  lately 
reading  Irving's  celebrated  "  Orations,'"  he  was  extremely 
anxious  to  see  him,  and  not  the  less  so  from  Irving^  having 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  233 

mentioned  Ignatius  Loyola  and  Francis  Xavier  with  great 

Wolff  accordingly  arrived  in  London,  and  was  not  disap 
pointed  in  his  expectations  of  Irving.  Even  at  the  first  inter- 
view,  he  was  struck  with  him  as  a  very  remarkable  man  ;  and 
he  often  afterwards  said,  that  he  quite  bore  out  Chalmers" 
account  of  him,  that  he  was  "  like  the  sun,  with  a  few  spots 
upon  it."  But  Wolff  even  goes  beyond  this,  and  thinks  that 
many  things,  which  Chalmers  considered  spots,  were  not  so  in 
reality.  And,  although  he  never  accepted  his  new  doctrine  of 
the  unknown  tongues,  he  has  never  liked  to  speak  against  it.* 
Of  one  thing,  however,  he  is  perfectly  certain,  namely,  that 
Irving  had,  what  may  be  called,  the  organ  of  being  hum 
bugged  ;  no  deceiver  himself,  he  was  yet  liable  to  be  deceived 
by  others. 

On  his  arrival  in  London,  Wolff  went  at  once,  by  arrange 
ment,  to  Irving's  house.  It  was  nine  o'clock  at  night,  and 
Irving  was  not  at  home,  but  had  left  word  that  Wolff  was  to 
follow  him  to  the  house  of  Lady  Olivia  Sparrow,  where  he  was 
dining.  Thither  he  accordingly  proceeded,  and  saw  Irving 
for  the  first  time  ;  and  it  was  on  this  occasion,  also,  that  he 
was  first  introduced  to  Lady  Georgiana  Walpole,  daughter  of 
the  Earl  of  Orford,  who,  in  February,  1827,  became  his  wife. 
Here  something  more  must  be  mentioned. 

In  the  year  1807,  when  Wolff  was  only  twelve  years  of  age, 
he  read  the  History  of  England  by  the  German  historian 
Schiitz,  and  met  with  the  name  of  Sir  Robert  Walpole,  when 
Wolff  said  to  himself,  "  I  should  like  to  marry  a  lady  who 
bears  the  name  of  Walpole.'1''  And  when  in  the  year  1826, 
Irving  and  Lord  Mandeville  (afterwards  Duke  of  Manchester) 
introduced  Wolff  to  Lady  Georgiana  Walpole,  he  turned 
round  for  a  moment,  and  said  to  himself  "  that  Lady  Georgiana 
Walpole  will  become  my  wife." 

When  the  party  broke  up,  at  about  eleven  o'clock,  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Irving  took  Wolff  home  with  them  to  their  house,  where 
he  slept.  Before  going  to  bed,  Wolff  said  to  Irving,  "  I 
cannot  shave  myself;  can  you  get  me  a  barber  for  to-morrow 
morning  ? " 

"At  what  o'clock,"  inquired  Irving,  gravely,  "  shall  you 
want  the  barber  ?" 

*  Neander,  in  his  "  History  of  the  Apostolic  Ages,"  and  the  great 
Thiersch,  perfectly  agree  with  Irving,  that  those  tongues  spoken  on  the 
day  of  Pentecost,  were  not  foreign  dialects,  but  a  kind  of  ecstatic 
ebullition.  See  Neander's  "  Geschichte  der  Christlichen  Kirclie  durch 
die  AposteL" 

234  Travels  and  Adventures 

Wolff  said,  "  At  seven."  And  Irving  told  him  one  should 
be  provided,  and  bade  him  good-night. 

Wolff  described  Irving,  as  he  stood  before  him  that  evening, 
as  a  tall,  majestic  man,  with  a  quantity  of  dark  hair  flowing 
down  over  his  shoulders,  after  the  manner  of  the  pictures  of 
our  Lord  ;  a  slight  cast  in  his  eye ;  an  expression  of  deep 
thought  over  his  face ;  and  his  whole  bearing  as  of  one  who 
would  soar  aloft  into  higher  regions. 

On  the  following  morning,  at  seven  o'clock,  some  one  knocked 
at  Wolffs  door.  And  when  he  had  called  out  "  Come  in," 
the  door  opened,  and  the  mighty  Irving  himself  appeared  in 
the  capacity  of  barber,  with  a  suitable  apron  tied  roun  1  him, 
and  shaving  apparatus  in  his  hand.  And  thus  Irving  shaved 
Wolff  with  his  own  hands ;  and,  moreover,  continued  to  do 
so,  not  only  as  long  as  Wolff  remained  in  the  house  with  him, 
but  even  at  times  afterwards,  whenever  Wolff  went  to  him  for 
the  purpose. 

And  the  fact  did  not  remain  unknown.  Ten  days  after  the 
first  operation,  Irving  and  Wolff  were  walking  together  in  a 
street,  near  Oxford  Street,  when  they  observed  a  crowd  round 
a  bookseller's  shop,  and,  going  up  to  the  window,  they  found 
it  was  caused  by  a  caricature  representing  Irving  in  the  act  of 
shaving  a  wolf.  Irving  did  not  even  smile,  but,  turning  to  his 
friend,  said,  "Never  mind,  Wolff,  I  shall  shave  you  a^ain. 
Come  along."  And  they  went  away  amidst  the  amused 
laughter  of  the  lookers-on. 

After  a  few  days,  Henry  Drurnmond  invited  Wolff  to 
Albury  Park,  near  Guildford,  in  Surrey,  to  be  present  at  the 
great  conference  that  was  to  take  place  there,  among  a  chosen 
set  of  friends,  upon  unfulfilled  prophecies.  The  consultations 
lasted  a  week,  during  which  time  the  consulters  lived  together 
under  DrummoncTs  roof.  Among  them  were  Dr.  Macneil, 
Lord  Mandeville  (afterwards  Duke  of  Manchester),  Lord  Riley, 
Dodsworth,  Dr.  Marsh,  Frere,  Simons  of  PauFs  Cray,  Haldane 
Stuart,  Cunningham  of  Lainshaw,  &c.,  Drummond,  Irving, 
and  Wolff.  There  they  discussed  the  personal  reign  of  Christ, 
and  future  renovation  of  the  earth  ;  the  restoration  and  con 
version  of  the  Jews  ;  and  judgments  on  the  Christian  Church 
for  their  infidelity  and  unfaithfulness  ; — each  person  speaking 
out  his  peculiar  views,  and  all  referring  to  Wolff  upon  the 
texts  of  the  original  Hebrew.  These  dialogues  were  subse 
quently  printed,  and  the  opinions  of  each  given  under  fictitious 
names:  Wolff's  sobriquet  being  " Josephus,"  IrvingX  "Atha- 
nasius,"  &c.,  &c. 

The  result  of  these  meetings  was?,  that  rall  borainr  of  opinion 

of  Dr.  Wolf.  235 

that  the  system  of  interpreting  fulfilled  prophecy,  in  a  gram 
matical,  historical,  or,  as  it  is  commonly,  but  not  quite 
correctly,  called,  literal  sense ;  and  unfulfilled  prophecy  in  a 
phantomizituj,  or,  what  is  commonly  called,  spiritual  manner, 
is  a  miserably  rotten  system,  and  one  leading  to  infidelity. 

One  particular  instance  may  be  given,  as  it  is  one  of  which 
Wolff  experienced  the  power  and  effect  during  the  whole  of 
his  after  life,  in  speaking  both  to  Jews  and  Gentiles. 

In  Luke  L,  ver.  30,  31,  32,  33,  read,  "  And  the  angel  said 
unto  her,  Fear  not,  Mary,  for  thou  hast  found  favour  with 
God.  And,  behold,  thou  shalt  conceive  in  thy  womb,  and 
bring  forth  a  son,  and  shalt  call  his  name  JESUS  !  He  shall 
be  great,  and  shall  be  called  the  Son  of  the  Highest ;  and  the 
Lord  God  shall  give  unto  him  the  throne  of  his  father  David. 
And  he  shall  reign  over  the  house  of  Jacob  for  ever ;  and  of 
his  kingdom  there  shall  be  no  end." 

Now,  every  one  admits  that  the  first  two  of  these  verses, 
and  half  the  third,  are  to  be  interpreted  in  a  grammatical, 
historical  sense ;  for  they  have  already  had  a  grammatical, 
historical  fulfilment.  The  Virgin  has  brought  forth  a  son,  his 
name  was  called  Jesus,  and  he  was  called  "  The  Son  of  the 
Highest."  But  the  prophecy  does  not  stop  here.  It  goes  on 
to  say,  "  The  Lord  God  shall  give  unto  him  the  throne  of  his 
father  David,  and  he  shall  reign  over  the  house  of  Jacob  for 
ever."  How  is  this  to  be  interpreted  ?  Spiritually,  figura 
tively — anyhow  but  grammatically — say  the  generality  of 
readers.  But  against  this  arbitrary  and  most  unjustifiable 
change  in  the  system  of  interpretation  of  one  prophecy,  Wolff 
protests,  as  an  almost  blasphemous  trifling  with  the  Word  of 
God.  Assuredly,  the  whole  of  the  3rd  and  4th  verses  of  this 
prophecy  must  be  read  in  the  same  historical,  grammatical 
sense  as  the  two  preceding  ones.  As  the  Virgin  did  verily 
conceive,  and  bring  forth,  the  Son  Jesus,  so  verily  and  really 
— not  spiritually  or  in  a  phantomizing  manner — shall  that  Son 
Jesus,  one  day,  "  Sit  upon  the  throne  of  his  father  David,  and 
reign  over  the  house  of  Jacob  for  ever."  That  is,  He  shall 
come  personally  to  earth  once  more,  in  the  third  and  last  office 
to  which  he  was  anointed — namely,  that  of  King.  As  Prophet 
and  Priest  He  has  been  with  us  already  ;  as  King  He  has  yet 
to  com-e. 

The  value  of  this  argument  with  the  Jews,  is  incalculable. 
On  the  other  plan,  the  Jews,  who  have  always  been  looking 
for  the  advent  of  the  Messiah  as  King,  have  a  great  advantage 
in  their  discussions  with  Wolff,  and  other  Christians.  For 
against  the  spiritual  interpreters,  that  is;  the  phantomizers.  of 

236  Travels  and  Adventures 

the  3rd  and  4th  verses,  they  had  always  to  object  the  utter 
inconsistency  of  their  two  methods  of  explanation.  But,  on 
the  contrary,  Wolff  found  the  Jews  incapable  of  defending 
themselves  against  the  grammatical,  historical  interpretation 
of  the  whole. 

It  has  often  been  represented,  as  the  fundamental  error  of 
the  Jews,  that  they  expected  the  Messiah  to  establish  a  tem 
poral  kingdom ;  "  whereas,"  say  those  who  hold  this  view, 
"  the  Messiah's  kingdom  was  to  be  only  a  spiritual  one." 

Wolff  says  to  this,  "  I  challenge  the  whole  Christian  Church 
to  produce  one  single  passage  of  the  New  Testament,  by  which 
it  can  be  proved  that  the  error  of  the  Jews  consisted  in  their 
expecting  the  Messiah  to  come  as  a  temporal  king ;  or  which 
countenances  the  notion  that  Christ's  kingdom  was  to  be  only 
a  spiritual  one.  Neither  Christ,  nor  His  apostles,  ever  once 
reproved  the  Jews  for  their  expectations  of  Him  as  a  king. 
The  real  error  of  the  Jews  consisted  not  in  that ; — in  that  they 
were  right ; — but  their  error  was,  as  Christ  told  them,  that 
they  were  '  fools,  and  slow  of  heart  to  believe  ALL  that  the  pro 
phets  have  spoken.  Ought  not  Christ  to  have  suffered  these 
things,  and  to  enter  into  his  glory  f  They  were  not  wrong  in 
believing  the  glory,  but  in  not  recognizing  the  sufferings  which 
were  to  precede  the  glory." 

And  there  are  many  Christians  who  commit  the  opposite 
mistake.  They  are  ready  to  believe  in  the  sufferings,  but  doubt 
about,  and  try  to  explain  away,  the  glory,  in  spite  of  the  pro 
phecies  connecting  one  with  the  other. 

"  There  is,  however,  one  great  error,"  Dr.  Wolff  says, 
"  among  those  who  accept  unfulfilled  prophecy,  as  they  ought 
to  do,  in  its  grammatical,  historical  sense,  and  which, "he adds, 
"  has  never  been  pointed  out  before." 

They  speak  of  the  final  restoration  of  the  Jewrs,  and  of  their 
conversion,  in  such  a  way  as  to  make  Christians  believe  that 
there  are  no  promises  for  the  nations  at  large  in  Scripture;  and 
that  the  Jews  shall  be  above  all,  and  that  all  the  rest  of  the 
nations  shall  be  exterminated — though  this  is  not  expressed  by 
them  in  so  many  words.  Now,  although  Wolff  believes  that 
there  shall  come  judgments  over  the  Gentile  churches,  and  over 
other  nations,  yet  he  does  not  believe  that  there  is  one  single 
prophecy,  in  the  whole  of  Scripture,  which  says,  that  the  Jews 
shall  be  above  the  nations,  and  much  less  above  the  Christian 
Church  ;  and  the  Jerusalem  above,  which  shall  come  down  from 
heaven,  will  be  filled  with  all  nations,  kindred,  and  tongues ; 
and  then  there  shall  be  neither  Jew  nor  Gentile,  but  all  shall 
be  one  in  Christ  Jesu.s.  And  those  who  undertake  to  interpret 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  237 

prophecy,  ought  to  be  on  their  guard,  lest  they  fall  into  the 
error  of  Cerinthus,  who  made  all  our  happiness  consist  in  infe 
rior  pleasures ;  in  short,  we  must  take  care  that  we  do  not  be 
come  Muhammadans — sensualizers. 

Dr.  Wolff  is  also  happy  to  observe  that  the  greater  number 
of  the  believers  in  the  personal  reign  of  Christ  have  renounced 
the  belief  that  the  Pope  is  the  Antichrist ;  and  he  is,  with  them, 
firmly  convinced  that  the  Antichrist  is  still  to  come.  And  he 
is  very  happy  to  observe  that  some  Roman  Catholic  priests  now 
living  in  England,  are  believers  in  the  personal  reign  of  Christ 
— a  doctrine  which  has  never  been  condemned  by  the  Church 
of  Christ.  On  the  contrary,  it  was  universally  believed  in  the 
first  two  centuries  ;  and  Wolff  believes  that  the  great  Newman, 
whose  lecture  entitled  "  The  Turk"  has  afforded  so  much  de 
light  to  Wolff,  will  become  a  powerful  defender  of  that  doctrine. 

Another  result  of  those  conferences  in  Albury  Park, — the 
dwelling  of  that  extraordinary,  most  amiable,  and  oldest  friend 
of  Wolff,  Henry  Drummond, — :has  been,  that  people  have  seen 
the  importance  of  revising  other  points  which  seem  to  have 
been  settled  by  Protestants  ;  but  which  assumption  is  entirely 
against  Scripture.  For  example,  Wolff  pointed  out  two  errors 
of  this  kind  at  the  time. 

First,  it  is  an  assumed  maxim  of  the  Protestants,  that  mira 
cles  were  to  cease  when  the  apostles  died. 

Secondly,  Wolff  threw  out  the  hint,  that  Protestants  under 
valued  tradition  too  much  ;  for,  without  tradition,  we  cannot 
understand  the  meaning  of  Scripture.  Joseph  Wolff  must  also 
give  his  opinion  as  to  the  application  of  science  to  religion.  He 
considers  Galileo  and  Copernicus  to  be  downright  heretics,  and 
he  believes  that  the  sun  walks  and  that  the  earth  stands  still. 
And  their  heresy  is  not  at  all  so  universal  as  people  suppose ; 
for  all  the  Hutchinsonians  deny  it,  Archbishop  Nares  denies 
it,  all  the  Eastern  Churches  deny  it,  and  so  do  all  the  Muliam- 
madan  philosophers.  The  middle  age  was  right,  and  Coperni 
cus  and  Galileo  were  wrong. 

Wolff,  soon  after  these  conferences,  travelled  about  all  over 
England,  Wales,  and  Scotland,  with  the  Deputation  of  the 
London  Society  for  Promoting  Christianity  among  the  Jews. 
And  then  he  was  united,  by  the  hands  of  that  holy  man  of 
God,  Charles  Simeon,  to  (as  Dr.  Wolff  continually  calls  her) 
his  "  darling  angel  in  earthly  shape."  Previous  to  his  union 
with  her,  he  voluntarily  gave  to  her  brother,  the  Earl  of  Orford, 
an  undertaking  in  writing,  by  which  he  renounced  all  claims  to 
a  life  interest  in  her  property,  in  case  of  her  death.  And  he 
o-ot  that  undertaking  signed  by  Henry  Drummoml,  Bnyford,  and 

238  Travels  and  Adventures 

Dodsworth.  However,  his  dear  wife  made  a  will  by  which  she 
left  him  «£)2,000  out  of  her  property,  in  case  of  her  dying  with 
out  children.  But  when  Wolff  arrived  at  Malta,  he  found  out 
the  contents  of  that  will,  and  he  immediately  wrote  another 
undertaking,  by  which  he  resigned  all  right  to  that  c£2,000  in 
favour  of  Lady  Georgiana1  s  brothers  and  sisters,  in  case  she 
died  without  children,  and  he  got  this  signed  by  Sir  Frederick 
Ponsonby,  the  excellent  Governor  of  Malta,  and  by  his  secre 
taries  ;  and  Sir  Frederick  wrote  to  Wolff,  and  said,  he  could 
not  sufficiently  admire  his  disinterestedness.  This  undertaking 
Wolff  deposited  with  Mr.  Lee,  the  solicitor  of  the  Earl  of  Or- 
ford  ;  but  the  Earl's  family  declared  that  they  would  not  make 
use  of  it,  for  they  were  shocked  to  think  that  Wolff  should  be 
entirely  deprived  of  every  portion  of  his  wife's  property ;  and 
it  was  probably  at  their  suggestion,  that  Mr.  Lee  wished  to 
return  the  undertaking  when  Wolff  called  upon  him,  but  Wolff 
insisted  on  his  keeping  it.  In  1838  Lady  Georgiana  heard 
that  Wolff  had  left  this  document  in  Mr.  Lee's  charge,  and  she 
went  to  him,  and  begged  him  to  allow  her  to  burn  it,  which  she 
did.  But  Wolff,  hearing  of  this,  wrote  the  same  undertaking 
a  second  time,  which  was  signed  by  a  dozen  people ;  and  in 
order  that  it  might  not  be  destroyed,  he  sent  copies  to  both 
Mr.  Roebuck  and  Sir  Charles  James  Napier.  Nevertheless, 
Lady  Georgiana  did  not  only  withdraw  her  will,  but  made 
another ;  so  determined  was  she  that  Wolff  should  have  the 
money  if  he  survived  her.  This,  however,  did  not  take  effect, 
as  Lady  Georgiana  Wolff  did  not  die  childless. 

Dr.  Wolff  will  not  allow  to  have  paraded  before  the  world 
the  great  practical  talents  and  intellectual  gifts  of  his  dear  wife, 
her  active  usefulness,  her  piety,  and  her  affection  ;  and  there 
fore  he  concludes  to  spare  his  own  feelings  by  saying  no  more 
about  that  heavenly  being.  After  his  marriage,  Wolff  was 
naturalized  as  an  Englishman,  before  both  Houses  of  Lords 
and  Commons. 

Wolff  visited,  with  his  family,  that  man  of  God,  Simeon,  in 
Cambridge;  and  he  again  repeats,  that  Simeon  was  a  good 
sound  Churchman  ;  and  if  he  was  now  alive,  he  and  Archdea 
con  Denison  would  love  each  other  as  brothers  in  Christ.  And 
Dr.  Wolff  subscribes  ex  toto  animo  to  Simeon's  views  on  bap 
tismal  regeneration  ;  and  Dr.  Hook,  the  Dean  of  Chichester, 
agrees  also  with  Simeon  on  this  point. 

The  Jews  in  Germany,  on  hearing  that  Wolff  had  married 
a  lady  of  noble  birth,  had  not  the  least  doubt  that  he  must 
have  received  immense  riches  with  her ;  and,  as  her  name  was 
Walpole,  they  concluded  that  Wolff  must  have  become  Prime 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  239 

Minister  of  England,  like  the  famous  Horace  Walpole,  Earl  of 
Orford.  He  therefore  received  lots  of  congratulatory  letters  ; 
all  the  writers  of  which  claimed  relationship  with  him.  One  of 
these  epistles  was  very  funny.  It  was  written  by  one  Bechofer, 
who  reminded  Wolff  that  he  had  often  drunk  coffee  with  him 
in  a  coffee  house  at  Frankfort ;  and,  on  that  ground,  he  begged 
Wolff  to  make  him  the  steward  of  his  large  estate  !  Wolff  re 
plied  that  he  was  quite  ready  to  make  him  steward  of  all  the 
Deserts  of  Egypt !  on  which  the  Jew  sent  him,  in  return,  all 
the  curses  in  the  law  of  Moses  !  Not  long  ago,  Wolff  received 
letters  from  Germany,  by  which  he  perceived  that  the  Jews  of 
CJllfeld  still  firmly  maintain,  that  he  was  made  a  Cardinal  when 
he  was  at  Rome  !  And  these  funny  things  recall  the  wit  of 
Lady  Georgiana,  which  was  very  great ;  and  he  remembers  on 
one  occasion,  when  she  was  sitting  with  her  pleasant  friend, 
Miss  Hamilton,  in  the  presence  of  an  American  who  was  chew 
ing  tobacco,  the  latter  lady  turned  to  Wolff,  and  said  in  an 
undertone,  "  This  fellow  is  chewing  his  own  cud :"  to  which 
Lady  Georgina  replied,  "  But  he  does  not  divide  the  hoof:" 
Miss  Hamilton  rejoined,  "  This  remains  to  be  proved :"  to 
which  Wolff  added,  "  Examine  his  feet."  Miss  Hamilton  said, 
"  You  pig !" 

Tn  April,  1827,  Wolff  set  out  with  his  wife  for  Amsterdam, 
where  he  preached  the  Gospel  to  the  Jews,  who,  to  this  day, 
make  proselytes  to  the  Jewish  religion.  They  had,  a  hundred 
years  ago,  a  great  Rabbi,  Isaac  Ger  by  name,  who  was  born  a 
Roman  Catholic,  and  became  a  priest,  arid  then  embraced  Ju 
daism.  Wolff  made  acquaintance  there  with  the  famous  Isaac 
da  Costa,  and  Dr.  Kappadose ;  both  of  them  sincere  converts 
from  Judaism  to  Christianity.  He  was  also  struck  by  a  young 
Jew,  who  had  become  a  Christian,  but  continued  to  live  in  the 
house  of  his  Jewish  parents,  who  treated  him  with  great 

Wolff  delivered  lectures  in  the  Athgeneum  at  Amsterdam, 
and  the  Universities  of  Leyden  and  Utrecht,  and  made  the  ac 
quaintance  of  the  Jansenists,  and  their  Archbishop.  Among 
these  are  holy  and  good  men  to  this  day ;  and  one  of  their 
priests  gave  Wolff  the  writings  of  Quesnel. 

Wolff  asked  the  Jansenist  Bishop,  whether  they  really  be 
lieved  the  so-called  five  propositions  of  Cornelius  Jansenius, 
which  are  condemned  by  the  Church  of  Rome  as  heretical  I 
The  Bishop,  whose  name  was  Monseigneur  Tett,  replied,  "  We 
condemn  and  anathematize  those  five  propositions  as  heretical; 
but  we  say  that  those  five  propositions,  said  by  the  Church  of 
Rome  to  be  in  the  book  of  Cornelius  Janseniup  called  '  Ausrus- 

240  Travels  and  Adventures 

tinus/'are  not  to  be  found  tliere.  And  we  have,  over  and  over 
again,  offered  prizes  to  any  Roman  Catholics  who  will  show  us 
those  five  propositions  in  Jansenius's  book.  And  therefore  we 
are  condemned,  because,  while  condemning  those  propositions, 
which  are  considered  as  heretical  by  the  Church  of  Rome,  we 
believe  our  senses,  and  deny  that  they  can  be  found  in  the  book 
'  Augustinus.'1  So  it  has  come  to  pass,  that  whenever  an  Arch 
bishop  is  elected  at  Utrecht,  we  send  to  Rome  to  the  Pope  for 
his  confirmation  ;  on  which  the  Pope  requires  us  to  condemn 
first  of  all,  the  five  propositions.  To  this  we  reply,  '  With  all 
our  heart.'  But  then  we  are  required  to  say  those  five  propo 
sitions  are  in  the  book  '  Augustinus,'  and  to  this  we  reply,  that 
'  we  cannot  find  them  there.1  Then  the  Pope  says,  '  I  say  that 
they  are  there/  To  this  we  say,  '  we  appeal  to  a  general  coun 
cil.  Let  a  general  council  determine  whether  they  are  in  the 
book  or  no.'  On  which  an  anathema  is  pronounced  against  the 
Jansenists.  After  this  we  proceed  at  once  to  the  consecration 
of  the  Archbishop,  without  troubling  ourselves  further  about 
the  Pope." 

Monseigneur  Jean  Bon,  Bishop  of  the  Jansenists  at  Haar 
lem,  showed  to  Wolff  the  famous  book  of  Jansenius,  and  that 
portion  of  it  was  pointed  out  to  him,  in  which  the  Roman 
Catholics  maintained  that  the  five  propositions  were  to  be 
found ;  and  he  was  also  made  acquainted  with  the  five  pro 
positions.  The  Jansenists  call  themselves,  not  Jansenists,  but 
"  L'Ancien  Clerge  Catholique." 

The  five  propositions  said  to  be  contained  in  the  book  called, 
Cornelii  Jansenii  Episcopi  Yprensis  Augustinus,  are  as 
follows : — 

1.  Some  commandments  of  God  are  impossible  for  righteous 
men  to  observe  in  their  present  state,  even  should  they  desire 
to  observe  them,  and  were  to  strive  so  to   do,  in  their  own 
strength,  if  the  special  grace  is  wanting. 

2.  In  the  state  of  unrenewed  nature,  grace  is  more  easily 
resisted  than  in  a  renewed  state. 

3.  In  order  to  have   merit  or   demerit  in  a  corrupt  state  of 
nature,  it  is  not  requisite  that  man   should  have  liberty  that 
exempts  him  from   the  necessity  of  willing  or  acting,  but  a 
liberty  that  disengages  him  from  restraint  is  sufficient. 

4.  The  Semi-Pelagians  admit  the  necessity  of  internal  pre 
ventive  grace  for  all  good  actions,  even  for  the  commencement 
of  faith,  and  they  are  heretics  inasmuch  as  they  say  that  this 
grace  is  such,  that  human  will  can  either  resist  or  obey  it. 

5.  It  is  speakiug  like  a  Semi-Pelagian,  to  say  that  Jesus 
Clirist  d'led  for  all  'men,  without  excepting  one. 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  241 

Wolff,  always  anxious  to  embrace  any  opportunity  of  saying 
a  word  in  season  to  any  lost  sheep  of  the  house  of  Israel, 
sought  to  engage  Mr.  Meyer,  a  clever  Jewish  lawyer,  and 
member  of  the  Senate  of  Amsterdam,  in  argument.  This  gen 
tleman  had  a  high  repute  amongst  his  brethren,  who  esteemed 
him  second  only  to  Mymonides  himself.  Wolff  thus  addressed 
him  by  letter  : — 

"  DEAR  SIR, — You  will  excuse  the  liberty  I  take  in  address 
ing  these  lines  to  you.  I  detest  the  covert  manner  of  the 
Jesuits,  and  therefore  tell  you,  with  all  openness,  that  the  ob 
ject  of  this  letter  is  to  obtain  an  interview  with  you,  that 
'l  may  have  the  opportunity  of  speaking  with  you  concern 
ing  the  Gospel  of  Jesus  Christ,  in  whom  alone  I  believe  sal 
vation  is  to  be  found.  I  am  a  missionary  of  the  Gospel,  and 
have  travelled  through  Palestine,  Mesopotamia,  and  Persia,  and 
should  consider  it  a  particular  favour  if  you  will  allow  me  to 
speak  with  you  concerning  the  hope  which  is  in  me.  The 
favour  of  an  answer  would  particularly  oblige, — 

Your  humble  Servant,  JOSEPH  WOLFF." 

The  following  answer  was  received : — 

"  Mr.  Meyer  presents  his  respects  to  Mr.  Joseph  Wolff, 
and  being  neither  a  Christian,  nor  anywise  prepared  to  con 
verse  about  the  Gospel  or  belief,  must  decline  any  visit  on  that 

"  May  1,  1827." 

This  repulse  was  considered  by  the  Jews  a  masterpiece  of 
diplomatic  tact,  the  production  of  a  great  man,  and  evincing 
deep  knowledge  of  the  human  heart ;  in  short,  a  triumphant 
display  of  Hebrew  genius. 

Wolff  then  proceeded,  with  Lady  Georgiana,  to  Zeist ;  and 
they  were  accompanied  by  Mr.  Reichardt,  the  missionary  of 
the  London  Jews'  Society.  Zeist  is  entirely  a  Moravian  set 
tlement,  where  men  and  women  are  separated  from  each  other. 
Wolff  attended,  in  company  with  Reichardt,  the  Divine  ser 
vice  of  the  Moravians.  They  sing  a  hymn,  and  drink  a  cup 
of  tea,  which  is  handed  to  every  one  present,  together  with  a 
Dutch  bun,  called  "  Zwieback."  Wolff  ate  his  portion  of 
Zwieback,  and  drank  his  tea,  which  were  very  good.  Reichardt 
had  placed  his  portion  of  refreshment  near  Wolff,  who  was 
sitting  close  beside  him,  and  Wolff  took  hold  of  ReichardtVi 
Zwieback  and  tea,  and  consumed  them  both,  to  the  great 
chagrin  of  poor  Reichardt. 

Wolff  was  amused  by  a  conversation  Reichardt  had  with 
one  of  the  Moravians,  on  the  importance  of  converting  the  Jews. 

Moravian. — "  Give  up  the  idea  of  converting  the  Jews  ; 

242  Travels  and  Adventures 

they  will  never  be  converted."  Roichardt  coolly  said,  "  Who 
told  you  so  ?"  Wolff  never  saw  any  one  so  utterly  taken  aback 
as  the  Moravian  was. 

Wolff  then  set  out,  with  Reichardt,  for  Germany,  to  meet 
his  mother  and  sister,  whom  he  had  not  seen  for  eighteen 
years.  He  met  them  at  Dusselthal,  a  place  where  he  had  ap 
pointed  to  meet  them,  for  they  resided  at  Munich.  The  moment 
Wolff  saw  his  mother  and  sister,  they  both  wept,  and  his 
mother  said,  "  To-day,  I  have  borne  thee  again.1'  Wolff  had 
the  unspeakable  joy  of  preaching  the  Gospel  to  the  Lutheran 
congregation ;  his  mother  and  sister  listening  to  the  sermon, 
for  the  former  said,  "  Nothing  should  prevent  her  hearing  her 
son  preach,  though  she  was  a  Jewess."  She  wept  the  whole 
time  he  preached. 

Dlisselthal  belonged  to  the  Count  Von  der  Recke ;  and  in 
his  presence,  as  well  as  in  the  presence  of  other  Christians, 
Wolff's  mother  began  in  this  way  to  address  him  : — "  My  dear 
child,  I  have  no  rest ;  for,  if  you  are  right,  you  will  be  happy 
in  the  other  world,  and  I  unhappy  ;  if  you  are  wrong,  what  an 
awful  sight  this  would  be  for  me,  in  the  other  world,  to  see  your 
shadow  flying  from  mine,  lost  in  hell !"  All  who  were  present 
wept,  and  she  went  on,  "  Do  you  think  that  Abraham  was 
wrong  ?  and  that  Isaac,  Jacob,  and  Moses  were  wrong  ?  and 
all  the  prophets  were  wrong?  and  our  rabbis  are  wrong  I" 
Wolff  needs  not  to  repeat  his  answers,  for  every  believer  in  Christ 
will  know  that  he  proved  to  her  that  in  Christ  Jesus  all  the 

frophecies  are,  in  a  great  degree,  fulfilled  ;  and  that  Abraham, 
saac,  and  Jacob  had  desired  to  see  this  day,  but  saw  it  not. 
With  God's  grace,  his  arguments  were  instrumental  in  con 
verting  his  sister,  Jette,  who  was  then  instructed  by  Dr. 
Krummacher,  the  author  of  "Elijah  the  Tishbite."  She  was 
afterwards  baptized  by  him,  and  has  ever  remained  a  consis 
tent  Christian,  and  is  now  married  to  Mr.  Pflaum,  in  Baireuth, 
in  New  Bavaria. 

Wolff  then  returned  to  London,  and  on  July  26,  sailed,  as 
he  expresses  himself,  with  her  who  is  now  his  glorified  angel, 
for  Gibraltar.  He  stopped  a  few  days  at  Cadiz  and  Lisbon, 
and  arrived  safely  at  his  destination.  His  reason  for  going  to 
Gibraltar  was,  that  he  was  now  a  credited  missionary  of  the 
London  Society,  and  was  on  his  way  to  the  East  to  preach  the 
Gospel  there.  Wolff  during  his  stay  there,  made  the  follow 
ing  appeal  to  the  Jews  ; — 

"  DEAR  BRETHREN, — Seven  years  have  passed  since  I  was 
the  first  time  in  this  place,  proclaiming  to  you  the  tidings  of 
salvation  by  Jesus  of  Nazareth.  I  found  but  little  candour 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  243 

among  you.  The  most  learned  of  you  have  been  called  to 
answer,  but  were  never  able  to  do  so  with  reason,  for  the  truth 
of  the  Gospel  is  too  clear  to  be  obscured  by  sophistry,  either 
of  rabbis  or  of  philosophers. 

"  You,  Jews  of  Gibraltar,  were  the  first  among  whom  I 
commenced  my  missionary  career  ;  and  if  I  was  not  convinced, 
by  the  grace  of  the  Lord,  that  the  word  of  Jesus  Christ  is  a 
hammer  which  smiteth  rocks  in  pieces,  I  should  at  that  time 
have  been  discouraged,  for  you  were  impenetrable  as  the  rock 
of  Gibraltar  itself;  but  the  love  of  Christ  constrained  me,  and 
your  hardness  of  heart,  and  your  blindness,  convinced  me 
more  of  the  necessity  and  the  importance  of  preaching  to  our 
brethren  the  Gospel  of  Christ,  in  which  I  have  found  for  my 
own  soul,  joy,  liberty,  and  abundance  of  peace.  I  went  to 
Egypt  four  times,  thence  twice  through  the  deserts  of  Arabia ; 
my  feet  stood  upon  Mount  Sinai,  Mount  Zion,  and  Calvary ; 
and  thence  I  went  to  Mesopotamia  and  Persia ;  and  often,  in 
hunger  and  thirst,  and  amidst  the  persecution  I  suffered  in  my 
travels,  I  proved  to  the  Jews  that  Jesus  was  that  seed  of 
Abraham  in  whom  all  the  nations  of  the  earth  were  to  be 
blessed :  that  Jesus  of  Nazareth  was  that  Shiloh,  who  came 
after  the  sceptre  of  Judah  had  departed  ;  that  Jesus  was  the 
promised  Prophet,  like  unto  Moses :  for  He  was  rejected  like 
Moses  ;  He  was  an  intercessor  like  Moses  ;  He  performed  signs 
and  wonders  like  Moses  ;  and  being  the  very  image  of  the  in 
visible  God,  He  saw  his  Father  face  to  face  like  unto  Moses  ; 
He  proclaimed  a  covenant  and  a  law  like  Moses  ;  He  was  per 
secuted  like  Moses.  Walking  upon  Zion,  I  proved  to  the 
literal  children  of  Zion  that  Jesus  was  that  Son  of  the  Virgin 
— that  Immanuel,  who  was  a  sanctuary  and  a  rock  of  offence 
to  both  the  houses  of  Israel.  To  the  Jews  at  Jerusalem,  at  the 
ruined  wall  of  their  ancient  Temple,  I  proved  that  Jesus  was 
that  Root  of  Jesse,  upon  whom  the  Spirit  of  the  Lord  rested, 
the  spirit  of  wisdom  and  understanding,  the  spirit  of  counsel 
and  might,  the  spirit  of  knowledge,  and  the  fear  of  the  Lord. 
Walking  with  the  Jews  upon  the  Mount  of  Olives,  I  proved 
to  them  that  Jesus  was  that  Child  which  was  born  to  us,  and 
that  Son  which  was  given  us,  whose  name  is  Wonderful ! 
Counsellor  !  Mighty  God  !  Everlasting  Father  !  Prince 
of  Peace  !  And,  going  with  the  Jews  of  Jerusalem  towards 
Bethlehem,  I  proved  to  them  that  Jesus,  who  was  born  at 
Bethlehem,  must  have  been  that  Man  of  whom  it  is  said,  '  But 
thou,  Bethlehem  Ephrata,  though  thou  be  little  among  the 
thousands  of  Judah,  yet  out  of  thee  shall  He  come  forth  unto 
me,  that  is  to  be  ruler  in  Israel,  whose  goings  forth  have  been 

R  2 

244  Travels  and  Adventures 

from  old,  from  everlasting/  And  in  the  case  of  Jeremiah,  I 
reminded  them  of  the  words  of  the  prophet,  that  the  Anointed 
of  the  Lord  was  taken  in  their  pits,  i.  e.,  received  of  the  Gen 
tiles,  of  whom  the  Jews  said,  '  Under  his  shadow  we  shall  live 
among  the  heathen.'  (Lam.  iv.  20.)  And  day  and  night  I 
tried  to  convince  thy  nation  that  Jesus  of  Nazareth  was  He 
who  had  borne  our  grief,  and  carried  our  sorrows,  and  who  was 
taken  from  prison  and  from  judgment.  And  at  the  sepulchre 
of  Haggai,  I  proved  to  them,  that  Jesus  was  that  desire  of  the 
nations  predicted  in  that  same  prophet.  And  though  I  was 
thus  forced  to  remind  my  Jewish  brethren  of  their  guilt  and 
crime,  in  approving  of  the  murderous  act  of  our  ancestors,  I 
left  them  not  comfortless  ;  for,  at  the  sepulchre  of  Zechariah, 
I  showed  to  them,  that  '  the  Lord  will  pour  out  the  spirit  of 
grace  and  supplication  upon  the  inhabitants  of  Jerusalem,  and 
they  shall  look  upon  Him  whom  they  have  pierced,  and  mourn.' 

"  Men  and  Brethren  of  Gibraltar  ! — I  am  now  again  on  the 
point  of  returning  to  the  city  of  Jerusalem,  and  I  exhort  and 
beseech  you,  for  the  last  time — for  your  souls1  sake — to  pray 
to  the  Lord  Jehovah,  that  he  may  open  your  heart  and  your 
ears :  for  whilst  you  are  circumcised  in  the  flesh,  you  are  un- 
circumcised  in  heart  and  ears ;  and  that  you  may  cease  from 
being  murderers  and  betrayers  of  your  own  souls,  by  trampling 
under  foot  the  blood  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  approving  of  the  act 
of  our  ancestors,  in  having  slain  the  Lord  of  glory. 

"  Men  and  Brethren  of  Gibraltar  ! — Believe  in  Jesus  Christ, 
and  you  will  have  a  testimony  without  you,  in  which  thousands 
of  evidences  have  concurred,  and  you  will  have  a  testimony 
within  you,  which  likewise  has  been  confirmed  by  the  concur 
rent  experience  of  thousands.  You  will  see,  you  will  know, 
you  will  enjoy  the  truth  ;  and  you  will  find  that  in  your  afflic 
tions,  distresses,  and  temptations,  the  grace  of  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ  will  be  made  perfect  in  your  weakness,  and  the  power  of 
Christ  will  rest  upon  you.  You  shall  be  blest  in  your  coming 
in,  and  you  shall  be  blessed  in  your  going  out,  and  you  will 
stand  fast  in  the  liberty  wherewith  Christ  hath  made  us  free. 
Bolieve  in  Jesus  Christ,  and  the  Lord  shall  establish  you, 
Jews  of  Gibraltar,  a  holy  people  to  Himself;  and  the  Lord 
shall  make  you,  Jews  of  Gibraltar,  the  head,  and  not  the  tail ; 
and  you  shall  be  above,  and  you  shall  not  be  beneath. 

"  But  you,  Jews  of  Gibraltar,  rich  and  poor,  if  you  will  not 
hearken  unto  the  voice  of  the  Lord  your  God,  and  should 
reject  the  Gospel  of  Christ,  then  beware  lest  all  these  curses 
shall  come  upon  you,  and  overtake  you  :  c  Cursed  shall  you  be  in 
the  city,  and  cursed  shall  you  be  in  the  field ;  and  cursed  shall 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  245 

be  your  basket,  and  your  store ;  cursed  shall  be  the  fruit  of 
your  body,  and  the  fruit  of  your  land ;  cursed  shall  you  be 
when  you  come  in,  and  cursed  shall  you  be  when  you  go  out. 
And  the  Lord  shall  send  upon  you  cursing,  vexation,  and 

"  Would  to  God  that  I  could  conscientiously  say,  that  I  hope 
better  things  of  you,  Jews  of  Gibraltar ;  but  I  can  scarcely 
hope.  I  am  afraid  that  you  will  reject  my  exhortation  ;  you 
will  despise  this  appeal  of  your  brother ;  you  will  go  on  in 
boasting  that  you  are  the  sons  of  Abraham,  without  having 
the  faith  of  Abraham  ;  you  will  go  on  in  being  proud  of  your 
Talmudical  wisdom ;  you  will  continue  to  be  contented  in 
being  well  off  in  temporal  respects ;  but  I  have  done  my  duty. 
And  I  again  call  heaven  and  earth  to  witness,  that  there  is  but 
one  name  given  in  heaven  and  on  earth  by  which  men  can  be 
saved,  and  this  is  the  name  of  Jesus  Christ.  If  you  reject 
my  exhortation,  I  am  clear  of  your  blood  ;  and  the  Lord 
delivers  me  from  blood-guiltiness,  for  I  have  warned  you. 
Speak  ye,  therefore,  '  Blessed  be  He,  who  cometh  in  the  name 
of  the  Lord ;  Hosannah  to  the  Lord  in  the  highest/  And 
then  the  Gentiles,  true  believers  in  Christ,  will  rejoice  with  the 
descendants  of  his  ancient  people,  residing  at  Gibraltar. 

"  Joseph  Wolff,  Missionary  to  the  Jews  in  Palestine." 

Sir  George  Don,  Lieutenant-Governor  of  Gibraltar,  and  his 
whole  staff,  and  Lady  Don,  paid  the  utmost  attention  and 
kindness  to  Wolff,  and  her  who  was  his  darling  wife. 

There  was  residing  in  the  town  of  Gibraltar  at  this  time,  a 
Jew,  Jonas  by  name,  who,  one  day,  came  to  Wolff  in  a  greatly 
excited  state,  having  read  his  appeal  to  the  Jews,  and  he  said 
to  him,  "  I  will  show  to  you  a  text  from  Moses,  our  great 
prophet — hear  it !  He  says  in  Deuteronomy  xiii.  1,  2,  3,  "  If 
there  arise  among  you  a  prophet,  or  a  dreamer  of  dreams,  and 
giveth  thee  a  sign  or  a  wonder,  and  the  sign  or  the  wonder 
come  to  pass  whereof  he  spake  unto  thee,  saying,  Let  us  go 
after  other  gods  which  thou  has  not  known,  and  let  us  serve 
them,  thou  shalt  not  hearken  unto  the  words  of  that  prophet, 
or  that  dreamer  of  dreams,  for  the  Lord  your  God  provoth  you 
to  know  whether  ye  love  the  Lord  your  God  with  all  your  heart 
and  with  all  your  soul/  "  And  then  he  read  a  part  of  the  5th 
verse,  "  And  that  prophet,  or  that  dreamer  of  dreams,  shall  be 
put  to  death."  "  Now,  you  are  come  among  us,"  cried  Jonas, 
"  and  you  tell  us,  '  Let  us  go  after  three  gods,'  and  therefore  you 
deserve  to  be  put  to  death  !"  Wolff  replied,  "  Show  me  that  I 
believe  in  three  gods."  Jonas  answered,  "  You  believe  Father, 
Son,  and  Holy  Ghost."  Wolff  replied,  "  Does  not  Moses  say, 

246  Travels  and  Adventures 

'  Is  He  not  thy  Father?'  and  does  not  David  tell  us  that  the  Lord 
says,  '  Thou  art  my  Son,  this  day  have  I  begotten  thee ;'  and 
does  not  Isaiah  say,  '  They  vexed  his  holy  Spirit  V  "  Wolff 
had  often  to  encounter  this  argument  from  the  Jews. 

Jonas  then  broke  off,  and  said,  "  I  was  rather  startled  with 
one  announcement  in  your  appeal,  and  thought,  at  the  first 
impulse,  that  you  must  be  a  holy  man,  because  you  gave  us  to 
understand  that  you  walked  upon  Mount  Zion  ;  but  I  recovered 
myself  on  reading  the  following  passage,  which  I  now  beg  you 
to  read  aloud,  Lamentations  v.  18,  and  I  knew  at  once  that 
you  answer  to  that  description.  Read  it  aloud!"  Then 
Wolff  read,  with  a  loud  voice,  "  Zion  is  desolate,  the  foxes  walk 
upon  it!"  "  There  !"  he  exclaimed,  "  you  have  at  least  ful 
filled  this  prophecy  !  But,"  added  he,  "  you  are  a  personage 
of  another  description,  also  mentioned  in  Holy  Writ,  because 
you  give  us  to  understand  that  you  have  travelled  much  here 
upon  earth.  Read  in  Job  i.  6,  c  Now  there  was  a  day,  when 
the  sons  of  God  came  to  present  themselves  before  the  Lord, 
and  Satan  came  also  among  them.  And  the  Lord  said  unto 
Satan,  Whence  comest  thou  ?  Then  Satan  answered  the  Lord, 
and  said,  From  going  to  and  fro  in  the  earth,  and  from  walking 
up  and  down  in  it.' ''  Wolff  answered  the  whole  with  a  hearty 

Oddly  enough,  when  Wolff  was  telling  the  Jews  in  Jerusa 
lem  of  his  travels  in  Persia,  and  other  countries,  one  present 
referred  him  to  the  same  passage  in  Job.  And,  moreover,  the 
reader  will  smile  to  learn  that  a  brother  clergyman  in  England, 
who  was  attending  a  meeting  for  propagating  the  Gospel  in 
foreign  parts,  and  who  was  an  intimate  friend  of  Dr.  Wolff, 
coolly  said  in  his  speech,  "  We  all  must  stand  back  when  Dr. 
Wolff  speaks,  for  he  comes  from  going  to  and  fro  in  the  earth, 
and  from  walking  up  and  down  in  it."  This  was  the  Rev. 
William  Marshall,  rector  of  Ilton. 

After  about  a  fortnight,  Wolff  embarked  for  Malta,  and 
there  all  his  friends  rallied  around  him ;  among  them  were 
Sir  Frederic  and  Lady  Emily  Ponsonby ;  and  here  was 
Lady  Georgiana  Wolff  confined  of  her  first  child,  which  died 
afterwards  in  Cyprus,  ten  months  old. 

After  remaining  some  months  at  Malta,  Wolff  proceeded 
alone,  in  the  frigate  "  Isis,"  commanded  by  Sir  Thomas 
Staines  (who  had  his  wife  on  board,  because  he  had  only  one 
arm,  and  her  presence  was  allowed  as  a  favour),  for  Smyrna. 
On  the  passage,  one  day,  Wolff  was  sitting  at  dinner  in  the 
Captain's  cabin,  with  Lieutenants  Sainthill  and  Gamier,  when 
Lieutenant  Sainthill  sniffed  with  his  nose,  and  exclaimed, 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  247 

"  There  is  fire  on  board  !"  Wolff  immediately  sprang  on 
deck,  and  shouted  out,  "  Sailors,  down,  all  of  you,  into  the 
cabin  ;  fire  is  on  board  !"  The  sailors  stood  as  quiet  as  mice, 
and  asked,  "  What  does  he  say?"  Wolff  shouted  again, 
"  Down,  down  into  the  cabin  ;  there  is  fire  on  board  !"  And, 
actually,  one  of  them  was  induced  to  obey  the  order,  for  doing 
which,  he  narrowly  escaped  a  flogging.  Presently,  Lieutenant 
Sainthill  came  on  deck,  and  said,  "  Do  not  be  frightened, 
Wolff;  the  fire  is  out."  The  whole  affair  was  simply  this  : — 
There  was  a  chaplain  on  board,  by  name  Salvin,  a  most  excel 
lent  man,  but  very  absent ;  and,  in  a  fit  of  absence,  the  poor 
fellow  forgot  to  put  out  a  candle,  which  he  had  had  in  his 
cabin,  while  he  sat  reading  a  book  ;  and  so  a  curtain  took  fire, 
which  was  immediately  extinguished,  but  it  nevertheless  left  a 
smell  of  burning. 

The  officers  made  great  fun  of  Wolff  after  this  occurrence ; 
and  Sir  Thomas  Staines  told  him,  that  passengers  were  never 
allowed  to  make  an  alarm.  He  added,  "  I  see  you  have  hurt 
your  nose;  you  fell  upon  it  as  you  hurried  up  on  deck;" 
which  was  true  enough.  A  full  history  of  this  was  written  to 
Malta  for  the  general  amusement. 

Wolff  reached  Smyrna  in  December,  1827,  just  a  few  weeks 
after  the  battle  of  Navarin.  On  coming  into  the  harbour,  they 
found  it  full  of  English  ships  of  war,  and  also  French  and 
Russian  vessels,  which  had  been  in  the  battle  of  Navarin  ; 
and  they  had  all  their  admirals  and  captains  on  board.  Among 
them  were  also  the  three  ambassadors — English,  French,  and 
Dutch.  Sir  Stratford  Canning  came  on  board  the  "  Isis,"  and 
was  not  a  little  surprised  to  see  Joseph  Wolff  among  the  pas 
sengers.  Wolff's  friend,  the  Reverend  Mr.  Leeves,  Agent- 
General  of  the  British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society,  came  to 
him,  and  said,  "  Now,  Wolff,  pray  do  not  make  a  noise  in  this 
country ;  if  you  do,  you  will  be  cut  to  pieces  by  the  Turks." 
He  told  him  of  the  rage  of  the  Sultan  Mahmood,  when  he 
heard  that  his  fleet  had  been  destroyed  at  Navarin ;  for,  in  his 
first  fury,  he  had  given  orders  to  kill  all  "  the  infidel  ambas 
sadors."  This,  however,  his  privy-council  prevented  him  from 
doing ;  and  the  great  Sir  Stratford  Canning  sent  the  Sultan 
word,  "  That  if  he  intended  to  do  any  such  thing,  he  had  best, 
first  of  all,  build  himself  a  castle  in  the  air  to  take  refuge  in!" 

Wolff  remained  only  a  few  days  in  Smyrna,  and  then 
(January,  1828)  sailed" for  Egina,  near  Athens,  in  the  "Cam 
brian"  frigate,  commanded  by  Captain  Rohan  Hamilton,  which 
frigate  was  afterwards  wrecked  at  Carabusa. 

Athens  was  at  that  time  in  the  hands  of  the  Turks,  and 

248  Travels  and  Adventures 

besieged  by  the  Greeks.  Egina  was  filled  with  English, 
French,  Italians,  and  Poles.  Among  the  English  were  there, 
Captain  Felix  and  Lord  Prudhoe.  Wolff  circulated  the  New 
Testament  and  Tracts  amongst  the  Greeks,  and  wrote  a  letter 
to  the  Government  of  Greece,  desiring  them  to  extend  that 
liberty,  which  they  themselves  now  enjoyed,  to  the  Jews,  and 
not  persecute  them.  This  letter  attracted  the  attention  of 
every  member  of  the  Government,  so  that  Prince  Mawrocor- 
dato,  and  Monsieur  Tricoupi,  now  Ambassador  in  London, 
called  upon  Wolff,  and  conversed  with  him  on  the  subject  of 
his  mission.  Wolff  had  cause  to  admire  the  high  talents  of 
both  these  gentlemen.  Tricoupi  was  a  protege  of  Lord  Guild- 
ford,  and  had  had  his  education  in  the  college  at  Corfu. 
Either  Prince  Mawrocordato  or  Tricoupi  ought  to  be  made 
Emperor  of  the  Turkish  Empire  by  the  European  Powers, 
and  thus  ascend  the  throne  of  Constantinople  ;  whilst  Abdul- 
Medjid,  the  drunken  civilizer  of  Turkey — the  sick  man — 
ought  to  be  made  comfortable. 

Those  in  England,  who  consider  the  Greek  priesthood  as  a 
set  of  ignorant  and  superstitious  people,  ought  to  be  in 
formed  that  many  of  them  have  had  their  education,  not 
only  under  their  great  countryman — Korais,  who  resided  at 
Paris,  and  who  is  celebrated  as  philosopher,  historian,  and 
grammarian — but  also  have  studied  in  the  Universities  of 
Gottingen  and  Heidelberg. 

So  hospitably  was  Wolff  received  that  he  had  not  to  spend 
a  single  farthing  either  in  coffee-houses  or  hotels  in  Egina ; 
and  he  never  experienced  one  single  slight  from  any  of  the 
Greeks  for  his  having  been  born  of  Jewish  parents ;  and  he 
is  convinced  that  the  Greeks  are  capable  of  the  highest  moral 
and  scientific  cultivation,  so  that  he  hopes  that  a  Greek  will 
one  day  reascend  the  throne  of  Byzantium ;  and  that  the  indo 
lent,  heavy,  cruel,  and  barbarous  Turk,  filled  with  all  possible 
immorality,  will  be  expelled  from  Europe.  For  neither  the 
Khat-Sherif  of  the  drunken  Sultan,  Abdul-Medjid,  nor  the 
concourse  of  Italian  Carbonari,  and  French  Jacobins,  nor 
English  Socialists,  will  ever  be  able  to  bring  life  into  the 
cadaverous  body  of  the  Turk.  Muhammadanism  has  been 
established  by  the  sword,  and  Muhammadanism  must  perish 
by  the  sword.  Christianity,  in  its  most  deformed  condition, 
is  better  than  Muhammadanism  in  its  most  enlightened  state. 
Enough  of  them  !  One  thing  must,  however,  be  observed. 
Justice  must  be  done  even  to  the  Turks.  Wolff  never  received 
one  single  insult  from  them  any  more  than  from  the  Greeks. 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  249 

or  from  any  other  nation  of  the  East,  for  his  having  once 
been  of  the  Jewish  persuasion. 

Wolff  left  Egina  and  went  to  Syra  in  a  boat.  It  was  a 
remarkable  place.  The  Greeks  below  in  the  valley  belonged 
to  the  old  Othodox  Greek  Church,  and  those  on  the  heights  of 
Syra  to  the  Obedience  of  Rome.  Syra  was  filled  with  Phil- 
hellenists,  of  all  nations.  With  some  of  them  Wolff  was 
rather  agreeably  disappointed.  As,  for  instance,  with  the 
Germans  Goss  and  Koring.  From  Syra  Wolff  sailed  to  Milo, 
in  an  old  Greek  merchant  vessel.  At  Milo  he  was  kindly 
received  by  the  English  agent,  who  was  a  Greek.  In  his  house 
he  met  with  Peckham  Miller,  an  American  Philhellenist,  who 
had  under  his  care  a  Greek  boy,  seven  years  of  age,  whose 
father  had  been  killed  by  the  Turks.  With  him  he  sailed 
towards  Cephalonia.  Not  far  from  Navarin,  the  ship  was 
pursued  by  Greek  pirates  ;  but  they  escaped  these  pursuers, 
and  Wolff  and  his  companions  arrived  safely  in  the  harbour 
of  Navarin,  where  he  saw  the  wrecks  of  the  ships  which  had 
been  destroyed  in  the  great  battle  ;  and  the  Turks,  being  still 
enraged,  fired  at  the  ship  in  which  Wolff  was. 


Sir  Charles  Napier ;  Ionian  Islands ;  Beyrout ;  Cyprus ;  De 
tained  by  Illness  at  Cairo',  Address  from  Bishops  of  Cyprus; 
The  Desert ;  Exorcises  an  Evil  Spirit ;  Holy  Land ;  Jeru 
salem  Again ;  Is  poisoned ;  Dr.  Stormont ;  Jaffa. 

THEY  sailed  away  from  Navarin,  and,  passing  on  towards 
Cephalonia,  the  ship  was  dashed  to  pieces  on  rocks  j  but 
Wolff,  his  companions,  and  the  crew,  saved  themselves  in  a 
boat ;  and  thus  arrived  in  a  most  destitute  state  in  the  har 
bour  of  Cephalonia,  where,  soon  after  their  arrival,  the  greatest 
man,  whom  not  only  England,  but  all  nations  have  for  cen 
turies  had — a  man  whose  fame  resounds  from  England  to 
Bokhara,  and  to  the  walls  of  China — made  his  appearance  on 
the  shore,  with  convulsive  eyes  and  shoulders,  with  fire- 
flashing  glances,  and  a  pleasant  countenance.  This  man  was 
at  that  time  Colonel  Charles  James  Napier,  afterwards  General 
Sir  Charles  James  Napier.  Thus,  again,  a  British  officer 

250  Travels  and  Adventures 

appeared  at  a  time  when  Joseph  Wolff  was  in  the  greatest 

The  first  thing  that  extraordinary  man  said,  was,  "  I  know 
your  sister-in-law,  Lady  Catherine  Long,  very  well.  She  is 
one  of  the  prettiest  women  I  ever  saw/'  This  was  spoken  to 
Wolff  through  the  Parlatorio,  as  it  is  called,  i.  e.,  the  iron 
grating  of  the  Lazzaretto,  in  which  all  new-comers  are  placed 
before  being  allowed  to  go  on  shore.  He  then  added,  "  Now, 
Wolff,  I  know  you,  too,  very  well.  I  know  that  you  are 
going  about  preaching  that  the  world  is  to  come  to  an  end  in 
the  year  1845.  It  serves  them  right !" 

Napier  made  a  mistake  here.  It  was  not  1845  which  Wolff 
had  imagined  to  be  the  date  of  a  great  change,  but  1847 ;  and 
what  he  had  imagined,  was  not  the  destruction  of  the  world, 
but  its  renovation,  and  the  restoration  of  the  Jews,  at  the 
coming  of  the  Messiah  in  glory. 

But  here,  let  it  be  observed,  that  Wolff  has  long  ago  given 
up  attempting  to  fix  a  date  for  the  accomplishment  of  unful 
filled  prophecies  ;  and  these  are  his  reasons  for  doing  so  : — 

First,  he  has  a  difficulty  in  fixing  the  time  from  which  to 
date.  Secondly,  he  has  entirely  given  up  considering  the  1260 
days  as  so  many  years,  but  believes  them  to  be  literal  days. 
Thirdly,  the  Antichrist  is  not  yet  come.  And,  as  long  as 
Antichrist,  or  the  Man  of  Sin,  is  not  yet  come,  the  words  of 
our  Lord,  in  the  first  of  the  Acts,  are  still  in  their  full  force, 
i.e.,  "  Of  the  times  and  seasons  knoweth  no  man."  And  Wolff 
deeply  regrets  that  he  ever  fell  into  the  errors  here  alluded  to. 

Sir  Charles  Napier  continued  to  joke  Wolff  about  his  pro 
phecies  up  to  the  last,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  following  letter, 
written  in  the  year  1852  : — 

"  Oaklands,  6th  October,  1852. 

"  MY  DEAR  WOLFF — Your  friend,  the  lady  who  wishes  for 
my  Autograph,  does  me  great  honour,  and  I  am  very  much 
flattered  thereby.  I  write  this  on  purpose  that  you  may  give 
it  to  her,  for  which  reason,  I  will  not  say  a  word  about  your 
prophetic  inspirations,  or  your  theology  !  but  only  what  I 
know  to  be  true,  and  that  is,  that  you  are  an  honest  good 
fellow,  and  one  that  I  believe  has  worked  harder  for  religion, 
and  gone  through  more  dangers  for  it,  with  a  brave  heart,  than 
any  man  living ;  and  if  you  do  not  now  stay  at  home  quietly 
with  your  wife,  I  shall  really  begin  to  believe  that  you  are 
crazy ! 

"  I  met  your  son  in  London,  and  a  very  nice  young  man  he 
seems  to  be. — With  respects  to  Lady  Georgiana  Wolff, 

"  I  remain,  yours  faithfully,  C.  NAPIER." 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  251 

Sir  Charles  Napier  went  on  to  say,  "  Now,  Wolff,  you  are 
not  allowed  to  land ;  but  I  and  my  friend  Kennedy,  and 
Doctor  Muir,  will  often  come  to  see  you.  I  shall  send  you 
victuals  from  shore,  and  you  can  do  just  what  you  like.  You 
must  remain  here  twenty-six  days,  for  we  don^t  wish  to  catch 
the  plague  ;  though  it  is  all  a  humbug.  But  we  must  submit 
to  humbug.  I  shall  come  to-morrow,  with  the  Jews  and 
Greeks,  to  whom  you  may  preach.  You  may  tell  them  that 
there  is  no  difference  between  Jew  and  Greek, — for  they  are 
both  rogues  alike !"  Sir  Charles  was,  nevertheless,  a  great 
lover  and  friend  of  the  Greeks. 

Next  day,  he  actually  came  with  a  great  crowd  of  both  Jews 
and  Greeks,  and  said, — "  Now  !  here  I  am  come  to  stand  by 

you.     If  you  cannot  convert  them,  they  shall  get  a  d d 

licking!"     Wolff  reproved  Napier  for  swearing,  to  which  he 
answered,  "  I  deserve  the  reproof,  for  I  swear  like  a  trooper." 

After  Wolff  had  been  for  some  days  in  that  horrible  Laz- 
zaretto,  he  wrote  to  Sir  Charles  Napier  a  long  letter,  assigning 
six  reasons,  which  ought  to  induce  Sir  Charles  to  let  him  out 
sooner  than  the  twenty-sixth  day. 

Sir  Charles  answered  this  letter  as  follows  : — 

"  You  gave  me  six  reasons  for  letting  you  out ;  I  will  give 
you  seven  reasons  for  keeping  you  in.  One  of  the  reasons  is, 
— That  if  I  let  you  out  sooner,  the  Lord  High  Commissioner 
of  the  Ionian  Islands  would  cut  off  my  head." 

However,  in  spite  of  that,  he  gave  Wolff  six  days'*  grace,  and 
took  him  into  his  house  ;  and  Wolff  maintains,  that  he  never 
in  his  life  saw  a  more  affectionate  father,  and  tender  husband, 
or  a  man  who  set  a  better  example  by  having  daily  family 
prayers  in  his  home  ;  and  on  Sunday,  Wolff  held  Divine  ser 
vice,  and  preached  there.  For  Sir  Charles  assembled  in  his 
house  all  the  Jews ;  and  to  those  who  knew  how  to  read,  he 
gave  the  Bible.  One  of  the  Jews  wanted  a  Bible.  Sir  Charles 
Napier  immediately  asked,  "  Do  you  know  how  to  read?"  The 
Jew  said,  "  Yes."  Sir  Charles  Napier  then  said,  "  Read," 
and  put  a  Bible  into  his  hand.  But  the  man  did  not  know 
how  to  read,  on  which  Sir  Charles  Napier  exclaimed,  "  I  have 
a  good  mind  to  give  you  a  d d  licking  ! — the  soundest  lick 
ing  you  ever  got." 

Sir  Charles  Napier  told  Wolff  the  following  story  of  Lord 
Byron,  who  resided  for  some  time  in  Cephalonia,  and  often 
dined  with  Dr.  Kennedy  at  his  house.  Kennedy  was  a  doctor, 
with  whom  Lord  Byron  had  frequent  conversations  on  reli 

Sir  Charles  Napier  asked  Lord  Byron,  "  What  is  the  reason 

252  Travels  and  Adventures 

why  you  are  always  talking  with  Kennedy  about  religion?1' 
Byron  said,  "  To  tell  you  the  truth  ;  in  order  to  make  a 
Methodist  of  Don  Juan  in  the  second  part  !"  Sir  Charles 
Napier  told  him  frankly,  "  he  would  not  allow  him  to  make  a 
fool  of  any  person  whom  he  met  at  his  house,  and  therefore 
that  he  should  tell  Kennedy."  And  this  he  actually  did  do ; 
but  Kennedy  said,  "he  did  not  mind  it,  he  should  converse 
with  Lord  Byron  whenever  he  had  the  opportunity."  And  so 
Kennedy  did,  and  it  will  be  seen  by  the  Life  of  Byron,  pub 
lished  by  Kennedy,  that  the  poor  man,  after  all,  believed  that 
he  had  converted  Lord  Byron. 

Sir  Charles  Napier  thus  alluded  to  this  circumstance  in 
writing  to  Wolff.  "  My  dear  Prophet  (I  mean  False  Prophet, 
who  tried  to  kill  the  world  before  its  hour),  your  name  is  great, 
and  rings  through  the  world.  McMurdo  is  a  valiant  man, 
he  slew  seven  men  in  single  combat ;  three  at  Meeanee,  three 
at  Hydrabad,  where  one  of  them  wounded  him,  and  one  in  the 
Bogtee  Hills.  The  Kennedy  who  published  his  conversations 
with  Lord  Byron,  was  both  a  doctor  and  a,  fool ;  he  afterwards 
died  in  the  West  Indies.  He  was  an  amiable,  weak  creature  : 
weak  in  mind  and  weak  in  body  ;  so  much  so,  that  it  was  sup 
posed  that  his  very  handsome  wife  sustained  no  loss  at  his 
death.  She  has  since  married  a  Captain  Kennedy  of  the  navy, 
and  was  a  very  charming  woman.  Why  she  ever  married  the 
poor  man  no  one  could  tell.  I  believe  she  published  the  '  Con 
versations/  &c.  I  have  not  seen  them,  but  they  must  be 
foolish,  because  I  was  there,  and  know  that  Lord  Byron  was 
getting  out  of  Dr.  Kennedy  all  sorts  of  cant  and  nonsense,  on 
purpose  to  convert  Don  Juan  in  the  next  canto  into  a  Metho 
dist.  So  he  collected  all  the  expressions  he  could,  and  told  me 
one  day,  '  I  will  make  Don  Juan  a  Methodist,  next  canto/  I 
warned  poor  Kennedy  that  the  poet  was  laughing  at  him;  but 
the  doctor's  inordinate  vanity  would  not  believe  a  word  of  it ; 
and  he  was  quite  sure  he  had  converted  Lord  Byron,  though 
the  latter  made  him  the  laughing-stock  of  Argostoli  !  In  short, 
Kennedy's  consummate  vanity  was  past  endurance. 

"  I  am  glad  that  your  lectures  are  well  attended — they  are 
very  interesting.  Lady  Napier  desires  her  kind  regards. 

"  Yours  ever,  C.  NAPIER." 

"  What  made  you  think  it  was  my  Kennedy  that  tried  to 
convert  Lord  Byron  ?  He  tries  to  convert  no  one,  but  con 
verts  every  one  to  an  unbounded  admiration  of  his  own  great 

Sir  Charles  Napier  gave  an  excellent  hint  to  Wolff,  although 
it  was  one  on  which  Wolff  had  already  acted,  before  hearing  it 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  253 

from  him.  He  said,  "  Wolff,  do  not  attack  the  superstition  of 
the  Greeks,  or  of  any  one.  For  to  begin,  what  harm  is  there 
in  a  Greek  believing  that  St.  Spiridion*  performs  miracles  ? 
The  Apostles  performed  miracles  too." 

Here  Dr.  Wolff  makes  the  following  remark : — UI  challenge 
every  one  to  show  one  single  passage  in  the  New  Testament, 
ordering  men  to  preach  against  superstition.  Twice  supersti 
tion  is  mentioned ;  and  twice  not  only  not  censured,  but  men 
tioned  in  a  favourable  manner."  Acts  xvii.  22 : — "  Then 
Paul  stood  in  the  midst  of  Mars1  hill,  and  said,  Ye  men  of 
Athens,  I  perceive  that  in  all  things  ye  are  too  superstitious. 
For  as  I  passed  by,  and  beheld  your  devotions,  I  found  an 
altar  with  this  inscription,  TO  THE  UNKNOWN  GOD.  Whom 
therefore  ye  ignorantly  worship,  Him  declare  I  unto  you." 
Here  St.  Paul  praises  them  for  the  very  excess  of  their  faith. 
There  is  another  passage  in  Acts  xxv.  19.  Festus  writes  to 
Felix  about  Paul.  "  Therefore,  when  they  were  come  hither, 
without  any  delay  on  the  morrow  I  sat  on  the  judgment  seat, 
and  commanded  the  man  to  be  brought  forth.  Against  whom 
when  the  accusers  stood  up,  they  brought  none  accusation  of 
such  things  as  I  supposed :  but  had  certain  questions  against 
him  of  their  own  superstition,  and  of  one  Jesus,  which  was 
dead,  whom  Paul  affirmed  to  be  alive,1'  &c.,  &c. 

Besides  this,  Dr.  Wolf  says,  our  Lord  never  attacks  the 
Jews  on  account  of  their  superstition,  but  on  account  of  their 
unbelief — infidelity  being  the  great  sin  of  the  world.  And  he 
adds,  "  I  can  never  believe  any  religion  to  be  true,  which  can 
be  entirely  fathomed  by,  and  made  consistent  with  human 
philosophy ;  because  there  are  necessarily  many  things  in  hea 
ven  and  earth  which  our  philosophy  does  not  dream  of." 

Wolff  was  about  to  go  to  Corfu  in  a  little  Greek  boat,  but 
Peckham  Miller  said,  "  We  had  better  wait  here  till  a  steamer 
comes."  Wolff  said,  "  Who  knows  when  it  will  come  f  So 
he  induced  Miller  to  go  in  the  little  boat,  but  scarcely  had  the 
boat  taken  up  the  anchor,  before  the  steamer  came  in  sight, 
and  then  Wolff  insisted  on  going  in  the  steamer.  Miller  was 
angry,  but  at  last  complied.  So  they  arrived  in  a  few  hours, 
on  board  the  steamer,  in  Corfu  ;  where  Wolff  took  up  his  abode 
with  the  Rev.  Isaac  Lowndes,  missionary  to  the  London  Mis 
sionary  Society. 

To  be  short,  Count  Teotoki,  President  of  the  Republic  of 
the  Ionian  Islands,  called  on  Wolff,  and  asked  him  how  he 
could  be  of  use  to  him  in  his  mission.  Wolft  said,  by  giving 

*  The  Patron  Saint  of  Corfu. 

254  Travels  and  Adventures 

him  the  opportunity  of  delivering  a  public  lecture  in  the  Col 
lege  of  Lord  Guildford  ;  and  also  by  allowing  him  to  preach  in 
the  open  street  to  the  Greeks,  on  the  personal  reign  of  Jesus 
Christ  upon  earth.  Count  Teotoki  laid  the  request  before  the 
Senate ;  the  whole  was  approved  by  them,  and  the  Lord  High 
Commissioner,  Sir  Frederic  Adams,  and  Sir  Alexander  Wood- 
ford,  Commander-in-Chief,  confirmed  it ;  and  thus  Wolff  lec 
tured,  amidst  the  applause  of  all  the  lively  interesting  Greek 
students,  in  the  College  ;  and  also  to  thousands  in  the  open 
street.  Count  Teotoki  was  present,  and  asked  him  afterwards 
to  dinner,  when  he  said,  "  I  like  men  of  energetic  pursuits.'' 
Wolff  was  delighted  to  hear  lately  that  even  now  there  are 
most  respectable  Greeks  in  Corfu  who  remember  Joseph  Wolff ; 
and  he  met  Tonians  both  at  Liverpool  and  Leicester,  who  ex 
pressed  to  him  their  great  wish  that  he  would  come  again  to 
Corfu  and  Zante,  and  deliver  lectures  as  before. 

After  Wolff  had  remained  there  for  about  a  fortnight,  he 
sailed  in  an  American  merchant  vessel,  commanded  by  Captain 
Allen,  for  Malta.  But,  on  hearing  that  his  wife,  according  to 
arrangement,  had  preceded  him  to  Alexandria,  he  followed  her 
thither  in  the  ship  "  Glasgow,"  commanded  by  Sir  Ashley 
Maud.  Lady  Georgiana  Wolff  had  taken  up  her  abode  in  the 
house  of  a  Wesley  an  missionary ;  but  after  Wolff's  arrival, 
they  both  went  to  reside  in  the  house  of  the  hospitable  Robert 
Todd,  a  merchant  there. 

Wolff  remained  at  Alexandria  till  the  17th  of  May,  1828, 
and  then  embarked,  with  his  wife  and  little  daughter,  for  Bey- 
rout,  where  the  plague  was  raging.  Here,  to  their  great  relief, 
they  found  an  English  brig  of  war,  the  "  Zebra,""  commanded 
by  Captain  Popham,  who  kindly  sent  a  boat  to  take  them  on 
board.  They  asked  alongside  for  news,  but  there  was  none  to 
tell,  except  the  wreck  of  the  "  Parthian"  brig  of  war,  near 
Alexandria,  which,  having  happened  the  day  before  Wolff  left 
that  place,  was  a  little  stale;  and  there  was  on  board  the 
44  Zebra"  a  Mr.  Borrows,  from  Norfolk.  He  had  come  out 
with  Captain  Hoste  to  Malta,  and  had  since  been  cruising 
with  Captain  Popham,  but  was  too  much  afraid  of  the  plague 
to  land  anywhere.  So,  doubtless,  he  returned  back  to  Norfolk, 
to  tell  the  natives  that  he  had  seen  the  coast  of  Syria,  and  to 
be  thought  a  wonderful  traveller,  and  a  most  adventurous  per 
son.  He  expressed  a  great  wish  to  see  the  women  of  this 
country,  who  wear  horns,  as  do  also  the  women  of  Mount  Le 
banon,  which  illustrates  the  words  of  Deborah,  "  My  horn  is 
exalted."  The  horn  thus  worn  is  of  silver. 

Wolff  and  Lady  Georgiana  dined  on  board  the  "  Zebra," 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  255 

and  were  fetched  on  shore  by  a  boat,  being  landed  about  two 
miles  from  the  town,  to  avoid  landing  among  a  number  of 
people.  On  arriving  at  the  gate,  it  was  closed,  the  day  being 
Friday  (the  Muhammadan  Sabbath),  and  it  being  then  the 
hour  of  prayer.  Wolff,  therefore,  sat  down  with  his  family 
under  a  tree,  at  a  little  distance  from  the  gate,  and  waited ; 
after  which,  they  walked,  one  by  one,  through  the  gate,  and 
along  the  street,  endeavouring  thus  to  avoid  touching  any  per 
son,  or  any  article  of  apparel ;  and  in  this  way  they  came  to  a 
house  prepared  for  them. 

Several  old  acquaintances  of  Wolff  called  upon  him  at  Bey- 
rout  :  and  he  applied  to  the  Pasha  of  Acre,  the  ancient  Ptole- 
mais,  for  permission  to  proceed  to  Jerusalem,  but  he  received 
no  answer.  Meantime,  Assad  Yakoob  Khayatt,  a  tailor, 
took  refuge  in  Wolff's  house,  in  order  to  conceal  himself  from 
the  Turks.  The  same  Assad  Yakoob  Khayatt  came  after 
wards  to  England,  and  is  now  British  Vice  Consul.  It  is  to 
be  observed  that  the  word  Khayatt  means  "  tailor."  The  Jews 
at  this  place  did  all  in  their  power  to  assist  Wolff  to  get  to 
Jerusalem,  but  it  was  in  vain.  And,  finally,  Wolff  left  Bey- 
rout,  with  his  family,  and  went  to  Cyprus,  where  the  Greeks 
received  him  in  a  sort  of  triumph,  as  they  at  once  recognized 
in  him  the  benefactor  of  so  many  Greeks  whom  he  had  saved, 
and  the  person  who  had  sent  several  boys  to  England. 

He  spent  some  time  at  Cyprus,  with  his  wife,  in  a  monas 
tery,  called  Santa  Barbara,  as  the  air  there  was  better  than  in 
Larnaca,  on  the  coast.  In  that  monastery,  however,  Wolff 
had  an  attack  of  Cyprus  fever,  but  was  cured.  Thence  they 
proceeded  to  Limasol,  on  the  coast,  and  there  Wolff's  child 
died  ;  and  Lady  Georgiana  became  dangerously  ill.  Wolff 
sent  from  thence  another  Greek  boy,  Paul  Pierides  by  name, 
to  England,  for  education,  to  Lady  Carnegie,  who  sent  him  to 
Scotland,  where  he  studied  for  the  medical  profession.  After 
this,  Lady  Georgiana  being  recovered,  Wolff  and  she  left 
Cyprus  in  a  miserable  Austrian  vessel,  and  came  to  Damiat, 
in  Egypt,  where  they  resided  in  the  house  of  the  British  Con 
sul,  Signor  Surur  by  name,  an  old  friend  of  Wolff. 

Wolff  was  taken  violently  ill  at  this  place  with  dysentery, 
yet  they  went  on  to  Cairo.  There  they  stayed  with  the  mis 
sionaries  of  the  Church  Missionary  Society,  Messrs.  Kruso 
and  Lieder.  Wolffs  illness  continuing  to  be  very  serious, 
Lord  Prudhoe  and  Colonel  Felix  daily  called  upon  him.  They 
treated  Wolff  like  a  brother,  and  helped  to  nurse  him  in  his 
illness,  which  was  a  great  relief  to  his  anxious  wife.  And  he 
recommended  her,  who  was  so  dear  to  his  heart,  in  case  of  his 

256  Travels  and  Adventures 

death,  to  their  care.  After  a  time,  Wolff  was  restored  to 
health ;  and,  while  at  Cairo,  he  baptized  a  Jew ;  and  his  dear 
companion  bought  little  tarboushes,  or  red  caps,  for  the  pupils 
of  Messrs.  Kruse  and  Lieder. 

Jews  from  Jerusalem,  hearing  that  Wolff  was  at  Cairo, 
called  on  him,  and  reminded  him  of  the  arguments  he  had 
used  with  them  in  Jerusalem ;  and  they  were  surprised  when 
Wolff  showed  to  them  those  same  arguments  printed  in  the 
"  Jewish  Expositor."  It  gratified  them  very  much.  One 
day,  a  black  lady,  married  to  a  French  physician,  Dussap  by 
name,  called  on  Wolff  and  his  family,  together  with  her  hus 
band.  She  spoke  very  affectingly  about  Christ.  Mr.  Gobat, 
a  missionary,  had  baptized  her.  She  was  beyond  all  doubt 
the  handsomest  black  woman  Wolff  ever  saw. 

Wolff  preached  in  Italian  at  Cairo  to  a  great  number  of 
Italian  infidels.  One  of  them,  a  Jew,  said,  "I  am  a  mathe 
matician.  I  want  you  to  prove  the  truth  of  Christianity  in  a 
mathematical  manner."  Lady  Georgiana  here  asked  him, 
"Do  you  eat?"  He  said,  "Yes."  She  asked,  "Why!" 
He  answered,  "Because  I  am  hungry."  "  Then,"  said  she, 
"prove  it  mathematically."  To  which  the  man  gave  no 

One  day,  a  man  came  in  and  asked  Mr.  Kruse,  in  an  abrupt 
manner,  if  he  understood  Hebrew,  as  he  spoke  that  language 
himself?  Mr.  Kruse  did  not  understand  him,  but  sent  for 
Wolff,  to  whom  the  man  said  "  I  am  a  Jew."  Wolff  said, 
u  You  are  no  longer  a  Jew.  You  are  a  renegade  from  the 
faith  of  Abraham,  Isaac,  and  Jacob,  and  have  run  after  vanity 
— after  a  false  prophet."  The  man,  Sooliman  by  name,  ac 
knowledged  this,  and  was  surprised  at  Wolff's  knowledge  of 
physiognomy.  Wolff  afterwards  raised  his  hands,  and  prayed 
in  Hebrew,  that  this  poor  man  might  turn  to  the  true  God, 
and  Jesus  Christ  his  Son.  The  man  seemed  much  touched, 
and  thanked  him  when  he  had  finished  the  prayer.  While 
they  were  still  sitting  together,  two  other  Jews  came  in,  who 
were  old  acquaintances  of  Wolff,  and  kissed  him  in  the  oriental 
fashion.  They  bore  witness  to  the  truth  of  the  renegade's 
statement,  that  he  had  been  forced  to  become  a  Mussulman. 
These  two  young  men  were  very  much  impressed  by  what  they 
knew  of  the  Gospel. 

Wolff  received  from  Cyprus  a  letter  from  the  Council  of  the 
Bishops  of  Cyprus,  which  they  had  written  before  his  depar 
ture  from  thence,  and  which  had  been  sent  after  him. 

This  letter  was  as  follows  : — 

of  Dr.  Wolf.  257 

"  For  a  long  time  informed  by  feme  of  thy  knowledge,  thy 
fame,  and  thy  virtues,  we  have  admired  thee  ;  and,  above  all, 
on  account  of  the  travels  them  hast  generously  undertaken  for 
the  purpose  of  propagating  religion  among  the  human  race  ; 
but,  by  condescending  to  make  us  personally  know  thee,  we 
have  perceived  with  certainty  how  much  our  admiration  has 
been  inferior  to  thy  merits,  and  how  much  more  we  ought  to 
admire  thee,  since  we  have  known  better,  what  a  great  friend 
of  science  and  of  the  Greeks  thou  art,  and  how  great  are  thy 
exertions  in  the  great  and  good  work  of  the  refinement  and 
civilization  of  mankind.  Trusting  in  this  thy  great  love  for 
science,  and  especially  in  thy  sentiments,  we  appear  before 
thee,  with  the  present  humble  petition,  and  present  to  thee,  on 
the  part  of  all  our  countrymen,  the  due  respect  they  feel 
towards  thy  venerable  person,  and  pray  thee  warmly  that  thou 
establish  in  our  island  a  Gymnasium  of  Greek  Literature. 

u  Thou  hast,  0  best  Wolff,  all  the  means  required,  as  we 
perceive  by  the  schools  established  in  different  cities.  Thou 
hast  likewise  a  voluntary  assistant  in  that  most  honourable 
friend  of  the  Muses — thy  most  noble  and  respectable  wife. 

"Alas  !  how  does  it  break  one's  heart  to  see  the  sons  of  this 
unhappy  country  remaining  deprived  (for  want  of  instructors) 
of  education  and  doctrine  !  But  it  is  not  unknown  to  thee 
that  great  enterprises,  for  general  utility,  require  great  expense 
in  order  to  be  brought  into  execution ;  and  that  this  surpasses 
our  strength  it  is  superfluous  to  say  to  a  man  from  whose 
penetrating  eye  the  nature  of  our  situation  cannot  be  hid. 
Blessed  be  the  name  of  the  Most  High  God,  that  from  the 
height  of  his  glory  He  turned  his  eye  towards  our  misery,  and 
sent  us  a  man  capable  of  curing  our  greatest  infirmity  ! 

"  Incomparable  will  be,  esteemed  Wolff,  the  advantages 
which  shall  result  from  such  an  establishment  for  the  general 
use,  nor  must  thou  in  the  least  doubt  that  for  this,  thy  great 
and  pious  work,  the  whole  island  of  Cyprus  shall  honour  thee, 
by  erecting  monuments  for  eternal  commemoration  of  thy 
name,  and  the  instructed  youth  shall  boast  themselves  of  thee, 
and  the  whole  of  Europe  shall  boast  itself  of  its  great  man, 
and  they  shall  show  their  gratitude  towards  thee  by  lifting  up 
their  supplicating  hands  to  heaven  for  thy  health  and  happi 
ness,  and  for  that  of  thy  most  worthy  consort,  and  shall  lift 
up  their  voices  to  the  glory  of  thy  benevolence.  Besides  this, 
the  joy  that  every  good  heart  shall  experience,  by  seeing  thy 
exertions  adorned  with  science  and  virtue,  cannot  be  described. 
"  Wo  propose  as  professor  of  the  Greek  language  and  sciences 


258  Travels  and  Adventurs 

thy  good  friend  Themistocles,  whose  knowledge  and  ardent 
zeal  for  the  civilization  of  his  native  country  are  generally  ac 
knowledged.  But  another  professor,  for  other  languages,  is 
necessary.  We  are  in  possession  of  a  building  suitable  for  a  col 
lege,  in  a  most  beautiful  situation.  This  we  offer  gratuitously, 
and  dedicate  it  to  the  Muses,  in  order  that  thy  name  may  be 
blessed  by  future  generations. 

"  But,'  Wolff,  the  Lord  preserve  thee  to  the  glory  of  thy 
nation,  and  the  utility  of  ours.  We  remain,  as  we  sign  our 
selves,  your  sincere  friends, 

"  PANARITOS,  Archbishop  of  Cyprus. 
"  KARITOS,  Metropolite  of  Paphos. 
"  LEONTIUS,  Metropolite  of  Citi. 
"  KARALAMBUS,  Metropolite  of  Cirene. 

"  Dated,  Nicosia,  July  10th,  1828." 

At  last,  Wolff  set  out  for  Jerusalem.  They  were  accom 
panied  out  of  the  gate  of  Cairo  by  all  the  Missionaries,  and  by 
Mr.  Bolt,  an  English  gentleman,  who  was  studying  Arabic 
there.  When  they  had  got  outside  the  gate,  which  was  called 
Baab  Nasir,  a  Jew,  named  Isaac,  from  Jerusalem,  came  to  say 
"  Good  bye  "  to  Wolff.  After  this,  the  camels  arrived1  and 
Wolff  prayed  for  a  blessing  on  the  journey.  All  were  much 
affected,  and  at  last  they  took  leave,  and  then  crept  into  the 
vehicle,  which  was  in  the  form  of  a  basket,  and  was  tied  on 
the  camel's  back.  This  kind  of  "  basket/1  which  is  called 
"  Shibbria,"  is  something  like  two  arm-chairs,  without  legs, 
tied  together  in  front.  These  seats  hang  one  on  each  side  of 
the  camel's  back,  and  the  passenger  is  obliged  to  sit  sideways. 

This  curious  machine  might  properly  be  called  a  "Noddy," 
for  the  motion  is  so  short  that,  unless  one  places  one's  back 
stiff  against  the  end,  one  goes  nodding  every  moment  in  the 
most  ludicrous,  as  well  as  fatiguing,  manner  that  can  be 
imagined.  After  the  two  persons  on  each  side  have  crept  into 
this  vehicle,  the  camel  rises,  whilst  the  conductor  warns  you 
to  hold  fast.  The  beast  rises  first  on  his  knees,  which  throws 
you  backwards  ;  then  on  his  hind  legs,  which  throws  you  for 
wards  ;  then  on  his  fore  feet,  when  you  are  even ;  and  then 
you  go  on,  and  commence  nodding. 

This  "  ship  of  the  desert "  has  an  extra  joint  in  his  legs, 
below  the  shoulders  and  haunches,  which  enables  him,  after 
kneeling  down,  to  fold  his  legs  together,  so  that  he  lies  as  close 
to  the  ground  as  a  hen  on  her  eggs ;  and  truly,  with  their 
beak-like  noses  and  long  necks,  camels  are  not  unlike  large 
birds  sitting.  Their  docility  is  wonderful ;  and  if  they  are 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  259 

displeased,  they  express  it  only  by  a  deep  grumbling  sound, 
which,  when  strong,  resembles  the  gurgling  of  water  in  their 
throats.  Their  pace  is  about  three  miles  an  hour. 

In  this  manner  they  proceeded  for  about  twelve  miles,  and 
then  were  surprised  by  hearing  the  sound  of  a  band  of  Euro 
pean  music,  coming  from  a  fortress  called  Khankah,  in  the 
midst  of  the  desert ;  the  players  being  Egyptian  Arabs,  who 
had  been  trained  by  European  soldiers. 

Of  the  Desert  itself  it  is  impossible  to  give  a  true  descrip 
tion,  it  is  so  very  extraordinary ;  being  nothing  but  sand  of 
different  colours.  The  bottom  of  the  sea  must  be  very  like 
it :  sometimes  the  sand  is  ribbed  like  the  sea-sand ;  sometimes 
it  is  all  little  stones  ;  in  some  places  there  are  a  great  many 
little  stunted  stumps  of  fir  trees.  Wolff's  servant,  who 
walked  by  him  when  he  rode  on  the  donkey  (Wolff  had 
brought  a  very  fine  donkey  from  Cairo),  picked  up  a  large 
piece  of  stone,  which  he  told  him,  it  was  said,  had  been  wood: 
and  it  had  all  the  appearance  of  wood.  He  also  picked  a  very 
curious  flower,  the  petals  of  which  shone  almost  like  silver. 
The  name  of  it  was  not  known,  and  the  travellers  had  no 
means  of  preserving  it  ...  In  the  spot  where  their  tent  was 
pitched,  there  was  a  great  quantity  of  shells  like  sea  snails. 

On  the  ninth  day  of  this  journey,  Lady  Georgiana  tried 
dromedary  riding,  which  she  much  preferred  to  the  camel. 
She  described  it  as  only  requiring  the  use  of  stirrups,  to  make 
it  exceedingly  comfortable ;  and,  on  the  evening  of  this  day, 
after  a  journey  of  six  hours,  the  tents  were  pitched  in  the 
Desert,  not  far  from  Gaza. 

They  went  to  bed  early,  but  were  not  destined  to  have 
much  rest.  Some  time  after  they  had  retired,  they  heard  a 
most  unnatural,  almost  unearthly,  sound  of  laughter,  mixed 
with  fits  of  crying.  They  called  out  to  know  what  it  was,  and 
Ahmad,  their  servant,  told  them  it  proceeded  from  one  of  the 
Bedouin  Arabs,  who  was  called  Haj-Ali,  i.  e.,  a  Pilgrim  Ali, 
for  he  had  been  in  Mecca,  and  who  was  possessed  with  a  devil. 
This  dreadful  misfortune  some  people  have  imagined  to  be 
only  lunacy,  but  it  is  far  otherwise.  After  listening  a  few 
minutes  longer,  Wolff  called  out  with  a  loud  voice  in  Arabic, 
"  In  the  name  of  Jesus  be  silent ! "  And  immediately  all 
was  hushed.  About  twenty  minutes  after,  the  man  began  to 
talk  wildly,  and  the  dreadful  gibbering  began  again.  Wolff 
again  in  the  same  manner  called  out,  so  that  all  the  Arabs 
heard  him,  and  again  the  fiend  was  silenced,  and  soon  after, 
they  all  went  to  sleep. 

In  the  morning,  the  Greek  servants  told  Wolff,  that  the 

s  2 

260  Travels  and  Adventures 

possessed  man  had  said  many  wonderful  things.  Among 
others,  when  Wolff  spoke,  he  asked,  "Who  was  there?'1 
They  answered,  "  No  one."  To  which  he  replied,  "  There 
was  ;  I  saw  him,  but  he  is  gone."  And  when  he  became 
wild  again  he  exclaimed,  "  Elias  is  here  ! "  and  on  Cavass 
(the  Turkish  soldier  who  travelled  with  them)  saying  some 
thing  about  Muhammad,  Haj-Ali  said  he  was  a  pig,  (a  com 
mon  term  of  contempt  among  the  Arabs). 

The  poor  man  wanted  Wolff  to  give  him  a  paper  against 
the  spirit ;  meaning  probably  a  charm ;  but  Wolff  prayed  in 
Arabic  to  the  Lord  to  deliver  him  from  his  plague,  and  told 
him  to  pray  to  Jesus  Christ,  and  then  he  need  not  fear  the 
devil,  giving  him  a  New  Testament  at  the  same  time. 

Two  days  afterwards,  Haj-Ali  had  another  attack,  which 
Wolff  subdued  in  the  same  manner,  one  loud  cry  issuing  from 
the  man's  mouth  before  he  was  still  again.  And  afterwards 
he  told  Wolff  that  he  knew  that  the  devil  came,  because  he 
smelt  the  incense  in  the  charcoal  pan — it  being  the  custom,  in 
using  charcoal,  to  throw  a  species  of  incense,  compounded  of 
some  gum,  upon  it,  in  order  to  do  away  with  its  deleterious 
effects.  This  is  an  old  belief,  and  magicians  always  burn 
some  perfume  to  raise  a  spirit. 

The  Bedouins  are  very  frequently  profane  to  a  degree  that 
is  not  to  be  imagined ;  and  every  word  they  say  is  corrobo 
rated  by  an  oath,  even  their  very  lies,  and  these  they  tell 
without  the  least  hesitation.  Their  conversation  consists 
either  in  jokes  about  women,  or  in  talking  about  money  ;  fulus, 
the  Arabic  for  money,  being  sometimes  repeated  a  hundred 
times  in  a  quarter  of  an  hour. 

Proceeding  onward,  Wolff  and  his  party  soon  reached  a 
beautiful  little  town,  surrounded  by  fig  trees  and  vineyards, 
and  inhabited  by  Muhammadans  and  Greeks.  These  were 
walking  about  in  the  streets,  with  their  long  pipes  in  their 
mouths  ;  and  the  principal  Greek  came  and  brought  Wolff, 
his  family  and  servants,  to  the  caravanserai,  where  the  ser 
vants  made  coffee  for  them.  It  was  the  little  town  called 
Gaza,  from  whence  Samson  carried  away  the  gates,  and  where 
naughty  Delilah  deceived  him ;  for  that  wicked  woman  worried 
his  life  out,  until  he  had  told  her  the  secret  of  his  strength ; 
but  he  paid  her  off  afterwards,  and  3000  of  her  countrymen 
as  well.  Poor  Samson  ought  to  have  had  a  little  more  of  the 
resolution  and  spirit  of  General  Haynau,  and  have  given  her  a 
good  sound  horsewhipping. 

From  Gaza  they  proceeded  to  Ramlah,  where  Joseph  of 
Arimathea  was  born.  Here  they  stopped  in  an  Armenian 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  261 

monastery  for  one  night,  and  went  to  the  camp  of  the  great 
robber,  Aboo-Goosh,  who  gave  them  coffee,  for  which  they 
paid  him  some  small  gold  pieces.  Then  they  proceeded  on 
ward,  and  thus  Wolff  arrived,  for  the  third  time,  in  Je 

Wolff  had  no  cause  this  time  to  be  satisfied  with  the 
general  conduct  of  the  Jews  towards  him.  When  he  was 
there,  both  the  first  and  second  times,  Rabbi  Mendel  was 
alive,  and  so  was  Solomon  Sapira,  the  rival  of  Rabbi  Mendel, 
and  also  the  crafty  old  fox,  Rabbi  Joseph  Markowitz.  But 
now  all  these  were  gone,  and  a  new  generation  had  risen, 
though  only  five  years  had  elapsed.  Many  of  these  u  did 
not  know  Joseph"  (Wolff),  who  had  assisted  the  Jews 
formerly,  when  they  were  in  trouble  ;  and  those  who  did  know 
him  were  well  off,  and  had  received  money  from  the  Jews  in 
England  ;  and  were,  at  the  same  time,  warned  by  Rabbi  Sol 
omon  Hirshel  against  Wolff;  and,  in  their  conduct,  they 
verified  the  \vords  of  Moses — "Jeshurun  waxed  fat  and 

Wolff  could  not  help  feeling  very  deeply  grieved  when 
those  very  Jews  whom  he  had  once  clothed  and  fed, — when 
they  were  naked  and  almost  starving, — and  for  whom  he  had 
paid  rent,  and  thus  redeemed  them  from  prison, — would  now 
pass  him  by  unnoticed  as  they  came  out  of  the  synagogue,  or 
look  at  him  with  a  fierce  eye,  and  without  speaking.  He  was 
only  acknowledged  by  two  persons  out  of  all  his  old  acquaint- 
ances.  The  one  was  Rabbi  Mendel's  widow,  who  came  to  call 
on  him  ;  and  who,  though  four  years  had  passed  since  her 
husband  died,  was  still  in  deep  sorrow,  swinging  her  head 
slowly  backwards  and  forwards,  as  she  sat,  after  the  custom  of 
the  Jews.  The  other  was  a  son  of  Rabbi  Mendel,  whom  he 
met  in  the  street,  and  thus  addressed,  "Why  do  you  not 
come  to  me,  for  I  loved  your  father?"  He  calmly  replied, 
"  My  dear  Sir,  my  father  was  a  learned  man,  well  versed  in 
the  law.  He  knew  how  to  ask  questions,  and  give  answers. 
But  I  am  a  young  man,  and  all  I  can  do  is,  to  pray  that  the 
Lord  may  have  mercy  upon  Zion,  and  build  up  the  walls  of 
Jerusalem."  However,  Sir  Moses  Montefiore  himself,  although 
a  strict  Jew  and  burning  with  love  for  the  Jews,  has  met  with 
ingratitude  from  his  nation. 

There  is  no  doubt  that,  during  this  third  visit  to  Jerusalem, 
Wolff  was  poisoned  by  some  ill-disposed  enemy.  He  had  a 
suspicion  by  whom  it  was  done,  but  was  unwilling  to  investigate 
further ;  and,  therefore,  when  the  governor  inquired  as  to 
whether  he  knew  the  offender,  he  said  nothing.  And  who  was 

262  Travels  and  Adventures 

it  saved  his  life  on  this  occasion? — Whilst  Wolff  passes  over 
in  silence  the  name  of  the  man  who  perpetrated  the  deed,  he 
mentions  with  pleasure  the  name  of  him  who  was  the  means 
of  curing-  him. 

This  poisoning  took  place  in  a  coffee-house,  into  which  Wolff 
had  gone  and  called  for  coffee.  It  was  brought,  and  he  drank 
it ;  and  almost  immediately  after  he  was  seized  with  con 
vulsions  all  over  his  body,  accompanied  by  sickness  and 
vomiting,  and  twitchings  of  the  arms  and  legs.  A  Greek 
outside,  seeing  his  distress,  offered  his  assistance,  and  helped 
him  home ;  and,  on  his  arrival,  Lady  Georgiana,  at  his  par 
ticular  request,  sent  for  the  Roman  Catholic  physician.  He 
came,  and  his  name  was  Fra  Francesco,  of  the  Terra  Santa 
monastery,  and  he  was  sent  by  order  of  the  Riverendissimo. 
Fra  Francesco  first  gave  him  milk,  and  then  other  remedies ; 
and,  after  an  illness  of  three  weeks,  he  recovered,  so  far  as  to 
be  able  to  go  about ;  but  he  felt  the  effects  of  the  poison  for  a 
year  afterwards. 

Another  very  curious  incident  happened  during  Wolffs  stay 
in  Jerusalem.  Dr.  Stormont,  a  naval  surgeon,  came  to 
Jerusalem,  and  lived  in  the  Latin  monastery.  He  used  to  be 
dressed  in  a  green  beueesh,  and  wore  a  white  turban  upon  his 
head,  and  European  boots  on  his  feet.  He  was  a  tall  man, 
about  fifty  years  of  age,  very  miserly  in  his  habits,  and  was 
averse  to  spending  money  upon  a  guide.  Wolff  had  no  time 
to  walk  out  with  him,  and  it  was  the  season  of  Ramadan,  when 
all  the  Muhammadans  fast  and  sleep  during  the  day.  Wolff 
warned  Dr.  Stormont,  on  no  account,  to  enter  the  Temple  of 
Omar,  for  the  punishment  was  death  to  any  intruder.  He 
replied,  "  I  have  no  great  faith  in  your  account  of  the  bigotry 
of  these  Muhammadans,"  and  then  they  parted.  After  two 
hours  he  came  to  the  Greek  monastery,  where  Wolff  was,  to 
have  dinner  with  him  ;  and  Wolff  asked,  "  Where  have  you 
been?"  He  replied,  "There,  in  the  place  of  your  bigoted 
Muhammadans,  the  Temple  of  Omar."  Wolff  said,  "  I  now 
advise  you  to  leave  Jerusalem  as  fast  as  you  can."  He- 
replied,  "  Fiddle-de-dee  !  "  On  the  next  day,  when  he  canto 
again  to  dinner,  Wolff  asked  him,  "  Where  have  you  been?"11 
He  again  said,  "  To  the  Temple  of  Omar.11  Then  Wolff 
repeated,  u  Stormont,  Stormont,  you  had  better  leave  Jeru 
salem  at  once."  Stormont's  only  answer  was,  "  First  give  up 
your  prejudice  as  to  the  bigotry  of  Muhammadans/1  Wolff 
again  repeated,  "  Stormont,  Stormont,  go  off  without  delay *" 
"  Fiddle-de-dee  !  "  was  the  Doctor's  contemptuous  rejoinder. 

The  next   clav  this   foolish   fellow   went   once   more   to  the- 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  263 

Temple,  and  did  not  return  as  usual  to  his  friend.  He  got 
out  safely,  it  is  true,  although  he  had  ventured  to  write  his 
name  upon  the  wall,  and  had  proceeded  to  offer  even  further 
indignities  ;  but  this  insult  got  wind  ;  the  whole  town  became 
excited ;  and  the  situation  of  Stormont  was  immediately  most 
critical  and  perilous.  All  the  people  exclaimed,  and.  the 
whole  town  resounded,  "  Oommat  Muhammud  Nasaara  da- 
khaloon  al  hykal  /"  (People  of  Muhammad  !  Christians  have 
entered  the  Sanctuary  !)  They  seized  upon  Stormont,  tore  off 
his  beneesh,  struck  the  turban  from  his  head,  stripped  him 
naked,  and  then  thrust  him  into  a  cow's  stable,  where  they 
gave  him  nothing  to  eat;  and  where  he  continually  cried  out, 
"Wolff,  Wolff,  Wolff!1' 

Christians  came  and  told  Wolff  in  what  danger  his  friend 
Stormont  was  placed,  and  that  the  people  insisted  upon  his 
becoming  a  Muhammadan.  Upon  this  Wolff  ran  to  the  Latin 
monastery,  to  ask  for  help  ;  and  they  told  him  that  they  would 
assist  him,  but  that  it  must  be  done  with  caution,  and  Wolff 
himself  wrote  as  follows  to  the  Cadi : — 

"  Recollect  that  this  gentleman  is  of  high  respectability, 
and  belongs  to  the  ships  of  war  which  are  now  cruising  about, 
near  Jaffa ;  and,  if  you  dare  to  touch  him,  troops  will  be  sent 
to  Jerusalem."" 

Wolff  sent  this  letter,  and  then  called  upon  the  Cadi  to 
remonstrate.  Stormont  was  brought  out  from  the  cow-house, 
and  the  beneesh  and  turban  he  had  worn  were  lying  before  the 
Cadi,  who  said  to  him,  "  Why  did  you  enter  the  Temple  of 
Omar?"  Stormont  replied,  "I  want  my  clothes."  The 
Cadi,  who  did  not  understand  the  answer,  asked  Wolff, 
"What  does  he  say?"  Wolff  told  him  Stormont's  words, 
when  he  said,  "Tell  him  to  answer  my  question/'  Wolff 
said  to  Stormont,  u  The  Cadi  wants  to  know  why  you  went 
to  the  Temple  and  committed  such  excesses?"  but  Stormont 
only  repeated,  "  Tell  him  I  want  my  clothes."  Wolff  went 
up  and  put  the  clothes  upon  him,  and  told  the  Cadi  that  the 
prisoner  did  not  understand  Arabic,  and  fright  had  made  him 
forget  the  English  language  ;  and  so  the  Cadi  let  him  go. 

Poor  Stormont,  when  he  got  back  to  his  lodging,  had  some 
food,  which  he  ate  most  heartily  ;  and  Wolff  said  to  him, 
'  You  don't  tell  me  fiddle-de-dee  now  !  "  He  replied,  "  There 
is,  after  all,  no  place  like  home.  England,  with  all  thy  faults, 
I  love  thee  still  !"  Soon  afterwards,  the  servants  of  the  Cadi 
came,  and  wanted  a  present  for  having  taken  so  much  trouble 
in  letting  him  see  the  Cadi,  and  getting  Stormont  out.  So 
Wolff  gave  them  thirty  dollars  (about  £6),  But  when  he  .said 

264  Travels  and  Adventures 

to  Storinont,  "  You  must  pay  me  back  the  thirty  dollars  I 
have  paid  for  your  release,"  the  Doctor  replied,  "  What  a 
great  fool  you  are  !  They  insult  me,  and  now  they  want 
money  !  I'll  be  hanged  if  I  give  them  a  farthing  !  " 

On  another  occasion,  an  Italian  woman  arrived  at  Jerusalem, 
from  Pesaro.  She  was  very  decently  dressed,  with  a  bonnet 
and  feathers.  She  had  been  a  servant  to  Queen  Caroline,  and 
knew  Count  Bergami  very  well.  Wolff  asked  her  why  she  had 
come  to  Jerusalem?  She  answered,  in  order  to  perform  her 
devotions  at  the  tomb  of  our  Lord,  and  to  see  the  blessed 
body  of  St.  James ;  and  from  Jerusalem  she  intended  to  go  to 
San  Jago,  in  Spain,  where  she  must  be  by  a  certain  season,  in 
order  to  see  the  blessed  head  of  St.  James  ;  for  if  she  went  too 
late,  she  would  not  be  able  to  see  it,  as  it  was  only  exposed  at 
a  particular  time  of  the  year. 

Wolff  suspects  that  the  friars  of  Terra  Santa  had  told  her 
all  this,  because  they  wished  to  get  rid  of  her ;  for  they  take  in 
the  poor  gratis,  and  they  did  not  wish  to  be  at  more  expense 
than  they  could  help  on  her  account.  When  Wolff  asked  her 
how  she  paid  the  expenses  of  travelling,  she  coolly  replied, 
"  Whenever  I  have  got  no  money,  i  Consoli  debbono  pagare  " 
(the  Consuls  have  to  pay).  Wolff's  dear  wife  gave  her  several 
dollars,  for  which  she  kissed  her  hand.  She  seemed  to  be  a 
woman  of  great  simplicity.  Whilst  they  were  at  Jerusalem, 
Wolff  asked  whether  he  could  get  a  good  Arabic  teacher  for 
200  piastres  a  month?  Papas  Joel  replied,  "All  depends 
upon  what  you  will  pay.  If  you  give  200  piastres  a  month, 
you  will  get  a  very  fat  man — Aboo  Hannah  himself,  who  is 
enormous,  and  waddles  as  he  walks  about ;"  and  Papas  Joel  at 
the  same  time  imitated  Aboo  Hannah's  mode  of  walking,  and 
gave  an  idea  of  his  paunch  by  circling  his  own  arms. 

After  seven  months'1  residence  at  Jerusalem,  where  Wolff 
(in  spite  of  the  opposition  caused  against  him  by  the  Jews  in 
London,)  had  continual  conferences  with  the  Jews,  he  prepared 
to  leave  it,  his  health  having  suffered  considerably  from  the 
effects  of  the  poison  ;  but,  fearing  that  the  Turkish  officers 
would  come  and  ask  for  "  Bakhshish,1'  i.e.,  gifts,  he  resolved  to 
start  early  in  the  morning. 

Papas  Joel,  the  Superior  of  Mar-Elias,  accompanied  Wolff 
and  his  family  a  good  way  out  of  the  gate,  where  they  sat 
down  a  little  on  the  ground,  while  Wolff  himself  walked  back 
wards  and  forwards,  musing, — a  thing  which  Easterns  cannot 
bear  to  see  done,  especially  by  Europeans,  for  they  are  always 
afraid  that  they  are  measuring  the  earth,  and  will  afterwards 
come  and  take  the  count rv.  So  an  Arab  woman,  with  a  lar^e 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  265 

basket  on  her  back,  on  seeing  Wolff  thus  walk  about,  called 
out  to  him,  as  she  passed  by,  "  Tekayas  alardli  ya  khanzeer?" 
(Dost  thou  measure  the  earth,  O  thou  pig?)  Papas  Joel  said 
to  her,  in  reply,  "  Bentkh  shuglak  ya  marrah  "  (Go  about  thy 
business,  O  woman). 

Wolff  arrived  at  Jaffa,  in  the  house  of  Damiani,  the  British 
Consul  there.  And  here  he  cannot  help  mentioning  a  great 
injustice  which  was  done  to  Damiani  by  Colonel  Campbell, 
the  British  Consul-Gcneral  for  Egypt,  and,  at  that  time,  also 
for  Syria,  which  made  a  bad  impression  against  the  English. 

The  house  of  Damiani  had  been  Consuls  for  England  for 
more  than  a  century — in  fact,  the  office  was  hereditary  in  that 
family.  When  Colonel  Campbell  was  at  Jaffa,  he  resided  in 
the  house  of  the  British  Consul,  and,  while  there,  money  was 
stolen  from  him.  He  suspected  Damianfs  son,  who  it  is  true, 
was  considered  to  be  a  bad  subject ;  so,  Colonel  Campbell  said 
to  the  father,  "  If  you  do  not  replace  the  money,  I  shall  depose 
you."  As  poor  Damiani  had  not  got  the  money,  Colonel 
Campbell  was  as  good  as  his  word,  and  actually  did  depose 
him  ;  a  man  whose  integrity  was  universally  known.  Poor 
Damiaui  went  to  Constantinople  to  get  redress,  and  to  be  rein 
stated  in  his  office,  by  the  Ambassador.  But  he  appealed  in 
vain  ;  and  the  disappointment  broke  his  heart,  and  he  died. 

In  Jaffa,  Wolff  lived  in  Diamini's  house,  which  stood  upon 
the  same  spot  where  formerly  was  the  house  of  Simon,  the 
tanner,  and  where  there  was  still  an  ancient  well,  which  was 
there  in  Simon's  time.  Damiani's  house  was  the  rendezvous 
of  pilgrim  Jews,  who  came  from  Salon ica,  Constantinople, 
Rhodes,  and  other  places. 

There  is  a  custom  when  new  pilgrims  arrive  in  Jaffa,  for  the 
purpose  of  going  to  Jerusalem,  that  a  Rabbi  from  Jerusalem 
comes  to  receive  from  each  pilgrim  the  money  which  he  vows 
to  leave  behind  for  the  benefit  of  the  Jerusalem  Jews.  One 
Friday  evening,  the  chief  Rabbi  of  Jerusalem,  who  had  come 
to  Jaffa  to  collect  this  money,  got  exceedingly  drunk,  and  all 
the  rest  followed  his  example.  Wolff  knew  this  man  person 
ally,  and  when  he  and  all  the  rest  came  drunk  to  his  room,  he 
took  one  of  them  by  the  arm  and  turned  him  out ;  and,  as  he 
danced  good-naturedly  out  of  the  room,  he  said,  "Joseph 
Wolff  does  me  great  honour."  Next  morning  (Saturday),  the 
chief  Rabbi  called  on  Wolff,  who  was  just  then  smoking  a  pipe. 
The  Rabbi  said,  "  Why  do  you  smoke  on  a  Sabbath  day  2" 
Wolff  replied,  "  It  is  not  said  in  the  law  that  one  should  not 
smoke,  but  it  is  said  by  the  prophet  Isaiah  (Isaiah  v.  11), 
'  Woe  unto  them  that  rise  up  early  in  the  morning  that  they 

266  Travels  and  Adventures 

may  follow  strong  drink,  that  continue  until  night,  till  wine 
inflame  them."1"     The  chief  Rabbi  turned  as  red  as  scarlet. 

Among  the  pilgrims  there  was  a  Jew  of  Constantinople,  who 
belonged  to  those  converts  to  Christianity  there,  whose  conver 
sion  caused  such  excitement  all  over  the  East,  in  the  year 
1827,  and  he  was  rejoiced  to  see  Wolff. 


The  Levant ;  is  attacked  by  Pirates-,  Mount  Athos ;  Intense 
thirst;  Salonica  and  Admiral  Slade;  Malta,  and  Hookham 
Frere;  Starts  for  Bokhara,  on  his  own  account,  ma  Constan 
tinople  and  Persia. 

f~\N  the  7th  July,  1829,  Wolff  embarked  for  Cyprus,  where 
^^  he  remained  for  a  short  time,  being  detained  by  the  illness 
of  his  dear  wife,  who  was  taken  with  the  Cyprus  fever ;  but, 
as  soon  as  she  was  recovered,  he  sailed  with  her  for  Alexan 
dria.  They  were  twenty-four  days  on  the  passage — a  passage 
usually  performed  in  as  many  hours ;  and,  on  his  arrival  at 
Alexandria,  he  established  regular  services  for  the  English, 
Italians,  and  Germans  ;  and  he  preached  also  to  the  Jews  in 
his  own  house,  and  on  board  her  Majesty's  ships. 

Wolff  there  issued  a  public  printed  call  to  the  Muhammadan 
grandees,  to  repent  and  turn  to  Christ ;  and  he  predicted  to 
them  the  speedy  downfall  of  the  Muhammadan  power  :  which 
prediction  was  hastening,  and  has  ever  since  hastened  towards 
its  fulfilment.  He  sent  one  of  those  written  calls,  made  out 
in  Arabic,  by  a  donkey- driver,  to  the  Governor  of  Alexandria. 
The  poor  follow  was  flogged  for  being  the  bearer  of  such  a 
message,  and  came  back  in  a  violent  rage,  and  almost  knocked 
Wolff  down  ;  but  had  his  wrath  mitigated  by  a  present  of  two 
dollars,  as  a  compensation  for  the  flogging.  After  which, 
whenever  the  man  met  Wolff  in  the  street,  he  would  say  to 
him,  "  Never  send  me  again  with  such  rubbish  to  the  Gover 
nor  ;"  and  on  Wolff  replying,  "  Ah,  but  you  got  two  dollars 
for  it,"  he  rejoined,  "  You  ought  to  have  given  me  ten." 

At  last,  the  Pasha,  Muhammad  AH,  sent  word  to  Wolff, 
through  the  British  Consul,  that  he  must  leave  Alexandria. 
Wolff  demanded  a  written  order  from  the  Viceroy,  who  sent 

of  Dr.  Wolf.  267 

word  that  he  would  not  send  a  written  order ;  but  if  Wolff  did 
not  go  he  must  abide  by  the  consequences. 

Wolff  then  embarked  for  Salonica,  leaving  Lady  Georgiana 
behind,  as  her  confinement  was  approaching,  and  took  with 
him  a  Greek  servant,  and  a  Maronite,  Youssuf  Michael  Aboo- 
Mansoor  by  name,  who  was  to  assist  him  in  preaching.  This 
man  was  from  a  village  called  Haddat,  near  Beyrout,  of  the 
family  of  Shidiack.  He  was  short  in  figure,  and  never  able  to 
look  any  one  in  the  face.  He  had  been  converted  by  Gobat 
and  Theodor  Miiller  (who  has  now  a  living  in  Devonshire)  to 
the  Protestant  religion ;  and  they  believed  him  to  be  a 
thoroughly  converted  man. 

On  Wolffs  arrival  in  the  island  of  Rhodes,  Youssuf  left  the 
cases  of  Bibles  open  in  such  a  manner,  that  anybody  could  see 
them,  and  take  them  out.  This  caused  so  great  a  disturbance 
among  the  Turks,  who  were  angry  that  an  Englishman  should 
dare  to  come  there  with  infidel  books,  that  they  compelled 
him  to  leave  Rhodes  within  an  hour  after  his  arrival.  Thence 
he  proceeded  to  Tenedos  (near  the  famous  Troyes),  where  he 
resided  with  the  British  Agent,  who  was  a  native.  All  this 
time,  Youssuf  assured  his  master  that  he  had  sent  all  the 
money  he  had  given  him  to  his  family  in  Mount  Lebanon, 
which  deceived  Wolff  for  the  time;  and  he  proceeded  with  him 
from  Tenedos  to  the  island  of  Mitylene,  where  he  preached  to 
the  Greeks  in  Italian,  and  circulated  the  Word  of  God. 

Wolff  observed  in  all  those  islands  a  great  change  for  the 
better,  since  he  was  last  in  the  Turkish  neighbourhood.  The 
Sultan  had  given  strict  orders  to  the  Greeks,  to  send  their 
reports  to  him,  and  tell  him  how  they  were  satisfied  with  the 
Turkish  Governors  he  had  placed  over  them ;  and  many 
Governors  had  been  dismissed  in  consequence  of  this,  and  it 
had  taught  them  to  behave  better.  Wolff  next  sailed  from 
Mitylene  to  Lemnos,  in  a  Greek  boat.  On  his  arrival  there, 
lie  stopped  two  days  with  the  Archbishop,  and  gave  him 
Bibles.  He  then  called  on  the  Turkish  Governor,  who  asked 
him  whether  the  Archbishop  was  satisfied  with  his  conduct 
towards  the  Greeks  ?  Wolff  replied  in  the  affirmative,  at 
which  the  Governor  was  much  pleased. 

From  Lemnos  Wolff  sailed  in  the  same  boat,  accompanied 
by  his  Greek  servant  and  that  scoundrel  Youssuf  Michael 
Aboo-Mansoor,  to  Mount  Athos,  which  is  also  called  "Haghios 
Oros,"  which  means  Holy  Mountain  ;  and  a  Holy  Mountain 
it  is  ;  for  it  is  inhabited  only  by  monks,  whose  number  some 
times  amounted  to  J  5,000.  Many  of  them  occupy  themselves 
with  knitting  stockings,  and  tilling  the  ground,  and  praying. 

268  Travels    and   Adventures 

No  female  is  allowed  to  approach  the  place,  for  they  say  the 
Virgin  Mary  would  immediately  kill  her.  Even  no  she- 
animal  is  allowed  to  come  near.  It  must,  however,  be  acknow 
ledged  that  there  were  great  and  learned  men  on  Mount 
Athos  ;  and,  even  when  Wolff  was  there,  there  was  a  most 
learned  man,  who  occupied  himself  with  the  history  of  the 
mountain,  and  was  well  acquainted  with  the  Italian  and  Ger 
man  literature.  And  Wolff  cannot  but  express  his  regret  that 
a  great  diplomatist  hurt  the  feelings  of  these  monks  by  forcing 
them  to  receive,  against  their  statutes,  his  most  worthy  lady 
into  their  Monastery.  It  is  also  to  be  regretted  that  Robert 
Curzon,  in  his  wanderings  through  the  Monasteries,  should 
have  represented  every  one  of  them  as  totally  void  of  know 
ledge  ;  forgetting  the  g-reat  minds  of  Kalistos,  in  Mount  Sinai, 
Hilarion  and  Constantinus,  in  Constantinople,  &c. 

Wolff  sailed  away  from  Haghios  Oros,  towards  Mount 
Kartalia ;  when,  early  in  the  morning,  a  pirate  boat  was 
observed  coming  towards  them,  and  tacking  about  in  its 
approach.  The  chief  boatman  of  Wolff's  boat  exclaimed, 
"  Kleftes  !  "  which  means  robbers.  Wolff  said,  "  The  best 
plan  will  be  to  remain  in  the  boat."  This  he  said,  although, 
as  they  always  sailed  close  to  the  shore,  it  was  easy  to  land. 
They  replied,  "  If  we  all  remain  here  they  will  put  us  to 
death,  in  order  not  to  be  discovered ;  for  they  are  Skupoliot 
pirates,  and  will  kill  every  one  of  us."  On  this,  Wolff  leaped 
out  of  the  boat,  and  told  Youssuf  to  leave  the  case  containing 
the  money  behind.  Youssuf  then  exclaimed,  "  My  money, 
my  money,  my  money  !  "  (at  once  betraying  that  he  had  made 
no  remittances  to  Mount  Lebanon),  and  he  immediately  took 
WolfFs  money  from  the  case  and  put  it  into  his  own  pocket. 
A  nd  so  these  two  ran  off  across  the  mountain,  Wolff  without 
shoes  or  stockings.  Some  of  the  boat  people  also  made  their 
escape  ;  and  the  pirates,  not  liking  to  kill  the  few  who  wore 
left,  lest  the  affair  should  be  made  known  by  the  fugitives, 
were  content  with  collecting  what  booty  they  could  find. 

For  nearly  thirty  hours  Wolff  continued  to  wander  about  on 
the  highest  tops  of  the  mountains.  The  shirt  he  had  on  was 
torn  to  pieces  by  thorns.  The  pirates  fired  both  at  him  and 
his  companion  several  times  ;  and  they  actually  came  up  into 
the  mountain,  but  Wolff  and  Youssuf  had  hid  themselves  in 
some  clefts  of  the  rocks,  and  were  not  discovered,  so  the 
pirates  went  back.  The  natives  afterwards  said  that  no  native 
even  had  been  in  the  parts  of  the  mountain  where  Wolff  hud 
wandered ;  and  the  heat  was  so  intense  there — there  not  being- 
even  a  moist  leaf  to  be  found  to  quench  his  thirst — that  he 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  269 

was  reduced  to  the  most  dreadful  extremities.  At  last  he 
came  clown  from  the  mountain  and  found  a  spring,  on  which  he 
fell  like  a  horse. 

Youssuf  remained  faithfully  with  him  after  all ;  his  great 
vice  being  covetousness  and  hypocrisy  in  religious  pretension. 
And  Wolff  is  sorry  to  make  here  the  declaration  that  the 
worst  people  among  the  Eastern  natives,  are  those  who  know 
English  and  have  been  converted  to  Protestantism.  There 
are^  however,  some  honourable  exceptions.  There  was  one, 
Shidiack  by  name,  a  relation  of  Youssuf,  who  died  for  the 
Protestant  faith,  having  been  first  a  Roman  Catholic. 

Soon  after  he  had  reached  the  spring,  Wolff  found  some 
Roumelian  shepherds  who  were  tending  their  flocks.  They 
provided  him  and  his  companion  with  sour  milk  and  bread, 
and  he  never  before  ate  and  drank  so  heartily.  It  was  better 
than  wine  of  Burgundy  or  Champagne.  He  proceeded  with 
these  shepherds  to  a  little  town,  called  Shika,  whence  he  pro 
ceeded  with  the  Governor  and  his  soldiers  through  a  forest, 
which  had  been  set  on  fire  on  both  sides  by  robbers,  so  that 
they  had  to  ride  through  at  full  speed,  in  order  to  avoid  the 
flames.  Wolff'  describes  himself  as  almost  stupified  on  this 

At  the  end  of  the  forest  they  came  to  a  little  village,  where 
they  slept.  Then  they  proceeded  next  day  towards  that 
famous  town,  Salomca, — the  Thessalonica  of  Scripture,  to  the 
inhabitants  of  which  the  Epistle  to  the  Thessalonians  is 
addressed,  who  were,  at  the  time  of  the  Apostles,  in  great 
tribulation  ;  because  they  expected  the  immediate  coming  of 
the  Lord.  But  they  were  too  impatient,  and  had  forgotten  that, 
previous  to  his  coming,  the  "  man  of  sin  "  must  be  revealed; 
who  will  oppose  true  as  well  as  false  religion, — everything  that 
is  worshipped  as  God, — and  will  say  that  he  himself  is  God. 
And  that  then,  when  he  shall  have  appeared,  and  shall  have 
deceived,  if  it  were  possible,  the  very  elect  for  the  space  of 
1260  days — literal  days — the  Lord  Himself  shall  descend  with 
a  shout,  with  the  trump  of  the  Archangel,  and  the  dead  in 
Christ  shall  rise  first.  And  then  we,  which  are  alive  and 
remain,  shall  be  caught  up  together  with  them  in  the  clouds, 
to  meet  the  Lord  in  the  air  ;  and  so  shall  we  ever  be,  not  in 
the  air,  but  with  the  Lord,  who  shall  then  gently  light  down 
with  his  saints  upon  the  Mount  of  Olives,  which  is  before 
Jerusalem  in  the  East.  And  this  ought  to  be  our  comfort. 
Wherefore  comfort  one  another  with  these  words  : — "  0  Lord, 
hasten  thy  coming,  that  we,  with  all  those  that  are  departed 
in  the  true  faith,  may  have  our  perfect  consummation  and 

270  7 ravels  and  Adventures 

bliss,  both  in  body  and  soul,  in  thy  eternal  and  everlasting 
glory  !  " 

It  was  at  that  remarkable  town,  to  which  the  Apostle  had 
addressed  two  epistles,  chiefly  on  the  second  coming  of  Christ, 
that  Wolff  now  arrived  ;  and  the  first  person  he  met  there 
was  a  British  officer,  Leiutenant  Adolph  Slade,  of  Her  Majesty's 
Navy,  now  Admiral  in  the  Turkish  Navy,  and  Pasha. '  And 
he,  as  well  as  Charneaud,  the  Consul,  and  Chasseaud,  formerly 
English  Consul,  comforted  Wolff — poor  fellow  ! — in  his  distress, 
and  advanced  him  money  and  clothing.  But  he  was  not  able 
to  stir  out  of  the  house  on  account  of  the  thorns  in  his  feet, 
some  of  which  a  French  physician  drew  out,  even  after  his  de 
parture  from  Salonica ;  and  Dr.  Liddle,  of  Malta,  drew  out 
others,  at  least  three  months  later. 

In  Salonica  Wolff  met  with  a  body  of  Jews,  who  are  of  the 
most  interesting  description.  They  have  their  origin  from  an 
impostor,  one  of  those  numerous  men  who  have  fulfilled  the 
prophetic  words  of  our  blessed  Lord,  in  the  Gospel  by  St.  Mat 
thew  : — "  There  shall  arise  false  Christs  and  false  prophets, 
and  shall  show  great  signs  and  wonders  ;  insomuch  that,  if  it 
were  possible,  they  shall  deceive  the  very  elect." 

Shabatay  Zebee,  born  at  Skop,  in  Bulgaria,  was  a  Jew  of 
great  learning,  and  was  said  to  have  performed  many  miracles, 
when  he  suddenly  rose,  and  proclaimed  himself  to  be  the  Mes 
siah.  He  travelled  about  in  royal  pomp;  and  thousands 
rallied  around  his  standard  in  Aleppo,  Smyrna,  Jerusalem, 
Prague  in  Bohemia,  and  Vienna.  He  abolished  the  law  of 
Moses ;  for  it  is  a  belief  of  the  Jews,  that  one  of  the  offices 
of  the  Messiah,  when  He  comes,  will  be  to  abolish  the  law  of 
Moses  ;  for  they  say  the  prophet  Jeremiah  says  (Jeremiah, 
xxxi.  31),  "  Behold  the  days  come,  saith  the  Lord,  that  I  will 
make  a  new  covenant  with  the  house  of  Israel,  and  with  the 
house  of  Judah." 

Now  is  it  not  extraordinary,  Wolff  asks,  that  whilst  these  men 
reject  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  because,  as  they  say,  He  had 
abolished  the  law  of  Moses,  they  yet  produce,  as  an  evidence 
of  Shabatay  Zebee^s  Messiaship,  the  very  fact  of  his  abolition 
of  the  law  of  Moses? 

Shabatay  Zebee  ruled,  with  uncontrolled  power,  over  thou 
sands  and  thousands  of  the  Jews ;  and  they  paid  tribute  to 
him.  He  sanctioned  every  vice,  until  at  length  he  drew  upon 
himself  the  attention  of  the  Sultan,  who  had  him  brought  to 
Constantinople,  where,  in  order  to  save  his  life,  this  deceiver 
became  a  Muhammadan.  But  the  man  was  too  restless  to  be 
quiet,  so  at  last  the  Sultan  had  his  head  struck  off.  But  oven 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  271 

this  has  not  diminished  the  number  of  his  followers  ;  and  they 
apply  to  him  the  fulfilment  of  Isaiah's  prophecy  (Isaiah  liii. 
8),  "He  was  cut  off  out  of  the  land  of  the  living."  There 
are  now  about  200,000  of  his  dupes  still  existing  ;  and  wherever 
they  are,  they  conform  outwardly  to  the  ruling  religion  of  the 
country ;  but  they  intermarry  with  none,  ancl  in  secret  they 
carry  on  their  own  religion. 

There  are  many  thousands  of  these  people  in  Salonica,  and 
they  are  called  by  the  Turks,  Domna,  the  meaning  of  which  is 
"  The  turned."  They  are  very  rich  and  very  clean  ;  many  of 
them  are  great  merchants,  and  honest  in  their  dealings.  Some 
of  them  believed  Wolff  to  be  of  their  own  sect,  and  called  on  him ; 
but  the  moment  they  were  convinced  that  he  was  a  Christian, 
they  all  disappeard.  Their  enemies  accuse  them  of  having 
secret  assemblies  at  night,  in  which  they  practise  every  kind  of 
immorality  imaginable  ;  but  Wolff  has  heard  this  same  account 
of  every  little  sect,  even  of  the  Irvingites  in  England,  and 
therefore  he  has  his  doubts  of  the  truth  of  it.  And  as  he 
could  learn  nothing  positively  of  them,  his  conscience  will  not 
allow  him  to  do  as  a  traveller  lately  did  with  regard  to  the 
Anzairee  in  Mount  Lebanon,  who  published  three  volumes 
describing  them,  without  giving  one  single  piece  of  information 
on  the  subject. 

Many  thousands  of  Jews  were  put  to  death  by  the  Turks, 
on  account  of  that  impostor  Shabatay  Zebee.  Poor  people, 
how  often  have  the  words  of  those  who  crucified  the  Lord  of 
Glory  been  fulfilled  in  you  !  "His  blood  be  upon  us  and  upon 
our  children  !"  They  have  been  fulfilled  by  the  sword  of 
Muhammad  in  different  ages.  They  were  fulfilled  by  the 
sword  of  the  crusaders,  until  the  great  S.  Bernard  stopped  them 
by  preaching  to  them  on  the  eleventh  chapter  to  the  Romans, 
warning  them  not  to  boast  against  Israel  and  the  branches 
thereof;  and  they  should  behold  the  severity  and  goodness  of 
God.  For  while  the  mercy  of  God  is  over  all  His  creatures, 
there  is  a  retributive  justice  which  is  not  only  clearly  demon 
strated  by  the  Bible  and  the  history  of  the  Jews  in  every  a°"e, 
but  also  by  the  history  of  nations  at  large.  This  we  have  lately 
seen  in  the  defeat  of  Austria,  which  was  justly  dealt  to  her  on 
account  of  her  ingratitude  to  Russia.  And  the  same  retribu 
tive  justice  is  also  experienced  by  individuals,  of  which  Wolff 
will  give  an  instance. 

A  father  had  an  only  son,  for  whom  he  did  everything  ;  but 
the  son  became  at  last  so  outrageous  against  his  father,  fhat  he 
dragged  him  by  the  hair  out  orthe  room  until  they  came  to  the 
top  of  the  stairs,  when  the  father  said,  "  Now,  my  son,  you 

272  Travels  and  Adventures 

have  done  enough,  for  you  have  done  your  duty  in  fulfilling 
God^s  justice;  for  it  was  from  the  room  to  the  top  of  the  stairs 
that  I  dragged  my  own  father  by  the  hair.""  When  the  son 
heard  this,  he  burst  into  tears  and  said,  "  Oh  !  I  have  com 
mitted  a  great  sin.  Father,  O  my  father  forgive  me."  The 
father  said,  "  I  have  forgiven  thee,"  and  expired.  It  is  remark 
able  that  even  the  great  poets  among  the  Muhammadans,  Sheikh 
Saadi  and  Moollah  Roomee,  have  most  powerfully  felt  the  truth 
that  there  is  a  retributive  justice. 

After  Wolff  had  circulated  the  Bible  and  New  Testament 
amongst  the  Jews,  he  left  Salonica  in  company  with  Lieutenant 
Slacle,  the  scoundrel  Youssuf  Michael  Aboo-Mansoor,  and  his 
Greek  servant ;  and  soon  after  arrived  at  Smyrna,  where  Wolff 
convicted  Youssuf  of  downright  roguery,  and  at  once  dismissed 
him  as  a  hypocrite  and  impostor.  And  then  Wolff  sailed 
for  Malta,  to  which  place,  very  soon  afterwards,  his  wife  and 
infant  son  (born  in  Alexandria)  followed  him.  Here  they 
stopped  in  the  house  of  the  Right  Honourable  J.  H.  Frere, 
who  had  been  ambassador  at  Madrid  during  the  Peninsular 
war ;  a  gentleman  of  fine  taste  and  scholarship,  and  a  friend 
of  the  great  George  Canning,  and  Coleridge. 

O  c?  O  O 

Wolff  had  set  his  heart  upon  going  on  a  mission  to  Tim- 
buctoo ;  but  Frere  said  to  him,  "  If  you  go  there,  you  will 
dwindle  away  into  a  simple  traveller,  and  you  ought  to  main 
tain  your  missionary  character.  And  therefore,  I  will  point 
out  to  you  on  the  map  the  road  to  Bokhara  and  Afghanistan, 
where  you  will  find,  not  only  Jews,  but  traces  of  the  ten 
lost  tribes  of  Israel."  Here  Mr.  Frere  showed  him  the  map, 
in  which  were  the  names,  Youssuf  Szeye,  i.  e.,  "  Tribe  of 
Joseph"  IszhaJc  Szeye — "  Tribe  of  Isaac"  Baruch  Szeye — 
"Tribe  of  Baruch?  &c. ;  and  Wolff  shouted,  "To  Bokhara 
I  shall  go  !" 

He  then  wrote  to  the  London  Society  for  promoting  Chris 
tianity  among  the  Jews,  that  he  had  resolved  to  go  to  Bokhara, 
and  they  replied  that  he  must  first  come  to  England,  and  re 
ceive  fresh  instructions  from  the  Committee.  Their  reasons 
for  this  precaution  must  be  stated. 

First,  Wolff  had  entered  so  much  on  prophetic  dates  (far 
more  than  he  would  do  now),  and  had  written  on  this  subject 
not  only  to  the  Committee,  but  to  other  people,  that  an  outcry 
had  been  raised  against  his  proceeding  in  "  The  Christian 
Observer,""  and  "  The  Record."  Besides  which,  he  had  at 
tacked  every  missionary,  who  either  disagreed  with  him,  or 
who  he  thought  was  not  acting  in  an  apostolic  spirit.  More 
over,  he  had  published  his  belief  in  modern  miracles,  and 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  273 

had  proclaimed  his  having  cast  out  a  devil  in  the  desert. 
Hence  the  Committee  said,  u  This  man  lias  run  wild  !"  And 
so  they  wrote  to  him,  that  he  must  first  return  to  London, 
in  order  that  they  might  come  to  an  understanding  with  him. 
Wolff  wrote  to  them  in  reply,  that  he  would  come  back  to 
London,  via  Bokhara,  Affghanistan,  and  Calcutta ;  and  there 
fore  that  he  should  make  this  journey  at  his  own  risk.  Mr. 
Frere  nobly  came  forward  to  facilitate  the  expedition  ;  and  ad 
vanced  to  Wolff  £500,  either  on  loan,  or  as  a  gift ;  and  this 
circumstance  must  be  remembered,  as  the  repayment  was 
effected  in  a  very  singular  manner.  Wolff  set  out  on  the  31st 
of  December,  1830,  from  Malta  for  Bokhara,  provided  with 
letters  from  Government,  and  a  passport  from  the  Duke  of 

On  reviewing  this  proceeding,  Wolff  cannot  but  justify  the 
whole  conduct  of  the  London  Society  for  promoting  Christianity 
among  the  Jews.  For  a  society,  as  it  is  constituted,  is  respon 
sible  for  the  conduct  of  its  missionaries,  and  has  a  full  right  to 
demand  from  them  entire  submission  and  obedience  to  its 
resolutions.  Any  missionary,  therefore,  who  is  unwilling  to 
submit,  must  make  a  merit  of  necessity,  resign  his  appointment, 
and  take  all  the  responsibility  upon  himself. 

Besides  this,  Wolff  is  conscious  that  by  his  independent  treat 
ment  of  his  employers',  he  fell  into  the  very  same  error  which 
he  had  found  fault  with  in  other  missionaries  ;  and  he  thinks 
the  duty  of  a  missionary  is  to  mind  his  own  business,  and  to 
let  others  go  on  in  the  way  they  think  right.  Moreover,  there 
is  a  great  deal  of  vanity  in  trying  to  set  everything  right ;  and 
a  person  who  acts  thus  does  injury  to  his  own  spirit. 

Wolff  once  more  arrived  in  Alexandria,  in  the  month  of 
January,  1831,  on  board  a  Maltese  ship  ;  and  as  he  had  been 

*  It  will  be  seen  Dr.  Wolff's  Journals,  published  in  the  "  Jewish 
Expositor,"  by  the  London  Society  for  Promoting  Christianity  among  the 
Jews,  that  it  was  Joseph  Wolff  who  first  proposed,  in  the  year  1821,  the 
establishment  of  a  British  College  in  Malta,  which  was  established  some 
years  ago.  The  erection  of  missions  in  Alexandria  and  Cairo,  was  also 
proposed  by  him  in  the  year  1821,  and  missionaries  were  sent  to  those 
places  in  the  year  1824,  by  the  Church  Missionary  Society.  Wolff  was 
the  first  missionary  who  visited  Mount  Horeb  and  Mount  Sinai,  and  cir 
culated  the  word  of  God  there.  He  was  also  the  first  who  preached  the 
Gospel  to  the  Jews  in  Jerusalem,  in  1822;  and  upon  his  recommendation, 
Lewis,  Nicholaison,  and  Dalton  were  sent  in  1823,  as  missionaries  to 
Jerusalem.  Thus  it  is  also  with  the  missions  in  Constantinople  and 
Bagdad ;  and  in  Jerusalem  he  proposed  the  erection  of  a  College,  and  to 
se  nd  there  a  British  Consul. 


274  Travels  and  Adventures 

exiled  from  Alexandria  on  the  last  occasion  of  his  being  there, 
for  interfering  with  the  Muhammadans,  he  first  went  on  board 
Captain  Lyons'  ship  (afterwards  Lord  Lyons),  and  then  wrote 
a  letter  to  the  Consul-General,  Mr.  Barker,  asking  whether  he 
might  land.  Barker  wrote  to  him  that  he  might  safely  come 
on  shore,  as  all  was  forgotten.  Wolff,  therefore,  took  up  his 
abode  with  his  friend,  Mr.  Gliddon,  who  was  Consul  of  the 
United  States  of  North  America.  Here  he  preached  in  the 
Wesleyan  Chapel  (there  was  no  English  Church  in  Alexandria), 
and  the  Wesleyans  were  ever  kind  to  him,  although  he  once 
attacked  them  about  their  groaning ;  which,  perhaps,  he  ought 
not  to  have  done,  as  he  confesses  that  the  religious  movements 
and  actions  of  every  one  ought  to  be  respected. 

He  met  at  Alexandria  this  time  his  old  friend,  Sir  John 
Malcolm,  one  of  those  four  sons  of  a  Scotch  farmer,  who  had 
raised  themselves  to  high  eminence  in  the  State,  by  their  talents 
and  merits.  One  of  them,  Sir  Pulteney,  considered  Wolff  as 
his  spiritual  father.  Sir  John  Malcolm  provided  him  with 
letters  for  the  British  Ambassador  in  Persia,  Colonel  Camp 
bell  ;  and  then  Wolff  set  out  in  a  miserable  Turkish  boat  for 
Sataliah,  the  ancient  Attalia  in  Pisidia,  which  is  mentioned 
in  the  Acts  of  the  Apostles.  He  took  with  him  from  Alexan 
dria  a  black  servant,  a  thorough  negro,  of  the  Shuluk  tribe,  who 
was  always  drunk,  and,  when  drunk,  got  into  a  furious  rage. 
And  as  the  Shuluk  tribe  are  believed  to  be  cannibals,  Wolff 
had  a  few  misgivings  about  this  man ;  so  he  was  glad  to  dis 
miss  him  on  their  arrival  in  Constantinople. 

At  Attalia,  Wolff  resided  in  the  house  of  Demetrius,  the 
bishop  of  the  place,  who  had  the  title,  Demetrios  Pisidia,  an 
energetic  and  active  man.  He  had  been  married,  but,  after 
the  death  of  his  wife,  he  became  a  monk  upon  Mount  Sinai, 
and  was  then  made  Bishop  of  Attalia.  The  bishops  of  Anatolia 
have  the  title  Krites,  id  est,  "  Judges  f  speaking  of  which, 
Demetrius  said,  "  Does  not  the  Apostle  Paul  say,  the  saints 
shall  judge  the  earth  2 " 

The  whole  of  Anatolia  is  exceedingly  cheap  to  travel  in,  for 
very  few  Englishmen  travel  there ;  and  whenever  one  comes, 
the  Turk  receives  one,  and  gives  one  bread,  salt,  and  soup, 
gratis ;  and  one  has  only  to  pay  for  caimac  (a  thick  kind  of 
cream,  like  Devonshire  cream),  and  provender  for  the  horses, 
but  for  nothing  else. 

From  Attalia  Wolff  went  to  Buldur.  There  are  Greek 
Christians,  who  only  speak  the  Turkish  language,  and  are  like 
buffaloes.  It  is  a  remarkable  fact — and  it  must  not  be  con 
cealed — that,  except  the  Armenians  in  Etsh-Miazin,  Persia, 

of  Dr.  Wolf.  275 

and  Russia,  and  their  enlightened  brethren  in  Hindoostan,  the 
native  Christians  of  Anatolia,  and  the  Turkish  empire  in  gene 
ral,  where  Roman  Catholic  missionaries  have  not  penetrated, 
are  ignorant,  rude,  and  uncouth,  like  buffaloes  ! 

Roman  Catholic  missionaries  have  carried  everywhere  the 
light  of  civilization.  This  was  even  observed  by  Robertson, 
in  his  "  History  of  Mexico  and  Peru,1'  who  showed  that  holy 
priests  of  the  Spanish  nation,  like  Las-Casas,  have  enlightened 
barbarians,  and  restrained  the  Spanish  tyrants. 

Wolff  at  last  arrived  in  Kiutaya,  in  Phrygia,  and  there  he 
found  the  Greeks  more  enlightened,  and  their  Bishop  too  ;  for 
they  were  real  Greeks,  and,  though  not  themselves  Roman 
Catholics,  yet  they  had  intercourse  with  them,  and  learned  a 
great  deal  from  them.  It  was  in  Kiutaya  that  the  Apostle 
Paul  was,  when  he  was  minded  to  go  to  Bithynia,  but  was  in 
duced  .by  the  Spirit  to  go  to  Salonica,  the  capital  of  Macedonia. 

Wolff  proceeded  to  Broosa,  the  capital  of  Bithynia.  There 
it  was  that  Hannibal  died ;  and  there  it  is  that  Abd-el-Kadir 
now  resides.  Wolff  met  there  with  an  old  Jew,  so  handsome 
that  he  thinks  he  never  saw  in  his  life  such  a  beautiful  man. 
He  lived  in  a  splendid  house,  and  showed  to  Wolff  the  gran 
deur  which  surrounded  him.  Wolff  read  with  this  man  por 
tions  of  the  Gospel ;  and  slept  that  night  in  the  house  of  an 
amiable  French  gentleman ;  and  here  an  Armenian  advanced 
him  money  on  his  bills  on  Constantinople.  Wolff  quitted 
Broosa  the  following  day,  in  order  to  hasten  swiftly  onwards 
to  Constantinople.  His  aim  was  Bokhara,  and,  therefore,  he 
did  not  spend  much  time  in  any  place,  either  in  the  Mediter 
ranean,  or  in  any  part  of  Asia  Minor. 

On  his  arrival  in  Constantinople,  Sir  Robert  Gordon  re 
ceived  him  most  kindly,  and  invited  him  to  dinner  at  his  house, 
and  said,  as  Wolff  afterwards  heard,  that  he  never  had  a  more 
pleasant  evening  than  in  his  conversation  with  him.  He  pro 
cured  him  firmans  and  other  letters  from  the  Sultan,  and  from 
Christians  and  Muhaminadans ;  and  the  Armenian  Patriarch 
at  Constantinople,  and  other  Armenians,  begged  him  to  let 
them  know  whenever  he  settled  in  England,  in  order  that  they 
might  establish  colleges  there  for  their  nation,  and  schools  for 
their  youth,  under  the  superintendence  of  Armenians ;  so  that 
they  might  benefit  by  the  light  of  European  civilization.* 

*  Extracts  from  Dr.  Wolff's  Missionary  Journal,  published  in  1828  : 
"Jan.  28,  1822. — We  stopped  for  three  hours  in  the  Armenian  con 
vent,  called  Bait  Hashbuck,  near  Ayun  Warga.      The  name  of  the  Su 
perior  is  Gregorius.     They  expressed  a  desire  of  establishing  a  college  in 

T  2 

276  T yards  and  Adventures 

Wolff  was  now  about  to  depart  for  Angoroo,  in  Galatia, 
being  furnished  with  letters,  as  above-mentioned,  for  his  whole 
journey  to  Bokhara  and  Hiudoostaii.  But  it  will  be  seen  during 
the  course  of  the  details,  that  letters  of  introduction  endan 
gered  his  life ;  whilst  the  plague  saved  him  from  misery, 
slavery,  and  most  probably  from  death. 

At  the  expiration  of  about  a  fortnight,  Wolff  left  Constan 
tinople  with  a  Tatar.*  They  were  mounted  on  horseback,  but 
Wolff  always  asked  for  an  old,  decrepid  horse — the  only  sort 
he  dared  to  mount — and  thus  he  came  into  the  province  of 
Galatia  to  Angoroo,  called  also  Ancyra.  There,  on  the  moun 
tains,  Arabs  and  Persian  shepherds  were  to  be  found  in  the 
midst  of  this  Turkish  country  and  population.  The  Arabs 
were  singing, — 

"  Seewas,  Seewas,  shall  never  be  taken ; 
Nor  shall  they  slay  Bayaseed's  son ;" 

while  the  Persians  sang, — 

"  To  attempt  to  possess  together  both  God  and  the  world, 
Is  altogether  folly !" 

Wolff  asked  the  Arabs  the  meaning  of  their  song.  They 
replied,  "  Timoor  koorekan,"  or,  as  he  is  also  called,  "  Timoor 
lank,"-|-  which  means,  Timoor,  the  lame  one,  invaded  the  country 
of  Room.  At  that  time  Bayaseed  ruled  over  that  country. 
Timoor  had  under  his  command  900,000  soldiers.  He  sent 
word  to  Bayaseed,  who  had  the  surname  "  Yilderim,"  which 
means,  "  The  lightning,'"  that  he  should  come  and  give  an 
account  of  his  stewardship.  Bayaseed,  in  order  to  insult  him, 
sent  him  ten  presents  instead  of  nine — nine  being  the  honour- 

"  The  Grand  Prior,  Peter  Wartanes,  was  more  warmly  disposed  towards 
me,  and  manifested  a  great  desire  to  establish  an  Armenian  college  in 

"Mr.  Bogos,  an  Armenian,  highly  respected  and  revered  by  his  nation, 
has  given  me  a  letter  of  introduction  to  the  Patriarch  of  the  Armenian 
nation,  residing  at  Constantinople,  in  order  that  he  may  listen  to  me  when 
I  propose  to  him  to  unite  the  Armenian  Church  with  the  Protestant 
Churches  of  Europe!" 

These  extracts — and  more  might  be  given — show  that  Dr.  Wolff  has 
for  long  held  a  desire  to  see  the  Armenian  Church  brought  into  closer 
relationship  with  the  Church  of  England. 

*  A  Tatar  is  a  Government  messenger,  who  can  be  hired  by  any  tra 
veller  desirous  of  assistance. 

f  Erroneously  called  Tamerlane. 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  277 

able  number  among  the  Turcomauns  ;  and  to  increase  the  in 
sult,  he  sent  him  word  that  he  would  come  and  force  him  to 
divorce  his  wives. 

Timoor  said,  "  Has  the  man  become  mad  I"  So  he  marched 
against  Seewas,  a  great  town  of  Room,  with  900,000  soldiers, 
took  the  city,  and  killed  Togrool,  the  favourite  son  of  Bayaseed, 
and  buried  alive  18,000  Armenian  Christians.  This  was  re 
ported  to  Bayaseed,  who  rallied  around  him  30,000  Servian 
soldiers,  all  Christians,  and  placed  them  under  the  command 
of  their  co-religionist,  Lazarowitsh.  Besides  these,  he  col 
lected  together  100,000  Turcomauns  (countrymen  of  Timoor's 
soldiers),  who  had  come  from  Turkistan ;  but  being,  as  all 
those  Turks  are,  too  avaricious,  he  did  not  pay  them  their 
wages.  In  his  march  against  Timoor,  he  passed  the  shepherds 
of  Aiigoroo,  and  said  to  them,  as  he  went  by,  "  Sing  to  me  a 
sons;  I  like  ;  sins; — 

O  7  O 

"  Seewas  shall  never  be  taken, 
Nor  shall  they  slay 
Bayaseed's  son  !" 

And  thus  that  song  has  come  down  to  this  day  : — 

"  Seewas,  Seewas  shall  never  be  taken ; 
Nor  shall  they  slay 
Bayaseed's  son !" 

Bayaseed  came  near  Seewas,  but  found  that  it  was  taken ; 
and  that  Togrool,  his  favourite  son,  was  slain  ! 

A  battle  ensued :  Timoor  dismounted  his  horse,  and  re 
viewed  his  soldiers ;  then  harangued  them,  and  gave  the  signal 
of  attack,— "  Soorunk  !"  i.  e.,  "Brave!"  And  the  Turco 
mauns  of  Bayaseed  exclaimed,  "  Bismillah  Rah  mane  arra- 
heem  !"  "  In  the  name  of  the  most  merciful  and  compas 
sionate  God."  The  Servian  Christians  exclaimed,  "  Christos 
aneste  !"  "  Christ  is  risen  !*'  then  crossed  themselves,  and  the 
attack  commenced.  The  Christians  fought  to  the  last,  so  that 
Timoor,  in  admiration,  exclaimed,  "How  these  Christians 
fight  for  their  Muhammadan  master!"  The  unpaid  Turco 
mauns,  however,  at  once  went  over  to  Timoor,  and  Bayaseed 
was  defeated,  and  made  prisoner,  and  brought  in  a  cage  to 
Akhshehir,  where  he  died. 

Wolff  entered  the  city  of  Angoroo,  where  the  Armenian 
archbishop  and  the  Greek  and  Armenian  Catholic  bishops  were 
living  in  greater  harmony  than  is  generally  the  case  among  the 
different  denominations  of  the  churches  of  the  East.  The 
Armenian  archbishop  made  Wolff  a  present  of  an  Angoroo 

278  Travels  and  Adventures 

shawl,  wrought  out  of  the  famous  Angoroo  goats'  hair,  with  the 
request  that  he  would  send  it  to  his  wife.  He  also  desired 
Wolff  to  write  to  the  ambassador  in  Constantinople,  to  say 
that  they  were  tyrannized  over  hy  the  Governor,  which  Wolff 
was  happy  to  do  for  two  reasons.  In  the  first  place,  he  was 
able  to  bear  witness  to  the  truth  of  the  complaint,  for  the 
Governor  was  a  thorough  brute  ;  and,  secondly,  the  ambassador 
had  particularly  desired  Wolff  to  give  him  an  account  of  those 
Governors  who  tyrannized  over  the  Christians. 

Wolff  then  left  Angoroo,  after  staying  about  a  fortnight. 
He  took  with  him  a  most  excellent  Tatar  of  the  Sultan,  and 
rode  on  through  a  range  of  most  romantic  mountains,  till  he 
arrived  in  Tokat,  where  he  lodged  in  the  house  of  a  very  cove 
tous  Armenian.  Here  he  visited  the  grave  of  that  man  of 
God,  Henry  Martyn.  "  Father,  my  father,  the  chariots  of 
Israel,  and  the  horsemen  thereof,"  came  into  Wolff's  mind  as 
he  stood  where  his  brother  missionary  was  buried  ;  and  the 
words  of  that  holy  man  never  depart  from  Wolff's  memory  : — 
"  Confession  of  sin  is  not  yet  repentance :  knowledge  of  sin  is 
not  yet  contrition."  Martyn  was  buried  by  the  Armenians  in 
1812,  with  all  the  honours  of  an  Armenian  archbishop.  What 
an  amiable  spirit  breathes  through  all  the  ebullitions  of  his 
noble  mind.  With  what  intrepidity  did  he  preach  the  truth 
to  the  unconverted  ! — of  which  he  gave  proof  on  board  a  ship 
of  war,  when  the  officers  jestingly  told  him,  "  Mr.  Martyn, 
don't  send  us  all  to  perdition  to-day,"  and  he  at  once  took  as 
the  text  of  his  sermon,  "  The  wicked  shall  be  turned  into  hell, 
and  all  the  nations  that  forget  God." 

And  again,  what  liberality  may  be  perceived  in  the  account 
which  he  gives  of  a  Roman  Catholic  woman,  who  was  pouring 
forth  her  spirit,  like  Samuel's  mother,  whilst  kneeling  before 
the  altar  of  a  Roman  Catholic  chapel ! — "  Dear  woman!"  he 
says  of  her  in  his  diary.  Dear  Martyn  !  Wolff  hopes  to  see 
thee  in  heaven  !  Wolff,  however,  cannot  forbear  from  observ 
ing,  that  Henry  Martyn,  in  his  conversations  on  religion  with 
Muhanimadans  at  Sheeraz,  showed  too  much  of  the  senior 
wrangler  of  Cambridge  in  his  arguments,  by  trying  through 
Euclid  to  prove  the  truth  of  Christianity.  Say  what  you  will, 
Christianity  cannot  be  proved  by  mathematics.  We  cannot 
prove  by  mathematics  (as  Wolff's  darling  wife  once  said  to  a 
mathematician)  that  one  must  eat  when  one  is  hungry ;  and 
no  more  can  one  mathematically  prove  the  truth  of  David's 
paying,  "  As  the  hart  panteth  for  the  water-brooks,  so  longeth 
my  soul  after  Thee,  0  God." 

While  in  Tokat,  a  Jew  from  Poland  called  on  Wolff,  and  he 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  279 

never  saw  a  more  handsome  young  man.  This  Jew  Tu«i«M. 
deeply  impressed  with  all  that  Wolff  told  him,  and  spoke  Ger 
man,  and  gave  to  Wolff  the  title,  "  Your  High  Excellency." 
He  much  regretted  that  Wolff  should  have  fallen  into  the 
hands  of  such  a  covetous  Armenian  as  the  one  he  lodged  with, 
and  that  lie  had  not  accepted  the  invitation  of  the  excellent  and 
wealthy  merchant  Bambuktshee. 

Wolff  was  taken  very  ill  while  at  Tokat ;  but  at  last  left  it, 
with  his  Tatar,  and  passed  many  ruins,  which  had  once  been 
buildings  belonging  to  the  Republic  of  Genoa.  Wolff  asked 
the  Tatar,  "Why  these  buildings  were  not  restored?""  The 
Tatar  gave  a  most  emphatic  reply,  which  he  did  not  expect 
from  a  Turk : — "  The  people  of  Islaam  never  rebuild  ;  the 
people  of  Islaam  always  destroy  !" 

He  arrived,  after  a  pleasant  journey,  at  Trebizond,  and 
lodged  in  the  house  of  the  British  Consul,  Mr.  Brant,  where 
he  preached ;  and  he  visited  the  Greeks,  both  in  and  around 
Trebizond.  In  this  town  are  a  great  number  of  Greeks,  who 
are  Pauline  Christians.  They  are  mentioned  by  Gibbon  as 
having  been  persecuted  during  the  reign  of  the  Comneni,  both 
by  the  orthodox  party  and  the  Muhammadans ;  and  they  out 
wardly  conformed  to  the  Muhammadan  faith  ;  but,  in  secret, 
they  are  Christians,  and  great  friends  of  the  Bible.  Trebizond 
contains  the  tomb  of  one  of  the  Georgian  kings,  whose  epitaph 
is  written  in  French,  in  which  he  is  described  as  one  of  the 
descendants  of  King  Solomon. 

Wolff,  after  a  few  days,  went  across  Mount  Ararat  to  the 
capital  of  Armenia,  Erz-Room  ;  the  proper  meaning  of  which 
is,  "  The  land  belonging  to  the  Roman  Empire."  From  Erz- 
Room  to  Tabreez  there  is  only  one  story  to  tell,  viz. : — that 
the  whole  country  was  deserted  by  its  Armenian  inhabitants, 
because,  in  1828,  they  emigrated,  with  General  Paskewitsh 
(about  90,000  families  in  number),  to  the  Russian  dominions. 
Wolff  stopped  a  few  days  in  the  city*of  Bayaseed  with  the 
Pasha,  whose  office  is  hereditary  from  father  to  son  ;  and  the 
Pasha  lives  in  a  splendid  palace. 

From  Bayaseed,  Wolff  went  to  Khoy,  where  he  resided  with 
a  Persian,  who  had  received  his  education  in  England,  and 
spoke  English  well.  He  said  to  Wolff,  quite  in  an  English 
way,  and  in  that  language,  "  I  am  very  happy  to  shake  you  by 
the  hand."  He  invited  a  whole  party  of  Persians  to  meet 
Wolff,  some  of  whom  were  freemasons  ;  and  one  of  them,  Suli- 
man  Pasha  by  name,  said  that  freemasonry  is  to  be  found  in 
chapter  iv.  of  Revelation.  And  there  is  some  truth  in  this  ; 
for,  after  thirty-eight  years,  when  Wolff  peruses  this  chapter, 

280  Travels  and  Adventures 

he  can  testify  that  Suliman  Pasha  was  right ;  and  he  distinctly 
knows  to  which  verse  Suliman  alluded  ;  which  every  good  and 
accepted  mason  will  also  immediately  find  out. 

The  Persians  are  really,  with  all  their  tremendous  faults,  an 
interesting  nation;  and  it  is  to  be  lamented  that  they  are  Mu- 
hammadans.  Tea  was  served,  and  conversation  took  place 
about  the  truth  of  the  Gospel ;  and,  on  the  first  evening,  the 
Persians  invited  were  of  a  liberal  description,  and  therefore  a 
narghili  was  offered  to  Wolff  that  he  might  smoke  with  them. 
But,  the  next  evening,  Persians  of  a  different  stamp  came,  who 
considered  it  a  sin  to  smoke  a  narghili  with  an  infidel,  and  so 
Wolff  was  passed  over ;  but  the  generous  host  made  a  thousand 

apologies  to  him,  for  being  obliged  to  submit  to  the  prejudices 
i  i  •  r 

of  his  guests. 

This  prejudice  well  explains  the  astonishment  of  the  woman 
of  Samaria,  when  our  Lord  asked  of  her  to  give  him  water  to 
drink;  and  when  she  said  to  him  (John  iv.  9),  "How  is  it 
that  Thou,  being  a  Jew,  askest  drink  of  me,  which  am  a  woman 
of  Samaria  ?  for  the  Jews  have  no  dealings  with  the  Samari 
tans."  And  it  explains  also,  Genesis  xliii.  32,  "  Because  the 
.Egyptians  might  not  eat  bread  with  the  Hebrews ;  for  that  is 
an  abomination  unto  the  Egyptians."  One  can  hereby  see  the 
wisdom  of  our  blessed  Lord,  whose  design  was  to  unite  brother 
with  brother,  and  therefore  to  remove  those  religious  preju 
dices  which  are  so  apt  to  keep  them  apart.  Even  at  this  en 
tertainment,  Wolff  recognised  the  divinity  of  our  Saviour's 
reform ;  his  reform  consisting  in  making  all  things  smooth  for 
all  nations  coming  to  God.  God  unites,  and  the  devil  divides. 


Advance  towards  Bokhara  ;  Colonel  Campbell,  Sir  John  McNeil, 
Borowsky  the  Jew  ;  Plague ;  from  Astaara  to  Teheran  ;  State 
of  Persia;  Boostan  ;  Journey  through  the  Desert  of  Cay  en. 

ON  the  third  day  after  Wolff's  arrival  at  Khoy,  a  "  takli- 
truwaii"  arrived,  which  means  literally  "  a  walking-chair." 
It  is  like  a  sedan  chair,  with  red  curtains,  and  it  was  sent  to 
him  by  the  British  Ambassador,  Colonel  Campbell,  with  a 
letter  both  from  him  and  from  Doctor,  now  Sir  John,  McNeil, 
dated  Astaara,  which  is  ten  miles  distant  from  Tabreez ;  and 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  281 

they  stated  their  great  sorrow  at  being  told  of  Wolff's  indispo 
sition  at  Tokat.  They  sent  this  letter  by  their  head  servant, 
a  Persian ;  and  it  proceeded  to  inform  Wolff  that  the  plague 
was  raging  all  over  Persia,  and  especially  in  Tabreez ;  so  that 
all  the  chief  inhabitants  of  that  place  had  fled  from  it.  More 
over,  they  informed  him  that  his  royal  highness,  Abbas  Mirza, 
had  marched  with  his  army,  20,000  strong,  accompanied  by 
Major  Stokes,  Captain  Shee,  and  five  English  sergeants,  into 
the  interior  of  Persia,  towards  Yazd  and  Kermaan,  two  places 
which  are  the  chief  seats  of  the  Parsees,  the  fire-worshippers. 
Dear  people,  will  that  fire  divine  ever  burn  in  your  hearts 
which  will  lead  you  to  that  light,  which  guides  to  the  source  of 
light,  the  real  Ormuzd,  Christ  our  Lord  ?  The  messenger  was 
instructed,  moreover,  to  desire  Wolff  to  come  to  their  tents, 
where  a  tent  was  already  pitched  for  him,  and  where  he  should 
also  meet  the  Russian  ambassador  and  his  staff.  Wolff  went 
accordingly  to  Astaara,  and  was  most  kindly  received  by  the 
British  Embassy,  and  his  friends,  Dr.  and  Mrs.  McNeil.  '  The 
Russian  ambassador  also  called  upon  him,  with  his  two  secre 
taries  ;  one  of  whom  was  Chodzko,  a  Pole,  who  was  very  much 
concerned  about  the  destiny  of  his  countrymen,  who  were,  at 
that  time,  in  open  rebellion  against  the  Emperor  Nicholas ; 
and  he  desired  Wolff  to  make  him  acquainted  with  the  last 
news  about  Poland.  Chosdow,  the  other  secretary,  displayed 
a  candour  which  it  was  surprising  to  observe  in  a  diplomatist ; 
for  he  informed  Wolff  that  the  Poles  had  hitherto  been  vic 
torious  on  every  occasion,  and  had  defeated  the  Russians. 

Wolff  preached  in  the  tents  of  the  British  Ambassador,  and 
his  sermon  consisted  of  an  exposition  of  the  1 2th  chapter  of 
Revelation  ;  in  which  he  showed  that  the  woman  mentioned  in 
the  first  verse  was  the  Jewish  nation  ;  and  the  child  which  was 
born  was  Christ ;  and  the  time  of  the  spiritual  conception  of 
Christ  in  the  Jews,  will  produce  a  war  in  heaven  between 
Michael  the  Archangel,  and  the  dragon.  And  he  showed  that 
in  that  conflict  Michael  will  be  victorious,  and  will  expel  the 
dragon,  which  is  the  devil,  who  has  hitherto  access  in  heaven, 
as  we  can  see  in  the  case  of  Job,  when  he  appeared  before  God 
as  accuser.  This  fall  of  the  dragon  will  fill  him  with  wrath, 
and  then  he  will  persecute  the  Jewish  nation,  when  those 
mighty  wonders  shall  be  performed,  which  are  alluded  to  in 
Micah  vii.  15,  wonders  similar  to  those  which  were  performed 
at  their  coming  out  of  Egypt.  "  According  to  the  days  of  thy 
coming-out  of  the  land  of  Egypt  will  I  show  unto  him  marvel 
lous  things.''1  And  it  is  for  that  reason  that  the  prophets 
Isaiah  and  Ezekiel  make  those  battles  fought  in  former  times 

282  Travels  and  Adventures 

typical  of  those  battles  which  shall  be  fought  previous  to  the 
coming  of  our  Lord,  &c. 

McNeil  confessed  that  he  never  heard  a  sermon  in  which 
such  a  deep  insight  into  Scripture  was  displayed,  and  such 
knowledge  of  the  writings  of  the  Fathers.  The  Russian 
secretaries,  to  whom  also  he  preached  the  same  sermon,  took 
it  down  in  writing,  and  sent  it  to  Count  Nesselrode,  the  Chan 
cellor  of  the  Russian  Emperor.  Chodzko  also  said,  that  many 
monks  of  the  famous  monastery,  Troitzo,  held  the  same  views 
as  Wolff;  and  Wolff  advised  Chodzko  to  get  the  book  called 
"  The  Coining  of  Christ  in  Majesty  and  Glory,"  written  in 
Spanish  by  a  converted  Jew,  the  famous  Jesuit  Lacuuza,  under 
the  assumed  name,  Juan  Josaphat  Ben-Ezra,  which  had  been 
translated  into  English  by  Edward  Irving ;  and  was  also 
translated  into  German.  This  book  was  condemned  by  the 
Church  of  Rome,  on  account  of  Lacunza^s  belief  in  the  re-esta 
blishment  of  Jewish  sacrifices. 

Colonel  Campbell  now  immediately  wrote  to  the  King  of 
Persia,  who  had  fled  into  the  mountains  of  Ispahan,  on  account 
of  the  plague,  and  also  to  Abbas  Mirza  at  Yazd,  for  letters  of 
introduction  for  Wolff  to  the  chiefs  in  Khorassan.  And  in  due 
time  both  letters  of  introduction  and  passports  arrived,  accord 
ing  to  this  request ;  on  which  occasion  it  so  happened  that 
Wolff,  the  Ambassador  and  his  family,  with  Dr.  McNeil  and 
his  family,  were  all  seated  together  at  dinner,  and  Dr.  McNeil 
said  jokingly  to  Wolff,  "  Now  you  have  got  all  the  letters ; 
but,  in  spite  of  them,  we  shall  hear,  two  months  hence,  the 
sad  tidings  that  Joseph  Wolff  has  been  made  a  slave  in  Kho 
rassan  by  the  Turcomauns,  and  sold  for  six  sliay? — the  value 
of  one  "  shay  "  being  the  twentieth  part  of  a  farthing. 

Despatches  arrived  at  the  same  time  from  Bushire,  with  a 
letter  from  the  British  Resident  there,  who  gave  notice  to 
Colonel  Campbell  that  Colonel  Chesney  had  arrived  from 
Bombay,  in  company  with  a  Polish  nobleman,  Count  Borowsky 
by  name.  On  hearing  this  announcement,  Wolff  at  once  said, 
"  Be  on  your  guard,  Borowsky  is  not  a  Polish  nobleman,  but 
a  Jew  !"*  This  man  was  a  very  remarkable  one,  and  to  form 
an  idea  of  him,  we  must  go  back  to  the  year  1829,  when  Wolff 
had  arrived  in  Alexandria  with  his  wife  from  Jerusalem. 

A  Jew  called  one  day  on  him  there,  with  all  the  appearance 
of  a  gentleman  ;  but  who  struck  Wolff  as  being  a  great  brag- 

fart.     He  informed  him  that  his  mother  had  been  a  Jewess, 
nt  that  his  father  was  Prince  Radzivil ;  that  he  had  been  in 
London,  and  had  wished  to  be  baptized  there  ;    but  as  the 
London  Society  for  Promoting  Christianity  among  the  Jews 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  283 

would  not  come  to  his  terms,  he  had  left  them.  This 
visitor,  who  called  himself  Borowsky,  was  then  a  young  man, 
giving  instruction  in  Alexandria,  in  history  and  mathematics  ; 
but  Wolff,  convinced  that  he  was  a  Jew,  on  the  father's  as  well 
as  mother's  side,  did  not  wish  to  have  anything  to  do  with 
him.  . 

However,  Caviglia  (mentioned  already),  the  philosopher, 
Christian,  mystic,  and  antiquarian,  took  an  interest  in  him ; 
and,  as  he  wished  to  proceed  to  Bombay,  he  offered  him  letters 
of  introduction,  if  he  would  first  state  what  he  meant  to  do 
there,  Borowsky  told  him  coolly,  that  he  would  teach  the 
English  there  how  to  govern  India.  Caviglia  retired,  and 
exclaimed,  "Per  Bacco  !"  and  did  not  wish  to  have  anything 
more  to  do  with  him.  Nevertheless,  Borowsky  proceeded 
to  India,  though  without  the  letters.  This  was  in  the  year 
1829  ;  and  in  1831,  as  stated  before,  the  news  reached  Colonel 
Campbell,  that  this  Borowsky,  under  the  title  of  Count,  had 
arrived  at  Bushire  with  Colonel  Chesney.  And  Wolff  warned 
Colonel  Campbell  accordingly  of  his  suspicions  about  the  man. 
That  Wolff's  suspicions  of  his  being  a  Jew  were  well  founded, 
will  hereafter  appear. 

Wolff  left  Astaara,  accompanied  by  a  servant  of  Colonel 
Campbell,  and  traversed,  for  eight  days,  all  the  villages 
infected  by  the  plague,  for  300  miles,  till  he  reached  Teheran, 
the  chief  capital  of  the  King  of  Persia,  the  journey  being  per 
formed  on  horseback,  and  Wolff  always  sleeping  outside  the 
villages  on  the  ground,  in  the  open  air.  The  servant  cooked 
for  him,  and  he  was  provided  with  victuals  at  Astaara  to  last 
the  whole  way. 

On  his  arrival  in  Teheran,  he  took  up  his  abode  in  the  palace 
of  the  British  Ambassador,  as  Colonel  Campbell  had  most 
kindly  provided  him  with  a  letter  for  the  housekeeper  there, 
who  was  a  Persian.  Khosrow  Khan,  his  old  friend,  the  chief 
eunuch,  called  on  him  ;  and  ho  has  been  already  described  by 
Wolff  as  a  Muhammadan  Swedenborgian.  He  was  delighted, 
he  said,  to  hear  again  about  Christ.  He  said,  also,  that  he 
would  assist  Wolff  in  going  safely  to  Bokhara  ;  but  that  it  was 
a  far  more  dangerous  journey  than  any  Wolff  had  ever  under 
taken  before,  and,  therefore,  great  caution  was  required.  He 
said,  too,  that,  in  the  year  1825,  Captain  Brown,  an  English 
traveller,  had  been  killed  in  Khorassan,  although  he  had  had 
with  him  an  escort  from  the  King  of  Persia. 

Wolff  called  the  next  day  on  Khosrow  Khan,  when  he  met 
there  several  Affghan  merchants  who  had  come  from  Bokhara. 
Khosrow  Khan  asked  them,  how  Wolff  could  go  safely  ?  They 

284  Travels  and  Adventures 

replied,  "  Nametwanad  B'rawad,"  "He  cannot  qo"  Wolff 
asked,  "  Why  not  !"  They  answered,  "  They  will  kill  you  in 
Khorassan,  because  they  cannot  bear  Christians ;  and  if  you 
should  slip  safely  through  Khorassan,  and  arrive  in  Sarakhs, 
where  there  are  6000  tents  of  Turcomauns,  they  will  keep  you 
a  slave  ;  and  if  you  were  to  slip  through  Sarakhs  safely,  and 
arrive  in  Merw  (also  called  Mowr),  you  will  still  be  in  the 
same  danger  ;  and  if  you  should  slip  safely  through  Merw, 
and  arrive  in  Bokhara,  you  will  either  be  kept  there,  and 
never  be  allowed  to  leave :  or  killed,  as  they  killed  Morecroft, 
and  Guthrie,  and  Trebeck,  six  years  ago,  after  Shah  Hydar 
had  received  them  with  the  greatest  kindness,  and  after  they 
had  given  him  immense  presents."  Besides  this,  they  said  to 
Wolff,  "  You  have  physical  impediments,  because  you  are 
short-sighted,  and  do  not  see  when  robbers  are  coming." 

And  Wolff  must  confess  that  he  is  the  most  unfit  of  tra 
vellers,  because,  as  they  justly  observed,  he  is  short-sighted ; 
and  also,  he  is  not  able  to  ride  upon  a  good  horse,  nor  even 
upon  a  donkey  ;  he  cannot  swim  at  all ;  he  cannot  cook  his 
own  victuals,  nor  sit  as  the  natives  do,  with  crossed  legs,  like 
tailors;  and  his  habit  of  walking  about,  in  a  pensive  manner, 
was  always  offensive  to  Easterns  of  every  description,  until 
they  had  found  him  out  to  be  a  dervish,  who  was  absorbed  in 
meditations  on  higher  matters. 

Khosrow  Khan  said,  "  My  dear  friend,  I  do  not  like  to  be 
responsible  for  your  safety,  for  I  am  convinced  you  are  in 
great  danger.'1''  Wolff  replied,  "  Grod  is  mighty  above  all 
things  ;  He  will  take  care  of  me." 

Now,  before  Wolff  proceeds  to  give  an  account  of  his  depar 
ture,  he  must  be  allowed  to  give  an  insight  into  the  state  of 
the  country  of  Persia,  and  of  Turkistan,  and  Bokhara — those 
countries  to  which  he  was  about  to  proceed.  He  has  already 
observed  that  there  are  two  great  parties  in  the  Muhammadan 
religion  :  The  Sheeah, — Anti-traditionalists,  who  believe  that 
the  first  rightful  successor  of  Muhammad  was  Ali,  and  after 
him  the  twelve  Imaums.  They  reject  entirely  the  right  of 
successorship  of  Aboubeker,  Omar,  and  Osman,  and  consider 
them  as  robbers  and  usurpers,  and  curse  five  times  every  day, 
in  each  of  their  prayers,  Aboubeker,  Omar,  and  Osman. 

Now  the  Persians  and  the  people  of  Khorassan  are  Sheeah, 
and  are  under  the  government  of  the  King  of  Persia,  who  is 
also  a  Sheeah.  And  Persia  Proper,  including  Khorassan,  is 
comprised  by  the  name  of  Iran.  But,  after  it,  Tooran  comes, 
which  comprises  the  whole  of  Turkistan,  Bokhara,  Khiva,  and 
Kokan,  and  Tashkand,  and  Hasrat  Sultan,  Mimona,  Ankhoy, 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  285 

and  Herat.  These  countries,  except  Herat,  are  also  called 
Turkistan.  Its  inhabitants  are  Osbeck,  Tatshick,  and  Kal 
mucks,  all  of  which  are  Soounee,  i.e.  Traditionalists.  They 
recognize  the  Khalifatship,  or  successorship  of  Aboubeker, 
Omar,  and  Osman,  and  Ali ;  and  declare  the  Sheeah  to  be 
infidels,  and  worthy  of  being  sold,  as  they  express  themselves, 
like  donkeys  and  horses.  And  this  they  do  ;  and  every  year 
the  King  and  Muhammadan  Mollahs  of  Bokhara  issue  a 
Fetwa,  i.e.  Papal  bull,  ordering  the  Turcomauns  in  the  desert, 
and  the  Hazara  (called  by  Gibbon,  "Khozaren"),  to  march 
every  year  to  Khorassan  and  Persia,  to  make  "  tchapow,"  i.e. 
foray ;  which  order  those  tribes  obey,  and  capture  whole  cara 
vans,  burn  down  cities  and  villages,  and  sell  the  inhabitants  as 
slaves  in  the  cities  of  Turkistan. 

In  Hebrew,  the  Turcomauns  are  called,  The  children  of 
Togarmah.  Is  it  not  remarkable  that  this  description  agrees 
with  the  words  of  Ezekiel?  (Ezekiel  xxvii.  14) — "They  of 
the  house  of  Togarmah  traded  in  thy  fairs  with  horses  and 
horsemen  " — i.  e.  slaves,  because  the  Persian  slaves  are  used 
as  horsemen — "  and  mules."  This  is  their  trade  to  this  day. 
The  Turcomauns  now,  therefore,  enter  Khorassan  every  year, 
five  or  six  times,  burn  down  whole  villages,  carry  away  the 
inhabitants  as  slaves,  and  sell  them  in  the  cities  of  Bokhara 
and  Khiva. 

But  this  is  not  the  only  thing  to  be  dreaded.  The  people 
of  Khorassan,  though  Sheeah,  and  subjects  of  the  King  of 
Persia,  were  only  nominally  his  subjects,  and  were,  in  reality, 
subjects  of  forty-two  Khans  ;  and,  let  it  be  observed,  all  of 
them  were  Sheeah  also.  And  all  those  Khans  had  power  in 
their  respective  territories  over  the  lives  and  property  of  their 
subjects,  like  the  feudal  lords,  in  ancient  times,  in  England 
and  in  Germany ;  and  they  cared  but  little  for  the  King  of 
Persia,  to  whom,  however,  each  Khan  gave  every  year  a  horse 
as  a  mark  of  tribute. 

Many  of  these  Khans  were  in  open  understanding  with  the 
Turcomauns  of  the  desert ;  the  enemies  of  their  rightful  Kino-, 
and  the  enemies  of  their  religion  !  There  was  one  of  them, 
especially,  whose  name  was  Muhammad  Iszhak  Khan,  ruler 
of  the  city  and  territory  of  Torbad-Hydareea  ;  a  man  six  feet 
high,  with  eyes  flashing  fire,  who  marched  out,  sometimes 
with  3000  horsemen,  making  slaves  of  the  subjects  of  his 
fellow-Khans,  bringing  them  to  his  own  town,  Torbad,  im 
prisoning  them,  aud  putting  them  in  irons  until  Turcomauns 
from  the  desert  came  to  purchase  them  of  him ;  and  thus 
bought  Sheeah  from  the  hands  of  a  Sheeah  chief,  to  sell  them 

286  Travels  and  Adventures 

again,  chiefly  in  Bokhara  and  Khiva !  It  is  said  of  him,  that 
he  had,  in  this  manner,  sold  60,000  of  his  co-religionists,  and 
subjects  of  his  own  King,  to  the  Soonnee  ;  and  as  this  system 
has  been  now  carried  on  for  centuries,  there  are  200,000 
Persian  slaves  in  the  kingdom  of  Bokhara  alone.  It  was 
through  such  a  country  as  this  that  Wolff  had  now  to  travel. 
Meantime,  several  cases  of  Bibles,  in  various  languages  had 
arrived  for  Wolff  in  the  British  Embassy  at  Teheran,  from 
Bombay,  sent  to  him  by  Bishop  Carr,  at  that  time  Arch 
deacon  Carr.  Before  Wolff  started  he  made  acquaintance 
with  an  Affghan,  who  had  been  several  times  in  Bokhara,  and 
had  managed  matters  so  well  that  he  always  came  safely 
back  ;  and  as  Soonnee,  there  was  no  danger  of  his  being  made 
a  slave.  This  man  promised  to  bring  Wolff  safely  to  Bokhara; 
so  he  paid  him  a  visit  in  the  British  Embassy.  On  his  arrival 
there  Wolff  embraced  him  in  the  Eastern  manner,  and  gave 
him  a  cup  of  tea  to  drink,  and  sat  down  near  him,  and  looked 
at  him  ;  when,  on  looking  at  his  neck,  below  his  ear,  he  saw 
something  white  on  his  skin  —  white  as  snow ;  but  not 
knowing  then,  thoroughly,  what  leprosy  was,  he  put  his  hand 
to  it,  and  asked  him  "  What  have  you  got  here?"  To  which 
he  coolly  replied,  "  This  is  what  we  call  in  Persian, />/•?;"  i.  e. 
leprosy.  Wolff  ran  away  at  once,  and  out  into  the  garden  ; 
where  meeting  with  a  Parsee  who  was  preparing  everything  for 
his  journey,  he  bade  him  go  and  tell  the  man  he  could  have 
nothing  to  do  with  him  j  and,  of  course,  he  never  saw  him 


Wolff  then  went  to  the  market-place  in  Teheran,  where  he 
met  a  Muhammadan,  dressed  in  a  large  yellow  gown,  with  a 
shawl  tied  around  him  like  a  sash  ;  a  white  turban  upon  his 
head,  and  a  staff  in  his  hand.  Wolff  was  at  that  time  dressed 
in  Persian  costume ;  he  had  also  a  Bible  under  his  arm,  and  a 
Persian  cap  on  his  head  ;  and  as  it  is  not  the  custom  as  it  is  in 
England,  that  one  must  be  first  introduced  before  speaking,  he 
walked  up  to  him,  and  said,  "  I  perceive  that  you  are  a 
Hadshee."  He  at  once  told  Wolff  his  whole  history,  and 
said,  "  Yes,  God  be  praised,  I  am  a  Hadshee,  a  Sheeah,  and  a 
Muj teheed  (i.  e.  a  Sheeah  priest).  I  set  out  three  years 
ago  from  Herat,  and  came  through  Khorassan,  escaping  the 
attention  of  that  Pedr  Sukhte  (which  is  in  English,  ( one 
whose  father  ought  to  be  burned '),  Muhammad  Iszhak  Khan, 
of  Torbad-Hydareea ;  and  I  arrived  safely  in  Teheran,  and 
from  Teheran  I  went  to  Bushire ;  from  thence  I  embarked  for 
Juddah,  and  from  Juddah  I  went  to  Mecca,  and  from  Mecca 
to  Medina  j  and  after  three  years  I  returned  yesterday,  back 

of  Dr.  Wolf.  287 

to  this  place,  Teheran ;  and  to-morrow  I  shall  set  out  for 
Herat,  by  the  way  of  Meshed." 

Wolff  was  highly  pleased  to  hear  this  account,  for  he,  him 
self,  had  to  go  more  than  halfway  on  the  same  road.  So  he 
said  to  the  Hadshee : — "  You  are  a  Hadshee ;  I  am  also  a 
Hadshee ;  but  I  am  more,  I  am  a  Dervish.  I  am  a  believer 
in  three  books,  which  are  :  first,  the  books  of  Moses  and  the 
Prophets  :  secondly,  the  Psalms  of  David  ;  and  thirdly,  the 
Gospel  of  Christ,  together  with  the  Epistles  of  his  Apostles." 
Wolff  used  wittingly  these  expressions,  because  the  Mu- 
hammadans  divide  the  revealed  Book  into  four  books  ;  firstly, 
the  Tawrat,  i.  e.  the  first  five  books  of  Moses ;  secondly, 
Zaboor,  that  is  the  Psalms  of  David ;  thirdly,  Anjeel,  which 
is  the  Gospel ;  and  fourthly,  the  Koran,  i.  e.  the  book  of  Mu 
hammad.  By  telling  the  Hadshee  this,  Wolff  gave  him  to 
understand  that  he  did  not  believe  the  same  as  the  Hadshee, 
but  yet,  that  he  was  not  an  infidel.  Wolff  then  continued, 
"  I  go  about  in  the  world  to  proclaim  that  Jesus  Christ  came 
the  first  time  to  suffer  for  our  sins  ;  and  that  He  will  come 
the  second  time  to  reign  on  earth  in  majesty  and  glory  ;  and 
I  am  now  going  to  Bokhara  in  order  to  find  out  the  ten  tribes 
of  Israel. "" 

The  Hadshee,  whose  name  was  Sayd  Muhammad,  observed, 
"  I  should  like  to  travel  with  you."  And  Wolff  repeated,  "  I 
should  like  to  travel  with  you."  On  which  the  Hadshee  said, 
"  Then  you  must  be  ready  to-morrow." 

Wolff  hired  four  camels,  upon  which  he  loaded,  those  Bibles 
which  had  been  sent  to  him  from  Bombay  for  distribution  on 
the  journey  ;  and  he  hired  two  Persian  servants,  both  of  them 
tremendous  rogues  ;  for  Wolff  never  had  the  £ood  fortune  to 

O  "  O 

meet  with  a  good  servant,  except  on  his  second  journey  to 
Bokhara,  in  the  year  1843,  when  he  took  a  Russian  with  him 
from  Constantinople  to  Tabreez,  who  actually  behaved  very 
well  the  whole  journey.  But  when  they  arrived  at  Tabreez, 
he  became  so  drunk  that  he  thrashed  his  master,  and  would 
have  most  seriously  injured  him,  if  Mr.  Bonham  had  not 
knocked  him  down.  Wolff,  however,  would  still  have  taken 
him  on  to  Bokhara  after  he  became  sober,  if  he  would  have 
promised  not  to  get  drunk  again.  But  he  said  he  never  would 
promise  such  a  thing,  as  he  was  determined  to  get  drunk 
whenever  the  feast  of  the  Holy  Virgin  Mary  was  celebrated. 
So  Wolff  dismissed  him. 

But  to  return  to  the  journey  to  Khorassan.  Wolff  set  out 
the  next  day  with  the  Hadshee,  who  had  his  hareem  and 
servants  ;  and  with  his  own  servants  besides  ;  and  about  fifty 

288  Travels  and  Adventures 

Persians  who  had  joined  the  caravan  for  Khorassan.  Every 
thing  went  on  smoothly  for  three  days ;  but  on  the  fourth, 
they  arrived  in  the  province  of  Khorassan ;  and,  almost  im 
mediately,  the  whole  caravan  uttered  shrieks,  and  the  Hadshee 
said,  weeping,  "  God  have  mercy  upon  us  !  Now  we  are  lost ; 
we  are  slaves  for  life  !"  Wolff  asked,  "What  is  the  matter?" 
They  all  exclaimed,  "  Are  you  blind  ?  look  there  !"  and  here 
they  pointed  in  one  direction.  "  There  are  the  Al-Ammaan 
coming  on  horseback ;  and  the  Al-Ammaan  have  a  proverb, 
'•Al-Ammaan  Atlanda  Attasee  Danamas^  ^  i.e.  "An  Al- 
Ammaan  on  horseback  does  not  know  his  own  father." 

Now  observe,  the  Turcomauns  are  also  called  "Al-Am 
maan  ;  "  and  there  cannot  be  the  least  doubt  that  they  are 
the  ancient  Scythians,  the  ancestors  of  the  Germans,  or  the 
Allemanni,  or  Allemands.  There  are  among  them  two  tribes; 
the  one  called  Sdkas>  the  Saxons  ;  and  the  other  the  Garaman, 
that  is  the  Germans.  They  are  also  called  the  Tooraanee,  and 
are  noted  so  much  for  their  ferocity,  that  the  Greeks  have 
taken  from  the  name  rvpawoi,  i.  e.  "  tyrants."  The  first  thing 
they  do  whenever  they  attack  a  caravan,  is  to  fire,  and  kill 
some,  in  order  to  strike  terror  among  the  rest.  Then  those 
who  have  escaped  fall  on  their  knees,  and  exclaim,  Ammaan ! 
i.e.  "Give  us  our  safety!"  Upon  this,  the  Al-Amniaans, 
that  is,  the  people  to  whom  the  prisoner  entrusts  his  safety,  strip 
their  victims  of  everything  they  possess,  leaving  them  naked ; 
and  tie  them  to  their  horses'  tails  with  a  long  rope,  so  that 
the  horse  is  not  able  to  kick  them ;  but  they  are  dragged  on 
until  the  troop  arrive  with  them  at  the  spot  in  Turkistan 
called  Sarakhs,  which  is  the  chief  emporium  or  market-place 
for  slaves. 

Now  eight  or  nine  hundred  of  such  Al-Ammaan  came  down 
upon  Wolff  and  his  caravan ;  but,  to  the  surprise  of  all,  they 
did  not  fire,  nor  make  any  attack ;  although  they  came  up  to 
within  a  couple  of  yards  of  the  travellers.  Every  one  was 
dumb  and  motionless,  the  attackers  as  well  as  the  attacked. 
At  last,  the  Turcomauns  commenced,  "Norb'don  Golyoorsesz?" 
i.e.  "Where  do  you  come  from  ?"  Wolff  replied,  "  Ajamees- 
taundan^  which  means,  "From  the  land  of  Ajam,"  i.e.  Persia. 
The  Al-Arnmaans  shook  their  heads,  and  said  to  each  other, 
"  KoorJcar,  Ajameestaunda  Boowakt  Wabba  Warr  awrdah  ; " 
"  There  is  danger  ;  the  plague  exists  in  Persia  at  this  time." 
When  Wolff  observed  from  these  words  that  they  were  afraid 
of  the  plague,  he  began  to  walk  up  to  them  ;  upon  which, 
they  turned  round  at  once,  and  rode  off  as  fast  as  they  could. 
And  thus,  as  it  was  observed,  in  the  account  of  Wolff's  cle- 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  289 

parture  from  Constantinople,  the  plague  was  once,  during  this 
journey,  the  means  of  saving  him  from  either  death  or  slavery. 

All  now  exclaimed,  "  Alhamdoolillah  /"  "  Praise  be  to  God  !" 
and  after  this,  they  marched  on,  and  came  to  Semnaun.  This 
was  the  place  where,  six  years  before  Wolff's  journey,  Captain 
Brown  was  killed  ;  and  here,  at  the  time  when  Wolff  was  en 
tering  it,  two  Khorassan  chiefs  were  fighting  with  each  other. 
One  of  them  was  son  to  the  King  of  Persia ;  the  other  was  a 
native  of  Khorassan,  both  of  them  Sheeah. 

Wolff  pitched  his  tent  outside  the  city  of  Semnaun,  with 
the  rest  of  the  caravan  ;  and  the  inhabitants  came  thither  out 
of  the  town  ;  some  of  them  to  honour  Wolff,  because  they  had 
heard  that  he  was  a  great  dervish  ;  others  with  a  wish  to  kill 
him,  because  they  had  heard  that  he  was  an  infidel.  The 
Hadshee  made  them  believe  that  he  was  a  dervish,  who  be 
lieved  in  three  books,  and  that  he  was  an  extraordinary  man, 
who  went  about  to  speak  with  the  nations  about  Jesus.  So 
these  men  talked  to  Wolff  for  some  time  ;  but  the  evil-disposed 
ones  refused  to  give  him  water  to  drink,  and  the  others  did  not 
dare  to  do  it.  Wolff,  however,  made  his  way  to  a  well  him 
self.  At  last,  they  all  retired  back  into  the  town,  and  the 
caravan  slept  in  peace. 

From  thence  they  came  to  Damghan,  one  of  the  three  cities 
which  are  considered  the  most  ancient  in  the  world.  The  other 
two  are  Balkh,  in  Bactriana,  and  Nishapoor,  in  Khorassan.  In 
Damghan,  Wolff  was  received  civilly  by  the  Governor  in  his 
own  house,  though  he  told  him  freely  his  history,  viz.  : — that 
he  had  been  a  Jew,  and  had  become  a  Christian  and  a  dervish. 
In  the  night  there  was  fighting  going  on  in  the  town,  so  that 
Wolff  was  disturbed  the  whole  time  ;  and  his  host  had  to  fly 
the  place ;  and  Wolff  hastened  away  in  the  morning  to  the 
camp  outside  the  town,  where  he  had  left  the  Hadshee. 

And  then  Wolff  proceeded  on  his  way,  with  the  caravan,  to 
Sharoot  and  Deh-Moollah,  and  arrived  at  the  beautiful  town 
called  Boostan,  which  means  "  Garden."  This  is  one  of  the 
few  towns  in  Khorassan,  whose  rule  is  in  the  hands  of  one  of 
the  King's  sons.  The  name  of  that  prince  was  Ismael  Mirza,* 
and  he  was  the  son  of  a  Jewess.  On  Wolff's  arrival  in 
Boostau,  the  whole  town  was  in  alarm  and  in  arms  ;  and  shouts 
were  heard  from  all  sides,  Al-Ammaan  beeroon,  "  The  Al- 
Ammaans  are  outside  f  And  this  was  so  ;  they  filled  the 
whole  road  called  "  The  King's  Highway,"  which  leads  from 

*  The  word  Mirza,  when  placed  before  a  proper  name,  means  a  secre 
tary  ;  when  placed  after  it,  it  means  a  prince  royal, — the  son  or  descend 
ant  of  a  king. 

290  Travels  and  Adventures 

Boostan  to  Meshed,  and  so  forward  to  Bokhara  ;  the  King's 
Highway  being  a  scriptural  expression,  to  be  found  in  the 
prophet  Isaiah,  signifying  the  chief  road. 

Wolff  said  to  the  inhabitants  of  Boostan,  u  There  is  no 
cause  of  fear  for  us,  for  they  might  have  taken  us  a  week  ago 
on  the  frontier."  They  answered,  "  Oh,  we  see  that  you  are  a 
foreigner,  and  do  not  know  the  policy  of  these  Al-Ammaans. 
They  did  not  take  you  on  the  frontier,  because  they  were  not 
quite  sure  whether  the  plague  was  among  you  or  not.  But,  as 
they  have  spies  everywhere,  they  are  now  convinced  that  you 
are  healthy  and  sound  ;  and  do  you  only  go  out  for  half  an  hour 
towards  Meshed,  and  see  whether  they  will  not  take  you." 

Wolff  now  asked  the  Hadshee,  "  What  do  you  intend  to 
do?"  He  replied,  "Let  us  hire  a  house  here,  and  stay  till  the 
times  are  more  quiet."  Wolff  replied,  "  I  shall  do  no  such 
thing,  I  must  go  on."  And  as  he  had  had  a  letter  from  the 
King  of  Persia  for  Ismael  Mirza,  he  waited  on  him.  The 
Prince  read  the  letter  in  due  form,  first  pressing  it  against  his 
forehead,  then  kisssing  it,  then  putting  it  to  his  heart,  and  then, 
after  reading  it,  he  said  to  Wolff,  "  I  am  your  humble  servant. 
Ask  of  me  whatever  you  wish  me  to  do  for  you  and  I  will  do  it.*" 
Wolff  said  that  he  only  desired  his  Royal  Highness  to  send 
him  to  Bokhara  in  safety,  either  as  a  freeman  or  as  a  slave. 
He  told  the  Prince  that  his  object  in  getting  safely  to  Bokhara 
was,  that  he  might  be  able  to  converse  with  the  Jews  about 
Jesus,  and  inquire  into  the  truth  of  their  idea,  that  they  were 
descendants  of  the  lost  ten  tribes.  He  added,  that  after 
accomplishing  his  mission  in  Bokhara,  he  would.,  in  case  he 
went  there  as  a  slave,  write  to  the  Governor  of  Orenbourg,  in 
Siberia,  and  enclose  a  letter  to  Lord  Heytesbury,  sending  him 
bills  to  obtain  money  to  pay  for  his  ransom  in  Bokhara. 

The  Prince  said,  "  There  is  no  necessity  for  sending  you  on 
as  a  slave,  I  can  send  you  on  as  a  freeman.  And  you  may 
take  as  much  gold  on  your  head  as  you  please.  Nobody 
will  touch  you,  and  you  need  not  go  with  a  caravan  ;  one 
single  man  is  enough  to  bring  you  safely  to  Bokhara.  I  only 
require  from  you  one  condition — I  don't  want  money  from  you, 
but  my  father  writes  to  me  that  you  are  a  very  great  man  in 
England.  Therefore  give  me  a  writing,  in  which  you  promise, 
in  the  name  of  the  King  of  England,  that  after  you  are  arrived 
safely  in  Bokhara,  he  will  give  me  a  life-pension  yearly,  of 
6;000  tomauns  "  (equal  to  ^3,000  sterling). 

Wolff  smiled,  and  said,  "  I  can  give  you  a  paper,  that  his 
Majesty  should  give  you  40,000  tomauns,  but  I  doubt  whether 
he  will  honour  the  bill  !" 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  291 

Thereupon  he  replied,  "  Then  I  fear  your  paper  will  be  good 
for  nothing." 

Wolff  answered,  "  So  I  am  afraid  myself." 

"  Then,"  exclaimed  he,  "  you  may  go  to  the  devil  P 

So  WolfF  left  the  palace  of  the  Prince,  and  returned  to  the 
Hadshee  in  the  market-place,  where  many  of  the  inhabitants 
were  assembled.  They  asked  WolfF  what  the  result  of  his 
application  had  been  2  And  he  informed  them  of  all  the  cir 
cumstances,  at  which  they  all  laughed,  and  made  the  following 
remarkable  observation ; — 

"  Oh,  you  don't  know  our  princes  ;  they  are  not  like  yours. 
Your  princes  will  do  some  kindness  to  a  foreigner,  but  the 
occupation  of  our  princes  is  to  dye  their  beards  black  with 
henna,  smoke  the  galyoon,  and  get  drunk  against  the  law  of 
the  Koran.  They  spend  the  greater  part  of  their  days  in  the 
hareem,  and  squeeze  their  subjects  for  money,  and  foreigners 
too,  if  they  can  ;  and  they  are  in  understanding  with  the  Al- 
Ammaan  in  the  desert,  bargaining  for  part  of  their  spoils.1' 

It  is  surprising  to  observe,  how,  in  countries  where  tyranny 
prevails,  liberty  of  speech  is  allowed  to  exist.  It  is  to  be  ex 
plained  in  this  way  : — The  being  a  tyrant  is  no  discredit  there, 
but  a  credit.  Count  Titow  observed  to  WolfF,  that  this  seems 
to  have  been  the  case  in  the  time  of  our  blessed  Saviour.  And 
the  Apostle  seems  to  insinuate  this  by  the  words,  "  He  beareth 
not  the  sword  in  vain."  And  if  we  ask  at  the  present  day  in 
savage,  despotic  countries,  "  Why  has  the  king  killed  such  and 
such  a  man  2  What  crime  has  he  committed  2"  the  answer  is, 
"  None ;  he  was  a  good  man,  but  using  the  sword  is  the 
business  of  a  king." 

This  seems  to  have  been  the  case  in  the  times  of  Louis 
Quinze  in  France,  when  both  tyranny  existed  and  liberty  of 
speech  was  allowed.  For  a  tyrant  will  allow  liberty  of  speech 
so  long  as  he  does  not  perceive  the  danger  of  it,  but  the 
moment  he  perceives  the  danger  he  puts  a  stop  to  it.  And  so, 
we  may  ask,  would  Louis  Napoleon  now  allow  any  one  to  write 
a  book  like  "  Telemaque  ?"  Certainly  not  !  Napoleon  per 
ceives  this  danger,  and  gives  warning  to  newspapers,  and  stops 
all  liberty  of  speech;  because  the  fate  of  Louis  XVI.  has 
shown  to  him  what  is  the  consequence  of  tyrannical  acts  when 
they  are  permitted  to  be  canvassed  by  the  people. 

WolfF  asked  the  inhabitants  whether  there  was  not  another 
road  to  Bokhara?  They  replied,  "  Yes,  there  is  one  where  the 
Turcomauns  don't  go,  on  account  of  the  scarcity  of  water  ;  and 
this  is  through  the  province  of  Cay  en  to  Burchund,  and  from 
thence  to  Herat,  and  from  Herat  to  Samarcand  and  Bokhara. 


292  Travels  and  Adventures 

In  case  you  take  that  road,  you  must  provide  yourself  with 
water  for  seven  days  in  skins,  and  also  with  pomegranates,  from 
which  you  may  squeeze  out  a  tumbler  full  of  juice,  and  that 
juice,  mixed  with  water  and  sugar,  you  will  find  a  delicious 
draught  to  take  when  you  are  thirsty ;  and  you  must  provide 
yourself  with  enough  roasted  chickens  to  last  you  seven  days, 
and  so  you  will  be  able  to  arrive  on  the  seventh  day  at  Bur- 
chund.  But  on  arriving  there,  try  to  escape  the  attention  of 
Ameer  Assaad-Oollah-Beyk,  the  Governor  of  that  place,  for 
he  has  been  a  rebel  against  Abbas  Mirza  and  the  King  of 
Persia  for  the  last  thirty  years,  and  as  you  are  the  friend  of 
Abbas  Mirza,  you  may  easily  be  suspected  of  being  one  of  his 
spies,  and  be  put  to  death." 

Wolff  prepared,  according  to  the  advice  he  had  received,  to 
proceed  to  Burchund  and  Herat,  and  when  the  inhabitants  saw 
that  he  was  determined  to  go,  one  old  man  eighty  years  of  age, 
said,  "  I  will  go  with  this  European  as  far  as  Burchund,  for  I 
have  never  seen  my  great-grandchildren  who  live  there." 
Another  said,  "  I  want  to  go  and  see  my  nurse,  whom  I  have 
not  seen  for  these  twenty  years." 

And  thus  a  caravan  was  again  formed,  of  between  forty  and 
fifty  people,  and  Wolff  set  out  for  the  desert  of  Cayeu  with  his 
fellow-travellers  and  servants. 

The  first  night  they  slept  among  the  ruins  of  a  huge  castle. 
It  was  utterly  inconceivable  to  discover,  how,  in  those  ancient 
times,  men  could  have  placed  such  mighty  stones  one  upon  the 
other.  No  wonder  that  the  natives  say,  these  structures  have 
not  been  built  by  human  hands,  but  by  Deeves,  or  genii ;  and 
that  Rostum  himself,  the  Hercules  of  the  Persians,  has  not 
been  able  to  destroy  them  entirely. 

The  next  morning  Wolff  started  again  on  his  journey,  and 
went  twenty-five  miles  ;  and  they  were  about  to  lie  down  to 
sleep  in  the  desert,  after  they  had  had  some  food,  when  the  old 
man,  before  mentioned,  began  to  make  a  most  tremendous  noise, 
exclaiming,  "  O  God  !  what  has  happened  to  me  in  my  old 
age  ?"  They  asked  him  what  was  the  matter  ?  and  he  replied, 
"  I  must  return  to  that  accursed  castle."  Wolff  asked,  why? 
He  said,  "  I  have  lost  a  half-rupee  in  the  castle,  which  I  must 
try  to  find  again."  Wolff  would  have  willingly  offered  him 
two  or  three  rupees,  in  order  that  he  might  not  take  the  trou 
ble  of  going  back  again  ;  but  on  such  journeys  everything  is 
to  be  considered  ;  for,  if  he  had  shown  himself  liberal  to  the 
old  man,  he  might  have  excited  the  suspicion  that  he  had  a 
great  deal  of  money,  and  so  have  put  into  the  minds  of  the  rest, 
and  even^of  the  old  man  himself,  the  idea  of  killing  him  for 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  293 

his  money.  For  they  say  of  a  man  who  has  got  a  great  deal 
of  money,  bad  nam  darad,  which  means  "he  has  a  bad  name," 
because  he  is  in  danger  of  being  put  to  death.  And  so  Wolff 
suffered  the  old  man  to  return  the  next  day  to  the  castle. 

All  said  that  the  man  would  not  try  again  to  join  the  cara 
van,  but  would  go  back  to  Boostan ;  and  so  they  proceeded 
without  him,  and  went  on  that  day  about  thirty  miles,  and 
were  about  to  go  to  rest,  when,  to  their  great  surprise,  they 
heard  the  voice  of  the  old  man,  exclaiming,  "  Praise  be  to 
God,  the  Creator  of  the  world,  praise  be  to  God,  the  mighty 
and  the  glorious  !  I  have  found  my  half-rupee."  The  whole 
caravan  laughed  most  heartily  on  hearing  the  joy  of  this  man, 
who  kept  them  awake  half  the  night,  telling  them  how  he  had 
swept  the  room  in  the  castle,  until  "  Hazr"  (i.e.  Elijah)  ap 
peared  to  him,  and  showed  him  the  spot  where  the  half-rupee 
lay.  This  illustrates  the  passage  in  Luke  xv.  8,  9,  u  Either 
what  woman  having  ten  pieces  of  silver,  if  she  lose  one  piece, 
doth  not  light  a  candle,  and  sweep  the  house,  and  seek  dili 
gently  till  she  find  it  ?  And  when  she  hath  found  it,  she  call- 
eth  her  friends  and  her  neighbours  together,  saying,  '  Rejoice, 
with  me,  for  I  have  found  the  piece  which  I  had  lost.11 

Wolff  had  often  witnessed  similar  conduct  in  women  who 
had  lost  some  piece  of  money  of  the  most  insignificant  value, 
and  this  shows  the  dreadful  covetousness  of  the  Eastern  people. 
However,  covetousness  is  not  confined  to  Easterns,  it  prevails 
also  in  Europe,  especially  among  those  literary  men  who  carry 
on  literary  pursuits  as  a  trade, 

The  next  morning;  the  caravan  proceeded  on  through  the 
desert,  and  slept  in  a  camp,  as  usual ;  when  a  quarrel  arose 
between  two  of  the  travellers,  one  saying  to  the  other,  "  Thou 
stupid  fellow,  thou  art  ignorant  of  thy  religion."  The  other 
replied,  "  Ask  me  a  question,  and  see  if  I  cannot  answer  it." 
The  other  said,  "  Then  tell  me  what  was  the  name  of  the  pro 
phet's  daughter  who  married  Ali  f  The  other  did  not  know. 
And  here  Wolff,  who  had  overheard  the  discussion,  called  out, 
"  Fatimah  Khatoon  was  her  name."  (Khatoon  means  a  lady, 
so  that  she  was  called  "  Fatimah  the  lady.") 

The  man  who  had  challenged  the  other,  now  exclaimed,  "  See, 
this  Christian  dervish  knows  it,  but  thou  dost  not  know  !" 

Wolff  again  interposed,  "  Now,  I  will  ask  you  who  boast  so 
much,  some  questions.  Answer  me  !  With  whom  did  Mu 
hammad  travel,  and  to  what  place  did  he  travel,  when  he  was 
thirteen  years  of  age  ?  And  who  invited  him  to  a  sumptuous 

The  man  knew  not  one  single  word  of  this.  Then  Wolff 
said,  "  He  travelled  with  Aboo-Taleb,  his  uncle  ;  and  came 

294  Travels  and  Adventures 

near  Bussorah  in  Syria,  on  his  way  to  Jerusalem ;  and  it  was 
by  Baheerah,  the  monk,  that  he  was  invited  with  his  party  to 
a  sumptuous  dinner."" 

As  Wolff  concluded,  a  dervish  rose  from  amidst  the  caravan, 
and  approaching  him  said,  "  Verily,  Youssuff  Wolff,  thou  art 
a  dervish  indeed.  Untruth  is  not  in  thee  !"  Wolff  at  once 
presented  this  dervish  with  a  Bible,  and  commenced  speaking 
about  religion. 


Burclmnd :  Taken  Prisoner  :  Dervishes :  Caravan :  Toorshesh  : 
Made  Slave:  Torbad-Hydareea :  The  " Head-tearer :"  Re 
leased  from  Slavery. 

A  T  last,  the  caravan  arrived  in  Burchund,  where  Wolff  went 
•**•  to  a  caravanserai  to  sleep ;  for  Ameer  Assaad-Oollah- 
Beyk,  Governor  of  the  place,  a  Sheeah  by  persuasion,  and 
vassal  to  the  King  of  Persia  (but  who  had  already  been  for 
thirty  years  a  rebel  against  his  liege  lord,  and  the  Prince  Regent 
Abbas  Mirza),  was  very  suspicious  of  every  traveller  who  came 
to  the  place ;  being  afraid  that  he  might  be  a  spy  upon  him, 
sent  from  Abbas  Mirza.  Wolff,  knowing  this,  did  not  delay 
at  Burchund ;  but  set  out  the  next  morning  for  Herat,  accom 
panied  only  by  his  own  two  servants,  and  a  camel-driver  con 
ducting  the  camel  which  carried  the  Bibles. 

He  walked  the  whole  distance — being  forty  miles  ;  and  just 
as  night  had  set  in,  two  horsemen  came  up  behind  him.  They 
were  of  that  mighty  and  brave  race,  the  Pooluj,  the  bravest 
people  of  central  Asia ;  who  were  afterwards  entirely  defeated 
and  subdued  by  General  Sir  Charles  Napier.  When  these  two 
Pooluj  came  behind  Wolff,  they  said,  "  We  are  sent  by  Ameer 
Assaad-Oollah-Beyk  to  bring  you  back,  because  you  are  a  spy 
from  Abbas  Mirza." 

The  history  of  the  matter  was  this.  Before  Wolff  arrived 
at  Burchund,  a  report  had  reached  the  place  that  Abbas  Mirza 
had  already  marched  into  Khorassan,  for  the  purpose  of  putting 
an  end  to  slave-making,  and  of  exterminating  the  Khans, 
among  whom  Ameer  Assaad-Oollah-Beyk,  as  one  of  the  chief 
rebels,  was  included.  And  Wolff  was  suspected  of  being  a  spy 
from  Abbas  Mirza,  on  his  road  to  Herat,  to  make  alliance  with 
Shah  Kamran,  its  king. 

Wolff  had  no  resource,  but  was  forced  to  walk  back  to  Bur- 
ehund,  a  journey  which  he  accomplished  in  three  days,  and 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  295 

then  he  was  brought  to  the  old  castle,  which  was  the  residence 
of  the  Ameer.  Those  castles  are  called  in  the  Persian,  ark, 
from  which  our  English  and  German  word  "ark"  is  derived, 
and  it  means  "  a  fortress." 

Here  Wolff  was  dragged  into  a  large  dark  room  by  the 
Ameer's  soldiers,  in  a  rude,  disrespectful  way.  Each  of  the 
soldiers  had  a  matchlock  gun  in  his  hand ;  with  a  burning, 
smoking  torch  upon  it,  which  spread  a  sulphurous  odour  through 
the  room.  On  one  side  of  the  room  sat  the  Ameer,  with  the 
chiefs  of  the  desert  around  him.  The  Ameer  himself  had  a 
most  beautiful  eye,  and  pleasant  countenance ;  and  both  he 
and  all  the  other  chiefs  had  a  galyoon  in  their  mouths,  and 
were  smoking.  On  the  other  side  were  the  Moollahs  sitting ; 
and  in  the  midst  of  them  was  a  dervish  of  high  repute,  whose 
name  was  Hadshee  Muhammad  Jawad. 

Wolff  was  at  this  time  in  his  Persian  dress,  and  carried  a 
Bible  under  his  arm,  as  was  his  universal  custom  in  travelling. 
The  Ameer  first  opened  his  mouth,  and  asked  Wolff, 

"  Where  do  you  come  from?" 

Wolff  said,  "I  come  from  England,  and  am  going  to  Bok 

"  What  do  you  intend  to  do  in  Bokhara?"  asked  the  Ameer. 

W  olff  replied,  "  I,  having  been  a  Jew,  visit  that  nation  all 
over  the  world,  and  wish  to  go  to  Bokhara,  in  order  to  see 
whether  the  Jews  there  are  of  the  ten  tribes  of  Israel,  and  to 
speak  to  them  about  Jesus." 

All  in  the  room  exclaimed,  "  This  man  must  be  devil-pos 
sessed  !" 

But  the  dervish,  on  the  other  side,  called  out,  "  Silence  ! 
This  man  is  not  devil-possessed.  I  shall  examine  him."  And 
then  he  proceeded  to  examine  Wolff,  in  the  most  extraordinary 
manner,  by  asking  him,  "  Do  you  know  Sir  John  Malcolm  ?" 

Wolff  answered  «  Yes." 

Then,  again,  asked  the  dervish,  "  Do  you  know  Sir  Gore 

Wolff  said  "  Yes,"  once  more. 

Dervish. — "  Do  you  know  Lord  Hastings,  Governor-General 
of  India?" 

Wolff.—"  Yes." 

Dervish  (in  a  louder  tone). — "  Do  you  know  the  Padri  (i.  e. 
missionaries)  of  Calcutta,  Serampore,  Madras,  and  Bombay  ?" 

Wolff.—"  Yes." 

Then  said  the  dervish,  "Thou  art  a  Padre"  (a  missionary), 
and  added,  with  exultation  at  his  own  shrewdness,  "  Have  I 
found  you  out?"  Wolff  answered  "  Yes."  Upon  which  the 

296  Travels  and  Adventures 

dervish  turned  to  the  Ameer,  and  said,  "  Now  go  on  asking 
him  questions,  and  I  will  help  you  out/' 

The  Ameer  then  continued  the  examination  as  follows  : — 

Ameer. — "  How  far  is  England  from  Bokhara?" 

Wolff. — "  Seven  thousand  miles  straightforward,  going  by 
sea  to  Constantinople,  and  from  Constantinople  by  land  to 
Bokhara;  but,  as  I  have  come,  it  is  above  15,000." 

Ameer. — "Why  do  you  take  such  trouble?  why  do  you 
mind  what  they  believe  in  Bokhara  ?  why  not  remain  at  home, 
eat  and  drink,  and  live  comfortably  in  the  circle  of  your  family  ?" 

Wolff. — "  Sadi  says,"  (and,  as  he  spoke,  he  balanced  him 
self  from  side  to  side,  as  is  the  custom  with  dervishes,  using 
also  their  singing  tone),  "  '  The  world,  O  brother,  remaineth 
not  to  any  one.  Fix,  therefore,  your  heart  on  the  Creator  of 
the  world,  and  it  is  enough.'  I  have  found  out,  by  the  reading 
of  this  book"  (here  he  held  out  the  Bible)  "that  one  can  only 
bind  one's  heart  to  God  by  believing  in  Jesus  ;  and  believing 
this,  I  am  like  one  who  walks  in  a  beautiful  garden,  and  smells 
the  odour  of  the  roses,  and  hears  the  warbling  of  the  nightin 
gale  ;  and  I  do  not  like  to  be  the  only  one  so  happy  ;  and  there 
fore  I  go  about  in  the  world  for  the  purpose  of  inviting  others 
to  walk  with  me,  arm-in-arm,  in  the  same  beautiful  garden." 

They  all  at  once  rose,  and  exclaimed,  "  A  man  of  God  ! — 
drunk  with  the  love  of  God  !  A  dervish  indeed  !  Sit  down  !" 

A  pipe  was  now  brought  to  Wolff,  and  tea  ;  and  then  the 
Ameer  desired  him  to  read  some  portions  from  his  book. 

Wolff  turned  to  the  Sermon  on  the  Mount,  and  read  the 
first  twelve  verses  ;  then  to  Isaiah,  and  read  parts  of  the  34th 
chapter,  "  Come  near,  ye  nations,  to  hear ;  and  hearken,  ye 
people  :  Let  the  earth  hear,  and  all  that  is  therein  ;  the  world, 
and  all  things  that  come  forth  of  it.  For  the  indignation  of 
the  Lord  is  upon  all  nations,  and  His  fury  upon  all  their 
armies  :  He  has  utterly  destroyed  them,  He  has  delivered  them 
to  the  slaughter,"  &c.  Upon  this  Wolff  enlarged,  and  spoke 
of  the  final  judgments  of  God  upon  the  nations.  A  general  cry 
now  arose,  "  O  God,  why  do  we  not  repent  ?  O  God,  why  do 
we  not  repent  ?" 

And  then  the  Ameer  asked  whether  Wolff  had  such  books 
in  their  language,  to  which  Wolff  replied,  "  Yes,"  and  sending 
for  his  servant,  he  caused  Persian  and  Arabic  Bibles  to  be 
brought  into  the  room,  and  distributed  above  forty  copies.  He 
afterwards  saw  people  reading,  in  the  open  market-places,  these 
very  books ;  and  was  called  upon,  more  than  once,  to  explain 
different  passages  in  them.  Wolff  remained  fourteen  days  in 
Burchund,  sleeping  in  the  house  of  Hadshee  Muhammad  Jawad. 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  297 

This  dervish  is  known,  not  only  in  the  whole  of  Khorassan, 
but  also  throughout  Turkistan,  including  Bokhara,  Balkh,  and 
Cabul,  Khotan,  Kokan,  Tashkand,  Hasrat,  Sultan,  and  Yar- 
kand  in  Chinese  Tartary,  the  whole  of  Hindoostan,  Thibet, 
and  China  ! 

It  is  worth  while  to  give  to  the  world  a  more  just  view  of 
the  dervishes  than  has  hitherto  been  done,  because,  both  by 
missionaries  and  other  travellers,  they  have  been  represented 
as  useless  beggars.  Such  an  account  of  them  as  this  is  at  once 
refuted,  by  simply  stating,  that  all  the  great  men  in  the  East, 
who  have  been  celebrated  either  as  poets,  or  historians,  or  law 
yers,  have  been  dervishes.  For  example,  Hafiz,  Saadi,  Fer- 
doosi,  Moollah,  Eoomee,  Jaami,  Malek  Nizam — and  the  last 
was  the  exterminator  of  the  Assassins,  who  are  otherwise 
called  "The  people  of  the  Man  of  the  Mountain."  These  peo 
ple,  before  they  attacked  an  enemy,  would  intoxicate  themselves 
with  a  powder  made  of  hemp-leaves,  out  of  which  they  pre 
pared  an  inebriating  electuary,  called  "  Hashish ;"  and  so  they 
were  called  "  Hashshasheen,"  whence  the  English  word  "  ass 
assin"  is  derived.  They  were  under  the  command  of  an  old 
man,  who  resided  formerly  upon  Mount  Lebanon,  and  was, 
therefore,  called  "  The  Old  Man  of  the  Mountain."  Many 
heroes,  who  went  from  Europe  to  fight  against  Islam,  in  the 
time  of  the  Crusades,  fell  victims  to  the  invisible  hands  of 
"The  Old  Man  of  the  Mountain." 

To  return  to  the  dervishes.  If  they  did  not  exist,  no  man 
would  be  safe  in  the  deserts  among  the  savages.  They  are  the 
chief  people  in  the  East  who  keep  in  the  recollection  of  those 
savages  that  there  are  ties  between  heaven  and  earth.  They 
restrain  the  tyrant  in  his  oppression  of  his  subjects  ;  and  are, 
in  fact,  the  great  benefactors  of  the  human  race  in  the  East. 
They  are  called  dervishes  from  the  word  Daar,  which  is,  in 
English,  "door,"  and  Weesh,  which  means  "hanging,"  the 
purport  of  the  whole  word  being  to  Jiang  at  the  gate  of  God,  to 
be  inspired  by  Him,  and  to  trust  in  His  bounty.  They  are 
consulted  by  courts,  and  by  the  counsellors  of  state  in  times  of 
emergency.  All  the  prophets  of  old  were  dervishes,  beyond  all 
doubt,  in  their  actions,  in  their  style  of  speaking,  and  in  their 
dress.  For  instance,  we  find  that  Elijah  sat,  "  with  his  face 
wrapped  in  his  mantle  ;"  and  when  he  was  asked,  "  What  art 
thou  doing  ?"  he  replied,  "  I  am  jealous  for  the  Lord."  Ex 
actly  so  does  a  dervish  sit  now,  wrapped  up  in  his  mantle,  in 
deep  meditation.  And  if  one  asks  him,  "  What  art  thou  doing, 
O  dervish  ?"  he  will  reply,  "  I  am  filled  with  zeal  for  God  ;" 
or,  "  I  think  of  the  time  when  Mehdee  (i.  e.  the  Restorer  of  all 

298  Travels  and  Adventures 

things)  will  come,  and  when  the  wolf  and  the  lamb  shall  lie 
down  together."  And  when  he  comes  near  a  river,  he  strikes 
the  river  with  his  mantle.  At  other  times,  he  strips  himself 
of  his  clothes,  as  Isaiah  did,  to  indicate  the  total  overthrow  of 
an  empire.  And  dervishes  sit  outside  the  gate,  as  Isaiah  did, 
and  receive  the  counsellors  of  the  kings,  as  he  did.  And,  just 
as  Isaiah  prophesied  the  defeat  of  the  Assyrian  king,  in  the 
following  short  sentence,  when  Hezekiah  sent  to  consult  him, 
"  The  virgin,  the  daughter  of  Zion,  laughs  at  thee,  the  daugh 
ter  of  Jerusalem  shakes  her  head  at  thee,"  thus  the  dervish, 
Nakshpandee,  replied  to  the  King  of  Khiva,  when  he  was  con 
sulted  on  the  approach  of  Russia  to  Khiva,  "  Tell  Moscow, 
Organtsh  laughs  at  thee,  and  Khiva  shakes  her  head  at  thee." 

The  prophets  had  spiritual  disciples,  whose  business  it  was 
to  pour  water  over  the  head  of  their  master ;  and,  before  he 
died,  he  bequeathed  his  mantle  to  his  spiritual  disciple,  and 
the  spirit  came  over  the  disciple  henceforth ;  and  he  trod  in 
the  footsteps  of  his  master,  as  Joshua  followed  Moses,  and 
Elisha  his  master,  Elijah.  And  thus  every  dervish  is  a  Moor- 
sliced,  i.  e.  a  "  spiritual  guide,"  who  has  under  him  a  Mooreed, 
which  means  "  an  obsequious  disciple."  Melchizedec  of  old, 
also  a  dervish,  had  a  royal  title  ;  he  was  "  King  of  Righteous 
ness," — in  Hebrew,  Melchizedec — and  he  was  also  "  King  of 
Peace,"  Melek  Salem.  And  when  Abraham  came  to  his  tent, 
he  came  forth  with  bread  and  wine,  and  was  called  "  The 
Priest  of  the  Highest ;"  and  Abraham  gave  him  a  portion  of 
his  spoil.  And  just  so,  Wolff's  friend  in  the  desert  of  MerWj 
in  the  kingdom  of  Khiva,  whose  autograph  Wolff  considers  an 
ornament  to  his  Bible,  whose  name  is  Abd-Arrahman,  which 
means,  slave  of  the  merciful  God>  because  his  mother  said,  on 
the  day  of  his  birth,  "  Thou  shalt  be  a  slave  of  the  most  mer 
ciful  God  all  the  days  of  thy  life,"  has  also  a  royal  title.  He 
is  called,  Shahe-Addaalat,  "  King  of  Righteousness,"  the  same 
as  Melchizedec  in  Hebrew.  And  when  he  makes  peace  between 
kings,  he  bears  the  title  Shahe-Soolkh,  i.  e.  "  King  of  Peace," 
— in  Hebrew  Melek  Salem.  Melchizedec  produced  bread  and 
wine ;  and  thou,  dear  dervish  in  the  desert  of  Merw,  earnest 
forth  from  thy  tent,  and  refreshedst  the  weary  wanderer,  Jo 
seph  Wolff,  with  bread  and  sherbet.  And  when  he  asked  thee, 
who  was  thy  father  and  thy  mother  ?  thou  repliedst  humbly, 
"  I  am  without  father,  and  without  mother,  for  I  have  forsaken 
all  for  God's  sake."  And  does  not  Paul  say  of  Melchizedec, 
that  he  was  without  father  and  without  mother  ? 

To  go  back  to  Wolff's  journey.     At  last  he  took  Rookhsad, 
i.e.  "leave  of  departure,"  from  Ameer  Assaad-Oollah-Beyk. 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  299 

He  said,  "  My  dear  friend,  thou  may'st  go  whenever  thou 
pleasest ;  but  I  cannot  understand  one  thing.  You  intend  to 
go  to  Bokhara.  Why  not  go  the  straightforward  way,  from 
here  to  Toorshesh  ?  I  will  give  you  two  men  to  escort  you 
there.  And  my  friend,  Muhammad  Takee  Khan,  will  give 
you  an  escort  to  Nishapoor.  There  your  friend,  Abbas  Mirza, 
has  arrived  with  an  army  of  20,000  Persians  ;  and  English 
and  Russian  officers  are  among  them.  He  is  come  to  extermi 
nate  us  all ;  but  God  is  great.  I  shall  have  to  fight  him,  for 
he  will  pull  down  my  palace  if  he  can.  In  the  meanwhile,  we 
are  politic  in  our  behaviour  towards  him,  and  pay  him  every 
honour  and  respect.  And  you  will  be  respected  on  his 
account.  The  Turcomauns  have  already  begun  to  send  their 
deputies  to  him,  and  have  promised  to  make  no  more  slaves." 
Wolff  at  once  acted  according  to  the  Ameer's  advice,  and 
accepted  the  escort  to  Toorshesh. 

But  before  continuing  the  history  of  his  travels,  it  must  be 
recorded  that  this  Ameer  Assaad-Oollah-Beyk  was  a  man  of 
excellent  and  amiable  character,  and  very  remarkable  as  a 
brave  warrior.  Abbas  Mirza  succeeded  in  subduing  all  the 
rest  of  Khorassan,  during  the  three  years  of  his  expedition 
against  that  country ;  but  Burchund  was  never  molested  by 
him.  Yet  a  very  sad  fate  awaited  the  poor  Ameer ;  for,  in 
the  year  1844,  when  Wolff  returned  from  his  second  journey 
to  Bokhara,  fourteen  years  afterwards,  he  found  that  the 
Ameer  had  just  been  taken  by  Mahmood  Shah,  Abbas  Mirza1  s 
son,  and  that  his  kingdom  had  been  wrested  from  him,  and 
his  eyes  put  out. 

Wolff  departed  from  Burchund,  escorted  by  two  men,  as 
well  as  his  servants,  who  were  sent  with  him  by  Assaad- 
Oollah-Beyk  ;  and,  after  two  days'  journey,  they  passed  by  a 
village,  near  Toorshesh,  which  was  in  flames  ;  and  the  inha 
bitants  were  running  about  in  the  high  road,  exclaiming,  "  O 
God,  Thou  hast  broken  our  bones!"  For  the  Turcomauns 
had  been  there  the  day  before,  and  had  set  the  village  on  fire, 
and  taken  many  of  the  inhabitants  as  slaves,  because  they 
knew  that  they  would  soon'  have  to  give  up  slave-making,  on 
account  of  Abbas  Mirza's  army,  which  had  entered  the  country 
for  the  purpose  of  putting  an  end  to  the  inroads  of  these 

Wolff  then,  after  two  hours'  journey,  entered  the  fortress  of 
Toorshesh,  with  only  one  of  his  servants,  for  the  other  had  left 
him  at  Burchund,  saying  these  words,  "  I  leave  you,  because  if 
you  are  not  made  a  slave  in  a  few  days,  you  may  cut  off  my 
beard  the  first  moment  you  see  me." 

300  Travels  and  Adventures 

A  Dervish  was  sitting  at  the  gate  of  Toorshesh.  The 
moment  he  saw  Wolff,  he  took  hold  of  his  arms,  stopped  him, 
and  said  to  him,  "  You  are  a  Frankee :  I  won't  leave  you 
until  I  have  given  you  a  present." 

Wolff  replied,  "  I  do  not  want  a  present." 

The  Dervish  answered,  "  You  shall  not  stir  till  I  have  given 
you  a  present." 

Wolff  then  said,  "Well,  then,  give  me  a  present." 

Thereupon  the  Dervish  spat  in  his  face.  Wolff  wiped  it  off, 
and  went  his  way. 

Wolff,  on  entering  Toorshesh,  delivered  the  letters  of  recom 
mendation,  given  to  him  by  the  above-mentioned  Mahmood 
Shah,  into  the  hands  of  Muhammad  Takee  Khan,  the  Gover 
nor  of  Toorshesh,  to  whom  they  were  addressed.  After  he  had 
perused  the  letters,  he  said  to  Wolff,  "  I  must  be  candid  and 
upright  towards  you  ;  and  therefore  I  must  frankly  declare  to 
you  that  I  cannot  give  you  any  escort  to  go  with  you  to  Nish- 
apoor,  where  Abbas  Mirza  is  now  encamped  with  his  army, 
because  I  have  declared  myself  rebel  against  him.  He  has 
sent  me  an  order  to  deliver  up  my  palace  and  my  town  to 
him,  and  this  I  have  refused  to  do.  And,  besides  this,  there 
is,  only  fifty  miles  from  here,  my  deadly  enemy,  Muhammad 
Iszhak  Khan,  of  the  tribe  Kerahe,  Governor  of  Torbad-Hy- 
dareea.  He  has  the  surname,  Kaleekaan,  which  means  the 
4  Head-tearer,'  because  he  has  such  immense  bodily  strength, 
that  he  frequently  tears  in  two  the  skull  of  his  enemy ;  and 
though,  from  fear  of  Abbas  Mirza,  he  has  given  orders  that 
his  people  should  cease  from  making  slaves,  nevertheless,  his 
subjects  wander  about  on  horseback,  and  make  slaves,  and  sell 
them  to  the  Turcomauns."  Wolff  then  said,  "  As  there  is  no 
other  remedy,  can  you  give  me  a  horse  which  is  quiet,  and  I 
will  go  on  alone  with  my  servant  ?"  But  the  servant  said, 
"  I  don't  go  with  you,  unless  you  promise  me  that  you  will 
ransom  me,  as  well  as  yourself,  in  case  we  are  made  slaves  by 
the  Kerahe  people."  Wolff  promised  to  do  this,  and  Muham 
mad  Takee  Khan  gave  him  a  horse  gratis ;  and  so  he  set  out 
with  his  servant  for  Nishapoor. 

Fifteen  muleteers,  whose  mules  were  laden  with  dates, 
pomegranates,  &c.,  which  were  presents  for  Abbas  Mirza,  sent 
to  him  by  the  chiefs  of  Toon,  Tabas,  and  Khaf,  joined  Wolff 
on  the  road ;  and  thus  they  arrived,  after  about  five  hours'* 
journey,  at  a  village  called  Rooshne-Abaad.  Here  the  people 
looked  out  from  the  tower,  and  observed  that,  in  the  high 
ways,  horsemen,  belonging  to  Muhammad  the  "  head-tearer," 
were  wandering  about,  trying  to  make  slaves.  Wolff  said, 
"  Bring  me  some  of  my  Arabic  and  Persian  Bibles,  and  I  will 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  301 

write  something  in  each  of  them.""     The  Bibles  were  brought 
to  him,  and  he  wrote  in  Persian  the  following  words : — 

To  His  Royal  Highness  Abbas  Mirza. 

"  ROYAL  HIGHNESS — In  case  these  Bibles  reach  you  with 
out  me,  you  may  be  convinced  that  I  have  been  made  slave, 
with  my  servant,  and  fifteen  muleteers,  not  by  Turcomauns, 
but  by  your  Highness's  subjects,  the  Kerahe,  people  of  Mu 
hammad  Khan,  of  Torbad-Hydareea,  who  wander  about  to 
make  foray,  against  the  order  of  their  chief,  who  is  now  120 
miles  distant,  in  his  country  house,  Sangoon.  He  is  very 
desirous  of  submitting  himself  to  your  Royal  Highness ;  and 
therefore,  in  case  that  I  am  made  slave,  an  order  from  you  to 
their  great  chief,  will  effect  not  only  my  liberation,  but  also 
that  of  all  those  who  have  been  made  slaves  with  me. 


Wolff  wrote  the  same  in  English,  for  the  perusal  of  the 
British  officers  who  accompanied  Abbas  Mirza's  army  ;  and 
then  he  gave  these  Bibles  into  the  hands  of  the  chief  of  the 
inhabitants  of  Rooshne-Abaad,  and  told  them,  "  Now,  I  shall 
set  out  on  my  journey  for  Nishapoor,  accompanied  by  those 
who  came  with  me  here." 

And  thus  they  set  out  towards  a  village  called  Sangerd, 
about  three  hours1  distant  from  Rooshne-Abaad.  When  Wolff 
had  ridden  on  before  the  rest,  and  was  only  a  quarter  of  a  mile 
distant  from  Sangerd,  he  suddenly  heard  a  firing  from  all 
sides,  and  saw  the  flashes  of  the  guns  as  they  were  fired  off; 
and  this  was  accompanied  by  dreadful  yellings  and  screams 
from  the  barbarians.  Ammaan!  was  the  cry,  which  means 
"  Safety,"  and  Wolff  might  have  saved  himself,  but  he  was 
determined  to  share  common  fate  with  the  rest,  and  so  he 
returned  to  his  companions,  when  he  saw  an  awful  sight.  His 
servant  and  all  the  rest  were  already  tied  to  the  horses1  tails 
of  a  banditti  who  surrounded  them.  All  these  prisoners  had 
been  stripped  entirely  naked ;  and,  at  last,  one  of  the  robbers 
rode  up  to  Wolff,  with  a  countenance  of  hell,  and  a  gun  in  his 
hand,  with  a  smoking  torch  upon  it,  and  he  continually  ex 
claimed,  "  Pool,  pool !"  which  means  "  Money,  money  !" 
Wolff  gave  his  purse  to  him,  and  he  said,  "  Have  you  more 
money  r  Wolff  answered,  "Yes,  in  my  trunk."  Then  he 
said,  "  When  my  companions  come,  don't  tell  them  that  I 
have  taken  your  money,  for  those  horrid  fiends,  the  Kerahe, 
rob  among  themselves  again."  At  last,  the  whole  troop  rode 
up  to  Wolff,  yelling,  "  Pool !  pool !  pool !"  Wolff  said,  "  I 
have  given  my  money  into  the  hands  of  this  fellow."  They 

302  Travels  and  Adventures 

then  gave  their  companion  a  tremendous  beating,  and  took 
the  money  from  him.  Then  they  said  to  Wolff,  "  Now,  you 
dismount."  He  obeyed ;  when  they  stripped  him  naked,  like 
Adam  and  Eve  when  they  were  created,  and  tied  him  with  a 
long  rope  to  a  horse's  tail ;  and  one  with  a  whip  came  behind 
and  flogged  him. 

Wolff  prayed  ! — in  such  hours  one  learns  to  pray. 

The  chief  of  the  gang,  a  horrid-looking  fellow,  of  black  com 
plexion,  with  a  blue  diseased  tongue,  came  up  to  him,  and 
asked  him,  "  Who  art  thou  ?"  and  Wolff  replied,  breathing 
hard,  and  scarcely  able  to  speak,  "  I  am  a  follower  of  Jesus  ;" 
and  the  chief,  horror-struck,  replied,  "A  follower  of  Jesus  I" 
u  Yes,"  Wolff  said,  "  a  follower  of  Jesus  !  and  I  go  about  for 
his  sake." 

Wolff  found  out  during  his  travels  among  savages,  that  it  is 
exactly  with  them  as  it  is  with  the  devil  himself;  for  they 
believe  in  Jesus,  but  it  is  a  belief  which  makes  them  tremble ; 
it  is  a  torment  to  them. 

The  chief  immediately  gave  orders  that  Wolff  should  be  un 
tied  and  allowed  to  ride  upon  one  of  the  horses  ;  and  they  put 
a  few  rags  around  him  to  make  him  more  comfortable.  The 
road  was  covered  with  snow  and  ice,  and  they  diverged  out  of 
the  road,  and  at  last  encamped  in  a  forest,  where  they  made  an 
immensely  large  fire ;  they  then  made  free  with  Wolff's  tea, 
sugar,  and  things,  which  he  had  brought ;  and  they  also  broke 
open  the  cases  of  dates  and  pomegranates.  Then  they  set  a 
value  upon  the  slaves  they  had  taken,  and  Wolff's  servant  was 
valued  at  ten  tomauns,  equal  to  £o,  but  when  they  came  up 
to  Wolff  and  looked  at  him,  they  said,  "  We  don't  like  this 
fellow  at  all ;  he  stares  at  us  so."  Then  one  of  them  said, 
"He  is  worth  five  tomauns,"  equal  to  £2  10s. ;  whilst  another 
one  said,  te  I  would  not  give  half  that  price  for  him."  And 
whilst  thus  valuing  and  examining  the  prisoners  and  their 
effects,  they  found  the  letters  of  recommendation  which  Joseph 
Wolff  had;  as,  for  instance,  letters  from,  and  for,  Abbas 
Mirza ;  letters  from  Sir  Robert  Gordon  ;  from  the  Governor- 
General  of  India,  &c.  Then  they  asked  Wolff  the  purport  of 
these  letters ;  and,  on  his  explaining  this  to  them,  they  were 
horror-struck,  and  said,  u  Now,  this  is  a  dangerous  man ;  we 
see  from  his  looks,  and  from  these  letters,  that  he  is  not  a 
common  man.  Abbas  Mirza  is  now  come  into  this  country  to 
exterminate  slavery,  and  our  chief  is  now  trying  to  come  to 
an  understanding  with  him ;  aud  Abbas  Mirza  will  hear  of 
our  having  made  a  slave  of  this  Englishman,  and  will  imme 
diately  send  an  order  to  our  chief,  that  we  should  not  only 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  303 

dismiss  the  Englishman,  but  all  the  rest  of  the  slaves  who  are 
deposited  in  Torbad-Hydareea,  and  who  are  not  yet  sold  to 
the  Turcomauns.  The  best,  therefore,  which  we  can  do,  will 
be  to  kill  him ;  and  say,  when  he  is  asked  for,  that  the  Turco 
mauns  have  taken  him." 

All  this  was  said  in  Wolff's  presence,  and,  of  course,  he  did 
not  like  it.     He  therefore  went  up  to  them,  stared  in  their 
faces,  and  said,  "  I  have  understood  all  you  have  said,  and  the 
resolution  to  which  you  are  come.     Your  reasoning  is  very 
good,  but  it  has  only  one  fault,  and  that  is,  that  you  are  too 
late ;  I  also  knew  how  to  calculate,  and  have  laid  my  plans 
accordingly."     They  asked,  "What  plans  have  you  made 2" 
Wolff  replied,  "Ask  each  of  my  travelling  companions,  sepa 
rately,  and  they  will  tell  you  what  I  have  done  in  Kooshne- 
Abaad."     And  so  they  did  as  Wolff  told  them  ;  and  then  they 
heard  how  he  had  written  in  all  the  Bibles,  and  had  left  them 
to  be  sent  to  Abbas  Mirza.     On  discovering  this,  they  became 
as  pale  as  death  ;  but  Wolff,  knowing  that  people  may  do  in 
despair  what  they  intended  to  do  after  mature  deliberation, 
held  out  to  them  new  hopes  of  escaping  from  their  difficulties  ; 
and  at  the  same  time,  hopes  of  gaining  money  (which  is  the 
idol  of  the  Eastern  nations),  by  desisting  from  their  intention 
of  killing  him.    So  he  said  to  them,  "  Mind,  I  am  a  Christian 
dervish ;  and,  as  such,   I  don't  mind  money,  therefore  hear 
what  I  intend  to  do  for  you.     You  have  already  taken  eighty 
tomauns  from  me ;  the  books  which  you  have  also  taken  from 
me,  are  worth  200  tomauns,  if  you  sell  them  to  Jews  ;  for 
they  are  Hebrew  Bibles,  which  the  Jews  hold  in  high  vene 
ration.     The  learned  Moollahs  of  Meshed  will  purchase  from 
you  the  other  books  for  100  tomauns ;  and  the  clothing  and 
victuals  you  have  also  taken  from  me  are  worth  ten  tomauns ; 
you  say,  too,  that  I  am  worth  five  tomauns.     Now,  if  you  do 
exactly  what  I  tell  you,  you  shall  have  from  me  100  tomauns 
more;    therefore,   what  more  do  you  want?"     They  asked 
Wolff,   "How  will  you  procure  these  100  tomauns  more?" 
Wolff  replied,    "  You  are   from  Torbad-Hydareea ;    in  that 
place  are  eighty  Jewish  families,  the  chiefs  of  them  are  Moollah 
Daood,   and  Moollah    Israel.     These  families  all  arrived  in 
Torbad-Hydareea  1 00  years  ago,  and  enjoy  now  many  privi 
leges."     When  Wolff  said  this  they  asked,  with  astonishment, 
"How  do  you  know  all  these  things,  as  you  are  from  foreign 
lands,    and  have  never  been   in   our  town?"      Wolff    said, 
"  Never  mind ;  you  see  by  this  that  I  know  more  than  you 
think,  and  that  I  speak  the  truth,  and  lies  are  not  in  me." 
The  fact  was  this  (which  however  he  did  not  tell  them), 

304  Travels  and  Adventures 

that  in  the  years  1824  and  1825,  Wolff  was  in  Persia,  and 
took  a  census  of  all  the  Jews  throughout  that  country,  and 
their  history  and  condition,  and  so  he  had  obtained  his  in 
formation.  The  Kerahe  then  said  among  themselves,  "  We 
are  all  Mussulmans,  and  we  lie ;  but  this  is  a  Christian,  and 
he  speaks  the  truth  ;  therefore  let  us  hear  what  he  will  do, 
and  how  he  will  procure  us  the  100  tomauns  at  Torbad- 

Wolff'  then  said,  pointing  to  the  Hebrew  Bibles,  "  Give  me 
two  of  these  books,  and  I  will  write  something  in  the  Hebrew 
language  to  the  Jews  of  Torbad-Hydareea ;  and  then  do  you 
send  two  of  you  on  with  those  books  to  that  town,  and  let 
them  give  them  to  Moollah  Daood  and  Moollah  Israel,  and  you 
will  see  what  a  sensation  this  will  excite  there.  They  will  all 
assemble,  adjourn  to  the  synagogue,  and  consult  with  each 
other ;  and  then  they  will  pledge  themselves  to  pay  the  100 
tomauns,  as  soon  as  you  will  bring  me  safely  to  that  place." 

They  said,  "  This  is  a  capital  proposal.  Our  chief,  Mu 
hammad  Iszhak  Khan,  is  now  at  Sangoon,  which  is  thirty 
farsakh  (one  farsakh  is  four  miles)  distant  from  Torbad- 
Hydareea,  and  he  is  there  with  his  whole  hareem  ;  so  that  be 
fore  he  can  return,  it  will  be  ten  days,  during  which  time  the 
money  will  be  given  to  us,  and  then  this  fellow  may  go  in  all 
haste  wherever  he  pleases."  After  saying  this,  they  brought 
the  two  Bibles  to  Wolff,  who  wrote  in  them  the  following 
words,  in  the  Hebrew  language : — 

"  Peace  and  prosperity  to  the  children  of  Israel  in  Torbad- 
Hydareea  !  Oh  that  the  city  of  Jerusalem  may  soon  be  built 
up  again  !  in  haste,  even  in  our  days.  Amen. 

"  Know  ye,  that  I,  Joseph  Wolff,  the  son  of  David,  of  the 
tribe  of  Levi,  coming  from  the  land  of  England,  am  going 
about  in  the  world  to  proclaim  to  the  Jews,  that  Jesus  of 
Nazareth  is  He,  who,  according  to  the  prophecy  of  Isaiah 
(peace  upon  him !),  was  despised  and  rejected,  a  man  of  sor 
rows,  and  acquainted  with  grief;  and  that  He  has  given  his 
soul  as  an  offering  for  sin,  and  that  Jesus  is  that  Messiah  who 
was  cut  off,  but  not  for  Himself,  according  to  the  prophecy  of 
Daniel  (the  comfort  of  God,  and  peace  be  upon  him  !),  and 
that  Jesus  is  He  who  shall  come  again  in  the  clouds  of  heaven, 
and  shall  bring  back  the  Jews  from  all  the  corners  of  the  earth, 
and  bring  them  to  their  own  land,  which  their  forefathers  pos 
sessed,  and  the  prophecy  shall  be  fulfilled ;  '  that  they  shall 
look  upon  Him  whom  they  have  pierced,  and  mourn.1  And 
then  there  shall  be  heard  again  the  voice  of  mirth,  the  voice  of 
joy,  the  voice  of  the  bridegroom,  and  the  voice  of  the  bride. 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  305 

"  Know  ye  that  I  have  been  made  slave  by  your  townsmen, 
the  Kerahe.     I  beg  you  to  tell  the  bearers,  that  on  my  arrival 
in   Torbad-Hydareea,  you  will  pay  for  me  a  ransom  oT  100 
tomauns,  and  I  shall  remain  with  you,  as  a  pawn,  until  the 
Ambassador  of  the  great  King  of  England  will  have  paid  for 
me,  into  your  hands,  200  tomauns.     These  are  the  words  of 
"  Your  brother  in  bonds,  JOSEPH  WOLFF, 
"  son  of  David,  who  sends  to  you  his  blessing,  and 
prays  that  the  Lord  may  rejoice  over  you,  as  He  did 
over  Ephraim  and  Manasseh.     Amen,  and  amen." 
Two   of   the    Kerahe    immediately   set    out   for    Torbad- 
Hydareea,    and   Wolff  followed   with   the   rest   slowly  after 

In  the  meanwhile,  Wolff  had  succeeded  in  making  six  of 
these  robbers  his  firm  friends,  by  promising  to  recommend 
them  (if  they  remained  faithful  to  him)  to  Abbas  Mirza, 
whose  soldiers  they  wished  to  become.  However,  the  chief, 
Hassan  Khan  Coord,  became  very  uneasy,  because  they  had 
heard  tidings  that  Abbas  Mirza  had  actually  sent  a  messenger 
to  the  great  Khan  on  Joseph  Wolffs  account;  and  again  lie 
voted  that  Wolff  should  be  put  to  death;  but  the  six  friends 
stood  firmly  by  him,  and  swore  they  would  betray  their  com 
panions  if  they  hurt  him.  And  as  Hassan  Khan  and  his  son 
were  afraid  to  have  Wolff  killed  openly,  they  contrived  a 
horrid  method  of  torturing  him.  They  observed  that  he  was 
not  a  good  horseman,  and  as  the  road  was  dreadfully  hilly, 
they  put  him  upon  a  very  wild  horse,  without  either  saddle  or 
bridle,  and  with  only  a  halter  to  hold  on  by  ;  and  that  horrid 
scoundrel,  Hassan  Khan^s  son,  rode  behind  Wolff  and  whipped 
the  horse,  and  did  all  in  his  power  to  make  it  restive.  Neverthe 
less  Wolff  sat  on  his  horse  like  the  colonel  of  a  regiment,  and 
as  he  had  learned  a  little  of  the  theory  of  riding  on  horseback, 
when  at  the  University  of  Tubingen  in  1815,  he  now  brought 
those  rules  into  practice :  and  most  providentially,  at  the  mo 
ment  when  he  was  in  the  greatest  danger,  one  of  his  friends 
came,  and  gave  to  the  rascally  boy  a  tremendous  flogging. 

And  thus  they  arrived  safely  at  the  gates  of  Torbad- 
Hydareea.  When  they  got  there,  Jews  came  out  to  meet 
them,  some  of  whom  Wolff  recognized  at  once  as  such  ;  and 
he  made  use  of  the  exclamation  by  which  Jews  are  immediately 
known  to  each  other  throughout  all  the  world,  and  this  is, 
which  is  in  English,  "  HEAR,  ISRAEL,  THE  LORD  OUR  GOD  is 
ONE  LORD."  Then  they  all  came  up  and  embraced  Wolff,  and 
told  him,  uBy  thy  life,  don't  promise  any  money.  They 


306  Travels  and  Adventures 

must  let  you  go  free,  without  paying  one  farthing. ''  They  said 
this  to  Wolff  in  Hebrew,  and  he  answered  them  in  the  same 
language,  "  For  (rod's  sake,  send  this  very  night  a  special 
messenger,  at  my  expense,  to  Abbas  Mirza,  at  Nishapoor." 
Moollah  Daood  then  said  to  Hassan  Khan  Coord,  and  the  rest 
of  the  Kerahe  (all  of  whom  owed  money  to  the  Jews,  and, 
therefore,  dared  not  disoblige  them),  "  All  you  are  our  souls, 
and  our  darlings,  so  allow  Joseph  Wolff  to  go  with  us  to  our 
house  to-night,  and  everything  shall  be  settled  to-morrow." 
They  said,  "  Yes,  he  may  go  with  you  now ;  but  to-morrow 
he  must  come  back  till  all  things  are  settled.1'  And  thus  Wolff 
went  with  the  Jews  to  their  houses. 

It  was  about  the  month  of  November  when  he  arrived  at 
Torbad-Hydareea.  The  snow  lay  knee-deep  in  the  streets. 
Wolff  had  only  some  rags  around  him— not  even  a  shirt  to 
put  on  ;  neither  shoes  nor  stockings  ;  and  his  teeth  chattered 
dreadfully  from  the  cold.  He  asked  the  Jews  to  give  him  a 
cup  of  coffee  to  warm  himself;  but  they  had  none,  because  the 
only  coffee  they  can  get  comes  from  Meshed,  and  the  road 
there  was  stopped,  because  of  the  inroads  of  the  Turcomauns  ; 
but  they  had  "  rakee,"  which  they  offered  him.  Rakee  is  a 
kind  of  whiskey,  and  Wolff  drank  a  whole  cup  of  it  most 
heartily, — and  even  Father  Mathew  would  not,  in  the  same 
situation,  have  declined  drinking  it.  The  crowd  of  Jews  be 
came  so  great,  that  all  of  them  adjourned  to  the  synagogue, — 
men,  women,  and  children, — and  the  women  were  lamenting, 

"  On  account  of  the  abundance  of  our  sins,  how  is  Israel 
driven  about — from  city  to  city,  from  land  to  land !  Here, 
one  of  our  brothers  comes  from  foreign  lands,  of  which  we  have 
scarcely  heard  the  names  !" 

They  all  wept,  and  exclaimed  again  and  again,  bending  their 
heads  as  if  in  the  greatest  distress, — "  On  account  of  the  abun 
dance  of  our  sins  !  On  account  of  the  abundance  of  our  sins  !" 
At  last,  Moollah  Israel  opened  his  mouth,  and  said, — "  You 
have  sent  us  a  Hebrew  book,  of  which  we  became  possessed 
only  a  few  centuries  back  ;  for,  as  we  are  not  the  descendants 
of  those  Jews  who  returned  from  Babylon  to  Jerusalem  in  the 
time  of  Ezra,  we  had  not  all  the  books  until  we  got  them 
(as  I  before  said)  a  few  centuries  back,  from  Orenbourg,  and 
Makariev,  in  Russia.  We  were  all  settled,  at  first,  in  Bokhara, 
Samarcarid,  and  Balkh,  and  then  we  came  on  here.  We  are 
now  (G-od  be  praised  !)  in  possession  of  all  the  books,  Malachi 
included.  But  you  have  sent  us  another  book,  which  is  affixed 
to  those  we  know ;  it  is  called  c  The  New  Testament."*  Who 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  307 

was  Jesus — who  was  Mary,  of  whom  this  book  treats  \  Who 
were  those  Apostles  of  Jesus  1  for  I  read  it  with  avidity  before 
you  arrived  here.  Tell  us  all  about  it."  And  so  Wolff 
preached  to  them  the  whole  mystery  of  the  Gospel,  during  the 
whole  night.  They  listened  to  it  with  breathless  attention, 
until  the  sun  rose,  and  daybreak  came.  And,  directly  it  was 
light,  the  Kerahe  came,  and  Hassan  Khan  Coord  brought 
Wolff  to  his  own  house  ;  and,  arriving  there,  he  put  him  in 
a  miserable  dungeon,  where  not  only  his  servant  and  the  rest 
of  his  companions  were  tied  in  chains  together,  entirely  naked, 
but  fifty  other  people  besides.  Then  Wolff  was  ordered  to  sit 
down  near  them,  and  they  chained  him  together  with  the  rest, 
in  the  most  painful  manner ;  and  then  Hassan  Khan  Coord 
said  to  him,  in  a  fiend-like,  diabolical  voice,  "  Now,  you  are 
comfortable  !" 

Thus  Wolff  was  in  a  most  awful  condition ;  for  Hassan  Khan 
Coord  evidently  intended  no  good  towards  him.  Indeed,  he 
passed  him  over  when  he  portioned  out  the  bread  among  the 
chained  prisoners  ;  for,  being  in  expectation  that  the  great  man 
Muhammad  Tszhak  Khan  would  arrive  after  a  few  days,  he 
wished,  in  the  meanwhile,  to  starve  Wolff; — and  dead  dogs 
tell  no  tales.  But,  after  Wolff  had  been  chained  for  about  two 
hours,  with  those  fifty  other  poor  people,  who  were  pouring  out 
2500  curses  upon  the  head  of  Aboubeker ;  and,  whilst  Joseph 
Wolff  was  praying  for  them,  suddenly  the  thunder  of  cannon 
was  heard  from  the  tower,  and  a  voice  exclaimed,  "  Muham 
mad  Iszhak  Khan  has  arrived  !" 

At  once  the  scene  was  changed ;  for  a  person  approached 
who  made  Wolff's  chains  more  easy,  and  then  a  man  came  to 
the  door  of  the  dungeon,  who  opened  it,  and  exclaimed,  "  Is 
there  not  an  Englishman  here  2"  Wolff  answered,  "  Yes ! 
yes  !  yes !" 

It  was  a  Persian  officer  of  the  great  Khan,  who  had  arrived 
and  spoken  thus  ;  and  then  he  said,  in  great  anger  to  the  rob 
bers,  "  Pedr-Sookhte,"  which  means,  "  Oh  that  your  father 
may  be  burned ;"  adding,  "  Away  with  the  chains  from  the 
Englishman  and  all  the  rest,  for  slavery  is  at  an  end  through 
out  Torbad-Hydareea  !"  The  chains  were  immediately  taken 
off,  and  Joseph  Wolff  was  made  free ;  and  not  only  he  and  his 
fifty  companions  in  the  dungeon,  but  also  above  two  hundred 
others,  were  set  at  liberty.  Attributing  their  release  to  Wolff, 
the  people  all  exclaimed,  when  he  appeared  in  the  street,  "  Oh, 
thou  hast  been  an  angel  sent  from  the  Lord  !  Oh,  thou  hast 
been  an  angel  sent  from  the  Lord  !" 

Wolff  was  now  brought  with  his  fifty  companions,  to  the 

x  2 

308  Travels  and  Adventures 

palace  of  the  great  Khan,  where  he  saw  hundreds  of  miserable 
wretches  with  their  eyes  put  out,  and  their  ears  and  noses  cut 
off.  And  he  was  introduced  into  the  presence  of  Muhammad 
Iszhak  Khan,  of  whom  it  is  related  that  he  had  killed,  with 
his  own  hand,  his  father,  mother,  brother,  sister,  and  son-in- 
law  ;  and  so  awful  was  his  bodily  strength,  that  he  would  some 
times  take  hold  of  a  prisoner,  and  tear  his  skull  in  two.  This 
tyrant  had  sold  60,000  Persians,  people  of  his  own  religion, 
and  subjects  of  his  own  king,  to  the  kings  of  Bokhara  and 
Khiva,  who  were  enemies  to  both  his  religion  and  country. 
Muhammad  Iszhak  Khan  was  eating  his  dinner  when  Wolff 
approached  him,  and  he  said,  "  Abbas  Mirza  has  written  to  me, 
that  thou  goest  about  to  show  to  the  nations  the  way  of  truth. 
For  my  part,  I  have  no  religion.  I  have  already  passed  this 
world,  and  the  other  world.  I  have  got,  however,  one  good 
quality,  and  that  is,  I  am  a  man  of  justice :  I  love  strict  jus 
tice  ;  and,  therefore,  tell  me  the  truth,  and  you  shall  see  my 
justice.  How  much  money  have  these  rascals  taken  from 
you  r 

Wolff  said,  "  They  have  taken  from  me  eigthty  tomauns." 

He  repeated,  "  Eighty  tomauns  2" 

Wolff  replied,  «  Yes." 

He  then  said,  "  Now  thou  shalt  see  my  justice."  So  he 
instantly  ordered  Hassan  Khan  Coord,  and  all  his  followers,  to 
be  dreadfully  flogged.  He  extorted  from  them  every  farthing ; 
and,  after  he  had  got  back  WolfFs  money,  he  counted  it,  and 
said,  "  Now  thou  shalt  see  my  justice ;"  and,  putting  the 
money  into  his  own  pocket,  without  giving  Wolff  a  single 
penny,  he  added,  "  Now  you  may  go  in  peace." 


Meshed  the  Holy :  Borowsky  again :  Abbas  Mirza :  Timoor  : 
Turcomauns:  Sarakhs  :  Desert  of  Merw:  Guzl-baash  Slaves: 
Gate  of  Bokhara. 

WOLFF  remained  a  few  days  longer  with  the  Jews,  and 
then  he  set  out  with  a  large  caravan,  including  several 
Jews,  for  Meshed,  the  capital  of  Khorassan.     Wolff  had  still 
no  clothing  upon  him,  except  a  few  rags ;  but  he  promised  to 
pay  the  muleteer  for  taking  him,  when  they  reached  "  Meshed 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  309 

the  Holy,"1  as  it  is  called.  After  three  days5  travelling,  and 
when  they  were  only  five  miles'  distant  from  Meshed,  near  a 
place  called  Shereef-Abaad,  shrieks  were  heard  from  all  the 
caravan.  Their  cry  was,  "  The  Hazaarah  are  coming,  and 
will  make  slaves!"  The  Hazaarah  are  descendants  of  the 
Moguls,  and  a  most  dreadful-looking  set  of  people ;  and  are 
even  more  cruel  than  the  Turcomauns.  But  Wolff  no  sooner 
heard  that  cry,  than  he  slipped  into  the  town  of  Shereef- 
Abaad  as  quickly  as  a  mouse,  and  all  the  rest  followed  him, 
except  one  man,  a  Sayd,  who  was  left  outside.  He  was 
a  lineal  descendant  of  Muhammad,  but  a  Sheeah  in  religion ; 
and  he  defended  himself  with  such  courage,  that  he  slew  six  of 
these  banditti,  who  did  not  dare  to  persevere  in  the  fight,  as 
the  inhabitants  of  Shereef-Abaad  fired  down  upon  them.  So 
they  contented  themselves  with  taking  some  sheep,  and  killing 
eighty  others  ;  and  then  retired.  The  Sayd  saved  his  life,  but 
was  dreadfully  wounded. 

At  last,  the  caravan  set  forth  again  towards  Meshed ;  and 
when  they  were  one  mile  distant  from  that  city,  one  of  his 
fellow-travellers  took  hold  of  Wolff's  foot,  and  beat  it  with  his 
stick,  saying,  "  Infidel,  say  God  is  God,  and  Muhammad  is 
the  prophet  of  God."  Wolff  replied,  "  I  will  not  tell  a  lie  !" 
By  this  answer  he  merely  meant  to  say  that  he  would  not  say 
what  he  did  not  believe.  The  man,  however,  who  struck  him, 
and  his  companions,  thought  that  Wolff  meant  to  say,  that  he 
would  not  subscribe  to  a  religion  which  he  believed  to  be  a  lie  : 
and  thunderstruck  by  this  supposed  declaration,  he  put  his 
arms  akimbo,  and  said,  "  Imagine  the  boldness  of  this  Infidel, 
who,  in  the  midst  of  Muhammadans,  and  before  the  city  of 
Meshed  the  Holy,  declares  our  religion  to  be  a  lie  !  What  a 
fool  he  is  !"  A  respectable  Muhammadan,  who  heard  this, 
said,  "Well,  let  the  fool  alone  !"  This  quieted  the  man,  and 
they  proceeded  without  molesting  Wolff  any  further. 

Only  a  few  minutes  after  this  adventure,  the  cupola  of  the 

freat  Mosque  of  Meshed,  which  is  called  "  The  Mosque  of 
mam  Resa,"  who  was  the  eighth  Khaleef  after  the  prophet, 
and  to  whom  the  mosque  is  dedicated,  rose  majestically  before 
their  eyes.  The  whole  caravan  stood  still,  and  said,  "  0  Imam 
Resa,  have  pity  upon  thy  dogs  ;  for  we  are  all  coming  here  to 
prove  that  we  are  thy  slaves !" 

Wolff  thought  at  that  moment,  Is  not  this  idolatry  ?  Are 
the  Munammadans  free  from  idolatry,  as  is  said  of  them  in 
Europe  ?  Do  they  not  now  directly  address  a  prayer  to  that 
man,  whom  they  believe  to  be  a  saint  ?  And  reflecting  thus, 
that  the  Muhammadans  do  not  only  worship  in  this  way 

310  Travels  and  Adventures 

Imam  Resa,  and  other  saints,  but  also  the  black  stone  at 
Mecca,  and  even  the  dirty  rags  in  the  high  road,  Wolfl'is 
astonished  that,  not  only  Unitarians,  but  also  some  orthodox 
Christians  should  assert  that  Muhammadanism  is  free  from 

But  to  proceed.  There  were  Jews  in  the  caravan,  and  one 
of  them,  Israel  by  name,  turned  to  Wolff,  and  said  in  Hebrew, 
"  O  Joseph  Wolff!  O  Joseph  Wolff!  when  will  the  time  come 
when  we  shall  go  up  to  the  mountain  of  the  Lord ;  even  to 
the  house  of  the  God  of  Jacob  ?  Oh,  when  will  the  time  come 
when  the  tribes  shall  go  up,  the  tribes  of  the  Lord  ?  for  from 
Zion  shall  go  forth  the  law,  and  the  word  of  the  Lord  from 
Jerusalem."  Wolff  replied,  When  the  Lord  shall  pour  forth 
the  Spirit  upon  the  house  of  David,  and  upon  the  house  of 
Jerusalem,  the  Spirit  of  grace  and  supplication,  and  they  shall 
look  upon  Him,  whom  they  have  pierced,  and  mourn." 

And  so  they  came  to  Meshed ;  Wolff  having  brought  with 
him  a  letter  from  the  Agent  of  the  British  Ambassador  at 
Teheran,  for  a  Jew  called  Moollah  Mehdee,  Prince  of  the  Jews 
in  Meshed ;  who,  on  receiving  it,  took  Wolff  into  his  house. 
Then  Wolff  sent  a  Muhammadau  Moollah  to  Nishapoor,  with 
a  letter  addressed  to  Abbas  Mirza,  who  was  encamped  there  ; 
and  also  one  to  Captain  Shee,  who  commanded  Abbas  Mirza^s 
army.  During  the  absence  of  this  messenger,  Wolff  heard 
wonderful  stories  of  the  valour  of  a  Polish  General,  whose 
name  they  pronounced  "Brooskee;"  and  how  this  famous 
commander  had  taken  the  great  fortress  of  Cochan.  Wolff 
had  no  idea  who  this  Brooskee  could  be ;  but,  one  day,  some 
body  knocked  at  the  door  of  the  house  of  Moollah  Mehdee, 
and  there  entered  an  officer,  wearing  the  uniform  of  an  English 
General,  who  exclaimed,  "  Mr.  Wolff,  how  do  you  do  2" 
Wolff  asked  him,  "  What  is  your  name  T  and  he  replied, 
"  My  name  is  Borowsky,  son  of  Prince  Radzivil  !"  Borowsky 
continued,  "  I  know  all  about  your  warning  Colonel  Campbell 
and  McNeil  against  me ;  but,  you  see,  they  had  better  infor 
mation  than  you  gave  them,  and  Colonel  Campbell  recom 
mended  me  to  Abbas  Mirza,  as  one  who  was  fit  to  command 
his  army.  You  will  now  hear  through  the  whole  country  of 
Khorassan,  that  I  am  the  terror  of  all  the  Khans  in  this 
country ;  and  that  it  was  I  who  took  the  fortress  of  Cochan, 
and  it  was  I  who  forced  Resa  Koolee  Khan  to  surrender  to 
Abbas  Mirza.  And,  moreover,  I  have  told  Abbas  Mirza  of 
the  high  esteem  in  which  you  are  held  in  England,  and  you 
will  meet  from  him  with  the  highest  distinction  and  respect. 
Here,  then,  are  200  tomauns,  which  Captain  Shee  has  sent  by 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  311 

me  on  your  bills  to  England  ;  and  I  have  clothing  besides  for 
you."  Saying  this,  Borowsky  gave  Wolff  the  200  tomauns, 
and  some  clothing,  which  latter  consisted  of  an  officer's 
uniform,  as  he  had  none  other,  and  a  dozen  shirts,  which  had 
had  been  collected  from  the  five  English  sergeants  who  were 
in  Abbas  Mirza's  army. 

Wolff  replied  to  all  this,  "  Then,  of  course,  I  must  retract 
all  I  have  said  against  you  ;  but  I  should  be  obliged  if  you 
would  give  me  the  whole  history  of  how  you  came  into  favour 
with  Colonel  Campbell  and  Mr.  McNeil." 

He  then  gave  to  Wolff  the  following  account : — 

"  You  have  heard  that  I  arrived  in  Bushire,  accompanied 
by  Colonel  Chesney,  renowned  for  his  Euphrates  expedition. 
The  Resident  in  Bushire  had  some  mistrust  of  me,  and  I  had 
to  take  up  my  quarters  in  a  private  house  there,  at  which 
Colonel  Chesney  was  very  much  vexed.  During  my  voyage 
with  him  from  Bombay  to  Bushire,  he,  as  a  military  man,  was 
best  able  to  judge,  and  became  acquainted  with  my  military 
knowledge,  which  he  approved.  However,  I  had  no  reason  to 
complain  of  the  treatment  I  met  with  from  the  Resident  of 
Bushire,  because  he  invited  me  daily  to  dinner,  and  to  other 
entertainments.  After  we  had  stopped  in  Bushire  for  some 
weeks,  we  arrived  in  Tabreez,  just  a  few  days  after  you  had 
left ;  and  now,  here  I  am,  as  you  see,  a  general  in  the  Persian 
army,  and  under  English  protection." 

Borowsky,  after  this,  took  up  his  abode  in  the  same  house 
where  Wolff  was  living ;  and,  a  few  hours  afterwards,  Abbas 
Mirza  arrived,  with  his  whole  army,  in  Meshed.  His  Royal 
Highness  alighted  at  the  palace,  but  without  Captain  Shee, 
who  had  remained  at  Nishapoor,  with  a  detachment  of  soldiers. 
That  same  evening,  whilst  Wolff  was  drinking  tea  with  Bo 
rowsky,  Monsieur  Semino,  a  general  in  Abbas  Mirza's  army, 
but  under  Russian  protection,  entered  the  room  ;  leaving  out 
side  the  door  of  this  apartment  eight  of  his  servants  whom  he 
had  brought  with  him.  Sernino  began,  in  an  unceremonious 
way,  to  quarrel  with  Borowsky,  because  he  had,  on  some  occa 
sion,  struck  one  of  his  servants.  Wolff  at  once  tried  to  make 
peace  between  them,  and  induce  both  to  embrace  each  other. 
But  when  Borowsky  looked  towards  the  door,  and  saw  so 
many  servants  standing  outside,  he  said  "  These  servants 
must  depart ;"  and  then  he  turned  to  Semino  and  added,  "  Is 
this  the  way  in  which  you  come  to  a  nobleman  2"  Semino 
exclaimed,  "  You  are  a  liar !"  Upon  which  Borowksy  rose 
from  his  chair  and  spat  in  Semino's  face.  Semino  then  drew 
his  sword,  and  said,  "  Come  forth !"  to  which  Borowsky 

312  Tra vels  and  A dventures 

replied,  "  I  will  give  you  satisfaction  in  a  moment,"  and  began 
to  feel  for  his  pistols.  Seeing  this,  Semino  gave  orders  to  his 
servants,  who  immediately  rushed  in  and  dragged  Borowsky 
out  of  the  house ;  while  Wolff  ran  off  to  Abbas  Mirza,  and 
told  him  the  whole  affair.  He  at  once  gave  orders  that  Bo 
rowsky  should  be  set  at  liberty ;  and,  on  the  next  day,  ordered 
a  court-martial  of  Persians  to  be  assembled,  that  the  matter 
might  be  investigated.  And  as  Abbas  Mirza  was  afraid  to 
offend  either  Russia  or  England,  he  commanded  that  Wolff 
should  be  made  president  of  the  court-martial,  which  office 
Wolff  accepted,  and  pronounced  the  following  sentence: — 

"  Whereas,  Semino  entered  the  room  in  an  unwarrantable 
manner,  and  dragged  out  Borowsky ;  Semino  shall  be  arrested 
and  confined  to  his  house  for  twenty- four  hours,  and  make  an 
apology  to  Borowsky.  And  whereas  the  servants  attacked 
Borowsky  from  behind,  they  shall  each  receive  six  lashes  from 
a  whip.' '" 

This  sentence  was  approved,  and  executed  at  once. 
Captain  Shee  soon  arrived,  and  the  five  English  sergeants 
who  had  contributed  the  shirts  ;  and  Wolff  performed  divine 
service  in  Meshed,  in  his  friend  the  Jew's  house.  But,  in 
order  not  to  be  involved  in  another  quarrel,  he  took  up  his 
abode  with  Mirza  Baba,  who  spoke  English  perfectly  well,  and 
had  pursued  his  medical  studies  in  England,  and  was  chief 
physician  to  Abbas  Mirza,  and  lived  with  him  in  the  palace. 

Abbas  Mirza  showed  the  greatest  attention  to  Wolff,  during 
his  stay  in  Meshed  ;  and,  at  his  request,  Wolff  wrote  a  letter 
to  Lord  Palmerston,  in  which  he  stated  the  desire  of  Abbas 
Mirza,  that  there  should  be  sent  to  Persia,  not  merely  a  charge 
d'affaires  from  England,  but  a  full  ambassador  or  envoy.  An 
envoy  was,  soon  after  this,  sent  to  Persia,  but  whether  it  was 
in  consequence  of  his  letter,  Wolff  does  not  know. 

Before  Wolff  proceeds  to  give  an  account  of  his  interviews 
with  Jews  and  Muhammadans,  he  must  offer  some  outline  of 
the  history  and  condition  of  Meshed. 

Meshed  contains  about  100,000  inhabitants,  chiefly  Sheeah, 
and  about  2,000  Jews  ;  the  latter  being  the  cleanest  and  most 
scientific,  and  interesting  Jews,  beyond  all  doubt,  of  those  who 
are  to  be  found  in  Persia.  They  are  well  acquainted  with  the 
Bible,  and  moderately  so  with  the  Talmud ;  but  with  Persian 
literature  generally,  they  are  perfectly  familiar.  They  trans 
lated  the  whole  Pentateuch  from  the  English  into  Persian,  by 
order  of  the  great  King,  Nadir  Shah,  who  lived  about  100 
years  ago,  and  had  extended  his  conquests  to  India. 

Nadir  Shah  was  the  son  of  a  furrier;  but  being  a  man  of 

of  Dr.  Wolff.  313 

energy,  he  collected  the  robbers  and  malcontents  of  Khorassan 
around  his  standard,  and  then  fought  his  way,  in  the  eastern 
fashion,  to  the  throne  of  Persia.  Having  succeeded  in  this 
object,  he  resolved  to  institute  a  new  religion  for  his  subjects, 
and  therefore  he  ordered  the  Jews  to  translate  their  books  into 
Persian,  and  the  Christians  also  to  translate  the  Gospel  and 
Testament  into  the  same  language  ;  and  from  these  materials 
he  intended  to  form  his  new  religion,  but  was  stopped  in  his 
career  by  a  violent  death.  When  this  occurred,  the  Jews  had 
not  only  translated  their  Bible  into  Persian,  but  also  the 
Koran  and  the  Poems  of  Hafiz,  Saadi,  and  Moollah  Roomee, 
into  Hebrew ;  so  that  the  greater  number  of  these  Jews  were 
a  kind  of  Hebrew  "  sooffees,"  or  Muhammadan  purists. 

As  to  the  city  of  Meshed  itself,  the  following  short  remarks 
must  be  made.  The  original  name  of  Meshed  was  Toos  ;  but 
when  Imam  Besa  was  killed  by  Mamoon  ("  the  curse  of  God 
upon  him,"  as  the  Sheeah  devoutly  say),  who  administered  a  poi 
soned  grape  to  him,  a  splendid  memorial  mosque  and  tomb  were 
built  there  ;  and  on  this  account  the  city  received  the  name  of 
Meshed  Almookaddas — Meshed  meaning  "  the  place  of  the 
martyr,"  and  Almookaddas  "the  holy."  When  Timoor 
(called  erroneously  by  Europeans,  Tamerlane  instead  of 
Timoor  Lank,  which  means  "Timoor  the  lame  one")  arrived 
in  Meshed,  with  his  army,  he  sternly  asked, 

"  Who  is  buried  here  ?"  they  replied,  "  Ferdoosi,*  the  writer 
of  Shah-Namah,  the  poem." 

Timoor  said,  "  I  have  nothing  to  do  with  poets."  Then  he 
asked  again,  "  Who  is  buried  here  ? "  They  answered,  "  Imam 
Resa,  by  whose  prayers  women  become  pregnant,  and  sick  men 
and  sick  camels  are  cured." 

Timoor  replied,  "  I  have  nothing  to  do  with  saints."     He 

*  A  Persian  boy,  named  Abool-Kaasim,  having  been  flogged  at  school 
ran  away,  and  coming  to  the  mountain  of  Elburz,  sat  down  at  the  foot  of 
it,  and  began  to  write.  A  stranger  who  was  passing  by  observed  him, 
and  said,  "Boy,  what  are  you  writing?"  He  replied,  "I  am  writing 
Shah-Namah,"  i.  e.  *'  The  Story  of  a  King."  Another  day,  another 
stranger  came  that  way  and  asked,  "  What  art  thou  writing?"  and  he 
answered,  "lam  writing  Shah-Namah."  And  thus  the  poor  boy  be 
came  a  dervish,  and  whenever  one  came,  who  asked  him  what  he  was 
doing,  he  always  made  answer,  "  I  am  writing  Shah-Namah,"  "  The 
Story  of  a  King."  And  so  the  poem  was  completed,  which  was  so  beau 
tiful,  that  the  writer  of  it  received  the  name  of  Ferdoosi,  i.e.  "  The  Poet 
who  came  from  Paradise."  He  lived  a  long  time  after,  at  the  court  of 
the  Kings  of  Hindostan,  acknowledged  by  all  who  frequented  it,  to  be 
Ferdoosi  indeed ;  "The  Poet  who  came  from  Paradise." 

314  Travels  and  Adventures 

further  asked,  "  Who  is  buried  here  S"     They  replied,  "  Malek 
Nizam,  the  lawyer." 

Timoor  replied,  "  I  have  nothing  to  do  with  lawyers.1''  He 
again  asked,  "  Who  is  buried  here  I" 

"  Aboo  Musleem,  who  killed  in  battle  1,000,000  persons." 

He  said,  "  This  is  my  man."  He  then  went  to  the  tomb  of 
Aboo  Musleem,  and  offered  up  the  following  prayer : — 

"  Thou  Lord  of  the  worlds,  thou  Creator  of  heaven  and 
earth,  thou  Ruler  of  all  the  stars  and  the  sun  ;  there  ought 
also  to  be  one  ruler  upon  the  earth :  for  the  earth  is  too  small 
for  many  rulers." 

Then  a  dervish  came  and  knocked  Timoor  on  the  shoulder, 
and  said,  "  Timoor,  thy  name  is  Timoor,  which  means  6  Iron;' 
and  thou  shalt  rule  the  earth  with  a  rod  of  iron.  But  thy 
name  shall  henceforth  also  be  Koorikan,  '  Lord  of  the  Worlds,1 
and  Zahel  Reran,  '  Lord  of  the  Age  ! ' '  And  Timoor  became 
both  Koorikan  and  Zahel  Keran  ;  and  thus  he  fulfilled  the 
dervish's  prophecy. 

Wolff  conversed  till  the  month  of  February,  1832,  with  both 
Jews  and  Muhammadans,  preaching  to  them  Christ  Jesus 
crucified,  and  Christ  Jesus  glorified ;  and  dwelt  much  on  his 
second  coining,  when  He  shall  reign  personally  upon  earth.