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University  of  Alberta  Library 


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For  Reference 


NOT  TO  BE  TAKEN  FROM  THIS  ROOM 


Library  of  the  University  of  Alberta,  Edmonton,  Alberta 


Yatchew,  J 


Ukranian  literature 


UNIVERSITY  OF  ALBERTA 
FACULTY  OF  ARTS  AlTD  SCIENCES 


The  undersigned  hereby  certify  that  they 
have  read  and  recommend  to  the  Committee  on 
Graduate  Studies  for  acceptance,  a  dissertation 
on  Ukrainian  Literature,  submitted  by  John 
Yatchew,  B.A. ,  in  partial  fulfilment  of  the 
requirements  for  the  degree  of  Piaster  of  Arts. 


Edmonton, 
May  1924. 


UKRAINIAN  LITERATURE 


prefaced  by  an  outline  of 
Ukrainian  History 


John  Yatchevfj  B,A, 


Being  a  thesis  presented  to  the  Department  of  English 
of  the  University  of  Alberta ^  in  partial  fulfili'’nent 
of  the  requirements  for  the  degree  of  Master  of  Arts, 


March j  1924 


f 


PART  ON  E 


AN  OUTLINE 

0  F 

UKRAINIAN  HISTORY 


.  'St 


u 


»* 


CONTE  NTlj 


PART  ONF 


Page 


Introduction  . . . . . . . 

An  Outline  of  Ul^rainian  History; ....... .  . . 

The  extent  of  the  territory  of  Ukraine.......... 

In  f orTre^  Russia  . . .  . . 

In  Austria . . . . . . 

In  Hungary . . 

Nsighhors  of  Ukraine. . . . . . . 

Land  and  CllTT'ate 

The  Soil  and  its  Products* . 

Origin  of  the  term  ’’Ukraine’*. . . 

Tribal  Origin  of  the  (Jlcrainian  Race.  ^ . 
The  Rus  s iana 

Volodimir  the  Great . . . 

The  Tartar  Invasions  of  Ukraine. , 
TTkralne*  s  relations  with  Lithuania. ............. 

Ukraine  and  Poland 

The  Turks  and  the  Tartars . . . .  , . 


a.  -b. 
1-88 
1, 

8. 

.2. 


3, 


.  ,.4. 
...7. 

.  .  .9. 
...16 
...18. 
...21 
.,*24 
...26, 
...30 


The  Cossacks  (Kozaki ) 34 
Ukraine  and  Russxa. *»..**.*». 9**... 43 
The  dormf  all  of  Ukraine  *4-6 
S^veden  and  Ukraine  versus  Russia. a............ .47 

Eastern  Galici.a»  56 
Ukraine  in  the  great  War  .-65 
The  Rrissian  Revolution. . 67 
U^'raine  proclaims  Independence.  70 
The  Proclamation  of  the  Ukrainian  People’s  Republr  c  72 

Ukraine  makes  peace.,..,.....',.,..... . . . .....75 

Peace  with  Central  Powers  a  Tragedy  to  Ukrainian  Republic 77 
The  Case  of  Eastern  Galicia  after  the  World  War 79 


PART  TWO. 


IHirainian  Literature 

Ukrainian  Alohabet . . . . . . . . .  . 

The  Ulcrainian  Language 

The  Anc  lent  Per  i  od«  7 . . . . . 

Ukrainian  Literature  on  the  Threshold  of  the 

Christian  Era. . . . . . 

The  Christian  Era. 

The  beginning  of  the  Ecclesiastic-Slavcnic  Literature,,,. 

The  Ukrainian  Translated  Literature,,.,,.. . . 

Original  Literature, •  . . . 

Ukrainian  Pilgrims . . . . . 


88i- 

88i 


89 

95 


95 
101 
102 
109 
11  '7 
137 


195. 


Digitized  by  the  Internet  Archive 
.in  2D18  with  funding  from 
University  of  Alberta  Libraries 


https://archive.org/details/ukrainianiiteratOOyatc 


The  Chroniclers . . .ITo” 

Poetry, . . .147 

The  Decline  of  U’^rainian  Literature,, . . . 168 

The  Intermeiiate  PeriodJ-r. . . . . 176 

The  Existence  of  the  Ukrainian  Nation  is  Threetensd. . 185 

A  How  Literature  E-yolved. .189 

'^^9  Modern  Per iod.C'r.  .218 

Ivan  Kotliareveky . . . 220 

Taras  Shevchenko. 240  • 

Prominent  Writers  of  Galicia  and  Bukovina, . . . . . . .272 

Me.rkian  Shashkevich . 272 

Ivan  Frank© . . . .285 

Conclusion . 295, 


-•II 


I 


INTRODUCTION 


Among  the  best  signs  of  a  nation's  greatness  is  its 
greatness  in  Art  and  Literature.  For,  it  is  through  these 
that  the  life  of  the  people  who  have  reached  nationhood  is 
best  revealed  to  us.  And^  we  have  no  more  perfect  a  medium 
whereby  this  can  be  better  accomplished  than  by  means  of 
Art  and  Literature.  The  expression  of  national  sentiment 
is  for  the  most  part  left  to  the  poets  and  the  writers. 

They  are  the  sole  of  the  nation,  and  it  is  through  them 
that  the  heart  of  the  nation  finds  its  expression.  They 
are  the  select  ones,  the  most  sensitive  and  therefor®  the 
best  interpreters  of  the  Innermost  feelings  of  man.  Since 
literature  is  the  written  records  ©f  man's  spirit,  of  his 
thoughts,  emotions,  aspirations,  it  Is  the  only  true  history 
of  the  human  soul.  It  must  be  accepted  as  being  the  only 
outward  expression  of  a  people's  inner  life,  in  words  of 
truth  and  beauty;  it  is  a  river  of  pur©  water  reflecting 
and  revealing  the  tastes,  customs,  hopes  and  achievements 
of  the  people. 

As  a  nation  the  Ukrainian  people  have  been  heretofore 
little  known  to  the  world  and  to  the  English  speaking 
world  in  particular.  It  is  therefore  the  purpose  of  this 
essay  to  make  them  and  their  culture  better  kncfwn  by  means 
of  an  inquiry  into  their  literature.  The  writer  is  aware 


-a- 


of  the  fact  that  the  history  of  the  Ukrainian  people  has  been 
only  recently  introduced  to  foreign  libraries  ,  and  has  not 
yet  been  read  to  any  appreciable  extent.  So  that  the 
reader  not  being  familiar  with  the  history  of  the  people 
would  probably  find  some  difficulty  in  properly  under¬ 
standing  their  literature, and  a  dissertation  on  liter¬ 
ature  alone  would ^  to  a  certain  extent,  fail  in  its  object. 
Hence  this  brief  outline  of  Ukrainian  History. 


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AN  OUTLINE  OF  UKRAINIAN  HISTORY, 

The  Extent  of  the  Territory  of  Ukraine » 

Ukraine  embrasses  a  substantial  part  of  Eastern  Europe. 
Its  Western  boundary  borders  on  the  Sub-Carpathian  plains  of 
Hungary,  so  as  to  include  Galicia  and  Bukovina,  and  runs 
through  Bessarabia  to  the  Black  Sea.  The  Southern  line  runs 
along  the  Northern  shore  of  the  Black  and  the  Azov  Sea,  in¬ 
cluding  the  Kuban  District  and  reaching  the  high  Caucasian 
Mountains  ,  which  district  is  inhabited  by  Kuban  Cossacks  , 
who  sure  purely  of  Ukrainian  nationality  •  This  territory 
stretches  along  the  Black  Sea  extending  to  the  delta  of  the 
Danube  River,  The  Eastern  boundsiry  border©  on  the  Don  River, 
including  part  of  the  region  of  the  Don  Cossacks.  The  Nor¬ 
thern  line  runs  through  Central  Russia  and  abuts  the  fron¬ 
tiers  of  Poland  and  Lithuania. 

Of  the  cities  of  Ukraine  the  chief  and  the  most  beauti¬ 
ful  one  is  Kiev  on  the  River  Dnieper;  then  there  is  Lviv 
(Lemberg),  Czernivtzi,  Kamianetz,  ZytOTir,  Chernihiv,  Kharkiv, 
Poltava,  Katerinoslav  ,  Kherson,  Odessa,  Katerlnodar  and 
others. 

The  area  of  Ukraine*  is  330,000  square  miles,  which  is 
about  twice  the  size  of  Teacas,  U,S,A,,  and  times  the  area 
of  France, 

This  territory  includes  the  following  provinces  of 
the  former  Russian  Empire  and  of  Austrla-Hungaryl 


-1 


,4-» 


I*  In  former  Rueaia: 


Volhynia,  Podolia,  Kiev,  Chernihiv,  Poltava,  Kherson, 
Kharkiv,  Katerinoalav,  Tauria,  (without  Crimea),  Kholm, 
Bessarabia  (about  1/5  of  the  province)  ,  Grodno  (about  I/3 
of  the  province),  Minsk  (about  I/3  of  the  province),  Kurk 
(about  1/3  of  the  province),  VoroniEh,  (the  South  half), 
and  about  ^  of  the  South  Western  part  of  the  Don  Cossacks* 
Province* 

2*  In  Austria; 

Eastern  Galicia,  as  far  as  the  River  Sian  (awarded  t© 
Poland  in  1923),  and  the  Northern  half  of  Bukovina,(now  under 
the  sovereignty  of  Roumania). 

5*  In  Hungary; 

Carpathian  districts  including  the  territory  South  of 
the  Carpathian  Mountains  of  Eastern  Galicia  and  embrassing 
approximately  10,000  square  miles* 

The  above  Ukrainian  territory  is  inhabited  by  over 
50,000,000  people , of  which  number  the  Ukrainians  constitute 
nearly  4/6  .  According  to  Dr.  Stephen  Rudnitsky,  author  of 
a  geographical  history  of  Ukraine,  the  number  of  Ukrainians 
in  Russian  Ukraine  in  1910  was  32,000,000,  and  of  Austrian 
Ukraine  (Galicia  and  Bukovina)  ,  at  least  5,000,000.  Then 
too,  a  large  niamber  of  Ukrainians  have  settled  in  Great  Russia, 
Central  Asia,  Southern  Siberia,  and  the  Maritime  Province  of 

•2—  _ _ _ 


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Eastern  Siberia*  Adding  to  this  over  one  and  one  half  million 
in  the  United  States  of  America  and  South  America^  and  some 
300^000  in  Canada^  the  total  number  reaches  40«000»000  people* 
The  Capitals  of  the  Ukrainian  Provinces  together  with 
the  estimate  of  the  inhabitants  in  1916 $  are  as  follows 
Yolhynia-  the  City  of  Zhitomir,  90,000| .Podolia-Kamenetz- 
Podilsky^  47,000;  Kiev-  Kiev,  626,000;  Chernihiv-Chernihiv, 
32,000;  Poltava-  Poltava,  77,000;  Kharkiv-  Kharkiv,  249,000; 
Kherson-  Kherson,  67,000;  Tauria-  Simferopol,  68,000;  Kholm- 
Kholm,  23,000;  Kuban-  Katerinodar^  90,000;  Eastern  Galicia- 
Lviv  (Lemberg),  220,000;  Bukovina-Chornivtsi  (Czernovitz) , 
90,000;  Hungarian -Ukraine-  Mookachiv,  20,000* 

The  largest  Ukrainian  city  is  the  Sea-Port  of  Odessa 
with  650,000  inhabitants. 

Neighbors  of  Ukraine^ 

Ukraine  with  its  rather  lengthy  and  uneven  boundaries 
has  many  nations  for  its  neighbors,  viz:  The  Bulgarians, 

Turks,  and  the  Greeks;  then  further  the  Roumanians  ,  Magyars, 
and  the  Slovaks,  then  come  the  Poles,  White  Russians,  and  the 
Great  Russians,  and,  finally  the  Kirkhiz,  Hruzins,  Circassians, 
and  the  Tartars* 

Land  and  Climate, 

A  considerable  portion  of  the  country  is  represented  by 
the  Steppes.  ”The  Steppe”,  says  an  English  author  of  the  17th 


-  3  - 


>  ii  i  ^ 


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Century  "does  so  far  resemble  the  sea  that  the  mariner's 
compass  might  be  useful  for  the  direction  in  one  as  in  the 
other".  The  plains  stretch  along  the  Black  Sea  and  the  Sea 
of  Azov  in  a  strip  nearly  600  miles  wide* 

There  are  seldom  any  trees  on  the  Steppes  excepting 
in  the  North,  but  they  are  thickly  covered  with  tall  grasses* 
These  plains  are  well  watered  by  numerous  streams  and  rivers. 
The  chief  of  these  is  "Father  Dnieper"  a©  the  river  is  called 
by  Ukrainian  Poets,  which  divides  the  Steppes  into  two  practi¬ 
cally  equal  parts*  Differing  from  Northern  and  Western 
Ukraine,  the  Steppes  are  «fe*y.  The  summers  are  long  and  hot, 
and  the  winters  short  but  cold®  The  climate  is  such  distinct 
in  character  that  it  is  called  by  a  French  Geographer  "the 
Ukrainian  climate". 

The  Soil  and  its  Products, 

As  to  the  quality  of  the  soil  of  Ukraine  ,  it  seems  that 
even  a  few  hundred  years  ago  Western  Europe  has  kncfsm  it  to 
be  of  the  best  quality®  Yaroslav  Fedortchouk  in  his  treatise 
on  the  Ukrainian  question  quotes  a  French  writer  -Pierre 
Chevalier-  who  in  the  17th  Century  wrote  "This  Countrey  lieth 
between  the  51  and  48  degrees  of  Latitude  below  which  there 
is  nothing  but  desert  plains  as  far  as  the  Danube,  and  on  the 
other  to  Palus  Maeotis,  the  grass  of  which  Countrey  groweth 
to  an  increditable  length.  Ukrain  is  very  fruitful,  and  so  is 
Russia  and  Podolia,  and  if  the  Earth  be  never  so  little 


-4- 


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cultivated  ,  It  produceth  all  sort  of  grain  so  plentifully, 
that  the  inhabitants  know  not  for  the  most  part  what  he  doe 
with  it** 

The  famous  black  soil  of  Ukraine  is  noted  for  its  fer¬ 
tility,  and  so,  to  no  other  country  as  much  as  to  Ukraine  can 
the  term  **  a  land  flowing  with  milk  and  honey**  be  more  pro¬ 
perly  applied.  This  soil  produces  everything  in  abundance. 
Wheat  is  the  principal  agricultural  product;  the  ripening 
fields  of  which  justifies  the  expression  **the  gold  of  Ukraine**. 
Besides  wheat  other  grains  grow^e.g,  rye,  barley  and  oats. 

The  country  also  abounds  in  flax,  hemp,  potatoes  and  sugar 
beats.  Cherries,  apples  and  pears  are  extensively  grown  in 
orchards  and  fruit  gardens  for  export  as  well  as  home  con¬ 
sumption  « 

The  vast  extent  of  arable  landmakes  it  possible  for 
Ukraine  not  only  to  provide  for  its  own  wants,  but  also  to 
supply  the  whole  of  Russia,  and  to  export  a  large  surplus  t© 
other  European  countries. 

Ukraine  produces  yearly  50,CM}0,000  owt  of  corn,  wheat, 
barley  and  rye.  Of  the  total  products  of  Ukraine,  which  are 
one-fifth  of  that  of  the  whole  of  Russia,  wheat  forms  46 
per  cent,  and  barley  about  60  per  cent.  In  quality  Ukraine 
wheat  is  only  equalled  by  that  grown  in  Canada. 

The  provinces  of  Kharkov  and  Tehernihov  are  the  chief 
sugar  centres.  The  ground  devoted  to  sugar  producing  roots 


-5- 


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in  Ukraine  covers  8,800,000  acres  which  produces  over  2,000,000 
tons  of  sugar  yearly. 

Other  industries  8tra  tobacco,  wine,  maze,  etc. 

The  North-East  and  the  Northern  part  of  Ukraine  is  covered 
with  thick  forest,  which  provides  the  whole  country  with  lumber 
and  fuel. 

On  the  Steppes  30,000,000  head  of  sattl©  graze  ©very  year. 

Ukraine  is  rich  in  coal  and  minerals.  The  Donetz  coal 
field  is  said  to  be  the  largest  in  the  world.  In  1912,20,345,000 
tons  of  coal  was  mined  in  Ukraine;  all  this  in  the  district  of 
Katerinoslav.  In  the  same  year  2,795,000  tons  of  iron  or© 
having  been  mined  in  Southern  Ukraine.  Added  to  th©  above,' 
manganese  and  salt  are  to  be  found  in  Katerinoslav;  and  th© 
oil  fields  of  Galicia, which  outside  of  those  of  R©uiaania,are 
th©  richest  in  Europe,  would  when  properly  exploited  make 
Ukraine  the  wealthiest  country  in  Europe. 

It  may  be  noted  that  the  geographical  position  of  the 
country  is  quite  favorable  to  commerce  and  industry.  Ukraine 
possesses  a  coast  line  measuring  more  than  a  thousand  kilo¬ 
metres.  The  land  is  connected  with  the  Black  S©a  by  three 
great  rivers,  namely,  Th©  Dnieper,  Dniester  and  the  Don. 

In  view  of  all  this  wealth  of  th©  country  and  possi¬ 
bilities  for  the  development  of  th©  industries  above  mentioned 
and  others,  Ukraine  is  undoubtedly  a  self-sufficing  State. 


-6- 


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Origin  of  the  term  "UkraineV 

t 

The  terms  ’’Ukraine**  and  ’’Ukrainian”  (pronounced  Ookrayeen 

I  I 

or  Ookrayeena,  smd  Ookrayeenian  respectively)  though  now 
imiversally  used  and  preferred  to  other  names  ,  were  by  no 
means  the  original  names  by  which  the  land  and  its  people  were 
designated.  The  oldest  name  was,  according  to  Michael  Vozniak, 

I 

Rus  to  designate  the  land,  and  Rusini,  the  inhabitants  therein* 
The  Latins  called  them  Rutheni,  from  which  our  present  word 
Ruthenian  is  derived.  This  was  the  name  of  the  cradle  of 
Ukrainian  Motherland  -  the  territory  of  Kiev  during  the  times 
of  the  first  Ukrainian  State  of  Kiev  until  the  lEth  century. 

But,  whereas  the  State  of  Kiev  embraced  not  only  the  Ukrainian 

Tribes,  but  also  the  White  Russians  and  the  forefathers  of  the 

! 

present  Great  Russians,  the  term  Rus  csuae  to  be  used  to  include 
beside  Ukrainian  Territory  the  territory  of  the  other  mentioned 
people  .  When  later  the  State  of  Kiev  weakened,  there  arose 
on  the  Western  Ukrainian  soil  a  mighty  Galician-Voihynian 
Dukedom,  which  commenced  using  the  term  ’’Little  Rus 

Meanwhile  the  same  reasons  which  caused  the  downfall 
of  the  Kievan  State  enabled  the  birth  of  the  Muscovite  Dukedom, 
which  began  organizing  the  Northern  Muscovite  lands  and  con¬ 
sidered  them  as  Rus*  In  order  to  show  the  difference  between 
the  Muscovite  lands  fr^  the  Ukrainian,  the  Greeks  called  the 
Muscovite  territory  Rus,  i*e.  Great  Russia  and  the  whole  of 


7- 


.j**  :  *.w  M  j  iw 

/  •  C'  !'  .-ciciq)  '  :i  ,  /^••►''  •:'•'  •'  -•■.••■.-"  T.-ri^' 

•»  v;i„. .  \  '■  •'  t  ,  u'riO'-<  ‘'a 

ci  .i 

►iftX  -r. -'■  rvHACi  »wi+'  y^me. 

V  Y' 

,r,  t  'J-  ,T/'^ :- ■  ''i, 

"•»  /  ^  •*?uK  I  flii»eX^  Ov  «IO? 

•  -r^ur^'*.  '  'I^**  '  #■  ■  "  t  fir'>r,t 

1r  /■  .#t.  ’ eriJ  ‘  ‘  ^  «i  r<  ai  ro  v  «!: 

<i,;-.  .  :  <  ■■  -  ■’Ok  ■  f 


M 


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if 


.Cj;  .. 


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^^.■.  /o-'  -'■  •  '^^  ■  •  €jiiv  ^  ~iJ'S  >! 

'  ■  Z 

i  ftiio,’ ■ic.'  r.  rj  or.w 

'•  •  •  .  ,  .  .  ':p.  ?f ;.  ‘  .  .*'  '  '-' 


f  <t5^e"nr;, 


1  ftiri 

Hiui  •  •  uJ. 


ir 


I. 


’ ...  vt.  ‘;,:/»i  I  .1.^1  j  ct  r».’ .  ■:^.  r  •  '  .•■  i.G 

,  '  "  .' *  *jrJ  ;«  ■  .  •  ::*?. ') :  .Vj.^  ^ 

''*c’  "'  -'xflw  4r'vrv*i  •  oi.V  ‘  X..  c;.t.i/ 

^V4  km.’!  €r*  ’  ‘‘J/  '  J'-'  '  ■  '  • .'.  e  t'-^' 

I  H/.’Vr  •"!  -  .  .  -i  ‘  ’  .4,rt,, 

'  ’  ;’  '•  orfl*.**'  *.  c  ■**o*iO  r. 

.'  O  4.  ■■  ,  •..  V/-*’H'-  •  .-* 


.  ;  i  tji:<v’  -.  ’;■  •  i’^ 

■.'.  plu.r'l  .  •..: 


3  4 


l^f 


V.:jc  *;T.''r  v  ‘  r'Wa 

....  ,M  "J.':- 


the  Ukrainian  territory-  Little  Russia.  Those  terms  were 
used  only  in  books,  for,  the  Ukrainian  people  continued  to 
call  themselves  Rusini. 

Wien  in  the  17th  Century  Ukraine  came  under  the  domination 
of  Muscovy  the  Ukrainians,  in  order  to  indicate  that  they  are 
a  separate  nation  from  the  Great  Russians,  abandoned  the  original 
name  and  began  calling  themselves  Ukrainians. 

At  first  the  term  Ukraine  was  applied  only  to  the  lands 
bordering  with  the  Polovians  and  later  with  the  Tartans, (in 
the  native  tongue  ^Ukraine"  means  borderland).  At  the  time  of 
the  Cossacks  the  name  extended  its  territory  to  include  the 
right  and  the  left  banks  of  the  Dnieper  River.  And,  since  the 
new  Ukrainian  literature  had  its  birth  in  Ukraine  of  the  Cossacks, 
the  name  Ukraine  and  Ukrainian  spread  not  only  over  all  the 
Ukrainian  lands,  which  were  incorporated  in  Russia,  but  also 
over  all  those  lands  which  became  part  of  the  former  Austria- 
Hungary.  And,  so  now  the  people  of  all  Ukrainian  lands  adopt 
the  term  Ukraine  and  Ukrainian,  since  in  their  veins  runs  the 
same  blood  as  that  of  the  Ukrainians  of  the  territory  of  Kiev. 

However  more  correct  as  answering  the  native  enunciation,  the 
spelling  **Ukraina**may  be,  the  Germans,  French  and  the  English 
for  a  considerable  length  of  time  have  used  the  spelling 
“Ukraine".  It  is  therefore  probably  better  to  continue  using 
this  spelling  of  the  word.  As  to  employing  the  article  "the" 
in  connection  with  the  name,  it  can  hardly  be  considered  in- 


-8. 


flL  ;si 


U.'O' 


r  f  St  S'  ^  V  -■  i  V  ^  -t;  'i-^w  ^  ^  - 

i:*©*!  .  •  i  ^  iMocd  rri  -/fiC 

.  Gi  7i0'<^':*u-  »  i^.’^o 

-  ;.»’*ii*'*ii.r 

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t.  4diS  :  'i:<V  l  ',Mi  CciS 
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iv  '  '  fifi.t  1^*  04-  jv  /  ,  ifc-n:'  '.-'A' 

fw/*»iJridC.^l: .  '  ..  ;  :.■  'ccn  '  t  ’  4  "  .^nc'H 

.  ^  ' .'  fjttJl  Jifi  JLj^ 'S3l^  ci4»  .’ 

■"  •-  .-4^i'/'w  'ijnt)  ^.t:-  iC.  i.  r>ccl4f 

t  #  .  <fv:  j ,•■;  .  ;  .  r’o“ifTM  ■.>.  /a:  j  ••or"  "levv-fdo^ 

lo  bn*.  »  -  ,  ' .— '  aii:o,4 

.  Z  '-•w  .  '.a  -v  •; 

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'*  •■  •  ■  r  >■  .  A-  Ip  - 

t  Si  S-^JM  '  j  rri 


correct  on  account  of  its  long  uee^  although  grammatically 
speaking  it  is  so. 


Tribal  Origin  of  the  Ukrainian  Race. 

The  Aryan  Race  « 

The  Ukrainian  people  is  a  member  of  the  Slavonic  race^ 
and  together  with  other  Slavonic  people  belongs  to  the  Indo- 
European  or  Aryan  race.  It  is  to  the  early  spiritual  and 
mental  qualities  and  development  in  this  race  that  we  attribute 
our  modern  civilization.  Indo-European  languages  include  most 
of  the  languages  of  Europe,  and  also  soma  of  the  languages  of 
Asia. 

Civilization  of  the  Slavonians. 

Historians  tell  us  that  from  the  time  of  their  branching 
off  from  the  Indo-European  race  the  Slavs  were  tillers  of  the 
soil.  They  were  engaged  in  mixed  farming,  and  especially  raised 
many  cattle.  Bee-keeping  was  also  a  favorite  and  an  important 
occupation  arncaag  them.  It  is  therefore  not  without  justification 
that  these  people  used  to  say  that  their  land  **  flowed  with 
milk  and  honey**.  Of  the  cereals  they  raised  rye,  wheat,  barley, 
oats  and  millet.  It  is  therefore  mainly  in  the  names  of 
these  products  that  the  present  Slavic  peoples  find  their  common 
roots  and  similarities  in  languages.  In  spite  of  these  simi¬ 
larities  of  languages  and  their  reciprocal  dealings,  however,  the 


-9. 


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f  . 

\..p  .  r 


1  •:  I  :  ^,'\r  i  .  :,,it  e^CCl 


Slava  neither  shared  the  same  culture  nor  spoke  the  same  language, 
nor  did  they  belong  to  tne  same  anthropologic  race.  And,  so  nat¬ 
urally  civilization  of  the  Slavs  differed  according  to  the  place 
and  time.  For  our  purposes  this  is  an  interesting  fact,  since 
now  a  large  number  of  researchers  claim  the  territories  of  Visla 
and  Dnieper  to  have  been  the  home  of  the  primitive  Slavic  races, 
that  is  so  to  a  great  extent,  on  the  present  Ukrainian  ethno¬ 
graphic  territory. 

Branching  off  of  the  Slavic  Races^ 

It  is  presumed  that  the  division  of  the  Slava  into  separate 
nationalities  was  caused  by  the  wandering  of  some  of  the  groups 
Westward  to  the  Oder  Kiver.  A  general  breaking  up  of  the  Slavs 
into  separate  and  distinct  groups  occurred  when  after  the  downfall 
of  the  mighty  Huns,  a  great  number  of  the  Slavs  in  the  15th 
Century  followed  the  Goths  towards  the  Dniesterand  the  lower 
Danube.  Thus  we  have  a  beginning  of  the  Western  branch  of  the 
Slavic  language,  among  which  are  the  polish  and  the  Czecho-Slovak. 
This  group  according  to  historians  of  the  16th  century,  migrated 
Southward  into  Thrace,  and  also  considerably  Westward.  These  new 
COTiers  because  of  their  aggresiveness  ,  occupied  practically  the 
whole  of  the  Balkon  Peninsular,  and  in  the  course  of  time  created 
two  States,  the  Bulgarian  in  the  East  and  the  Servian  in  the  West. 
To  the  North  of  the  Serbs  there  settled  the  Croatians,  and  still 
further  North^the  Slovens. 


-10- 


^  --  I.-:-' '-  ■  '  ■  '•  -'- 

J  .  ,^1.  ,  ^  ..  ^  *^  v'’  "  '•^■' 

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^  ’.'.  .  I  •  ,.  rr>  i>i  •  *?'JWS  oj  ic<;t>i«43r  Uftir' 

_-  ^■^:.  .'  ‘  ‘  i  fl  c?*  5* 

.  V  ..,-i*rr 

■  ,  »gi^  ^^1  1'  L*  '  ■■  "lL' 

i:j-:»r,.  J«.  .-■'v.ti.-y  ••!>  -  ,J* 

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•Jfff  n<’j'i4  "  '-ti”  .ijK -v  .'jr  !-.;.  K-/.  C'-itr,;- 

[■'  "T  -  *  ^ 

t  rr‘  -r  V?.  •  •: 

^4^  bcu»V*ik^4ii^  '■■ij  .’.■. -  -i*  •;.  •  i.ii  ' 

^TjTm  ■  jirr-';  (■^:. .  .  _•  -j6  a  «  •. /ftl  '^t.'  ni/d  *  ■  ' .--iiC 


-.-  .r  '*•  -*.i.‘  •Sfw*  ./:fj  ^  .:.  ,  t t**- 


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•51 


Sattlements  of  the  Eastern  Slavs » 

The  Eastern  Slavs  settled  along  the  Middle  and  Upper 
Dniester,  the  Buh  and  the  Dnieper.  To  the  West  of  them  were 
Slavonic  and  Germanic  settlements,  while  they  were  separated 
from  the  Balkan  by  the  Southern  Slavs.  In  view  of  their 
geographical  position,  therefore  it  was  not  unnatural  for 
them  to  move,  as  they  did  Eastward  to  the  Don,  to  the  shores 
of  the  Black  Sea,  into  the  regions  of  Western  Dvina  and  to 
the  Volga  River.  Tot he  North  and  North-east  of  them  were 
the  Finns  and  Turian  tribes  with  which  they  often  contested. 
The  Slavs  were  more  numerous  and  stronger.  In  course  of  time, 
therefore,  the  Finns  became  assimilated  and  the  outcome  is 
the  present  Russians. 

Needless  to  say,  the  Finns  on  their  part  during  the 
process  of  assimilation  influenced  the  Russians  to  a  great 
extent,  not  only  as  regards  the  physical  type,  but  also  as 
regards  cultural  qualities  and  national  character. 

Ukrainian  Tribes, 

Historians  place  the  settling  down  permanently  of  the 
Eastern  Slavs  to  the  years  700-800.A.D.  They  occupied  the 
whole  of  the  basin  of  the  Dnieper  River,  excepting  the  remote 
Northern  parts  of  it.  They  concentrated  their  settlements  on 
the  Buh,  the  Dniester  in  the  Steppes  and  on  the  banks  of  the 
Black  Sea. 


-11- 


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...  •  •*  ■  :  :  >  ,. 

.*11*  v®-^’  ••  C^’  t  ^•*r*  ^’’  “■'»«..•  .*■'  ).»!</»•/: 

Iv  '^c-iv  ^  .-  --.a  ffU>^iij|D2  -i  •'v.'^- 

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The  tribes  which  later  amalgamated  farming  the  Ukra- 
nian  nation  were  as  follows:-  Tivertsy  inhabited  the  banks  of 
the  Black  Sea;  Ulichy  were  to  be  found  between  the  Dnieper  and 
the  Buh*  Further  Korth  were  the  Poliani  (signifying  that  they 
were  inhabitants  of  the  prairies);  to  the  North  and  East  of 
these  were  settlements  of  Derevliani  (dwellers  of  the  forest). 
Then  on  the  left  side  of  the  Dnieper  were  the  Siveriani.  They 
were  the  most  Northern  of  the  Ukrainian  tribes* 

We  see  that  these  tribes  occupied  the  territory  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Kiev.  The  first  Ukrainian  Chronicler , Nestor , 
the  Monk«  tells  us  that  the  Princes  of  Kiev  eventually  united 
them  under  one  Government*  He  also  tells  us  that  living  among 
them  were  a  great  number  of  Scandinavian  settlers;  in  fact 
the  very  dynasty  of  the  Ukrainian  rulers  was  of  Viking  origin. 

The  majority  of  the  Ukrainian  tribes  at  that  time  could 
boast  of  a  comparatively  advanced  civilimtion.  Their  chief 
occupation  was  farming.  They  were  great  gar diners  and  fruit 
growers.  Various  tribes,  according  t©  where  they  happened 
to  be  living,  were  also  good  hunters,  lumbermen  and  apiarists. 
Mead  was  drunk  to  a  great  extent.  Mead,  wasc^  hide  and  fish 
were  their  principal  industries,  both  for  hem©  consumption 
and  for  exchange  with  the  neighboring  people. 

As  regards  handicraft,  they  tanned  hide,  did  woodwork, 
mad©  articles  of  clay  and  metal*  It  is  said  that  excavations 
reveal  that  people  in  those  days  made  articles  of  iron,  copper, 

-IE- 


ii  .♦*'*  ‘nin-t,-  ’  :  fj.  "i  ♦ '  ^'(7  ,  . 

•‘  .  .  :  V  <:')S  /-  'i  /  *  .''t 

V,  *  ■-.'■?«  J  '-i' ■  ‘  .-^'^ 

f  .;  :  vtv  'ic  o'rev 

'.•.  /.  i  :  ••«*':»<:  lo  :  v,vi 

■  .-  .*:,  -  ^vc-ir.-  "  '^c■  ^bie  J■-‘^A  u-i.;  •"  “:i-'; 

-^:  .  -iz/u  ^:.  •..■*■.  iJ'tc'S  ‘i'.orr 


i;*iej  ©r-j  •  ,»® 

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!  .  Vi  t  .  c*Jr*j  (  '  '•  o-  '' ,ir*tb  ci. 

^  '.*irx  jiff ‘T’  -r>^?rt  ^•"ut; 

BiuJ  -{yX^'  •c’i  j  ifi 

^  '  -v:  it.  .  ••  '  iljvn^o'i  sj 


'*  an,  ic 


-d 

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f  •  wS/V^oiV]  iw<  J!,  vn't 


*  ♦ 


bronze,  silver  and  gold* 

Social  Life^ 

The  oldest  Chronicler  praises  very  highly  the  Poliani 
tribe*  He  says  that  men  were  naturally  humble,  kind  and 
highly  respected  their  mothers,  wifes  and  daughters.  Women 
in  turn  held  them  in  very  high  esteem*  Marriage  was  a  recognized 
institution  amongst  them.  On  the  other  hand  the  Derevliani 
tribe  was  far  behind  them  .They  were  cruel,  pugnacious,  and  un¬ 
refined.  Marriages  were  effected  in  the  moat  primitive  way  , 
by  the  kidnapping  of  a  bride  by  her  future  husband  with  the 
help  of  his  friends.  Unlike  the  former  they  were  polygamists. 

Prom  information  on  hand  one  could  not  help  agreeing 
with  the  philosopher  Locke,  that  the  State  originated  in  the 
family*  These  tribes  were  really  at  first  nothing  else  but 
large  families.  The  tribes  apparently  had  a  democratic  form 
of  government.  They  met  periodically  and  elected  an  Elder 
called  Kniaz  (Princei®  The  Prince  kept  order  in  accordance 
with  the  wishes  of  the  meeting  and  led  th®  army  in  time  of 
war.  Of  course,  real  wars  were  not  often  resorted  to  amongst 
them,  as  land  was  not  scarce  and  all  had  sufficient  food.  The 
art  of  war,  however,  grew  out  of  necssity,  to  defend  th® 
country  from  the  neighboring  and  more  warlike  people.  In 
course  of  time,  therefore,  an  army  which  could  be  ready  to 
fight  on  short  notice  was  deemed  indispensable. 

Religion, 


Like  many  other  primitive  people  the  Ukrainian  Tribes 


r:'^'  ,  :»  .^giri  ■'^fiv  »..C— i-  f;'ii;«  ni 

■  -  •  ;(•;:  VC  €-.f»»"  n  .  ;r’c*.K'*c>j3. 

..  ,-^  ’  I  '-*J  * ’O  J bi-X*X! 

^  _  .  iij  ::  t'!- 0‘T«r:  ■!- v-.jfit'iisi; 

*  •  .  _  -  y.  '-fv.’t  *U  ^'1  -  ''  .  'yvj>ttt^’ij'.'%  9.'fo  J 


.:;;  qJL«^<  -WJ  >  ^‘^■o  iyfiy<-  .’o  iioi. 


;o'  ‘  t  .  v«i 

oj.. 

.  -  ••  « ^  • 

it  : 

-> 

‘  r  »  ■ 

..  liii'i. 

.  ;  :c54  Vu 

>;iO'' t.-:  ■;«'*:^ 

j-tij-i-;  en: 

T**’ 

■*  -  J!  ..•.  ■  * 

J  -'  ci  V^lc  i 

1!'-. 

f)#I  bn  -  r  ti^eo^  ‘tii;  ^.c  .i '  ' 

V*  ,  ■ 

‘■\  'sj  i  r' ^  ’  iK 

Mrt  U.i4  C''1/!-'3  -  .  - 

^1..  ,  T*- 

AT.,. 

c  :jc  t  t 

*i.-  1 

C(  ©fii  y 


ware  heathens.  They  worshipped  the  sun,  heaven,  water,  earth 
and  such  like.  Like  the  early  Romans,  the  Greeks  and  the  Saxons 
they  believed  in  various  Gods  as  having  control  and  supremacy 
over  the  different  elements  in  nature.  The  chief  God  was  Rerun; 
the  thunder  God  ;  Svarog,  the  God  of  Light  and  of  the  Sky; 
Dazhboh,  the  Sun  God;  Leada,  the  God  of  War;  Volos,  protector 
of  cattle  and  sheep,  the  Pan-Apoll©  of  the  Slavs;  Stryboh,6od 
of  the  Winds;  Morena,  Goddess  of  Death  and  Winter;  Siva,  Goddess 
of  Universal  Life.  Then  there  were  Rivers  like  the  Don,  the 
Dnieper  and  the  Danube  which  were  divinized.  Ukrainian  Poetss 
even  to  this  day  call  the  Dnieper  River  ^Father  Dnieper”.  They 
also  believed  in  Vodiany,  the  Spirit  ©f  the  Waters;  Lieshii, 
Spirit  of  the  Woods,  the  Domovoi,  Genius  of  the  Home;  and  the 
Russalkas,  or  Naiads.  Outside  of  thee©, local  divinities  of 
birds  etc.,  were  created,  and  practically  ©very  family  had  its 
own  protector. 

In  view  of  these  beliefs  it  would  be  superfluous  to 
broadly  comment  on  the  people  being  as  deeply  superstitious 
as  they  were  religious.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  they  used  ex¬ 
tensively  their  natural  wealth  of  imagination.  And,  the  tra¬ 
ditions,  the  early  tales  and  legends,  folk-songs  which  have  come 
to  us, clearly  reveal  their  polytheistic  sentiments  and  beliefs. 
Much  of  their  early  literature  shows  their  inborn  inclination 
to  revere  and  fear  the  natural  phenomena  which  they  could  not 
understand* 

The  period  when  the  Ukrainian  tribes,  after  a  lengthy 


-  ,■  ... 

;  .-or-'  o:^v-:  'u 

-.1,  ....  ,,  n  I''..:.'  : '0?i*U&  »'t.t  -rivo 

.  ,'  .  V  bof'  a-  :  oc  .•••b.ii'  .'  ^ 

»  .;«V  ;*!»t  "c-‘  c  — 

“"’'.  • '.■-»- ‘H'W'  ■'  c:...  -  ~  ,’•■^.19  ^0 

ifSw*-  ■  ■  ■  ■  ,  j  I  ; 'v'a -.  '.'vC 

•  ..^  ^  ;  .S*.*  tV-  -•  ’  '■'  'C' 

,  I  ,  :  •»  -.CTi'  •:,'*ov).lfi.4  wntT  AA.^’  .••"’>  tt’.  ot  ndv« 

4rfJ  ^  oolM 

;  h’.!f  **1.  -. ..'  .  ,  •■  ,  16-  J:,'"<:<t« 

■?  ^  ■ 

■:  •  .--V..  .  •-  ■  .31-i"l 

•Stg^.  ■  ,  .).  ;■•  •  ,■  --“m^'r- 

►9&^o%s/  rr:  c 


&& 

i.,4 


L  -  '  «*-  > 

n  :  t 


n  ' 


W  +n«Ml>'  IQT'i 

'JTO.T  vr  a-J 


•  '’  ■  „  'Vj.  S 


,  */• 

tii.  -  ,  . 


:  •:  •*-•'1  ^ 


.rJlj;. 


^  ■:'.  f-v  r  *ljj  ^  ‘)otT* 


nomadic  life  ceased  their  wanderings  and  settled  dcfwn  permanently 
occupying  a  stretch  of  territory  which  they  considered  to  be  their 
own,  thereby  creating  a  nation,  may  be  called  the  first  period 
in  the  Ukrainian  history.  This  period  commenced  about  the  7th 
and  ended  in  the  9th  century  A.D.  Ukrainian  Kings  or  Grand- 
Dukes  first  mentioned  in  history  of  this  period  are  three  semi¬ 
legendary  brothers,  Kyi,  Schek  and  Horiv,  the  first  of  whom  is 
said  to  have  rebuilt  and  restored  Kiev,  the  ancient  Capital  of 
Ukraine.  They  were  succeeded  by  two  Norseman,  Oskold,  who 
reigned  from  860-867,  and  by  Dyr,  who  reigned  about  the  year 
880.  It  may  be  noted  that  the  same  factor  that  gradually 
drew  the  Ukrainian  tribes  together  also  segregated  them  more 
and  more  from  their  former  kindred  Slavic  races®  This  factor  ' 
was  the  trading  of  Ukrainians  with  the  neighboring  nations, 
to  the  South  with  the  Greek  Cities  and  Constantinople,  in 
which  latter  city  Ukrainian  Wheat  was  in  great  demand.  Ukraine’s 
trade  relations  also  extended  East  and  West®  From  the  South 
traders  came  back  with  silken  goods,  glassware  and  fruit,  for 
which  they  exchanged  hide,  wax  and  slaves.  The  Western  trail 
crossed  Galicia  and  Czechia  to  Southern  Germany®  Her©  the 
Ukrainian  Traders  traded  for  goods  of  Central  Europe  and  those 
brought  from  Byzantium.  It  may  here  be  mentioned  that  the 
influence  of  Byzantium  on  Ukraine  resulting  from  trade  re¬ 
lations  was  a  very  beneficial  one.  Grecian  art  and  culture 
spread  rapidly  along  the  Northern  shores  of  the  Black  Sea 


-15- 


:  r.'-v.  '  fjt€  5-oi2^r)  clri  >*,  'O  : 

IU,‘.  <■  '  - 

V  - 

j  ’.V'o 

.  '•:*:  iu  »fi^  r^i 

?  -ret  ti}  ^ 

-.i  ^ 9 sr  :’  ?r' .  r. ,  .>11  ' 

^  ■ 

?•■•::';  e;i*  ^  ,..  V..  ,  - -I 

.•“jv-O'iii  j  •  :..  *10^ ^8  '*:  D(:« 

•  *  \ce  bfii  VIMT  t*  ‘  '‘'  ' 

u  V  ,  -j^-  :  ?j  i 

i  1^  ^  v»u  w*.  T  ^ *  ■ ".  ‘C'fc.  -C  4  j w 

-;■  V  Oi^m  V  _  v-^^b 

.''■•'V'!  •J^’.  '^L  :i.  ':0i.  ;  .  .:w‘’''  ^>'f..:.  \.r.J^ 

C^‘  f‘  "  V  <• :  -  I'-.rv  ■•:4;  ')r.  ,  tiuri/ 


«?-T^  '."J-  ii‘ •-*.■; 

:  1  ir.  Q,-:  1 

15  'li  »i<. 

ifi  ih\;  .:  "c 

'  «|'  '•/  O'  CO. '/I  i|<M  . 

-  oljji-; 

« 

'•y‘  ^  ..»L-fi  '4ouf.  • 

r.A'.)  vv- 

• 

t  .  •'\:i 

.  jrV 

n:<‘\  Aj  ■;■ 

.  ^  tt  ?  ,.  -It.  ■^lO 

i'  T  ' 

'  . '.  *. 

r-.-.xr 

.-r;i*  -  ..•- 

.  *1'} 

.fit  -  . 

^  ■  #  •o*  *• 

-  . 

-.  •  :  C  l  Sfi 

•>!>% 


iC  UC**f9< 


and  then  over  the  •whole  of  Ukraine  •  Travelling  East  they  "went 
as  far  as  the  Caspian  Sea, or  transported  goods  by  means  of 
Camels  up  to  Bagdad.  Since  travelling  was  at  that  time  unsafe 
owing  to  numerous  highwaymen  lurking  in  the  woods  and  waiting 
for  booty,  the  traders,  in  order  to  be  successful  had  to  be 
skilled  in  the  use  of  arms.  In  fact  the  guards  accompanying 
them  were  real  soldiers.  It  is  here,  therefore,  that  we  find 
the  beginning  of  armies  of  these  people  which  were  later  used 
effectively  to  defend  the  coveted  territory  around  Kiev.  These 
defences  were  not  without  advantage,  for  they  instilled  in  the 
inhabitants  the  love  of  their  land,  and  in  that  way  awakened 
in  them  the  consciousness  of  individual  national  entity.  For 
this  Kievan  country  of  federated  tribes  the  inhabitants  adapted 
the  name  “Rus”  and  for  themselves  the  name  ”Ruaini”.  The 
country  inhabited  by  Rusini  did  not  include  the  territory  which 
was  later  called  Muscovy. 

The  Russians, 

A  word  of  explanation  about  these  people  may  not  be  amiss, 
owing  to  the  fact  that  some  of  the  writers  are  under  a  misappre¬ 
hension  as  to  the  priority  of  origin  of  the  two  Slavic  and 
kindred  races,  viz.,  the  Ukrainians  and  the  Russians.  For  some 
reason  or  other  on©  finds  in  more  than  on©  encyclopaedia  a 
sketch  of  Russian  history  showing  the  Russians  to  be  the  first 
great  race  which  later  gave  birth  to  less  numerous  nations,  one 
of  which  is  the  Ukrainian  nation.  I  wish  here  to  correct  this 


-16- 


::  'CjT/  "o  fJ/.ur.V  3:  /  /•-•Oi! 

t  :•.■•:  C3<v.  ;  ;M  -*>9  ?jS 

ja  iji  ’  .  T  k  f  C  j 

I  *  ^.h  ’  Ti’0“;'  'j.r-  oi  ‘.li  -c 

6/  •  •  ^  :  0^  '  *  ..  'io  u’  ^  i»,  -•  t  ;jcri  'fo^ 


Tv'  ■-'!• 

11  '>■: 

-j;  '.!-■  ' 

: 

-  ,''vv‘ 

’  '-  .  v--.. 

IB 

•;'-•*  1  <  V  .■ .  ’i- 

•  ,’.  » 
arr/Ioo  cj  \> ‘‘vii  dy>*/’v.  . 

V  ^  *'»< 

■vi  ’  f 

'm;  YV^wa 

•...•  ,  ./»i  'li.  .-  ' 

-  .vcl 

.  > +'7<-vii. '  .k 

jifLi'/i.’  /.’/  ■'<;  8 'JO 

'Tar-.^7 

‘  mC ‘j ’i  i::9:\J  iu. 

.i-JC.'  .  l73>  > '■'20/jCl 

ItO 

0  ••  ^ ’•1.;  jViy^i 

.  JWr,'  !•  - 

..  -  j  "0  :  • 

'*0*  bri 

Vi'  t'*'^  — 

^  O.'V'*-  M.s; 

’  ',  ■*  ■  ; _ ;,  J.  ,  ■■ '  .  f 

=  i~ 

.  - 1  .  ‘  *  .  .iv 

v'*»  f-. 

V.v  * 

'-io 

i  1  ‘ 

■ 

—  ... 

.  K.-1J.  .s:j  • .:  .  ■: 

•s. 

.k  -a.i -.-foi'h 

■j^  .  .'Vt  PC'  .  . 

,c-  /.■ 

...  ,..-  r  •^-  . 

'.>nt'  o-U 

jj-  MB-;  c  i  inij- • 

•  ■„  :.,■  -vij 

.  *f  .  • 

'  -  *1  'y 

1.  ^  CToiftneif 

*  •  f? 

O  ii  *  ^  . 

t  O  '  . 

‘  "’  \  ..3 

^:  *  V  •  •:o.U  •#:  3*5.. 

••-■  ■■■  tC  •jv.yJVO'i 

i  .c.rj  k.^s:3jf>.  -i:: 

--*-■*>  -3-.  --.  -.l-i.  ‘A  ^a-'-  ■ 

'  •  •  .  *9  n.  -'_  li  •.'  ' 


miaapprehension  ,  and  to  state  that  the  process  of  branching 
off  was  vice  versa  to  the  general  belief  hitherto. 

An  old  Chronicler  has  left  records  showing  that  to  the 
North  of  Ukraine  there  lived  two  notables  called  the  Meri  and 
the  Ves.  They  were  descendants  of  the  Finns.  They  spoke  the 
Finnish  language  and  lived  a  life  different  in  every  respect 
from  that  of  the  Ukrainians*  For  many  years  the  Ihit©  Russians 
(a  neighboring  people  closely  akin  to  the  Ukrainians)  and  some 
Ukrainians  travelled  to  those  lands  and  settled  there.  The 
Finns  were  a  humble  race,  with  only  an  elementary  education. 

They  were  peaceful  with  no  desire  for  war^  and  their  State 
was  poorly  organized.  The  more  progressive  newcomers,  there¬ 
fore,  soon  had  control  of  the  affairs  of  the  country.  The 
Ukrainian  and  Whit®  Russian  Princes  built  their  cities  in 
various  parts  of  the  country.  While  living  with  the  Meri  and 
the  Ves  they  intermarried  and  in  course  of  time  became  assimi¬ 
lated.  The  new  language  which  was  the  product  of  the  assimi¬ 
lated  races  became  known  as  Muscovite  (Russian).  Of  course  at 
that  time  the  Ukrainians  and  this  new  nationality  still  shared 
one  ccmmion  name-  Rusini  (Ruthenians) •  The  Princes  who  ruled 
this  country  were  of  Ukrainian  Origin.  On©  of  them  Yurey 
(George)  founded  the  city  of  Moscow.  This  territory,  however, 
was  considered  Ukrainian  ,  being  under  the  sovereignity  of  the 
Grand-Duke  of  Kiev.  Later  one  of  the  might  Muscovite  Princes 
Andrey  Boholubsky  refused  to  acknc^ledge  the  supremacy  of  Kiev 


»c  t 


■>4  .  i-'  ---  ’’■• 

^  M'.i  'to  ois-r  “  •f?*'  '  ;  '  ‘ 

uTir^  ••.  j-.v:  'loS  .  !i.ai.ri,J»*:ijD;  ofi’*  '.-'  '3 


HI  Vr^it  t jojuj  •  iV‘'.st V  *«,.-■  0*  7-i^‘i.>  '■  Ti.r^-rt 

pi  ,  '  :f  bffJH  '•  -  ^  •  '- ■ 

■f'*  tp  •.  '  if:/l  w.  .  *  ■'.^•■:  )  i  -»■  :>■':>  ■  '•  • 

'iM  ti  I  »t;  •i-'*!  0<*  -vr  Ifto-JAr.-jJ.;  »'i«Vv  • 

^  fo'  —  ■  :  -i;.  ?**v?  "■'!«. .7  ■  1  .  ^  ;  a^l'V 

'  .  •*'*rj^:-?  .  ^  '^'li’"''.’  •  ‘  :  lo’iJrror' 

,1.  •  .  i  •:.■  ’j  ...  ^  :  ■■  ■ 

,  i*f-  .  i  r-  -  .  •■  •;_■  -.  ;.  ,  i’UC?  >4.  -‘  ' 

'  .::0-  ’■  ';••  .  *  -.’-i’ 

.  V4*.ir.i)  i y  •  ju -  14  ry'OiUi  oiEr.o:::f  ': txiwr.-^'' 

ahtf'n-'.L  0.  r..^i  .  .' 6.: 


wo*r.**4 


.1  .,  <  i’l  '  i'  ‘  -:■  .  .:2C  0  Ci’ic 

•i  .  '.  .  '•“'  ■:--0  • 

’J'  fi  •  ^  ,  I.-:* •  -  .ianoo  :l»w' 

*D  0^  ‘r^-'  .  ‘^C  j'.'l'J.-i'  'SXlP^' 


^  : 


4rr.:*,ort  ,. .  a,';.lo<'oc  ■ 


and  attacking  with  hie  army,  he  completely  devastated  it. 

From  that  time  on  the  Muscovites  gradually  began  developing 
into  a  separate  nation,  now  called  Russia. 

VOLQDIMIR  TtiE  GREAT> 

The  Second  period  of  Ukrainian  history  may  be  termed  the 
Golden  Age  period.  During  this  period  the  country  rose  to  a 
proud  and  independent  Kingdom,  the  largest  among  its  con¬ 
temporaries  in  Europe,  highly  civilized,  rich  and  strong. 

This  is  well  evidenced  by  the  fact  that  Tidien  in  907  A.D,  King 
Oleh  drew  his  hosts  before  the  gates  of  Byzantium,  the  Greeks 
promised  to  pay  tribute  to  Ukrainian  Rulers,  This  period  is 
placed  between  the  9th  and  the  14th  centuries.  Bedirin  Sands 
of  London,  England,  who  is  a  close  student  of  the  Ukrainian 
question  in  his  lecture  on  Ukrainian  history  stated  that 
the  kingdom  reached  the  zenith  ©f  its  prosperity  under  Yolodimir 
the  Great  who  succeeded  to  the  throne  in  or  about  980* A.D,  and 
ruled  until  1015.  Volodlmlr  brought  the  lands  belonging  to  his 
realm  into  closer  connection  with  Kiev  by  appointing  as  governors 
his  own  sons  instead  of  other  Princes, The  territory  governed 
included  all  the  provinces.  Ukraine  of  those  days  included 
Volhynia,  the  Garpathion  country  and  the  boundaries  of  Poland- 
the  Don  region,  Crimea,  and  parts  of  Caucasus,  Roster  and  the 
middle  region  of  the  Dnieper.  It  is  surmised  that  a  fighting 
contingent  of  Varangian  troops  which  had  been  in  the  service 
of  the  Ukrainian  kingdom  during  the  9th  and  10th  centuries. 


-18- 


helped  a  great  deal  towards  the  expansion  of  the  State*  The 
^(xirangians  who  later  served  the  Byzantine  Emperors  were  at 
first  in  the  service  either  of  the  Rusini  or  the  Scandinavian 
Princes,  and  so  called  themselves  Rusi,  which  supposition 
throws  some  explanation  upon  the  theory  of  Professor  Thure 
Anne,  a  Swedish  Archaelogist,  that  the  Ruai  were  Normans* 

The  feature  of  Volodimir’s  reign  which  is  of  great 
historical  significance,  was  his  conversion  to  Christianity 
in  the  year  988.  The  Byzantine  Emperor  ,  Basil  II,  needed 
help  and  invited  Volodimir*  The  latter  would  help  him  only  on 
condition  that  Basil  give  him  his  sister  Anne  for  his  wife* 
Basil  agreed  but  requested  that  Volodimir  first  accept  the 
Christian  faith*  Volodimir  married  the  Princess,  and  himself 
became  baptized  as  a  Christian*  Then,  according  to  the  custom 
of  the  times he  compelled  all  the  inhabitants  of  Kiev  to  be 
baptized  •  Some  of  the  subjects  outside  of  Kiev  had  been 
Christians  since  860^ after  an  expedition  from  Byzantlum,01ha, 
wife  of  Ihor, became  converted  and  she  tried  in  vain  to  persuade 
her  son  Sviatoslav,  the  father  of  Volodimir  to  follow  her 
example* 

Volodimir  the  Great, or  St*Volodimir  as  he  is  sometimes 
called,  was  greatly  mourned  by  his  subjects.  He  is  well  re¬ 
membered  for  three  things,  namely,  for  the  union  of  the 
Ukrainian  territories  which  he  effected,  extending  his  rule 


.19- 


!<s<.  ii 

V. :;  'o  ’>  soivV  m*  :  n.c  .  .x' 

.  •  .,;•  D<.v.i  Md,  .,  .,  :  ‘'0.  ':...>  ■:X  ■ 

,v  :■  *  t 

.  :R  t  -'  ■  t  2  .  'v** ,  ')';.  »,  ;.  8W'".  r'  ^ OK 

".C  ■:^;rf  feci  Gi-': 

'■.<•  -<1 

iivsiJni'r''  'l  ‘  i  v>.v- ■•-  tM*#  ,-^2^ - 
,  Q#  Rj  ,  ^■'.  *.  -.^^■'  '  ;fi  :..;r:.v'-  ‘.t:  ,  'iid'-Y  ;  .v  */ 

:^r:  .;j__  '-.  •••:  ,.-^  .  ,  •^'-.'.cV  b?  ';:!  oi;j4 

;■ . ■  ;■  .  V  ;•  '  »  ^f-».  .  ^  .i.iv)jj..  rci j'-^Ui-^oo 

.  -^5  ?  ".t/-  '  ..  y  ■  . >6  J’U\i  b"it>--..'.  n 

.  ■.  ■•••':'.■>  '^oXoV  ;  ii.M'li'in" 

t  :T  .  .  ••'•  0  -.! 

*  *  yt.  .  .:.  r.i  :.r  ^  ac- 

, ' 

*.•■,■  ..l’:'  -  '••V. ''4V^'^  V' 

t  i...’;  .m:  .  •  ^  1  '*♦-  .  ■r:>r:s  inr.Ms;- - 1... 

Bf-ti  ,  '  /'.'i  ..  j  *» 'V'J ,  :(  ;;X  *.-.o 

•G*’.'.-  '  .  -^.  ‘.f  '  *  ^  --  iCjiliv'.  IC-**  •i'CJ*" 


V^i!»04  i 

«  ^ 


,  0.1 


i*”.  .yClV  ;' 

•i,  .  3'  ,  ^  XI/JU 

‘J  ' ':  d  J-  .  *k;  ':  1)0 


♦  *v 


t 


>iA-  •:  ; 


nai 


to  distant  foreign  lands-  the  Khazars  of  the  Volga,  the  Finns 
of  the  North,  ifho  later  became  known  as  Muscovites,  and  others 
who  paid  tribute  to  Ukraine;  for  the  introduction  of  Christian¬ 
ity  in  Ukraine,  and  for  the  rapid  progress  in  education  and 
culture  made  during  his  reign  as  never  before* 

Volodimir  left  several  sons  as  rulers*  Unfortunately  it 
cannot  be  said  of  them  that  they  always  worked  in  co-operation; 
as  a  matter  of  fact  they  often  fought  amongst  themselves  for 
supremacy,  particularly  over  the  office  of  Grand-Dukedom  over 
Kiev*  At  times  they  even  invited  foreign  help  against  one 
another*  The  result  of  this  was  for  a  time  a  weakening  of 
the  Ukrainian  State,  but,  with  the  rise  to  power  of  one  of  them 
Yaroslav  the  Wise  (1019-1064)  the  kingdom  was  again  re-organ- 
ized  and  became  strong.  Yaroslav  became  ruler  of  all  the 
Ukrainian  lands  and  annexed  some  of  the  neighboring  territory. 
He  became  acquainted  with  various  Royal  families  of  Europe. 

One  of  his  daughters  married  the  French  King  Henry  Ijone  of 
his  sons  married  a  Greek  Princess,  two  others,  German  Duchesses; 
another  Volodimir  Monomachus,  who  reigned  from  1113-1125, 
married  Gytha,  daughter  of  Harold  11,  Saxon  King  of  England, 
who  was  killed  in  the  ^ttle  of  Hastings  or  Senlac  in  1066. 

This  contact  with  foreign  powers  was  without  doubt  very  bene¬ 
ficial  to  the  Ukrainian  people  frcan  the  point  of  visw  of  civi¬ 
lization,  culture,  industry,  trade  and  commerce. 

Yaroslav  like  his  father  established  schools  all  over  the 


-20. 


'  ^-^  i«<T.:  if-  \  r^i  r  ^  If’iOif  m  IJ  ‘iO. 

.  .^, ,  -  ■j'lrrs  •:■  -•  : -'  ••  o^ijSl^-i  ti ’'■:  c  *rvf 

-5  .j  .  ..  •  ■-^'■.  ■’'"  t  ■  ^■: 

I  a«  ancii  .  ■*  '  ;vo..  'v 

..  .r.v  'i  .4V-..:  .-  ..  :  ■.;.  «: -rf^  •-  ^c  : 

>*<f.-  .  .:--.:jc- ‘X>-»  *!->  ■■.>^.!  £  -a 

;  -1;'  -j^vc  v; i.'i-*XcfOi^“ 

•*CV  .)  J..'*:  il^V  r'jr.J  JOjili' 7  cJ’^  -  ■* 

•  yi4ii'«  -iw’-:  ‘_..  :  *'*  -  on4 

-.  :.?  ^  .;■:  ^  rMiil.;. 'r 

•:.■.'•:-•  j;i"  ’  V^1.'0C'iA^ 

•  *:  .'  '  -Vi. '3  /ri’\0’iM'  .  -^‘c  i^'idO'^C*  i.  f  i'.,. 

*i-!vi7J  .  IX  :t^i 

•  ..^  '  -c.-  i  O'.  v-je^^i-OA  i  • .  ^-ii 

,v  .  ..  '>  c.-.-,  -,a  ^joO 

^  .  '.-‘o  o  t  :.  i.  *  a  h»yjt-’:r..  'ii^' 

ift  oc  ^  •  ion  ^iauo^>.^^t  tttf/‘*G.T/i 

.li.-;4«i.-  t  ^  i'  .  I  -  i.:-.'.  •>'>i 'i*t/j'. 

Ji  -  ^  r:  ..  -^  •  .  -  >  ;,.  r*  n;  ■ -.Li:;  -rlw 

■  O.f-V  .  *  ..  i  •  "i:  ,  ••i  )  .  .  .  ^i-  ).>-^r,<  : 

••  '••;  ‘^C'l  i#  :  ■::  /•••;  .v.  ^  ‘.i 

.  ;•"-  .  iu;  .  ^  ^  ^  rroi- ^ii^s  11 

y-V  -  »‘'i  ''.♦iiJ  .  .  B..  •!  tt...  :  J^O. 


country*  was  himself  fond  of  learning*  He  had  soma 
of  the  Greek  wcrks  translated  into  Ukrainian,  and  also 
built  a  Ixbreiry  at  Kiev*  As  a  ruler  he  endeavoured  to  main¬ 
tain  order  in  the  State*  He  made  numberous  good  innovations 
in  legislation  and  was  the  first  to  keep  records  of  these* 

He  is  therefore  remembered  as  the^compiler  of  Isiws? 

Volodimir  Monomachus  was  successful  in  83  important 
campaigns,  concluded  some  19  treaties  with  the  Barbarians, who 
pressed  upon  the  frontiers  of  the  kingdom, and  took  300  Princes 
of  the  nomad  Mongolian  nation  of  Polovtsiane.  In  his  reign 
the  Golden  Era  found  its  conclusion* 

The  Tartar  Invasions  of  Ukraine, 

It  was  not  fated  that  Ukraine  continue  enjoying  the  pro¬ 
sperity  which  it  reached  at  this  time*  The  neighboring  Mus¬ 
covites  grew  sealous  of  its  power  and  under  the  leadership  of 
their  Duke  Andrew  Boholubsky  entered  Kiev  in  1169*  Besides  the 
sword  they  used  fire  and  raised  the  city  to  the  grotmd*  Then 
other  invaders,  namely,  the  Hungarians,  Khosars,  Pechenyhi, 
and  later  Polovtzi  and  others  stormed  the  walls  of  the  realm 
with  the  intention  of  plundering,  but  these  were  successfully 
repelled*  Reel  danger  came  with  the  coming  of  the  Tartar 
tribes*  They  were  migrating  in  large  numbers  into  Europe  from 
the  plains  of  Asia,  Ukraine,  being  less  protected  by  nature  on 
her  Eastern  frontier,  became  an  object  of  incessant  inversions. 

The  Tartars  were  found  to  be  warlike  people,  did  little 


>21- 


c  o  hi*  ■ 


,  ’•-<  ‘'.n^Cv.  ''.S.-"--  •  ■> 

I  ii  '  ■’At'*  -  »  »  "i.WwAA  i"' 

•it.  t  ;V!t  *'}.»»<:  't  #|.  Ic*  7C 

.-  ,  ,•  ^SU  r>;  X:  iil 


,3*i 


:i  r^b.* 


4*  -  •' 

*  ni  .r  '.‘r  :  ;  o  '■  rov  -T.irj  tjoAuV  > 

'r  >  -=1  t'-'* 

’  ^^w,.'.r::ri  ■  :  *  'tv  -  ?-  <  • 

o.'';-  "^c  rK>io-3n  .ci«  *•'  '  i  '.:o 

‘  i  u  i  7ir.w-:*  •?*!:*! 

’i.. ':-v:-,/  ;■  i. 

^ 

,■.  V  .  .  *•.■■-  .',  .  -  ''  --i^V  ./’i  _■  _/ 

....  :  '♦  ra  /j  v..-;  .)  /  ; 

A  c*.'  -jiti-;--:  .  G?:  ,  .j*#”’.'  limU 


tf'j  4SI& 


••/.  ,'<^- 


.  tv- 


•I  <- 1  - 


.  .1^  -  .  .  :..0t  -i'  . 

-'  -y  *  ^  4 

<  >.  •  /i' »  •f 

,  loj  .  ;;  V  •:.  ^  ni  - 

*■-  ctl  1  .'■^'“0  •' 

,•  .*-  .  t 


t'  '  .  •  ^  ivnl 

. ;  •^  «  <«  U  V '>/ J>C‘'*  -  -•  »-' • 

*Lo  rr  i.T Oiv  ..j-.:  -^ 

I  j  .I>o'XX  .'  '  ‘I 

.  .1  .'14'  T  -Oi'^4 

t  .  A  Ic  act:  i  I  ’ 

t  rit'.'  v.  •:  i. 


work  and  lived  on  plunder.  The  Ukrainian  peasants  were  no 
match  for  them  in  war.  They  crept  in  from  beyond  the  Don  and 
the  Volga  under  the  leadership  of  their  Khan,  and  at  first 
attacked  the  Polovtzi,  and  when  they  were  successful  here,  they 
proceeded  towards  Ukraine  where  they  badly  defeated  the  Ukrai¬ 
nians  in  the  yesir  1224.  They  then  went  back,  btit  thirteen 
years  later  returned.  In  1237  the  Tartar  Khan  Batey  with  a 
300,000  army  invaded  Muscovy  and  conquered  it.  He  then  moved 
on  to  Ukraine,  and  after  destroying  Kiev,  ovar-ran  with  his 
army  the  whole  of  the  country.  The  wild  hordes  spared  neither 
property,  men,  women  nor  children.  Their  plan  was  to  leave 
noone  alive  behind  them.  In  five  years*  time  the  Tartars  had 
control  of  the  whole  country.  Many  men,  women,  and  particularly 
pretty  girls  were  carried  away  by  the  invaders  and  made  slaves, 
or  in  case  of  maidens  forced  to  b@c<M©  wives  of  the  Khan  and 
of  his  men.  Those  who  remained  in  the  country  keeping  the 
inhabitants  under  subjection,  emcted  exorbitant  taxes  from 
the  people.  And  ,  so  for  the  first  time  in  history  the  humble 
Ukrainian  peasant  felt  the  cruel  yoke  of  the  Infidel  ,  restricting 
his  freedom  in  his  own  land.  This  experience  left  a  bloody  mark 
in  his  memory,  and  often  in  his  own  heart  attributed  this  state 
of  affairs  to  the  petty  discords  among  the  Princes. 

And  now,  since  the  Dnieperian  Ukraine  was  turned  into 
a  number  of  disunited  communities  paying  tribute  to  the  Tartars, 
Roman  (1199-1206)  took  it  upon  himself  to  strengthen  the  kingdom 


-22- 


n  '  jrr 


rt'S.'-  .  0  "oviX  >  i  i( -j,' ■■\t' 


•  u 


rr 


.  ,  ^  .  I  J  .'!' lic.V 

■.s^  :*ci.  .!;£'i.,tf:-:i  oc::o,W.  '! 

r«.,  ■*  r:  ‘‘Jui^lPc? '  -i .-JV-ij-' 3''0' 


:life  J|  I 

i-^  .^  •. 


-jj-  ■-  --i  V  V ;  ■• 

r  ->  •  tv  Jii; ' '  V' 


Tf  k  ^.Li  ■’  9r 
^  0a1.z  'ii‘ 


'*■  '  ,0  ^  <, '■'  -'  »-*X  Ou"' fjC 

■;<.'  **jnsxnr 


"X  V. 


^  n*-  .  f_  '• 


yiK-o  n 


.  *  .4 


v-r-.c;^ 


-t  *ct 

I  ^  '  r  B  .f 

..v,  , 


<••  ■;>  .',1 


■'  't*- 

' '  •'. '  ■  k 
' 


t  •  Vi 


'  ?.  ;/  "n'lXl  t|t.'  .TC*'  ^  ,i  ■  ..■  .  f’C  J.li 

,  ,  •.  .;  ..  A  *.  '  ■  ,  ^  •^^..■  ...  ' 

>1  bJii'.J'i*,'  -  sjKf  .i  ^Xi.  mX  I  •  8S.fi 

.  ■•  3«i  «r3  1  •  ■  •'^r  ^  -rv  niri  nX 


vtJ'J  'J.  j 


:;  cX  ^' .'  ^'..'i^  io 

'■  f  .  .  ^ 


:  o’.'X  ,^  rt  ■'■'•' t\ 


V  V 


,<^*r.if  p 
1  ir.r^Ofi 


•jm.  Ail.  aCa. 


whera  this  was  poasibld  to  be  done.  He  succeeded  in  uniting 
under  his  rule  the  provinces  of  Galicia,  Volhynia,  Kholm  and 
Podolia.  His  dominions  still  formed  territorially  the  largest 
among  the  States  of  contemporary  Europe. 

Roman* s  son  Prince  Danilo  (1238-1264)  continued  to  work 
with  his  father  and  endeavoured  to  free  Ukraine  of  the  Eastern 
foe.  He  was  a  man  of  strong  personality  and  succeeded  in  driving 
the  Tartars  out  of  the  land  after  the  first  invasion,  and  was 
hailed  as  savior  of  the  country.  He  regained  practically  all 
of  the  Ukrainian  lands.  Under  his  rule  prosperity  once  more 
was  beginning  to  be  felt,  education  spread  and  the  people 
began  to  renew  dealings  with  the  civilized  nations  of  Western 
Europe. 

But,  luck  would  have  it  that  Danilo  be  away  in  Greece 
in  connection  with  an  international  affair  at  the  time  of  the 
second  Tartar  Invasion.  When  he  returned  he  found  the  country 
in  ruins  and  the  enemy  in  power.  He  was  forced  to  enter  into 
a  treaty  with  the  Khan,  this  time  promising  tp  supply  him  with 
military  forces  when  asked  for  instead  of  paying  taxes  as  he 
previously  did®  Danilo,  however,  had  his  mind  set  on  ridding 
his  country  completely  of  the  Tartars,  and  so  resorted  to 
diplomacy.  He  arranged  for  marriages  between  his  sons  and 
the  Hungarian  and  Lithuanian  Royalty.  He  was  also  on  friendly 
terms  with  the  Polish  King,  and  with  the  Pope.  He  could  not 
obtain  outside  assistance  ,  nevertheless,  and  his  own  army  being 


-23- 


,»r' 


.  '  _ auo; 

.■.j-  T  c  70*K]  «*t:v  u  J,iJl  u.i’*' 

'ja  -  c  -  X  Lf ^ n  .  rrc>  i  f  i  I  i)  .  s. .' .'  obc^ 

I  •: D ‘7«:  '"fc c  *'r  ^ ■:•  j„-? il:  >’* » i .J ’  ■  > 


<  C'C.vrr^C  . rU Utoe  « * 

•  .  ■ 


■,* 


X^ilHOcd^n^  r 


e  a.":-  i 


i-:;  »  ■: 


S  .T^sc;  - 


lAd  cue 


..  ■.:! 


amall,  failed  in  his  attempt  at  driving  the  foe  altogether 
out  of  the  land.  The  reign  of  Danilo  was  the  culminating 
point  in  the  Galician  kingdom  and  the  last  page  in  the  history 
of  ancient  Rus  (Ruthenia).  Soon  the  process  of  diamemberment 
decisively  obtained  the  upper  hand^  and  in  another  Century 
Ukraine’s  political  independence  was  at  an  end.  At  the  death 
of  Danilo  in  1264,  no  stronger  leader  was  to  be  found  who  could 
resist  the  Tartars. 


UKRAINE’S  RELATIONS  WITH  LlfHUAgp. 

While  Ukraine  was  warding  off  the  incursions  of  the  fierce 
barbarians  and  when  finally  its  resistance  weakened  and  Its 
people  became  harnassed  in  a  foreign  yoke,  its  neighbors  prospered 
and  grew  in  pcw/er*  Amongst  these  were  Poland  and  Lithttanla.The 
latter  eventually  came  to  the  assistance  of  the  Ukrainians, 
hut  its  object  in  doing  this  was  selfish  gain.  It  not  only 
claimed  for  its  own  any  territory  of  which  it  gained  control 
by  driving  away  the  Tartans,  but  also  by  several  later  sue- 
cesful  invasions  brought  the  whole  of  Ukraine,  with  the  ex¬ 
ception  of  Galicia,  which  was  annexed  by  Poland  in  1340, 
under  its  d<^ination.  Together  with  Ukrainian  lands  Lithuania 

I 

also  annexed  the  country  of  Blla  Rus  (White  Ruthenia),  now 
called  White  Russia.  The  two  kingdoms  thus  united  were 
called  Lithuanian  Rus. 

However,  it  cannot  be  said  that  the  Lithuanian  rule 


-jr.'e;* 


3i«(  /T.t  bcX.I  •.’'-  t 


;iiw._-.v„r  ■  V* 

4  . 


.1/f?'-  i'  . 


J.  .fl-'  •  U 

>■  ‘ 


M 


:  U’ji-iuv 


•tf  'iH  Mf  l)i^ 


,  -'.li  :I.;;4I«; 


'{f'j 


■  A 


:v:-*f.:  .if'  :.r.  :icJ 


»#w 


-v. 


.'"oni  .  laC' 


* 


40 


''■'-!^'v^.; 

.  vu  •  i  -::  hilJH 


'r>  C.  -^J.<i  .  T’ 


v;*  -'*.7C  Qitl  -tc*!  Ur>. :.;  Xo 

'^irJ -iv 


( 


i' 


was  a  harsh  one*  The  Ukrainians  had  no  reason  to  complain 
against  it*  Outside  of  putting  the  Ukrainian  Princes  out  of 
office,  the  Lithuanian  Princes  did  not  try  to  effect  many 
sudden  changes  in  the  country,  on  the  contrary  they  themselves 
soon  underwent  a  change*  They  became  converted  to  Christianity^ 
being  illiterate  they  acquired  some  education  and  learned  to 
speak  and  write  Ukrainian*  Their  legal  enactments  and  docu¬ 
ments  were  written  in  Ukrainian.  In  short  because  of  the 
higher  civilization,  culture  and  mental  development  of  their 
subject  people,  the  Lithuanians  became  assimilated,  with  the 
result  that  their  State  in  course  of  tizpe  became  in  reality 
a  Ukraine-  White  Ruthenian  State. 

During  the  Lithuanian  rule  the  Ukrainians  had  only  the 
Tartars  to  fight  against,  and  this  was  now  a  much  easier  task 
than  formerly.  The  country  gradually  grew  richer,  and  the 
former  refugees  were  lured  to  return  to  their  native  land  and 
to  resume  their  favorite  agricultural  and  pastoral  life*  Besides 
the  Ukrainians,  foreigners  were  also  attracted  to  com©  and 
make  their  homes  here*  Bedwin  Sands  states  that  there  may  be 
found  in  Ukraine  old  names  such  as  0*Brien  and  O’Rourke,  which 
goes  to  prove  that  people  of  distant  foreign  countries  came 
to  settle  in  the  happyland.  And,  when  we  consider  that  in 
those  days  in  Ukraine  all  were  free,  and  republican  institu¬ 
tions  thrived  while  their  neighbors  the  Muscovites  had  an 
absolute  Monarchy, and  the  Poles  a  haughty  Aristocracy,  we  feel 


-26- 


•Vf  ^  '  n  ■  lo  ■  •-  V- 

.  ♦  .  -  'Ti  'viJ  '  ^  ..o.fiio 

'A.^-»f  .*■  ...'  '-i*'-  ■  •  f'  t X'i/'- •  r’  werr.ar''.*  fj^bi  ‘  S 

,  .  -.  c  ■  ■  o.-_'  s:0.ik  /•  ..^J- ■'.  ;« 

r;  1  •  .' ';\:©  «ro£5  5 /“ij r\  ;i ;  V tr ^0’  *1'' '  “  C i Xi 

t  {»'.»  ...  .-j'..o  -J  ’•  <  .  .'.--.S'.  <C  •;:r^ 

n:'  16  -.  .  -v?  ;  1  ■  .  lU  ri/  ^  rr  »r^;K 

-f  ■•  .  .  ..:-  ■  ■.'■■‘.•h  P"  ■  .  ,  >  •;i';v-.,  ■i;>r‘;,irt 

i«kil  ApHC  '  .I.-'.  .•.  '.  .  ■  ‘  t  '  ■  "■  -rXifri  f 

-■  CA^/  'ic  *yn'tfu.  ai  i  ;  ■  ^  .•  iX/^vioi 

.'  ^  •  ;:^::('^]UTR’  -  0  ■ilr.'j^n  iS 


'  ..  •••■  /■•■'If*':  ■  :..'  ^-..'  '/■'•' 

■« 

■-  ■  OX-of,  I  .  t  ‘  oivjjjs  ;i.'  •^  1'...^  •';;;:' 

••  -'  ..•  '-•  ’  i:*-K  .  OljT  .  »v/.'  &  'lOl 

*  '  ^  "itr'/  fcvi!  .  e*ior'  tiv  r-  'io'.  ■  <  ‘ 

DiiiJ  ^  '*,  .  '. 'ir'y/jl  itvihf  5.u('4iA'i  04: 

'  ’  .  •sa^fvi.  ...  1*  i:'^’  »rf4 


..  • 


•X',  :  • 


(  .  Jvd'ie 

f\r/.j-  Qf.j 


)  V 


b  :':f. 

-•.  ’  :'  bi'MC/l 

•'.  '.ui.'  vvo-io  oi  fi***:.  , 

■  '  '  ■'  .  ' f.l: "  ■^,'3  o  ‘ 

to  .  .-.:  i’  :iv;;o 


3';o<}rtx  a  '  x  -kPi  ..fr  bw/  .-rf.* 

i'Sil 

Jt  -  ^.f.‘  *J  '  »  iy'i4*nt.  ■-*.■;  iC'./  C 


like  admitting  that  it  was  a  happyland  indeed# 

during  this  period  the  Cossacks »  whose  origin  could  be 
traced  as  far  back  as  Scythian  and  Cymmerian  times »  were  first 
made  use  of  by  the  Lithuanian  Princes# 

UKRAINE  AND  POLAND 

We  now  come  to  a  very  important  era  in  the  political 
history  of  Ukraine.  The  international  relations  between  Ukraine 
and  Poland  resulted  in  the  most  unhappy  consequences  to  the 
former  country  .  And,  it  is  only  by  a  careful  study  of  these 
relations  that  we  will  be  able  to  understand  the  discord  which 
to  this  day  exists  between  the  two  nations.  Th®  following 
Latin  verse  of  the  Cossack  period  which  reflects  on  the  Polish 
Rule  may  give  us  a  slight  idea  of  the  transformation  that  took 
place  in  this  land  of  progress  and  promise;- 
“Clarum  reguum  Polonorum 
Est  Coelum  Nobiliorum  , 

Saradisum  Judeorum, 

Et  Infernum  Rustic orum.  ” 

Poland  had  been  waiting  and  hoping  for  a  long  time  to 
stretch  its  arm  in  order  to  absorb  Ukraine  into  its  o?m  kingdom# 
It  viewed  with  jealous  eyes  the  rising  democracy,  but  could 
find  no  pretense  for  interference  with  Its  internal  affairs# 

But  its  opportunity  came 5  at  the  death  of  the  Polish  King  Ludwig, 
his  daughter  Jadwiga  survived  him.  In  1386  the  Polish  nobles 
arranged  a  marriage  between  her  and  a  Lithuanian  Prince  Jahailo, 


26- 


:  >  W' 


I 


t  ior. 


Ik 


^  >  w^'  •  ■J'Ci-.W  ^  V  ' 

I."--.’ 

,  »:>  ^r.,iiJii:i^  ■v:v^  Vi1  '  *:  /:  • 


afifrf  .-r^'  a.-'.v 


.-ii  *  V"'  '•  ' 

.  *1::“^  .  I  '  r *r  /  ••'!. 


'■M., 

-  «tjw 


!►  J  -.  .  f’  ) 

.  c  «ioT» 

s/ivT  ni  1)0  7_yjiS.':  t 

ft  V,:  -  .>: 

^  .0-0'?  0^1 

iai  *7}  kc.icr«i«ia0  OJ 

■  ■'•■V'  'IdO.I  ^  Clw'i 

‘  ‘  m  OS’  •  ’. 

'•  .  ,  r:-v:x«^ 

rtf  .  »p  *'}'>■' -3 

■  *  itii' 

£iW  i  ^'n 

■  tXe  A  .tti  o-vf3  Y^ar'  '^ylv: 

_ , 

y. 

.  •'  bfri^I  at  eo^.Ix; 

•J',.  Cl  •  •”', 

^  wi/-;  ;’:;t  ’  .  x'  ,  \ 

,  !  ;rr:if./<*:>rj 

.„••/•  ,V  :  'f*.-.*!/.!  .tS 

O*  •r-!^  “'•o.  7<  'K'  ,  ;.-  r.  '  ^  •  -I'.'oi 


31  j*  yi«i  <- 


t 


i 


! 


^.. 


H  - o. ii  '.iv,  n4>yi«iv 


at  the  same  time  electing  him  King  of  Poland*  In  return  he  pro-* 
mised  to  annex  to  Poland  the  whole  of  Lithuania,  Ukraine  and 
White  Ruthenia*  Jahailo  kept  his  promise,  and  soon  Ukraine 
was  incorporated  in  the  new  Polish-Lithuanian  kingdom.  The 
Poles  soon  began  to  play  the  leading  role  in  the  federation 
and  succeeded  in  removing  the  Lithuanian  claims  upon  Ukraine 
and  turning  the  latter  into  their  exclusive  property.  Even  at 
this  time,nevertheleB8,  Ukraine  preserved  its  autonomy,  but 
presently  we  shall  see  how  difficult  it  was  to  keep  it  in 
view  of  Poland  and  later  Russia  determining  to  exterminate  the 
Ukrainian  nation.  Poland  could  not  bear  this  autonomous 
State,  for,  the  Szlachta  (nobles)  found  it  a  difficult  task 
to  keep  their  semi-servile  peasants  from  migrating  to  Ukraine 
to  escape  the  lords*  lash  and  to  enjoy  democracy.  Severe 
measures  were  ,  therefore,  employed  by  the  Polish  government 
to  prevent  the  Polish  peasants  from  leaving  their  land. 

It  appears  from  the  above  that  the  lords  in  Poland  had 
a  strong  hold  on  the  poorer  classes  whose  liberty  they  limited 
to  the  extreme.  It  was  the  lords  alone  who  had  a  saying  in 
the  government  of  the  country.  At  conventions  called  ”s®jm” 
which  they  arranged  periodically,  or  as  necessity  required, 
they  elected  Kings  for  rulers.  The  King  was  directly  respon¬ 
sible  to  the  lords,  and  without  their  consent  could  not  pass 
a  single  enactment^  nor  could  he  ever  ignore  their  wishes  and 
still  retain  the  throne.  Each  lord  had  a  castle  and  an  army 


-27- 


.  ,  .  .  ;  .L  ^v.-.  xi^iTCA  0^ 

,;  " «7«'-Ju.  .  j.  k  **■•  < jBv  » >*  -  '  -i-’i* -' k)*.x  ' :  (it 

i'  *  ^ 

.s  :  -'J.*.'.  ■’  -  iw  ircr!  ©>1“^  ri  ‘  •  ■*v../'.o  >*>,1: 

:j  ji  wIli  oj{^  ;»Iq  tiftys'S  ,no99 

.V*-  *JLo  ,'xwyflW!  r.i  'J«&‘ bxj,’? 


^  'v  ftrrl 


f'l'trj-  ori:,  ’t ;  J »  /.  wi-w^,. ., 


•:•  -*V'’  o..jx:\  ^ '?.r.-J'>i)r  j*-'  ‘  rjr*-^  , 

or,  viXjn  '.^O'i  ' 


*•  :  ..  :  >*Ci<  V 

.f  r.^toiV  • 


.  ■:  -i  1C  .  .  X  V 

'  t  nii.rij:‘xaR/ 

■-.rcl  ..^v-;jc.?i’76  oflJ 


.»o  .A  . 


i>. ’.1  a> 


rr *j,  0  'j*  qee)X  Ox> 


'.'V# 


9%^  ^  r 


■  ''•I  ‘.I  1X4  *  r) .’  •;  b  '4  V  ;'. 


i'?a'fio4  ©n.J',  -i'  ~ ' 
-'..  'I'i  C'iC'-s'.qii  -il 


M. 


'W-iii^  1^-.. 


cm*..’  :  ?.■.  .<  '  ic-rf  .’^  ■ 

X  I,.:,;  ''-.CO 

X.  .■  •'■.»■  •  .  .tr.-'V'O  L '■’’i.  j'"  -  ':u{v^ 

.  ■■•;  ^  t  •--.  .1^  ..,  Joiifw 

,  7  tr;  'i .  n-'i 


••'tih 

.14  .tfimt,..  J 


X, 

^  i  J  .  C,1J'  C  t  O  *  -  . 


'  )  'i'  ,  ‘ilvc.-  .  i! 


of  his  own,  and  so  did  not  care  to  wholly  renounce  his  personal 
liberty  in  favor  of  a  common  body  politic.  We  are  all  aware 
how  this  individuality  of  the  Polish  lords  and  their  “Veto" 
ultimately  caused  the  downfall  of  Poland.  It  is  needless  to 
add  that  practically  the  whole  of  the  land  belonged  to  the  lords 
or  the  clergy,  in  a  way  similar  to  the  feudal  system  of  Western 
Europe.  The  subject  class  was  compelled  to  perform  socage  ser¬ 
vices,  while  the  lords  gave  coiamand  and  led  a  life  of  pleasure 
and  ease. 

In  the  natural  course  of  events  when  Poland  gradually 
got  a  stronger  and  stronger  hold  on  the  property  of  Ukrainian 
peasants,  the  King,  in  order  to  retain  the  support  of  the  lords, 
began  to  allot  large  tracts  of  the  peasants^  lands  to  them. 

And,  since  only  a  Pole  could  hold  land,  the  Ukrainian  and  Lithu¬ 
anian  aristocratic  families  saw  that  in  order  to  be  allowed  to 
retain  their  property  they  would  have  to  become  Polonized. 
Consequently  many  of  them  renounced  their  nationality,  gave 
up  their  language,  and  allowed  themselves  to  degenerate  into 
oppressors  of  their  own  people.  Thus  it  was  not  long  until 
Ukraine  was  becoming  a  scene  of  sporadic  castles  of  lords. 
Ordinarily  the  lord  himself  would  be  residing  in  the  City 
while  his  lessee,  usually  a  Jew,  would  be  managing  his  estate 
and  extorting  all  he  could  out  of  the  poor  working  people  in 
order  to  make  enough  for  his  lord  and  for  himself.  •  Quite 
frequently  his  treatment  of  the  pesant  would  be  barbarously 


-2a 


• ^.'.ic  '•  V.-.  0  ■  f 


*,i  l^ot^  ‘it-c:  tuir^  ^  r*  to  'X.  'i'r.  (i  v&’i- 


JO  DIMIffAO 


IC 

A  ^ 


r  ri  J-ACJi  Oittiq  r  '•■•  \t;v> 

11.  -  *•  v“'  .  .  t  *  'ir-  u  od* 

flCftJiO  ..  ::,M. 


i. 


i  .  H  tn^JS^  «vjc''  ./’'ic  i  on.^  oj-.l.  ^  ue-^ir 


.  •  fifi  iiiu:  ■ 

.'.y  ij5ij;Jri'  o.;'-  ,::. 

•:  •.  •:>•:£ ’D ft j:  .  o  '  jcg 

(tfino  t  -  1  iioirq; 

'  .ij  .0  c.  ' 

^  i<dk>..  j»* '  *  >  -.  ^  *  ^  ^ j 


*j 


J  /i:  /:'.  yy  :  ; ; 


*'  '  •  ‘.^  ■*  tx^’.-f  v^'  *  ."; .  ..jx  "■  ■jir'.'t  cfiJSyfvt 

‘  ••'■  ■•-■  ’  ■'  ■  -v.'-.-T  '■■  ■'■'■'J 

“  -  •  '  1“  -  t  ■  '  r.^Ji  *ij  .y.j 

•.K .'.  0.  r;'ti'  .  ■  f*  •»•-■»:•  ft  ^  •■  ..av».'tt,'^ij 

'I*  ;,aj£'  ‘,  '  £ng  •  ,••.• 


Kf9  Ofl  A*'" 

'  n^ii  ''t  V 


t>i.  *» 


4‘ 


.  "'41/  lo 


inhuman*  He  had  the  power  of  life  and  death  over  him  similarly 
to  the  masters  in  the  early  history  of  the  Roman  Pater  Pamilias^ 

Once  the  majority  of  Ukrainian  Aristocracy  became  Polonized, 
the  Poles  saw  the  possibility  of  inducing  the  rest  of  the  people 
to  follow  their  example*  This,  of  course,  could  not  bo  effected 
over  night,  nor  was  it  wise  to  employ  methods  of  compulsion, 
hence,  they  decided  upon  what  they  considered  to  be  an  unequivo¬ 
cal  method  of  Polonizing  them  by  means  of  substituting  their 
faith*  As  already  noted  the  Ukrainians  adopted  Christianity 
from  the  Greeks*  Their  religion  was  called  Greek  Orthodox*  The 
Poles  on  the  other  hand  were  Roman  Catholics*  Without  doubt, 
with  the  aid  of  religion,  assimilation  of  the  Ukrainian  element 
would  be  considerably  enhanced*  They  commenced  their  work  by 
sending  Jesuits  among  the  Ukrainians  with  instructions  t©  en¬ 
deavor  to  effect  conversion,  but  sine©  this  appeared  to  be  too 
sudden  and  direct  a  method,  they  resolved  to  suggest  a  union 
of  the  two  churches*  Their  proposal  was  to  allow  Ukrainian 
Priests  to  adhere  to  Greek  ritual,  but  along  with  the  Roman 
Catholics  to  recognise  the  Pope  as  their  head*  After  negotiating 
for  some  time  the  Ukrainian  Metropolitan  Rahoza  together  with 
two  other  bishops  Terletzki  and  Potey  in  the  year  1595  at  the 
Council  of  Brest  secretly  consented  upon  the  union,  proclaiming 
their  adkesion  to  the  dogma  and  hierarchy  of  Rome,  and  de¬ 
livered  the  executed  document  to  the  Pope*  This  document  pur¬ 
ported  to  speak  for  the  entire  Ukrainian  nation.  The  Poles 


-S9- 


;  lur' 


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m 


•*  t? 


oil 


.i''.,‘Joi*  3  '^•’  Vv)i.w 


^ :  .  •  .  ;^,- 
■  '  ■  '  4-  /  ’ 

\-  •»;.  iJ  .  .UUO-J^i  5W1-  ^ 

(i 


*  «-z:w  u  1 


-  .  .  ti^’.'i  v,-o,:,Xol  oi 

.,.  --  'Km:  ,  ^ 

va  H”  \CJii  \ 

>  ;- ^o‘8(t^io  '■'  ‘-C  f)Qri'3’tw.  j 

[JJrit»i^tT^ri‘'  '  •>,  ■'•■  '  -'  '•'2*'^*^'!  T!- ■■^-  »iA  - 

^  -'  ••  r  ' 

i  .  €>%  " ;  .•  ■'  .  Ic^-o'iv  ois.^  ’C^'X'. 

"  s^ *■:'■'■  -.n  y  -..y  !0  ii  v;.i  ’ 

lo  4?<)i 


';-c  ,1,' 


*.,.>r  ,r.,  |..,r  -^i.i  :':trw:7  ‘  ‘ 


'  .» 


'.itv:  yi'  *nn  'T^liWdC 

.1-4*0-  A  •'  :",  M  rovijdfe  .( 


.,  ilr  Z*  '" 

9  *  i 

u 


.-.:.ii  iVfiW  0  : 

•-  ■  •-  ^  Jtd  t  A  • 

I  ’tt  1  :.  ■:  ■  r  e&  J's  i  y^  ‘  ‘  '  ' : ’■''v' 

»  0.;  a:  ^  ■  ^v..r^  .  ;^  ,  •:  .  .  Jif.Tl/i  ..  •O'A'  to 

,  idM  '  .  ^4n»>l7  lilie'  -J  ‘A.-V.';'o;i 

.  ».•!  ■^,j  .:  tWv  ^:::n'ico'^n  O-,'^  iv.>iI':.MBj') 

'r.41/1  rrc  r  j  iouoi^pai  'i •3''- i  rxwiv'  tttaa- 
X  it  ,u  l)'  i.'j'.io.'  a-'/'fle-icf  'i^>M.'<-  uYcf 

atra:3  '"u^n  /.X/o'Iuj^  '  *  Li^r;nc’. 

-  [>,•>  \-*r.  ■:  :•;..  •  i,.X»  Oj  f»>ft,<S4f'.; ,<h  ‘^,  f*‘.\  .t 

.  -  .  '  '  ’  ;jrtrXll>  O-av' AviiC'j  '.  -M  £30;itv»ji.i. 


li 


now  had  a  good  pretense  to  carry  out  their  church  reform. 
Ukrainian  churches  were  being  turned  into  Polish,  Orthodox 
Priests  were  being  dismissed,  and  in  their  places  Roman  Catho¬ 
lic  Priests  were  placed.  The  Ukrainian  Noblemen  were  from 
chiiidhood  forced  to  abandon  their  Orthodox  faith,  language 
and  nationality,  or,  if  they  refused  to  do  so,  they  were  not 
admitted  to  public  offices,  and  the  civil  and  political  rights 
enjoyed  by  the  Poles  were  denied  them.  The  people  through 
oppresive  measures  were  forced  to  worship  in  a  way  which  they 
disliked.  This  led  to  much  controversy  and  serious  developments. 

Bu‘^,it  is  said,  when  adversity  comes  it  usually  follows 
one  on  top  of  another,  and,  so  it  was  with  the  Ukrainian  nation. 
While  Poland  was  keeping  the  Ukrainian  peasant  down  and  reaping 
the  benefits  of  the  Ukrainian  State,  there  was  another  danger 
threatening  the  State’s  existence  from  the  tSouth. 

THE  TURKS  AND  THE  TARTARS 

To  the  South  of  Ukraine  in  Crimea  was  a  kingdom  of  the 
Tartars,  while  the  territory  along  the  Danube  was  also  inhabited 
by  four  hordes  of  the  same  people.  The  Ukrainian  kingdom  at 
that  time  stretched  up  to  the  banka  ©f  the  Black  Sea,  and  so 
occasionally  frictions  occurred  between  the  wandering  Tartars 
and  Ukrainians  for  pasture  claims  and  game  in  the  forest. 

In  the  year  1453  when  the  Turks  defeated  the  Greeks,  and 
the  Sultan  made  Constantinople  his  Capital,  he  proceeded  to 
overcome  the  Khan  and  to  annex  the  Tartar  lands  to  Turkey,  in 


-30- 


IJ 


-  or-:--  , 


'  >  "'n 

:  1  •  •  I 

>% 


V  •  :  I 

^4|«po  xrQ  f  >•  0  r-"  .« '.  .  . vj  ^ : 

tiljll^  '  r.i  q.hv»'::»w  it 

£1  1  x'i-tac/ 

^  TIAT i/l«*XjJV  ^  ^  •■  •  'i'* 
hut  4rrji6‘«?iT2^  ^  .  •  ; 


,  I;  )il.C-i  OlOW  Bf  jOi't  ..  oil 
r  -^'J:  Jbooof 

•;-*  ■;  'K  ^io  t '■‘►Hfjfxi  Mn  bnj;: 

^^i'oViAO  ..■  ■Iu-*/q  q4  (:o..  : 

--r^w  -.  ooJ  •.;3v:cco0,.'^; 

» 

.  --r"  now' 1*1*;.,-!^?  r^v/noiqqo 
C'  [/.'X  <!i;..'  . 

Jd  i;0'  ^  t  :  f  .f\  ^•‘T  ^ 

^/•,r:  ,  •  r.::n  *1,  '  r,^  ;:o  SJto 

' '  -;iX^O‘5'7  '■.  ’>■  .fi ,.  14.107.  '■  ^ 


.V>  1 


t  r|  »r  ^ 


4  ■  -'■  ■•7.  •  10': 

\,  •  ■  ■  ,  :  - 1..  D-rai  ;■  ’ii  tiUicZ  cT 

*  .  '  ■ 

'  '  •  j^r  '  7  -noi.^  ,/]cai*i*jf-:.‘  i>r,'  ^  oiXrfw  ,  .i/: 

»  rr  .— .c  .  '  .7  112  o:  ..  ‘  D.  ©oa-Xud  ‘UJr't  :. 


«  ..  r-'I  f/..-  a.  .•  ./ 7  ...  '.  .,  o,  :i.  .j-ndw 

I'.  .  “  *  '  *.  .•  T  -ii.r  ♦  ‘ .  r*j'.  .-'lai  j  >c^  .,:t.-.  .  .  ':'  v, Tl/iodit.  ■••.•  jg 

fc>. 


which  he  succeeded  without  much  difficulty*  In  a  short 
time  the  Turk  had  under  his  subjection  several  different  nat¬ 
ionalities,  among  whom  were  the  Greeks,  the  Serbs  and  the 
Bulgarians,;  from  this  time  on  the  Turks  and  the  Tartars 
from  natural  inclination  and  because  the  Mohammedan'  religion 
contained  no  restrictions  to  the  contrary,  were  making  ceaseless 
inroads  upon  the  Christians,  and  Ukraine  was  a  victim  of  pill¬ 
age  and  plunder*  In  addition,  whenever  Poland  and  Russia 
happened  to  get  into  a  quarrel  ,  either  one  would  ask  the 
infidels  for  aid  ,  and  this  was  injurious  to  the  inhabitants 
of  Ukraine*  The  year  1484  witnessed  the  climax  of  these 
invasions*  The  Crimean  Khan  Mengli-Girey ,  a  friend  of  the 
Russian  Czar  Ivan  III,  invaded  Ukraine,  ruined  the  City  of 
Kiev  and  took  back  with  him  a  great  number  of  the  citizens* 

The  Tartars  returned  again  an  d  again#  The  hordes 
were  merciless  in  their  treatment  of  men,  women  and  children  • 
They  burnt  the  villages,  plundered  property,  and  gathering 
the  people  as  it  were,  in  a  flock,  chased  them  on  horseback 
using  the  whip  as  they  went  along.  These  slaves  were  even 
branded  with  hot  irons  so  that  they  could  easily  be  kept  track  ' 
of.  When  they  reached  Crimea  they  were  classified  into  different 
grades  and  put  up  for  sale.  Not  infrequently  the  older  and 
the  weaker  ones  not  being  fit  for  work  were  put  aiid©  to  be  used 
as  targets  in  shooting  practices,  or  else  they  were  stoned  to 
death  or  cast  into  the  sea.  The  slaves  had  to  endure  great 
hardships  and  inhuman  tortures*  They  were  forced  to  work  every 


.  .  •  :bTxi^^7itW^Ii. 

•-i'  '>*1*  f*  .  •  "1  *  .  -  r  f..  .  bT  ®\  '  ^n:.r 

/ 

'  Vi  (T^-iv.  •*''  It  •*»  i  '  V,-.* '.;  5  M*' • 'a' i_ 

•;5"r  *''.'  •^'-  i»:-  '..‘'*'4^  ti  ■'  ■IC  ■ 

.  '■■  O  ,  nc  •  V  *■  •  .^ 


:  nn 


:j:if.  -j  %j‘  r*^  i  .  ;t"  -ori  h  *  ]  r.oa 


,r 


^  §i%^A 


JOM  ,ii! 


,M  n  i  •  ,  •;  n .  G  j  tj  JU  9  bs^  Tvj;i 


,i 


«  • 


.•?  .:r  ..j  ..  :'  .  ':  •  -  .■. 

■■/-.  .  •-  -U^^'  t  ,■■...> 

t  •  *  V-  -iK!'';  .  .■^■nfy^„l 


.  ^:. 


<u  :{'  9'!  : 


.'  O'::  v^ 


•;o 


•  '  ii  •  e 


^11*  c*  . 


y: 


■:« 


'  .  "  ■  IT 


,  y  OB  :..o‘:  :  'O'.'  .*..'av  6"jhii..  ".v 

M.  •*•/.•«.  '.  \ -,*"i 

.  ‘  *!'.  i,  I  i  '-  > 

f-  .  i  - i  *  <  ■'  i ■  .:*-■  /lori. 

t  -^c  fj :  :uji  ‘p .  /: ! 


/ 


.  •  0  >iri  c>'’.  ’:o  r;  .-j 


*  JT 


day  including  holidays,  while  at  night  they  were  kept  in  prison# 
The  more  unfortunate  ones  were  made  Galley-slaves  and  were  man¬ 
acled  to  the  Turkish  Galleys,  which  they  propelled  by  means  of 
oars#  These  manacles  were  seldom  loosened  until  the  relief  by 
death  necessitated  it. 

Perhaps  the  most  severe  lot  was  that  of  Ukrainian  women 
and  maidens,  especially  the  pretty  ones,  who,  not  without  justifi¬ 
cation  cursed  their  beauty.  They  could  never  escape  the  hold 
of  the  Infidel,  and  when  captured  were  forced  to  become  his 
concubines  or  sold  to  those  who  wished  to  buy  them# 

This  Turkish-Tartar  peril  hung  over  the  Ukrainian  people 
for  a  long  period  -  for  decades.  This  is  seen  from  the  fact 
that  as  late  as  1575  the  Tartars  again  visited  the  unhappy  lend 
and  carried  away  over  56,000  inhabitants,  40,000  horses  ans  about 
half  a  million  of  cattle# 

Br  otherhoods . 

The  time  had  now  arrived  when  the  Ukrainian  nation  was 
to  be  wholly  disintegrated  and  its  existence  wiped  off  the  face 
of  the  Earth,  or  it  was  to  do  something  for  its  salvation. 

Groping  in  the  dark  for  a  means  of  self-preservation  the  Uk¬ 
rainian  people  conceived  the  idea  of  organizing  guilds  called 
Brotherhoods# 

Brotherhoods  were  organized  in  the  Country  as  well  as  in 
the  Cities.  Some  of  them  had  an  immense  membership.  Hetman 
Sahaydachny  for  example  joined  the  Kievan  B  rotherhood  together 
with  his  Cossack  army. 


-32- 


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'  -  ovf  ^.  .  ..  •  c/  ':’.i:o3  ^ic  J.Aniwi#oaca 

XX': -q  -^x}.- 


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The  function  of  these  brotherhoods  was  to  help  morally 
and  materially  the  Ukrainian  cause*  They  established  Churches  , 
hospitals, home 8  for  the  aged  and  infirm,  helped  the  poor  and  where 
possible  ransomed  slaves  from  the  Turkish  or  Tartar  captivity. 

They  also  brought  aid  to  the  Ukrainian  clergy  who  were  abused 
by  Polish  or  their  own  Pol on i zed  nobles  and  bishops.  They  often 
carried  their  grievance*  to  the  Patriarch  at  Constantinople,  and 
in  some  instances,  obtained  relief.  Besides  this,  after  the 
formal  union  of  the  Orthodox  and  Catholic  churches,  they  were  from 
time  to  time  called  upon  to  defend  the  Orthodox  Faith.  Sometime 
previously  some  of  the  leading  Ukrainians  who  had  not  become  Poles^ 
as  for  instance,  Constafutine  Ostrovsky  or  the  Khodkevitchi  began 
establishing  Ukrainian  schools  and  printing  presses  for  printing 
books.  The  Brotherhoods  favoured  and  followed  the  same  policy* 
Before  long,  thanks  to  these  Brotherhoods  many  national 
educational  institutions  flourished  in  the  land*  People  read 
and  studied*  They  defended  their  nationality  and  Faith,  Many 
books  were  being  printed  and  knowledge  was  spreading  among  the 
common  people  who  then  commenced  to  recover  their  consciousness  of 
nationhood. 

Yaroslav  Fedortchouk  notes  an  interesting  fact,  and  that 
is,  that  the  earliest  grammar  ©f  the  Ukrainian  language  in  Latin 
and  Ukrainian  is  said  to  have  been  published  in  Oxford  in  the 
sixteenth  century# 

While  the  Bcetherhoods  were  benevelent,  educational  and 
cultural  organizations  it  is  quite  obvious  that  in  those  days 

-S3- 


.  L-.,*:-;  oUfi  •  c  p. 


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wiM  *  • 


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s.'O^  '.*;  'a-id  ...  •  '.  ‘ 


li:;  -  ■i.i^iiCLIJ'^.C  JL^T-  ifiU 


of  predominance  of  physical  force  over  everything  else,  euid  an 
even  more  cogent  belief  than  at  present  of  might  being  right, 
these  Guilds  could  not  be  an  effective  antidote  against  the 
attempts  of  Uknaino's  foes  to  reduce  it  to  insignificance  • 

A  physical  force  was  a  sine  qua  non  ,  otherwise  the  extinction 
of  the  Ukrainian  element  was  inevitable.  Hence  we  see  this  force 
coming  forth  in  the  form  of  the  Cos8acks« 

The  Cossacks  (Kozaki). 

The  term**C  os  sacks”  is  misapplied  nowadays*  And  without 
doubt  the  Cossacks  of  old  would  have  been  ashamed  to  call  themselves 
so,  had  they  known  that  it  later  be  given  to  the  half  savage  regi¬ 
ments  of  the  Russian  police  force.  I  have  in  mind  a  native  ex¬ 
pression  which  is  still  in  us®,  which  will  serve  to  illustrate  the 
meaning  of  this  old  organisation,  the  remark  is,  ”H®*s  a  Ko^ak” 
which  is  understood  by  all  to  mean  the  same  thing  as  the  angl©- 
saxon  expression  ”He*s  a  brick”. 

The  Cossacks  were  organized  somewhat  on  the  plan  of  the 
chivalry  of  Western  Europe.  Their  precepts  were  obedience,  piety, 
chastity  and  equality |  and  their  greatest  virtue  wms  to  take  a  '  ^ 
revenge  oh  the  Tartars  the  Turks  and  other  enemies  of  .  Uk¬ 
raine*  Their  beginning  dates  back  to  the  Tartar  invasion;? and 
the  whole  Polish-Lithuanian  is  remarkable  for  their  gradual 
growth  in  number,  strength  and  organization.  The  formation  of 
these  associations  of  warriors  te  defend  the  liberties  of  their 
oppressed  countrymen  against  aggressors,  roused  great  hopes  in 
the  inhabitants  with  regard  to  theiTfuture  political  life. 

The  Cossack  leader  was  the  Hetman  (headman)  who  was 


-34- 


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o- ■  vj 

:-,  r-,v'i’-‘  • 

*  '  i  •  f  *' 

j.;  0  ■‘■:'^-^  •'  =-;i  *'(0  3  <'qo<>-;)‘^j8 

-  -  o  ,  •!•  ly  c  ti?  .''  cj»'^'  'J  '"'  _;r..'.;»\;4*^  A 

90"??'-;  .  .>lJu-.<  roiu-  0  1V/  ;f:o;. n  .'..Va-  #rfi  ^ 

,  •'•;!'.V'C’  'JKV  la  ISnCI  O.l-l  tl.t  ,'.>V'io'^  ^a-‘,.'..  •> 


( i  ."i  fl i  r.  :i '  3  :-i  0  / ' .  io ' '  o^T 


■j-.. 


u  ;•  j ..  ;  7  '  i  **  3Ji  90  y 


tj 


‘^SF^  •9’»d  b  I Mo 

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rt  I  ^  ,0.1 

Jm- 

>  Ov4i^  '  .  '  o-viX<Vw  ■^■'.  :<,?-n<ld  *f:;'/  to  i:tf:im.  .t, 

*to  :iXrj 


.  V 
>  £ 


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- 


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i  ~  iVV.:5  •  ’.  ■/•  /:•  '..X  *!#■'■  .*7  *:  UC  H.'CfTisr-?-- 

ir  *.  •■  .'lA-  '  ■.•.•-■  -*w:.J’.4L  ':i.-f!..  *' 

.4uiii#-i^  •!  ^  y-..  •,.  a_j  -  ..'i  <.'-  ir  '  IJ 

bftcj  p.  iy’rvT,'  t  x‘-.d«uw^-  r^'  r(X'  'Di  ‘ 

'  -  •  o7-  .'.-oiTunr  •••. ,  .  .'ti »  .  :?-!• 

■i 


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j ‘rf*^  I  M’ 


elected  on  a  wholly  democratic  principle  and  was  highly  ro» 
spected  and  obeyed*  But  at  the  same  time>  he  was  not  exempt 
from  being  liable  to  be  dismissed  for  incompetency  or  improper 
management*  Thv  Cossacksadhered  to  strict  rules  of  justice  and 
order*  They  welcomed  into  their  ranks  any  Christian  however  dark 
his  past  record  may  have  been,  so  long  as  he  made  up  his  mind  to 
repent t  and  commence  to  live  in  conformity  with  their  standards 
of  manhood  and  morality*  No  credentials  were  required  from 
those  who  throw  in  their  lot  with  the  Cossacks*  Criminals  flee¬ 
ing  from  justice  or  ini^ustic®,  religious  martyrs,  those  irritated 
by  the  trammels  of  the  state  or  of  society,  all  were  welcome  in 
to  this  common  melting  pot*^or  any  digression  from  the  rules  of 
conduct  in  the  organization  the  members  were  severely  punished* 

For  instance,  if  a  Cossack  dared  to  bring  his  wife  with  him  he 
was  tried  and  executed.  Similarly  the  penalty  wad  severe  for 
^tiser  even  though  very  slight  departures  from  the  set  principles  , 
In  their  various  mannerisms  the  Cossacks  were  bizsxr®,  which  was 
it  is  presumed  designed  with  the  specific  purpose  of  terrifying 
their  enemies*  They  shaved  their  heads  leaving  only  one  long 
wisp  of  hair  in  the  middle  of  the  head  at  the  top*  Their  mous» 
taches  were  long  and  were  twisted  to  lay  down* 

Ordinarily  the  Cossacks  travelled  in  divisions  under  the 
leadership  of  their  Hetman*  Sometimes  the  Hetmans  were  of  the 
common  folk,  but  quite  often  they  were  chosen  from  the  patriotic 
nobility*  Since  the  Cossacks*  mission  was  to  defend  their  native 
land  from  the  Tartars,  and  to  emancipate  slaves  and  property 


-36. 


i.  m  t  .'i3"  -'i  •'  • 

V  ^  ■  *»c  '-•  -  .w-  i  •1^'i  rjj-::il:..j>f>  ..-  -V  r>X..iiX 


. 


5*.,  •’: 

•>:*.  -  .;^’-^T.  ••  dii;  '.  'Tri  0  ;•..  ‘  'M^  .'.'i  .  4^^'vf  Vwr*  .  'iODlC 

•.,.  J  .  ;.  -  •  >.  9*;  4rf  ,-. .  V.,  t  yii'  .-ioor'/. 

'-0-J  -  ,  '  .':'.:0J  -Xi  jWriX  0  .'^XA>q<9*I 

ii&'^  "  a'iw»  •'  •’■  c 

i  Hff-uttitr 

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:  ’.2.L  aO^f  ■'  "  «-'J^  ;S-i»v  .  '  »  .  ^  Tjt'i.'iJ-'  ,  >1 

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from  the  hordes^ the  nobles  co-operated  with  them.  One  of  such 
nobles  was  Dmltro  Vishnevetsky,  who  is  known  in  Ukrainian  poetry 
as  Baida.  He  built  a  castle  on  Khortitsia  Island  on  the  Dnieper, 
gathered  a  large  army  of  Cossacks  and  from  thence  directed  his  op- 
vrations  against  the  Turks.  In  course  of  time  the  Cossacks  made 
the  island  on  the  Dnieper  "Zaporohami”  (signifying  beyond  the  rapids) 
their  principal  place  of  abode^  and  that  is  where  the  names  Zaporo- 
gian  Cossacks  and  Zaporogian  Seech  are  derived  frcmi.  There  all 
who  were  abused  by  the  lords  at  home  and  expected  to  be  punished 
for  an  offence,  or  simply  wished  to  try  a  life  of  adventure, 
found  a  ready  resort. 

The  Dnieper  river  was  a  good  passage  to  the  Black  Sea 
and  to  the  Turks 5  with  this  advantage  the  Cossacks  often  went  as 
far  as  Constantinople  and  after  a  successful  encounter  with  the 
enemy  returned  with  liberated  slaves  and  other  trophies.  Mot 
infrequently,  however,  they  were  not  so  fortunate  In  their  ex¬ 
peditions  but  were  captured  by  the  Turks  and  Tart^s  and  retained 
as  slaves. 

In  the  early  development  of  the  Cossack  associations, 
the  Polish  nobles  were  grateful  to  them  for  affording  them  protec¬ 
tion  against  Mohammedans,  but  when  they  saw  that  they  were  losing 
hold  on  their  semi-servile  peasantry  who  were  rapidly  deserting 
them  to  swell  the  ranks  of  the  free  Cossacks,  they  began  to  place 
restrictions  on  their  successful  growth,  and,  not  being  able  them¬ 
selves  to  counteract  the  widespread  influence,  they  even  solicited 
the  aid  of  the  Sultan  in  their  acts  of  repression.  Various 


.36- 


I  '  .  ‘ ;» '.'o n  ''*‘ifi^’^^' 


^  c'Xvi.ir*:  '.i>:'-  ^‘&i<'i^W‘^ 

,  <  /  .*  ;:.  .  w  -ii/t  ,  > 

:  -u  .  .  ll.:  \7iX4- v,**i-“)X  t 

•  •;_^HX  !».  -  ■  ‘X  »  ni  •'  <v  tZ-rCT 

k*.  .i'  .  •.  •’-■.  •  '?vi_  **i.ruijoT «>i>  .’TC'  ferfftXfti: 

•  ^  -  A  uiv  «i  .t’  :  .  ‘  -T  ♦t'xio.i  _  i^oi^lq  i (%?/■; ni 'jcj'.''’* I • 


•!><  r/f i':o*:c. -:'.  t::.  -r.er.f'o 


V. 


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■.*  r^'iitit  V 


Sir 


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r» 

k..  .  . 


j^/^tftiT'A^il-o  ajicirtiftc.  •-:  /  ^rr.  • 
;>  • :  •  ^' -'  ^7*;#  ,{i  a',*  ;: 

■  •/’•-■  ■■  :*.e 


i(Ti'K  :^^:''^i'i  oni  ftfr^ 


(>'  i  :t  fC  w  61*- 


'^Vto^q 

,«  -'.  '  U  QA 

i'‘ >  V  •*■  •  ’•  .c  .'.i,  V  l;  viipy>  •'^■t 


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iv  ■  D„'jr- 


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Ml!b-1.  aild 


-I  *i>  ♦  j.  .>1.;  .  ...  ‘ 

'>i- ‘  rr-!.'-  ,1  *.1 /*-«a*T;v^: 

•  -•  r.‘;^i'  •  Hf'Bq  I'X..  *  -  •' j'^^j  ....(■: 

«  •  ■-■  •■  ■  •-"  '  *c  --'j  li.-l ..  1- 

t  i..  '  ‘i.^.'.f  nc-  ! 

i  :  ’  :;.l*l:^i  f  ^'irVXAiC 

•  T  %0  U^nr,  tU  rAJ^Iifd  .04i  tq  ,  uf' 


limitations  on  the  liberty  of  the  Cossacks  coupled  with  their 
endeavours  to  Polonize  them  by  means  of  imposing  on  them  Roman 
Catholicism  was  too  much  for  a  freedom-loving  Cossack;^ bear* 

The  result  was,  ceaseless  revolts  against  the  Poles  which  lasted 
for  over  a  score  of  years.  Thus  now  Ukraine  becfuae  once  more 
engaged  in  constant  warfare  on  several  fronts.  At  first  they 
were  quite  successful,  so  that  the  Polish  king  Stefan  Batory  who 
reigned  froml576  to  1586  practically  recognized  the  complete 
autonomy  of  Ukraine.  But  their  force  was  not  equal  to  that  of 
the  enemy,  so  they  met  with  defeat. 

But  the  Zaporogian  Cossacks  were  so  far  invincible*  The 
nobles  could  not  reach  the  ^^eech”.  Their  Hetman  Petro  Kona- 
shevich  Sahaydachny  was  a  great  personality  and  has  been  in  f8.ct 
described  as  one  of  the  greatest  Slavs  in  history.  Under  him  in 
1612  the  Cossacks  became  again  very  powerful  and  in  1618  Sahay¬ 
dachny  proclaimed  himself  Hetman  ©f  Kievan  Ukraine  and  of  the 
whole  Cossack  army  •  By  numerous  successful  campaigns  and  by 
many  clever  acts  of  diplomacy  he  had  transformed  the  Cossacks  fro^ 
a  half  military,  ^alf  piratical  caste  into  a  disciplined  organ¬ 
ization,  a  nucleus  of  the  revived  national  atate*  He  kept  the 
Infidels  at  bay  and  succeeded  in  weakening  the  Poles, with  the 
result  that  they  were  forced  to  recognize  the  independence  of 
Ukraine.  Presently  the  whole  Ukraine  called  itself  ”Kozach- 
china”,  the  land  of  the  Cossacks.  Due  to  his  education,  wisdom 
and  good  leadership  Sahaydachny  is  famous  5  for  the  spread  of  edu¬ 
cation,  establishing  of  printing  presses,  building  of  churches 


.37. 


•  irtcXo*?.  i; 'I  t/oV 


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•■  la'unmn  ct  •‘;:-;ii>  toteroo  fil 

//v.^  o»  t  X'J*l:M66r'ii'3  i£#f 

v-cV*.^'fv  ;  ►  J  'lS-J  'N-  v.CTOfwixiiJ  '.  ,l^ 

. 

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406. /'ii  /^'Xqui 

,  .•*“  T ^-wiT  ,  .'!•>■  ocl’  .*r!;  toedii  -'o#t  uft-v:  >  iX;'i.-r 

i  ;  •'  v^fi/  -.toi.:  j  '1  »•: 

/'.••:.'f  ni  av.-x;;  ^  •:..  ^0  ftJXp;  a.j  .b©Ji^on?:^= 

if  .  ■./j’-j'  '.  v'"?v  t::.!^5£5  o  cj  '  ^  >  •:■  i.’l’jOfO  r^Ioi 

I!/:'.-  .•  ••*  ‘:o  M 

■PjfO  Xfl’iu-.  •'■  1^1:  V‘  ■.  ---■  ■  ^ioiSt:  ',”■ 

. ’V ‘-^'terr.  •'>  fx.;  ■■  *  Y  1.  ^  y.r:4ii ' 

-  tf?!  i  ‘iUi^  ^v:(^j2Iiiii  n' 

.  I'j^.v^-’oT  •y.i-7  'uj  «  ^iT_i-?irsjt 

•  '  '  (li  ^oC/t  #'■,  '  •  i  ^^/'^  EicMjj-XinZ 

V-.:  ^•'■ir,  ”><*  -  'T  ’iDv  v  0‘*  eiif^m'i  ^ 

^•alr,  ■■  ^  .  .•••*'’.<■*■  .  -^•l^.'’J’ 

.  '■  )t  '  L  ^  ,  ,  .’  "ir.  i>r4l  T«i.  t' 

■.  ••  ^  '*  i---i  hoo:- 

.  -'M  i •I^^ '  1  j r.i  '  X-  V a*  <  X  j 


and  the  production  of  works  of  learning  and  art.  During  hia 
rule  Petro  Mohila  the  Metropolitan  of  Kiev ^founded  the  first 
Ukrainian  University  called  ** Academia  of  Kiev”. 

Unfortunately  these  victories  in  battles  and  in  spir# 
itual  i^ggress  were  of  short  duration.  In  a  battle  against 
the  Poles  and  the  Turks  near  Khotin  the  great  leader  was  mor« 
tally  wounded  and  upon  his  return  home»  died  in  1622. 

After  his  death  the  Poles  again  set  to  work  to  tyrannize 
over  Ukraine  with  redoubled  fury.  The  people  were  massacred  in 
cold  blood  and  the  country  mercilessly  wasted.  Sands  quotes 
the  following  excerpt  from  Harmsworth®  s  History  of  the  World 
stating;  "Among  the  Polish  mgnates  who  took  the  greatest  s|^are 
in  the  enslavement  of  Ukraine ,  Yarema  Wishnioviecki  distinguished 
himself  by  his  barbarity |  he  burnt,  beheaded,  impaled  or  blinded 
all  the  Cossacks  who  fell  into  his  hands”  Let  them  feel  they  are 
dying  "  were  his  erders,” 

Several  different  leaders  arose  to  lead  the  Cossacks 
against  the  foe  and  the  greatest  of  them  was  an  officer  of 

Chihirin. 

Bohdan  Khmelnitsky. 

Khmelnitsky  was  a  skilful  warrior,  he  was  well  educated 
wise  and  cunning.  He  suffered  imprisonment  first  by  the  Turks 
and  later  by  the  Poles,  when  he  escaped  he  fled  to  the  Seech 
where  the  Zoporogiaa  Cossacks  welcomed  him  as  their  leader.  Then 
in  1648  he  set  out  to  glear  his  Country  of  the  Poles.  As  he 
went  along  his  ranks  were  augmented  daily.  The  peasants  being 


I  ;>A:ji  '^  o'v'T  , 


*Lo  ‘  V 


-V  J  ai  *i-<J-'i  -. 


14 ;  Vv  i  *  '  ?  *  {■  ‘  •■•  *"i«  ‘ 


1^.7  rjr*A> 


^lU  .tl  fCiUt  'j-:^i  4>i1>  hnfi  wii't:? 


h  .*»«*; 


tired  of  the  oppressive  foreign  yoke,  all  joined  him.  Those 


who  could  not  get  a  sword  or  a  gun  took  with  them  scythes, 
forks  or  other  implements  for  weapons,  and  joined  the  army  fight- 
ing  heroically  for  their  freedom.  With  such  help  and  encour¬ 
agement  fl^elnitsky  conducted  a  series  of  brilliant  campaigns. 

He  annihilated  the  enemy’s  forces,  put  the  Polish  State  into  a 
process  of  rpaid  disintegration,  and  freed  Ukraine.  He  entered 
Kiev  in  state,  and  there  was  proclaimed  Hetman  of  the  whole^^JJk- 
raine.  Foreign  Courts  including  Poland,  Muscovy,  Turkey,  Venice 
Hungary  and  Sweden  sent  their  ambassadors  to  the  ruler  of  liberated 
Ukraine  and  some  offered  alliance. 

fit  this  time  |(hm©Lnitsky  signed  a  treaty  with  the  Poles 
and  returned  home.  But  the  trouble  was  not  over,  the  agreement 
contained  no  restrictions  on  the  Polish  nobles  desiring  t©  settle 
in  Ukraine.  With  the  return  of  the  nobles  popular  uprisings 
again  took  place  and  there  was  bloodshed  once  more.  This  time 
iljfhmelnitsky  failed  to  obtain  the  confidence  of  his  subjects  | 
consequently  he  was  defeated.  A  nm  treaty  was  signed,  but  it 
was  worse  than  the  first  one  and  was  short-lived. 

A  new  war  resulted  in  which  the  Ukrainians  were  for  a 
time  Vtt@t©rous"but  through  the  treachery  of  the  Tartar  Khan  who 
had  proposed  to  assist  him,  but  who  in  fact  favoured  the  Poles 
Khmelnitsky  saw  that  he  was  forsaken.  The  Khan  concluddd  a  treaty 
with  the  Poles  and  returned  home  together  with  a  great  number 
of  Ukrainians  doomed  to  slavery.  The  struggle  continued,  however. 
Poland  was  too  jealous  of  the  existence  of  the  new  nation,  so  it 


►o9' 


4,“0  -iC 

.;,■■■! 

,  *,  .  .:,  .  *^.  i>KT  ’fC'l  \.Xifioi*:-*c«ri  -rii. 

'  *  •  jj  11  i  \-V3Jii;.- ><R5:  •+ • 

^  v.-.v  ..  'I  '  0  ,..■;  '  ;. VKii /:J.  tj.^f  bh. 

a  xffMu  ’■  ’*  *' ;  "*-4  •  oa'*'”  ', hf  t  -  .’’ k. 

.  ’  •  '  •  ,  j  •■  ■ 

-  ci  ^  •“  ■  '  a  ^frOQ'  i?«:  yiSi^Aru.. 

'  *  '  .-'jvi:  .'.i  ' .  C‘  '-ifc©*  fcfiJB  .  . . -' .*3 'i>' L 

:.  •  ,  .r  :m  ,  >  ■hm_ 

CJ  i-i  c.i<  k 

■  .  •‘•.i*  .  ^  -■  .-  4  ^i»w  *  •** 

-  .  r  ..  •  .,:'■  .  :  •.':/.  'r.."‘  *  nJT^r*  ' 

’.♦1  ;  '•  ..'vi  T: ‘o<  .  ■-  OJ  .^•i-fi.-'  . 

^  r  ,»•/ ’  --»  M  ,  ..■  ■'t-.ib  8/JW  «id-  :> 

.  ■’Jr'..  fWfi  J« ,, 

p»  -T,-  •  *  .  wr.^-  .1  'Xrfw  4,  Wijrrr-,  vjr  '  j  -.ji 

r:  'i  ?  '  .  .jio’iJ  J  •;•.•■•.  5tr  ^  :^'>  *’/  ■  ■  '  ^  ' 


At.  C-->  f  ** -'.  « 


PL 


•0^  ')  r 


•ji.jL..  w'-  . 


*  r 


Xcr 

*ir.y 


An^srr.^:^ 

i.clw 

IC. 


H 


■* 


tr 


t 


lost  no  time  nor  spared  efforts  in  stirring  up  enmity  of  its 
neighbours  against  it*  This  was  easily  accomplished,  for 
the  country  was  rich  and  they  saw  their  chance  to  get  their  share 
of  the  wealth  therefrom. 

When  thus  beset  by  enemies  on  all  sides,  being  harassed 
by  Poles,  Turks  and  Tartars,  Khmelnitsky  was  forced  to  come  to  the 
conelusion  that  Ukraine  cbuld  not  exist  as  an  entirely  Indepen** 
dent  nation#  Accordingly  the  Ukrainian  National  Council  detided 
to  enter  into  an  alliance  with  one  of  the  powers.  There  were 
several  evils  to  choose  from.  Under  the  adviee  of  Hetman 
Khmelnitsky  they  decided  upon  Muscovy.  On  January  the  8th 
1654  a  treaty  was  signed  at  Pereyaslav  in  the  Province  of 
Poltava,  a  step  which  the  Ukrainian  nation  has  regretted  ever 
since. 

It  may  not  be  out  of  place  here,  to  point  out  the 
interest  shewn  by  the  Anglo-saxon  world  in  the  Ukrainian  Re¬ 
public  of  the  seventeenth  century.  Pedortchouk  states  that 
English  writers  of  the  tin^  displayed  great  concern  in  the 
affairs  of  this  country.  The  reason  for  it  being  that  in  the 
seventeenth  century  Ukraine  was  still  an  autonomous  state  and 
thbecountry  and  its  people  were  of  no  small  importance  in  the 
affairs  of  Europe.  The  writer  says  that  it  is  possible  to 
trace  the  history  of  the  heroic  Klimelnitsky  and  of  his  revolts 
from^  1649  to  1654  against  the  Polish  oppressors  of  his  coun¬ 
try,  in  the  English  newspapers  of  that  time.  For  example  a  copy 
of  the  Mercurius  Politicus  of  July  3rd-10th,  1651  contains  in 


40. 


h  •  .  ' 

1^  -  *  -  VC* J: 'll'!  '*<>  '■  JWi*-. 

'I  ' 

p,'  -vi: 

w 

i  ^  * 

L  ■'■'  '  •  “ 

h  :•’  o  ri  vc  .  .  '.  rri  vjkf^r 


f 


m  •’  ^  *•  -'  f'.'  .’^ 


*  ,  ’ i  •  ,^j■9ri<is  •■  ^  ‘:i;oo' rf' 

vf*.  r  ;  i:r.  nijit  '<  '*  .  ktC.O 

.  eii-*  *1L 

.V J '  o  i^ »*C37  v-t  - :•}.  nv  i ou/  o: '1  o 

•  r.  1'  V, '.Tv 

>■  e.t. f '.  -  .^  lii  o.'ijii./;.  .j'j*  ■o-d’ 

Vv 

^  •;  >^':  ‘  •’-■  '3  i 

<  '  ~Ji  X ^  \  i‘  '*  ‘  ;“. '  .’’ ' 

♦^  ;.  •.-  'jWV  Ysr  ‘  -jB  vV  a 

'T  -  .  '-I  :■  ■'.(,.  .'  .1  ' 

i-.rn<acc  *  !«vi#8  -  iw  t.  iic'-o 
^  ‘  » 1-3  .^'  *  T#  c'  - , :  i :  r*s 

,  ‘  •*  ./.:. 3  ,  :  'll# 

-• 

-icX  wT.  '  , OfT? 

‘f  ■ 

'  JUU'I' 


..' •  ■  ..•..■.  •■<  .<!»  .tj;.  a#j/ii  afT 

}  ^  ^  X/-.  »  M!'  lo  '.'Xi,*'  ‘47 


^•W  A*  '  >1 

Silt" 

•  ■*''  '  '  Iv 

•.a  OXC  ..  : 

.'i  io 

V' ■ ^ ^  X  ** 

ciXc-:  jr.y 

ir.ij  \o 


*,•  J 


part  the  following;  "From  StAtin  in  Pomerania,  8th  June*  They 
write  that  the  Cossack*  have  met  some  part  of  the  Polish  forces 
coming  from  Lublin  and  Quarnikow,  that  were  marching  to  the 
King‘s  army,  whom  they  engaged  and  routed.  But  on  the  other 
side  ,  that  Prince  Ratzi^vil  from  Litaw,  is  falne  into  the 
Cossacks  Country,  called  Ukrain,  and  both  taken  the  chief  city 
thereof,  called  Klew;  But  hereof  ia  no  certainty” 

Another  extract  reads  asi- 

”Prom  Dantzick,  March  7th,  1654  S*N*  The  news  out  of  Poland 
is,  that  the  Cossacks  have  agreed  with  the  Muscovite,  and  to 
secure  him  their  fidelity,  are  to  deliver  him  three  Earldoms, 
if  it  be  not  a  report  rained  by  the  Court  to  further  the  agree¬ 
ment  with  the  Cossacks,  as  to  procure  more  large  contributions, 
which  a  little  time  will  shew” 

The  writer  selected  a  few  passages  out  of  Edward  Brown* s 
translation  of  a  French  book  entitled  ”Histoire  de  la  Guerre 
des  Cosaques  contre  la  Pologne,  avec  un  discours  de  leur  origins. 
Pays  Moeurs,  Gouvernement  er  Religion,  @t  un  autre  des  Tartares 
Precopites,”  The  book  was  written  by  Pierre  Chevalier  who 
obtained  aomo  of  the  information  contained  in  it  frcM  the  cele¬ 
brated  work  by  Guillaume  la  Vas^eur,  Seigneur  d@  Beauplan 
which  appeared  in  1651.  The  translation  of  the  book  was  pub¬ 
lished  in  1672.  Chevalier  describes  the  character  of  the 
Cossacks  of  the  time  thua:- 

”The  inhabitants  of  Ukraine,  who  are  all  at  present  called 


-41 


.  ofnea  iotr  .  ^  ^ 


-l-ic.  1-. 

c  .:  A>'U9ii  v  .^f-p 

«  -..'  I  'ux»*: 

.1?  'fix’-  rl 


1  n  .'ji  J  V.  i'r>/ 

•  f!' 

'i/'.»fj'_  '■  '-■ 

'■i-.'OO 

.  d 

\ .'  .: j- .  'in  0  C 11  t;  i  ‘3 '!«. ; 


(  j 


.  [  .i.i  .  t'.fj-.'t 

o:il  A  .  i’Hi*'"..  ^  *"^"1  <  .lO'i'j” 

•.•1/-  riii'i  i’^arf  astr-.'-!; -, ;)  ^r(.-»-  ;t«-  ^  * 

•  ri'Xa^.  o-^  -',*f'i  ‘X*;  ‘'X  «-j .t'^S 

iC  j  "i‘  -  .’  '  i  '. 'i- .  '■•!  i  »'  I  ^  < ’/I  >•!«  ■».■  *  ta  ^  i^n 

u 

'•.09  «'•  '  "UOQ'Xtl  t'.  (,  it’  V  ~fH!. 

•  y 

-.-X.'  ;;;0:;rr  ■ 

-.  .ji  ■'.  ')  . '•  v-».^;--v'  ».>.-fT 

•i  -.  b,:-:  'i^.':^•  rio.’f  *  o  •c'..l.'*f-..L£:nfi‘io" 

•*"'  -irv,:  ‘:I  kr-.^nu  ■.  ?  ‘ 

•x  '  t  J  c-Xm  'r  t  ’/a-.c4  n  ,;  •  ■ 

'■ ',  -  <)*rioi'.  v5  ti  "  :^'cv.d  :,  i  .  \  .  :■• 

.'■■?*i  ‘i  lU  1*^'  f  oMti.-'T/!.':i  •.  ^  •1.1  "  c 

piii*t  -  -V  i  ^  ico 

jU"0  ot:^  4  «  .  i- *  .:.* /■b’lJWqc*" 


•IK. 


4 


^■>i  %c  ^t>jty/ulo  ‘"/.'P  e#d^iiva€;»  •I'-ijC  ,  V^Jf  ni  !!WBJ|-:X  ?’« 


■T-.j  it!  •€;. 


*^  '  -  'io  JciiAiiaJt  ^:'V'' 

;y^ 


Cossftoks,  and  glory  in  carrying  that  name,  are  of  a  good  stature, 
active,  strong,  and  dextrous  in  what  they  doe,  liberal  and  little 
caring  to  gather  Riches,  great  lovers  of  Liberty,  and  that  cannot 
suffer  any  Yoak;  unwearied,  bold  and  brave.”  The  translator 
begins  his  Preface  by  remarking; 

’‘Although  Ukraine  be  one  of  the  most  remote  Regions  of 
Europe,  and  the  Cossackian  name  very  Modern,  yet  hath  that 
Country  been  of  late  the  Stage  of  Glorious  Actions,  and  the 
Inhabitants  have  acquitted  themselves  with  as  great  Valour  in 
Martial  affairs  as  any  Nation  whatsoever |  so  that  this  and 
other  Motives  have  made  me  earnest  to  put  this  account  of  it  into 
English;  where  it  cannot  be  otherwise  than  acceptable,  since  the 
Description  of  a  Countrey  little  written  of,  and  the  atchieve- 
ments  of  a  daring  People,  must  needs  be  grateful  to  those  who, 
of  all  the  World,  are  the  most  curious  and  inquisitive  and  the 
greatest  lovers  of  bolt  -Jlttempts  and  Bravery,*.. 

Nor  can  this  short  Treatise  be  unseasonable,  since  most  have 
their  eyes  upon  this  Countrey  at  present;  and  it  is  already 
feared  that  the  Turks  or  Tartars  should  make  their  Inroads 
this  Summer  into  Poland  through  Ukraine, scarce  a  Gazette  without 
mentioning  something  of  it;  and  our  preparati^s  in  the  Western 
Pcurts  will  probably,  at  the  same  time,  be  accompanied  with  great 
attempts  upon  the  most  Eastern  of  Europe” 


-42- 


Jit' 

:  Ti^f 


■'•  t 

^  * 

.  a;:.t  ' 

f-X  .^-iO-^-.  J ;7  "  ^  ^\'a0 

-  t 

^./..  ^  ov  ‘  I'  ;  V.xioi  v.na 

;  ;.;.•  J  >  rii^-.^  t  .  eoa;^ '*«»’.  x  -  S  *  -1  cii  .i>;«  - 

.  ,  _  ^  r;r.  .•:  --X’ 

•,r  ;>J  ■  ■  ■■■  ^  :  ■...:'  v  V  ^  :'qo'i^^,  t'^ 

.  ^.5  0  'v«i 

t  cl  /.'■■;  '■* 

.  —  0“'  -av^^f  B<;V.'  '■;41 

,  *  '-■  •■■•?•  *v  '<<,  .  ij  f'  '  *<■.'•  j  i  t  f; ? J  .1. ^!J »Ii 

»  r-.  --  -  ■  • 

.  .:}r‘'^  :•; X.  ."mX'  .  -c-  fKiv*c.!-50a^  ^ 

•X.  <-,-«-  . .» ■  f  *«  «  V*  t?'j  -''^.  t  ■-  '•  ’'  ‘b  ii  io  av.*'ai3«,. 

1  svtaZi;-.  ’  ara-  j-- ■  r-u^i:  41^.  ^  ' 

....  '■••*(.:  ‘t-  sa-J-'X-l  .;  ■-■•‘l:. 

i‘ 

.  •  'i  :  '  t ''j.  X‘ 'he*.  ■  oO  t^ai  JJttO'rV  '.Oila  aJtfW  ;.  .a)  TO  ' 


-■ 

;  ’  f  -V'..  v,'?::. 

■*.jji .)  eXrf, 

rrc''.": 

v.f  r  2':h,'v 

.  *<A 

o.i*  w '.'’fi*/ 

■)Z’:ucl 

.*  -t 

o-  «i  ’  t  '  MB[  -  -.  •  ‘ 

*:  vj  ’.iu  ir  • 

C7rT/ 

U  airid’ 

’ 

•  tr 

:  '  :  ':o  31; 

.  rioo  :  f 

:  * 

-.i 

.: ..  'Ta  1... 

..i 

.  ..  ^ 

;  .*-E 


UKRAINE  AND  RUSSIA 


The  Treaty  of  Pereyaslav  waa  the  most  momentous  event  in 
the  life  of  the  Ukrainian  Republic.  By  the  articles  of  the 
treaty,  officially  called  the  Articles  of  Bohdan  Khmelnitsky, 
which  treaty  is  still  in  the  Statute  Book  of  the  Russian  Empire, 
or  was  before  the  revolution,  Ukraine  recognized  the  supreme 
authority  of  the  Czar  over  itself.  Nevertheless,  it  was  to 
retain  all  its  former  rights |  neither  the  Czar  nor  the  nobles 
had  any  right  to  interfere  with  Ukrainian  affairs.  The  Hetman 
had  rights  and  po?fers  to  the  extent  of  receiving  and  sending 
ambassadors  to  foreign  countries#  He  had  to  pay  the  Czar  a  yearly 
tribute,  which  he  was  all  wed  t©  raise  without  Interference  of 
the  Czar*s  officials.  In  return  the  Czar  bound  himself  t© 
render  Ukraine  the  necessary  military  asaistanee.  Two  of  the 
principal  articles  of  the  treaty  are  as  follows s» 

”1.  If  the  Hetman  dies  bythe  Will  of  God  (for  every  man 
is  mortal-  such  is  the  law  of  nature)  let  Ukraine  herself  choose 
a  new  Hetman  j^om  her  own  people,  and  only  inform  the  Czar  ©f  the 
election.  Let  His  Majesty  be  not  discontented  by  that,  for  it 
is  an  ancient  custom  of  the  country# 

The  Czar  ordained  and  the  Boyars  voted;  Let  it  be  according 
to  their  wish. 

i  a.  S  S  s.  dors 

2.  Let  the  Hetman  and  the  Ukrainian  Ggvernment^who ' ab 
antique"  coma  tr<m  foreign  lands  to  Ukraine,  The  Hetman  and  the 


-43- 


,  .  .■^.U4vs  •  .'-lii.-sr;..  -ic 

..-,  ,r^  -i,  ,  tooiX^o  viiBiw-'i.o'. 


IQ>  a  ’  * 


S,;c2  .  ■<«(-<  -  X.XJS 


-> 


^  •.fiiiitJov.r*  ailW 


^  • -eja*  ‘ 

.  .  .  -  :  :  «-  ....  8ri^  V  ; 

^  V.  J-v  '  : -T  U  :  ;  O  ■■  aapi  'i  i''-^  ^ 

-t’  .Ijs;;  ».w  «J  .  ■  : ."■-f-jr-  'n,  2.  e?‘^^^^ 

-i..r--*.s«  v.-»*.+  X' .  .<■  -.^r  90'.;  sttif-niC  wor.ot 

,  :■  uo<  I'-r  V.'-.'  -  ■•■  '*-'■'  -■«-i^*'-..^'=’“-''‘'' 

-  fs.  •.  '  if’,  '’f.  .U<*  ?’fl>v..  ~-i''  iiiMiXfi  '-  ■  •" 


9»''(..' 


-ill  f.  *11 


>  ^'f|-, tr«(;  "'  "'i.  f  ’'  ^2-'  ■“  j. ^'* 

,,  .ic  f,  fO  'sl  ••  - 

,  ..  .  -  ‘^e,;  -  .  «tvi  ►  - 

,  -wr'.c-r  -  *■  ■  ■  '.■ 

T 

\tT  ■ •«!  -■  ‘"'-J  :  ••’*'*  ‘>o;i; I»0-^;  * 

i  .  X  *!.  ,  J  Cw 


:  !  -v  'K-  i  ■  ■^' 


1  ^P.K 


Ukrainian  Government  will  consider  themselves  bound  to  inform 
His  Czarish  Majesty  about  proposals  about  proposals  which  might 
be  directed  against  it* 

Concerning  this  article  the  Czarish  Majesty  ordained:  To 
receive  and  to  dismiss  the  Ambassadors  who  come  with  good  in¬ 
tentions  informing  His  Czarish  Majesty  precisely  and  in  good 
time  about  their  proposals  and  the  replies  given  to  them.  Those 
sunbassadors,  however,  who  will  be  sent  from  anywhere  with  pro¬ 
positions  hostile  to  His  Majesty,  must  be  retained  in  Ukraine, 
and  His  Czarish  Majesty  must  be  asked  immediately  for  instructions. 
Without  such  instructions  they  must  not  be  allowed  to  depart. 

With  the  Turkish  Sultan  and  the  King  of  Poland  they  are  not  to 
treat  without  an  express  instruction  of  His  Czarish  Majesty** 

The  terms  of  the  covenant  seemed  reasonable  indeed.  One 
would  not  blame  the  Cossacks  for  acquiescing  to  them  without 
much  hesitation,  and  particularly  at  the  time  when  they  were  in 
good  need  of  protection  and  support.  To  their  surprise  and 
eternal  chagrin,  however,  they  found  that  the  document  so  solemnly 
executed  was  insofar  as  the  Russians  were  concerned  only  ’*  a 
scrap  of  paper**,  **  Consequently  the  conflict  between  the  Ukrainians 
and  the  Muscovites  began  Immediately  after  the  compact  was 
entered  into. 

In  uniting  eith  Muscovy,  Khmelnitsky  with  his  supporters 
reckoned  on  a  better  harmony  of  the  two  nations  than  was  ex¬ 
perienced  with  Poland.  One  favorable  underlying  cause  for 


-44 


,  IT-  ~ -'.-am  ' ' 

•  ,  :■  '!♦■.,■  .  ;c ■.)  HJhiC'  .-fr':?.  _'. 

•  '-.lx  ;r-.  ,  >.ioc^  '  iU^'"r4?{C>  ~i.U  '■  ' 

n.l,.  :jd'' 

uj*f.-  V  -  .'v  '^1  •  't/'-kw  o 

V ';•-'! 'o.-. 'a  I  .-Jiia;  '  '--iH 

,  .  .  Uj  •••;  *  :’•  '  '  a.I^C.v>jv  •:.!  T«ls>,d^'  j-i,'OJ« 

.>-t;  ■•.v.  .1«  •  -1  "O^e  *’■■  '■!'■>  4  'tJVC^VO  - 

bv«J'.l^«■^t’  "1  ^,<w  •  anoliitjc^  ' 

"•  v.  ‘  •»'-  ’be  „  :  '  ■■ '.H  --u  ^:t-?-yn5:  \' ;■  '■  •  U  eili 

■■ 

,  ■■  ■  i's>^  Jt^'.i'  0  )  .'c  r:  ■:i‘^u^  v.i+ft*-  ojtci-J —  i^;Ut  >fLX>£',.utl 


'  V  *^ ,  \  ♦•  ■  Ibrj f  r ■  i  ’><*  .''■'  1 ;  t , 

♦till ,^;4:j‘i’ 

i*'  1^-  t 

>'  ,  •  '-,{^‘ 

Jl/i' •;J.VK 

Jrf.^ji'pvo  '  eiU  \c 

'■  i  vW’f'l’ 

'  -'  ja>  j9*J  ■ '  o/j 

n ...  ') 

.:  ;  ...j;  .;  .  'fjr  <.  rtpfw< 

."VO  ^  ^  '.c  ‘jpon  boo^ 

:  •  ''  <-.i  f>.'.  ,;.<:i  ..  >  ^  v?.  ^ 


_  '  .-/i*  '  #o •!•'  •.  rfe*!  '  -.u  .'  '  Qoiv  I'l^uiTCwr.ti 

')•..'  *.,i.  mC,  ».7,' ; 'i;  f'  t  *»•*/  ■  '.  -c  '  ,  ■••'/n-'  ‘rc  T' 


»..V  ■*  \  rr:;n**J  .  ■)'JiUk  ti:  -.f.'.i^ihf’  nl  ■-.■.* 

>  ■'V* 

•  Ja 

-  '  '  ’  -■  .  ;c  .\r^  .  ^  'IC'  ■;•'  ’'f'-  ”  ‘.i<j  ':  f'Cr ')." 

,  -*'*'"*’  r^-^lvli.r  .-c.  ju  c. 


this,  thought  he,  was  the  similarity  of  Faith  which  they  pro¬ 
fessed*  But  it  did  not  take  them  long  to  find  out  that  there  was 
a  wide  gap  between  them  which  oould  never  be  filled.*  the 
first  place  during  the  revolts  in  Ukraine  under  Khmetnitsky,  all  * 
the  nobility  was  driven  out  of  the  country*  There  were  no  more 
lands  possessed  by  the  lords, nor  any  subjects  in  bondage.  The 
peasantry  were  free  to  till  their  own  soil.  Those  in  the  towns 
led  uninterruptedly  their  professional  lives,  while  the  Cossacks 
served  in  the  army.  Each  of  these  classes  elected  their  own 
officials  who  served -in  a  representative  capacity*  The  clergy 
including  the  priests,  bishops  and  metropolitans  were  all 
appointed  and  dismissed  according  to  the  will  of  the  majority.  At 
the  head  of  all  organizations  was  the  Hetman  who  was  the  first 
citizen  of  the  Republic,  but  who  to©  was  accountable  to  the  masses 

Quite  a  different  state  of  affairs  existed  in  Muscovy.  There 
the  people  as  a  whole  had  no  political  or  other  rights*  They 
were  in  bondage,  serving  their  lords  in  a  more  ©ppresive  servi¬ 
tude  than  the  Ukrainians  had  to  do  some  years  previously.  There 
was  no  franchise  in  the  election  of  government  officials.  The 
Czar  appointed  these  out  of  the  nobility  who  were  even  more  in¬ 
considerate  and  unreasonable  in  the  treatment  of  the  common 
people  than  were  the  Polish  nobles. 

As  to  religion,  there  was  originally  no  difference,  but. 
as  time  went  on  divergence  in  ritual  and  other  formal  amtters 
gradually  became  apparent.  There  was  a  still  greater  difference 


—46— 


yJ  :  t  ^ 

'•  ■  :';■:  1/ 

•  oi  s.io'  - '--f  -»on  -j-i:':  ' 


,,  ^  y^viin  ‘  .' ''•-'O  r. '  tiUiU  ''W’**c‘w 
., .  -  5»<rifli3iU  ...  f'^.i  oax*i<7 

,  niAO'*  -ftKJ  ‘io  ‘^JJo  cj^vl'i^  .  '  v  'il4.io« 

.t'  eft  '  '  '--■  •c•^f^t'scX  \r6  cfer^cl 

Ytr  ;.-:o/  I'^o  Yi-n/  i.JY  .  .’ 


■'V 

YJimio  •«  ‘  ’/irjs^c i;  .  -  .  vV'{^>d  c  ci^  Iio 

,  t^vv’  ctfip  bjifi  a^i’ijXo  ^ .  ’ej-it*:  :^ftibi;j..'>?:I- 

I.''  »» ,'  vil  /  'to  i.ljy  V  ..’  c  ’  *■:'■■ 'J  ■'■  ••■;!.  fv-i-R 

».{.*  ns'.v  uii''is‘ X — •  ‘->C  c-(!st 

V  ct  *11. -» '  /'♦.'C.-'  p^BW  ood-  '.  . -:  '  '-ri  ^ ’J.'*.' uv»i  X;-> 

»;Vy  •  -V  aiiii’t^.*'  :i.o  oJ/'d  • 


'  •• --d  .  ^  r  •*xor.  .:.:  T,r-ivto*-  i  /■■  .  ■••-j  ':-5'  C'V. 

C  )  vj  (jiid  iiniL"' 

.,  '  ‘  T:o  m«iS  .  .  ' 'il  cn 


»*‘.cai  I  4  '-  ‘  i.liccin  frf.  ''.0 


between  the  two  countries  in  their  standard  of  education. 
Throughout  Ukraine  wore  found  public  and  high  schools.  Students 
were  sent  abroad  to  acquire  higher  learning.  Printing  presses 
were  at  work  and  knowledge  was  rapidly  being  diffused  all  over  the 
land.  The  Muscovites  were  uneducated.  For  the  advantage  of  the 
nobles  the  opening  of  schools  was  discouraged  and  forbidden. 

No  printing  was  allowed.  But,  when  one  enterprising  printer  named 
Khvedorovich  ventured  to  print  a  few  books  he  was  accused  of 
getting  support  of  the  Satan  and  had  to  flee  from  the  country  to 
save  his  life.  In  short,  the  whole  system,  political,  social, 
smd  educational  was  in  contrast  to  that  of  Ukraine.  The  Mus¬ 
covite  nobles  and  rulers  were  jealous  of  progressive  Ukrainians, 
for  their  humbled  subjects  began  demanding  rights  which  they  saw 
their  neighbors  were  enjoying  • 

THE  DOINFALL  OF  UKRAINE 

It  was,  therefore,  in  a  large  measure  owing  to  the  cir¬ 
cumstances  that  Muscovy  at  its  first  opportunity  set  to  work 
to  bring  Ukraine  to  its  knees  and  to  establish  a  different  order 
therein*  Contrary  to  solemn  obligations,  it  concluded  a  secret 
Convention  with  Poland  with  a  view  to  the  partition  of  Ukraine. 
Presently  Russian  contingents  were  sent  against  Ukrainian  Towns, 
and  it  was  evident  that  Russia  had  no  intentions  of  respecting 
the  autonomy  of  Ukraine  as  agreed  at  Pereyaslav. 

This  encroachment  upon  Ukraine’s  independ;mce  provoked 


-46. 


-i'"  '  •  ■  ■■  1 1- ^ rtoti'Wiijrf 

,.  1  ‘  .'":J*o':  J Tfit.  ■  : 

■*  i*i'.,.-*^.  ■  ■  ■  ■' 


.  .  .'*•4  ,  #  •1'  :  /•'-fva •  .til'itT.#  . 

..  • :  4*-  . 

,  -,.:.porit)OfUJ  e*-^<9V.*  i--.i.  v  'jjWl 

i.,.  C‘i  y-  eaw  ^ilco’dos  lo  •^ri'.cqo-  5i^i-o/T 


A*}-  '  ^rti  '■  ^  ’Kf-vO^nC'  %nf:  r#. 

lAhww'  i-  .  ’i  .- 

,  •/.tuy  *^^'‘ 


'T'j.  ci'i .\r'i-v«'-''iO]b^^V‘rf^-.  " 

i  .  '■ 

iC. 


'M 


trii  ' 


o  r  ^  *’  ?> . 


j'K  "id*'''' 

..-  ^  LV,ri«  ,fTl  ♦^Z.  A  ‘■v.'-Z 

Ittffgj-tBocfbfv  Oar', 

' '%  '  '-■  ^ 

■■  •"  dH*X.s.f'.-j  ii’.'-'-  vKfivtio 

Z  '■Jati  i  '3i,cii.;urt 


XnTi;r-.'e  ■,'^-?3'^ont{^i*j:.  or: 


rfc 

4  uirt^ 


>  ■•'v>,4 


:  ,  O  I- 


^•^ir:Ke'!o  /(TC  -'^  x  v  suar/jrunyo  '  V  ^ 


'Xc  z  tvr  A-'-^'r,<  oZ  yr.'^ljfXf  arri'X'* 

•X'oc'*'  '  '  ^ ’.^■iM'u+crc.'J  .  ■  ■- 


J 


,e.'’i  ■‘’•» 


C..*  •';  r.^iw  fcfUftic  r';.*ir~©t-;vcO  *' 


' '.  ■^.« 


3Cnc>i.  l-'i.cv  tT.*;i ^^Xr;!  -t.. 

>♦>.  i<'i  'lo  ..X  .'  oJ'i:!  I  .n*l  .''.:o'.i.':{  SajJ  JT]:'-Xyti 

*  '  *  i 

.  -•  .  jr  itof  '  -r  erXji'irll- “rr.  <-.dtrfl  .i^..^ 


' ',.  •“  >•  • 

'  .  ‘;r:.'’.  f'cot^  jireivtiioioiotfs  ^‘.iitf 


great  dissatisfaction  among  the  Ukrainian  masses  who  would  not  be 
ruled  by  the  Russian  Aristocrats.  In  1658  the  Ukrainians  under 
the  leadership  of  Ivan  Vihovsky  rose  against  the  Muscovites  and 
defeated  them  in  1659.  The  Poles  succeeded  in  occupying  Ukraine 
of  the  Right  Bank  in  1660,  but  were  forced  to  abandon  it  four 
years  later.  In  1666  by  the  Peace  of  Andrusov,  the  Czar  regained 
the  Left  Bank. 

There  were  now  two  Hetmans  in  Ukraine,  one  of  the  Right 
Bank  and  the  other  of  the  Left  Bank  of  the  Dnieper. ,  but  they 
were  too  weak  to  struggle  against  two  powerful  nations.  Two  of 
the  Hetmans  Ivan  Vihovsky  and  Damian  Mnohohreshny  who  opposed 
their  rule  were  expeditiously  done  away  with.  The  former  was 
killed  by  the  Poles,  while  the  latter  was  tortured  and  later 
exiled  to  Siberia  by  the  Russians.  Another  Hetman  of  Western 
Ukraine  Petro  Doroshenko  a  sincere  champion  of  Ukraine’s  liberty 
fought  long  and  heroically  for  his  country,  but  his  forces  were 
finally  exhausted,  and  he  died  in  a  Russian  Prison. 

SWEDEN  AND  UKRAINE  VERSUS  RUSSIA. 

In  1687  Ivan  Mazeppa^of  whom  Lord  Byron  in  his  poem 
entitled  “Mazeppa”  says;- 

”0f  all  our  band, 

Though  firm  of  heart  and  strong  of  hand, 

In  skirmish,  march,  or  forage  none 
Than  Thee,  Mazeppa*.  on  the  Earth 
So  fit  a  pair  had  never  birth. 


•  I- 


vCJ’iT.  *  •  ■  '•  ■’ ;c  i  [}h72  «.ncf 

•'£  H  itk  •.’  ^  '-  ■•.i3'-5‘ 

:..  ;  „i  .*  ,  ..loOT^a  V*;'**.  *  «  *  '  ^^•-i’  ’O 

4  ■•  '‘I'-jfcrri  ^  -Jt'v  .  ■,)-•> :2i 

I 

•  •  '  •  -  '» 

jlJlifl  '  -  .•  ^  I  '.'  <hU  i:l  9rtn.rc\  ix  r:>.v  eior:! 

.  ‘  ii-i  crt.^  "IC  '-■‘^"  ‘ic  ^^iv  .;.  o  'vi;  ijx.vft  .%ri/€ 

.  -  l-A4*/bli'  Olf!^  *•  -r-  .  r  -ic-v 

'  Hf  .  ^  »TVi^  err^w  vixj;.-..  i.ut'-v,.^*.  ?.:ai 

U-- 

‘ii  .  .,^v;  v'l.T  >jLi/t  t  .U/ i  vnj  V.u  ioiXii 

*:1»  *<4#r'..-’c  .  .  j*<^-  ^;c  Ax  ■^•cJ’iS  '‘i  b«>.{i 

•  '  aMXifi.P*  '•■  **r*  '  '  '^>*ft»*>' .;  a  A  O'ift'  -"iCtoC.  c^  .-l  ^(ri^-ntJA 

,  i  5i  r  ”,f':  V  '  ’  ■  ox  I  &vi^UC‘i 

,  c.  (-_  '.  ',:  ,  j  j.  . .  .'Ats;?' ‘  V  i  i  oiii'. 


lit  !•-,  tT.-M  : '•  ’  •'  "x ,  j.'i^c  hav:  -f 

.• .  ;  ;>M  ... 

MX  :;Mt  'i  .>^ 


: « is+i^w. 


•r 


■81^ 


Since  Alexander* s  days  till  now. 

As  thy  Bucephalus  and  Thou; 

All  Scythia’s  fame  to  thine  should  yield 
For  pricking  on  ©‘er  Flood  and  Field'* 
was  elected  Hetman  of  all  Ukraine.  He  could  not  bear  to  see 
his  people  abused  and  enslaved  by  Czar  Peter  I  who  then  occupied 
the  Russian  Throne.  Mozeppa  said  that  the  ranks  of  Ukraine's 
array  were  badly  depleted  and  that  it  was  a  waste  of  energy  to 
try  and  resist  a  great  force  with  his  scanty  army.  He  looked 
around  for  assistance  and  succeeded  in  inducing  Charles  XII  of 
Sweden  to  become  his  ally.  The  fatal  Battle  of  Poltava  was 
then  fought  in  1709,  Both  the  Ukrainians  and  the  Swedes  were 
defeated  by  the  army  of  the  Czar.  Hetman  Mozeppa  downhearted 
and  discouraged  fled  to  Turkey.  This  ended  Mozeppa* s  career 
as  a  ruler  and  patriot,  but  he  is  still  remembered  as  much  by 
the  Russians  as  by  the  people  for  whom  he  fought.  This  is 
amply  evidenced  by  the  fact  that  to  this  day  he  is  being  cursed 
from  the  pulpit  of  the  Russian  churches.  Very  often  too,  we  find 
in  the  Russian  Press  the  word  "Mozeppintsy"  which  to  them  is  a 
word  of  scorn  denoting  the  people  from  which  Mozeppa  descended* 
Since  this  battle  the  history  of  Eastern  Ukraine  is  that  of  a 
gradual  destruction  of  the  independence  of  the  people.  The 
country  was  deprived  of  its  own  rulers  and  Czar  Peter  became 
master  of  it.  The  first  thing  he  did  was  to  tsike  his  revenge 
on  the  inhabitants  who  dared  torevolt  against  his  supremacy. 


-48^ 


•  fc..  t  '  »• 

‘•::  '  j  \  V  -..‘  Jl'.  -V  iqH 

J  J.  .  lO-ClAiiM'^H  5^^ •-■■.:  )  or-,V 

,  ...  „W  ■  .,  .jfn^T  ..  J--.  ria«  /7— -i  .  ' erfi 

.  .  ..d  -.v;  .0.-  ^0,-xa  ■:  ....  ■..-.^  ...^  ^  . 


»  V 

■x-^cl 


..-  f,,-..  I  'of 


■r  '  .•  ■  . 


.3  ,  ..f  ..f.^  r)f?r 

..V  \  rrt)5iw^ 

j  U-T'.:  .'»5'‘  r\  '  .  O*  »'•-■'  ■'  f 

'  -.0  ■■;:.•  ■•  .  .»  .'  *  |7:|^ 

, _  .  '.  :  j.  O  ‘./.jfefT*  •St-'r\ 

V.  :...  ..  •. /.  .s-..:*  ,  ^  u.i;  ^ 

'  *>.'’.  AZ‘  -I'.iP  oi  •*/v*'v  .'>c>7^‘*‘  •V'jfo:  '  .■ /o  v.C*:-’"-. 

■  ••.■  ,  •.•:€/  ,  j  >  ■.  -ijIr.aL'fl  o.'J  “ic  or/s 

" .  a ' ; V V's  •> .  I'J  ^  C  1C* '  0  r:^  0 ‘  *: ' '  . .  ii i  iiil  j,  ni  , 

,.  :  .  ^  ,.t, I'j'^x;  o:-j  ’  i.'  cn  I'  ".  0  'ic  ■■  TCW 

:  .  .  •  •-.  '  ’!«  ■  -r,  -*  '*^  ’  ' 

.  r.  frbni  1c  ^ 

•rxJv  '.wO  li';  Vi'*I  ••  V: 


c<f  "u»%  i.*  *•  ort 


.  r.>  *10  ’t 


He  made  them  drain  awempy  lands j  dig  canals  and  build  fortresses* 
Prom  overrzork  and  disease  they  died  by  the  thousands*  During  the 
five  years, from  1721  until  1725,  20,000  Cossacks  thus  lost  their 
lives.  He  ruin  of  Ukraine  was  at  hand.  Hardly  anyone  was 
left  to  stand  up  for  its  liberation.  When  Hetman  Paulo  Polu- 
botok  was  intrepid  enough  to  defend  the  right®  of  his  country, 
the  Czar  cast  him  into  prison  at  St. Petersburg  where  he  died  in 
1724. 

At  the  death  of  Peter  L  in  1724  matters  did  not  take 
their  course  for  the  better.  For  Menachikoff,  who  ruled  in  the 
name  of  Catherine  I  carried  on  the  same  policy  with  respect 
to  Ukrainians  as  his  predecessor.  At  the  accession  of  Peter  II 
in  1727  some  changes  were  made.  Daniel  Apostol  was  elected  Hetman 
of  Ukraine  and  in  1728  by  an  imperial  Ukaz  Ukraine  was  granted 
self-government.  Unfortunately  in  1730  the  Czar  died  and  the 
Betman  soon  after  him.  The  future  rulers  abandoned  the  old 
policy  and  the  next  Hetman  Razumovsky  appointed  by  the  Czarina 
in  1750  found  himself  powerless  to  reconstruct  the  lost  kingdom, 
fof  the  Czarina* s  intention  was  to  completely  suppress  the 
Ukrainian  national  idea. 

During  this  vaccilation  of  the  existence  of  the  Ukrainian 
Kingdom  there  was  one  strong  hold  left  which  for  a  considerable 
length  of  time  defied  the  Czar’s  attempt  to  reach  and  weaken  it. 
This  was  the  Zaporogian  Seech  on  the  Dnieper.  True,  during  the 
war  between  Peter  and  the  Mozeppa  the  Seech  was  to  a  large  extent 


-49- 


1T:1  •■'!  ihy 


.■  ■'  -  ui-i;  c  :a  *uiri  i«iiO' 


h  •  jg-i  -  •%*-  -i«  ^ 

^Taff|  >* 

»n.  .  .  —  - 


',t'.2->\fi-.‘  1  IF'-’ /lo  vv  ! 

.  '  j  -•*  i^;  '  ^:r-  t .? 

'mm  «<S0^  Vf/i’.f  ji 

'r  bftA  .  'UiV)  -.C' 


**  H  ‘.  •.  .  -•  ;  v.i.,  Ov 

\* '  .•'*  irii? .  •  :s»ri  -  _  '  ■  ’.'IJ:  o. 

"  '‘•i, '  ‘i  er;^- •j'i'  X  ;;.! 


ti. 


'I  /J  *» 


^ji-'  Txci^r  -. 


i/?'. 


pi'  #W-»^ -^>  ’.f  '-.■•i  .•  *.’•  'rirZ  C^’. 

•  v3*l  .  5^5-  f.  -‘tKJTj:-  -v.v  unfz  J  -  •j’  , 

^ 

I  ■  ■  .  '"  VftkiJ  . 


0  fc*.i  6rJ’'l36  ajar:  .  Jvi“M:''X  ‘ 

^O  •:  - '  flfti  •■:  .',r^  ti  .* . ; ■.V-'  L-. 


<J.‘  ‘ 


ruined;  but  the  Zaporogian  Cossacks  still  atoof  their  grounds* 
However,  as  soon  as  Czarina  Catherine  II  ascended  the  Russian 
Throne  in  1776,  she  sent  a  large  army  against  them.  The  Cossacks 
defended  their  fort  with  superhuman  heroism,  but  they  were 
greatly  outnumbered  and  were  therefor©  eventually  routed,  and 
the  Seech  was  completely  demolished  once  and  for  all*  The  last 
Ataman  of  the  Cossacks,  Petro  Kalnishevsky  was  sentenced  to 
life  imprisonment  for  defending  his  country.  With  this  said  event 
passed  the  last  vestige  of  the  indenc©  of  the  once  free  and  great 
Republic  of  Ukraine. 

Being  familiar  with  the  line  of  conduct  of  the  Muscovite 
rulers  with  respect  to  the  Ukrainian  nation,  it  Is  not  difficult 
to  conceive  what  followed  their  destruction  of  the  Seech. 

The  Czarina  lost  no  time  in  distributing  the  people’s  lands 
amongst  her  Generals  and  to  Noblea.  Any  one  who  opposed  her 
schemes  was  severely  punished*  Many  were  sent  to  prison  or 
executed,  and  many  others  exiled  into  Siberia,  and  all  possible- 
means  were  employed  to  persecute  the  Ukrainians.  Prohibition 
of  publication  of  books  in  Ukrainian, begun  sineethe  Battle  of 
Poltava,  was  strictly  adhered  to.  With  the  introduction  of 
serfdom  in  1783  every  person  belonging  to  the  poorer  class  be¬ 
came  merely  a  ”res”  under  submission  of  his  lord  • 

Of  course  in  spite  of  banishment  and  persecution  the 
Russians  could  not  destroy  all  the  Mon-Russian  element,  some  of 
it  had  therefore  to  be  assimilated.  The  term  '*Rus”  began  to 


-50- 


. 


■■  'v-  i, 

*—  imi  • 


.c  -2  '■,  ■:- * 

iy^n 

:^  z.  vw-^'W 

rri 


.  .,  ,,_  .  O'I'V  '•'■  5  l-^  ;bni7X)ri 

...  ,  .i-f-’-  ■« 

.  T.  -  .M.-.  -.T  'Sia.'io-  i3X--.:c9b 

iRV:  .T:-,:r  ®'ii>»  i -  •■  ’.v-ri'Cwn.nfC  .;I..^o-::. 

‘^;i  _  v:.:;fc,-Tnr.  '  ■* 

•  .■  ,-,.;;T8rf3*‘riA?r  ,  3:t9i:.s-:c,0  arW  lo  -laf-a^k 

j  j£,i,'iant.3i Waij  ilii 

"z  z:\c'^r.l  t.1^  "io  o^i^'Svv  erC? 

.  *10  .:■  I.r^v:,^‘f\ 

.»  ■;•  O'.iJ'-  fe  -'  :i  .ij’i'K 

.'’'.dL  *l:  '•■  *  UeVOXlo^  .  -J.iy  sVJDO/iUO  o:t 
r:i  oj'i^" -■  c'l  if  X  ;j'T  .' 'ti*!':  )  92; V 

•j.n:  O' 

vnow  ,  ..  i:.  -  2Drof4o3 

.'.li  ->3J.  aibmto'  ..^'-r  i,.  ^ 

:  1.^*J^>^'i;  r  •  0^3*2 W1  Od*  bo\n.,  _  -o  9  iOi?  3  .urvir; 

I  '  9;  ^  'fjiJjiriiJ ';* '.  iT^  3  K'  0(5  10  no ji 

;:  •i.u  ;irif  ,  voj.ux 

“  O^,  ■»•''  —  -  -  -  ^  ‘iOVO  .  ^  A  Cti  ji'C  O  i  I v.-w 

16. 4oX3  3.a:Yv  :  -jo-'i-io  ”  jr:‘'  .'  rr  •  no 

'  r^i}uimf  'o  •  .  .'i  j'^ivoo  'iG  \:^.  ' 

.  -.  c.!*  *»;.:*  'f  r.  a'ti?!'- 30’.^ 

'-i  .tx 

.  «* 


be  uaed  as  a  synonym  for  Muscovy,  and  was  later  intended  to 
to  include  Ukraine,  Lithuania,  Poland  and  all  other  nations 
within  the  Russian  Empire*  Soon  the  term  **Muscovy”was  also  to 
be  forgotten  and  only  one  name  "Russia”  was  to  be  used,  the 
idea  being  to  make  Russia  a  melting  pot  of  the  various  races 
therein  where  all  would  soon  forget  their  nationality  and  be¬ 
come  Russians*  With  regard  to  Ukraine,  the  Russians  named  it 
"Little  Russia"  as  if  to  show  that  there  was  really  no  differ¬ 
ence  between  the  Muscovites  and  the  Ukrainians  and  that  they 
were  of  common  parentage  with  the  former.  In  fact  even  a 
few  decades  ago  the  word  "Ukraine"  was  forbidden  to  be  used, 
to  designate  a  nation,  and  persons  using  it  were  punished  for 
treason*  No  wonder,  therefore,  that  one  now  finds  so  little 
information  in  the  encyclopaedias  which  would  enlighten  him 
as  to  the  position  of  Ukraine  formerly  occupied  as  a  nation. 

Since  towards  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century  Ukraine 
found  itself  at  a  very  lew  ebb  insofar  as  its  liberties  were 
concerned,  we  hear  practically  nothing  of  its  people*  When 
people  are  overburdened  with  a  heavy  yoke,  there  is  little  oppor¬ 
tunity  for  national  development.  But,  to  be  considered  as  being 
of  no  account  amongst  the  nations  is  a  disgrace  against  which 
the  instinct  of  every  self-respecting  member  of  a  nationality 
strongly  rebels.  Nor  would  the  Ukrainians  with  their  brilliant 
historical  past  stand  this  infamy.  The  spirit  of  emancipation 
and  advancement  did  not  cease  to  work  in  the  minds  of  the 


-51. 


o. 


:  i' 


.■i.i 


H 

*.-,>  -rc?^  V  ciJ.tiJ 


^  •  ■•  TC-'i  rvnd^f:^  '-* 

ll'  . -i .:ob‘'’=«  •  ^ 

W  „  .  ^  .:■  ..^-1  c  •••-^--  ‘ 

,  :v^  .  <ud^i^_ 

'  -v  .4  fio  ..  c  ,  tia  f*tj:s^o-o':o>.  t>c 

•ic'.  ,1164^  r..-n>v.  i.-:^  o'WjHh  «i«"ier.:.- 

^ '  ,ra  r  ' ' '  <  ijO^^w-v  :  •« 

^  ill  CO  '■■■■  '■■' 

...  .,,.*  bm  *t  .  -I  <«i*  *'«»  t'.'-  a-  t"to.:- 

^  —  ,•..■£  o:  ‘  -a 

■V:.'  :  ..Jl  niitt  ■  ...-'•  '-'“Ctf  *,  t,,  .  Ifci 

.  «  .1,  ■  ‘  '  .'.J;,  c  i>.  ^  -  V(  iu;  /•  o  :;^ 

.^2/  c»  •  O-  . 'TC, ' flir: 

^.,  .  .  .’  .  .  >/i  A.-'vn^)  i.^ 

^  M  .  •,*,-!  •  t_  *  k V '.  ■' I OC  i  *  ■  ^  ..  0  I  •••  •  i""^, '  i 

-'  '  '.  4.  " 

^  •  ri*-j  cb’’\_„  <' 

J 

j*  '  *;#  ’  c  .  'i  -J  cl  /TQ^  '.tiiQ^ 

,‘  ■;  i 

,  ,  •  •  '.  ,  *  r  ••,*j  (  4*  ■>  •  •  jtJ":>j^'i'i  “-■  ■  t  '  '  ■  •  ”  '  V 

u  >  i-*>  ‘  '-:t:  !-  ^ 

.  •  / ' :  ,  g  *1,,  .j!  .■  ^Jrnii^^.^ 

j  ■•  c  •-  Cl  ‘ .'io  " 

.  liv-  ..*'■:  -:.-'  •.  '  < 

;)D-(  U’  '  .  .  I  ■  ^ '>j  .  /cJtid  I.go  I 'ic,!' uifj 


- . —  •  j" 


ni/o-g':-?*  ^  .  o  ^ 


^  .  .c  *  c- 


'  Ti  i)  ^ 


g;-’  y, 


progressive  Ukrainians*  Prohibitions >  punishment,  Siberia,  death 
none  of  those  would  daunt  their  spirit*  In  1846-7  a  few  Ukrainian 
intellectuals  set  up  in  Kiev  a  secret  political  organization 
which  they  named  "The  Confreri©  of  Saints  Cyril  and  Methodius" 
which  strove  to  free  the  Slav  nations  and  to  make  them  all  in¬ 
dependent  and  confederate  under  the  protection  of  Russia*  It 
would  have  serfdom  abolished  and  liberty  of  thought,  religion 
and  public  speech  prociiired.  The  society  was  short-lived,  how¬ 
ever.  Before  it  had  time  to  put  its  schemes  into  operation  it 
was  linearthed  and  the  meinbers  punished  by  imprisonment.  With 
this  unfortunate  ©vent  the  intellectual  Ukrainians  for  a  number 
of  years  felt  themselves  constrained  to  be  resigned  to  their 
fate.  The  Russian  government  began  to  employ  more  systematic 
means  then  hitherto  to  keep  down  the  Masses.  Education  in  the 
Mother  tongue  was  denied  them,  while  even  the  ^scovite  Schools 
were  few.  In  addition,  the  government  manufactured  "¥©dka"  and 
other  strong  drinks  for  the  purpose  of  crippling  the  peasant’s 
mentality. 

After  the  Crimean  War  in  1856,  a  wav©  of  social  reforms 
went  over  Russia.  Improved  conditions  in  other  countries  roused 
in  the  inhabitants  of  Russians  a  strong  feeling  for  a  change. 

In  order  to  at  least  party  satisfy  their  demands.  Czar  Alexander 
II  in  1861  abolished  serfdom.  With  this  horrible  restriction  of 
their  personal  liberty  taken  off,  the  Ukrainians  lost  no  time 
in  organizing  educational  bodies,  and  immediately  began  the 


62- 


^  K  'i  >  ■:„j4'iA'y:  v'/i  Cl  ?! T  T 

t  ■'■.!: 'ric^«!»  'tJ;f^xi<i  b/.i^ow  oisoci;*  io  tctoi't 

:::ic5:  ^:l  -tI  a'u  :!ljiiu.;'-DX.Ui 

'G  -■.'Tj'ilfiC'':;  .  «riT’  .i.-jXdw 


u  -cr 


-i;.-  ■  I-  I  .uc 


;;r.\i  'rc! 


Cf  O  J'-:  z  '  ^  vioi^lw 


.  i- 


*.c  rriij  Jc":  .it 

,.A  H  '.  •  .  , 

,  :«o  '  •*■  'Ic  ■■-‘■-!.  ‘<'-t  h*:  .c^o.oli/xcir.  Ov.’ii  ^ 

■  f  ,  00  i  t3i.  -  «  ■; ‘.‘"T; .' .' OG XQ fKj 

i-  a,.,  :r..  'j  :  ;,+  x  ’uq'  o.".  .■  ^’i  O'SC'l’^BC  "/tw  'O 

c  •  -  •  .51  ;■■  .,:r.,: r.iv;  ■;•.  '  ^t4wt  o.»/  mTjfc  ^anr 

7C‘.  .  ^.'-  .  .■:t?-'»oc  i /,<■." itI  ©rfv  '.jrrt;  Ju  AoTiau  4^;.'.' 


^:.v 


'*  C--  .0^.'*:.' 0-^ . -- :oo  *5 '•-.■-t-.i ^jC5H3dv  crcjot  :  "o 


'  ■  X-4.  c,. 

♦11  '  nf  .  ^  tL .  ^  ■ 

••c  ’'b4*i  ? 


•  rr  -i  *  » '  >o’ 

rpf  *> 


'.' rr  '«i  ’:AJv^  nn«wliri  '..'  J- 

■•■H. '  •  ■'roiiK.i  '.biii.*  ’{avo  J'^■J•,f 


''  i.!'' >^V 

'  +*y.(j 


..  ^:;i.n>n  Idoi.ii  ixxjIOsTu;-  f-  . '■ 

■'  , 


“■■li.-'. 

S: 


'  J  <j  c" ii.* tf  ii5n>i'yr: 

t#e»o  'i.a  ■*. 

;'i  If'  .fovca  :  ^  ,'•  V, 'Oi^  lU  ^..•/.. 

5)  ‘  G  o^oq’?i»*7  ;jrfJ  'x';  *u'i^vve.  .  'X'f.-.-v 

>v  .vi-jaoui 


'■  (_' 


■■M 


v'V''.!  "“*i  ol  zy.'Zc  al  ■( 

f'’  ;  7  «rtx  .•  fco;i  liXcfi'jj  I3'b.i  til  .11 


"4 


f. 


M 


work  of  alleviating  the  masses  from  the  intellectual  torpor  im¬ 
posed  on  them  by  the  Russian  Autocracy*  The  Polish  landlords, 
who  had  some  say  in  political  matters  of  the  country,  under  pre¬ 
text  of  fearing  a  peasant  revolt,  objected  to  this  movement.  The 
government  heeding  their  apprehensions  closed  the  Ukrainian  Schools 
and  clubs,  proscribed  books  published  in  Ukrainian  and  deported 
all  those  connected  with  the  initiation  of  the  movement* 

Prom  that  time  on  the  Russian  government  would  at  some  time 
allow  some  freedom  of  the  press,  while  at  other  times  it  would 
limit  it  according  to  its  whim*  The  importation  of  Ukrainian 
books  from  Galicia  where  Ukrainian  writers  fled  to  escape  the 
severe  censorship  ,  was  strictly  censured,  and  their  index  ex- 
purgatorius  was  a  very  lengthy  one.  This  oscillation  of  extension 
and  limitation  of  rights  underwent  considerable  change  following 
the  Revolution  in  1905-6*  Newspapers  commenced  to  be  published, 
literary  societies  were  formed  and  numerous  libraries  and  reading 
rooms  were  opened*  Popular  books  wore  also  published;  these 
were  in  great  demand  and  helped  considerably  in  broadening  the 
intellectual  and  national  horizon  of  the  masse®.  This  activity 
was  soon  found  to  be  unsafe  to  the  security  of  the  State,  and 
the  societies  conducted  in  a  language  other  than  Russian  were 
ordered  to  be  closed.  Through  this  the  Ukrainians  and  the  Jews 
suffered  most.  The  pre-war  period  commencing  in  1906  finds 
Russia  busy  issuing  ordinances,  by  the  Duma,  prohibiting  pub¬ 
lications  ,  fining  editors,  or  arresting  them,  and  using  various 


-53- 


-O' 

...  '  .-..-w 

,  ..  .  )  - 

,  •  5.  ,  •  oj  ’  ^  t 

;  ->  d":-i  .*' 

.;  k  :f }.;■»■:  .'i'.^ocC.  ^'cT.: 'T r'/ c  if-r-  - 


••  ic^  ^ni.*  )lvc'i.’'/T  J.o  if '10 ’Si' 


.•.i.i.tc;  ^i  viG6  oifw 


i  » ;  1 0  ^  *  «’{ JJ  .  i  ’ '  _;  f  I  i  •-> '  >  '■■•  ■' '  « '  ■'^*■‘^5  R  ’*  ~  .'■* 


•»”  >Ct*  *10  HG  j  .-rli*  ■-•  ©socfv  IXb 


M'.r  '.vyaw  "^or  <5.X.  ^trui:  :  c  ^ 

.£ifi  ^  *'i  yjirJJ  ■■  --'O  i'  3'r'tC  ltdi  ^  fcctroevi’:;;  a-ix  * 

t>M:nl:nM  %«  fT '^i.c  ••  .  3rooT.n 

1^7  <>♦  .••  ^  'll^OCO 

--  -:.|L^:;i  i  .  ^) < •: r o  ^  i 

.V  OOl '.‘Ul!  )3C  3X.;  ,  X  '  -•f'i 'll: ■•*,:'« ‘i:f4 

c  -i  t  u-flblik'  ■*X.'  "ix:  •)  vCno-v-irnnu  >v  cxi.'^iira.IX  -"i.iA 

t,i,r_^  O'  ■  c-^  '■.  ;  ■  :i  iioXXuicv: 

,  .,  ..  ,  .  t^vr**^*'#-.  f-  '  ’  ■^  3i£’ I  ‘ Tv  A  !' •  T^^XOOD  r  lii '1 

.  >.  ;  .  .r^fi  .  ■  •  •■  'r?Xi '!<.'■  .  ^ 

..■'  •..,»  :ii  ■’'X  -;".o  .’;j:'‘C  ■  .'.O'.'Xo  i  ?)ri«  M.u.nHb  J/iv»':  i  il.“.  --.Vi 


j  '•  j  *  '■>*;  vi 


.iv 


\.’’rt.  - 


«  -ii  '  •  •'.  I*'  i.\  Si'  Oi'i  .(*''  VViiPlf  bi  _.''’v  Jr..  .>‘-  ... 

:  jL:o<»a  c  .'  o*^.  r::’  .  :  c ,)  ;  i’c‘.v  i;oc  3  a.rvf 

£'  ijX  '(><i»i.'  ‘  .‘.T'vv  -jt-j..  .tooa  c."  vt 

■ii’!.:iIJ  «w<-t  C^v  w  ’’  b#':.  'Iw 

-I  llfii;".' JC '  UV'  ■  ■  -  «  i  .  .f<JOO  b‘.'  #  6 

,  .  :  J  ’..c  ^  "i 

;•  A.  .  •ao-";:*  '1  .  ’>  TjcTini"?.  ^  'cici^jaX.C 


r* 


methods  to  stop  the  expansion  of  the  Ukrainian  national  movement, 
but  all  this  proved  ultimately  to  be  of  no  avail* 

Lot  us  nowr  go  back  to  consider  that  part  of  Ukraine  which 
was  called  “Ukraine  of  the  Right  Bank”  which  was  under  the  sovreignty 
of  Poland  but  virtually  under  the  control  of  the  Polish  landlords. 
There,  after  the  defeat  of  the  Ukrainians,  the  Cossacks  ceased  to 
exist  as  an  organization*  The  Polish  nobles  persistently  mal¬ 
treated  the  common  Ukrainian  population*  The  people  could  not 
bear  it  very  long  so  they  rose  in  revolts.  Companies  formed  were 
called  **Haidamaki”  (meaning  Highwaymen)  ^  but  they  were  not  highway¬ 
men  in  the  ordinary  sense  of  the  term,  for  their  motives  were  to 
a  great  extent  political*  These  bands  went  round  attacking  and 
robbing  the  nobles  and  then  concealing  themselves  in  the  woods  and 
mountains.  Occasionally  they  would  be  badly  reduced  in  numbers 
after  a  clash  with  the  army  of  the  nobles,  and  would  cease  their 
operations  for  a  time,  but  the  ill«treatgient  of  the  people  by  the 
lords  would  only  make  them  rise  again.  In  the  year  176B  a 
Zaporogian  Maksim  Zalizniak  joined  one  Gonta,  and  the  two  with 
their  “Haidamaki”  began  to  take  the  upper  hand  over  the  nobles* 

The  nobles  were  obliged  to  seek  assistance  which  they  obtained 
from  Czarina  Catherine  II,  who  sent  an  armed  force  and  quelled 
the  rebellion*  The  insurgents  who  escaped  being  killed  in  the 
battle  wore  captured  and  dealt  with  in  a  barbarous  manner.  Their 
bodies  were  mutilated  by  amputation  of  the  limbs  and  by  flaying 
the  helpless  victims*  Then  the  vanquished  “Haidamak!”  seeing 


-54- 


.  O,:  .’C^  -  'i^vc'i(,  nidi<ili» 

t  j  ’idtjartc-i  OJ  r.o,ni  cr  vc  '  v* 

^  v.  -.:j1>;r'  juLi&O  •!£:«• 


•i  .-urv  ^:LttM^  '  >■  '  ■ 
•;:.  iv''-irc-.  tili  'iobr  '  ' 


.7  ^  .'i/I'ljT* 


..  n  : 


v^(Jd- *  'to 

c.:.-  'iv,  Oi^f  :fT 

i-J'  daise 

■  '  ,  ■  •■4^ 


.:  .'l-.qo  .  •t:-'"-  n€>..;.;co  ' 

-"<v  -  ■  ■■.  ’  .  -  -'  l 

L  -i  : ’C'^l'  '  0:1  ;  rr'Cj.  i  *  , 


*’  r  3777'-'.'^ 


•1  :5.'^ifrx*Q«; 


^s.’  •» 


f 


'J  *V  QW  /  t»w  w 

.<d*  'ir. ,' 

Mr  • 

. :  cw  4>a‘!t  1.  hoe: '. 

•'  ■  !  *J9 


“£)i  <  ‘-L‘  c-iJ'  - 

«.  :,,  il."j.^.v  fr'.>n^  8iUi  '^>>1 . 

Y*'^'  ■  V 

'  ^  •  i 

■ '.'.fC  id  ■  'Jtfdj  xiXfl.:bav.3  .  -  ...'O.:! 

•■;;r,i  :o  N';.'ri;  ^l«AXt  -r^  ‘Ov‘i« 

,  ■  -^li  oj:J  . 

.  i 

,  .j|.i|'l^i  :‘fO.'.'  ■  -  •'  '.;Xi'C  <  -S.CiloiJ 

^  ipv-fco©  .  .'-•’In.': .t oUfilWI' 

:<•  —  <:».  f.i  ■  -;:.  'iitdit 

C.  V^O<''  oJ'  ’^v  >aJ.CC  3V  w  ■••  i.  <  -J  ■'j'i* 

^v-  -  ^  .  ;!,.  i:.n:i;.;  ft,.:  'i.'.'S*: 

'  ^ 

i^tgi  i  •(***  Of  jf.c», ‘-i!-  »  :oiXi'-‘0*i  ©f-.i 

.IdtT  hr,:-  ,' ?'t.'i :  :/?;)  .j't'J'V 

'  ^e>.'/ x:-  ''*101^  * 

.  'X>-  *.  i  ’-■  IS  ^ 


■Yl^” 


lorf  ©/f< 

■  j  L 


that  nothing  could  be  done  in  liberating  themselves  and  their 
countrymen  from  bondage,  became  unwillingly  resigned  to  their 
fate  and  abandoned  their  method  of  taking  a  revenge  on  the 
tyrants  by  means  of  occasionaly  raids  on  them. 

Presently  the  Polish  af istrocratic  rulers  through  ambition, 
selfishness,  and  unpatriotic  management  of  their  country *s  affairs, 
brought  it  to  an  inevitable  economic  ruling*  During  the  years 
1772-1773  followed  the  partition  of  Poland.  Ukraine  of  the  Right 
Bank  was  awarded  to  Russia.  Galicia  which  had  fallen  to  Poland 
and  for  nearly  500  years  remained  under  its  brutal  domination, 
was  awarded  to  Austria*  Several  years  later  in  1776  Bukovina 
which  was  lost  to  the  Ukrainians  since  the  Tartar  invasions,  and 
was  for  a  long  period  of  time  part  of  Roumania,  became  incorporated 
into  Austra-Hungary.  With  this  the  Austrian-Russian  period  of 
the  history  of  Ukraine  set  in. 

Austrian,  Ukraine,  i*e*  Galicia  and  Bukovina  touch  the 
Russian  frontier  and  are  a  natural  continuation  of  Ukrainian 
Territory  in  Russia.  The  people  of  these  provinces  continued 
for  a  long  time  t o  call  themselves  ”Ruslni”  i.e.  Ruthenians,  and 
that  is  why  one  is  often  called  upon  to  explain  the  difference 
between  the  terms  "  Ukrainian"  and  ”Ruthenian”  As  a  matter  of 
fact  there  is  no  difference  between  the  two,  apart  from  geo¬ 
graphical  differences  in  the  territories  which  they  occupy. 

Nowadays  when  one  speaks  of  Ukrainians,  he  invariably  includes 
those  people  who  are  referred  to  as  Ruthenians,  wherever  they 


55- 


•  '* 

’T<.  ’iv.’':  ’’.  ..’  .  «)  jf '  ’  .  *  (’fV ''rTiff-foti 

•  t-.  M'*  '  t-  ■«  "^c  /  ''w'/i  r  j 

:c  «  jal'i**:  V.  ^aorw  bo'':v/ a 

»etstiJ'  t.c  .hlM’z  r.iaA^od  i'  ’.:■  r  . 

O’:  ■:  tl' f  oiv  jJc/XM  dii^v.o  .•  1 

•<’•■-.  »w..  n,!ic4;ix^;?qnt'  ^ aw'^rr^i "iioe 

(t-:  ♦^•.v  >-117111.  .  -jj  ni  -  t 

.  ■•  '  '  ■  i' 

^  *vxf»  liO  It  ;r;’ TV  i 

'  ^  ,Ac '.cijH'Ov  3./?Tr  :\ct&S. 

ai3v?;n0  'Wjxiu  *hcr: >.  O-*^.  vX’';4::c:;  fj/r" 

.  :  rV’ I  ni  i.s*'.-  -o-r.  Cv*  butxr”^  .-.rrjf 

»  V  «.  \):ic  .  ■'.■;T;.t';7fl'  ^  cl  ..^: 

.O  J  .'.  ■•  t  .  .:3  ■  '..tr  ?C  Soi  V.  n  'LC\  ^iLfi 

»  c  k,JM  _  -  C5ri.t  fiiiic  *i4  i  »  "  i' «;fit:’'f-j  •:  ^.  .  T 

.  .»  or.'*  •":'.  J;i;  ''410  *■♦'.? rf  .j'ii 

•  •  ’  '-“  /O'.'XJ.  T  A  ^  f /ixja-iaiu 

!»-vt  ■  I.  j  Lrikij  '*n  -1  .'jnri  ^'l  r!:^iicu:V 

'i  .?  ^.v  ...'  j  :  A  i.  vj  1l  tiiqooe,  .:f'  ni  't’i’o'f 

i  .  .  ..ri ! Sf'ii*'  ev  */.  1..*.  Jtlxju  c  ^  j.  -i/  ^rwjf  •  ’i  Il 

i-v  -^'c^'•.^  '  nc:jj  L7.[  0  .  V.c  .1  ono  ■,.'4^.'  z.'.  3  '-  V 

lp>  Tfc-.'.'a*^  .  V  ‘  .T'vM.  - '■•  1'  it-isfl  "  aastocf  oi,'  r  r?  *  ;  i 


<i*J  ifr.  ....  ■;:'^:.io  on  ai  eie.!.? 

-  'ifC-.t'  u :  .*  luos  "r  ’L  . 


b9.  It  may  be  noted  that  since  the  closing  of  the  last  century 
there  has  been  a  strong  tendency  among  the  Ukrainians  of  marked 
national  aspirations  to  eliminate  the  term  "Ruthenian”  altogether , 
and  to  use  only  the  one  general  name  ’’Ukrainian’** 

EASTERN  GALICIA 

Ordinarily  when  referring  to  the  province  of  Galicia  an 
Ukrainian  has  in  mind  Eastern  Galicia,  the  capital  of  which  is 
Lviv  (Lemberg).  Western  Galicia  is  populated  by  the  Poles  and 
is  regarded  even  by  Ukrainians  themselves  as  Polish  territory. 

The  fate  of  Ukrainian  Galicia  has  been  very  similar  to 
that  of  Russian  Ukraine.  Upon  the  incorporation  of  Galicia  Into 
Austria,  the  province  was  united  with  the  Duchy  of  Cracow,  and 
the  government  of  the  newly  formed  Portion  of  the  Austrian  Empire 
was  entrusted  to  the  exclusive  control  of  the  Polish  oligarchy. 

Of  course  in  theory  the  Austrie.n  constitution  gave  the  Ukrainians 
equal  rights  with  the  Poles,  but  in  practice  this  was  not  so. 

The  Poles  made  Galicia  their  imperium  in  imperio.  They  continued 
their  attempts  to  trample  on  the  rights  of  the  Ukrainian  people 
and  to  keep  the  political  power  in  their  own  hands.  Through 
’’Gerry-Manderry”  and  other  corrupt  manipulations  ©f  the  electoral 
districts,  the  Ukrainians  who  formed  75%  of  the  population  of 
the  province  were  greatly  outnumbered  by  the  Poles  in  their  re¬ 
presentation  in  the  Parliament  in  Vienna  ;  all  the  political 
offices  were  filled  by  Poles,  The  Ukrainians  were  denied  the 


-56- 


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Cjtxj  O’ior'j 

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,r  •  ./Jr 

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i  j  •  ..’0  'iX  —  -  /  •  rt^y  vXi -ir^riihTO 

tiol.'w  "Xo  .MJ(.'2:  *•  •  rr'rr.r^i^'X  brJ.  nnJ 

<, 

^..  ^  ■■’.  „  •-  .  '•  * 

r  rr^  ny^if  ni  u^'-C  <^t':j, 

:>'■  '^Q  rtoi ‘'j'.’oqicori  oj  ,o'  ,  ♦/i.'.-j'iiXJ  - 

,  *^<j.  .  oC'i  e.'v  »'t>i-i.;jj  ‘3A^’  .)M,,i*.c-u-,  &*. .  ^ 

.  i' ti *1:  ooiJtc':  .  vi^fi  '  ‘-ta  ^ii^.cT'ii/vog  ' 

“  dciXo"  *;.3  io". -ji.,..  c'7io’.:  :i  Ov 

V--  rv,  -i  r.L. '....  •  i  '«HO.O  niiitJCf.it  oj:;.-  ;:;r  '  J  3f.'i-:o  -  10  ,  -  X; 


.'  rrJ  ^  '  -o-.  n^O'' 

..i';«»t,  :a  ai.  *s.O.':r:  ;iXoiXD.'  oo'-.%:i  odV 


privileges  of  higher  education  by  the  limitation  of  the  number 
if  schools  they  were  allowed  to  build.  And,  when  later  they  had 
launched  a  campaign  for  a  separate  Ukrainian  University,  which 
idea  was  to  a  certain  extent  meeting  with  the  official  approval 
at  Vienna,  the  Poles  did  all  that  possible  to  prevent  the 
establishment  of  the  proposed  institution  of  learning. 

The  reasons  for  this  usurpation  of  political  pov/er  by 
the  Poles  are  not  far  to  seek.  The  Polish  landlords  were  strong 
even  at  the  time  of  the  Partition  ©f  Poland.  Their  former  poli¬ 
tical  prestige  continued  and  was  recognized  by  Austria*  While  the 
Ukrainian  Peasants  who  were  deprived  of  their  intelligentsia  and 
who  could  not  vary  well  stand  up  for  their  rights,  received 
practically  no  consideration  from  the  Government.  The  landlords 
were  allowed  to  retain  th©  socage  system  and  Pol oni nation  of 
Ukrainians  was  persisted  in®  Polish  schools  and  churches  were 
built  in  purely  Ukrainian  districts®  The  Poles  also  endeavored  to 
colonize  the  province  with  Polieh  settlers,  placing  them  on  land 
taken  away  from  the  Ukrainian  peasants.  Such  were  the  attempts 
to  merge  the  two  nationalities  into  one®  This  was  a  similar 
scheme  to  that  contrived  in  Russian  Ukraine.  There  were  naturally 
some  differences  in  their  methods  of  arriving  at  their  goal, 
but  their  ultimate  purpose  was  the  same.  ^Tor  instance,  the 
Russians  Russianized  a  great  number  of  the  Ukrainian  Intelligentsia 
by  permitting  only  those  who  spoke  Russian  to  occupy  important 
positions.  And,  with  regard  to  Ukrainian  language,  they  derided 


-57- 


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’i*  '...  '  ?:  />-  v'liow  c.ffw:  nfixri>r ’xSJ; 

c"*'-'a  •’-  '  ’*^‘‘*  V  •'  ’.r_  x’icv  jQ^i  Ixitoo  (jtiw 

-  7  •'  ■  "if--  UA-  ’-A  Xul  ji^^.;■LXQ^,0.•)  Cfl  .  ..  ' ‘-> 

.  l,r  t;  -•  .rA,t.^'  •■.•••;jr\j  .» • '  i-  f  ^ ^  jg  r. -I^nT 

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•  ■  -  lo' .i  r  i /c-x'  edcf  >  .. 

•'.  ?U'  5/'w  .  -  .<(.' V'iJ  ^  C ’l'.t 

i  .jfl^  ,-- M  <•>.  j  -viJ-Sl4M'ii'An  orJ-  a-.";.i  '.-;,av.-  ;;. 

SJ  \.:  ’J  ;,  ‘  •  V  4  f J  ri>  f»i  fc  i^y*  ’IJ !  (O  •  .• '  '  .•♦ 

'.  •.  ai;Ci'Jx-<ri  ni  e«ar*«  .  , 

.  i '.If  ftd'  •  '  J '.'  ’. ' 's'.vt 

■  '  .  -  ^  ■’'fv-i*  ■  ci.'r.  .  •'. 

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it  as  being  merely  a  jargon  or  a  dialect  of  the  Ruaaian, 
while  their  solgan  with  regard  to  Ukraine  was  "Ukraine  never 
existed,  does  not  exist  and  must  not  exist"  The  Poles,  on  the 
other  hand,  though Jthey  also  succeeded  in  Polonizing  many 
Ukrainian  intellectuals  somewhat  in  a  manner  resorted  to  by  the 
Russians,  yet,  as  far  as  language  was  concerned,  they  could  not 
claim  that  Ukrainian  was  similar  to  theirs* 

The  attempts  on  the  part  of  the  Poles  to  completely 
Polonize  the  Ukrainians  were  not  wholly  successful*  At  the  be¬ 
ginning  of  the  20th  century  we  see  a  ray  of  light  piercing  the 
dark  cloud  of  oppreslve  tyranny*  Ukrainian  patriots,  writers 
and  poets  for  decades  past  have  been  doing  the  good  work  of 
enlightening  their  br©then,and  their  work  began  bearing  fruit* 

This  was  better  faciliated  than  in  the  Russian  Ukraine  owing 
to  the  fact  that  in  Austria  serfd<M  was  abolished  in  1848, while 
in  Rusaia^about  thirteen  years  later*  The  common  people  realizing 
their  position  of  inequality  with  regard  to  political  rights 
began  to  demand  their  rights  more  and  more  vehemently*  In  1904 
Ukrainian  peasants  urgently  demanded  their  rights  of  freedom  in 
elections.  They  were  met  by  an  armed  Polish  gendarmerie  which 
shed  their  blood  for  their  audacity  in  asking  for  what  they 
justly  deserved* 

The  strife  went  on,  for  the  Ukrainian  national  sentiment 
xould  not  be  suppressed.  The  Polish  aristocracy  spared  no 


-58- 


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effort!  In  their  policy  to  keep  the  Ukrainians  down*  Persecutions 
of  Ukrainian  intelleotuala  continued.  As  a  result  of  this 
Miroslav  Sichinsky,  a  student  at  the  University  of  Lviv  on  the 
12th  of  April  1908  uttering  the  words  ”  This  is  for  the  grievances 
of  the  Ukrainian  people”  shot  and  killed  Count  Andrew  Potocki, 
Governor  of  Galicia.  Immediately  the  Polish  ”Prawica  Narodowa” 
(People’s  Right  Wing)  proposed  a  secret  Council  to  decide  upon  the 
best  methods  that  could  be  used  against  the  Ukrainians.  So.r.e  of  th® 
schemes  which  were  discussed  at  their  meeting  and  decided  upon  to 
pursue  are  as  followsi- 

At  a  meeting  held  on  the  15th  of  May  1908  the  first  speaker 
was  Dr  Stanislav  Smokla^  Professor  of  the  University  of  Cracow. 

He  said  in  part: 

”The  Ukrainians,  as  well  as  the  Russians,  and  White  Russians, 
are  not  Slavs  but  merely  a  conglomeration  of  different  Asiatic 
tribed.  This  is  proven  by  the  dark  hair  of  the  Hut^ul,  which 
can  not  be  seen  in  other  Slavs,  and  which  accounts  for  the  wild 
character  of  the  whole  Ukrainian  race. 

The  Ukrainian  members  of  Parliament  are  not  representatives 
of  their  people,  thus  no  relations  can  b©  had  with  them.  Ukrainians 
in  general  are  not  worthy  of  being  spoken  to,  esjcept  the 
”Moskophils”  (A  Ukrainian  party  in  sympathy  with  Russia.  Though 
born  Ukrainians  they  are  directly  opposed  to  them)  who  behaviour 
Is  exemplary  and  whose  help  we  must  seek  in  destroying  the 
Ukrainians.” 


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Another  speaker.  Dr.  August  Sokolovski,  a  Gymnasium  pro¬ 
fessor  said: 

”1  second  all  that  has  been  spoken  by  the  former  speaker. 

I  condemn  the  Ukrainians  as  an  unsatisfied  people  whom  we  cannot 
satisfy.  They  cannot  live  without  hatred  towards  the  Poles. 

We  thought  they  would  help  us  against  Russia,  but  they 
have  meanwhile  taken  a  liking  to  such  rebels  and  cut-throats 
as  Khmelnitsky,  Gonta,  Zalizniak.  Thus  every  Ukrainian  is 
now  a  Haidsunaka” 

This  is  not  time  for  parleying.  The  proper  thing  to  do 

I 

now  is  to  defend  our  territorial  situation  in  Rus  •  If  the 
Moskophils  are  able  to  help  us  in  this  respect  let  us  pretend 
to  be  their  allies  and  friends.” 

The  next  speaker  was  Father  Chotkovski,  professor  of  the 
University  of  Cracow,  and  a  great  enemy  of  the  Ukrainian  clergy. 
He  said; 

”l  have  been  for  21  years  a  close  student  ©f  Ukrainian 
history  and  I  have  ^ome  to  the  conclusion  that  the  Ukrainians 
have  no  right  to  complain  against  the  Poles.  The  Ukrainians 
hate  the  Poles  and  constantly  strive  to  do  them  harm.  They  are 
a  nation  of  fools,  sluggards  and  questionable  characters.  With 
such ,hon or able  warfare  is  impossible  so  they  must  be  destroyed 
in  every  possible  way.” 

The  following  day  on  May  16th  1908,  the  psirticipant®  In 
the  meeting  of  the  Prawica  Narodowa  convened  in  stately  manner 


-60- 


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nin' .  c 


i*- 


'■  '■I  ■  •  iC.'  Jii  •>: '*  •f'ld  i 

i*^  ■:  uui"  cX  ■  -  /aA  1  i  ';i0c:3J-d  . 

.  •■»tSJ'  inru'y,:s  *  T.  C-''. 

*  '  •  ‘  \X.  ,  ';-,  5  '.  (  :  ?  - j 

’X-’:  j  .  .•■'*  ■-■  :x  i  9  v* 

V>*t  ut  •.'JJwSC',-  .  >.i  .»tc.  ,->.v.  .  ".;,r  ;  •  ^ 

'-X^J  ‘  •-•  .'f  5  -- 

'  ‘ji  Xc.  ■.  ' 

ri>r  ;  ^  ifiH  •  .1  ‘  Vc 


'  Ot. 


and  continued  the  discussion  of  the  Ukrainian  question*  It  was 
decided  that  the  Ukrainian  must  be  crushed  unnercifully  while  the 
Moskophils  must  be  enticed  by  various  promises  in  order  to  win 
them  over  against  the  Ukrainians,  ”But  we”  yelled  one  of  the 
speakers  ”  are  not  afraid^  and  we  shall  march  forward  cold¬ 
bloodedly  over  hundred  of  bodies  with  contempt  for  the  Ukrainian 
barbarians.  Therefore,  march  on,  sons  of  great  ancestors,  and 
soldiers  of  liberty,  and  a  Poland  will  arise,  great complete, 
undivided,  from  sea  to  sea” 

The  second  meeting  of  the  Prawica  Narodowa  for  consideration 
of  Ukrainian  extermination  was  held  18th  of  May,  1908. 

It  was  resolved  that; 

Agricultural  schools  should  be  established  in  Western  Galicia 
only.  Poles  to  be  brought  in  free  of  charge,  their  expenses  to 
be  paid  out  of  the  public  treasury;  Ukrainians  to  be  allowed  only 
on  payment  of  a  large  fee  so  that  they  might  b©  unable  to  profit 
thereby.  In  this  way  the  culture  of  the  Polish  peasant  will  be 
enhanced  while  the  Ukrainian  peasant  will  languish  in  darkness  and 
misery. 

The  Ukrainians  should  by  no  means  be  given  a  University, 
because  it  would  be  a  factory  for  th©  umaking  of  a  Ukrainian  in¬ 
tellectual  class  which  would  be  dangerous  to  our  plans. 

”  We  must  seek  allies  b©yond  our  boundaries” , they  said,”ahd; 
engender  in  them  enmity  towards  the  Ukrainians” 

Then  Dr.  Louis  Kolankovski  said  in  part; 


-61- 


-  J  ^ 


’ 

•  '."  :  ‘’i  '.  'I:,  uw  JO  •“. r^KI 

•■. .  iJa.x  iT.x  •:  J  •jrisrfj', 

*  , .  *»  '  •  f*.  ^  ’ 

-  ci  •  '  ;  </c  i  *v  f  .- 

T.’-'f,  ' ; 

{v>o*  ffll  v  7i’  u  '  .’i/ojCycni  - 

!  'nt.  '<• 

‘  '>^x';X. ■:-./}  'iOVD  ,  ’ 

-  ■Xx:  3  *.-: 

■  ‘'  i.-%  Xj..«xXs  :/T  i/;:y 

^ort^  v*;_  ”  ;2 

<t.t*v 

:  Xc  'tcvo  ■  .' 

'  <  (  ‘.:7' 

,  <>0*1 

^  ... 

.i  :  .  ..•■  .‘1 

\  . -'oaX-C  'u-  '.f'ihloa ’^' 

,  l/r-:  f  :.0Vlc^3«‘i  airw  4*  . 

^  ,7.:  r-ivcv:  .k':j:;to,  . 

*  .u.i;,'-  ;  /-r  O/iv  \l)  :^V0 

c  Jr  ‘  i.  x  s' 0  ill  ;  *•<<  •  -  -jx.-i  ov-'^u^  £  *io  .'O' 

V^lc‘l  '  V  p;::  v.?-^'  ei-rlj  nl  r' 

f.'  .jc*^  .^cjUz-r-:  ed.r  •  :.'..?w  .  •  '  •  . 

'  •i  c  V  • '.L’o  fa  an.eiftirf;'!  '  , 

'  ‘  ■*’  ''  ■  .  .  - 

•  ^  ■■-  ■*  '*>■  ‘Mvov  iioi  '■  ^  .. 

-  •I'rMfN  i  iwO  *.<»,■  fXa  :<■'.::  : 

9  * 


.1#  ’n/r-  •^; 


•:./•  ,  ».i.. 


I- 


O'tnyi^^X  u.:xF  . "  rm  " 


”Th0  «ohool«  must  bo  utraquisod  ,  positions  must  not  bo 
given  to  Ukrainians,  and  in  tho  East  all  offices  should  bo  filled 
by  Pan-Polos*  Get  busy  for  the  Ukrainians  are  threatening  us* 

I  „ 

I  think  that  Rus  must  be  destroyed. 

The  final  speaker  Dr  Marion  Sokolovski  in  conclusion? said: 
'*What  must  be  done  has  been  reiterated  by  others*  I  merely 
want  to  add  that  an  edition  of  the  history  of  Ukraine  must  be 
published  in  the  Polish  spirit,  for  the  whole  history  of  Rus  in 
Ukrainian  is  intended  to  spread  hatred  towards  tho  Poles” 

One  cannot  butcall  this  a  project  for  the  destruction  of 

I 

Rus.  But,  if  the  Polish  aristocracy  deemed  that  they  had  some 
justification  at  the  time  to  concoct  such  plans  to  annihilate 
the  Ukrainians  of  Galicia,  it  would  seem  ,  in  view  of  the  facts 
of  history,  quite  strange  that  they  would  consider  this  question 
in  a  similar  manner  s^e  two  hundred  years  before  when  their 
subject  people  were  much  weaker,  and  the  danger  of  national 
upheaval  was  comparatively  remote.  Yes  such  was  the  case.  The 
Polish  nobles  at  the  beginning  of  the  ISth  century  had  their 
minds  made  up  as  to  how  to  destroy  the  Ukrainians,  One  of  the 
Polish  nobles  in  the  year  1717  drafted  thirteen  ways  which  would 
aid  them  in  their  work  against  the  Ukrainians,  and  it  will  be 
interesting  to  compare  these  with  the  resolutions  of  the  Polish 
Council  just  referred  to.  Some  of  them  are  as  follows 

To  strive  to  live  on  friendly  terms  with  Russia,  who  might 
seek  to  look  after  the  interests  of  Orthodox  Ukrainians  in  the 


62- 


t 


I 


I  - 


i4  -lit  ;..)••  ;’,o  o^t  iitM?.- 

.  -  '''  .'V''*’'^, 

r-^  tLS  '^itJ  -..  ■'  fif.j..U.n  -M 

■  ti.c  •■  -  f)4j -ivTwJ .  •  '’tq  t  :'I.^,/jfJ:f'.-^'rziiJl 

*!  ‘  ■•  ■  •  7  ’.  '. .  jz  zJ:d&  ;  , r.v-  Ji  --.a a  ^ 

r^4®S>* ■'!?  70:.  j-«..r7J3  4'ifi^Xo'-l  uriJ  "hf  ^  v*^-  ^ 

..  ’  '%;&  ^oqo'^'o  o  o^i  .^\s  f 

■■'.*■>•:  ...  ;‘ 

V"  ‘.  '  -■*«-*■ -V  ,.^'' ■  .^  -  -  . 

^  .;P^  ^  ^  *■  '  '•.  .*  ■’"'  ^ix.'”'  ')o  Br!/;i.r:f'i/-  >'T  *r^rif 

L  " 

1  ■  loi  '.  o-  •  .r  o,;7i/-  ‘u;u  ^vj-.:.cjp  ^  ■  ,•  ;  “^ 

r:o  '  -  ;t  ^  ■  ;T:\+  ...f-fv-t  'ts'.' .'fl.i.«  4 

'"  ■  ’<^0]S^Pc*7rtlrr  •o.'i.ic  -  ■  : 

•  •  ■  t  ''  .'■  i.ru'tx'i^iTOo  a  ’ 

’•'  '  ■  '  '  ''MW 

.  .ji  'io  ’.t/idcrr  rf?.:  Lo'i  ^l_ 


;.  .  •  /  17*0  6it>  •  ■  «vo;'  0+  kz  ^jj  ©fc.y**:  af)n.^f3 

■  ■/  •.  '' 

•i^--'  •  ■'  *  ■*  :  Yr:;  o:tj*  ru  ctfdci  .i4i,iCK, 


Polish  state.  Thus  if  Poland  would  live  in  friendliness  with 
Russia,  the  latter  might  not  pay  attention  to  Poland* s  actions 
towards  Ukrainians.  Having  destroyed  the  Ukrainian  race  and 
increased  her  own  strength,  she  might  then  be  able  to  cope  with 
Russia. 

Ukrainian  nobility,  notwithstanding  whether  they  were  Greek 
Catholics,  and  all  the  more  if  they  were  Orthodox,  must  be  kept 
out  of  all  prominent  positions,  especially  such  wherein  they 
might  become  rich  and  famous  and  thus  an  asset  to  all  Ukrainians. 
This  should  be  enforced  by  a  separate  law.  No  pole  should  live 
with  a  Ukrainian  on  friendly  terms,  unless  there  is  some  profit 
thereby.  When  in  the  company  of  Ukrainians,  to  ridicule  their 
rites  as  much  as  possible  so  that  they  would  rather  renounce 
their  nationality  and  rites,  than  bear  such  ridicule. 

Wealthier  Polish  nobles  must  not  accept  Ukrainians  as 
servants,  especially  in  a  capacity  whereby  they  might  acquire 
a  fortune  and  education.  Only  such  Ukrainians  should  be  accepted 
as  might  be  expected  to  turn  apostates.  In  this  way  they  will 
be  compelled  to  live  in  ignorance,  poverty  and  contempt,  and 
will  thus  gradually  degenerate.  And  further,  if  any  one  should 
wish  to  escape  this  low  status,  he  would  have  to  turn  an  apostate. 

The  greatest  difficulty  will  be  found  in  dealing  with 
Ukrainian  Bishops  and  clergy.  These  bishops  must  be  hoodwinked 
so  that  they  will  not  be  able  to  see  what  is  going  on  about  them, 
while  the  clergy  must  be  overburdened  with  such  hard  labor  as 


-63- 


’v-  ? 


f. 


'U 


:  :.'C 


r;  • 


■  )i.  '■'  -  , 

-:  ■.  ;  •  *  :  .  aCT'lrJi^  ,  r-rnliri 

.  V  ■  *''"• 

^  ^  1)  .i,  Ar..  e*"-  t  i-erf  :■  '^‘.^r:^ 

,  .4  * 

,  .  S; 

^  .  .;•  CfMot  v,«>ti'*  'r^  "tor.:  i'  ••  .'  ■£•  bru;  ^  i 'i 

'  •  , a. .JJis  'lo  '  " 

■  fMpr:.i  •'  w  ’  ’3’'  6^  ■-'.•C  I •'-vnrO’ii":^  '"iK^ 

d;';"  0  '/J  ••'■..  hf'^ 

••1.,,.  *  ;r0  ti#  : '  ;  ' 

t  :t''iw*J2r'j  •  :■  ;  :o'^  r‘i  naff  , 

c-i  o/.vi.c-.yocw^  uA(  '.  ‘j.M.  (I./3  0'C.^i" 

''■'y 


J  b  fti  vXX«f ^  :v)'^;  .  >.'i 


•  .  yi  '••»*  "  .-'f.  hua  4 

.  '  ”  ■  ’•L 

''  ‘'  4> 

v:  a’  '  .  ;  .;<:.qi)  n*l.««v  <J >  f',-J''Xi  :o  ocJ  dtVs-^ftr  '-5‘'5'  '‘:  |^ 

^  -.'OvJ  ^  ":qc\,'  (\k  tf^Xi  v'j  ;yci  X  vq.v^- V  07 

1  ,•  '  ■  i  .  .  ,  ix/ 

Zi.":  CJ  ^  VC. X.  ^4.  Cv'  .yaiir  ‘‘i, 

-  •Xr-'i.  rii  l-  v-  i  ■•  w  j  v  ^:;'X 

><.'  *X  .■■-?:5,  fill  M  ,  Or.*  :.  V  '  . ,  .>X  . '  '  ■  *i  '-jlu 

ito  j^*o^  %i  .•^r.iff  Cf  .J  (..  .  ,vrt  .-■  ;u‘’  ,' ''  X.C-J 


to  deprive  them  of  all  initiative. 

The  priests  must  be  kept  in  the  greatest  possible  ignorance, 
for  an  ignorant  pastor  will  not  be  able  to  enlighten  his  follo?rers* 
The  best  means  to  this  end  would  be:  To  keep  them  in  great  poverty. 

In  order  to  destroy  the  Ukrainians  more  readily,  all  ad¬ 
vances  upon  the  Poles  must  be  carefully  exaggerated,  so  that  it 
may  appear  to  the  world  that  Poles  are  waging  a  just  warfare 
against  the  Ukrainians.  If  authentic  facts  are  lacking,  they 
must  be  invented.  What  is  till  better:  Let  us  fabricate  le  ters 
hostile  to  Poland,  to  the  Poles  and  the  Roman  Catholic  religion, 
with  signatures  of  their  priests  and  bishops  attached,  and  se¬ 
cretly  scatter  these  seemingly  Ukrainian  letters.  This  will  give 
us  a  valid  reason  for  destroying  the  Ukrainians. 

In  this  way  we  will  arrange  so  that  the  Polish  kingdom  will  be 
inhabited  by  nation  united  by  love,  pease  and  harmony,  that 
Roman  Catholicism  will  progress  by  leaps  and  bounds,  that  we  will 
grow  stronger.  For  it  must  be  well  understood  that  if  the  Ukrainian 
race  is  left  to  exist,  whether  as  Orthodox  or  Greek  Catholics, 
our  supremacy  must  always  remain  insecure.  On  the  other  hand 
if  we  Polonise  them,  it  will  in  the  first  place  destroy  Russia* a 
hope  of  taking  them  from  us,  and  in  the  second  place  we  will 
strengthen  ourselves  through  them  against  Russia-  in  which  God 
help  usi  Amen  I 

The  above  facts  hardly  require  any  further  corament  to  show 


64- 


/c.--  r  ij  .'  -<T  jn.:icrin;'  •  -  / 

■  '  MiJO»  h  c-  anr/i*,.;  v^ai9d  oiiT 

V  ,.v,~  v**i’-'..  :ii  '  Qjrti  oi  'xobto  nl 

'  . .  .  '•%.■ 

1^0  ii.Li..  vilJ  fio  ru  aco.-ijr 

,  -V; 

__•  -  biloUT'^'fl^;  CJs7'  V;a^ 

'  iT"  .  ■ 

.  ,-;,  y:. I  iii^:ii}  -^EXUJag/1 

|r»I  -■•'  *■  <*  ''-  •■'"^*  .-  "jtr-^vni  wrf  .istan  ' 

-»  .  •  ■  "  I 

f)ii  •  *■  '  ‘J-  -t:DSt<  sx'ic  -.  ■  '  ^  f  .  j:.  “  oj  it*Xxjac'd 

^  0«jQ.-{EiC  h.'i»  C  ,  0  5 O/ti/X.-'i  .i  1 

Tt'v^'^woa 

<>1^^  §«TJ ':  '-•  ’61;  ^-Ci'  -'.  -i'*'-  nZiat^  i  au 

‘  ^  ■  t  , 

Hz.lr  ■'  .  a  O-  '  tf'-'t"’/:  Z.'.  i-  ■••'f  ui:  -  .1  , 

^  ,.j  O'ojb  ■  ^  v«  ;  .  •-:-no  v**  - 

\  ]  _Zi w,  rciuilc'fiw  JjO  niWi;o/. 

S'r  &01  ’::M-.  -.'0*  OU  .^crfB  ^i  'io^  .T"';  ’v'  ^ ■ 

rJ'y.  ,  r  'io;(;Jo  t  ^••‘'::o  .oj  j'XeX  ei  co.y'i 

,  .  f;  ■  I  .&-i  BV/1Tfc'X:'  “^aUgr^'^q:  ■  no’C 

iv  ^  ■^2i^c  .  ci-*  ■ 

.  !  I  ^qlod 

Z;.' 

.u!  c  i.i'u;  .;«;  •-  !  ■'•v-Vw/l  eif 


'; '  JU  '  •; ''  <  ‘  T  o  f»r  ' 

tBV  >  -•  •  -  -  ?  -  - 

ft  . 


the  political  relations  of  the  two  nationalities.  One  thing 
is  evident,  and  that  is,  that  the  Ukrainians  have  set  the  Poles 
thinking  on  more  than  one  occasion  that  they  are  a  force  which 
cannot  be  dismissed  heedlessly  out  of  consideration,  but  must 
bo  reckoned  with. 

The  Russians  too,  seeing  that  the  Austrian  Ukrainians  are 
more  progressive  in  their  national  movement  than  the  Ukrainian 
subjects,  began  to  fear  their  influence  spreading  over  Russian 
Ukraine#  To  counteract  this  threatening  evil,  the  Russian 
Government  commenced  to  send  Russian  clergy  and  other  agents 
to  Galicia  for  the  purpose  of  corrupting  the  Ukrainian  national 
ideals  therein  and  thus  destroy  the  source  of  danger. 


UKRAINE  IN  THE  GREAT  WAR. 

The  pre-war  days  were,  in  so  far  as  the  Ukrainians  were 
concerned,  days  of  lively  preparation,  preparation  both  in 
Austria  and  in  Russia  not  for  war  and  bloodshed  but  for  a 
peaceful  re-establishi^ent  of  the  old  Ukrainian  Democracy. 

The  stormy  years  of  1905  -  6,  during  which  the  people  voiced 
their  grievances,  compelled  the  Russians  to  relax  in  some  of 
their  prohibitions.  They  were  prevailed  upon  to  investigate 
the  restrictions  placed  on  the  use  of  the  Ukrainian  language 
and  on  the  Ukrainian  movement  as  a  whole.  One  of  the  outcomes 

of  the  inquiries  was  the  decision  of  the  Petrograd  Academy 


-65- 


c 


-  -i>^  ,V 

,-.,  ^  '' **0 -C  r -  T'  r  . '.C'.-;  'i* 

■  .  ' 

^  >-^/.  .1  *■  ':•)  'i'W  tj^r^Q^a  A'flI2.ib  >'■  JC/UaXi". 

.  r’ 

vit  iM:  pfT^vr.  ,00-f  ^irr^'^rurl 


•>..  -.>/•  ■  ■  •  ..-r  ..  ni  &vi«^e: -t  p  v:t  v-iOL-: 

'.  ..  -’"''.H/i  ■; ‘ii  '  ’  ■  'X*^--  O-  '  ,  ..  .'POi.Jf/#,  -f 

;  ^  '  ,  .  . 

*  '  jiivr^  iMiyv: 

V-  '^  ■;••  »I0'  t>nJI  ■  ■  '  c  ;>■'•?■  ■'’'£.'«C?!'iO';>  ^ 

.' ,  -j:;' ^><7vc  ■  ‘*  '•  iin  oi 

•’ .• -•  .  '■  vo>‘v*b  isiJdJ  f’^a'KVr;  ; 


■  ,..A  •’!'  *■  :«  Ti’-  c- 

‘  A' 

L*  • ,noi.. 

';•  ;  •  ;  •/i'  v.'X  Xo 

,  |u>C*Xi».or'C.') 

;‘  .  «<•  - 

i'.;^ 

.  :•  Tiviw  b.k 

*20 

/  1  XM^y 

V  tl  f'*>:j  SiO.  r.  .’.' ..'V 

t  -  c,CKi’: 

Y.tTi-'"  0-: 

4»>ni;  ..V  ,  .k  “  T- 

.  .ic,! 


V*-...  .  !fcQi  •  •  ^  ,0'!U 

-c  j 

■  i 

'-jvh?i7  iii  r> 

-'7  '  ' 

:  V.«'^  ., 


.-v;  / 


r^.k.* 


‘ic-  r'‘i^i  '>^^‘’ 


that  the  Ukrainian  language  was  distinct  and  separate  from 
the  Russian.  This  was  the  first  admission  and  affirmation 
of  the  Russians  themselves  that  the  Ukrainians  were  justified 
in  their  claims  to  the  existence  of  their  language  and  literature. 
This  was  a  great  victory  indeed. 

In  Austrian  Ukraine,  in  spite  of  the  Polish  usurpation  of 
priority  in  political  rights  and  the  Russian  Russophil  propaganda 
headed  by  Count  Bobrinsky  to  Russianize  the  Ukrainian  element, 
the  intelligentsia  and  through  it  the  peasants,  who  were  able  to 
discern  the  difference  between  friend  and  foe,  kept  on  organizing 
educational  institutions  and  thereby  coping  with  the  adverse 
influences  and  making  headway  In  the  cause.  To  the  Ukrainians 
these  were  the  days  of  hope  and  prayer,  but  t©  the  Russians  the 
tragedy  at  Sarajevo  was  long  overdue,  for,  a  happening  of  that 
character  could  easily  involve  them  and  give  them  a  pretext  to 
advance  against  Austria  and  to  destroy  this  intellectual  Piedmont 
for  the  Ukrainian  movement. 

That  the  anxiety  of  the  Russians  concerning  this  impending 
peril  was  not  without  foundation  is  well  evidenced  by  the  fact  that 
cne  cf  the  first  incidents  in  the  war  was  their  invasion  of  Galicia, 
during  which  the  whole  of  the  territory  inhabited  by  the  Ukrainians 
was  occupied  by  Russian  troops.  The  new  Governor’s  avowed  object 
was  the  Russificaticaa  of  Galicia,  Immediately  Ukrainian  schools 
were  closed  and  Russian  language  was  introduced.  The  Holy  Synod 
too,  tried  hard  to  impose  Orthodosqr  in  the  occupied  area.  The 
Uniate  Archbishop  of  Lviv,  Count  Andrew  Shepticky  was  arrested 


-66- 


,Tu« 


■<r 


J  vr- 1.  :.  <9^5^  'ic 

/■  9.V"' : ‘•■•s-  ’"-■  ;  tlorf:  .;^ 

^  v?*! ,<'«;•  /• 

"^“ki  ■  njti  .71  .wf4iin>''U' 

rtiii^vUJ:  j'U  r.  ^  U  l,oq  ttX  'r 

•  ’  r 

•■:  -  '■ '.  i.v’.' ',  ^ ;.  V--  v:is'5  r'ldo'd  ^rfiroO  v:<J 

ftf::.<*  .•*rA»i  o:; 

i»  ^  ■  t  -fn#  iw»>  •  "  :?' -  c-»p‘i'iio  ©sij 

^  r".  i^y  .s 

'  -A;  '  ' 

.  .u  .  gn.}:i.!i;ti  bn.  ^.  r  .:<,i  ’i 

> 

j-ij-  ■  ’  t '^■>^‘■•*1";  ^>n3i  '••qoi(  Ufj  «^y4i!5  <■'.'< vT^v/  t>r 

'liiTL  '  ' 

^  ^  i:  ‘^•  o/r>;..s'iHU  djii 


1  '.-’j:*  •  v.:  “fi  C-fl»  u;;,,;  XX^^fli , 


naii 


.  ?! 


cc.  J  nv  f‘.  {.rf*  q3  ■  \‘VlLvci  ■;**.  ^/i'T:*nu  (.. 

-  ■  •  -•.  yoi^dw  '  biXJi^  w:irrf 

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and  sent  to  Russia  for  imprisonment. 

THE  RUSSIAN  REVOLUTION 

The  year  1917  proved  to  be  the  climax  of  the  struggle  of 
various  forces  within  the  Russian  Empire,  resulting  in  internecine 
war,  the  destruction  of  the  old  order  and  rather  laborious  attempts 
to  establish  a  new  one.  To  the  outside  world  it  appeared  as  if 
the  disturbance  was  due  only  to  economic  causes  and  to  the  unbear¬ 
able  autocratic  rule  of  the  Czar.  Unquestionably  these  were  the 
primary  causes,  but,  it  must  be  remembered  that  political  injustice 
with  regard  to  the  various  nationalities  inhabiting  the  country, 
also  contributed  to  the  uprising.  Among  the  aggrieved  nationalities 
were  the  Ukrainians.  And,  it  soon  became  clear  that  pari  passu- 
with  the  struggle  for  agrarian  and  other  reforms,  went  the  Ukrai¬ 
nian  national  movement  of  regeneration. 

Soon  after  the  commencement  of  the  revolution,  namely, 
on  March  16th »  1917,  an  Ukrainian  National  Rada  (council)  was 
formed  at  Kiev.  It  was  composed  of  Ukrainian  intelligentsia, 
representing  mainly  the  thought  of  the  Ukrainian  Social -Democrats, 
Social -Revolutionists  and  Social-  Federalists,  as  well  as  of  the 
non-partisan  Democrats.  Professor  Michael  Hrushevsky  of  the 
University  of  Lviv,  the  noted  historian,  sometimes  called  “Little 
Father”  of  the  Ukrainian  movement,  was  elected  President. 

On  April  19th  the  Ukrainian  National  Congress  was  opened  at 


-67. 


U..  t  ;  ■ 

S'  : 

:  •^e^r.uk  oWi-  ’ 

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'1 


Kiev*  At  this  Congress  the  name  of  the  Rada  was  changed  to 
Ukrainian  Central  Rada,  as  it  had  to  represent  not  only  the 
Ukrainians,  but  the  other  nationalities  of  Ukraine  as  well* 

The  representatives  in  Ukraine  were  then  admitted  to  it  propor¬ 
tionally  to  their  percentage  of  the  population  of  the  country. 

In  answer  to  a  procl«i33sation  issued  by  the  Rada,  an  Ukrai¬ 
nian  Army  Congress  was  called  in  Kiev  in  May.  The  soldiers 
organised  the  Ukrainian  Military  Rada,  recognised  the  Ukrainian 
Central  Rada  as  their  supreme  governing  body,  and  promised  it 
support.  A  resolution  was  also  passed  in  which  an  immediate 
nationalisation  of  the  army  with  respect  to  Ukraine  was  demanded. 
Organisation  meetings  of  peasants  and  working  men  were  held,  and 
an  active  organised  campaign  in  which  people  of  all  walks  of  life 
took  part  and  which  was  kept  alive  particularly  through  the  un¬ 
tiring  efforts  of  school  teachers  and  students  of  the  High  Schools 
and  the  Universities,  soon  spread  over  the  whole  country.  The 
result  was  that  in  a  short  time  the  governing  body  was  augmented 
to  650  members.  At  the  meetings  the  main  issue  was  to  demand 
the  full  measure  of  autonomy  for  Ukraine  within  the  Russian  Fed¬ 
eral  Union.  Accordingly,  the  Rada,  through  its  Central  Committee, 
sent  a  deputation  to  Petrograd  requesting  the  Provisional  Govern¬ 
ment  to  recognise  the  Rada  and  to  proclaim  the  principle  of  Ukrai¬ 
nian  Autonomy.  Besides  this,  it  demanded  among  other  things, 
the  immediate  acceptance  of  representation  at  the  Peace  Conference 
and  consideration  of  issues  in  connection  with  the  fate  of  Galicia 


-68' 


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(•.'j-«r  P,;’’.  IwYC  b  «#,7  -5  .  ooo  ^  '  I' 0 'bW’J" ' '  '  .\li 

;.'  .ii:-:oVf'-;  vili  pml^  -  i 

nij«W  ©rX;  i!.  .:’  ‘o  .'  i  c-.'  • 


and  the  Ukrainian  territories  occupied  by  the  Germans;  the 
appointment  of  a  High  Commissioner  for  Ukrainian  affairs;  the 
drafting  of  Ukrainians  into  Ukrainian  regiments;  official  recog¬ 
nition  of  the  Ukrainian  language;  and  a  grant  of  funds  for  ad¬ 
ministrative  purposes. 

The  delegation  met  with  disappointment  and  had  to  return 
to  Kiev  empty  handed.  The  several  demands  of  the  Rada  wore  not 
met.  Prince  George  Lvoff ,  the  first  Premier  of  New  Russia,  de¬ 
clared  that  the  political  question  was  one  to  be  decided  in  the 
name  of  the  whole  Russian  people  at  the  meeting  of  the  Constituent 
Assembly.  M.  Kerensky,  the  Russian  Minister  of  War  at  the  time, 
immediately  wont  to  Kiev  for  the  sole  purpose  of  discussing  with 
the  Rada  one  of  the  most  important  of  their  demands,  namely,  the 
separation  of  the  Ukrainian  national  army  from  the  Russian  Forces. 
Among  other  things  Kerensky  told  the  Ukrainians  as  follows: 

*'We  consider  it  impossible  at  the  present  moment  to  regroup  the 
armies  on  the  principle  of  nationality;  after  the  war  we  can  deal 
with  the  question  of  changing  the  form  of  grouping  the  army,  but 
not  new.  For  this  reason  we  have  stopped  the  organisation  of 
Esthonian,  Lettish  and  other  national  detachments”. 

The  evasive  reply  of  Prince  Lvoff  and  the  unfavorable 
point  of  view  of  Kerensky  provoked  a  storm  of  indignation  in 
the  Rada  and  particularly  in  the  radical  group. 


69< 


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V  I.  •  ■"  ■ 

V  '.  :-.i  ^agtfr  «lf^'  'i-C  -s^  ‘n  ■ 

i/'  istirri  HCV  lo  OVtlmxj^hn 

f  . 

,  :-.:■  c.':.'  b .'Oi  y^Hui'  :<  '.  n:^r.id&  Wi., .  • 

•  .  ■  :  &li*  73  si  :  "7>«U  7*  ■ 


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v:  i  •'  -•  ^  V  '  t  ■•  *t>aq;  v-niK  jlMi^'J 


>  ■: 


UKRAINE  PROCLAIMS  INDEPENDENCE 


In  spite  of  the  moderate  attitude  of  Hrusheysky,  "who 
claimed  that  the  idea  of  federation  will  in  Russia  play  the  same 
part  as  in  the  United  States  of  America,  saving  the  country  from 
disunion,  and  some  of  the  other  leaders  who  were  of  the  same 
opinion,  the  Rada,  after  several  days  of  secret  session,  passed 
a  resolution  declaring  that  the  Provisional  Government  had  acted 
against  the  interests  of  the  Ukrainian  people.  Several  days 
later  Manifesto  called  the  “First  Universal”  which  was  approved 
on  Juno  24th  1917,  was  issued  hy  the  Rada,  The  proclamation  was 

couched  in  terms  that  cannot  be  criticiEed  as  being  to©  extreme. 

% 

It  asserted  in  the  opening  lines  that  “Without  separating  from 
Russia  and  without  breaking  away  from  the  Russian  State,  let  the 
Ukrainian  people  on  its  own  territory  have  the  right  to  dispose 
of  its  life,  and  let  a  proper  government  be  established  in  Ukraine 
by  the  ©lection  of  an  Ukrainian  National  Assembly,  a  Diet,  on 
the  basis  of  universal,  equal,  direct,  and  aeerat  suffrage.  Only 
such  an  assembly  has  a  right  to  issue  lawg  which  affect  the 
entire  Russian  State,  No  one  knows  better  than  ourselves  what  we 
want  and  what  are  the  best  laws  for  us.  No  one  better  than  our 
own  peasants  knows  how  to  manage  our  own  land.  For  that  reason 
we  wish,  after  all  private.  State,  Czarist,  Ministerial,  and 
other  lands  have  been  handed  over  throughout  Russia  to  the 
various  peoples,  and  after  a  constitution  has  been  drawn  up  by 
the  All-Russian  Constituent  Assembly,  that  the  constitution  and 


70- 


■>./'*•  .  ■-■  ,tV  ^v* /f '-'.  .'T'C  0Ji--'  'ICi  Xii  j.  '■' 

-  .  ■'  ■'^  '^' ■'  ' 

u**<  ■-■ '  vv.fi  <1  ;T^A-j.a.T*‘ ■•i  ‘-i:-  Miit  y.*j..iJ, 

*  «,;.v'  ,Aoi*sd.v\  ’!0  y-pcf.A.)^.  ;  :^cj*’  a:U*  ci  ao 

oiw  i  r^i-f’o  lo  j  lOfl  '&(■">  laoiatfsit 

t  ••  •  ‘iv  3 v/f;-,  i^a'r^vso  -ivc^r  ?  *  ^r.^h:':qo- 


zi  bfijf 

5^  i 


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■t' 


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rtifii  i;2  ••  •  .’it./.r/f  '  1/3  2 “itr/v.  xit  /-’.Ti".**  o*: .  o vfviiiX- 


'■' ..  *<i.,o;‘'.  4'*:  v.v'.  1  '^,',:b! 

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••in<;ef  iw  :.- f  w’'  .-'J.i  ;^vv.hi"  ■  ■k.dJ  'vi  ‘,' 4^-:  22:  ..M 

45  ffV,  V’".'.  ‘  ■.'.>*>  .^;:TX:V5ti-rf  u^i.Vff^in,  :-'l»i'  /U* '■Jf.bE 

'  -I  .  ,  ,.  •  ^  ' 

I.  ^  nWQ.  a  *i  no 

..  -^  ^  ’rvcc.'.,  .2  iv44p/i.g  ;?:4  Fig 

-'n:  J.  .  if,.? /:  i.PO  r;j:  ’ic  nc  .F+ojI^v  enF 


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and  public  order  in  our  Ukrainian  territoriet  should  be  entirely 
inoihr  own  hands,  that  is,  in  the  hands  of  the  Ukrainian  Diet,” 

The  document  proceeds  with  an  assertion  that  ’‘henceforth  we  alone 
shall  regulate  our  life”  and  than  calls  upon  the  Ukrainian  people 
to  co-operate  with  other  nationalities  living  in  Ukrainian 
territories  and  to  help  organizing  the  Autonomy  of  Ukraine. 

The  Manifesto  was  immediately  spread  broadcast  over  the 
land,  and  a  counter  manifesto  by  Prince  Lvoff  went  unheeded. 
Within  a  few  days  the  new  Ukrainian  Government  had  been  formed 
under  the  name  of  General  Secretariat,  Among  the  members  appoint¬ 
ed  were  Vinnichenko,  President,  Petlura,  Secretary  of  Yifar,  and 
Yefremov,  Secretary  for  International  Affairs. 

The  Petrograd  Government  became  alarmed  at  the  develop¬ 
ments  of  the  Ukrainian  movement,  and  after  negotiations  with 
Kerensky  and  others,  who  came  to  Kiev  for  that  purposa,  con¬ 
ceded  the  Ukrainian  position  so  far  as  to  recognize  the  General 
Secretariat  as  the  highest  administrative  organ,  '  The  relations 
between  the  General  Secretariat  and  the  Provisional  Government 
from  that  time  on,  even  in  a  greater  degree  than  hitherto,  con¬ 
tinued  to  be  of  a  controversial  nature.  The  Ukrainians  persisted 
in  asserting  their  rights,  ’J?hil0  the  Russians  were  powerless, 
owing  to  the  existing  state  of  war,  to  deny  them  same.  After 
the  recognition  of  the  General  Secretariat  by  the  Provisional 
Government,  the  Rada,  having  scored  an  undoubted  victory,  issued 
on  July  E9th,  1917,  another  "Universal”  in  which  it  alleged  its 


-71- 


,  ..  .  -  -,  -.*  .V  r  t  ; J  ^  ’XO.  d 

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tT  'ic  :•  r'.i':«i:<‘.:i*sO'  c.!  r, 

,.-i-  }■■;.  ■  c  c.ai.  ’.^  ,-X:  .j  ff  L>6j'.  ...’/  •;*  c  .  :'ji;.;.  .  5/^*^  ' 

*><  o^iaoxi!r;r  ;•.  iJr^cc  >••  r  <  -r.v.'.X 
>  .  .  .-  -  •  j-.  .  •  ;  -'^T'  ■  itlv.^lYr 

V"--*--  4  _'  '  .  *1.0.  o,  u,n  ‘jnJ 

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*i  ■  ii.j  wi’f'irs** ‘ 

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'■''^  .  V'  ••u»  Lu.*^  ■  ”  '  i\'  ’  0-  l.uu* 

._ii  ^niO'-V^'jr  •:  i 

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■  ‘  I  C*:f' (*;*>#  w  o."^'  '.  '  jC  t  '  .  >  \CO^f\ 

'  *  ^ 

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‘;.«i^|||^  J  ■■.  /'^  .C<3f' :•'•■.  *:-.•■. 'cr  ^  {ip 


willingness  to  await  the  decision  of  the  Constit-uent  Assembly* 

At  the  same  time  the  constitution  and  procedure  of  the 
General  Secretariat  were  outlined  in  detail. 

But  the  alarm  of  the  Provisional  Government  grew  to  the 
extent  that  it  attempted  to  take  away  from  the  Ukrainians  what 
it  had  previously  granted  them*  Kerensky  issued  an  '* instruction” 
to  the  Rada  limiting  its  powers  as  well  as  those  of  the  General 
Secretariat.  In  protest  to  this  the  Ukrainian  Cabinet  resigned. 
And,  at  the  time  of  the  Bol3heviki*s  rebellion  the  Ukrainians, 
seeing  that  the  Russian  attitude  towards  them  was  hostile  decid¬ 
ed  to  remain  neutral, 

THE  PROCLAMATION  OF  THE  UKRAINIAN  PEOPLE *S  REPUBLIC 

On  November  EOth,  1917,  the  Ukrainians  issued  their 
third  Manifesto  which  read  in  part  as  follows; 

”To  the  Ukrainian  people  and  all  the  peoples  of  Ukraine  I 
An  hour  of  trials  and  difficulties  has  com©  fcrthe  land  of  the 
Russian  Republic*  In  the  North,  in  the  Capitals  (Petrograd  and 
Moscow),  a  bloody  internecine  struggle  is  in  progress.  A  central 
Government  no  longer  exists,  and  anarchy,  disorder  and  ruin  are 
spreading  throughout  the  State. 

Our  country  also  is  indanger,  Vfithout  a  strong  united 
and  popular  Government  Ukraine  also  may  fall  into  the  abyss  of 
civil  War,  slaughter  and  destruction. 

People  of  Ukraine,  you,  together  with  the  brother  peoples 
of  Ukraine,  have  entrusted  us  with  the  task  of  protecting 


o  £^1'-  ^  I 


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1  .-i.''£:^-  *v 


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^  :  r,-':  ".' :  1 

v.i''K'VC’- 

^  Sn.U;  ■•; 


-at  I 


.  o  *' 

t » :  k‘ 'i;i'.  ifi'siRr  v  ^  ••  '. 


<>  J: 


'•  'h 


rights  won  by  struggle,  of  creating  order  and  of  building  up 
a  new  life  in  our  land.  And  we,  the  Ukrainian  Central  Rada, 
by  your  will,  for  the  sake  of  creating  order  in  our  country 
and  for  the  sake  of  saving  the  whole  of  Russia,  announce  that 
henceforth  Ukraine  becomes  the  Ukrainian  People* s  Republic. 
Without  separating  from  the  Russian  Republic,  and  preserving  its 
unity,  we  talce  up  our  stand  firmly  on  our  lands  that  with  our 
strength  we  may  help  the  whole  of  Russia,  and  that  the  whole 
Russian  Republic  may  become  a  federation  of  free  and  equal 
peoples.” 

Then  followed  the  decrees  by  which  land  was  to  be  trans¬ 
ferred  to  the  peasants,  labour  was  to  have  control  over  industry, 
an  eight  hour  day  in  all  factories  and  workshops  was  established 
and  death  penalty  abolished.  Further,  a  guarantee  of  liberties 
won  by  the  Russian  Revolution,  namely,  freedom  of  the  Press, 
Speech,  Religion,  Assembly,  Union,  Strikes,  inviolability  of 
person  and  habitation,  and  the  right  of  using  local  dialects 
in  dealing  with  all  authorities. 

Meanwhile,  there  came  a  complete  downfall  of  the  Provi¬ 
sional  Government  and  the  rise  to  power  of  Lenin  and  Trotzky. 

The  BolsheviM.  government  did  not  seem  at  first  to  be  opposed 
to  the  Ukrainian  national  claim  to  be  constituted  a  separate 
Republic,  especially  in  view  of  their  desire  to  live  in  peace¬ 
ful  federation  with  the  new  Russian  Republic.  What  seemed  to 
them  to  be  of  no  little  concern  were  the  social  conditions 
therein.  The  Ukrainian  peasants  were  small  proprietors  whom 


-u. 


o*ti'jL  "Or, 


■'.C  0.1^  'I  'ii'OV. 

O  M.  Oi#  'id 


•  ic»V  _ 
iMip^  - 


,  ,  .  tc  10, 

•  C„*i  LiT.:ril3ry^ 

-  -.r  -•-.A-crtV:  '••^.ir.ii.f  esis  •  '  '  . ^ 

^  ^  I  .  - 

,^1  •..  .-  at«.i  --■  -o  '*■ 

■  it'  e-it  -  ■  (f -Jja  n■^L''00^^1! 

'.,:  tfl'Vj  I?  ©;.<  ■>  •;<  XB«. ''»i-  ‘‘f*‘ '' , 

•  .  '•.♦.Cijciop 

»* 'm»  tW "/  •;■'■•  tv-t  XXc^  >t^tv 

<MV0  I*t?aoo  »•«»  '  ‘  ‘  «'=■•'■'' 

,.  •  ui  t*'-  .  •-'««  •^''•:  ' 

....  ^  ..^.'-IK';  .  -v'.-'  v,\tar.«J  ■:  •.•3S| 

•'  .  ,  .  '■  ,  ’  :*’f'Iv' .'V..  :  -  V,''’  ‘  ’ '' 


ijj  t  c:c  X 


Eu^.nc..^ 


.  -'U' 


i  f  CiC-C.'!  • 

,  !f  ■lod.  </••  i  .•  r.i 

V.  -v.  ;  ~  ' 

*  .  .  f  .  ;  u.l^  lin3  ^noarr.r  oi 

•‘J 

o.  ::  db 

•?‘-T.-.rr.  -  r..  rr.i  io  fi  ^  'i 

r:  *?•::  >{:  '  ■  '  -w  ri  'rct  ■  .• 

.•  '-i  ‘O  -  •  '-■  nt .: ‘  -'} 

;  ••',>  ,.J  C^ 


r. n*>"'r-r'*  i>j. 


the  Boleheviki  labelled  as  "capitalists”  and  "bourgeois”,  and 
therefore,  not  in  accord  with  their  conception  of  an  idal  form 
of  government  for  the  whole  of  Russia.  This  pretext,  they  asserted,  , 
was  a  justification  to  denounce  the  Ukrainian  Rada,  which  accord¬ 
ing  to  them  was  made  up  of  the  bourgeois  .  Following  up  in  their 
schemes  the  Bolsheviki  initiated  a  civil  war  against  the  Ukrai¬ 
nian  People* s  Republic.  This  war,  particularly  round  Kiev  and 
Odessa,  was  waged  intermittently  throughout  the  winter,  terror-  1 

3 

ising  the  population  and  disabling  the  Rada  from  maintaining 

order  in  the  country.  The  unfortunate  state  of  affairs  necessitated 

another  appeal  of  the  government  to  the  people  of  Ukraine.  This  | 

appeal  was,  [ 

The  Fourth  Manifesto  of  the  Ukrainian  Central  Rada.  ! 

- - - - - — - - -  . 

The  Manifesto  was  endorsed  by  the  Executive  Committee  of 
the  Rada  on  January  24th,  1918,  and  goes  beyond  the  preceding 
ones  in  many  respects.  It  begins  with  a  declaration  to  "the 
people  of  Ukraine"  that  "due  to  their  power.  Will  and  word 
there  was  created  on  Ukrainian  soil  a  Free  Ukrainian  People’s 
Republic,  which  was  a  dream  of  their  forefathers,  who  strove  for 
freedom  and  the  rights  of  the  working  classes". 

It  further  announces  that  in  order  to  frustrate  the  Petrograd 
government  the  Ukrainian  Central  Rada  declare  that  from  date  the 
Ukrainian  People’s  Republic  is  completely  free  and  desires  to  live 
in  friendly  relations  with  Austria,  Russia,  Roumania,  Turkey,  and 
other  neighbouring  nations.  Then  it  provides  for  the  nationali¬ 
zation  of  all  private  landed  property  including  forests,  waters. 


^  *■*-  or-  i^,' ' -"Iw  ,  ^ 

'  -  ,  .  ’  '^n'X 

‘  .,p.  3^;  .  ■  ■  ,.:  '  *•'  Jirf'v/  ' c)‘ru;^3')“::vo^ ■  :c  ■ 

r,  ,  J  ,  .  \  «,’  :  .  ►.  ,■>  (  r.".  i  i'iSOi  J.A-i  ^  d/*Vf  '  ' 

•  *  f 

,  ct' ’ 'C  ■'■•'*  frr-Vcr  cj' 


i:  In, •  t 

.on  . : 


'1^. 


la 


••  '/  -  :*7  ^  !;fr:  J_ 


•no 


O^il 

r<K  a  .. 


»xfi  ;  .i  >«nr  0 -n'-  aci .tfe.O-i'-D-q'  o’’.'  x. 

'  '  I  *  ^  ^ 

'XL  ’  ’•  •■  n:  r:t;.r't<. 'Xt'U,  v  ►  v-  '  '  ''.<■1 


j 'K' V  '‘ic  Xiioqoia 


.Ojti.H  in  i  . :  -;.;  J. 


^  ,n  .  -W  . 


•-♦■a-o*  'wi^:j!|W^^^' 

*.<5  *  o>  jif  ■'■■-- ■ 

^  *'  JkO  ,  ‘  J*  : 


;x-  •iir#r  c vX '  'T' 


V' 

.  ,»  'jr  *X!<n 

.  ..^>  -j  . 't  \r^:t  nl  'tOrto'  x;  x  .j 

■■'.'l.l  Xc  "Xqc - 


iK.’  •  ;  X  ^••’:i.  ;  :.  Lr  ’  - ’:■)  'ST.v 

,iX../ ■'^tJ  c.  ■'■- 'll.'  ■  ,  oXX<  »' .c^H, 


... . 


1^ 


.  tf  r->  .“t 


.  vV. 


nir*'v-!-'  <!'  .^r  .'i 


-V  bjfe  ^  £\ 

>,>u»*i)s«*  si  0  ifilCfircr o JI  .  '  •/ .'.  ud  i  ii  .t •:>  'lli ’ J 

^  ..  »;i\  c/Tiwi  .  •  1  \;.Vbr^**  -  x.. 


•i  >Ci  ;!|  v 


rsc-’*  ■;rii.'Xr' 


mines;  all  branches  of  commerce  and  industry,  includinj^  state 
monopolies  for  banks  and  for  the  production  of  coal,  iron,  leather 
etc;  shall  be  under  the  management  of  the  Republic. 

In  concluding,  the  Rada  appeals  to  all  the  subjects  of 
Ukraine  for  their  unwavering  support  of  their  newly  won  liberty 
and  the  Government  of  the  Republic.  A  short  time  afterward 
circumstances  compelled  Ukraine  to  enter  into  a  separate  peace 
treaty  with  Central  Powers. 


UKRAINE  MAKES  PEACE 

Warfare  at  home  coupled  with  the  invasions  of  the  Austro- 
German  forces,  brought  upon  the  Ukrainian  population  starvation, 
disease,  death  and  ruin.  The  trouble  at  hem©  was  in  fact  sap¬ 
ping  the  life  of  the  people  even  more  so  than  the  war  with  the 
Austrians  and  the  Germans.  It  was  the  Bolshevik!,  therefore, 
who  were  responsible  for  the  Ukrainians  being  thrown  against 
Germany.  On  February  9th,  1918,  at  2  a.m.  Ukraine  entered  into 
a  peace  pact  with  the  Central  Powers,  which  was  the  first  Peace 
Treaty  in  the  Great  War  and  in  which  the  Ukrainians  thought 
they  saw  their  own  salvation  since  it  would  give  them  a  free 
hand  to  cope  with  their  domestic  troubles.  The  treaty  was  signed 
at  Brest-Litovsk  and  was  entitled: 

”A  Treaty  of  Peace  Between  Germany,  Austria-Hungary,  Bul¬ 
garia,  and  Turkey,  on  the  One  Part,  and  the  Ukrainian  People’s 
Republic  on  the  Other”, 


-75. 


^.vro-v  ^  ^  '»*'  Vi*-*  ^o'l  OCCAO^V 

r  .  ‘■•i-.-'  i^  :-v  iiK 


■•■  1 


wiiC 

y.'l%*jn 


.  f'A’:{  (  .-irrc  ';nc!-  i.  I  ,  . 

Pvtj>98fy*^  -.fi  'jc'i  e.'y...  r-": 

.  ■.  "*11*  ^  9  ^  .’vl.'  •  .' •OJ  ic  c^lrti'^•/r•r^vO'0  ^  bnr. 

4a^#q  ^  "-'  ■  -•  ^'^'-  ofciirx;cf^'  j  • 'r 

.v-f’rC'T  Xi»— .-ijir 


•Ifw 


*i'6?K«Sir 

Jr  ;'.■»  .■ '.  ■  .-  k  ,• 


,  i'-r 

'•*(» 


,  :V}/.-r‘ 

j  u.  ■ 

,  tj 

'  •■  -1 

c  ‘ 

.  Jj*vX^i/c  •'  ?>)'!ori 

'rc 

\ 

r.  : 

•td  '  t  '  ■  M.r5'" 

v.'i:.:-: 

-  ■  -  .  fc— JU 

•,  ;  ijoif  ^  l)j^ 

% 

« 

.'  1  ft-WJOJ  ■ ' 

PX<5{peq 

lo  oxti  'XV  i:? 

•■  Hi 

f*,"» 

orl^"  e  ' 

,  / 

This  treaty  of  peace  provided  for  immediato  evacuation 
of  occupied  territories;  establishment  of  full  diplomatic  rela¬ 
tions;  mutual  renunciation  of  indemnities;  and  until  a  specified 
time,  a  reciprocal  exchange  of  the  more  important  surplus  supplies 
of  agricultural  and  industrial  products  for  the  purpose  of  cover¬ 
ing  current  requirements.  Touching  on  the  boundary  question,  the 
Ukrainian  boundaries  were  to  be  so  dra?m  as  to  include  the  Province 
of  Kholm,  but  without  taking  in  any  of  the  Ukrainian  territory 
in  Austria. 

There  seems  to  be  no  question  as  to  the  validity  of  the 
treaty  signed  by  the  Ukrainians.  During  the  plenary  session  of 
the  Peace  Conference  at  Brest-Litovsk,  which  was  presided  by 
Dr.  Von  K^fhlmann,  representing  the  German  Government,  a  question 
was  raised  as  to  whether  the  Ukrainian  Delegation  had  the  authority 
to  represent  diplomatically  the  Ukrainian  People’s  Republic  or 
whether  the  Delegation  of  the  Petrograd  Government  wished  to  con¬ 
tinue  to  represent  the  interests  of  Russia  as  a  whole.  Hereupon 
Trotzky,  Chairman  of  the  Russian  Delegation,  made  the  following 
declaration*. 

’’Being  informed  of  the  Note  of  the  General  Secretary  of 
the  Ukrainian  People’s  Republic,  which  has  been  communicated  by 
the  Ukrainian  Delegation,  the  Russian  Delegation, for  its  part, 
declares  that,  acting  in  full  recognition  of  the  principles  of 
the  right  of  self-definition  for  every  nation,  it  finds  no 
objection  to  the  participation  of  the  Ukrainian  Delegation  in 
the  Peace  negotiations,  even  if  this  should  involve  a  complete 

-76- 


*  • ,  •  r  vr  •  f  • 


r  ' 


t'l;. : ‘>0  *10 

t  h 


*ox 


f  > 


«*  .  ocfti  ^ »*!'>  ;c  i^r-t "c> ,  i.ril 

.•  *  r. '*  e;  I  .'  ‘ 

.■r  '•  .  :>i^Aup^^y  c^.70"rxu^  ;;,ax 


-C'  • 


.  -  r  ,  vUn^vv' 


r^.-  >■ .  '  !■ 


'  .  .  '  ■■  .* 
■■*  *iV  I.  M  /-I’i  ^fiT^  5  tLCb '■^  ■•(  ,  I 


V.  .  ,  ’H 


■y-  ^z.  W4. 

.  T  I 


■^■yup  I  • 

,  -  i  "  ’i  :'*; 


c  .  j.iTt'v 


p/fj 


a 


■.-v‘» 

m 


'.  ■  0#.  VM  002  ' 


*.C. 


ite 


.-.  .' ;;  *'t'  5* .f  . ^  a..:  ie  Av  V  :'tir 


^•4 


'>  * ,  .  C  A  ;  *r  V  t  n’ .'  u  w'  V  'i  j 

:  fK,  {  *!J'.'.  .  jfc 

IV ’?  ‘:n  Z  f  " 


*  »i4ir  •  i&^'l 


■fja' 


■  ■  .  14, »  nji-^'  i. piu^  .” 


secession  of  the  latter  from  Russia”, 

It  may  be  noted  that  besides  Russia  and  the  Quadruple 
Alliance  which  acknowledged  the  independence  of  the  Ukrainian 
Republic,  Great  Britain  and  France  too,  early  in  1918  recognized 
it  as  an  independent  State  and  appointed  for  Ukraine  their  officials 
to  represent  their  respective  countries.  The  Ukrainian  Govern¬ 
ment  was  duly  notified  of  said  appointments. 

PEACE  WITH  CENTRAL  POWERS  A  TRAGEDY  TO  UKRAINIAN  REPUBLIC 

It  was  only  too  soon  after  signing  the  Peace  Treaty  when 
the  Ukrainians  discovered  that  they  had  repeated  the  mistake  of 
some  250  years  ago,  when  by  the  Treaty  of  Pereyaslav  Ukraine 
recognized  the  supremacy  of  Russia. 

The  Ukrainian  Rada,  in  its  appeal  to  the  German  nation 
solicited  moral  support  and  good-will  in  the  reconstruction  of 
the  new  Republic.  The  appeal  by  no  means  cairried  with  it  the 
import  that  they  were  to  meddle  in  the  internal  affairs  and  to 
interfere  with  the  administration  in  Ukraine.  But,  the  Germans 
were  hungry,  and  what  mors,  rapacious.  Under  the  pretext  of 
aiding  the  helpless  Ukrainian  population  against  the  Bolsheviki 
forces,  Austro-German  troops  overran  the  country,  occupying 
cities,  seizing  war  stores,  confiscating  food-stuffs,  and  meting 
out  penalty  to  everyone  who  dared  to  oppose  them.  Their  demand 
that  Ukraine  should  turn  over  to  them  85^  of  its  grain  and  all 
of  its  sugar,  except  that  needed  for  local  consumption,  was  far 


-77- 


b««f  ±M' 


'.^  a:.  'i^.v-  •.  .W 

■  '  ■  ‘i/J 

I  ,  ..  ii*  rri^T-XtS  ^  oxXOur  •>. 

-'  i!».i"  ’.o*^  (♦«^x:iod[<;^Jl' 4«W  •j/’Xg'  jr^rcbir 

UA-iX^'iNV  -*n’  .  ixuvr^ 

.  ?.  .•:.T.rriCTi  ;e  bixiB  *:<:•  •'.'!/?  '  .*.••»< 


O’T  r'^tfU^KT  A  .  -:  .*  ■'^^' 


vj^'9€  ■  *^  '  ■  •-  ■ 

-  >■ 

'* 4P  j3* *  * -•  i  .  -  .  -  i 


:'amT 


'  "i- ■' t  ;j '  ':•■  !  x/i.-jv.kv'f*. 

•  ■  ■  'na 

c  '.'  v:  .-v^?  L:M-'atc  kiirr  isj 


J .'.j  'T'3C.'.  b>Brv  ..’ 


wX*  n'iii  b^ii'T^  :  iri--  ■,.*  v.'J ,  Xj.T>t3f*t  -  f'l  ‘  .  o.'. ^<5  0v.  • ' 

;•  i-:.*',-  1  t>  u'i  '-  fii  •Xl’i’-'.  ■  •  r '•-^' j-SoqiB' 
*' •  .  .  »:f(;-  jr:>  rrcAJ'^n/'.j i  ’jni- 1  r.  •  ;  .  *:i 

'>  v  .  '<  .■»;i  i,  ’  '■  t  ■  - '^•^a 


yX.iiincq  v^i’ 


from  reasonable.  When  this  was  denied  them  they  went  on 
seizing  all  food  which  they  could  lay  their  hands  on,  while 
protests  from  the  Rada  were  ineffective.  So  that  the  Austro- 
German  troops  soon  had  control  of  the  best  strategic  places  of 
Ukraine.  Several  years  later,  the  Germans  themselves  received 
a  similar  treatment  in  the  French  occupation  of  the  Ruhr  district. 
But,  the  French  had  some  justification  in  their  action  against 
Germany  while  the  Germans  had  none  in  their  treatment  of  the 
Ukrainians. 

All  efforts  of  the  Ukrainian  Rada  to  clear  the  country  of 
the  invaders  and  to  restore  order  in  the  country  were  futile. 

A  complete  anarchy  prevailed.  There  was  a  constant  strife 
between  the  Ukrainian  Parliament  (Rada)  and  German  officials 
for  supremacy.  On  April  25th  the  German  Field  Marshal,  in  order 
to”r0store  dicipline  in  the  country*',  proclaimed  martial  law.  At 
the  point  of  the  gun  the  German  officials  ordered  the  members  of 
the  Rada  to  carry  out  their  commands.  On  April  29th,  1918,  the 
tottering  government  hurriedly  drafted  a  Constitution  of  the 
Ukrainian  People* s  Republic,  and  that  act  ended  the  struggling 
existence  of  the  Rada.  On  the  same  day  a  number  of  well-to-d© 
peasants,  who  had  never  agreed  with  the  Rada  in  their  policy 
affecting  the  division  of  lands,  held  a  convention  at  Kiev,  and 
with  the  assistance  of  the  Germans,  proclaimed  General  Skoropadsky, 
former  adjutant  of  the  Czar  Nicholas  II,  Hetman  or  supreme  mili¬ 
tary  chief  of  Ukraine. 

This  by  no  means  settled  the  Ukrainian  question.  Later, 


-78- 


y..'/  bit’-.  > 


I.":.? 

t  »•'  :.•  i}.-.:  !  '*'  f  r.c  :'  a^eo.  o'i 


loi  Te;^  «  +0''  f.  ’  bj'rt  r('v-»  ^t;00*».c  nj5fc!"ia5) 


■!''■•  ‘  "."J 


'■,-.  i.r:?£-*lVv  ♦-■ 

o', -,.'71/'.  -  .  -  ••  adj  .ai-  ^rwc 

ff’-  i-jJawi:.  rior:;  \'i  ^  *;.’  t  ■. 

♦ 

.i**, .:  ^  ji>^<  :..’.i . .  ■  e^’i  t  It.  3^ioTi9*-  .i' 

,  io.  'i^DX  'I'j  'Cc-  Of  ir ,  ■  ■  ■(^l 


cnl^y" 


>  a':.'  5' V.-.  '  •;  3  ^  J  :,•  ;/j  ■  >  ^ 


7  ^  ^  ■  < 

■-.It  -I-'  -*;*,'  b..fr  (/ittti',  'C«MM  -C'  '  ■^■  fo 


r,..'  t,;.  Mi 


il  XI "ft 


_  d'^'t  •jj  ji.  ':.  : 


i't*  , ;  ■ :  'cT'^  .  .  •■  •i'fifLrco r.i 
•  af  i  :T'.r,  :y/i.it‘:.  ;•  ‘'‘■dJ  f;i.r^  9iV  :".  : 


I  nj|0  'jlodd  rjo  \ 07  i:.j-'  1 

•^'1 


'  ,  'sS  iu^\-  '  -  i'.<;*t‘i  /.'.«if:j • 

'^'  r  WiT<*0  T  rLi-  »Ck  .a:^::,  .  !j"  'iO  .L*'.;#ritCnBXlfc' 
i>,  tU  ^  fcf>?i'..- j>  i-.  V'Mi  -  ■  1  ^  TOftie^ijf 

.  '-.:;  ■!  ‘':i  l■c:.:\r■ 

.  •‘.f;ri.  ,.'  ji{.i  ":,  .  fj.;  .'oG/i  s>flU  ji, 

,  L  K  .  '  ■  -:>  •  >  '  ';,<■  »S'’.''  ■  L'; 


during  the  several  years  of  Rakovsky*s  premiership  of  Ukraine, 
who  in  the  summer  of  1923  was  appointed  head  of  the  Russian 

Trade  Legation  to  Britain,  the  peasants  constantly  revolted. 

And,  even  now  in  the  beginning  of  the  year  1924,  Chubar ,  the 

successor  of  Rakovsky  in  Ukraine,  finds  that  his  subjects  will 

not  give  him  peace  until  they  are  in  fact  and  not  merely  in 

theory  allowed  to  govern  themselves. 


THE  CASE  OF  EASTERN  GALICIA  AFTt:)R  THE  WORLD  WAR 

In  the  year  1918  a  dissolution  of  the  Austrian  Empire  was 
effected.  Czechs  (Bohemians),  Roumanians,  and  Serbians  carved 
out  for  themselves  out  of  the  old  empire,  territories  which 
ethnographically  belonged  to  them.  Quite  naturally  the  Ukrai¬ 
nians  also,  in  accordance  with  the  principle  of  self-definition, 
declared,  in  November  of  the  same  year.  Eastern  Ualicia  together 
with  Northern  Bukovina,  as  the  '‘Western  Ukrainian  Republic”. 

A  central  government  was  organized  and  a  President  elected.  An 
old  man,  a  great  Ukrainian  patriot  in  the  person  of  Dr.  Evhen 
Petrushevich ,  formerly  President  of  the  Ukrainian  Representation 
in  the  Austrian  Parliament,  on  being  fervently  urged  by  the 
Ukrainian  National  Congress  which  met  on  October  19th,  1918, 
consented  to  take  upon  himself  the  solemn  obligation  of  a  Presi¬ 
dent, 

The  Western  Ukrainian  Republic  had  not,  at  the  time  of 
its  coming  into  being,  made  known  its  position  with  respect 
to  the  Ukrainian  People's  Republic,  This  was  probably  due  to 


-79- 


.  « .  1  ■»  -  “'I 

t  ,  a.  *•. 


i  '■  tk  L  \ 


V 

arf  *  rri 


1 


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v.,f.  .  cJiri*'  t  -  ri  *■»•.'  vNavcU^r-  i;o 

•  ■  jrt:  J-ii  •  9*5;:..  vei-fi  iiy.o-  iJici '  w*on 


'■, 

■1; 


i  t".  li'ii'€>nV  ^■■■'.  t‘'-woiX£i 


.-H 


7* 


R^jrpuy-Oir  $¥>r  ;£•; ;■  :  :diVo  dHy 


■»"  ia'jeo  bxT^  \  ■’"i 


aci,  '■  ■;  6-'^lX  . 

i— .  ^  f'f '.■'(o't; }  e4-o:--:: 


'jl  ^1 


, , 


m  '  ■ 

f)/o -V.  ii'O  >vov+^k:^^"r^  '.fOl  , 


^r..7  o 


•to v;! i 


'  '» ■ 


sT/TO  \U\ 


:  O' y  '  •  •  ?0 o  -^.1  '■  t J  i  *.  Oft  .'■ 


!  +':{/  'ic  70^4  •  -<:  nr;  ,  6o 


/.'  ^^yf  4  n,  1  0  t 


., 'vrAJJ-  ff'i*:J.U7*I' 


?'£i^:  *iO  ’fiAfX  ctawjmw* 


I£1^  :  -^.i'  ■-  r-r>.-fq  fc/o 


‘i-7?fi  ■’OOj* 


«  *  .  *‘l 


>r.  ^  0*0 ' 

-'  *  ,  :c:*v,  .  ^^i.o  r  •;*TK'  irt^-yp|ori  I  into  1  j'j’'*  "  uoj.' i^TJ 

U  *  *  '  :  IS-iCf  anslott  adi  <y\  00^  e3te7  0^  pi  '.  e  t  oo  '  _ 

.cJrtf'i) 

m . 

^  •■i'.'  •  '•  ,jo.  )’  1  tti’C 

'■  r  O.-'ai  ‘ 

;  ‘•'.o-^<  •.  t  -4  ‘  -  I 


L.-' . 


,  7  .  ^P  -. 

(«  .  k  .  > 


the  chaos  existing  in  the  latter  country,  but  there  is  no  doubt 
that  when  normal  times  had  arrived  a  close  federation  of  the 
two  would  have  been  considered. 

Immediately  upon  the  proclamation  of  the  Republic,  the 
Poles  decided  to  hinder  its  development  and  took  up  arms  against 
the  Ukrainian  Government.  The  Ukrainians  of  Galicia  now  had 
the  Bolshevik! ,  the  Roumanians  and  the  Poles  to  fight  against. 

The  result  was  that  between  November  and  the  following  mid¬ 
summer  an  even  greater  devastation  of  the  country  took  place 
than  during  the  former  Russian  Inmsions.  Little  help  at  home 
was  available.  For,  at  this  tim©  the  Ukrainian  soldiers  had 
not  yet  been  discharged  from  the  Austrian  army.  They  had  purpose¬ 
ly  been  stationed  in  Italy,  Albania  and  Asia  Minor,  fearing  that 
they  might  stir  up  a  general  Ukrainian  movement  In  aid  of  the 
newly  formed  Ukrainian  People's  Republic.  The  only  soldiers  at 
home  were  those  on  furlough  and  3,000  men  of  th@  "Landaturm”. 

For  three  Tfeeks  this  little  army  assisted  by  old  men  over  sixty, 
women  and  girls,  held  half  of  the  city  of  Lviv  until  the  Poles, 
reinforced  from  Warsaw,  Posen  and  Cracow,  compelled  them  to 
evacuate.  But  the  Ukrainians  would  not  give  up*  Five  months 
passed  and  they  were  still  on  the  defensive.  It  was  then  that 
the  Poles  sent  **Hall©r‘s  Army”  trained  and  equipped  in  France, 
but  meant  for  a  different  purpose  than  that  of  shedding  the 
blood  of  an  Ukrainian  peasant  on  the  pretext  of  hurrying  to 
subdue  the  Bolshevist  element,  which,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  did 


-80- 


V 


;  ,0  '  i;  (  >  1  '.:■  *i(i  rToi^^».  \l  .0  \ ;' f’lUf 

r>-  «j*j  iv-.'  ‘..'^  XiJGr.T'.'o  I  r '•.•■■■  :  '.wiiiiid  of.  10O  artio'i ' 

'  ■  .  ''',;’T'.  ,  .‘V;' 

.--.•  .!  'iC  *10  oiff 


^*>1*  ^  ■ff'  •>.  rri t/oH 

.7  T’O ‘VoXl^^  erlf  Ibo#'  'ii)Os  ■<  '.  .ii?.'-; 


t  Xj.*  v;^:.d?i-toa  ' 

: 

ij.ti--'  eif'r 


1 


»  :*•  :  I «r:  'tI  •  .  ;C  i  a/iV.r  •  '  '  ^■'  ■’.(•"  • 

IW- ;)!>•' f4l>,  »  '.».'  * 

V/  .  f  s>-!j  •  , 


.  J  t,  ■ 

J:V''  •  -.Jf’..  i  •JO''  q;.f  ■%.!,  '5  yvcfj 

•  '*  ’  '■*''', 

»  *  ■'  ■  '■  \"m 

.  ■'•-  '.  ■■■ ' ‘Aqon^  rf  7"! I'. 

■'’  *•' 

.  -  .  .’.v.' CO  (-ac.'fj  ©-h.'": 

■’  *!  ■'•I-  'oC  ••rjv».,-ar  oo'i.k-'  •■/, 

,  '■  ■  .  ■  ■  ;  -  c.,.^i’ 

i-  -i  ''.•.or,  6^  t  J  'i^  un.0  fivroTf  .v.>^{i! 

..^I-  ;C  .  ^  'r. ....^T'f  n^'  V:.  ;  iV' 


r  .  ■ ..  ■:-!  "tt.i'wiS 

j' '  V  ■•'*  t %  n  r  ’i^'.'^r; rj  u  '  .7  {\ 

-.  •  :v'ck-..<;j  cLcx-fj 


^  ■  *■ '  .  ''oCtiy^  X  i  B AW 


‘'J;  C  V  «■;  'cr? 


not  exist  there  at  the  time.  The  Ukrainian  peasants  could  not 
indefinitely  resist  this  well  organized  and  well  fed  "Haller *s 
Army”,  In  may,  1919,  they  were  forced  to  retreat  altogether. 

Meanwhile  the  Poles  set  to  work  to  prepare  false  reports 
concerning  the  state  of  affairs  existing  in  Galicia,  on  the 
strength  of  which  reports  they  claimed  a  right  to  a  military 
occupation  of  the  country  so  as  to  keep  down  the  illusory  Bolshe¬ 
vist  menace.  The  Supreme  Council  of  the  Peace  Conference,  without 
doubt, bona  fid©,  but  apparently  without  without  carefully  examin¬ 
ing  the  situation  on  June  25th,  1919,  authorised  the  Polish 
Republic  to  occupy  Galician  territory.  The  authorization  was 
merely  for  a  military  occupation,  however,  the  Supreme  Council 
reserving  the  exclusive  right  to  decide,  at  a  later  date,  the 
political  status  of  Galicia.  Of  course,  the  Poles  had  demanded 
that  the  territory  in  question  be  awarded  to  them  unconditionally. 
But,  even  though  this  was  not  done,  they  took  advantage  of  the 
favorable  decision  and  chose  to  treat  the  population  as  they 
pleased.  One  thing  that  the  Ukrainians  could  not  expect  from  the 
Poles  was  mercy.  It  would  be  difficult  to  intelligibly  recount 
the  barbarism  which  a  nation  that  had  itself  but  recently  risen 
from  under  the  oppressor’s  heel  is  guilty  of.  Arrests,  imprison¬ 
ments,  beating  with  lashes,  executions  even  without  trials,  were 
every  day  occurrences.  They  even  went  so  far  as  to  dissolve  the 
Ukrainian  Citizens’  Committe©,  whose  function  was  to  distribute 
relief  to  widows,  invalids  and  orphans  out  of  the  funds  sent  by 
their  countrymen  in  Canada  and  the  United  States.  Many  other 


-81- 


»  -.  -  t 

:.  «.Y>5r*  nl  .  ”v'Ti/. 

* 

-  '  ■  .  »  -  1  Pw 

ilOT  c 

;V'.  . 

if' T'ircJM^J.  ; 

y^:.2yxi::n 

.  Tri  • 

R  ‘  '  - 

.  :  fvr  Vr 

.  :  ■  AH'-  ' 

>»  .  f ..  O'*,  r/.  'ffc  *- 

*■  f-;;  'to  ro-i 'Uvjjyo  -.'.c- 

I^  j’rfUoO 

,  no<:no  r.  ■d'afv 

rr-r- 

•  ;:v  /”  i> 

,  anc'd  v'cf /••.;{: 

9sf^  T  ;* 

,  ,  ,  ofiif!-  no 

.  ':^/i't^wJ  (3'-J  "  {  » irT. 

m 

,;-'■  •:> 

^  ■  ;  ■•  :-;ir:>f,>c  Y,'-’’ 

,*.t  -  LiT  y-  .  '  y.-  '  '^OTi; 

'  .d':/-  ;• :  i  ^  .t  -;  'i  *1  -C  -'Vv^ 

..nx-  '.•  !  r  .  nrist**: 

c  '  •  '  •  . 

■  '  ■  '1C  ' 

v*:-,  ofi  r 

c<'  *  '  ■  •;'■  ■  i;c^ 

'  '  .  :’<■>  zr.v  ■■.:^y  r'"JZ''  :  ':•>  ^ 

'-s..^•  :  ,•  *tii ^  ‘iurti  o*  Oi{3  .br"  :.  .  -'irj'ir  •Ic."  . 

*  *  jx#  Tr.-»  V  -;.  riffT.fi . *‘..>  /^•^%• ’cl-r;  , . 

.:  {  r>a  i::,jor  .- :  ,\;'rietr  hw  ny/c*\ 

,  •  *'  ■  noiJt'.T  n  icni'iiiviTuau  e<fj 


}rKf2l^  'L.  s'  -  3V'  :  .:  ■  .  rf'  ,••»  ?  '  ' ‘jn-’-y }. :  J ::  ; 

•■  .  j-..  i;.  c  'V-tXvJ-: 

i. 

i  !WOL 


-  Ji 


/  i’ 


Ukrainian  Relief  Agencies  were  shut  down  by  Polish  authorities. 

They  went  still  further;  the  University  of  Lviv,  to  which 
students  of  all  nationalities  were  being  admitted  during  the 
Austrian  regime,  became  closed  by  Polish  authorities  to  all 
Ukrainian  students,  since  they  could  not  show  evidence  of  having 
served  in  the  Polish  Army.  All  Ukrainian  professors  were  dis¬ 
missed  therefrom*  Their  attempts  at  conducting  private  classes 
were  forbidden*  Thereupon  a  secret  University  staff  was  appointed 
which  to  this  day,  between  interruptions,  delivers  lectures 
underground  and  arranges  extra-mural  courses.  However,  by  this 
method  only  a  very  limited  number  of  students  can  be  reached. 

In  order  to  properly  pursue  their  studies ,  Ukrainian  students 
were  compelled  to  establish  a  University  in  another  country. 

On  October  23rd,  1921,  they  founded  a  private  University  in 
Prague,  Czecho-Slovakia,  where  some  1200  students  enrolled. 

It  is  said  that  the  Poles  looked  askance  at  the  Czecho-Slovakian 
Government  for  allowing  the  Ukrainians  the  privilege  of  educa¬ 
tional  development  of  which  they  were  deprived  in  their  native 
land. 

The  situation  of  the  public  schools  was  no  better  than 
that  of  the  University.  Here  were  deliberate  expulsions  of 
Ukrainian  teachers  and  the  turning  into  Polish  of  the  Ukrai¬ 
nian  schools* 

But  the  Poles  could  see  that  these  methods  alone  were  not 
sufficient  to  Polonize  the  country  as  speedily  as  they  wished. 

The  12*1%  of  the  actual  Polish  population  made  up  of  large  land- 


-  '-^tr' 

■  ‘Vi 

,  '.  t.*<' , ,  ,  :  ^  •  •  '<  i>. ..  j  '* 

T..;_-;.T..'  i''.- <ijtA"J3iV  ::L  erfo  ni  .oorioa 


‘4«rfX  (<y  ^s»#frn9‘’^  'J*?  3.  ;  V. 


■-f'  ■  -  . 

^  iT  )  e/*T'id6i -'  • 


is  btoe^^itK 

'  V  ■  .  . 

^  if  '  «3  Tf>?i^ 

oinJ'  CT  (loiiiw 

'  .  *■  ■  '  /V 

z-J  'i&irio  nX 


'  .'©•.)  w-  V  ■  i'  rt'-  •:  s  be 

■  ^e.,  ^  i2a.,  ,  xcooi'oOv.n'C 

'.-  •  '  ■  ..  i; 

•  •••.-^  .*?  cr',-x  r:i,:r'  ^  Ipf  ■  y  ,,  ©«;\;  Vi 

.5  4j1l/  -j'jiic  i  ot(  J-  ,  ._  HA  *1 

v»''-  i  ./■  . >i  ,.;i'i-, v/vC 

r.i  vb  J  ./afocIi 

.  ,  *  •  ‘j '  f  c  X 

■  •  h;-/' 

*  •  w'  ,Xcc  \i.  '. '£c  r 


c  *-»,.  .'.'j,.  .  ’J  :i7 


rnvit^ 

•:.iv 


.V  ’  ‘  V  •  ■  •»?-  '  .!  '-a  oX 

\  1  Vi  »J J  V. *:  v’"wc  i> 


F^3J»r. ei^^^ifiSS-fi^J.9%  M 

.V*  ■•«..  _  i; 


owners  would  hardly  convince  the  world  that  Eastern  Galicia  is 
ethnographic ally  a  Polish  territory.  They,  therefore,  in  spite 
of  the  Allied  Governments’  express  stipulation  to  the  contrary, 
brought  into  Galicia  Polish  colonists  from  outside  the  border. 

In  the  esurly  part  of  the  year  1920  alone  approximately  60.000 
persons  of  these  imported  immigrants  were  allotted  farms  in  Galicia, 
Then  in  1921  came  the  taking  of  a  census,  which  was  by  no  means 
a  fair  one.  For,  many  Ukrainians,  especially  women,  in  order  to 
avoid  a  knock  from  the  butt  of  a  Polish  gendarme’s  rifle,  were 
constrained  to  say  that  they  were  of  Polish  nationality.  Many 
who  would  not  deny  their  nationality  were  tortured  by  the  Polish 
soldiers  and  gendarmes,  while  others  sought  refuge  in  the  forests. 
Through  such  methods  and  through  falsified  official  statistics 
did  the  Poles  try  to  hide  the  real  facts  concerning  the  population 
of  Galicia. 

The  Ukrainian  population  for  several  years  suffered  at  the 
hands  of  the  Poles  an  oppression  which  surpassed  the  worst  that 
Russia  and  Prussia  had  ever  practised  on  them.  The  Galician 
Ukrainian  Government,  which  had  been  elected  by  the  majority  of 
the  people  of  the  country  was  driven  into  exile,  and  there  was  no 
power  to  protect  the  helpless  clergymen  and  the  peasants  who  were 
subjected  to  all  kinds  of  humiliations,  chicanery  and  persecutions. 
Appeals  to  the  outside  world  against  the  usurped  rights  and  the 
brutality  of  the  Poles  were,  owing  to  strict  censorship,  practi¬ 
cally  impossible.  And,  if  any  news  regarding  the  conditions  in 


Galicia  leaked  out  it  went  unheeded 


.r  ■♦"T 


f*i*!v-i  rfniXvr-7  ^  \'X..  c~'^:ri!'f;3.T:or:/.  . 

r.  :  -sJ?s^  ■'  -'.oiqxo  ■  .'nt-'  i  jvo^:  fi  -'X-CA  '.  -{^r'i  ^c 

■  j;' :  i::t.Xo->  .  7  '  '’  *'J.  ^  oJ'cfi 

.1  .U.'  ci'u-ic,  dffCT  nl 

..  ■  .  t?a^.iv  >isu  ario^^t  “• 


ro"^  '  V‘|J 


nr{^  .  ISeX,.  ri 


K 


^  V'fjJ  'i:  ►  -O  lirtli* 

_  •  I  '.0  y~-ni-^  Afi)  .’''.tj  :(•:,%■•;'•.  /.  biorxi 

^  >}■■'  T'Xj;  ■■ .’  r.  r.c  ■- 

V.  ■„ .'  •«•■  •,:  -.’iivu  odrf 


i  9  if  *5  . :  •  '-•  ■  1'.  r  /'  ■■  rf- '* : 


»'  ?  ^'v  ■  ^  -"i  ■  r*'‘,v*', 

^  ‘  *'  ’  ■ 
l.>f«*r>''  *:7:  <  \'i*< 


PR3^^,j  -'r* 


n*0  ■  bJ*'i 


^  l 


TO*. 

r  '  <"/:  a-.Cc'S  -/'iv  \c 

•  .  JiXast^iH  tvA 
.  .  j  .-n’rijvor  tri:^0 

'•‘•f.'Xj  J'-'-Iqi','*.  bjfi  ;;o*:.'  q-j 
*  •.'.-  '  '  (.'/  .  .,  ■'(  j  S}s  9J  ■  jjie 

.M  •  .M-W  '  </o  o4^  •.:.‘'^o 

;•■  .‘e  "  3.*i.  •  :  •  “  ■ 


jift*  ^ri'  :.v  •  3r'>^  v;n#  ‘i  i  . 


.'.-I .-i  /A.’ 


Finally  some  information  reached  Great  Britain  which  set 
the  British  House  of  Commons  to  discuss  the  matter.  On  July  6th 
1921,  Lord  Robert  Cecil  asked  the  then  Premier  Lloyd  George 
the  following  questions:  '*What  is  the  present  situation  with 
regard  to  Eastern  Galicia?  Which  international  body  is  now 
looking  into  the  question?  Has  any  attempt  been  mader  to  ascertain 
the  wishes  of  the  inhabitants  as  to  the  future  settlement  of 
their  country  in  accordance  with  the  policy  declared  on  June 
25th,  1919,  and  is  there  any  truth  in  the  report  that  the  Poles 
are  settling  colonies  there?”. 

To  these  questions  Mr,  Harmsworth,  Under  Secretary  to  the 
Ministry  of  Foreign  Affairs,  replied  as  follows:  "Eastern  Galicia 
is  at  present  in  the  military  occupation  of  the  Poles  by  virtu© 
of  a  decision  of  the  Peace  Conference  in  June,  1919,  Its  ulti¬ 
mate  allocation  has  not  yet  been  decided  upon,  but  by  Article  91 
of  the  Treaty  of  St,  Germain,  the  rights  of  Austria  have  been 
transferred  to  the  Allies  and  Associated  Pcwers  for  disposal. 

The  Supreme  Council  is  the  body  competent  to  effect  such  disposal. 
The  answer  t®  the  third  question  i®  in  the  negative,  and  to  the 
fourth  in  the  affirmative.”  (Parliamentary  Debates,  Commons, 

N.S.,  Vol.  144  p.  394.) 

The  statements  made  in  the  British  House  clearly  show 
the  limitation  of  rights  which  the  Polish  Government  was  given 
with  regard  to  the  administration  of  Eastern  Galicia.  In 
defiance  of  the  decision  of  the  Peace  Conference,  the  Polish 


Government  continued  to  maltreat  the  inhabitants  and  endeavoured 


r  ’ 


■  'j\  ::rv  .  :J  VXii  :.y% 


.’.^-.-j*  irb  CO  »ir!rc;;'’.C' w  'Xo  ci^.i/\’.*‘  Hsxv^f>.v  orf;: 
r>'*.!'  i)  '  •^  •  '-Or.  i  ’^i-Z-Ji  , 

!-:•>  J  *  ^Vr r  1 '“'U'P 
“.®/  :..  -.jIM  t/v'-i.:-!;.;-’:  irii&v^o^S  &’Ta.te'y’ 


^.fs  V”'  W!<v^J-;^yi;'  '•/(..  b^  iii  ij 


r  ^ 

ijit  J-fC  tfi’i  j  ;  :  j 


,€tif  •■ 


[c  1 J*  ai 


•  ^:  .  t?rf^  cJ  j  “  j:‘ •  X  '^^i.r  .>..i 

■  "-  y 

i^efO  v/>;J  v(^‘  t3;!*  •'^4 -vr  •>•' ':«qiO').’:ii  ffi'  '''Voo 

qiit  r,f  'tiJ*.  '  vnrr«le-rf^  ei  ’)<■'>■  , 

.  ,  ’jt  ■  .  i  «« .t  ^IC;  ioo  .'  .'.:  . 

'  ,  ,  ...  i3  ;  ;  cT 

'■'^•*  '•,  r.*'-  '■  •'*'•. 

-  -'•'V  •  -  I  -  ■  - 

I  /.•  f  J  'L  V' 

^  :v  *10  i:o  ,£ : 

;.  '-j  '--f  noi^«g6i-'J^  . 

,  ^  ‘‘TrV  rrr'j'  ?.-. 

V.  :  :i^-  >;i<*  L  ^  'i  ‘..C!:,1X 

-  '  ‘  v'  •  .  t-r‘  Ai  'X.lr>  uK.->. 

ni  c:  .toi^o  .wp  oii.i;  c  '  .'o  ‘..t  .  . 

V;'i;*v  r.^  J  "  .  .‘"i  ■  •  'v..  ;  '.  r..: 


4:1: 


■■5', 


I  1  .  I  ">  1  A  o  • 


-4 

?>'.• 


u. 


to  put  off  the  final  solution  of  the  question  of  Galicia  by 
the  Peace  Conference,  "while  in  the  meantime  it  promised  to 
recognize  Boumania*s  claim  to  Northern  Bukovina  and  Ukrainian 
territory  which  had  been  annexed  by  the  former  country,  and  also, 
after  making  peace  with  the  Bolshevik! ,  recognized  their  claims 
to  Central  and  Eastern  parts  of  Ukraine  in  return  for  obtaining 
their  acquiescence  in  Polish  claims  to  Galicia.  Besides  these, 
the  Czecho-Slovakian  Republic,  too,  had  a  proposal  from  the  Poles 
in  the  nature  of  a  barter. 

Meanwhile  the  whole  Ukrainian  population,  together  with 
many  Jews,  earnestly  demanded  the  discontinuance  of  the  Polish 
occupation  of  the  country.  Even  some  prominent  Poles  like  Ernest 
Breiter,  for  many  years  a  delegate  to  Vienna  Parliament  from  Lviv, 
protested  against  the  Polish  invasion  of  Eastern  Galicia.  Ukrai¬ 
nians  all  over  the  world  made  strong  efforts  to  induce  the  League 
of  Nations  to  consider  the  fate  of  Galicia  and  to  recognize  the 
popular  government  selected  by  the  people.  Many  of  the  Ukrai¬ 
nians  of  Canada  and  of  the  United  States  of  America,  desiring  that 
their  countrymen  be  relieved  from  their  unhappy  plight,  entertained 
hopes  that  Great  Britain  might  assume  protectorship  over  Galicia. 
But  Great  Britain,  though  it  manifested  its  goodwill  towards  the 
matter,  especially  through  its  representatives  from  the  Canadian 
Parliament,  who  brought  the  question  up  at  Geneva,  had  its  hands 
full  of  problems  and  could  not  very  well  do  much  more  for  the 
Ukrainians  than  it  did.  However,  it  still  has  an  opportunity 
to  render  assistance  to  the  Ukrainians  and  will  do  so  if  Premier 


,^'V'  '  *  ifc''.r7B'^r ‘1  f:..ii:;Ib*8'. /‘uli'.t  'i'lb.  vtiuv/  oj  ' 

‘'t  -■« ''■•■w^-.< •'  .  ••  “  y .' ;'i^' ■  .  OfliJ 

’•  ■  -•■  V  I'-  ; ,:  ^  os  Jrx‘'o‘-i^»-i  '  ’ 

c  '  ’{*;.< ‘I  •’f..j  •'•■!■  ;-.v.-.:.  ;  ni:.  f(nifhr 


■i  S'-W  r. 

•  '  - '  '\  ,  .  • 

'  *  ■  lo': 

>L  i  s.la\ 

:X  r  ifl- 

'  ‘-.aa  I  .  TDr«?-0  0.i 

\  ziyizS  c»f 

:.:fj:.h  •C2- 

:  J  ;wi;o*rn  .'»  '>^'».^  ,po^^  ,oiXviir4::>i-  cfSf'.aL-JVo  '  ..J--0'.  o  :'*;!!;  ■'  .31  '  ''  '  ■  tJBIi^H  ' 

-XC-'-  'r  .-- r  rjotiw  r.  :j 

•»  ■  ‘ic jrc -'fii-'O  t^/ut  ho()jTjt)fljf5&  ^ 

•*  ■■  '■  ■’  3  ■'  ::•>>■■■:  -.-ii-.-frOL'  ,^-^3  1i0  ■VOi^.iq-JO,:^.  ''V'''^’^ 

/,  '’  fiSl'  /larr-.  '  c  ji-  vnA«.  '.o-l  » '3 v-X' ■*•:)■«  ,  '‘“  W' 

.V  r’ig.vrr-*^  orf^.  :irc brsia^ic 


.-■  c  ^  -j '•:i:.*;‘; V  .  t  U  6ow^feX':r.T7  zr  ■  . 

ti:  ■  •  *^c' <1/  /  ;  Ifh.:  noo  of  .v.o;A^;i  ‘;o  - 

•fi?- •  -  .i-tT  >0’  '  •.*  5»,r«»*'?  iw  J.;^‘^o70^ 

a.j  fe.ff**'  :\b:i.rtr,r:  *.i.r,  BriiSi- 
.  -  '/■  ,•  ;  i^rtlf  'J^ArtJ  :c  e'  .i£r,^'l.f:T£'r  •  lir.  : 

•  .  ;  '“■■  .i  VC  ■•  V" 

.  .  '.rK.  :  *1-3  fV'*:^;  cf-iJ;  irt  'ijiii  •.;  ■".  r’ 

'i#  X  "if I  ...  f 41  ./.•  ir»/'r  cfi  dju  i-  tnia^Xv.  J 

•w  -.w  ’  %.-f  4i-'.  .■>vNrj..::,  .♦* d^-oi-:.*  -.X.  , 


V  ‘  ^  }ir  rT}f  dOiTp  4»f1 1  U'O  'id' 


‘»w  j  i 


'  '  "  XX»'<r  vr*:'»v  j‘c'  bXiiOr,'  <  '*^.*■1  -'J' :o,'X’-o ’lb  X-' i-'U  , 


t 


-i 

r' 


Xii.’ 


^  .--  .^1  .  -'4  rir*i 


.  .  y  ami  :>  ■■  ■  f'Ti/.- 


Ramsay  MacDonald  continues  to  proas  his  suggestion  that  the 
Treaty  of  Versailles  be  revised. 

At  last  Poland  was  ready  for  a  decision  of  the  Galician 
question.  Its  foster  mother,  Prance, being  desirous  of  seeing  Poland 
increase  in  power  so  as  to  have  a  strong  ally  for  protection  against 
Germany  and  Russia,  would  favor  and  support  to  the  utmost  its 
greedy  desires  for  the  annexation  of  the  coveted  territory.  On 
March  14th,  1923,  the  Supreme  Council  of  the  Leagueof  Nations 
awarded  Eastern  Galicia  to  Poland. 

To  millions  of  Ukrainians  who  had  been  interested 
in  the  Ukrainian  cause,  and  who  had  been  helping  materially  and 
morally  and  endeavored  ,  particularly  during  the  past  few  years 
to  show  the  world  their  just  demands,  this  decision  was  as  a 
sudden  thunderbolt  struck  from  heaven.  It  was  contrary  to  the 
point  of  self«det®rminati©n  ©f  nations  raised  by  the  deceased 
ex-President  Woodrow  Wilson,  and  so  much  promulgated  during 
the  war;  contrary  to  fairness  of  dealing  with  question#  of 
international  character,  and  contrary  to  all  sens®  of  justice 
in  the  treatment  of  subjugated  races  • 

That  is  the  way  in  which  the  Ukrainians  regard  the 
final  and  fatal  solution  of  the  important  Galician  problem,  and 
their  convictions  concrerning  the  matter  are  in  a  large  measure 
impelled  by  the  fact  that  they  know  from  past  history  that  the 
covenant  binding  the  Poles  to  grant  full  autonomy  to  the  Ukrai¬ 
nian  population  in  Galicia  wouldnnever  be  carried  out.  Nor 
were  their  suspicions  unfounded.  The  present  treatment  of  the 


-86- 


wtm  '  .  "  ■  ■  * 

^99r^  -  -  . : .:  ■' : 

•r*  ".oj' I  ' 

’•  .  ^  \*{ui  \  il-T  ^R'- 

‘i^'  5*:  t;  ■ :  i-S  '1  < *  eo, ‘i'  U :j  p 

•  ■.  i  .%t  *  ■ 

:;  '/:•  -cc  i/i  r»  rd 

•*  ’  J‘;t  >r.  ■■  jXfrcv'  brTi-J  v 


■ '  •<■•  * 

.  -Xift-  ;/*;?  r  f;-  '0*:  vjbo*iirfT 

j%emii  04 

w"  :“iqjr3  ,.  t  ''ci'X  '1ni'a|5 

i4  •  *{2.',.  .■  'l'2  '\'^O^jilS'-  ■ 'O'l 

-tni  ■ 

■  rty-  'v'v'I't  &  r, 

'♦xx  W>ra  .  1 

'  :  •  •*  .*  »>O0-  -tJi 

t 

‘'.  •.  b-r-.  ..  ,  ,  -‘iriV:;  Tio  |;-..i .  .m;.;,  i'i‘>  •  '“'> 


'  fO^ini  60^i;  ,.>,!•. 

^  •  '  *: " : . '  X  j  '>p'!|'  :4a^:  i;  231'"  - 

t1  x‘  kt0«x  '.*: 

.r  . 

■  •  '  '  .  ”'  '  frir  ^'^  •Cxiac»i:--:<T‘io;?ai 

/ ' 

'•»•■  :  /-T  '.:  :>  :,f  nl 

‘  Of',: 

1  .  ,,  •  ■>*  ■  >  ' 

^  -  ,.'■  •-  f  ^“1  '-■'  - 

P  '  .  ‘  X  '' '  • 

“ic  r^tt''.'.'  'S  (rt^  Xxjfrigt 

i%3ili%it'  ’:*  *X  f  -Ki  r  -.  ij?.j 

'■• .  rx  •*  ;•  "i  n  'i  •'  •.)rc  :  -  '  ’  '•.■  ?Y  \o  ;  'i.C*v''i 

*  ■"  ;  '»c*'j' 

'  •  '•  •  -  «-"•  '  VO  .-.'j.xeqsi 

c  ■  *cxicV^  '.•  > 

•  ®  # 

'■  */qjF  ti  >.i  •  •  rr-  ■  ex  KiJxo 

,c»^Vct  «  ■  •’ .  ^  --  :-t 

?A'-  V  -  .%  .- 


-  d*>.  i 


Ukrainians,  and  particularly  of  those  engaged  in  educational 
and  religious  activities,  only  too  well  bears  them  out. 

And  now,  one  would  be  prone  to  ask  what  the  Ukrainians  in¬ 
tend  to  do  with  regard  to  the  land  of  their  forefathers  handed 
over  to  the  exclusive  control  of  the  Poles,  The  following  may 
give  us  some  idea  of  their  future  plans  and  intentional  On  llarch 
19th,  1923,  four  days  after  the  final  decision,  thousands  of 
people  took  part  in  a  public  Ukrainian  demonstration  which 
assembled  on  St.  George *s  Hill  in  Lviv  (Lemberg),  and  with 
right  hands  raised  repeated  after  the  former  Vice-President 
of  the  Austrian  Parliament,  Professor  Julian  Romanchuk,  a  grey 
haired  old  man  of  eighty- two,  a  patriach  of  the  Ukrainian  people 
of  Galicia,  the  following  oath;- 

'*W0,  the  Ukrainian  people,  do  solemnly  swear,  that  we  will 
never  submit  to  Polish  sovereignty  over  us,  and  that  we  shall 
take  advantage  of  every  opportunity  to  rid  ourselves  of  the 
loathful  yoke  of  bondage,  and  to  unite  ourselves  with  the  whole 
of  the  great  Ukrainian  nation  into  one,  independent,  and  a 
united  eommonwealth.” 

With  such  determinations  put  into  effect,  and  with  better 
facilities  nowadays  than  in  olden  times  for  national  develop¬ 
ment  and  emancipation,  there  is  no  doubt  but  that  the  Ukrainian 
people  with  the  enhanced  realization  of  co-operation  and  unity, 
will  before  long  emerge  from  the  present  chaosand  will  establish 
a  State  in  the  land  of  their  forefathers*  Surely  a  people 


-87- 


Iv  V- 


- 

. '  ■'j/.t ii;c  f)nA  <.  't^ 


^  '  ‘-T'*  t  roi^i£^^'£ 

IV  «r  r3  i  x#-j.vCtt  ^  <  ^vJ  ^/Ui. 

■  ‘.^  bi:«i  Oftc  CO"  {■/‘i.ai'j 'I  £td-jn'  c?i*  ui  htt^i 

,  ■  .-  {^"ij  '! .  }  tT.'i'.'  O  /J  'JX •;.’'\v,'^  CvC^’  't'vVO 

.T  ■  .-11/"'^*';  to  i^b  m 

■  v:  •  ',.  -  ?  ^  "-"U| 

ei'  oiXuuq  *«  -^s  •X'*a*q  eXqOv-q 

rv  ^  vcvvl  i  liil;  .  '.  bf»XdsR»ei.r 

,C*v-»->XV  *;.;-.‘v'5  e'i:..  ■  ■  '■'  •  ‘^ 

'‘/u»>.  .x'.'Xr;  •:<' ^‘3C‘-0'i .  c 

;  ■  V.  -r  r  ^ 

••)  ; V.  r,  ^  "  ;Ij:‘v.xb 


W'-'  ^ 

l^km  ■  c  ' 

Trlr-14»/H 


t 

Xc  ^  v.^r  lOl>q 

-■'Xnxr'iii:  :;4  <-• 

V'^ 

•R-  U  J  ^  /'ii 

•  *y’ 

/..  •5  7<»c  ii/(T  C*'  ^  «<«  f:cX  .  ‘  C,u 

r  t  *(.o  t.i'‘  '“‘ii/jn  f  o.'.'v  to 

,  .  „  ^c  0  6i  X"  f  nt 

•‘1  ^--^y  t  .  .V  1  II  '  ij  :  l-s  t.’  tX/ 0  -i 

V  XU‘.‘  ♦•''I.  »•  OJ  h-  •<•!'.  ^  ;ij  Nq  ‘  ;::jJ,r:e  bUS ’5' 

3  >•  '  .  ,  R«  j  ..  '  -,  '  T 

.,uV-  ■^.‘c,  t.  iXxT' 

,  .  .jiijgi.  -  -i  ..  .'  :  .:  -: 


numbering  forty  million  souls,  cannot  perish  and  go  into  oblivion, 
but  with  proper  unified  action  on  the  part  of  its  leaders,  and 
with  the  assisteinoe  of  other  freedom-loving  nations,  will  eventually 
rise  to  power  and  take  its  place  among  the  nations  of  the  world. 

♦  4-  ♦ 

The  foregoing  is  merely  a  skeleton  of  the  history  of  Ukraine. 
But,  it  is  hoped  that  through  historical  facts  submitted  as  con¬ 
cisely  as  was  possible,  the  origin,  rise  and  fall  of  a  nation, 
and  its  attempts  at  rising  once  again,  would  at  least  partly  be 
elucidated.  Through  all  the  changing  years  of  a  desperate 
struggle  for  existence,  and  throughout  the  vicissitudes  that  for¬ 
tune  or  misfortune  may  have  brought  the  Ukrainians,  they  must  needs 
have  left  their  imprint  on  the  sands  of  time,  and  we  shall  best 
see  this  by  considering  their  literature. 


-88- 


■;  ^CcSf,X:':  4 '  • 

:C)  rjOioO^i  il' '.<k 


jf.  •  ,.^  -j''^.  't.-.,o©  >>arwc^eiK‘aii  .1  ■i«r 


'X  ,  K*  >'^ 


d  ’iy^^x  - 


:0  r f*?i  "j  f  i  A ^  gH^i  r.^  ’■  J 

i,  .''c  '  vtr'iiv;  4jtj[0ji  Qii  4;  ^  ud.  \< 

*  '. 

*■•  4  t  .-■  uj  ^^'/'U'vacq  r-A'  v-C^-i'"'' 

tii;-.  <  ;«  noqip^-'i:  .: -; 


.  ,rf.tc-.'.':  .-Tc 


■'  ;  4i 

•^c’!  uj'^'"-y%v.>c  ■  •■• 


1 


s«ia  cfU 


■'*>:•  "-'iq  vHiJa 
^  ^ '^fiiiriM’.  .  •,;  V  tie.'  v"rj&., 

.  •  '  I  •! .  .  .^  v;cf  004 


bjLW?^ 


3 


PART  TWO 


UKRAINIAN  L 


TERATURE 


U  K 

R  A  I  N  I  A 

N  A  L  P  H  A 

BET 

Printed 

Ert^lish 

Pr In ted 

En^l:b'h  . 

Characters 

A  »r 

Equivalent 

%/-*• 

a 

Characters 

Equivalent 

f 

B  a 

h 

X  X 

kh( ch) 

B  B 

V 

ts( tz) 

r  r 

h 

M  tj 

ch 

r  r* 

<r 

o 

m  m 

sh 

A  A 

d 

Ilj, 

ahch 

E  e 

e 

K)  K5 

y^ 

e  e 

y 

H  H 

ya(yah) 

K  K 

je( zh) 

B  B 

a  softening 

S  a 

z 

consonant. 

H  H 

■>  r 

t/ 

U  s 

y  ' 

I  i 

v-  r.; 

1  - 

1  ^ 

yee 

K  K 

k 

JI  Jl 

1 

M  M 

m 

H  H 

n 

0  0 

0 

n  n 

P 

p  p 

C  c 

o 

^  y  u(oo) 

 -.38^ 


UKRAINIAN  LITERATURE 


The  Ukrainian  Language . 

No  doubts  are  nowadays  entertained  or  arguments  advanced 
against  the  general  conception  that  the  language  of  a  people 
is  one  of  the  chief  instruments  whereby  a  unity  of  that  people 
is  effected,  and  an  individual  national  entity  obtained*  Geo¬ 
graphical  position  of  certain  inhabitants,  and  the  consequent 
necessity  for  frequent  social  Intercourse  tend  to  a  centraliza¬ 
tion  of  the  primary,  and  the  most  essential  means  of  that  inter¬ 
com  se  ,  which  means  are  embodied  in  a  language*  So  that  in  the 
early  history  of  the  evolution  of  language,  ae  is  seen  in  the 
theories  of  eminent  philologists  like  Max  M&lar  and  others, 
we  find  that  words  most  needed  by  a  certain  family  or  clan 
gradually  gained  prominence  and  became  generally  accepted# 

By  a  union  of  several  clans  a  similar  process  took  place.  Each 
clan  contributed  to  the  making  of  a  language,  yat  each  also 
must  need  have  lost  smething  of  its  0?m,  This  for  the  general 
good  of  all,  however,  since,  otherwise,  the  difficulties  of 
organizing  the  inhabitants  into  a  body  politic  would  have  been 
at  that  time  insurmountable,  and  a  foramtion  of  a  State  however 
crude  would  have  been  out  of  question. 

It  is  presumed  that  the  Ukrainian  language  had  its  origin 
similar  to  that  of  other  languages#  But,  to  say  anything  more 
about  it  would  be  encroaching  upon  the  field  of  philologists,  which 


-89- 


'«4e»rrj 


•  i 


\v 


■  ■  -r.,  *  j..-  ■  .  ■  SK^^rcb’OR 

C  '  ...'■*  ■  ;.i.  i)0.,x.  0  ecu-  ct.an  j 

:  r>  .  .na/f-r  I'^'Udo  oWj  'ib'^'  anc  n- 

J'.-nc;  i  .C?i;  bfis?  ^  j 


'  4<  '  ‘ip  rOi  J  lJiCO.  1:  ’  .Y7", 

^(V-  .  *'  ■'  !  '  '  -t 

‘•'  .*’  >0f(ni  Jive^YCS  '•'  "  ' 

^‘Qn:-!  rtr:  .ivr/ ’  ^^irfiTwT  '^o 

./  .  •-  -^jr.'- 


,  a»JLi  •-%  ,  c  ..  j  r-'o^  ^  -o^  tr/oo 

'  <  ••■-'  J  .i'^;  l<' '.‘t!  oi.i  'lo  Y'Ri.fkii.’. :'’o 

.1  ■  '  ■  "  . 

'  -G  a  ,  Jlr  0 

.' ^ ."  ■  )  •  \.  -  o^.ccT  oi^’.Qyr  intl'i  ^ 

--t-i  ■  • -3  .  ''."fji  i>o;  G.  .i::ic -KT  UenlJii-i 

■*■  ■  :3-s/i-  fhttJil'f  .’■/  otv.'riUf  .ii  ■' 

■  '  •' ■  t  ■'-'■■  ’  .■•^,^^;.•^v  'V.'/  oy  ■::.•>  R&ih 

•*'■“  '■  .  .  o  ni-.k  *10  "re.:  i{ >  u':;c  ;*'30-.  ov^iri  : 

1  .Yuvoi^’  ^  ..  '  '>0  uccj- 

■  -  -i4«.(or  1*  oJ.’i*  -.^ ''.r^idr.dcii  on^  ;;i-i^irf.  '[•■ 

^  t  *lr,  .  4.-  -  ^  .-.crv,  x  Oaj.ij  ■  j-.‘> 

.  1*,H;;J  lo  VX't.  VOci  '..  {  ’  .■o/j'IO 

■  ‘  ■’  i-  -  '  i.  j«i;-Aii‘iij  ""ai 

■"  ■  ■  t  ,  i.r  ':r.  f  • 

•  i  ^  -  ^  nr<*'t  yn't.i'^'  "O  o  otl  .  I  .c^  Ji  <c  -  ^ 


Is  also  beyond  tho  scope  of  thiv^  essay.  One  thing  may  be  noted, 
however,  and  that  is  ,  as  far  as  the  Ukrainian  language  is 
concerned  it  has  been  fironi  prehistoric  times  a  separate  language. 
For,  historic  reoorda(  scsae  Russian  writers* coon tentions  to  the 
contrary  notwithstanding) ,  do  not  reveal  any  proof  as  to  when  the 
Ukrainians,  the  Russians  and  the  ^fhite  Russians  used  one  and 
the  same  common  language.  The  Ukrainian  language  is  believed 
to  have  become  differentiated  from  the  Slavonic  group  of  lan¬ 
guages  during  the  18th  century  A,D.  This  differentiation  ap¬ 
parently  could  be  prevented  neither  by  the  common  Kievan  State, 
common  Christian  Faith,  nor  the  common  to  Kiev  and  Halitch, 
Smolensk  and  Novgorod  literary  Church-Slavonlc  language^  brought 
into  the  country  from  Bulgaria. 

With  the  exception  of  the  national  differences  of  some 
local  words  in  different  parts  of  the  country,  the  Ukrainian  lan¬ 
guage  followed  a  speedy  course  of  development  keeping  its  distinct 
characteristics. 

Like  all  other  languages,  we  find  in  Ukrainian  a  great 
number  of  foreign  words  and  roots.  The  names  of  the  majority 
of  rivers  and  mountains  in  Ukraine  were  given  by  the  former 
inhabitants  of  non-Slavic  origin.  During  the  making  of  the 
history  of  the  Ukrainian  people,  traces  of  various  foreign 
linguistic  elements  were  left  on  the  Ukrainian  language,  and 
especially  of  those  peoples  with  whom  they  had  occasion  to  come 
in  contact.  Persian  and  Arabian  words  may  be  found  in  the 


-90- 


V) 


,  .  J.  .  ,J?^.iM*uj  i  O'Ci  flf^C  IV-'-I  cJ'.i  • '  W ; . '(^or-i^y 

.'  .••  •.•  .  ■/  ■-'•:  L';'  Of.iOU  ;V/'  '.•Cf>d‘T  -  i  ^  toi 


»a 

■:/  u 


•'VC 


-c.hl  c>niie 


.n#r/«JUI  noiattoj  v  .v  '  *>- 


J  I  ev-iri  o^ 

"  ■  -ft' 

,  V  'J'.'*!'!C.|.'^  ftkcf  v.tiiS:'.’  a.-  Vi'k-'' 

S'j.  iLl-JOl- 


r  .  'f->'  *.Tii  bcfi  velTi  c.?.  *iri.»  ^  o<-fj3ir.o.> 


•  ‘ ^  V. *.-  ‘  - ‘V  i  X  cc  •. c  ‘ :vc V.  bi.c  Ve/T<3.1  omS 

’A'l  ■■  ■  i>  ■-  ■' 


’::1lii 


.M.: 

^ ■  ='  '  •"■  ouV  ''O'  .  Ji4j^ 

rjii-/  ^  t:^t  .  '»  :  'Ic  rii  sih-^oT;  X '^'C 

.  .t r-'. ’«qoXrsr  •  c  f. : ^ '/i.x  0  m  tt  -■.  /, Xo‘. 

C;  ;  >.• 

»  '  ‘  '  .  •  ,  ■ 

(:  ^ 'L:^r.  '•  ,  9W\  .  '  ,'i '  i  ^ 

>X  UiitVix  e*:vir-«|. X  (i>  onii^  tu^foa^ i.*::  ^ 'io 

-yC 

*.  '  »  t  ‘  ^,V/.\ytC  ’9iiy  ‘io  - 

1  *•  .•  nj<  oJ^erir^.TlX 

C  '.♦-  '  .  -  V  .  ;»:  -:>r  .  ii « J 


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t’r.: 


language  from  very  remote  times »  in  all  likelihood  from  the 
time  when  the  Ukrainian  language  was  part  of  the  one  Slavonic 
language.  Then,  many  words  were  in  the  early  days  assimilated 
from  the  Goths,  later  from  the  Normans,  and  then  from  the  Germans. 
Each  nationality  contributed  words  pertaining  to  trades  or  matters 
in  which  they  specialized  and  predominated.  With  the  influence 
of  Byzantium  came  the  Greek  names  mostly  in  connection  with 
matters  relating  to  the  Church,  The  Romans  too,  in  their 
attempt  to  counteract  the  Greek  influence  over  the  Europeans 
left  marks  of  their  words  on  the  Ukrainian  language.  Numerous 
wars  with  the  neighboring  nations  also  had  their  effect,  and 
additions  were  mde  to  the  language  from  languages  of  the 
Turks,  Huns,  Magyars,  Bulgarians,  Khozary,  Pechenihy,  Polovtzi, 
Finns,  Tartars,  Italians,  Poles,  Russians,  and  White  Russians. 
With  the  expansion  of  trade  and  commerce,  with  travelling, 
emigration  and  immigration,  words  of  many  other  languages 
were  brought  in,  the  language  becoming  enriched  also  by  a 
number  of  French  and  English  words.  and  particularly  English 
during  the  last  thirty  years  since  the  beginning  of  Ukrainian 
immigration  into  Canada.  The  result  is  that  now  the  UCkrainlan 
language  contains  words  borrowed  from  many  nationalities,  and 
in  all  probability  is  even  a  greater  mixture  then  say,  the 
French  or  the  English  language. 

The  Ukrainian  Literary  Language. 

While  it  is  true  that  the  unwritten  language  is  a  pre¬ 
decessor  of  the  library  language,  it  is  also  true  that  the 


-91- 


♦ii 


•'  v,".'!r.:  '•cin’.i  .'ir. -.  i'Oc  nfjff^'-  'anii 


^,M  < 

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i=  ^ '. 

r,  .■-i-^fj 

f  -  / 1 


i  -  .  f;  Kx\T  f!’2  9to'^:  fX’-iow  -v  4  ,9^uiJ-.\:}ii 

•  •'  : 

V/-'  t  •  't£j‘Tr^  lOy. ^  LK  .  '-..*.  X'*:/. 

•  • : .  .:": "  .  c.  <  ?'.  -^10?^  c  ilv)/::i 

._:•  ;'<-ctc  f)r'^  ;L'5ir/}Ioo<][<3  XoiiftA  nx 


I  -'■’ ;r  ffwilo^'.-nt  •  -.:  •.  -  M'.'r.'  .X,-:x;  :v  orxi  e'rjiJo  ci-'icirijss^rS  aC 

[-n  '  .  <  ■i/'*-'.'-.  ^  .  ,r^.-::rr.'v  f).-:.:  o«  ■:!  ".>' .1  i^i.r 

c  it'Otn'i.':  "«.  iv-  ^.i'J’  •!-c:£'^''’j<Ti/oo  cr  ■ 

<i;*t  .  ’  "•'''  ■  %  ico  aii'i'feii  .^‘.xu' 

1  ■!..;'  Q.',.>.s.  .  x  :cu  :  OvU  r  a*i;CW 

^  '  t.  •  .c'i-  v.r-.-.'  vi  '■f)>*..r  t-  ^yV/  atTOi 

t  4  ..  .\^t.  .0'  ,  *•_  . 


'  ',(f- 


tendency  of  the  former  is  localism  while  that  of  the  latter  is 
centralism.  The  Ukrainian  unwritten  language  has  much  local 
coloring,  depending  on  the  part  of  the  country  in  which  it  was 
used*  But,  unlike  the  languages  of  many  other  nations,  this 
language  of  the  people  did  not  immediately  upon  the  introduction 
of  printing  also  become  a  literary  language.  With  the  conversion 
to  Christianity  the  Ukrainians  accepted  the  old  Bulgarian  book 
language  used  in  the  esclesiastical  books.  Together  with  these 
ecclesiastical  books  there  were  also  imported  books  of  a  lay 
character.  For  this  reason  it  was  rather  advantageous  for  the 
Ukrainians  and  particularly  for  the  educated  ones  living  In  the 
cities,  and  later  for  the  Russians  and  the  White  Russians,  to 
learn  and  adopt  this  ecclesiastlcal-Slavonic  language.  And, 
since  the  clergy  continually  resorted  to  this  language,  the 
common  people  too,  who  were  in  those  days  forced  to  give  up  worship 
ping  idols  and  to  attend  the  Christian  Church,  gradually  uncon¬ 
sciously  absorbed  this  new  element  into  their  speech.  But,  at 
the  same  time  one  must  not  forget  that  a  language  emanating  from 
the  common  people  cannot  easily  be  forgotten,  and  so,  for  a  long 
time  there  were  two  languages;  one,  that  of  the  common  folk,  peasant 
national,  the  other,  that  of  the  clergy,  the  court  and  the  noble¬ 
men. 

During  the  Lithuanian  rule  over  Ukrainian  and  White-Rusaian 
territories,  the  official  language  used  was  White-Russiaa.  And, 
when  this  rule  was  well  established  in  Ukraine  the  Lithuanians 
infused  Polonizm  and  White-Russianism  into  Ukrainian  written  or 


-92- 


M'  '  V  •:  \o  'Syiifi^y.xLr.r 

'  ■  -  '  ■ 

;^jr ‘  /c  r  .  j- f  /  Jor  tTib  elqcRO  he'  ;  ©jgAWjrcX  4  .. 

.’r^o  r,  o-rco  ■■•  og'ti  '.'K'r  , 


'■  Ti  '  fUjiX-H.  ()iC  «V.< 

■  u^o: 


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••i'f  >  '  '  .  ■  '*•  «;.■• 

f  .0 

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Mirf.OxJ'TUiC  3.Kj».ini.e‘:2fn  , 

'  ;  Vr-^'* 

^\u-  ;  h..  \ 

^li 

.*  ■'/r . ',:  br  ‘  t  st«^  v'.;i  i  -j 

'**  V 

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■  V  nir'.)  '  rf’U'oX 

,  "  ■  k  ‘V.7t».".rT 

1!  ■  ,  -»  f:  .  i«  4: «%•-*  '*!  ,oi  h'  ^.ic'Vj  ^r-  JLq  [  ^ 

.  ‘  V  ^  -It  .i‘-  C-  J.  .  .  --i/  ih'f,:  boJ-jiui' 

|>t'2”T  ••'  -w  J'-.<:r)-*!v/'  '«  (•  w-'-^'J.,.  f  j-;c  L\i.j:  'i  i 

'*•■  ■'  I  .  -o  •'■  .'  icu:fu1f^  ©Iqc !  '  •! 

*  **•  •.--—  ^■''  ■  ’:<■■  >.••  ,*-/.?•  i  3  0^-/«i;j^45  -  r/c+  ♦tfiif  ■  oua^/  *  .  ,| 

4 

.:-*.  ,  •  '.  ‘  I'-i  r  ■-  £  -'“r/ 


.  f. 


literary  language,  not  only  in  Ukrainian  lands  under  Lithuania, 
but  also  in  Poland*  The  new  language  could  be  well  understood 
by  both  the  White  Russians  and  the  Ukrainians, 

Meanwhile,  Ukrainian  writers,  eager  to  retain  the  spoken 
Ukrainian  and  yet  to  write  books  of  an  educational  character, 
used  this  language  as  much  as  was  possible.  But,  they  also  resorted 
to  the  necessary  ecclesiastical-Slavonic  words  which  were  influenced 
by  the  Southern  Slav  languages  known  as  the  Middle-Bulgarian, 
White-Russian  and  Polish  words  were  also  used.  The  real  Ukrainian 
quite  naturally,  and  especially  through  national  songs,  finally 
predominated  and  took  the  coveted  position  in  Ukrainian  Literature. 
It  took  many  years  before  this  could  be  accomplished,  this  being 
due  to  the  fact  that  under  normal  conditions  written  literature 
becomes  a  continuation  or  extension  of  spoken  literature,  if  one 
may  term  it  so.  But,  normal  conditions  in  Ukrainian  history,  as 
we  have  already  seen,  were  a  rarity,  so  that  the  educated  class 
for  a  long  time  maintained  an  indifferent  position  with  respect 
to  the  common  people  and  their  language* 

We  know  that  in  the  spiritual  and  in  the  intellectual  life 
of  the  people  the  geographical  position  of  its  country  plays  an 
important . part.  Thus,  when  the  English  were  already  reading  the 
legend  about  Boewulf  and  the  lyrics  "Widsith”  and  ’*Deor”  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  period,  in  which  is  found  the  first  recorded  English 
speech,  or  even  at  a  somewhat  later  period  when  the  Latin  works 
of  Bede  were  being  studied,  the  Ukrainians  had  not  yet  even  so 
much  as  dreamt  of  having  a  literature  of  their  own.  In  fact  the 


-93. 


-C*  'L* 


if*.  ';-  /  T»e.1  01  .  riii-io':  )'}  \ftcf 

■"  -i.-  '-cRwr  dli^id \c 

l-.'ivA  jTj3.!T!il--r'4V’  , 

V,  o  J€)V;  ;.i.-^?  ;v  H'i -■•Slrfl' 

*•  V'  t  •  .  1--J''.* j1  1:^  ’C -J  -rti^  .fi.c  •"-»//£;■  ii;;  o:  -.c 

f>*,'  -  ->  •'■■■  p-i.' KOiSj  -.■f.  .!*..  ;  ’ '"l-L  '  r-'^*  vu 


■4*.  qf>  ,tfMW 


i/i,  ,■■  v'-f-';..!  'n/ 


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h:.  ','' 'ii* <■ '.'C 'iq 


:  .. 'H. f-  : I  ■'  r.r!M&^  NI'  ii 

«  .1^'!-)  ,ta,'.  ,i,.f  o^^' 

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n.t ' 


contemporary  history  of  Ukraine  is  really  only  legendary.  But, 
if  we  go  even  one  century  later,  we  look  in  vain  for  a  literature 
compared  with  literature  of  other  nations.  The  reason  for  this 
is  not  difficult  to  find.  The  Ukrainian  people  occupied  an  area 
very  rich  in  products  of  the  soil  and  mineral  wealth,  but  a 
territory  which  was  not  very  favourable  to  a  peaceable  develop¬ 
ment  of  cultural  life.  Ukraine  comprised  a  boundary  line  be¬ 
tween  the  barbarian  and  the  civilised  worlds.  Consequently, 
at  the  time  that  Western  Europe  enjoyed  at  least  periodical 
peace  and  was  developing  educationally  and  culturally,  to  Ukraine 
fell  the  lot  of  warding  off  the  constant  invasions  of  the  barbar¬ 
ian  hordes  and  thereby  shielding  with  its  breast  the  Western 
European  countries.  But  a  time  came  when  the  Ukrainians,  through 
heroic  struggles,  freed  themselves  from  the  foreign  yoke,  which 
contest  entailed  much  effort  and  which  cost  them  many  victims. 
With  their  emancipation  they  embarked  upon  a  path  of  cultural 
and  educational  pursuits.  The  first  great  effort  made  in  this 
direction  is  attributed  to  Volodimir  the  Great,  t©  whom  we  have 
already  referred. 

The  history  of  Ukrainian  Literature  may  be  divided  into 
three  distinct  periods,  viz:  The  Ancient,  the  Intermediate  and 
the  Modern  period.  The  Ancient  period  begins  in  the  10th  century 
and  extends  until  the  conclusion  of  the  ISthj  the  Intermediate 
period  dates  from  the  beginning  of  the  16th  century  until  the 
end  of  the  ISth;  the  Modern  period  begins  with  the  19th  century 
and  lasts  until  the  present  day.  Along  with  the  prevailing 


,-  '  ;  .  ■••<:  nuiPvi 

-f  ..  i  < «» 

;  ‘t,:-!;©  ‘K‘  wjiv'STtJiX 

V  t  b#  J  ir  »-j 

;'  O'J  pfj .:  rr.f  -  -*  -w  tuV.  ,  x ..  o  .  ^luoHliE)  es 

Ift 2:  t  •  «  tuiJ  XV  flvN)wboi.-  ri 

c,*.-  .  t,  JOT  4JE?W  fS 'I  ^  ^  ‘  W  .. 

^  ,  •  -jr  ■  — .  r:  -'  onlirTC  -  i'  v  ’iC'  ^::ef: 

SQ  .  i-fc’i'j  ■  i.v  i tirfj  ivio'/v 


•: .'  If  j 

♦  ^^vy•o f-t*.*.  -vuc', “.r 2  J'i-^rU  o/.Tij  sr^.i 

V  W^.w 

- 

iHi'-  '■...•■•  .'■'. *!»(<’  ■»'.ir,.:.  i-rv‘‘  -'lio-. 

r^"  ' 

•  frX'^  ’='i'i-  *i-'l‘‘‘  MC-t  :  :  t)ri.  i  .:.  t.'*' 

^Ci  r  >:  bnjf  ecb'rcH  «:0i 

.,*  rT»i*1  2:r  a  *fj  •  ,  ,'  ._nj. ■  .•• ..,c 

-  ,.  ,v''  .  ik  •UC'J©r. 

....  \ 

-•  .  ’  .'.'  t  '  ('ntTsr  L'©r'/»/r'  •  ''lo -t, 

•'•..  f-c  '  ■  *r; .'  :  i  ‘  I'?)' 

:•«  .  ■. ''  wiii'i  «■  » njx'if  "J.  J  i'^:!:a.  2  '■  •i.t;;.:  ;  nn^) 

■  .i!  ~  .'» 

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'• !  '  1  i  Li 

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f.jr^  J  /<.•  «itT  ,  ‘ 

’  '  M.  /  .Jr:.'  *--r*  uH^  i '.•^:;  '  ,■’■’.1  ,*- 16 

•-  ':'V  •  -  .  .  ■'  •  •■  : 

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'iC 


influences  upon  Ukrainian  Literature,  that  of  Byzantium  in  the 
Ancient  period  and  of  Western  Europe  in  the  Intermediate  period, 
wo  must  also  consider  the  Ukrainian  written  or  literary  language 
i*e*,  the  ecclesiastical-Slavonic  language  in  the  Ancient  period, 
and  with  an  admixture  of  the  spoken  language  and  Polish  elements, 
the  Slavonic -Ukrainian  language  in  the  Intermediate  period.  The 
third  or  the  Modern  period,  dating  from  Ivan  Kotliarevsky  and  his 
translation  of  Virgil’s  Aeneid  is  characterized  by  enhanced 
distinct  national  and  patriotic  tendencies  and  a  clear  conception 
and  use  of  the  Ukrainian  language. 

THE  ANCIENT  PERIOD 

Ukrainian  Literature  on  the  Threshold  of  the  Christian  Era. 

Like  all  other  people  during  the  primitive  period,  the 
Ukrainians  were  rich  in  legends,  myths,  and  fables.  Long  before 
the  invention  of  writing,  they  already  had  a  store  of  old  stories 
and  even  poems  concerning  their  pagan  Gods,  their  heroes,  distin¬ 
guished  for  valor  in  wars  with  various  clans,  and  concerning  their 
relatives,  living  or  dead.  These  stories  and  poems  were  handed 
down  by  word  of  mouth  from  one  generation  to  another.  Without 
doubt,  each  generation  subtracting  therefrom  or  adding  thereto 
such  elements  as  the  fancy  of  the  age  directed. 

When  history  is  first  recorded  it  finds  the  Ukrainians  still 
worshipping  a  number  of  Gods,  but  at  that  time,  or  it  is  surmised, 
even  in  pre-historio  times,  they  are  said  to  have  acknowledged 


■wj  c  ruV'  .0  QOi  ;  ''‘irt>l  :>r..' 

I  f.'/  -W:  ^  f  :.*  T  f  .f^<TC'  '  ^'.tf  ^Bur.-:  .:u 

J  ■:>'.<  .'^  ;v  -K\;oo/  f  •.  ,,  ,  ; 

. -4.  „  j.  ;v>»cv  "iv;*  vw  r^iiiniL^/  rr  r-iiv  bn-r 

t  .;•/.>: r»-  rr'rt-uoH^  V  b’jEi/fv* 

'fSis^  '  f' ’  ■•  *' ‘  '  "tI  ••'  '?.»v 

.  ’)';l!{u  ' Wl 


t 

t 


one  principal  Deity  which  controlled  all  the  others.  (The  recog¬ 
nition  of  a  Supreme  Being,  therefore,  like  with  other  peoples, 
seems  to  have  been  the  first  step  of  the  Ukrainians  towards  a 
cultural  development)*  This  was,  of  course,  a  wide  field  for 
the  primitive  Ukrainian  on  which  to  feed  and  satisfy  the  craving 
of  his  imagination.  True,  as  much  as  is  knovm  of  Ukrainian 
mythology,  the  Ukrainian  Gods  do  not  seem  to  have  had  their  various 
functions  and  duties  as  well  defined  as  in  the  case  of  the  Greek 
Gods,  so  clearly  portrayed  by  Homer*  But,  since  they  were  con¬ 
ceived  to  have  possessed  human  qualities,  they  could  hardly  avoid 
occasional  feuds  which  supplied  material  for  stories  eagerly 
composed  by  their  worshippers.  Immortality  of  the  soul  was 
also  believed  in,  and  the  spirits  of  the  dead  were  supposed  to  be 
guardians  of  the  living.  But,  most  of  these  stories,  however 
imaginative  though  they  were,  since  they  do  not  seem  to  have  been 
recorded,  went  into  oblivion# 

However,  we  must  not  lightly  dismiss  from  our  minds  the 
possibility  of  the  existence  of  writing  in  Ukraine  in  the  pre- 
Christian  period#  During  several  centuries  before  the  Christian 
era  in  the  land,  a  lively  trade  thrived  on  the  shores  of  the 
Black  Sea  and  aloiig  the  Dnieper,  Traders  from  distant  countries 
flocked  into  Kiev,  Byzantium,  Poland,  Czechia  (Bohemia),  Hungary 
and  even  the  Orient, were  represented.  The  Ukrainian  traders  also 
travelled  to  Byzantium,  Prague,  along  the  Caspian  Sea,  to  Bagdad 
and  other  places.  It  is  said  that  a  portion  of  a  certain  Oriental 
city  was  occupied  exclusively  by  Ukrainian  traders.  The  centre 


.wt  ■*;  i'®'  I'  ‘  t  '*'•  . 

^,.'  •  .  '•-•('f!,  '*  0.:  ■  ;  Ci-.^  fuaswti 

t  ‘  ..<  t  Vk  ; 'itqO I  ‘  V^b  .C  Ir  lU-^.  If  3 

.  Iiy?  P(4^  -  .  ;  .  ■  1w  oo  (;vi 

•‘',*|i^  ’o  avL  i  4  1  ft.  fi:,^ fitfu  l (4  ,o;/""  .  nc- cJtrf  1;o 

i.-'J/  r-i'!  rrjia  o^  .r:-j'>^.  ,^^.  .•  c,'  -"iec-C  r<T.ir.iH*raro  ©{IJ  .y.jC'XofU^ 

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t  .«■- 

t  ‘  •  ^ .Co  c-  ,  4.'boD  . 

V  •.  s:  ,•  - ,  * jLfvjjo  De«e<s  :9'vq  «v^i:W  oi 

"..M^  '•  ‘n.vi  I-  /:  Xij{i’ci«*5i>oo  *• 

.'.-  .,  ■  -  ti,’ ‘  V.  7  .B'/eqq.i \iHi-r  \y  bfteoqcoD 

'V. 

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•  '  *  jr  ti  ■  :;  '  i--  ,  <-■  lenif.  v»fM 

.  ■ 

*•  ;i"  v'  T‘i  t  :- ■%.  ,  i.ui2’‘  «  .^^TiSTr^.  .'  ' 

■’  .,•;  or.: -'ll  .  r^i  "-iTi  ?J  *JV  ^P,  •■' •fj.:; .  -  \>llid.i'inoq 

.1  :  >.;  A-  i'r»-.'qA3  ■  .ret  .  ■■■■v<j  r- * 'i 

">  '  V  ^••  •  '  •••^■■'^2  - 

‘  ■  '-’ *  ■■•  ’*■■•  q  .  .c.  taiLt^  ■■’.''■■  -  ^ 

t  ■  ,  ■  '-J  r.i  ■  .oil 

, .•  -•  ’T'v.t,  n«9V--  l  » 

t‘  'T-  .'!.■  (.-•  \y>lt'07^Mgiit  ■ 

-”*  ‘  "  w.  3i  .:  .. -isojiXiJ  •ii^  '.^.v  idiM' 


k/.j; 


of  Eastern  European  commerce  was,  of  course,  the  city  of  Kiev, 
According  to  Hrushevsky,  Ukrainian  culture  was  first  to  develop 
here  to  a  comparatively  high  degree.  So  that,  even  the  first 
Ukrainian  Chronicler  regards  the  tribes  further  away  from  Kiev 
and  the  Dnieper  as  being  half  savage  and  living  an  uncultured 
life. 

Having  in  mind  the  trade  in  which  Ukrainians  were  engaged, 
it  is  hard  to  believe  that  a  people  in  that  stage  of  development 
could  have  got  along  without  some  form  of  writing  whereby  it 
would  commence  to  create  what  we  later  called  literature.  It  is 
reasonable  to  suppose  that  figures  necessitated  by  commercial 
dealings  must  have  been  used.  Then  too,  some  knowledge  of 
geography  was  essential  to  all  who  travelled  into  other  countries. 
We,  therefore,  come  to  the  conclusion  that  some  form  of  writing 
was  used  in  those  days.  But,  in  what  form  it  was  is  still  a 
mystery  to  all  investigators.  If  there  was  a  writing,  the  traces 
of  it  were  apparently  wiped  away  by  the  old  Slavonic  writing 
which  came  with  the  Christian  Faith,  Immediately  at  the  beginning 
of  the  new  era  we  see  a  vigorous  struggle  of  the  new  with  the  old 
world  against  the  latter’s  ballads,  music,  beliefs  and  customs. 

The  old  Pagan  writing  is  presumed  to  have  perished  in  this  con¬ 
flict, 

A  question  then  arises  as  to  what  became  of  the  pre-Chris¬ 
tian  Ukrainian  Literature,  that  is,  the  oral  literature,  if  one 
might  style  it  so.  The  answer  to  this  must  be  the  same  as  in 
the  case  of  the  writing  «  it  must  have  perished  in  a  similar  way. 


'"•■■)  7J?i  i:  ■  ^  ^^:\'•  •■ffi'/ri  c  t,’.i' '  'ic />D^ 

'i*  .  f  V.-'VvJt'?;/*';>  jfc'.o:)  ..  O  t. 

;•'•  ■  '1-.  -  ’  .’o-'Ji’.'-  /  cu.  JvJMt^iC 

'A-.-'-iifT  tfs  3*xiiv/X  '-a*  pififKf  ei»  srfcfe  bm 

’  -  '  :  •■■  •  '  '  ' 

■•  '  •  .  ’ijt*  '  ■■  ■  4-  '.  v.r  iff.  i.i<  tri  •  ivjtH 

.■  f 

-  •  :•  •!  :  -r*'.  gt.  b'ml  si  j.r 

•■  •  :/  -  •'■'•  w'u-  .  c.^  fc?  blrrco 


r«X4^«i(»: 


T **(0 

* 


tr  di 


oJ  ^^-'ynanictorj  fe'I'.Tvf 

2rDe'‘JL'T  ■.-  *-'-y  ost  i. ;:  ,j ac  -t/ivi. 

^ ‘-'O  •'  .  t  ■  '  '  -  t  H  S .  m’ :  j' >  J;' .> 

-  .  •  •>  i;“'w  c  saiO^i  , 

.i- 

;:.. '‘’J  r  ij»  ^  .  i'-;J»dVc»ftOd^  T>i' 

*«»<??<•  *y -■.■■  '■’  Ic 

J'.:!  ^*3  ft^<t  L:^u■■.i 

'  ‘  t’f  Ai  K;?'!  i?;{^ 

,  . '■  •  t  /.jfj.  ."wj  .r  ct’:,!! : 

b.-.  _  _.. 

r  ^  ^ ■*  *■.  <  ■ 

t'  .o  <i  cul;. -n 


Proof  of  this  could  probably  be  established  at  least  by  the  fact 
that  the  ecclesiastical  literature,  warring  against  the  national 
literature,  often  reveals  the  latter's  characteristics.  Bohdan 
Lepky,  an  Ukrainian  author,  says  that  in  the  middle  of  the  11th 
century  Metropolitan  Ivan , writing  to  a  monk,  denounced  the  old 
religion  and  advised  the  clergy  to  convert  the  people  from  Paganism, 
and  witchery,  and  t  o  anathenatize  those  who  celebrate  weddings  with 
singing  and  dancing  and  without  the  marriage  ceremony  of  the 
Church.  Other  matters  of  reproach  by the  clergy  were  public  enter¬ 
tainments  and  ordinary  singing  which  was  considered  by  the  clergy 
to  be  performances  commanded  by  the  devil.  The  Princes  themselves 
were  often  criticised  by  the  Greek  patriarchs  for  following  the 
common  people  in  these  customs* 

In  the  customs  of  the  times  is  disclosed  a  whole  world  of 
pre-Christian  poesy,  where  amusement,  art,  religion  and  life 
were  all  moulded  into  one  whole*  The  strength  and  universality 
of  this  old  order  are  seen  in  the  later  records  of  the  Chroniclers 
who®  looking  back  from  Christian  times,  were  influenced  by  this 
ancient  poesy  of  the  people,  reconstructed  at  times  complete  stories 
and  accounts. 

With  the  advent  of  Christianity  and  the  contemporaneous 
introduction  of  writing,  a  new  culture  came  into  Ukraine  where 
it  came  into  conflict  and  for  many  years  coped  with  the  local 
old  culture*  During  this  combat  the  Christian  culture  either 
wholly  subdued  or  altered  the  local  culture,  but,  at  the  same  time, 
it  itself  underwent  considerable  changes  depending  on  the  soil 


-98- 


,  I  fc 


4f.'«i  >i‘  ■  VQ  I  .  ■ 

K  . 

t'  ..I/  n '  _,  .  ■;".,  ■  - 

.;  *•<-  n*'-  .  ' 


■  rri  iiyu"  ^  vto  r*T‘;n>l\*  >1'?  ,  ^fs'qoa 

:•  C'Bsr  A  *  :r 

■■••.'- ■■‘S 

rr  4#.'?  or.,  rfLKi;*\il^?'x 

r  vfK  iv  e.v  hi^ftrtd’*‘riso5.i)r/r',yi»4od’iw  ba^ 


'i',Of 


j;',  i.*  :■  .•  wi  ;i  '<;'ritjr;ub  2>>7i3rixa 


'1-. 


•W^c 


V.‘‘ 


j( 


e'xt-ih-ifn  'ion.fO 
'■; ?f*^o 


It} 


ijuf:  ' 

■;  yd  .'Dd  ...J 

,  ^Ar^;r  i’ll  :r «?  ft  £»>  ■  -'  i  o  Xc; o a(|  frootT.o  -j 

KH'  ’'  . 

U‘::.i*  ^.■:-  'ic  '  f?4id  'll 

>'r^  ■  .  ■ 

.y  -•*■  ,Q'-»  -  y»>-v:!-'  -^yae-O'x  c^c.l}}.  ■  -.  , 

,  •..  c  .’i  .w.’/  •■.-K.-^r 


.;  .Ti  ,  t.  -.'ja  'i/'r>o  Im.o  ttXdd*  Xo 

r :  ■  a  •!}:>,  >  r  < •  rio.nd  Xi  ‘ 

■"•:■  ,  )Xg©'i'q  ’  :  '..0  yv.  ■  j':vn*.* 

/ 

.-ip  f:_  .. 

. Vg  '  ‘'ll.,  ii.'xi'l 

I *v. i i *r«r  \u 

;••.’■<  Tol  'i-  iox il^c  0 'j  odr/  ■^...»':  d'X^ 
'.' ■  -shl-  i.)Xc 

v>fi^  tr*.*-.'*'".'.-  xr  '',;lXoit'V 


in  which  it  took  root.  What  really  happened  was  that  the  old 
customs  and  traditions  wero  unconsciously  retained.  And,  the 
early  Christianity  in  Ukraine  was  simply  the  spirit  of  Paganism, 
so  inherent  in  the  masses  and  greatly  cherished,  dressing  itself 
in  a  cloak  which  it  was  either  induced  or  compelled  to  put  on. 
(Recurring  evidence  of  this  will  be  found  in  the  progress  of  the 
essay).  One  of  the  earliest  examples  of  the  above  is  a  legend 
about  St.  Andrew,  which  legend  dates  immediately  from  the  intro¬ 
duction  of  Christianity  into  Ukraine,  and  is  considered  to  be 
a  legend  of  purely  Ukrainian  origin.  The  narrative  pictures  a 
passage  running  from  Greece  across  Ukraine  by  way  of  the  Dnieper 
River  and  further  North  to  the  Baltic  Seaj  from  thence  over  the 
sea  to  Rome,  While  preaching  the  Christian  faith,  along  the 
shores  of  the  Black  Sea,  Apostle  Andrew  once  came  from  Sinop  to 
Kherson  of  Tauria,  where  he  learned  that  not  far  off  was  to  be 
found  the  mouth  of  the  Dnieper  River.  He  wished  to  go  to  Rome 
and  set  sail  from  the  mouth  of  the  river.  While  he  was  thus 
sailing  upstream  in  company  with  his  disciples,  he  happened  to 
stop  for  tVie  night  by  the  shore  at  the  foot  of  the  mountains. 
When  he  arose  the  next  morning  he  pointed  towards  the  mountains 
and  said  to  his  disciples:  "Behold,  the  grace  of  God  will  fall 
upon  these  mountains  and  thereon  will  be  founded  a  great  city 
and  God  will  build  thereon  many  churches”.  Then  the  Apostle 
climbed  the  mountains,  blessed  them,  and,  after  having  prayed, 
erected  a  cross  on  the  top  of  the  mountain  upon  which  later  Kiev 
was  built. 


-99- 


£ 


''-HO  'I  '  i  .•  !•::• 

4<..-  2*'^  ••  ■  ■•’•.-a'J  /.  ■ 

’  •  ^  ..A 

,  y  <*^  {.rjii  Gw'a:'l  .;  tr.^'  ft.,  rrve'X-.f  i^i  c  <- 

'  ii-'C..'-'  'f/t  =1  jj^oXp 

•  •  -  /  .i/  ■  i'i-'  ^ 

-  f”'-::  •.;  *  I'.  -  Ic  ft^V'  ,  v,i24»5i& 

.  O'  0  :■.  •-■  1  iioIdifT  , 


•  .  > i  r  at:' .?  ,  . .  -  V-  -7  14 i ^ffi?  i  ’Tir;:  riO v1 

■  ’■  -'I'.'.'  »,-'  ;  :-iO  .Tefriio'ttfi  *..’1,.;  a  f  £ 

'  'Uic-j^prs^  OT".  •«■■;  . 'ifT 

•  ‘  L'  •“ 

;•  ■»■  ; 

^  v-'icK  wf’,  o;-%  '•:  •.' ,. 


’  -  .  :•!.*  'A-  .: 

' » .‘j. 

w  *fc  A  •  I  *1  »  ■  J 

'7!‘'  0,J 

■  '  •  J  Afp  '/i  '■  • 

s 

ujA  fil  ^3C"  '  '  t 

2t''^j#ia  vr.i 

'if. 

t’  ■  'iM't 

J  .  '-‘ri:' 

^1/ '  ■  re-'  . 

yc..  v^fil 

y'4 


» 


t  '  ..-V  '  ‘f-.i  V 

liJt*  r 1  •••  .  .'  f 


■  ‘ .  “  '  ..  r.J‘f  .uc  i .'  '  ■■ 

^  v^n-  -.  ..  -i  -rGT.iCi^;- NCjti^P 

'  ►  Wtf'  J-.-.r,:;:  -iol  qpci'f 


■“  .  •*  .'.  fycT«;{ 

;t\  <>v  I  C*'  *  ' 


notf.  n  -d”  XXiw  >»o(. 


’atrwit  , 

it* Jaw  .■«4<|i>  ir|)(iip 


-j; 


>  --wiia.... 


Not  only  prose  but  poetry  too  was  being  recited  for  years 
before  a  chronicler  picked  it  up  and  preserved  it.  Some  of  it 
was  very  simple  without  any  embellishment,  as  for  instance,  the 
following  which  does  not  rhyme: 

’’Michael  is  saddling  a  horse 
His  daddy  good  naturedly  enquires; 

Sonnyl  Wherefore  art  thou  saddling  the  horse, 

Daddy*.  1*11  saddle  the  hors© 

And  drive  to  the  Czar 
To  conquer  a  kingdom. 

But  e’en  tho’  a  kingdom  I  do  not  acquire, 

I  shall  at  least  gain  in  wisdom 
0,  daddy  mine!  **. 

The  writer  recalls  meeting  an  old  Ukrainian  of  eighty-four 
who  could  neither  read  nor  write,  but  who  could  entertain  a  crowd 
for  a  whole  day  by  reciting  these  old  ballads.  It  is  remarkable 
how  they  could  be  preserved,  for,  many  of  them  to  this  day  travel 
only  through  speech.  Unfortunately,  the  historical  background 
which  gave  birth  to  so  much  of  this  poetry  was  lost.  Mot  infre¬ 
quently  an  explanation  is  attempted  of  an  old  verse,  but  the 
attempt  is  a  failure,  for,  one  cannot  be  satisfied  with  an  inter¬ 
pretation  of  the  remote  past  which  interpretation  is  merely  a 
product  of  imagination.  But,  even  in  spite  of  this  shortcoming, 
the  verses  are  enjoyed  for  they  savor  of  something  closely  human, 
real  and  natural. 


-100. 


rc  L0  #1<1  .  »  ’  .r  0  i  1*10 ,)  '•  o': 

;  •  ^ '  n  ■  p  •;  C  t  ‘  jU;'V  » rs  rcf  i  iol' 

-'■..‘i  .  ‘  I;  1^  ,-8  'Xj: 

/  ‘  >  '  7  .., 

::  -  y  ..)^ '..  ‘r.:  l.oo'? 

•■••iwf  •XW  -'J.:^  ■■  :  .c  f.  lvfu.0^.  - 

••--  .fe  ’  f yoiVfM! 

'■  ■  viiy  O.-" 

.  ■.:C^  ,.  '/  -iwupitfoo  gT 
••  4 tlx  I  XI  r,  .y.:  c  ‘v.i.r  u.  '.  juu. 

*r'' 

la-ffirn  ,0  ■ 

'  »*•  •  ‘  i'*  :.^L?oDa' .»ijrd.->^H*: 

■■  ,  ^  ■  ■  ' 

'  ‘  •  ^  '■'  ivu  jbl8):-‘i  •.;>.'v^i.t)r  p.<v 

'''-'■  ^  \yS  \;ei,  vA'.'C??^  ^  toI 

■-■-  c  t  :-)d  tUfo  J  yo/iw?  mod 

■*■  '-  ''•  •’  ■  .\7-:.v  ,  '-.et';  yllXC 

'  *'*  '  >'•  r,  ,  S74t2’  rit.jifr  ' 

f'.*j  ;;j_^  t'  (  Hi: 


l-7ifr  ^r-  .  -M  n. 

'yi:  4 

t  <8ffx  "io 

. 

"*  ■■  U  V'0[.n«  Off. 


•  ■'w 


The  Christian  Era. 


Although  Christianity  had  already  found  favorable  soil  in 
Ukraine  at  the  time  of  the  accession  of  Volodimir  the  Great  to 
the  throne,  it  was  upon  him  that  the  responsibility  fell  for  the 
official  christening  of  the  whole  of  the  people.  He  had  the 
choice  of  either  the  Western  or  Roman  type,  or  the  Eastern  or 
Grecian  type  of  Christianity,  To  Volodimir  the  Eastern  type 
appealed  as  more  attractive,  and  he  chose  it.  This  election 
decided  in  a  very  large  measure  the  course  that  culture  in  Ukraine 
was  to  take  in  the  years  to  ccssse.  History  is  very  clear  in  deal¬ 
ing  with  the  differences  which  then  existed  between  the  two  Chris¬ 
tian  Churches.  To  add  to  the  dissimilarity,  the  Eastern  Church 
developed  different  traits  peculiar  to  the  locality  in  which  it 
spread. 

The  Ukrainians,  having  accepted  the  Eastern  type  of  Chris¬ 
tianity,  automatically  commenced  to  belong  to  the  Eastern  World 
and  to  share  in  the  Byzantine  culture.  This  culture  was  of  a 
considerably  high  order,  since  ByEantium  had  just  passed  its 
golden  era.  The  Greek  literature  was  now  at  the  disposal  of  the 
Ukrainians,  which  was  a  great  aid  to  a  spiritual  development  of 
the  Ukrainian  nation.  But  unhappily,  too  great  stress  was  laid 
on  religious  literature,  with  the  result  that  this  was  practically 
all  that  was  gained  from  the  Greeks.  Another  unprofitable  result 
was  that  the  Byzantine  Christian  literature  was  opposed  to  every 
foreign  material  and  would  not  tolerate  the  Ukrainian  Pagan  liter¬ 
ature  which  it  encountered  as  soon  as  it  came  into  the  land. 


-101- 


■  •  '■roqv  '.ax:  :•  i  jhW"  "’"^  ' 

:tj  ’: .'  '.  ac  .v  Mi:  "  ‘:c.  |if.^asd-ajc -f-rjo 
,  <•'.;>  rjr^CA  'ic  '^G  CDidito  ^, 


'  i  !  j  '  '■ . 

f?'*  ^ '.if‘  -  '■  4/4' C'  t  ' ,' 

.  MM  -  .  --m 

•:•:■  •;  or  v'l'.JBjyf^r  «^v;x«X  ■!’'^»'y  i>©bXo;«»ts ‘V 


^lr  •apft-fa  '/  .''fc  .1 


ISM^t 


c  c*  rt|  o*  nijv  ■  ' 

,  /■".'  ■  .  ■'  ,1 

'  <:  K  '  bb-c  (?'■■'  ,  v=*''i'y'twrf'5' 

•■w'--,  ^3  j.:  Aa  I'-  tx^WXsVol. 

”  ei  "  •' 

;X. <'f(T  • 


.J-, '  ••;  ^ 


__  ,.  vjg 

'•  •  '■  ■f'’w'i.’;'.o  ■'  :.„  ,  \  ^ 

f'*  .  '  ''*^0  t)J..  vC  oWi-  rJ  qx.  ,.  .  o'.  1  i/.  ■•M 

r!  rjL-i:f.'!iijva  fo3f  , 'i  '  '  "  xiTM'fl  vIdA"rt»bl^,rtoo'  : 

- '-■'  ■"  .'jiJ 

►'<^'(1  t  .'•  '’••>•:•  'i.  ’  lyjhr 

4  . 

•■•  •s*'”  <  <  ^quflno  i  .■,icA\+*.  :  ''iivliiT  i-W 

M.?  q;  .!  j^'.  ',  it4  ,  llro ',ii,o’i  rK.  .  v,! 

<<“'■*’  *ji-,'(  •  I'Vi'!!  r>/ ’;'  lit' 


.  \  WJ‘  r.- 


Xf'’"'*/  .  ,  X;  I  :• 


-ViC  1 


,j 


This  accounts  for  the  scarcity  of  the  Ukrainian  Pagan  literary 
material  in  the  early  literature. 

The  Beginning  of  the  Ecclesiastic-Slavoni c  Literature. 

Two  brothers,  Cyril  and  Methodius,  who  lived  in  Solun  on 
the  Aegean  Sea,  in  the  middle  of  the  9th  century,  are  credited 
with  the  inauguration  of  this  literature.  Both  of  them  were 
well  versed  in  the  Scriptures,  knew  thoroughly  several  languages 
and  particularly  the  Greek  and  the  Bulgarian^  which  languages 
were  very  important  at  this  time.  The  older  of  the  two,  Methodius, 
was  also  a  diligent  student  of  Philosophy. 

About  the  year  858  a  delegation  came  to  Constantinople 
from  the  Khozary  with  a  petition  for  a  learned  clergymen.  King 
Michael  III  and  patriarch  Potey  sent  them  the  two  brothers. 

Their  missionary  experience  among  the  Khozary  was  a  good  prepar¬ 
ation  for  the  new  field  in  Moravia  and  Panonia,  The  Slavs  of 
these  lands  had  been  already  converted  to  Christianity  by  German 
and  Italian  Missionaries.  For  that  reason  their  services  were 
conducted  in  the  Latin  language  which  they  could  not  understand. 

In  order  that  a  more  successful  propaganda  might  be  carried  on, 
the  two  brothers  decided  to  translate  the  more  important  church 
text  books  into  Bulgarian.  But  the  first  thing  which  was 
necessary  was  a  Slavonic  Alphabet,  This  Alphabet  was  invented 
by  Cyril  in  863.  The  majority  of  the  letters  were  borrowed 
from  the  so-called  Greek  “Liturgical  writing”.  The  ^habet  was 
soon  after  adopted  by  the  Ukrainians,  and  the  characters  thereof 
became  known  as  “The  Cyrillics”,  With  the  translations  that 


:)wvi  ♦ 


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J'l  .  ;..C.  iCi&ii?' 

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V  '•It.'Stj  ^X»tUs' Lii;.  ^  'fta.!-*  OfJJ'  ifr»^Vcf.,4 

»  .  f  ^ j- c»:.;  p,  jfii’j?  Qii'i  mril 

•rt^'W  J  J/Tdtt  'v.<''.<.'l  i’lnijQi  lvf,)i*-g  £kW  I},’ 

Oorjijt.!  i©qx»ik  y,*ur:o|4^ xir  ti-isrii 
lllBiiS^  T  lo^j  !•»;  hX-yi  'i  v«r  v^i'i  fT0-l\t>i 

^  -  ‘  V  V.  '  'rrori  •>.:.’ 1.'.. a 'h^o.-:  , 

-  •  ■-  fiQV/i*»i  J^n.r  104  .  ^'S  iia<nc.i3.3i;u  '  i;;jK 

t  ^  dvlrf«r  tJ',iJl/3^  :  L  V,-;  ;>r  >  b V  v-./cfcuc  I 


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f  :z  ;j 

/^  ,  ..  .'  V  ^  «jf  ^.4-  I..^3B|^^,  .  ,  ,  .  .  .. 

'  '  <^1'."  r.l  C  A\/  (.ilj 

J,  •}  ‘T-'X;  •  c  ,'  ■'*  C.4CV-  I 
’  '  ’  '  ‘  I  ■  '  '  •  ■  r  r,sn.  •,  .  ^  o.'kjOfi 

■  '  •■  '  ■ '.r.  ,*_;>.;i  -v  .  ,  '.^  .'. ' 

■.ni  .1-  :-<'us1>.'.-/.l‘'  3(»»-c.' •..jii.,;  .0  i  Oiw  „ic.-r^ 


•^^}  '■•  |■■:•.^l.y■  (Tooi; 

•  *^  •■  '’  i'  frvon.1 


l^vV-^ 


were  made  at  this  time  a  foundation  was  laid  for  a  Slavonic  liter¬ 


ature  at  first  in  Bulgariaji  and  later  in  ecclesiastical-Slavonic 
language.  The  golden  age,  under  Simeon  (893-927)  marke  the  great 
progress  made  in  Bulgarian  literature.  Many  Greek  and  Bj^zantine 
works  were  translated  into  Bulgarian,  thereby  greatly  enriching 
this  literature.  Besides  this#  much  native  literature  was  being 
created.  Both  the  translations  and  the  original  works,  hov«rever# 
were  of  a  spiritual  character.  Such  Greek  classics  as  the  works 
of  Homer,  Sophocles,  Plato,  Aristotle  and  others  were  not  then 
known  to  the  Bulgarians.  To  the  Southern  Slavs  came  only  frag¬ 
ments  of  classical  works  through  which  they  became  somewhat 
familiar  with  philosophy,  astronomy  and  other  science®.  It  is  sad 
to  say  that  the  Bulgarians,  under  the  foreign  influence,  did  not 
succeed  in  preserving  their  old  national  legends,  poetry  and 
ballads  which  they  mhst  have  had  during  the  age  of  Paganism, 

But  even  what  the  Bulgarians  had  acquired  they  eventually 
had  to  lose.  For  some  time  the  influence  of  Byzantium  inthe  land 
was  rather  strong.  But  at  the  beginning  of  the  11th  century 
when  Bulgaria  lost  its  independence  and  fell  politically  under 
Byzantium,  its  church  was  lost  as  a  national  organization  and  with 
it  the  progress  in  literary  development  became  paralyzed. 

The  reference  to  Bulgarian  literature  was  here  necessary 
in  order  to  get  a  clear  idea  of  the  beginning  of  the  Ukrainian 
literature,  for,  the  former  had  pretty  well  laid  a  foundation 
for  the  latter.  The  Ukrainian  king,  Sviatoslav,  by  his  invasions 
of  Bulgarian  territory  along  the  Danube  River,  weakened  it.  And, 


-103- 


V  V 

Liz. 


\  l'<  V,1 ' - 

_  •:*««•.;•  •  '••'•  ~ ^  £  fle  t 

1  ■ 'Xit^^3  ’  .  f''  * ’(''.\X>"7  6  ■f'.i  0«^4‘',‘3r{a/j«^?'; " 

.  ..  .  ..  ‘J  i  ti'.'V.  t  jn;  fii'bxii<'\  H  wif.L* 

'  ■  .:i:  i^{:  €U^  ba-  ii  siiii  -rf-to#' ^  , ot^j  . o-ifo 

'X  .■.■■' 

uw  .■'■  'o.c’i^</,);  .U'!i'.+  ,^'?..:g© 'ii  /io.  nt-stv 

-  ^  v  •■  ,  .  *  ■  ' 

T  ©TT^  'ji-fv.'  ■■  oi^it  ,  \'^is>L'ycik^c^.  t 

*  ’  '  '  '  V-  •  **'  ' 

’?K»  ft  f  '  t'Tii  f>',l’  ,;  -".i ’i,/.',T-!Xt,-'^  0  .*  a 

i'sr^  -•■%..  ;  -■*  ,  ■ 

.  •.  't*,.?  >"•/*  , '..'Uw-r, 

r;-  ’:  '  i- T  :.  3i:;‘v^'*'«Xw6  >^-'7  iijttv?  vp,:.  cj 

•'■A'-  ‘'i 

•  -  '.«;■■  .•'•'>t:  XGX>rT  Yv^rti 

'' '  '  ‘J  V. J;  ri^>7w  v^rS 

••  •■  'c  v-jn-’L:!*' -)  ■  'j'' i ’ (Wire t*  ,  .oi  o-J  LiU’! 

•  Mi;'  'i'  '  /»Fj  ,  '/xr:}tt 

.  f  1  tlXIA  .  ©-Ji;  MLM^b'/trfrXii  #i  nviuy, 

-  ^-.'  .  -■^‘LC  a.-'  -’C  .  ••11  il  i«oX  <I-J.v.  li-J'HTl-a'  IV'-  t  ■ 

'  •^'  *'' '  '  '/.'■  ■■i-  ijcl  ni  ^.fl©*ir;0'xq  ,. .: 

<-  ;'•  '  .  •  •  i.  ,£;,fri  oJ‘  C*frv  ■  /  1 

•> 

'i©-  ;X^•1C;  M4r  ,  ‘Ic  .  iOl  v'  ,  1^'i 

■  •  i  •  .T--.  d 

'  •  J,  >v. 


.-'J  v*v-  c- - 


while  Ukraine  subdued  Bulgaria  with  force  of  arms,  the  latter 
nation  gained  a  cultural  victory  over  the  former*  Quite  probably, 
even  before  officially  adopting  Christianity,  the  Ukrainians  used 
the  ecclesiastical-Slavonic  text  books.  When  the  Christian 
religion  became  general  in  Bulgaria,  the  Bulgarian  original  and 
translated  literature  spread  widely  over  Ukraine*  Mostly  every¬ 
thing  written  or  translated  by  Cyril  and  Methodius  and  their 
disciples  in  ecclesiastical-Slavonicin Moravia,  Bohemia  and  Bul¬ 
garia,  and  much  of  what  the  Bulgarians  had  during  the  golden  ag© 
of  their  literature,  was  brought  into  Ukraine  where  it  was  greatly 
welcomed  owing  partly  to  a  rather  proximate  similarity  of  the  two 
languages.  It  was  accepted,  and  on  this  suitable  material  Ukrai¬ 
nian  literature  was  built  up. 

Once  the  basis  was  laid,  the  making  of  the  literature  went 
on  at  a  rapid  pace.  The  Bulgarian  language  ,b  ©ing  then  more  akin 
to  the  Ukrainian  than  it  is  now,  the  Ukrainians  found  it  easy  to 
borrow  therefrom  all  that  they  considered  valuable  and  useful. 

This  was  more  practicable  than  translations  from  the  Greek  language 
which  very  few  people  in  Ukraine  knew.  To  this  is  accountable  the 
fact  that  at  first  valuable  works  of  Greek  authors  encountered 
difficulty  in  gaining  access  into  Ukraine,  The  ecclesiastical- 
Slavonic  language  used  by  Ukrainian  writers  did  not  long  remain 
unaltered.  In  spite  of  the  efforts  of  the  clergy  to  retain  its 
identity,  the  writers  often  unconsciously  omitted  what  was  foreign 
to  the  Ukrainian  ear  and  infused  material  and  qualities  of  the 
purely  Ukrainian  national  language.  In  consequence  the  imported 


-104- 


M 


yr^gn  T  *•,  *0  /f:^^  -'.i-tA:?Xi.'>i  Botiww^:  t'^iiJs-rjiu.  <sff? 

f^' 

w---  -•'■  ■ 


o*i  ud<  Z’rrr  *  •::  .^oJK*  ../-  ''♦'•‘i;. 


i  r-oi 


j  i '  *  y  Jj  V  *■-'  •  ■■' ♦ "  fjf  0  .i  .t 

i'  V  ’.•  .1  J.  »> j! ')  i  1  tc  -v^o  ‘‘*  •:'  •■  i  0  V'  •>» 


.',.:v.c>i  fhx^ 

•  ,  'iJfi  ny  .i;  :T0  j.  ■.Xiv'-J 

I  ■'"  ' 

/ -*-  t  -ic;.*  ■>  ‘  V  -  .  •*  ■  '  X  -j cly  ,  ;^.X-  ® '• 

it  >ftiji0'5  c»^^v  ;  I  ••:  o.  iJisri  .:;.i:!i  tiXfijI/rS  "^c.*  riptf^tr 4 

■■*'''  . ,  .  , 

#t?r A^ftttler.:',  u.i;  ’  -■  -^.r  ,  'i.. 

'  JV  •  ' 

ri-  •,  1-,  ■-‘.  ■;->  ■  -ro.  B  ;-,•,  I .x^  ^fji H'o  ^^sio cX9W 

’  <■  j  -  .  *  ■'  /••'  f‘it:  .  rj6o 'j: I  '-.-'icr  ^1  ,  j. 


trfi  - 


» 

ctt>  y<* 


*  "1  .  >  j;.r  ■»%.  . 

II .  r: 

.1^4. ;  »  i.  i  ■  C0 1*7.''' 

'i;;-.  .  c  "Hi 


bx  '£••  .-.  ii* 


..  ..  >XxiAl  '..f.T  n*xrr 

•-■'?.;•■  ^3 


2~ ':Wl  .  ',' 

t  fj  R  i  /X;  .^■»*  .  ‘  <-i.v //li.vi-'iU  s'i'.  or 
-.!>  i-fvt  XX  . 

■  ‘r: .  !  '  .1  'j  .  :J  0/1  iq  0 1 ',  •{’  13 /:  ^  iji  if’x 

t',  ♦/.I  7*127  .ii'n.rrii'' 

!i'  •  •  ■- X  .'f-  te 

?  : '  •.  j  7.  ri .  :  J  ^■  ...i.  -".i'l'l}b 


^  t*  V*i  '  K*..-'>..  -;c.  -.wtit'  G'jf'7T!;RX  OilTOVJCfXS 

;  lo  citici.  1. 

■X''  J'!'.  •  t>  i 

.’ll'  ’)#%«•  . '  X  1  ■  '  /  "!  ..i  ’ '  7  ■ 

;*A#.r  /V  ‘ -.N  -rrfi.  •.' :  .x'iirc- 

.  *'iXd 


language  gradually  became  Ukrainian! zed  under  the  unfluence  of 
the  latter* s  national  phonetics*  The  "Cyrillics"  too,  which 
were  at  first  square-shaped  and  every  letter  written  separately, 
became  in  course  of  time  transformed  by  writers,  who,  in  order 
to  gain  rapidity,  wrote  connecting  all  the  letters  in  each  word. 

Thus  we  attribute  to  Christianity  the  trend  that  culture 
took  in  Ukraine  immediately  after  translations  of  religious 
literature  appeared  in  the  country.  The  clergy,  of  course, 
propagated  the  Christian  religion,  and  the  city  people  offered 
little  resi stance, but ,  the  peasantry  could  not  as  easily  see 
the  advantages  in  accepting  the  new  Faith.  To  give  up  the  old 
beliefs  which  had  become  part  and  parcel  of  the  life  of  the  people 
was  a  condition  to  which  they  could  not  easily  assent.  Hundreds 
of  years  wererequired  to  effect  the  necessary  change,  and  the 
struggle  between  the  old  and  the  new  in  the  remote  parts  of 
the  country  is  till  on.  It  was  so  much  contrary  to  the  innate 
nature  of  the  ancient  Ukrainian  to  abandon  his  old  creed,  that 
even  when  accepting  the  new,  it  was  merely  outwardly,  for,  the 
essence  of  Paganism  was  retained  and  the  two  became  much  inter¬ 
mingled.  It  may  be  observed  that  various  features  of  the  Pagan 
Gods  have  been  given  to  many  of  the  Ukrainian  Christian  holi¬ 
days  and  retained  until  the  present  day  e.g.  St  Ilia  has 
usurped  the  function  of  Perun,  the  Ukrainian  Pagan  God  of  Thunder. 
It  is  now  St. Ilia  who  is  supposed  to  be  rumbling  over  the  heavens 
during  a  storm.  A  religious  Ukrainian  peasant  even  at  the 
present  time  believes  that  he  should  not  mow  hay  on  the  holiday 


-105- 


S.rrr  ?. 


1 


I  :/•  iK  -;T  '*,j 

crM'il  -■^--  ..tyti'x.tio-o'Sax-  'X^f  ^  ■ 


•>or '  :.TC  ■ '  i^<j-  v»r  ^  y,..'*  Li<j  - '.'  li* -  ci  ' 


'  -•  .  ■  '  ■  '  }  ,  C 

Smv"  >r  wi  •■  rt ':^x  !<»"'■  •  '  ,f 


V..  ,*.x.iu*  D.* ‘^OH' • /^rrii*<3jiif?>g[,' ii'*.'-!  ,  r®97 

:  ■  '' 

:^{c  *r'.  «iV  tK'u  ,v^u.t'^  oo  ffi.  4‘  •*.■?> 

»;v«4  %-j'  *0  .'^'  ';[r»  J  :■  ■■•« 


; '•  i  1 J  j ■  ■ '  i  i .V  0  ■  no i  a^o o  ,  -6 , 
'C*i.o' cv.i  p  '!j^i.-p-'v- ;• 


■j-9* 


■J  ■  )  -■ 


'  •  f/ii' '  ■-  :‘g 

•>;iU  *  .‘n--'.'  . . . 

t 

’  rn  i  t>^i:  *•  'A 

»:.  •'  ,  T'  '  r  ‘.O-  -Ji-t;!  ,  •v<i;r«;>^: 


b^  riucfui'"*, orfw  Jli  .  's  v.\.ri 'ill  ^;. 


'  T  i  >i 


4 


of  St. Ilia,  for  fear  of  incurring  the  wrath  of  the  Saint  who 
might  set  fire  to  it.  Characteristics  of  Paganism  ere  especially 
apparent  in  Ukrainian  Christmas  Carols,  in  the  observance  of 
Easter  and  the  holiday  of  St.John. 

It  is  said  that  during  the  early  stages  of  this  "dual  be¬ 
lief”,  the  clergy  strictly  denounced  it,  but  their  efforts  were 
of  no  avail.  At  the  present  time,  of  course,  the  very  obvious 
features  of  Paganism  are  scarce,  while  others  became  so  much 
a  national  ingredient  and  so  harmless  to  Christian  Faith  that 
all  join  in  observing  them. 

The  Pagan  features  were  moulded  in  with  Christianity  mostly 
by  the  common  people  through  their  ”unwritten  literature”,  but 
the  writers  themselves  were  not  exempt  from  incorporating  them 
in  their  works.  In  this  way  a  compromise  was  being  arrived  at 
between  the  two,  and  the  growth  of  a  real  national  literature 
was  assured.  The  religious  material  in  this  literature  was 
of  primary  importance,  but  one  must  not  on  account  ©f  this, 
disregard  other  mterial.  either  of  local  origin  or  brought  by 
merchants  who  travailed  in  foreign  countries. 

The  Eastern  Church  in  Ukraine  was  not  altogether  free  from 
rivalry  with  the  Western  Church.  In  warring  against  R©m0*s 
propaganda,  the  development  of  polemic  writing  wg„s  the  outcome. 
But  these  writings  were  practically  all  of  Grecian  origin, 
and  as  such  had  no  influence  upon  the  masses.  The  Byzantine 

polemio  witinga  war.  very  bitter  in  attacking  Roman  Christianity 


-106- 


'.  i\.\J  n*i  ai  '  ’Oi * : ii  ^ r 

,  o  vj6tilc-i  erld'  tn^s 

‘:v  v..f.^i3'.>  _  i'i^a  ei  J-I 

Ti«'' ;  ^  ■ -■  '  r.cc  -v  )  ','j...‘ .'‘".'  •^ii 

t  •  •  ••  ,  ^  ^  Jr  ■  *  .it  Ofl  *iO 

’■  c..  s  .  ■•  .  ^•;.  •  !n^  •  V.o  ooiL'&Bel: 

9 

il^.  ■  -•-.  '’  Vi  .!,;■  r'.:o  ,  InjR  J'ofeil  .r.#7(civ-tj£:.n 

.  .  •  *  ‘•jo.i- 7'ir»:iOC  iil  X-ta 

- /W  ■  •  :  "  .■.  ■  ^  . i  “r  0 ^  ^ f » 'Uf  rX:;'i  AT  '  ■' 

-  ;..  i^  i.  ^  ' 

.  fc-  ,  -  • 

■*Staih»9»J  £X„  •'.  1  '-.'vi-oo  •m,:  ■.*-.' 

-. i-»'t-.-  .oA  jqu;s>:t>  JOfi  K-vIvotae-rif  6,.^*“ 

.  i  '  - u;c  •.Uf‘;c'»  .v:-v  ‘U  f':  .  ' ’“s^Ty  Tie/;*’  ai 

-T  fr'- '  J-  '7.  '>;,v:'fv  ^  ff'i  ••Vf 'C-ii 

:m 

i  ■.I ■  li' 

':c  '"t  ••:!:.  ro  .' 'if  ••ac  ;  .'.-i-.i  v6cfai  V.’JiUiii “Jf'-j 

'  i.-  ,:-v  'r*.  :i.ie 

•  r;  Ar-,  :  r  •  .  *;  3.;*ni*<10W, 

■*  '  "  A  ’or  M.'y*  ‘  r; ' '  ^,lT 

iqft  in. '•*,»  .<  -  .  .•  ;  ;  ■  r:Jiw  v  .  ■ 

•  ««>  ,  ^..  .,  rro.x'Qel .  ’  4  ••'■.•  iiq'o'.v- 

■ '"  ■  ''  iX<‘  \/ A «T^  •  I  '  XTin 

.  .i#-,nL  r-'v  ...  Arr.  .ij.  '  C'f;'  or:'  •.,,:'5  8J0 

»  S 

:  Pi|  'urtiioq  ' 


in  Byzantium  •  Hence  the  rigidity  of  tone  which  was  carried  also 
into  literary  form  in  Ukraine*  Polemics  were  also  engaged  in 
■between  Byzantium  and  the  Jews,  but  the  Jewish  religion  was  not 
threatening  to  oust  the  Eastern  Church  in  a  way  in  which  it  was 
possible  for  Rome  to  do*  The  ante-Semitic  writings  were  there¬ 
fore  of  a  milder  tone,  which  style  was  also  imitated  in  Ukraine. 

Notwithstanding  the  resort  to  controversial  literature  in 
Ukraine*  the  foreigners  therein  were  always  tolerated.  Consequent¬ 
ly  Kiev,  the  capital  city,  boomed,  various  institutions  founded 
there,  thrived,  and  it  became  the  centre  of  Ukrainian  culture* 

From  the  10th  until  the  15th  century  Kiev  was  considered  to  be 
the  leading  city  in  Eastern  Europe*  It  was  particularly  rich  in 
costly  Churches  and  Monasteries*  Here  was  found  the  well-knofwn 
Pechersky  Monastery  which  bscame  the  cradle  of  ascetic  Christianity 
in  Ukraine.  It  gave  the  Ukrainian  literature  such  man  as  liar ion, 
Theodosius,  Neator  and  others.  For  a  long  time  important  works 
were  produced  in  this  Monastery  and  Grecian  translations  made 
therein  were  disseminated  all  over  the  country,  and  even  amongst 
the  Russians  and  the  Whit®  Russians* 

In  Kiev  were  edited  the  first  compilations  concerning  the 
political  and  social  structure  in  Ukraine.  The  compilations 
of  statutes  termed  "Ruska  Pravda”  (Laws  of  Ukraine),  compiled 
by  order  of  Prince  Jaroslav  the  Wise,  in  the  11th  century  who 
was  the  first  man  to  make  an  attempt  to  have  a  record  of  Ukrainian 
laws  in  the  native  language,  shows  the  character  of  Ukrainian 


-107- 


- -.lu.  V  .. 

f.  - r 
r,l 


■  ■>Ji:.r.:.r-  ,  TjS“:’ii£Q  4?i  .rfo®  Ovtnj: 

(1  f  j-.v  ivtfo  cj-.  ,’?if3ii/c.i43i>,'3frfc^ 

.  '  ■■,  '  -  ■■  ■  S'--  'TO'?:,  Gldie':voc 

itei  -'•  &  ^J'Q  c»'2<^4 

lk>  oifiJrf  fti^T  ■  li'  feKo  ,or;j)U“ufiT  ‘ 

■  0 

■  w.v£^  *  ::  V.  Hi-ui  ,»  V' •  J  ^'v  ^'.'  v/  ’''■'^ 

.  T  .  X  ■  x»?  .»;n  *;'rf  ')  ii.  t  f.evia-'-^  t  xoi-ii  f 


je<l 


‘irt^^X':>n£^  "••i:-;  v/'i-  -'O  tt^.r .  ::'0V^ 


::<■■  'xrj?;  r-  lo  ni  v^i 

.  'r-xr/oM  J>;'-x 


t 

I  v' 

IJ'*- 


.  _  -  '■’  '■  ". 

"  -^saS  Pil-t'fjija':,-.;’  i^rK;  .  • '^-.S  ..  .•■x'M,' 

i*3C^i  ^  :  •  ....  'f  ‘kC  ,  .V-  K.  lih'\  X'du.'-y.  t  - , 

-■  :••>=  i-',’;  'f  f?!  /;  'i‘SK^JZ'‘r-.v'  M  ^•f^^  .rii  .'.  i.  Oii^Q  ’iC  ,  €V^<^V.'  ' 
<•  r?ir'..:;  ,v:i  'tt  .'O  ,  :.fi  .'■  .••!Xi.  G«aitj  ditjx  *:i 


wv;  riftXf --i: 


«Xii'.;  .-ist;- 

Wii  bt.>iX.'>.  .1 


'  0  ' 


C*  ' 


.  .  ipixr  nJi  *>'ti'.tur/r:dT’  X/»iac?s  -  J^oid'iXr'q 

..ZlT'  ‘U’  2.''^-..  '  •  .>..,V/l'^  /.'^'rf>';-’. '■  Jo 

■  -'  t  .  ■  r»r?^  *'..1  (■;•>/:  ,  t/OnA*:'',  'ic  •'X'L'*o  v.cJ 

‘V  r  r  /  Jr;of  :J‘c  riH  oi  r  o  '  i;/^-  cx'  x'i  4^d/ 

*..-'•  •'vt.(.';i  ^  o4-+'.:Xri 


social  life  in  Kiev  In  the  earliest  stage  of  this  development. 
Later  compilations  made  about  the  12th  century  contain  statutes 
on  legislation  by  Volodimir  Monomakhua.  ,  There  were  also 
manuscripts  written,  but  not  many  of  them  vrritten  before  the 
Tartar  invasions  were  preserved.  One  of  the  earliest  manuscripts 
was  the  so-called  "Gospel  of  St  George"  written  about  1120  by 
direction  of  King  Mstislav  for  his  son  Vsevolod, 

In  the  middle  of  the  12th  century  smaller  centres  of  learning 
in  Ukraine  were  also  knovm.  Such  places  as  Turiw,  Halitch, 
Volodimiria,  Volhynia.and  Kholm  exhibited  a  vivid  educational 
movement.  The  beginning  of  education  was  merely  the  reading  of 
books,  organized  courses  of  studies  were  started  later,  but  even 
then  they  were  intended  primarily  for  students  going  into  religious 
work.  But,  it  was  not  long  after  this  that  a  general  education  of 
all  who  wished  it  followed.  Reading”  and  writing,  arithmetic  and 
Greek  was  taught  in  and  around  Kiev,  %Thile  in  Western  Ukrainian 
lands,  Latin  and  German  was  also  taken  up.  Education,  however 
primary  ,  was  then  considered  a  profitable  achievement,  for  it 
was  generally  believed  that  to  be  able  to  read  the  Gospel  for 
oneself  was  already  half  the  battle  towards  salvation  of  the  soul. 
But,  the  height  of  learning  in  the  more  cultural  centres  consisted 
in  a  thorough  knowledge  of  Grecian  rhetoric. 

This  animated  educational  life  in  Ukraine  eventually  made  it 
possible  not  only  for  the  common  people  to  gain  in  knowledge,  but 
also  ,  as  alreadj^  mentioned,  for  the  neighboring  peoples  to  profit 
by  the  spread  of  Ukrainian  literature.  Due  to  this  fact  the 


-108- 


i  j  iax o5h 


.  .^M  (;j  '  ft*-'  Pibfir.  imn  ^ I.J.-'mo  o  ‘ss^ftjT 

.  •  '  .  '■  '?’  •  .  •  , 

.  .  M'£KvV''^|oy  *,.c?  (T('i  wo 

*■  '  '  i)S  ■  . 


tpT  'iSXf  Vvt 


r  o  V  nrhd  .'  c  j r  .) u .  ^  ni  r  ’  .•  ja-tc  ?  ^oQ^ 

•r>.*,,v''  .  Ic  Xt-cnoO”  srvr 


'i;'.^;tiO  il'v A:,*')  ^to  £4 1 


•V  '•  j.''i  H-;'.'-.  OH3X.,yciJ^:i^  fjX 

ikfsoSfik^h 

’:4i»'ri  ciTx  ri' 

p4t  "  t  >*f€V  ■.-  ^Z^OOQ 

*^*.  <  .  r  i. -^v 

Otliat'Ubr  ;  '-V,.  *  •  r.lc  :  "oX  Jc^t '  ■ , .  . 

'  ' 

hf  j-iffif'  I  X  ■•  '  >  *  .  o/f^'  IJc., 

V  ’•'  -c  ;  r/.t n*^ u/‘ ^  ?r  . 

'.  I  -  ' 

,  ‘-'^tHiilbk  *  ■'X"., 

f»  r  .:X-'  .1-  bC'^’^XG.'^oo  ae<c\^  kjj?/  ^  v'j.h.'»!4 

Zfft»  ■ ''•■  '  ‘  ...  i'  ti'C  0-.  v^p.  •{-•;•  1)0  VO  Hex  cam.' 

ko  p.  ••••'..»■<: .'  -'jl  ^:>/i.i  <'.*'■  ■;  ^.-’(f 

.  ■it>.'-  .  V  ':•=  .  JXfi:  vx  .  «.  '  I  :o.'  ’*o  eX  *-  4 

.  v.o  .i,,beX^D.i>(  41*31/010:  (•.’ 

1  'i 

■••'■  ;<»nciX*'ari>d.  be,:  ■'  Jr.-Ai  tlti'X  ' 

■  ••  'jC'V.O't  i::!..'  •xt-'l,  V.Ioo  ■^oii 


^  ‘.T’-MC  J  '4  .fp.li 

■  iJ^ii 

'  ..:.  ]  (list'll  M>  ,  ','ifc 


Russisms  in  particular  became  posaessora  of  some  valuable  works, 
the  origin  of  some  of  which  can  now  be  traced  only  with  groat 
difficulty.  Apart  from  this,  it  was  really  a  forttanate  thing 
for  the  Ukrainian  literature,  since  it  escaped  destruction 
during  the  Tartar  menace,  a  fate  which  overtook  the  bulk  of 
Ukrainian  literature.  Many  other  Ukrainian  works  gave  the 
Russian  authors  material  which  they  used  in  their  writings, 
adapting  it  to  local  needs.  Such  material  as  was  made  over 
beyond  recognition  cannot,  of  course,  now  be  claimed  by  the 
Ukrainians.  But  there  Is  at  least  a  satisfaction  that  it  did 
good  to  someone.  The  books  and  manuscriots  which  were  preserved 
in  Russia  were  mostly  all  of  a  religious  character.  They  were 
kept  in  libraries  of  the  Churches  and  Monasteries.  All  books 
of  lay  character  were  strictly  censored,  and  everything  obnoxious 
to  the  Church,  or  which  did  not  comply  with  the  requirements 
of  the  library  authorities,  was  discarded.  Thera  were  also  lay 
libraries  owned  by  princes,  merchants  and  others,  but  they  were 
destroyed  by  the  Tartars.  That  literature  of  lay  character  was 
a  valuable  asset  of  the  Ukrainians  before  the  Tartar  invasions, 
is  strongly  evidenced  by  such  writings  as  ”Slovo  Pro  Pohhid 
Ihora”  (a  Hymn  or  Song  concerning  Prince  Ihor's  March),  fragments 
of  the  epoch  of  ’’Druzhina’*  (  a  Suite),  and  a  number  of  historical 
novels. 

The  Ukrainian  Translated  Literature  . 

As  we  have  seen  above,  Byzantine  literature  did  not  find 


-109- 


■/•  O  i . 


•  ,  t  ‘ •  '-’  voi 

,--o  '  ‘.c,  c^is'^oc.'  ‘io  . 

•  •.  j  •  i^'p;.'  «Ja' 

i  .  ■  9  . 

/TV  1  ^ f  '  AC,;.  .-'  :l 

V  .’/•  c4;^.  'io^ 

•  •» ,  ,  ,^1 » »+  v*r  ’ifc*  #^4*  “  rr  ^  v  1 

.  i  :  'f  -it  '^ ;0  -i  T** VO  .  i  •?!  ci- 

',,  -  ''  .■'-  •■  -'.fr'  ''.  ■'•'■'SiV' 

’*  *1,  **  ^  p  '  ’<  f*VJ>A  fji^v  .a/xX  *X.^w 

70..  '•-  c:  '•;  .'^  i  nijei'i  v 

,  .(tMiW-  ‘  Ci  Uv  ■  ' 

.'i 

I/ji  'n^ii fMs^ 

■.+*-^-fcu.’-'<-->  ■"-■ 

'iv.  tCfcv0.iTi;..0  i7cJ'iii^,:^OC50t 

f  49f^  7\icJ:r^{>i\^JaJ^^  e'^:ood  ari'T  '..1'no^^ott  oi  hr<.-. 
.  1-^  -jf/t' '  •:•  Iv*^  J)  V  .  Xjt4  v^IJ^c.c  ns 

_  IK  '  «l  : 

.  .'C”  wf./  1q  ^■:>im7':r’ i  ai-  Jcv>*i 

“rt,'‘.»;'.T‘|?.;^ 

■v.'  .•#  bn.-  t ..‘  '•.o«^:.’..  O'iHvr  'u.iui}^'Si.ri^ 


'l.i-  ‘.If^  l‘ 

' .  no  b i i -  i ! 0 i ;. ;?/  '^c>  ♦  /f a t / rfjy  4>fl v+  o ^ 

►ilMf  «*•;*».•■;  , 

,  iiU<-  ; 

t B'OOr i lo  v^:': t>nvx3 

ii  /’.'"  y^t  b<&vv- 

^:  .  '*;  ’  v  lo'iv-J  •  v'.!^  '-tc 

’  f 

t  v(f'u\  «-  li--^  .f*<  lje*^n?>luv9  ■;."*  nr'::’o' 


6,v.;*^  ^  :••,  j'  ’  -•>  i7\ 

f^‘reo''.c'’0  11  n-'.  '  'i  ■  A)  *":( ’.r  m.?’ 

;  5‘  V_  ’.  •  ,xrg  .  V  •  , 

' '  ..<#1 

.  ■  .!  ) ‘^i;n.‘  *10  /'Iwqo  '  ^.c 

■*  ,  1  iVCt 

•'.i  •♦'»  'it.  Ix-.fi.ItinA'iT  UP  / 

an  easy  access  into  Ukraine*  But  a  substantial  amount  of  it 
came  and  was  well  utilized  •  The  Ukrainian  translated  literat^ire 
C8ime  either  from  the  Southern  Slavs  or  was  translated  on 
Ukrainian  soil  from  the  Greek  language  into  ecclesiastical-Sla- 
vonic.  In  translating  from  the  Greek  an  Ukrainian,  while  in¬ 
terested  in  the  context,  at  the  same  time  recs^st  it  according 
to  his  own  taste  and  the  purpose  which  it  was  meant  to  serve. 

The  translator  usually  remodelled  the  works  translated,  giving 
them  national  characters.  This  was  done  by  means  of  interpola¬ 
tions  and  remarks  inserted  at  the  time  of  translating.  When 
this  was  being  recopied,  everything  foisted  in  was  included 
as  if  it  were  part  of  the  original. 

The  oldest  Ukrainian  Chronicle  shows  that  Yaroslav,  the 
Wise,  engaged  many  writers  or  learned  men  of  the  time  to  help 
him  translate  Greek  works  into  ecclesiastical-Slavonic  language® 
And,  since  traces  of  Byzantine  character  are  found  in  Ukrainian 
literature  from  the  9th  until  the  end  of  the  15th  century,  there 
is  no  doubt  that  the  work  begun  by  Yaroslav  was  continued  for 
a  long  time  after  his  reign.  The  translated  literature  was 
greatly  appreciated  because  of  the  superior  culture  which  it 
carried  with  it.  It,  therefore,  quite  legitimately,  had  a 
marked  preponderance  over  the  original  literature  in  Ukraine* 
Consequently/  the  translated  literature  was  imitated  in  many 
respects  by  the  contemporary  original  literature.  The  resemblance 
may  still  be  noticed  in  Ukrainian  poetical  works,  stories, 
legends,  tales  and  even  songs. 


ii;y 


'"c  0  ^  ni  tjec? 


v  8  -c‘  .ln.'^^  W*^-. 

s,  -  V. '*^\•'■^  'i/  'i/rob  0 
."''-■•^»ii*'  W  It 

0ffT  .li'tv'?  '  -.‘^  'Wi 


r*^’  <>v^Av  rri'C'  ? 

*  ■  ^  h 

^iv. 

t :  I?  .'’'  ■  i ,.' .  5  j  •  1  it  ' ! . XJir  t  ^  r  '4 

^  J  X'.  ••*J,5q  JX 


^  ‘  ••^y  7.?'-0  *'.»;vv'c  •  '  .u,'-’  '.eTitt’  I 

>  ,j;.  ‘‘c  'o  ..  .'  ■^f•  *''•  -'-■••^’  ,  5;fno 

V* 

> 

.•.;r..-'i  )  L  '■-  -■c'O-sO.  <fJ^.Uia4 

.  .  '  ■  riM '•■tr’t;  l^tc  -o 

■  ’-^  ■rnc'i’i  •^•Us^ 

'•^4i  '''•  •  *  vi-ir<v  jovof^ 

■  ‘  ‘"\ 

j  .  .•  1'.  i'--:  .  wX  X'  ■'  ■'  •  -  ■  V 

^•LMrteii-  J  *  -  t  '  “  t  - 

.  ^  .  ,  ■  -  'i': 

-v- 

.  ,  j'*"  •  • J  '  ^  V;"’.»''TC%.  .  'ICO  J 

.fj  .y-^Ti'  -(iV  ifj  ^  c  n  <  •-  J  S  J 


tKiJiO 

P«u:c 

■aoiwxf* 

rd  o  i- 
■,-  edT 

n  f. 

?  . 

'4««^ 

'  ■!*  •’ 

•zX  n^id 

'  < 

<:,:  Si 
.'  'C  I  i 
.( ,  <  r  9  7  • 
e/ 'T'l/'"' 

ir>«iRnfjO 

'-4'  ■"-.. 


Of  the  religious  literature  which  found  Its  way  into  Ukraine 
the  Old  and  the  Now  Testament  were  the  first  and  the  moat  important 
But,  along  with  these, various  biographies  of  saints  and  church 
service  books  were  also  brought  in.  Church  dignitaries  lost  no 
time  in  translating  works  of  practically  all  of  the  well-known 
Greek  and  Latin  Ecclesiastics  and  Christian  teachers*  There  were 
also  scientific,  geographical,  historical  books  and  novels.  With 
the  exception  of  the  last,  all  were  being  diligently  studied 
in  the  more  cultured  circles.  The  novels  were  much  read  by 
the  common  people  who  found  in  them  something  which  satisfied 
their  spiritual  longings  because  of  their  general  affinity  with 
the  Ukrainian  national  or  unwritten  literature*  It  also  took 
of  the  old  national  Pagan  poetry,  which  was  persistently  objected 
to  by  the  clergy.  The  novel  was  an  adequate  substitute  for  it. 

It  was  free  from  the  attacks  of  the  clergy,  furnished  food  for  a 
man*s  fancy,  and  at  the  same  time  satisfied  his  ethical  and 
religious  necessities  and  also  his  aesthetic  and  artistic  tastes. 
The  translated  apodryphal  books  were  dierished  perhaps  even  more 
than  thenovelSa,  They  were  in  a  way  religious  and  were  interesting 
as  offering  something  new  which  was  not  to  be  found  elsewhere^ 
Reading  of  these  books  tended  to  materially  influence  the  new 
Christian  mental  horizon  of  the  Ukrainian. 

The  Ukrainian  dream-book  of  to-day  reminds  one  of  the  time 
when. the  Apocrypha  was  introduced  amongst  the  people.  From  the 
beginning  of  ehristiahity  the  Apocrypha  were  accompanied  by 
legends  which  had  their  beginning  before  the  time  of  the 


-111- 


L 


4  •  ..■  .:  '  '  .  .;fCA,S  5_  I 


.  M-'O 


:^Ck, 


?.  •  V 


•l « 


( 


'.c 


.«  >  .VviJ  r  la-toq  «i. 


J  ;^a  CUUI  ■ 

■.'*■  ’•'  :;■  t  .  ■  T'-'i  £  oe  ,v;xii  j.ja 

t  '  •^■.■.  ••■•<-^  "  C'-'-J 

■;'.i .'I;.  0  ■  ^r' 

W.  N.:‘';.  .'fv  filjjfroa'  rv  0  oi./ 

^,:Viiy  '..  j,  ■  ;  '-i". a  ■  '3.;  0;-;^ 

•;.'  -o  .^ir  if* 'i3iU  >•'•:' 

:.^ir  :,>iD  ivr';  'ic 


u^j«Lrp.  ,  '■  ,  ■  -  ,.  ._j  ..  ... 

'  A  V  •:  ■  ....  .,;  .  ;.  :•  ‘■'' 

''>.•■  rjfj. 


J  I.  ,  'u  .? 


{ 


D 


'<-■  .  ''  ■  'li:  .r;C!T/  -il':' 

x’C'  -'.1.? 


.  ^ 


4,  "  X 


S.iS 


V  C' 


'»iJ 


appearance  of  the  Bible.  As  a  matter  of  fact  the  legend  was 
quite  desirable  and  was  made  use  of  as  an  auxiliary  to  the  Bible. 

It  was,  as  it  were,  a  bridge  from  Paganism  to  Christianity.  For 
the  masses  the  legend  was  a  substitute  for  the  ante-Christian 
national  poetry;  for  the  educated  and  the  writers  it  supplied 
material  for  a  high  artistic  poetry  and  creative  work*  The 
legend  was  so  popular  that  it  finally  stood  as  an  emulator 
of  the  Bible  itself.  But,  notwithstanding  this  the  Apocrypha, 
since  they  were  an  aid  to  the  spread  of  the  Bible  ,  all  of  them 
unless  directly  in  conflict  with  it,  were  allowed  to  be  spread 
among  the  people.  They  came  into  Ukraine  from  Byzantium  by  way 
of  Southern  Slavonia  .  They  were  translated  by  the  Ukrainian 
pilgrims  who  visited  the  Holy  Land.  Along  with  religion  Ukraine 
also  adopted  Church  architecture  of  Byzantium,  its  ways  of 
painting  Icons,  interior  of  the  Churches  and  other  things.  In  the 
Mosaic  art  of  the  Cathedral  of  St.  Sophia  in  Kiev,  built  in  the 
11th  century  the  legend  is  illustrated.  A  picture  of  Virgin 
Mary  is  painted  relating  the  circumstances  concerning  the 
immaculate  conception  of  the  Virgin. 

The  Apocryphal  -sinritings  explain  many  problems  and  answer 
many  questions  arising  in  the  study  of  the  Bible.  They  dwell 
broadly  concerning  the  creation  of  man  and  his  downfall,  Abraham, 
Moses,  David  and  Sol Oman,  the  life  of  Christ,  the  Apostles,  religious 
Martyrs  and  others. 

Of  the  Apocrypha  based  on  the  New  Testament,  probably  the 
most  popular  ones  are  those  concerning  Virgin  Mary  and  Archangel 


-113- 


X 


Michael  visiting  the  Inferno  where  Virgin  Mary  seeing  people 
in  extreme  agony  sympathizes  with  them  and  wishes  that  they  be 
pardoned.  These  had  a  marked  effect  on  the  Ukrainian  contemporary 
and  later  original  literature.  Among  the  common  people  they 
provided  ample  material  for  the  interpretation  of  the  Bible, 
for  superstitious  stories  and  books  on  foretelling  the  future. 

In  Italy  similar  Apocrypha  gave  rise  to  Dante’s  ’’Comedy”, 
Missionaries  going  among  the  people  brought  with  them 
the  translated  Byzantine  Bible*  The  most  favorite  part  of  it 
with  the  people  seems  to  have  been  the  Paalter,  It  was  easily 
understood  and  the  poetry  therein  was  attractive.  The  fact  that 
it  was  used  in  schools  as  a  text  book  until  the  19th  century  speaks 
for  its  popularity.  The  book  served  many  purposes  including  that 
of  reading  at  funerals  and  foretelling  the  future. 

The  books  prepared  for  the  conduct  of  religious . services 
and  those' containing  biographies  of  saints  are  considered  to  have 
been  of  great  literary  value  ,  The  former  were  always  very 
poetic,  especially  those  prepared  by  Solodkopivetz,  Damaskin, 
Kritsky  and  other  Christian  poets.  As  to  the  latter,  ’’The 
Prologue”  which  contains  brief  life  histories  of  many  saints, 
was  undoubtedly  a  very  popular  work.  Then  were  also  biographical 
writings  dealing  with  the  lives  of  the  friars  and  other  men 
leading  an  ascestic  life.  An  interesting  storey  is  preserved 
of  a  certain  priest  who,  when  walking  in  the  dessert  along 
the  River  .Jordanyiaet  a  lame  lion  which  held  out  its  paw  appealingly 


-113- 


r 


!»■ 


r  ^  • 


^ 


*'}'•<  i  tir  y 


u*. 


t  ,  -  -fv  .' 


.  .M;i  -bir:  .  l'..  ^ 


f 


c 


-  c  .... 

'  3i%c  ;i  i. 


ov-  ^  ''':h 

.  .rwi'.  .».!  TOiiJG  f' .  m  * 


.rdTT  ..'■■t 


as  if  asking  for  aid.  The  priest  attended  to  it  and  the  sore 
soon  healed  up.  Since  that  time  the  lion  became  very  much  attached 
to  hinand  followed  him  wherever  he  went.  He  also  looked  after 
his  Ass  while  out  in  the  pasture.  At  one  time  while  he  was  away 
the  old  priest  died.  The  lion  returning  would  not  rest  nor  eat 
until  he  saw  his  master  .  Nothing  remained  but  to  show  him 
the  grave  where  he  lay  buried.  When  this  was  done  and  the 
lion  became  convinced  that  his  best  friend  was  gone,  he  made  a 
loud  roaring  sound,  struck  the  earth  with  his  body  and  died. 

Other  important  works  were  those  of  the  early  priests  who 
have  later  been  canonized  for  recognition  of  their  contributions 
to  the  ehurch  .  Writings  of  St. Ivan  Zolotoustey  (the  Golden- 
Lipped),  were  perhaps  the  most  widely  popularized.  They  had  a 
subtle  poetic  touch  and  were  interesting  to  read.  After  him 
comes  St.Basil  the  Great,  who  is  a  close  second  with  his  detailed 
accounts  of  the  lives  of  the  Monks  and  of  fasting.  Besides  these, 
there  were  other  compositions  worthy  of  mention.  These  were  the 
Dialogues,  treating  the  problems  of  Christianity.  The  effect  of 
these  questions  and  answers  was  a  better  understanding  of  the 
abstract  doctrines  in  the  Christian  religion  and  its  dogmas.  But, 
of  the  Ukrainian  translated  literature  no  works  contain  as  much 
variety  of  information  as  the  two  compilations  of  Prince  Sviatoslav, 
the  first  of  which  appeared  in  the  1073,  and  the  second  in 

1076.  The  earlier  one  is  being  preserved  in  the  Russian  Synodal 
Library,  and  the  later  in  the  Public  Library  at  Petrograd.  They 
contain  translations  from  the  Greek  and  embody  a  concise 


-114- 


.  1  •»:u  .'••;•-• 

irc.iX  ('.rX  4. 

-.  .cc..  •  ': 

■  ' 

,  ■  i*.’v  ■  ^i’.rr  .' 

Otic  -  ’■  .  .  ’.U.-'S 

P'. 

.:ro'. 

.•■  ><  '1  .:c  i 

rid  '.r’  I  lii  : 

•  c  t 

-T-?. 


,-.:r.  4  -^iw  '6.X0  edi 

«  'so;i-D,''K  cid  w^,D  ort  liim; 


>.;/  ^^t.■'  -'rrL  vB?f  Qxdw*  »;v?i’'.  c-'todTr  tsviri;.  .)d:j 

'  - 


i-r-.*  ^  IC3  exJW  .Iir' - 

.  1.-*^^  -  d%'^' i 

)P^',*H*--^- ■ "  ’  '-;*:«»«  ^.d- 


,/'■ 


:.:  ■  li^or.ivaciM  ricii. 

tt  4fyjb“^va  ,  D.nvoa  JbtroX 

< 

'rivs.  *  “ib  ndf -■  .:d;t-r'.orvi  'iol  X’ '.  i :'o  vrp  jk-oJ  074:'  .•"V 

w'..  :g:c.o.'  .V  2-  '  /  4  ■n'.ucfiJ.  edJ*  o,y ;'’ 

.  •  I  .*•.  •  I  j  Xifii'iir  e...‘  «t©  ^"',.6eqcrii 

'_,.-'2 i«t»'ic‘%2'..’'  '  irAT  bar  doyoX  9l2'd;'3 

■.,4  ♦-  ,  r.  ■  ^  /•  ui  o...-  ;  v  ■■■':L  eili  11^- -^4  s^r  co  •■ 

.  'j  .  1:9  .  -c  '.x<3  .*! ;4--  '  *^*0  ji  ’-'il  ndi /lo  adntf0oo£  j 

n  ■  .  _ _ 2w  •.  ;c-.':  V  cvfTGxxi  !)  exoff^ 

.  .  .  *..  ;o/.Co*:q  bd-:  t  i-^tqio.Uiu  ^ 

'  ij  ;  ■./  ti:  hiii&  S2edv+  ^  ■  / 

risXJ-'X'xrfb  Oi'*  r;!'  <5v:  2  ^:i''KJ4i  ^o^xjcdjs 


:'f.  ..v^„ 


f*«c2'.x:-.  v-f  #1'  rj vix:.' :  iC'i.tX.r'l'Jl*  *0 


I! 


•J  ;  q.  10  )  '  * 


*  1*.'.  nc  !  5m  i"c',t:ni  ':o  - 

lo  ©d^ 


;<  ••©.1;  ....J  br:x» 


encyclopaedia  of  Byzantine  culture#  Amonp  other  important  things, 
the  earlier  compilation  also  contains  an  Index  or  Register  of  the 
prohibited  books.  Another  compilation  of  the  13th  century  is  the 
^Pchela"  (a  Bee).  It  is  a  collection  of  short,  wise  sayings  or 
aphorisms  selected  from  various  writings  both  religious  and  seculaer. 
The  mixing  of  these  adages  with  the  national  proverbs  of  Ukraine 
was  indeed  very  elevating.  This  probably  accounts  for  the  high 
quality  of  proverbs  which  one  often  hears  from  a  very  simple  and 
uneducated  Ukrainian. 

Some  historical  and  geographical  works  and  a  little  on 
natural  science  had  been  transl9.ted.  History  was  embodied  in 
the  Chronicles.  These  dealt  with  the  history  of  the  world  as 
it  was  known  in  the  Middle  Ages  of  Byzantium.  True  to  the  spirit 
of  the  times,  the  Chronicles  were  written  in  a  religious  sense. 

One  of  the  most  important  of  the  Chronicles  was  that  of  Ivan 
Malala  which  dates  back  to  the  16th  centurt  A.D. ,  which  originated 
in  Antioch  and  shows  evidence  of  Eastern  culture.  It  contains 
much  political  material  from  Grecian  Mythology,  depicts  the  Trojan 
War  and  King  Alexander  of  Macedonis,.  What  was  learned  of  geogra¬ 
phy  was  acquired  from  the  Ukrainian  Topography  of  a  Byzantine 
writer  Kozma  Indikoplov  of  the  6th  century  A.D. #  and  a  contemporary 
of  Justinian.  The  explanations  of  Indikoplov  regarding,  the 
position  and  the  function  of  the  earth  and  the  heavenly  bodies 
are  quite  in  accord  with  the  religious  conceptiorse  as  they  then 
were,  but,  they  are  contrary  to  all  the  findings  of  modern  astro¬ 
nomy.  However,  they  show  us  that  even  in  those  times  the  people 


-115. 


.  I.  r 

i 

\  \y.  ■  ■  ’.■■  ■ 

~  '  V  j  tiX3fw< 

•  '  ft 

.IV.  m0  .' »  j 

0mr  »  t  /  ; 


<  -?J!V  C 


-  ^  *  IV ;  .rr.,  .  .  , .  1*J;> 


....  ' f-  '  V  * iciivo  *\ -  fi  1*1  ■. 

‘  0  '-'I  .  cvc  J '  .t  i  <}}do  10 

,  .  .  »  ■_  .M*' 

•  •  •  .  .  ii-i::.  f 

-y  ■^  '  . 

+ 

C  ■5^.:t^ty'r'..-C"--  *f.r>  V.l'iXut-p 

-o’rbijru 

■  •!  ^  . 

"2’  ,..■.  '  Af*.  ’  '  '  IT  '\.L  .:•  '  •'  ^  .1 

.. ' ' 

^  r<-\,  '  .'v  - 

4>r^’‘  ,.•  ‘  :  '.i..^^^  i:i 

Tf  ,'. .  ■’  .(  .'  '.-r •.;?  ■•.  1  .  J  ildl  d 


Y^ere  interested  further  in  the  world  than  merely  around  them* 

Before  closing  the  sketch  of  and  reflections  on  the  Ukrai¬ 
nian  literature  derived  from  translations  of  foreign  authors,  one 
ought  to  say  something  of  the  novel.  Some  of  the  very  interesting 
novels  were  those  which  told  of  the  wild  and  tame  animals,  their 
life  and  speech.  They  were  contained  in  one  book  and  were  of 
Hindu  origin.  Several  centuries  after  they  first  appeared  in  the 
Hindu  language  they  were  translated  into  other  languages.  In  the 
11th  century  Simeon  Sit  translated  the  book  from  the  Arabian 
language  into  Greek,  from  which  language  it  was  translated  into 
Southern  Slavonic*  A  great  deal  of  moralising  is  done  in  these 
tales,  and  the  animals  are  considered  to  be  gifted  with  human 
senses  and  qualities.  They  talk  amongst  themselves  and  act  as  if 
they  were  human  beings.  Sometimes  they  are  made  to  answer  questions 
and  to  converse  with  the  people.  They  are  brought  in  usually  for 
the  purpose  of  deciding  some  important  spiritual  problem,  in  the 
life  of  Man. 

Other  early  novels  were  about  King  Alexander  of  Macedonia. 

They  were  really  not  so  much  historical  as  fabulous  tales  about 
the  King.  Among  the  Southern  Slavs, these  tales,  which  first 
appeared  in  Bulgarian,  in  the  15th  century  gave  place  to  the  ones 
translated  into  Serbian.  The  latter  were  more  romantic  and  were 
full  of  miracles  and  aphorisms.  More  than  that,  they  gave  the 
hero.  King  Alexander,  a  Christian  character. 

Then,  Vozniak  tells  us,  there  were  novels  describing  the 
Trojan  War  as  we  know  it,  and  a  novel  about  the  Kingdom  of  India  , 


-116. 


^•  ■'  ^'•zovf 


•  I  '  '  r  }  !i ':  ■  ■  .  •  ■ 

J'j  i  i  '  .  ;  ;:.ii  •  i  ',  -j.lu.  r  r  :  . 

(  '/  .;.C‘:''  ■■'^'J“i\.!t  C “T J i x 

T/  Y'^^r  *-  -  .  ...  .’'ll  ©iV'  ‘  •  *.r  ''.  ;  - 


•i. 


Ti ..  r.!,K'> 


rijf  h^^r’^uu' 


./if  -  ,-  •  ■  ■  ••.  i 

jk-  YI  >.o.' •  «:  '  *  0  -  .I-«i'fC'Hc'  ?  4i.:’x.r 

[OA/.  r--. .  .•i/;.;'ii  c:jlei'rt  -iO'  m.  s,:.. 

fn’t  'V  ’!  %-':C  ir  •»  “,1''^  ■  ’ 'jr.v.  “.t:-  ,  J.' ..-O  t;iOu 

’  X*-  ■  .1  CJ  i---;  . .  v:.;:;.  '  ■•  .  ri;^  .=^W.r  6r  ^  -J 

<  :  .  J  ?  ■>..■:  y  ,  .  r  -':  3'^:-r  V 


i 

:  I  i*  • » ^ 

i 


T 


-f  .i.;?-f  .p.'f  Ilf  ■’•  r  * 

.  C'  -.  ■•.rj.t.i.c  '^■i.l*  'lo  :?  '  --i 


if  c»;  -*  < 


which  novel  is  contained  in  the  earlier  compilations  of  Prince 
Sviatoslav*  This  novel  was  very  widely  known  in  the  Eastern 
Slavonic  countries  and  left  strong  marks  on  the  written  and 
unwritten  literature  of  the  people  who  were  familiar  with  it. 
Besides  this  novel  and  that  on  King  Alexander,  other  Eastern  novels 
were  brought  into  Ukraine,  The  story  about  Varlaam  and  Josaphath 
is  of  even  greater  literary  value  than  the  former  tw®,  since, 
while  in  the  other  two  Christian  spirit  was  only  partly  manifested, 
the  last  one  is  an  artistic  recasting  of  the  story  from  a  Moham¬ 
medan  into  a#iolly  Christian  one. 

Original  Literature. 

While  the  influx  of  foreign  literature  into  Ukraine,  and 
along  with  it,  foreign  culture  were  during  its  educa^tional  awaken¬ 
ing  rather  rapid,  it  is  encouraging  to  note  to  simultaneously 
with  these,  there  also  came  into  prominence  some  valuable  product¬ 
ions  of  local  talent.  Without  question  the  works  brought  in  and 
the  information  and  teachings  thereof  spread  among  the  people, 
gratified  their  desire  for  knowledge  and  led  them  to  consciously 
or  unconsciously  follow  them.  But  the  progressive  individuals 
did  not  stop  there.  In  them  was  aroused  a  creative  desire,  at 
first  very  likely  to  imitate  the  works  of  foreign  writers,  by 
borrowing  such  things  as  plots  and  style,  and  trying  to  reconcile 
them  with  local  conditions  and  the  taste  and  spirit  of  the  people, 
but  presently  to  produce  something  which  had  been  lived  by  the 
people  and  was  the  subject  of  their  aspirations. 

It  would  be  TTell  to  have  records  as  evidence  of  the  earliest 


.117« 


"?.5/  -;r^*  -  -Ii-o  jino'.'.3:^ 

i^'  7  .*  c  "(•/  «X<j»e.#q  ,  '.:  '  T.  j  sir^^iiu 

\  ■  -'."ei.'  ;'"a^  xro  .'^''fj  I ,  v<'>,i 

"■  ■  “  «  c..':a:.  ^i.';L;y  •-• 

'jirX^'  -.ti  -  .,j 

i'  O  ''tvfr.iO  V'l’tv  r-ji  '•?i.|'';;S 

''  ■•■  '••  ■  7  J  ^  ^  s  i  .,rro  ,f3^t  <ril.T 


-.H 


,  C  *1  '  Cd  'iO  'l  •  nrf 


W-;  '  ;;n  njui 


\  i  X<,j .  (p. 


-^iis 


rt  u.*-  - 


>:'.:i' l:1.t  <4>rf*  ,75 X x  :'iV'! 

X-.;..-  )'^3W  n  iiJj,:tj!)  D^i.-'TC^X  ,>J 


.  ■;:  .  i  j_ot,  o: 


>•  oa. 


•. •  '  j;.;  .“  oo-x  'la '  n  rrc  x  ’> '^ 

•* 

/  •  .-'o^  ■  ^  .';''::?i  fiij.j* 


C  ■  ‘i^c  .  ^  ‘ ’'MyfWC^lBb 

-  •  ‘  ..  -Jl. 

n:  -;  ,  ^  ,y:  .ci^a 

'C3  ^  ‘  C 

-r  fr-.:^r‘^  T!r,.  J..i7^f..., 

■:  ,  ,.  -.  ;  /->  >->A^'wXie*:  •  ,■  ^  :  x  :  •.' 

-  ■  w-.s(  o-«  ai>w  ►  -  •  qc  f-  Jci,  i.if?' 

:  :•  2>-;f  ^  oiXX  pJrT  l-jii  o^.‘  '-lov  ^atJ/i, 


»*,X  inn  QiUj.XvTionoO 
ftxXiN’  iftKfJhttroai >#^1^0  :  t  v'.t-Tt 


V  ;.’0 


'A'  «.iac;o':i 


rr«>v  .  .(  ,  5J 


writings  on  Ukrainian  soil,  but  unfortunately  such  are  not  to 
be  traced*  There  is  no  doubt  but  that  the  Ukrainians  had  a 
literature  of  their  own  in  the  10th  century  A*D.,  yet  we  have 
no  documents  to  prove  this  strong  hypothesis.  The  jealous  ages 
have  preserved  for  us  some  thirty  manuscripts  of  the  11th  century 
and  sixtyfive  of  the  12th  century.  In  view  of  the  Tartar  pogroms 
on  the  South-Eastern  Slavs  and  the  later  tragic  fate  of  Ukraine, 
only  a  very  small  part  of  the  manuscripts  written  have  been  saved. 

One  might  easily  surmise  the  character  of  the  early 
writings  among  the  Ukrainians.  The  matter  of  greatest  conse¬ 
quence  to  their  spiritual  life  was,  of  course, religion.  Paganism 
had  been  strongly  rooted  in  the  land  for  centuries  before  Christian 
ity  came.  When  Christianity  was  introduced,  it  devolved  upon  the 
promoters  of  it  to  see  that  it  became  well  established.  Conse¬ 
quently  the  priests  were  the  first  to  use  their  pen  to  combat 
Paganism.  They  tried  to  convince  the  masses  that  there  was  on© 
God  who  created  all  the  forces  of  nature,  and  all  creatures  for 
the  sole  purpose  that  they  might  serve  Man.  In  gratitude  for 
this  they  were  expected  to  endeavour  to  please  their  Creator, 
to  meditate  upon  Him  and  to  exalt  Him.  Travelling  musicians, 
actors,  and  acrobats  who  were  instrumental  in  spreading  the 
national  music  and  poetry  and  who  received  a  warm  welcome  where- 
ever  they  went,  were  denounced  as  dangerous.  All  these  woddly 
things,  said  the  priests  in  their  cynicism,  were  building  ”a  road 
that  leads  to  destruction".  The  early  religious  writers  who 
cam©  into  Ukraine  from  Byzantium  in  the  11th  century  dwelt  on 


-118- 


this,  and  the  same  precepts  were  adhered  to  by  the  native  Ukrai¬ 
nian  clergy* 

The  first  of  the  original  Uktainian  writers  of  the  time  were 
LukaZhidiata  and  liar ion.  Zhidiata  (1035-1059)  Archbishop  of 
Novgorod  appointed  by  Prince  Yaroslav,  was  a  devout  Christian, 
active  and  prudent*  His  teaching  was  simple  yet  convincing.  He 
advised  above  all,  ”to  believe  God,  his  Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost, 
as  taught  by  the  Apostles,  to  love  one’s  neighbor  and  truth,  to 
speak  only  what  comes  from  the  heart”.  These  written  sermon 0  were 
quite  simple  but  they  were  clear  and  logical,  and  therefore  accept¬ 
able  to  the  people. 

A  different  man  was  Metropolitan  liar ion  of  the  same  period, 
liar ion  was,  for  some  time,  a  priest  at  Berestov  near  Kiev.  He 
dug  a  pit  on  a  neighboring  hill  on  the  Dnieper,  where  Pecherskey 
Monastery  now  stands.  There  he  prayed  and  sang  at  times  for  hours. 
Prince  Yaroslav,  who  had  a  summer  resort  at  Berestov,  went  there 
often  and  came  to  know  and  like  Ilarion®  He  induced  the  Bishops 
to  elect  him  Metropolitan  of  Kiev,  which  they  did  in  1051.  Ilarion 
was  the  first  Ukrainian  who  held  a  position  which  was  heretofore 
occupied  by  Greeks.  Ilarion  differed  from  Zhidiata  in  that  he 
was  highly  educated  as  compared  with  the  meagre  education  of  the 
latter.  He  was  also  of  a  philosophic  turn  of  mind,  while  the 
other  was  not.  Ilarion  is  distinguished  for  his  originality  in 
creative  power ^  clever  use  of  rhetorical  figures  and  poetical 
tropes. 


119- 


V 


-  ■■  'W 


I  ; 


m 


«i  «.  « 


:v' rib; .  *  .H^XI  !}r  n+Ai-o/ffS<»-5itfJi 
r  '■•<■',) i 'i'^  ii^y  nIc>Q4*‘  : 'x-  , vc  . 

S*  ^iir  3/1  x;^ '•/:?:■  ::;.  i  *  lar 

r  ‘;  f^f. «  ,  '<U  a'H  ,  I' vi  '  ifrjCl  (>*"  ,  -rVOCiiS- 5c-j>  ; 

'  ,  i  r.t:'  \  ■'  3/; 

■■  Z'  •  •  '  '  V 

,  «  iJ  o^cv'*  iijW»r  ijaoq^ 

p  '  ./  c“  ♦Idfi 


*!'  rr'TP^Z-  '  .1..*-'^  J'i  ■  -  ^'^'.U't’  A, 

.  K  -  t  V‘ii-  T.>'t  ,  3/tir  rtci 


■ '  r 


>:■ 


i  ••  V.'  s  ^iorr"  yn  •:■*  vt :;  /j  no  U 


f*‘.  »'t.* 


g^  *’i  ‘o. 


.  • '  i;  f/ rr  /:.  -  ^i‘■’  3i'I> 

■  *>:»  J'l'  '".  j 

’-IOC.--;  .4  'vA  ((-^  ' ,  Vfl-u  c  I-mY  0-''rti''Y 

•*•.?•■  .,.  .. 


.•..•j!->iir;  ,,0  tJVj  •i.h:  *-.  .-  c* 

'  ^  ciY-*'*  fi^i  ni  M  'WU  >  ‘  •.  •  * 

■  ■-•  -  -•.•'1  ,  '  •••.:  :a.-'  K- 

^  £m  w 

' -.v.c-»v.  i  j  .i<,  A  ’io:  oair  wi^  , 
'^ni.i'cib  -.x  uof’i#  ^  • 

-■i  »0^#J(T  </  ^  .'I;  -v.: 

.  3  w 


i;-  ‘J 


An  important  work  of  Ilarion  which  was  written  between  the 
years  1037  and  1050,  treats  of  the  Laws  of  Moses,  the  Grace  of 
Christ,  and  of  Volodimir,  who  christened  Ukraine.  The  treatise 
is  a  composite  work,  therefore.  Its  aim  is  to  depict  and  make 
known  the  coming  of  Christ  on  earth  for  the  salvation  of  mankind. 

For  this  coming  of  Christ,  the  Old  Testament  was  to  prepare  them. 

It  is  full  of  symbols  and  rhetorical  figures,  is  built  on  the  con¬ 
trasting  of  the  Old  and  the  New  Testaments,  out  of  which  contrast 
a  moral  is  drawn.  The  Old  Testament  is  the  Law  or  Judaism,  the 
New  Testament  is  Grace  or  Christianity.  The  author  makes  this 
contrast  in  order  to  prepare  for  another  parallelism,  i.e.,  con¬ 
trasting  Pagan  Ukraine  with  that  of  Christian  times.  He  gives 
credit  to  St,  Peter  and  St,  Paul  and  other  saints  for  having  mad©  it 
possible  for  the  Christian  religion  to  reach  his  country.  Then  he 
goes  onto  praise  Volodimir  the  Great  for  having  had  such  good  sense 
and  clever  intellect  ”as  to  find  out  who  was  the  real  and  only  God- 
the  Christian  God'*.  He  goes  on  dwelling  on  the  Prin:«’s  great  work 
in  converting  the  idolaters,  and  his  good  deeds  among  the  people. 

The  author  follows  him  up  entering  into  Heaven  where  he  is  in  full 
glory.  He  asks  him  to  pray  for  his  native  land,  his  people  and 
also  for  his  son,  Yaroslav,  The  treatise  ends  with  an  ardent 
pathetic  prayer  which  has  been  later  adopted  by  the  Church. 

The  treatise  of  Ilarion  is  an  artistic  lyrical  work  on  a 
religious  theme.  The  author  makes  use  of  all  the  characteristic 
qualities  of  Byzantine  orators,  including  symbols  antitheses  and 
parallelism.  Apocryphal  influence  and  the  lives  of  the  saints  are 


-120- 


y/iJ  ,  .  wTOi- IV,..  ^  lr:r.‘..  ^'0 

'•  ■■;  fiJ'(r*?  ’  '.'.^'O  ic  5fTi*K)>-.  OTfc  .:.7<-.rra( 


,,.  ,v  ■•  ■'^^  -'*  •'  -■•'  v  '-"  .•':  i '■'■  -M  a.^oo  •Bxa’i  T  ■ 

^  K;tw  •  ■  t :!  V '•*’  ;  :;c:,  ^..od-r.  3  le  .(.irr'i  -ii 

■>  H  *^V  ,  -'tVp-}*  rt^'ri  ..  !  X*iT';  ^  \c: 

'  -  ■  ’  •23'’] 

''••  ■  Ulrtjd  '^"  .JftfVftf  '  T/iv  om  .  f:£  -•  .a  ;  ] 

-  •-/  ■:.  ^  .  ■ ....  ■  I's 

•;,  ■;  .  .  -t:'  aojg^w 

^''.  * .  »  *;ol ,  a  ,  ■' ■■''Ti- ..od  't<fu  jo  fri  ^ 

V 

j  r  ^^i-}  'tr  t^' .  n..rrt.  •jrv'p'nHJ  .uyils^yrf  '  ,?.w 

‘  ••‘iM 

,;■■  L  -  T..-. ..  •  X-Ji'-  .''?'  *uCJ4.  ueo  •  ui  ,tXbir\^ 

fp.  ,  .'.o  ^..  :.>«*«'•!  '  c,: ‘XXeT  -nst  '.'o’*.  ^ 

V  ’  •  •  **'iw 

'..  '  ;.-  •'•■i  l'/  i-o  ;  M’- •:  ■' iij  %t.rUboU>V  o-hrt-  •"  J 

V*"  ^  ''  riV  oc  J 

'  •  isfjj.r  '■.  ■  ^•‘'  '^‘  '■•'•  ^''  *  ^ 

i  .  ' ,.  ■■  *'■*/. 

■  hb  i.  .  -  '  u  ,  ,  jitf  ., 

.  ot.Ti* ^y.4'r :-■.  '  q;j  ■  ■■  o.-*'?  ...'■' 

^  '  •.'?  o.t  M  ^  .  .  ,  .'jX.^  • 

.«?•>»  'on-i  ..  •  o  :  V  ,!/';•*  ^  .'  ItT 

’.yC  ^%j!/o£kii  ro«  .  o!'*  -•^  .  { ‘ 

..•,.'  . • -.M-.x  i...  Bi  00  ■..■ '  u  syi'SH 

j  *'  '  -'s.!.  '.V  •'.■■•■  ".ry  .  '•  ac/ox^il'ev 


■  v”  “o  ’soioiifliip  ■ 


;-^i- 


in  marked  evidence  therein, 


Zhidiata  and  liar ion  represent  two  separate  schools  of 
thought.  The  former,  the  popular  school,  and  the  latter  the 
so-called  higher  school#  Some  of  the  followers  of  Zhidiata  are: 
Theodosius  Pecherskey,  Monomakh  and  Nestor;  those  of  liar ion, 

Klim  Smoliatich,  and  Kirilo  Turivsky. 

Owing  to  the  fact  that  higher  education  was  not  then  general, 
the  popular  school  of  thought  had  no  difficulty  in  its  growth, 
and  so  there  was  a  decided  pre-eminence  of  it  over  the  other. 

There  was  nothing  obscure  even  for  a  man  of  ordinary  intelligence 
in  the  productions  of  this  school,  since  there  was  nothing  hidden 
behind  the  elegance  of  form  as  was  the  case  with  the  productions 
of  the  higher  school.  It  is  for  this  reason  that  even  some  of 
the  writers  of  the  latter  school  tried  to  make  their  writings 
as  simple  as  possible,  and  that  in  this  method  were  written  meet 
of  the  Ukrainian  books  on  the  lives  of  the  saints  and  also  many 
historical  works# 

Theodosius  Pecherskey, 

Pecherskey  was  born  in  Vasilkov  between  the  years  1035  and 
1038#  He  spent  his  childhood  and  boyhood  days  in  the  Kursk  in 
Chernihov,  where  his  father  held  a  high  government  position. 

He  was  studious  and  clever  and  read  much#  While  still  a  boy 
he  became  very  much  interested  in  religious  work#  When  he  was 
thirteen,  his  father  died.  On  several  occasions  he  tried  to  run 
away  from  home.  Finally  he  managed  to  join  a  company  of  merchants 
with  whom  he  got  to  Kiev,  where  he  joined  the  monastic  order. 


-121- 


■  IT"  ’~  'jT  ■  ,.  . 

-  :  J  t  t  'v-  .  _ 

I..,*:-  •;  wrjio*'  •  ’  V  •:.  o., 

,•  _  •  .-  t.^5c,■  1.  '-.  ^  c. 


c'.:.f'sfi,  itc.-  1 4-.-i>jai'X?>.r^  at.?,!. i: 
*•  r^v  •.  :cin  ■)•  '  '■•*•  , 'i  :  ';  i ^  .  ^  0.i> 

^ ■  ■'  V.  '’ -'  '•■'■•■•’  1.0  IoM;'.'.rA  I h.qo ■^'  ©ifi 


y’tfoi'lt  '  r  :h  .’  r*.  '  ^-fi .  -o*jJo  9iiir  e'lsorf? 

i  -'-  -.J  /  ,-r  .  •  ' 

‘0  “  ■  .*1't  '  •  ;  ..  .,  .  t-.  J 

■•.  •■  ■  •  .  *  .  ■;  .  lo-' iioi.  ''■ 


M.’-'  ..c  "v  ’io  m  isjilcr 


<■ 


,  ■  .  ::yf  .C  '’-.t'iOicid  '  ‘  C 
-  ■  -  ^  '  ,  i;  '  ^ 

•  /  ••  '  ’ 

6i^  f»cor(bXiffr  Hj  ,  ; 


,1  ..<  9  h(  .  ,  i. 


'•*:  niiir  'ir-v^'-L'  •  a  •.-  »H  "I* 


-i-.  i’  eLT/>n5K?  94  .  i 

i  '/o ^4?  ft'*.  ^  H  ,  no  9^  I  'l^ 


:  r 


A 


vvmr/i 
.f  v'Im  .;\‘,v;. 


He  was  then  about  nineteen  years  of  age#  In  the  monastery  he 
showed  a  great  liking  for  his  work  and  made  rapid  progress  in 
his  monastic  career*  A  few  years  later,  when  vacancy  was  created 
in  the  Pecherskey  Monastery,  he  was  appointed  head  of  it#  When 
Sviatoslav  forced  his  older  brother,  Iziaslav,  to  leave  Kiev, 
Theodosius  criticised  him  severely  for  i-^  both  in  public  and 
by  sending  letters  to  the  Prince  himself#  He  tried  to  convince 
hijn  in  his"  epistles"  of  the  injustice  which  he  had  done  to  his 
brother,  and  compared  him  to  Cain  and  tyrants#  The  Prince 
becEime  enraged  and  had  him  deported.  Thereupon  the  br ether n  of 
the  Monastery,  disconcerted  at  his  action,  persuaded  him  to 
revoke  what  he  had  said;  he  recanted  and  afterwards  became  a  very 
intimate  friend  of  the  King, 

The  efforts  of  Theodosius  were  in  the  direction  of  establish¬ 
ing  in  the  Monastery  the  asceticism  with  which  he  became  familiar 
by  reading  Byzantine  literature.  He  made  strict  rules  concerning 
worship,  diet  and  work.  He  denied  himself  and  his  companions 
sleep  and  other  conveniences  of  this  life  to  the  extreme#  This 
resulted  in  frequent  desertions  of  the  monks  from  the  monastery. 

In  his  teachings  Theodosius  encouraged  his  brethern  to  love  God 
to  the  extent  of  making  great  sacrifices  for  his  sake,  to 
patiently  and  sincerely  fulfil  the  precepts  of  the  monastic  order, 
and  to  abhor  the  world,  and  everything  belonging  to  it#  He 
fought  against  idleness  and  incited  all  within  his  influence  to 
action#  In  his  methods  he  was  direct  but  simple  and  kind,  and 
when  speaking  of  himself  he  spoke  with  great  humility# 


-122- 


•■■■  •  I.”  n  "r.=  -  ^  ^'‘' 

:3^  .  ^  '■  m  \\--  '  ' 

/; '.  X  r.  »3  V  t>j«0  !•  ,  .  ..^  IJA  V  •>  X  ;’  .'i  n  misc  fix  ii 


«»■;  ‘  ■  ■■  .  '1*^'  o'  ‘^-'.''no;^  iji’ 

!■:'  _  ,  '  ,  ■  "  ■•  V' 

sit^a  t.  Xaii.  -*i;  '  ^  *'. -■■Xc'^if  hxx  VMln^ox-^xVi-: 

;•  ,•..••  ‘‘'J  '  '  ‘  r ’>'*'■>»'•■’/*, I 


1  I-.*'.  . 

;•-'.*.•••.■  *sr5-  ici- uiXjf 

■•^T{.,‘-  ''■■■3  n.ra:'>  fc.?. 'uei^iix o  h/*':?'  ^"ic^^o'i-v 

r ' ' 

.  c. 

'  q- 

./x^oljXop'^Uf  V..  :>,y^:l,*seor]0'.'6'.U>  ariv 

^  :i c  ■'<  w  ■ .  i  L  i  '.':'s  b-tiH  ^ 

,  ■■•  h r  'A ,  ■e'fii'  'io  C  ':(1 

r  :^'  ■,’  j  ^^y''C^,^.  ' ,“’  'ujTCl’Jc  eflT  ,;■  J' - 


vf^f  1 

•  ■••■■■'•■  '’- 

w 

.  ■;■•  V  bn:?.  .S*  ,  ,.  ,  .iuTCvr 

■  .' 

^  ■; 

•lO- 

,: i-:  - '  r  <0  -  .,T«-2if.'0  ' hm  ,qn)« X2- ' 

.  .  ^ 

t>.K' 

«'.  ;j6  iitie 

Uc'a  irX  r'" 

rjii  l'*lprt'r;*; 

t 

«*.vi’2^l,' 

■' -j  "t 

;i,  .*f  ^  iXfcVr.  i  i  •  ■  :rxfj  *\  rt  ’  o  -1 

•  ^  vv;’*:-- 

-  ‘v  oA, 

►  r  1 '.  '  H 

1-  ^'-  1.  A  v  ^ 

•  "  j  r 

.".  i  ■'  v;  „  .,■  >' 

'i  a  -* « 

t  bJrxr  *i.  :  nonxiti  gJ 

ib 

?  iv  I.tf>  h  'j.ixrMtl 

’/XoAisi.':' 'iv  . 

QUkWv  + /w _ A..»  ■  ■■ 


Theodosius’  valuable  contribution  to  literature  are  a  fevf 
hymns  and  prayers. 

Volodimir  Monomakh» 

Volodimir  Monomakh*s  father,  Vsevolod ,  was  a  well  educated 
man*  He  knew  five  languages  and  was  a  great  lover  of  books* 

His  son,  Volodimir,  imitated  him  much  in  this  respect.  His  mother 
was  a  daughter  of  Constantine  Monomakh,  King  of  Byzantium.  From 
her  he  inherited  self-control,  carefulness,  coolness  of  mind  and 
ability  to  take  advantage  of  conditions  and  circumstances,  and 
a  strong  Christian  Faith.  During  his  father*®  rule  he  was  in 
the  habit  of  assisting  him  considerably  so  that,  on  his  accession 
to  the  Kievan  throne  in  1113,  he  proved  himself  a  competent 
successor  to  his  father. 

As  an  author,  Monomakh  , is.  known  for  hia  ^Pouchenia”  (teach¬ 
ings)  and  ’*An  Epistle  to  Prince  Oleh  Sviatoslavich’* ,  which  con¬ 
stitutes  one  composite  work.  As  to  the  time  in  which  they  were 
written,  there  is  a  diversity  of  opinion  among  archaeologists, 
but  it  is  generally  conceded  that  the  date  could  not  have  been 
outside  of  the  years  1099  -  1126* 

The  “Pouchenia**  show  that  they  were  carefully  planned. 

The  author  sets  out  his  purpose  in  the  introduction  and  describes 
the  circumstances  under  which  he  undertook  the  task.  The 
division  of  the  work  is  in  two  parts,  the  first  of  which  is  me-de 
up  of  abstracts  from  the  Psalter  and  writings  of  the  Ecclesiastics, 
and  the  second,  of  his  original  material.  In  the  first  part  the 
condition  of  the  sinners  and  the  righteous  is  outlined.  In  the 


-123- 


.c 


,  ''hm-  ^.::Ax  - 

,  na»  o ,'  o:^-  -^ligilb  o  Xc^  V 
-  -4l  , 

^  ■  ,'  "  .  .  ■  •  '’I'  ^vi':  \  r  .u:^: 

.^  :  ..  ■•■.  .;  •  Lii>.•;^> '.:  ;  , ‘i !  V '^'c  loT'  .00^ 

■  ’ji' j  r  .  c  '  ■;  ■•.■,>  *10 

tic-'r  ■-  n  t' X  •;  iviini-'  oi1  vn' 
L'>r»  f'  .c:'  i  ii-''''-!'-’-.  ‘-  ..  '  'wi .  v./i..j.C:f 

'  f 

"iT;  t  ",  J.tfij  'cii'  y  til'j!9-’s«i  ••  .\  .  rrii-"^  .  u  :  x>ri4 

'  t{‘  4■."'0•:^■  '":■  erJ  0^^ 
,  -o^ 


,  ii9 »'  c  ■  - 


4  ■ 

'";f  ■  •.■/ 

jiiaf  r  n 

"  >  ^ 


ri  H./  Cm : .  ^  'Si  ::j  -jm  i " 


... 


tS  -t’  '*;■■ 


f 


Jl  .»i'  -y’XifJrfw  ^!^!>;.’ *1 


borrowed  writings  of  the  Ecclesiastics  he  at  first  shows  the 
qualities  of  a  righteous  man,  and  then  urges  the  people  to 
endeavour,  through  tears  and  prayer,  to  rise  out  of  sin.  He 
first  taught  the  duties  and  obligations  of  man  towards  God  and 
then  towards  his  fellovr  man.  Man  should  not  only  try  to  get 
rid  of  his  sins  but  also  to  avoid  sin.  This  he  can  do  by  remember¬ 
ing  the  poor  and  the  hungering,  by  protecting  human  life  and 
not  killing  a  person  even  though  he  should  deserve  it;  by  being 
humble  and  ready  to  serve  God  and  man.  In  order  to  give  his 
teachings  the  maximum  reality,  Monomakh  resorts  to  his  autobio¬ 
graphy  whence  he  cites  instances  in  his  own  life  which  would 
serve  as  precedents  for  others.  He  reviews  his  military  expedi¬ 
tions,  administrative  problems,  and  his  efforts  in  making  the 
State  secure  and  keeping  order  therein* 

This  method  of  teaching  is  of  Jewish  origin*  The  heads  of 
Jewish  families  before  their  death  used  to  give  certain  advices 
to  their  children  as  to  the  way  in  which  they  ought  to  live 
in  order  to  succeed  in  life  and  to  prepare  for  the  life  after 
death.  The  Ukrainians  first  got  models  of  the  method  when 
Christian  literature  was  brought  into  the  country.  The  chronicler 
records  Yaroslav. the  Wise’s  counsel  to  his  children,  where  he 
said:  ”l  am  ncjw  departing  from  the  world,  my  sons;  have  love 
in  your  hearts,  for  you  are  brethern  of  one  Father  and  one  mother. 
If  you  love  one  another  God  will  be  with  you  and  will  humiliate 
your  ememles,  and  you  shall  live  in  peace,  but  if  you  live  in 
hatred,  quarreling  and  warring  amongst  yourselves,  you  will 


-124- 


«.  'll  I  ijfp-  ■' 

.  Ivus  t 

V  ^  .  '  ‘''■iiUO  -a;  lieiJfr  'r,{.-  S  Jb'ilt 

'•/.LT*;;..  «.  r  '  V'-.:!.. v';  ,  '  i 

.  1  ;/»:•:• '  ^io'  ottfc  .*)iC  ria*  \c  b/r: 

a-  .. 

-/i-  c  t  .ner^s-  ,•;  .•  ,  ‘_;  tot;  «'r'rf-;-r'' ^  oXc,..£' 

b --•-  ■  -‘  ••  t«^  ■  .yX’.fJ.fb*  '  -;■■  :i.,* 

I.  -fVV'tfr  .■'  '■  -'c  .  ''':•,. ;^:-£ 


- 


/^ocq  fM  s 

-'i:  'i 

*-l  '•■ 


».•'/  ^sr-. 
f 


r  1  •  :'•  Jo  ^K>\  0'»  Itr  e.B’  f  •*  •  t 

■  •  t  •■'  ;'ivr!  vv}3  ^",  ■.  rX*"  .'■*  «.j;,nQXJ 

:^r:.‘  ■  U\'  X'- ■■'/^. j 

.  A  j.;  ,-/  .'  ;_4V. 

y-'T  r.:-'r  c,.  ^  ^ o-' 

'.  vf?*’  3'lil  ill  <■■  .'■  •(;  (tmo  rri 

•  BAf<J>c<r  J  t'  J - 

oJ-:i  ':c*w  ©‘irr/Vi  .  :i 

'....Jil'  Ba  cJ  Xo«4ffi;*‘ .  lj  '  •'lo  lll  yr' riO’iifc: 

^r*'  irocr, 

••’.d  -  ‘ 


x>  '.  e; 

*  TO. 


•••5  0.d6  "'^(li.  U*  '-  "il 


'  4 


forfeit  the  land  of  your  fathers  and  grandfathers  which  we  have 
acquired  by  hard  labor”# 

The  fundamental  characteristic  of  Monomakh's  writings  is 
his  humaneness  .  This  quality  was  apparently  acquired  from  a 
close  study  of  the  Psalter  which,  as  he  himself  admits,  was  his 
favorite  source  of  material# 

Klimentey  Smoliatich. 

This  writer  with  Kirilo  Turivsky,  both  of  whom  were  out¬ 
standing  figures  in  the  style  of  writing  initiated  by  IlarioUj^ 
are  also  considered  to  have  been  the  most  prominent  leaders  in 
Ukrainian  thought  in  the  12th  century, 

Smoliatich,  who  was  a  monk,  was  in  July  1147,  elected 
Metropolitan  during  the  reign  of  Prince  Izlaslav  in  the  same  way 
as  liar ion,  that  is,  without  the  consent  of  the  Patriarch  at  Con¬ 
stantinople#  This  was  a  cause  of  intermittent  strife  between 
him  and  the  Patriauch  who  would  not,  under  any  circumstances, 
agree  to  confirm  the  appointment,  holding  that  this  would  be 
virtually  sanctioning  the  independence  of  the  Ukrainian  Church, 
Smoliatich  was  a  great  student  and  philosopher,  but  possessed 
inferior  talent  to  that  of  liar ion  and  Turivsky# 

The  writings  of  Smoliatich  consist  of  , several  "Poslania” 
(epistles)  in  reply  to  the  attacks  on  him  for  his  improper  appoint¬ 
ment#  The  first  ”Poslanle"  was  sent  to  Prince  Rostislav  Mstislavich. 
In  it  he  insulted  a  priest  named  Toma  Smolensky,  who  was  a  close 
friend  of  the  Prince.  A  reply  was  mad©  but  it  did  not  reach 


-125- 


■; .;  •"<’  r 


.1  •■ri>-.i'  .;•'  ; 


i  t  •  P  ■^^:!^  .  I  o.  ■■' 

,  ,1  ■  vfilfv 

.  I  f:  '  >  '■' .-.  ■ :  Q  *1 W?  t  e  v^ 7  TEO 


lt¥ 


^•V 


'#•  .  !«  •  •> 


?n.z»  O’ 


.  •'  ’'-'r  :  ■.)'..iTU  .'''/.^  . 

>  V  W 

i  •  ‘  ’  • 

'.r-  A  :7,T  rt  2  •$ -3 ;;  u  J;  '^, ;  .h r-x b n'A^'  *s 

'  ‘'f*  .■ii..;  :■  “  '■  v!i/' J  .-(O *>  n,«i'>'  r.)_-^  ’ 

.  '.^  - 

.y  ,  ■  ^  ^ im:  .t 'i/’.II  “0 

-.vt'-)  ;■  -.-kr)-'  . OC;- w 

■  t  '.  .i  v.'i'ii  “/".V".  .'  .Trirf 

-  ...2..  _;-  ^^  ■  -•.  ..  .  ‘  .  c..'  '-'O’v;# 

^nifjO.T  V  'u‘ll<*  vi  l  ' 

fj'fl/i  i.-’-i,  r  <'.,  .  lioajg 

I":  >  .  .'■  ,*'/-ii*  .; 

"  ^tJ".  ■•■_  .  .  f  ■  ,  '.'.l  ix' I  xr'  O'.fl' 


K. 


:>':  f .‘  ■  fcc  ..  ,:  ..  wi 

-  o o<> i  •:  C  a  ^r»fkir.  64^^^ tH0i  :  m c  •  ”  :'■  t*  i i  1  «•*':?  ' .  /  •^' ; 

^  Ji  r  '  ■  •  :  'on  J-i  ix 


Klimentey.  When  the  Metropolitan  heard  of  the  purport  of  the  reply 
he  sent  a  "Poslanie”  to  Toma,  which  is  the  only  writing  that  has 
come  to  us.  In  his  ’’Poslanie”  Klimentey  rejoins  to  the  attacks 
made  upon  him.  Toma  is  said  to  have  accused  him  of  displaying 
his  philosophy  and  of  having  often  referred  to  Homer,  Aristotle 
and  Plato,  and  that  he  had  been  making  unfair  remarks  concerning 
Hrihory,  a  teacher  of  Toma*  Klimentey  answered  by  saying  that 
if  he  ever  wrote  anything  philosophical,  he  did  it  only  for  the 
Prince  and  not  for  him  and  that  he  had  no  intention  of  insulting 
Toma*s  teachei?,  for  he  really  held  him  in  very  high  esteem  and 
in  fact  regarded  him  as  a  saint.  His  reference  to  him  was 
only  necessitated  by  his  desire  to  show  that  Toma  did  not  get  the 
full  benefit  of  his  teacher^ s  instructions  because  he  did  not 
understand  him.  Then,  too,  even  if  he  understood  him  well,  he 
could  not  have  been  very  much  the  better  for  it  since  Hrihory 
was  not  well  versed  in  literature,  and  so  could  not  be  expected 
to  be  able  to  teach  much*  In  his  defence  Klimentey  goes  on  to 
say  that  ”the  only  worldly  wealth  which  he  possesses  is  a  little 
plot  of  ground  for  his  grave  at  which  he  looks  seven  times  a  day 
when  on  his  way  to  church.  He  who  knows  the  depths  of  a  human 
heart,  even  God  Himself,  knows  that  Klimentey  prayed  that  he  might 
liberate  himself  from  authority;  this  was  granted  and  Klimentey 
cannot  go  against  the  Will  of  God.  As  regards  philosophy,  there 
are  in  the  Bible  many  places  which  have  to  be  interpreted  symbolic¬ 
ally*'. 

He  explains  the  references  to  the  parables  of  King  Solomon 


-126- 


<0 


c 


■  -  .'5  , 


c'l:  .’ik;^^  ^~r'  mi."  i<i  r^  oru. 


t  ?■ 


,{. 


-•7  0 

trj< 


r- 


.  •  .  .  ,  I  ■;.••'  ‘ 

,  t  T  f 

10^'  !•'  L  :*  c 

c  t  '  .  ‘)0<i*<rTV  “  -■  • 


C  :  a.  '■  •  c 


j  id 


'“■4 


»;'x  a 


and  to  the  miracles  of  Christ,  claiming  that  none  of  them  have 
any  meaning  without  allegorical  illustrations.  He  therefore 
employed  the  allegory  exclusively  and  symbolism  in  general. 

In  spits  of  this,  however,  his  learning  and  a  deep  sympathy  for 
his  devoted  flock  kept  him  within  the  bounds  of  reality. 

Kirilo  Tur ivsky^ 

Kirilo  Turivsky  was  born  about  the  year  1130  -  1134  at 
Turova,  which  was  then,  owing  to  connections  with  Kiev,  one  of 
the  centres  of  culture  in  Ukraine.  He  was  a  son  of  a  wealthy 
family.  And,  since  there  lived  at  the  time  in  Turova  a  Grecian 
Princess  who  married  an  Ukrainian  Prince,  it  was  possible  for 
him  to  learn  the  Greek  language  and  to  become  familiar  with  Byzan¬ 
tine  and  Bulgarian  literatures.  He  was  admitted  to  a  monastery 
while  still  young,  where  he  practised  rigid  asceticism  and  studied 
with  great  devotion.  Proving  himself  to  be  a  man  of  strong  intellect 
and  good  principle,  he  was  appointed  by  the  citizens  of  Turova 
their  Bishop  about  the  year  E65.  He  is  supposed  to  have  died 
about  1182. 

Turivsky  composed  sermons  for  most  of  the  Ukrainian 
holidays,  many  prayers,  canons,  and  treatises  on  religious  subjects. 
Fortunately  a  better  fate  befell  his  writings  than  that  of  Smolia- 
tich,  for  quite  a  number  of  them  have  been  preserved  to  our  day. 

An  interesting  parable  is  attributed  to  this  author.  It 
speaks  of  a  rich  man  who  planted  an  orchard  of  grapes.  To  obviate 
any  possibility  of  the  guardians  thereof  helping  themselves  to  the 


127- 


r\ 


!  1  i'  :.'H’'l:r: 

.  <  A  t  -  ^  - :'.  :  ,1 .'.  ’  1C  ■•  r-  C4 .  /t  fw  -*  '  -4  c- 

c  .**  ■•'■  ^  ’(jr  i  ''  v:.  :••«  .t  4.*  v::.:' 


o  ;  .  T. .,  j  '. 


'..I'*"  9«  jjt-.o '7ei;  b.'/ 


- 


jg  1. 


•Oa  U  ftJ’rlt.. 


•r*“- •’  : ii> ‘L'iV  £'fi 


/I'lvC  e;;  <  K^liXLll 

.  tw  tiiOi.io^^nrFOT  v,t  e 


y  :  ^  4  r'-T  »  ' 

'  > 

•’ :  *  ^'■r.hi  JirT^-/ o'iSf  ,  i  ,]■€ '.■*<!>'■:>  licMv 

;  ■  -  •■  .  ^  v-*’  -*<*:: - ^4  vr'*  h.H  ,  .r  ;  *:<j 

fi'Sor  Jij:*  ,  .  ’  •- .  /7;oc'fi  qo/‘ *"  ^  ' 

,  .  JUCCijP 

.  •■  •  '  .r.  /  /'r.cOGirr.  Is  ■  ' 

^i-r.  'i  -  ■  1  ro  .- ^:  ■*■-•■  '  ,:■■'?'  •'■{  '. .  /X'-rf  ‘ 

r  '’U  j. ' 

r:  ■  . 

•;  •  -  •  ■  ••!  f'  «.  1  ju^  •»■  ,.  r  4  ;r’:  .it'jil,) 

.  '  c-f  W 'w-'J:  -  ♦■.;p  ftiii:  ■  ■  -.  nA  P 

U'  tC7'»Ar»  '»'T  jS 


fruit,  he  got  a  lame  and  a  blind  man  to  watch  it.  One  of  them 
could  see  but  could  not  walk,  the  other  walked  but  could  not 
see.  But  they  devised  a  plan  whereby  they  were  enabled  to  join 
their  powers  of  seeing  and  walking.  This  they  did  by  the  lame 
man  mounting  on  the  shoulders  of  the  other.  It  was  then  possible 
to  reach  the  grapes.  The  vine  dresser,  enraged  at  their  actions, 
cast  them  into  prison.  In  the  parable,  the  rish  man  signifies 
God,  the  blind  man  the  soul  of  man,  the  lame  man  the  human  body, 
and  the  stealing  of  the  grapes  the  fall  of  man  through  sin. 

Turivsky*s  sermons  are  very  real  and  poetic.  A  good  example 
of  his  Sunday  sermons  is  that  on  the  lament  of  Virgin  Mary,  which 
reads  as  follows: 

’*The  creatures  suffer  pain  along  with  me,  0,  my  son,  seeing 
your  unjust  death.  Woe  is  me,  my  child,  Thou  light  and  Creator 
of  all  creatures.” 

He  then  has  her  review  and  bewail  the  tortures  and  the 
tra,gic  death  of  Jesus  and  ends  the  lament  with, 

”Yfoe  is  me,  Jesus,  how  dear  to  ms  is  the  name  I  As  stand 
the  earth  whereon  Thou  art  suspended  on  the  cross ,  Thou  Who  hast 
built  it  on  the  waters  in  the  beginnings  Who  hast  restored  sight 
to  many  blind,  and  with  Thine  Word  brought  the  dead  back  to  life 
again,  through  the  Will  of  Thy  Godliness, 

Come  ye  and  ye  shall  see  the  mystery  of  God*s  intelligence, 
as  the  cursed  death  has  fallen  upon  the  One  who  revives  all”. 

But  perhaps  even  more  poetic  qualities  are  shorwa  in  the 


-128^ 


1# 


■>> 


"  ■  ■  r>p  -  |;< 

t'  •'  iU^/-C)  •  >■*  ; '>^;,u>q  '  ’•  ' 

.•  ^-^::''r  r-  tjistW-ir’'-"J 


C  ^  ' 

•H  rr'3- 

.  -  Vi  ”"’  .'  41  !!«■  ■'  -JC^  . 

ft  «  ■  *  ^ 


,  ;  ; ;■  -  '3  ’?:o  'J,;^:^:^• 

Of':  -.u'-'c  ■:;  Cv?- 

'.'.€?  i  *:•:<;  ■'34v^  ^  .  ;•■■  -''i^i  o^trra  .  i;'cn.‘  .7«>?r.' 


’  ;.’li.'*''^  ‘  ‘  1 orf^  Bi."'.. ?.-r!-l-  \o  bi:  >■ 

.  )  :*  i^a'  fcvJSvXAA**  vojjl^ 

.^TaV  He  VI  ‘‘^.*  ci  i»f*<T»  '  ■■'o'  ' , vU.‘.'.  CAii  ‘Jlc> 

5^288  / 

.  _.  ",  ^DVro..  lot  OJ?  ^()deT 

V.  >•  :  •■_  #:■'■  irs  I  ‘  kwir)  fm'’ 

•  ’  7  ’  *■..  .  '  ■  '  >>  '  ’  '  /*  ■ 


following  Sunday  sermon  of  Turivsky; 

"To-day  the  sun  manifests  its  brilliancy,  rises  high  up 
and  joyfully  warms  up  the  earth;  for  a  spotless  Sun,  even  Christ 
Himself  has  arisen  from  the  grave  and  rescues  all  who  believe  in 
Him*  To-day  the  moon,  having  descended  from  a  higher  level,  pays 
tribute  to  a  greater  Light:  The  old  law  with  its  Sabbaths  and 
its  prophets,  as  is  evidenced  from  the  Holy  Bible,  is  ended,  and 
the  law  of  Christ  is  observed  and  praised  on  a  Sunday.  To-day 
the  sinful  Winter  is  ended  through  repentance  and  the  ice  of  un¬ 
belief  has  thawed  through  the  knowledge  of  God:  For, the  Winter 
of  serving  at  the  Pagan  altar  has  been  replaced  by  the  Apostolic 
teachings  and  by  Christian  Faith,  and  the  ice  of  dark  unbelief 
has  thawed  from  the  sight  of  the  ribs  of  Christ.  To-day  the 
Spring  manifests  itself  and  revives  the  creatures  of  the  earth; 
stormy  winds  breathe  calmly,  multiply  the  produce,  and  the  earth 
nourishes  the  seed  and  yields  green  grasses*  For,  the  Spring  is 
the  beautiful  faith  of  Christ,  which,  through  christening  regener¬ 
ates  the  being  of  man;  and  the  stormy  winds  are  the  contemplated 
sins  which,  through  repentance  have  changed  into  virtue  and 
multiply  the  products  profitable  to  the  soul;  and  the  earth  ©f 
our  being,  having  accepted  as  it  were  a  seed,  the  Word  of  God, 
and  perpetually  permeated  with  the  fear  of  Him,  gives  birth  to 
the  spirit  of  salvation". 

The  quality  of  the  writer *s  works  is  very  high,  which 
accounts  for  the  reason  that  Russian  and  even  the  Serbian  Churches 
translated  some  of  them  and  incorporated  them  in  their  religious 


-129- 


<3 


..  .1 . 


books.  Turivsky  used  some  material  of  foreign  origin,  but  he 
used  it  as  a  skilled  artisan.  He  omitted  everything  that  was 
not  in  harmony  with  the  new  surroundings  and  supplied  the  gap 
thus  created  with  appropriate  material.  In  his  prose  and  poetry 
he  was  a  real  poet,  speaking  rhetorically  and  ’’dressing  the  theme”, 
as  Bohdan  Lepky  says,  ’’with  numerous  figures  of  variant  colours, 
with  comparisons,  parallelisms,  symbols,  exclamations,  pictures 
in  nature,  in  a  word,  stretching  before  our  eyes  a  mosaic  canvass 
of  variegated  little  stones,  metals,  pearls,  which  scintillate, 
dazzle  our  eyes  ----- — 

This  is  true  of  most  of  his  works,  but  the  same  cannot  very 
well  be  applied  verbatim  concerning  his  prayers.  Unlike  his  other 
writings,  his  prayers  are  distinguished  for  their  simplicity  and 
directness  in  the  expression  of  thought  and  feelings.  In  perfect 
accord  with  the  characteristics  of  church  prayer,  they  constitute 
a  lively,  hearty,  and  deeply  felt  comrmmion  of  man  with  God. 

The  ability  to  bring  about  this  effect  made  Turivsky  a  poet-hymn- 
ologist. 

The  six  writers  just  considered  were  the  foremost 
personalities  in  the  religious-educational  movement  of  the  two 
schools  above  mentioned.  Amongst  these,  Nestor  also  holds  a 
very  prominent  position.  But,  since  he  is  a  unique  figure  amongst 
the  Ukrainian  Chroniclers  ,  we  shall  treat  of  him  under  that  head¬ 
ing.  They  left  records  of  their  work,  some  of  which  escaped 
destruction  or  loss,  and  have  been  saved  to  our  time,  which  enables 


-130. 


!'•  /  ‘ ..  . 

■•^  ■-•  /,  d^tipp  v.‘-'-tw'.'r<J':)  ■‘'' fi 

.  i  i  n^lw'iqcit  ;^  •  :^:^;''*0  eirJtw 


'  j.!- -K  : 'j..  •’^:.'i:!j.'-'^\  .:  ^  >i'oocj  lii®'..  ^  nA 

,:  3(;c  •; ..a.^'rr  ;  avail  ■  rt^bvft/i!  ?.a 

t  t ^.UcT.'< ,  g .10 i 'i^tj^rac o  ritrw 


y.nn  r 


& 

>fo, 


•• 

-A 

•: 

•■/  •  :  :.•.'* 


^  t)  ..  r 


;><(.:'’-'v.rc^ >.;jr  ,, ni 
^  .i  ,  b'&fsjex*2i3v  'xo;,- 

-  3.v\/4;- ac/c  oXwii/ib 

'  ,  a.-'.orv  ’ic  2.'  n'^''rv 

■iSS  ■'-'. 

'■  ,i--  .  -oiM:'  „  i:qiiq(fri  nr:^  x.' 

.  V  ♦’ ■ ,'«  ,: (1  ^  H':xiU-^- i  *t7! 

»  lo »t.  ,,i  fit  -  ;iil!) 

■"^Mo  \o  X  ’j  c i  R  'iiid*>  r'.rf'S*  ff^x-«  i,  ■Loo-jy 

.:c-)  ^xi^rii 

:■.  ■  J 'V.  .1  .^r  ^sri-ri  f.  :  ’•  i.ivJA' 


c-  ‘  '.-.•  . . to  r,i -r  ui  •’:-3i,'o:,'nii;-  aoi.iiiaflp*  . 

4  .  ■  ^  •■  .  Jtfifio:  .  ■  ' 

‘  •  •'  >11  t  .  .  .  •i'fjOfi .  -.-TJ  •,.-.  ;  .' 

XX*»j  fjT  ,  .  iijeXoi i A*i/lv.i 

'  '  \c  0  ,  r  'tlffci  tjb';: 


1  ■><*■*■* 


U8  to  get  at  least  fragmentary  information  concerning  the  life 
and  progress  in  Ukraine  on  the  threshold  of  its  joining  Christen¬ 
dom.  But;j:  besides  these  authors  there  were  also  many  others  who 
had  not  contributed  as  much  and  cannot,  for  obvious  reasons, 
be  here  considered.  Then,  too,  it  is  reasonable  to  conjecture 
that  there  were  some  authors  none  of  whose  writings  Imve  come 
to  us,  and  these  are  therefore  altogether  unknown,  or,  some 
writings  which  we  now  have  may  be  easily  placed  to  the  age  to 
which  they  belong,  but  the  author's  name  is  not  to  be  found  on 
them.  There  are  many  writings  of  the  12th  century  belonging  to 
this  class.  Some  of  the  more  important  ones  are  as  follows:- 

”A  Hymn  of  Praise  to  Prince  Rurik’V,  composed  in  his  honor 
in  return  for  his  rebuilding  of  a  wall  of  a  certain  monastery; 

”A  Hymn  for  the  first  Sunday?  of  Lent’*;  ”A  Hymn  for  all  Saints’ 
Day";  In  this  last  mentioned  Hymn  the  Ukrainian  martyrs  Boris 
and  Hllb  are  extolled.  All  these  belong  to  the  higher  School, 
Then  there  are  writings  of  unknown  authors  of  the  lower  School. 
For  example,  there  are  twelve  very  brief  and  simple  sermons  for 
certain  holidays,  wrhich  are  supposed  to  have  been  written  by  one 
author;  also  eight  sermons  for  the  Lent  period.  An  interesting 
"Pouchenia’  about  God’s  Punishment  ”  were  written  about  the 
year  1067. 

The  purport  of  "Potschenia"  is  that  God  punishes  for  sins 
with  death,  hunger,  drought.  Invasions  and  such  like.  It 
brings  out  the  people's  superstitious  beliefs  and  their  mode 


-131- 


,  ,  . -  .  .  t ’L  -  ,-K’h  . 

-  -*;iiY':>.  t  t-  i  ,  -C-  I  .^v  fl 

..  .  -^,.,  .  ,  .  •  ;  ^  t  \'-:i:  .\  iJ^J6  ’^'U.>i:  <d-'  U 

f,r  ;- •.  -•  ..  iG.-i/,  w  G.qv<s  «l«dj 

t  1 

.y- '  ^  ^  T  '  *  ^'^:0-}.  }•  u  i  5; 'ii 

c-  Xl  '  ■  -'■:'  .-.'e-fi  €fCJ  \J:i.  '-r'Af  '.  "».l i  ^>i 

.  ,.  ,  .  .  ’  0iL  .  C-Ci  \o-'-'  .Vi.  ^  ^ 

•)«■...—  -'.awtr^O  .1  O-'-M  ‘I'.^vi'.'V'  ,"•■  ‘ ,  ,.  ^h|^_ 

ttiM-t.  V  •.  -'iO®  ^1'"  •♦'I-Cic  .a?:f>I-  I'.iT  ; 

'  "  ...  '  fri.  .  -.)  .  .0.'  ‘  V’W  ^  f  ’'  I  . 

.'  '  jVr.  4-  '^o  V.^ii'r‘C^*S .  ?j1*(  rj'itc' *j  nx  .  S  , 

r-  .'-J  ‘0^;  I'  '  .  J  "to  .T't'ri'!!  .^r.  •  '^'.,  r* •.•.••«  J  j 

...•:*U>*r;  •'.»4n.  ■  »  ^v!(:;-/  ;  >r3/».‘!  i  '  -‘i  , 

yt  j  '  *-•  ■■■■>.•  c^ia  'I-.i  ^Ad  V 

■  f 

'  .,c..  "c  ■ iT' '  "c  .v-’’ o^ifT 

---...r  o.'  •,  V.'^lr  -'  -  f-Tii  0  -  I  '•  '  V 

•;.•<  J  rt';-  t  '  nai.i?.'  ^  nia.‘>6-.5 


of  living  which  was  contrary  to  the  -fcaiching  of  the  Bible,  They 
would,  for  instance,  discontinue  their  journey  on  the  road 
in  front  of  them  being  crossed  by  a  horse,  a  pig,  or  a  fox. 

If  anynone  sneezed,  any  person  hearing  it  was  obliged  to  say 
”na  zdorovlia”  meaning^”  for  your  health’*;  It  iriay  be  noted 
that  this  practice  is  still  In  vogue  simong  the  Ukrainian  people, 
and  they  are  at  a  loss  to  understand  why  an  Anglo-Saxon  when  he 
sneezes  excuses  himself.  The  ’’Potachenia**  were  also  opposed  to 
all  form  of  foretelling,  witchery,  playing  on  the  flute  or  other 
instruments,  and  particularly  to  drunkenness.  There  was  a  handy 
and.  widely  popularized  custom  of  drinking  a  glass  of  liquor  at 
religious  festivals  after  every  ’’Tropar”  or  a  prayer  to  some 
Saint,  Consequently  on  such  occasions  many  prayers  were  said, 
and  each  one  comforted  himself  that  the  more  nrayers  he  said, 
the  more  pious  he  looked.  But  one  can  well  imagine  that  the 
comfort  coiild  not  have  been  of  long  duration.  The  ’’Pouchenia'* 
suggested  that  only  three  ’’Tropars”  he  said  at  the  banquets;  namely, 
before  dinner, to  the  Lord,  before  the  completion  of  dinner,  to 
Virgin  Mary,  and  then  the  last  one  to  the  Prince*  It  was 
argued  that  it  was  not  the  servants  of  God  who  Initiated  the 
idea  of  saying  numberous  “Tropars”,  but  the  bellies  which 
desired  to  drink  much* 

To  the  class  of  literature  under  consideration  belong  two 
important  narratives,  namely,  that  concerning  Volodimir  the 
Great,  end  Boris,  and  Hlib.  These  narratives  ,  though  they 


-132- 


.  ^  ^  /V  ^  ll’«%«M.  f  tki'f  *  ^  *i  L.^ 

mL  •  ■  i 

,>  ’  >-  W- ^ >'c 

" M  r. !'  •>.  c!  .  L.r: «  'rtn :  '"c 

■  r  Cl  ^ rt .  liOM j'  •’*M  ’  c* '•  '  lO-y  oi.*'*  ,i  .‘.tr.w  Ttfi-c  l 

'  '  ' 

C  'r-U  --"-  V  j.-<.f  ^.■c  J  ■?.’*;  ^  Hf:.:  'iol  ,tj.CLX“:  ; 

^  ..  .i  i  v^o  ,))««■"'  .0,  i.D'-.  ’^c  ^^:c'l'‘:  cii'  '' 

V 

f.  r  .  .  Mil'  rroo‘;2>/-  vu;’.  .  '“rv'fTVfiiB  IX 

-  ;'  /IT,';  't:  -C: 


••  ■  ■  r  ■  ’  ■:'.  '  c  .*  :ii  i  I. 

tv-^s  »&i  r  ' o'f'*!c;  .cta.'ici’ 

...  •  i>V'  '’- 

IT*'  i  K-  *'V?  1  '  J'ioij'-;;  qJ  4’’3K'X  ^ '  vfitve;^  j  bfSJS 


r.  ^C  c  lii  .'  :i  or.  ’ 

~  *'*•'<*  - 

,  ^  ^jjSB 

.;,,  ■  ,-  U  ,  :.C'  ,  ':c-\  .i.r“ 


m.*’^  -  .  y-.. 

J  T-  ,  ;,  '.‘^•■X-'  :  'vU  ,..L.>'  .:< 

>.!■:■  * '■. ^  ^  ’il 

^  r  r  TP.  ^-irj  it  .  t  •  1*  4’X^»V0 

'i/-  su.ci’tiXo''. 

•*..  '■  •  x 

;  ■  ’G  V  r;i  r .  .  i-  ;•  nX-iiB  ^  .1 

s' 

<  vi'i  •'  ^'.  <.!•.  ' 

,i  i  •■  •  '  ' .,:  0^  br»-  '  '■  ■ 

,  f.lJV  '  J  >  -  C  .vX  . 

..  ■•X'.'J'  ca  as/^n.  ^'iciK  0:.  •> 

J. 'C  ■  ,  .  iii  •  C -.  (. 

;y>x  TjViii'l  JCU  .;^  MC-'ju.It:  ./ 

1 

(  .  .,v  '■;  c'A  ,-.  '•  1  •  '‘1  ’ 

VI)  *  J.;io  b ‘.) 

A. 

^  -  .  '  '  '  -• 


■i'JU 

*»  .  •  •’.  ■  iJ ’X'fi  c  "  :o  ''G  jfr.::  ’ 

'•  ♦cv?  U.:-^  .‘i 

•.  .'j-Tsodtt^o  ^.c  vi-ivi 

^  . ■.*  I  1  f'lyv'ia 

,  •■  ■  *■'  ';:  O'  ' 

y  a 

Va..  JC  ■.  0  0-;"  cT/  ^ 

'■  ‘  '  -r  C.C  .  .WfTiqt^l'flC^O  ^ 

G  ■  ^  G'/i  ■  T  fT  ■'  ■•  ";cr:Ti.’  ’  ,  ^ 

'  ♦ 

» 

1 

i-r  c 

.,  ,*  '.Jft 


..^1- 


are  generally  attributed  to  Jacob  Monakh,  and  are  without  question 
an  Ukrainian  product,  are  really  so  far  of  doubtful  origin  as  to 
their  authorship.  The  former  is  an  exaltation  of  Prince  Volod5m*?r 
for  accepting  the  Christian  Faith. 

The  author  is  very  simple  and  polite  in  his  introduction  and 
begins  by  saying; 

I,  miserable  Jacob,  having  heard  from  many  about  the  Godly 
Prince  of  all  the  Ukrainian^  lands,  Volodimir,  the  son  of  Sviatoslav, 
and  having  collected  little  from  the  many  of  his  virtues,  have 
written  this  down,  concerning  his  sons,  I  understand  bjr  this: 
the  saints  and  the  glorious  martjTs  Boris  and  Hlib’V 

He  goes  on  to  shew  how  by  the  §raca  of  God  ,the  conversion 
of  Ukraine  to  Christianity  came  about  and  eulogizes  the  virtues 
of  the  Prince. 

The  reference  to  Boris  and  Hlib  has  led  the  researchers  to 
believe  that  Monakh  is  also  the  author  of  the  story  about  them. 

The  story  is  rather  pathetic;  When  Boris  was  returning  to  Kiev 
ax ter  his  march  in  search  of  the  Pechenihy,  news  was  brought  to 
him  that  his  father  was  dead.  Thereupon  he  wept  bitterly,  for  his 
father  loved  him  more  than  all  the  rest.  Svlatopolk  who  was 
already  guilty  of  many  atrocities  sends  a  messenger  to  tell  Boris 
that  he  wishes  to  divide  with  him  his  inheritance  and  that  he  wants 
to  live  with  him  in  love  and  peace.  He  then  goes  to  Vishhorod  and 
organizes  an  army  of  "Boyars”  (a  wealthy  class)  at  the  head  of 
whom  is  one  named  Putsha,  ".Are  you  all  fond  of  me?  he  asks. 

To  which  Putsha  replie^T:”  We  are  all  willing  to  lay  our  heads 


V  V 


r 


1 


•) 


;  ' ,  “T -n 


I  III  #*  W.<.>J.a. 


f  t 


-c  :) 


^  -C  -1  -i:  '  ..•  t  t  -i;.'-  ::  f  .vtj'-vr- 

"SBI  '  ::  ■  r  ■•■•:..  -  .c  ",c....  -.  fn(^ 

• '  '  VC  ..u  ■  c  ■■  V '  •  o  v •-'t,  V  ~  'H 

■  e. 'J  .  c  .,  j  ■'  ^  ■  J  '..C' 

'  A'i  ^  .  r 

v^il'  '  ...  • 

.  ^  '  •  c  ■'  ;  T  •  *"  ‘  -i  • 

,  •'■.  ;2  c''-  .'.  J''r  .  ■  .  ' 

(  •  .  '  ,  '  1.:  ;  ,ljfi 


.,  -.0  . 

S  f 

•  c. 

^  ,  c.  ■  .'  ''i.  ^ s’ 

(  •  .••  •' 

‘i  ‘  ‘  .  ■  .  o  .;' '  ,f  .  h 

....  .  .  •.,.  -  . .'  .  V.  .’ 


for  thee”.  Then  Sviatopolk  orders  that  his  brother  be  located 
and  killed.  They  all  promise  to  do  as  he  directs  and  go  for¬ 
ward  to  meet  Boris.  Boris  with  his  army  la  stationed  on  the 
bank  of  the  River  Alta,  His  soldiers  try  to  persuade  him  to 
march  against  Sviatopolk  and  occupy  the  Kievan  throne.  He  re¬ 
fuses  , answering  ”l  will  not  lay  my  hands  upon  my  brother,  he 
has  taken  the  place  of  my  father  for  me.” 

His  soldiers  then  desert  him,  and  he  is  left  with  a  small 
number  of  servants,  Boris  has  premonitions  of  grave  impending 
danger,  so  before  bedtime  he  prays  ardently.  He  awakens  very 
early,  rouses  his  priest  and  has  him  conduct  the  mass,  in  v;hich 
he  himself  joins.  The  messengers  of  Sviatopolk  at  this  time 
approach  the  tent  and  sing  Psalms  telling  Boris  that  there  is 
someone  lurking  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  tent.  He  than 
appeals  to  God  asking  him  why  he  is  being  thus  persecuted.  After 
the  mass  he  prays  before  the  image  of  Christ  asking  that  he  be 
made  worthy  of  dying  a  death  of  a  martyr.  At  this  time  there  is 
heard  the  tramp  of  horses’  feet,  and  Boris  shudders,  weeps  and 
prays  ardently.  The  priest  and  a  boy  call  his  attention  to  the 
fact  that  he  is  dying  innocently,  namely,  for  not  deciding  on 
going  against  his  brother.  The  messengers  now  enter,  there  is 
a  glistening  of  weapons  and  a  clatter  of  swords.  The  body  of 
Boris  is  pierced  through  with  three  swords.  The  boy  weeping 
asserts,  ”  I  will  not  leave  thee,  my  dear  lord”.  For  this 
Boris  places  a  golden  garland  upon  his  head  >s*  Boris  wounded 


-154 


.r  - 


'  •  f>  V-’  'l  5 


tf  '  .><-■•  . 


’'U 


p.w  ’  i*  ■♦-< '  ^  i-} 

••  *•!  ).*  0?>  .C  r  rt  \:ri<''*.>~  -U’a  vr*:-i-  f>n3^ 

.  :;.r.  :■■.-><?  ^.ur  ■Cv  crijeir 

_  •  •  .  ;  •...’  ,  ■  ;  :  .  :  '''c 

■;  ;  TJIoqoc^ii  v't;  rlo-iK'-* 

.  liff/i-  V;’l  I"  ^  T'  lC^.  oii' 

,  ,  .-a  1C’}  v.'i  ‘;p  r^o./.  ,:  ^.''J-  ;:x'..» 

■  ■  t Vi.  c'ri-'iJ'  j'K’ iftiC'.  -'-K, 
p  s 

[  'S;ir;  /li'rc  ; lo 


#  *I  ’3  ' 


tf;  ;.i  •''‘' 


■  oit'I  .  "  O'^r  'I.-.  ef? 

•rf--'--  'I'L.iM-'  -j.v.ca  >*'aoo'  «fii=  doi&oT.T-'T^ 

^.■.;  'L-J  •■•  ;.  1*,- '  :  n-f  ^aii5lf/X  <>aCt>iirOi 

.  •.*  iP.-!  -'<  '.'.'vv  u:,'-  ,  ■M[l:\:3/i  !^(  r  ,7.  i.I;i.5':vX 

-  •*—  ...  ^0.  5  ‘-0  vnV^v-’- 

'J-'/dii  ■-'  ''/'i  Ci'lJUrx':- 

•■■♦**  ^  .'M-  .  >{  Oi  .  •. ',  n-: 

i  '  r/  ■  ->Oiv  ^  4  .  fn*  l.'i  C^ii  •T/ldj’  .•‘:!)'^*1 

-'i  VC-  ■  , 'r  ';*f  i  aitf 

^  ■'  r^!"  cvc'jfi^j  *  .« 'UVi^-^e^i^. /.< 

i:  '■(-■■iw  ’yL'C'in  - 


ZQhlCp  ^  '.V-jD.».'>'  nl'iOtt 


runs  out  of  the  tent,  and  when  the  assassins  cry  out,'*Why  do 
wo  tarry?.  Let  us  complete  the  work  which  we  were  commissioned 
to  do”  ,  Boris  asks  that  they  give  him  a  moment* s  time  to  pray. 

He  is  allowed  to  do  so  and  prays  repeating  that  he  is  innocent* 
After  the  prayer  he  directs  :'*Brethren,  you  may  now  complete 
your  work  that  my  brother  and  you  may  have  peace.” 

The  account  about  Hlib  is  that  his  father  is  seriously  ill 
and  calls  him  to  him.  Hlib  sets  out  from  Murov  to  Kiev,  but 
his  horse  *s  leg  being  broken  he  could  not  go  beyond  Smolensk. 
There  he  took  a  boat  and  set  sail  for  Kiev.  On  his  way  he  re¬ 
ceives  a  message  from  Yaroslav  dissuading  him  from  going  to  Kiev 
and  saying  that  his  father  was  dead  and  his  Brother  Boris  was 
killed  by  Sviatopolk.  Hlib  wept  over  the  news,  but  proceeded  on 
his  voyage*  When  a  boat  of  Horiasir  with  his  crew  was  sighted  he 
became  exhilarated  and  commenced  to  paddle  towards  them.  When 
he  came  near  them  and  expected  a  hearty  welcome,  they  looked 
sullen  ,  and  when  the  two  boats  were  side  by  side,  Horiasir *s 
men  leaped  into  Hlib*s  boat.  They  drew  their  swords  which 
sparkled  like  water;  his  oarsmen  became  stunned  and  their  oars 
fell  from  their  hands.  When  Hlib  saw  their  intentions  he  looked 
at  them  appealingly  and  said*.”  Do  not  take  my  life, dear  bj^ethren 
wherein  have  I  insulted  my  brother  and  you  my  lords?  If  I  did 
anything  wrong,  take  me  to  your  Prince  and  my  brother  and  lord. 
Have  mercy  on  my  youth,  by  my  lords,  and  I  am  willing  to  become 
your  serf-  If  you  desire  my  blood,  I  am  in  your  hands.”  They 


-135- 


T'-mC If  .0.  O  . 


J  > 


•„  .*  r  ‘  (  '■■  •.  ^  '  ct)  oj 


c  : 

: ‘  ,  •  M  *  ‘sq  5 '.  : 

•  .  .  Cc  U  C 

vTxli.  c.i  c.q 

.  ')fs^  ^  wCi :•';  • 

;  :  ^  «d 

Sfl"  19.+1'4 

-.liis  V 

^lOK  ll/C^ 

■  '  -  ., 

•  .;  WSKfjH  -AJ 

■j.i  c.'j. .:  -L’ooc^ 

^Uifjc-' ■■3:  epy: 

.  ^  ^  ,  j  /r.  *  .fvo  sivo  c'i;H  ,  t:  .-^  -j.-;  siLtio  brii 

. :  ‘  "Cl  ,  :  .i:o -v’  ):'''.1qc  ijoX  i: '  .  _  :t 

-.  .  -.^y- 

-  ;  ‘  .‘  I®  d^%  JnC’b  1\  S'coJ  9.1  ©'KAff^ 

■•  ■  ■  '  /  -  ^  . 

t  -’"■  .  ..’■■o  oi/'-  ^  ..^oc^oS'^vL  v'i  A 

--■■■  .  *Ti-j  <I.‘  'iJrJtW  lie ‘'c  rcr"'' 

-  -  c.  no:;;. O')  '  ■’  ■  •.  •  ‘’'.re:;  o 

I'*-  -  »  ^  •''  .'ca®  f  o  xo  bruy  irteiiJ  -  p.o  t  .1 

'  t  O';  '  ..•  ■'  rActv  w  ^ 

’*  ..’l.'V  VC.iT  C  '  ‘Ij;  .-yw.-:^A  rT9'’' 

■  •  '  ^-"'/c^wv  -0  .  i  '•  ‘iJ  ■  r'A'i-^^qe 

'/ 

>c*c;  »>.  '4';*  J.  "J--. .'j  tf4l^.;0:  .yi  '.cl  'iio.'i 

'  -  .  Xll'  \3B..i.  o  c  .'  v iti.-i  o^-tc  ^ 

Hii'  ’i';.;.'ri.f  ’.t  -c;' *  1  '  '.  •.  w'Cjcrir 

flii  i*f)(lty-  i  'C  C.  vS.  t ' 

<  ■(  •  t  c  ;o‘xor!  evuaH 

t  ■<-  -  —  ~  lUW'^. 

,.>'.....1''  A.'  i  «  '  *  '  ri'^  'rfli 


grabbed  him  and  he  called  upon  his  father,  mother,  brothers, 

Yaroslav  and  Boris,  and  commenced  to  pray.  Then  the  damnable 
Horiasir  directed  that  he  be  killed.  This  was  done  by  Hlib's 
eook  named  Tor chin  who  did  it  with  a  knife. 

In  the  further  struggle  between  Yaroslav  and  Sviatopolk, 
the  latter,  defeated  and  discouraged,  becomes  hopelessly  ill. 

Long  after  the  pursuit  is  ended  he  cries  out  in  his  bed,  "Run, 
we  are  pursued,  woe  is  mel".  In  this  state  he  dies,  and,  while 
his  grave  gives  out  a  repelling  odor,  those  of  the  martyrs  emit 
sweet  perfume. 

The  Kievan-Pecherskey  Pater ik. 

The  "Pater ik"  is  an  important  compilation  of  writings  on 
the  lives  of  the  saints  etc.  It  was  closely  connected  with  the 
Pecherskey  Monastery  and  contains  much  valuable  information  con¬ 
cerning  the  beginning  of  the  monastery,  the  life  of  the  monks 
in  that  institution,  songs  about  the  building  of  Pecherska  Church, 
various  "Poslania",  miracles,  relations  of  the  Government  with 
the  monastery  and  other  material.  The  "Pater ik"  was  started 
early  in  the  13th  century,  and  in  course  of  time  much  was  gradually 
added  to  it*  It  was  read  much  and  was  in  great  demand,  since  it 
furnished  writers  and  archaeologists  with  the  information  which 
could  not  be  obtained  elsewhere.  During  several  centuries  after  ^ 

thefirst  appearance  of  the  "Paterik",  it  was  re-edited  several 

times.  I 

Various  episodes  contained  in  the  compilation  are  identical  jj 
with  episodes  concerning  the  lives  of  Byzantine  saints,  but  this  j 


-136- 


J 


•T  c  •  ^  rr  .'• 


‘^1. 


::^v  t,  jI trrjii  i*'<' 


.  f  '  sl{  Tls.isi Tirri  ’ 

.'.■  'I'v  c->  ■  DffljF  •:  >!c^o 

C  .:U-  w*!-*.  '■  >  -  t.  •  •  -Tfe^.'  .  'll  '  t'-!'  ''i 

V*/:  ^r.:rvr^  ei  ,  .<.  •  - 'i:' j.O«Xi  bfi4t  ■■>'.' 


■* 


,«i^- 


,  • .  ^  ri  i  JK  tlfC  B  ocr  i  ^  s^a  •,•1^  e  i  sf  ■ 

•  ■  -,T  ^  f/.*  'VS''*’'  ■  -•  TQ’  ‘* 

-,  ■  ■  . 

■■)^';-  ■  _ 

. “  *  y.J?!  or' JL  j 

-  -r  *.  <;tet 

'  M  ’  .'  •,  ;k' ,;  j.’-r:.; ‘j-^  [.c  ,:.il 


'  fixf  ..  v^'HR'^&rfo^  .  •■•*< 

-.-  ,  r  ,, 


•.:r,c  1  r, 


C’  ■:,:-:i  i  Of:  J  ' ,  ’.  *  «' 

*  r.-/ 

od-i  uvn<’.-).  j  f;:  .'i  :,‘-cri’  J>  ' 

,1  -  '  .  X'l'^Tv.  ojKrt#;(2  er  X  ■ 

!ti  t  ..  ’/{■•  '/.••■»":*  . 

/i  :ht^  MW  f  '  ,  ■ 


*:  '  -.’  -c 


‘.  nsii-"U»'i  ,<  ; 

i/'il 

.♦CO- 


0  o.^n 


r^  Ji  fc  ■  ■!>  ^■  -  .?  i  iM .  'V 

..X  c 


^  i  4  I  I  'Ai^ 


is  attributed  to  the  relip;ious  spirit  of  the  times.  There  were 
many  legends  current  among  the  people ,  many  of  which  were  of 
foreign  origin,  though  this  was  in  most  cases  forgotten.  These 
legends  were  utilized  by  writers  who  brought  Ukrainian  saints  and 
heroes  into  play.  Nimerous  wonderful  deeds  of  valor  and  enviable 
qualities  were  attributed  to  them.  The  narrations  contained  in  the 
”Paterik’'  bring  out  the  conception  of  ancient  Ukrainians,  accord¬ 
ing  to  which  fasting  and  denial  of  sleep  were  regarded  as  remark¬ 
able  victories  of  the  soul  over  the  body#  It  showed  particularly 
clearly  the  typical  struggle  of  the  necessities  of  nature  with 
the  ideal  of  monastic  brethern.  The  style  of  the  writings  of 
most  of  the  narratives  is  simple  and  clear  and  free  from  rhetorical 
embe  Hi  shment  s . 

Ukrainian  Pilgrims. 

To  the  original  Ukrainian  literature  also  belongs  the 
literature  of  the  first  Ukrainian  Pilgrims. 

The  religious  and  moral  teachings  in  Ukraine  met  with  great 
success.  Sometimes  the  new  Faith  was  not  accepted  in  its  original 
form,  for.  Paganism  existed  too  long  in  the  country  to  be  easily 
cast  away.  The  two  became  mixed  especially  among  the  common 
people  who  were  naturally  very  conservative.  But  it  cannot  be 
said  that  the  people  themselves  saw  or  would  admit  that  they  saw 
what  was  happening.  To  them  it  was  all  Christianity,  that  is, 
of  course,  excluding  those  in  the  remote  districts  which  the  new 
Faith  had  not  reached.  All  those  converted  became  faithful 
adherents  to  the  Christian  religion.  It  presented  to  them  as 


-137- 


great  a  fascination  as  did  Paganism  formerly  and  perhaps  in 
some  respects  greater.  They  heard  of  the  Holy  Land,  the  places 
where  Christ,  the  Apostles  and  many  persons  of  the  Old  Testament 
used  to  live  and  wore  buried.  Some  became  so  enthusiastic  over 
the  stories  told  of  these  places  that  they  decided  to  see  them 
for  themselves  and  to  offer  their  prayers  there.  Those  who 
travelled  to  the  Holy  Land  became  known  as  ’’Palomniki”.  The  term 
is  derived  from  the  word  ” Palma ” ,  palm  tree,  a  branch  of  which 
visitors  to  Jerusalem  used  to  bring  back  as  a  souvenir. 

It  was  considered  a  great  honor  and  a  sign  of  piety  to  bo 
a  pilgrim.  Pilgrimages,  therefore,  became  so  common  that  they 
were  detrimental  to  a  proper  economic  development  of  the  State. 

The  practice  necessitated, in  the  13th  century,  the  prohibition 
of  it  by  the  State.  The  injunction  was  repeated  in  the  13th 
century. 

However,  from  the  historical  and  literary  point  of  view, 
pilgrimages  were  not  useless.  Many  pilgrims,  on  their  return 
home,  related  in  word  or  in  writing  what  they  had  seen.  Some 
were  given  to  self  praise,  or, in  eagerness  to  make  their  narra¬ 
tives  as  interesting  as  possible^  added  many  episodes,  digressing 
from  the  true  account.  But,  this  alone  does  not  take  away  the 
value  of  the  stories  in  the  light  of  their  contribution  to  litera¬ 
ture. 

One  of  the  best  known  Ukrainian  Pilgrims  who  visited 
Jerusalem  at  the  beginning  of  the  12th  century  was  Danilo. 

His  book  entitled,  "The  Palomnlk  of  the  Monk  Danilo  ,  a  narrative 


-138- 


about  his  pilgrimage  to  Jerusalem,  the  cities,  the  city  of 
Jerusalem  itself,  the  sacred  places  which  are  found  near  this 
city,  and  about  the  Churches  of  the  Saints".  The  short  title 
of  the  narrative  is  "Podoroznik"  (a  traveller).  The  historical 
and  literary  value  of  the  book  may  be  judged  from  the  fact  that 
in  the  19th  century  it  was  translated  into  French,  Greek  and 
German  languages.  In  this  book  Danilo  shows  clearly  that  he  was 
an  Ukrainian  patriot.  He  narrates  his  interview  with  King  Balduin 
of  Jerusalem,  whom  he  went  to  see  on  Good  Friday  at  one  p* clock 
in  the  afternoon  and  before  whom  he  bowed  to  the  ground.  The 
King  said  to  him,  "What  is  your  desire  Ukrainian  Patriarch?". 

And  Danilo  replied,  "Your  Royal  Highness,  I  beseech  you  for  God's 
sake  and  for  the  sake  of  the  Ukrainian  Princes,  I  too,  wish  to 
place  a  lamp  over  the  Sepulchre  of  our  Lord  from  all  our  Princes 
and  from  the  whole  of  the  Ukrainian  lands,  and  from  all  the 
Christians  of  Ukraine".  The  King  granted  his  request,  and  he 
went  to  the  market,  bought  a  glass  lamp,  filled  it  with  pure  oil, 
"without  water".  He  brought  the  lamp  "and  placed  it",  as  he  says, 
"with  his  sinful. hands  over  the  spot  where  lay  the  unspotted  feet 
of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ".  He  continues  the  story,  telling  about 
a  miracle  whereby  on  Easter  night  a  light  came  from  Heaven  and 
lit  this  lamp  from  the  Ukrainian  lands  "while  none  of  the  Latin 
lamps  became  enkindled".  He  tells  us  another  interesting  thing 
which  he  saw.  This  was  a  stone  under  which  lay  the  head  of  Adam. 

A  cross  was  stuck  in  a  crevice  of  the  stone.  At  the  time  Christ 
was  crucified,  the  blood  which  flowed  down,  washed  the  head  of 


-139- 


t  .^-^-i’  '. ‘i..'  :.<f'.-^  t:.-OCPit>'-' 


'  .''i 


:  ■  V  w  ^  t”-  .r.cl.- 

-  ’  X  \  •  '  ■'  r 

<  --'  1 5 

-?r  .  .  ,■-  ■ 


V,-, 


wpT  ' 


.  (  <■}(.  .'■  ,  t .  ‘.-rj.  ;o 

.’’  ••■■  •  -n  M<'*;j-  t:/  '  ;p  '•  .1.’ 

■*'  t.  ;,'•;  *•.  ?  ^rU'  "I 

o;•i•:^•'i  -,c»;p,cr  r:!  -.  « n--. • 


at'  ^-'TvxpiT 


<  ■  ^-c 


CC  -'  .'o.  ^  o/  ,i-ToX.^e,o'iol.  ^0 

'  '■’  ■  ■■''  ■  ,?i5«  ■ 

:  •  i4b  c.  ,i  ■''1 0  f  'j i'  rtG  c  a  -a  j'-U  a  £{4“  •  oi  ■  : 


;  .'(  ‘ 


4 


■  L^' »..  cXir:><u  tM 

V  •  .:c,  ,r<*:  ;  Tol  b::  :  ^:■^/:■^ 

Tf'^'O  qfOllI  ft 

1.-’  '  »•"'  '  ^  ’*  ■' 

b;u  .-)Sai»X.h  •'•;■■_•  ii  c'f<¥r^f»KT  i?C/'f’:.-6r» 

.  i  l  ^aT  r  f  .1  o'^C  '  ;  . ' .  "  ■•  ■ 

t  j'<-X5  c  ‘  ^  '  •rmr,  ^  .T  i’  '.r;i,v 

:-  •  V  .  ■  ■\'r  >;;  .  ‘  •  V  ,'  f  r  ;-^  , 

.><>;#!  ■».(/  T‘  .  Tt/;tA/1  •'  'in 

*'  •»  .-•  »:  v.-'-.i  riO/<  .  ’-!.i'’5(.  .  ‘-rr--\i  "Xir 


4,  :  '  v- 


:  '-P. 


I 


•^iL'  '.  fa- 


Adam,  together  with  the  sins  of  the  whole  of  humanity.  On  his 
journey  back  he  states  that  he  passed  the  Cypress  Island,  and 
claims  that  he  saw  a  cross, on  the  island,  made  of  cypress,  and 
which  was  suspended  in  the  air  without  any  support.  He  bowed  to 
this  cross. 

Danilo  claims  that  he  spent  sixteen  full  months  in  Jerusalem 
alone  and  two  years  in  Palestine,  He  had  a  moderate  amount  of 
money  with  him  and  could  afford  to  pay  conductors  who  were  familiar 
with  biblical  places  and  could  show  them  to  him. 

The  author's  work  is  really  a  diary  of  his  journey  with  a 
detailed  description  of  what  he  saw.  The  subjects  which  interest 
him  most  are  purely  religious  subjects.  He  describee, in  a  topo¬ 
graphical  order,  Jerusalem  and  the  neighboring  holy  places,  then 
further,  the  holy  places  of  Galilee  together  with  some  of  the 
places  of  Syria. 

The  narrative  of  Danilo  was  wlttea  in  full  detail,  and 
none  of  the  places  mentioned  in  the  Bible  which  were  of  any  impor¬ 
tance,  were  omitted.  His  writing  is  simple  and  clear  and  it  was, 
therefore,  read  by  many  people.  In  the  15th  century  and  later 
the  information  given  by  him  was  sought  by  many  pilgrims  and  used 
by  them  to  direct  them  in  their  journeys  and  to  help  them  locate 
the  places  mentioned  in  the  Bible, 

The  Chroniclers . 

The  desire  of  a  people  to  learn  something  of  its  past  and 
to  record  this  information  for  its  posterity,  gave  birth  to 
chronicles.  Their  origin,  therefore,  dates  back  to  the  beginning 


-140- 


■•  ^  ,  'vj- 

•  >'  *.. 

'  j  V  a  :  •’. 

'■'I." 

r.  7^0'  f .  •  :[  cdW  :%'V-i.  .-mrc'  r, 

^•:•'^  .'  r“:  ■.-/  . ■a.'r.i -'.x'o- 

4  -r  (  ,*•.*' 

•■  '‘U' 

,f*  (i.c  ti?#r  •  ‘-I-"  ■<:>:  f.^ 

-  • 

..  ■.,  .>  .  ■ 

“'  '  J  '■  /‘-  cI;^^J5U 

'V.i  '.cw^  . 

■(.  •  V  •'  ’7  -  •''■'■<•■  I'L':’ 

^)j;trc,  -  'avij.!  vr^-Otrs 

^  —  *t  . 

i-M'lj'  WO^iM  1'  J,'M’V 

■,  ef.  '> A  liij  X  j»iJ  X  J:<5  i  : : j  i  v. 

tWi  ^  -  • 

e.i 

^  |8  -y  'U'  '-'0  ^  ■  r't  i'Tv+ob 

v..'t)i  '•  Bbi  "if  1.  ,,  . c^^u^ 

i*  I<  -rtli 

M»1V4W  eOlJl‘'C.\s>  *i{»'v'%  .'‘-Ir  r-  It-;.:  '  ^ 'W*:'  . 

f  ~  •'  '  '  ■  ■■ 

■  1  .  ,  lo  ' 

'1  .  .:  ■  '<•■  I  n-.''*:"'  ■  f  ‘  ~  'L/ 'idf  y  .  •, 

■•  .‘•*  ’  .*  ri.',  t:  Jxioi^’N^ri*  ■  c.-wuc:  tu.J  lo  ei'IOf.  < 

i  :w:-i..*  ^T^‘‘  3.’ .•'  ‘  ‘  otcfr  lO-on.^.'' 

'  '■•  ■  ,  '  ■'  r:}  ^  '..  t-tir." 

'  •  ■■  '  '!  u'-i’.* 'fi  or  ••'*ic':r-  -t-rJ 


♦  c--'  .  ■' 

' 

•  ; 

'a  ■ 

0 

■*.l;  '  ■•ie<,' 

..r  % 


-f  tM 


of  the  development  of  the  national-historical  and  political 
consciousness  of  a  given  nation,  and  so,  they  are  of  inestimable 
historic  and  literary  value  since  they  contain  the  essence  of 
a  people's  past  history,  progress  and  ideals.  The  basis  of  the 
early  records  kept  by  a  person  or  a  family  were  the  stories  handed 
down  by  word  of  mouth.  Such  was  presumably  also  the  case  with 
clans  and  nations.  The  chronicler,  from  his  love  of  literary 
work  and  from  patriotism,  undertook  to  put  in  writing  the  myths, 
legends,  ballads  and  other  stories  of  the  people. 

The  Ukrainian  chronicles,  in  spite  of  diligent  researches, 
are  not  to  be  found  in  their  simplest  form.  The  oldest  that  have 
come  to  us  are  already  composite  documents  or  compilations  of 
apparently  several  documents  containing  records  of  important 
historical  events,  novels,  ballads  and  so  forth,  Ukrainian 
Archaeologists  have  therefore  a  difficult  task  in  their  researches 
to  determine  from  the  character  of  the  various  parts,  as  to 
what  were  the  relative  periods  of  their  first  appearance  before 
the  subsequent  insertion  of  them  in  the  chronicle.  Shakhmatov 
looks  for  the  first  traces  of  chronicles  in  Novgorod,  where  in 
1017  the  authorities  of  Novgorod  inserted  in  the  chronicle  their 
"Pravda”  or  Laws.  On  this  chronicle  the  Kievan  chronicle,  which 
appeared  in  1039-1040,  had  considerable  influence.  The  first 
part  of  the  chronicle  comprises  to  a  great  extent  the  work  of 
Teopemtey.  The  document  is  continued  in  the  Pecherskey  Monastery 
by  Nikon  the  Great,  who,  in  later  years  became  head  of  the 
monastery.  The  chronicle  contains,  amongst  other  things,  an 


-141- 


f  > 


•  f,  .S-  >  ^  '  -■  ,  ■';'-n  -'vl' 

■  7:  <  ■ .  i»  4  IB'  i  5  *:-fi  t  r  •  •  ^ 

v/‘t  ■  ft  (}V 

'.  'i  V-  .r  i  i  ^  0  i'  £.  i  rf 

ii 

:  'ii;  jO*  i^/xipH’  \V  ■:~'(.-o 

Ci^*  i  i.'  ’  t  •■'  ‘-f  '5r!!.)  ‘'■^■ 

t b>jA  ^ 

'  i-:  .X  Vi'fej  X 

In/?  ■•.^. 

•  ^  +‘<t# ',  j  a .  ii»  *. , p  ^  "  :  -  *  txj  in ■'  i  briV 

:  '■  /  '•’J'  '■-<?. ci  yfon 

•  t  .  r.>  ‘i  ■  iu  o.,’^  :'nrt>'j 


■  '  ■  ^  ^  ■  :  •  -C  V  ■* 

■■■  "  >  -  •  c  ''>\S 

.  .  ■■  '  ■‘.  •,  ■  *  ":  ivjTflA'^Ti^rt/  «W1J  fliic,  X  ■•  ■i."ro:' ijb  oj  ,  i, ., 

.’i  • 

’•;  ■■  '-■■^•.  •  Xi'  7  V 'iv  'iiiX  •  v,..'  .v, 


*'■  ^  .  •.  ^  .  r*  •  *  ,.  ,  ,  ;  .  .  '■;.  ■  ua*; 

:-•  'ii*r  ©ft^  1C-’  ^yi'coi 

i:  ’  ■'♦•;  -  .'  ''f  "  .  •  1 

-  -7 

'  ■ :  ‘  <x;  ■  ^ XCX 

.«v,^a  tc  ■ 

'•■jX**  -  ,  >  ;;-•  ••.  ^  i  '^  ,  -  oOi.  ax  :je-«ev£jA>^j^ 


■-  “*  f  t  ’  irjpB?> 

!*• 

-  i;-  •  •  'j  dftt 

'7  -  *  i»'  ■•’  - :  j  <wri  ‘JlC  i  ■:  r  i . 

■  ■  .  .-.';.y.i;o^  ., 

a  ■ 

V.  ♦  ,  ^ 

account  of  the  foundation  of  the  Metropolis  of  Kiev  by  Yaroslav 
the  Wise,  the  christening  of  the  Church  of  St,  Sophia  by  Metro¬ 
politan  Teopemtey,  the  quarrel  between  Prince  Yaroslav,  the  tales 
of  Oleh's  marches  against  Constantinople,  about  Princess  Olha, 

Prince  Ihor ,  Sviatoslav,  Volodimir,  and  other  early  rulers  and 
their  victories*  Obviously,  many  legends  concerning  these  rulers 
were  told  to  the  writer  of  the  Chronicle,  for,  he  has  recorded 
some  exhaustive  information  about  the  Ukrainian  princes.  An  example 
of  such  is  the  tale  about  Prince  Oleh*  Oleh  is  said  to  have 
enquired  of  the  soothsayers  as  to  how  h©  will  meet  his  death.  He 
was  told  that  his  favorite  horse  would  be  the  cause  of  it.  There¬ 
upon  he  ordered  his  horse  to  be  kept  always  in  the  barn,  to  be 
fed  but  never  to  be  taken  out  for  riding.  Several  years  later, 
when  Oleh  returned  from  his  march  against  the  Greeks,  he  enquired 
about  the  horse*  On  being  told  that  the  horse  was  dead,  he  laughed 
in  derision  of  the  soothsayers.  Then,  in  order  to  see  with  his 
own  eyes  that  the  horse  was  really  dead,  he  wished  to  be  shown 
the  skeleton  of  the  animal.  On  approaching  it  he  stepped  on  its 
skull,  from  which  a  venomous  snake  leaped  out  and  fatally  stung 
him  in  the  leg. 

At  the  time  of  the  first  appearance  of  the  oldest  Kievan 
Chronicle,  the  Bulgarians  had  already  written  records  of  their 
life  and  history.  By  examining  the  oldest  Ukrainian  manuscript, 
it  can  be  noticed  that  a  great  deal  of  the  method  and  phraseology 
had  been  borrowed  from  the  Bulgarian  writings  of  the  same  period. 

The  extension  of  the  Kievan  Chronicle  is  called  the  First 


-142- 


*  ~  ^ _ ,  — -  '“■•i  '  -  •  ■  '  '  » 

.>  '  *•  'J'T/H.'  'I  '.  ■  "  iM' 

'  : '  '  \  ■ 

t  •  •  "  r'  ■  ■.•  :\  -^.v-  r  cfoiiltic 

'  •  -  '  ^  .  '  (q:.'. 

-  .  -■•(  -  *'  ,  '.0  •  . 

.  ;  '  .  .V, 

v.r.  ,  \  '  ^J0Ci-iir^' ^ '  '  .  ,  ;. •  ,: 

,  t  ©f?,'  o>  toXCs> '..‘S'iSjv- 

-..«4»<3?4a"''  vAi..  mi' -  dri  ■^3ar-‘:r:‘- 


tiA*  oi  ^ 


eljssT  ai  ,no?j'.,i 

;  v-  %  -  -s}""'  .  ,*'■  -  . 

)  ,.  -  .■  '  ■  ' 

. .  ■?» .  ■  a ’!<  ;.•  'j, ' : . :  o  -  - j  -'j  , V .  i  u o  ,  ■ 


yi..lc' '.Tv 
>  ;.  f-s  *  >i4 


^.^fi'  t'io 


!;•*.#.■■  -nr. ItA.  -.^ii  r'  ?  ht'j 

j'-: ''  :  ’.  .  ' 

'  .:''>Ay*v,  ■■'  ■  ,.,1.'  ’’  ;X' J't'elo '  rf'e^/lw 


•' 'i:‘J  Ic  iw7*ML>  ni 

,  V  -  " 


’»  ii'  rr.  .,ip.  c,r;.'  'lc  (iOw*ei&',)<c 


*'  *  '  •  ■*  ‘‘•''  - '■  (I  ;,..•  <?  ii A i ; { w ' flif)':: ’■ 

'  -  ■  _  ^  '■  ' 
/  •  *'  '  .  nirt  ^ 

-■/•-•.  '-1  ■ /' .  .!;  ,‘... .  •'  . ' 

•••♦(''■  *\  'w  V.tiiVM'  *  •'  * ‘■i'.i.j  i '!.v;  lui;  i  ^  _  f.  irC ':j,.'0 

ft'io  fr/i  ,  ■'  .iff;  ••-:tJi 

.  .'•cn'fcs  r.i,'  it"..'.  ‘iir»'jijcvrt‘  ♦of  Ati-. 

'•  '  *i‘*^*i"  • i ;  »i<  ..L 


Kievan-Pecher skey  Chronicle.  To  this  chronicle  the  writers  con¬ 
tinued  to  gradually  add  further  material,  and  the  result  was  the 
Second  Kievan-Pecherskey  compilation.  Much  is  said  in  it  as  to 
how  the  name  of  Kiev  was  derived  from  one  named  Key,  and  how, 
where  formerly  sacrifices  were  offered  to  the  devils,  now  churches 
appeared  with  golden  steeples,  which  churches  were  full  of  monks. 
The  records  show  the  character  of  religion  in  Ukraine  in  the  11th 
century,  the  internecine  struggles  between  Ukrainian  princes,  the 
wars  with  the  neighboring  nations  and  the  stories  about  the  heroes 
and  the  martyrs# 

Nestor. 

Undoubtedly  the  greatest  figure  among  the  early  Ukrainian 
Chroniclers  was  Nestor,  who  is  generally  called  the  First  Ukrai¬ 
nian  Chronicler*  In  the  year  1112, Nestor,  a  man  who  had  passed 
his  si^ctieth  year,  undertook  to  compile  a  document  which  proved 
to  be  a  great  source  of  information  down  to  our  day*  He  called 
the  compilation  ’*Povisty  Vremennikh  Lit”,  i.e.,  narratives  of 
past  years.  Nestor *s  work  was  in  part  a  remodelling  of  the 
original  manuscripts  vdiich  he  well  amplified  by  skilfully  incor¬ 
porating  in  them  numerous  written  and  unwritten  narrative  material. 
He  described  the  relations  that  formerly  existed  between  Ukraine 
and  the  Byzantine  lands,  and  recounted  the  story  concerning  the 
origin  of  the  Slavic  Alphabet.  He  also  included  in  the  narratives 
several  important  treaties  entered  into  between  the  Ukrainian 
princes  and  the  Greeks,  namely,  the  Treaty  between  Prince  Oleh 
and  Kings  Leo  and  Alexander  in  the  years  907  and  912;  the  Treaty 


-143- 


“  C  5 


V  .  '•■'■  ^-m  ■  ■—'  '  I- 

■^v!  ’^i  .' 


..  V  ^ 


c  -•  .t»  B>-  .V  '  "k-  ©J..i*i'*  ^irij 

••‘j^';7*ir  f(;(-  nc  r -)/-<’*  %!.*(>'  '7^;.ii’ii?^''  c.;,^ 

r^t;  arv-r:  i/f^i ‘ 

r.  "e  «.-  ^'•/' .<:'c  •  ri^T  «jt;t-W''-.'.T -■*■■;  dd^w  sriiitr 

V  .  -  ■«  -  :  .  ' '  ' 

'  :■  -i  ■  ■': 

^  •  ..  v-^-  .~r.<t:-\1 

...  "  ^  'j.  .f-  \ 

ytk-<rf  ^  in*3ji^, vi  .'''^(^►“'-uobrr'.- 

4i“i'-  *5.f'  V;-.".*”''*’''  Vii  .  •■  o;,' jj  10  •;dC' 

I4J  t  rc  ’L  'V  Itlfjf  ,  V':r.;-  ;;/'ir! 

^  ■  '  ■  =»  ’  '  '  '' 

•''^’t  :*n.‘‘iJ  .'.■  •■;■•  ■•'...? 'If L^.;  . '  •'id 

c  '  .  ■(- ;  -  i  •  <s'r  e<^'  c-i" 

’  -K  bf  'JT  •  -:  '  ^  '  .'  '  .  *  ••• ' ; 


between  Prince  Ihor  and  the  King  Roman  and  his  sons  Constantine 
and  Stephen  in  the  year  945;  and,  the  Treaty  of  Sviatoslav  and 
Tsimiskley  in  the  year  971. 

In  his  writings,  Nestor  made  no  attempt  to  exclude  the 
current  legends  and  other  narratives  of  the  people.  His  accounts 
are,  therefore,  tinged  with  a  lively  spirit  of  the  age.  showing 
the  country  and  particularly  the  Kievan  territory  in  peace  and 
war,  and  the  idolized  princes  in  their  full  glory  as  servants 
and  protectors  of  the  people.  Besides  ably  arranging  the  material 
on  hand  as  a  chronicler,  Nestor  also  expresses  his  own  views  on 
various  matters,  and  he  is,  therefore,  in  a  sense,  also  a  historian. 
The  result  is  that  by  his  "Povisty  Vreraennikh  Lit”,  he  laid  a 
basis  for  the  Ukrainian  history  from  its  remotest  period. 

No  question  can  now  arise  as  to  the  authoriship  of  the 
’’Povisty”,  although,  true  enough,  doubts  had  been  previously 
entertained  in  regard  to  the  matter*  Polikarp,  who  was  a  well- 
known  writer  in  the  middle  of  the  13th  century,  has,  by  his  refer¬ 
ence  to  him  wiped  away  any  existing  doubts  as  to  the  writer  of 
the  narratives,  though  it  cannot  be  denied  that  certain  parts  of 
them  is  a  work  of  other  authors.  Polikarp  made  extensive  use 
of  Nestor *s  compilation,  so  did  other  writers  after  Nestor.  One 
of  the  important  later  compilations  was  the  so-called  Ipatian 
Codex,  which  had  its  origin  in  the  Ipatian  Monastery  in  Volhynia, 
and  which  was  completed  about  the  beginning  of  the  14th  century. 

In  this  and  in  another,  Laurentian  Codex  were  recorded  the  greater 
part  of  the  narratives  of  the  ”Povisty  Vreraennikh  Lit”.  In  the 


-144- 


-a  /  i 


i-.«f  r  Jf^S*  i.«0Wi5/ri  ■  ■ 

T  r' , 

"j  *-■  o  V.  D^'S  '  ■  v  :  i“V  *?  .1  j  ^  j; .  -  T 

•  '  nl 

^Ck;*.?!  '.^  i  '  ^r;  ^  ^  t- t  ' 

•  /  -I  i.:  V  J  ■  \  t-’ 

■  ■r  ■  tq 

K?lr*^-«r  »'r-~  r.  .■  /‘lo.,  I)a«;':''i’ 


■'^o  T'S^f  .  i-il:' f /iO-iiaii  e/>  on-pi!  fK:‘ 
■K  '„■-  '  . 


.  li 

'•  (  •>  <  .jDI^  .  ■■  -  ,5  ;=iA)au  r.tJpitifr 

^‘•T*  ^  i4  r*r.rr>c^n7  _^Xj;e9n 

.  -•‘If  H!>rorrt-'i  '..  xi'  v'K'i^iiji  'lol  -jXs/icj 


•  >  ■  :  ••'•v  ^ 

'o  ,  •  ^  .  -x'  fj  --J  '■  '‘■■:i;b':o.-i: 

,-j  .‘‘i *:>'  nrwcn  . 

;.V  ,.  , 

.-  'r-nj:  :•/  t  .  .^-7  ^ 

^  0  fe 


f?lX  J,  <•.' "i  o  dw  0^?  '  ~% 

•  ■’ 

‘.  vditc,  r>  .  C  :  :;-c‘:>  '  c  ^sel' 


:•'*■  '  .Nic.rv  ”^'4"  vv 

J-^qX .  ^‘.  i  'u  Mi ;  t  ^  4la  -  ■  ,  ■ 


Ium. 


.^  -iir/ru  ,  -Blrtl  doidc-  . 


.1  >■  ;*4,i 


j.-:  ',.  A  * 


7^4 


Ipatian  Codex  the  part  referring  to  the  "Povisty'*  is  under  the 
heading  ’’The  Narratives  of  a  Monk  of  Theodosius  Pecherskey's 
Monastery  concerning  the  Past  Years,  as  to  the  Origin  of  Ukraine 
and  as  to  who  was  the  fiest  Ruler  thereof”.  It  may  be  seen  that 
the  heading  includes  a  rather  complete  account  of  the  past  history 
of  Ukraine*  The  author  commences  his  narratives  with  Noah,  for, 
following  the  Bible,  he  believes  that  Noah’s  posterity  begot  the 
nationalities.  He  then  passes  on  to  the  Eastern-Slavic  races 
rehearsing  their  history  and  characteristics.  Hero  he  dwells  on 
the  beginning  cf  the  Ukrainian  State,  the  first  Ukrainian  Princes 
and  the  events  in  Ukraine,  the  building  of  monasteries  and  the 
appointment  of  Metropolitans.  Something  is  also  said  about  the 
social  and  religious  life  of  the  people.  The  Chronicler  inter¬ 
prets  phenomena  in  nature  as  being  the  manifestation  of  the  Supreme 
Being.  According  to  him,  the  cause  of  all  acts  of  man  is  in  God, 
who  instils  noble  thoughts  into  the  minds  of  the  princes,  who 
sends  fear  on  the  infidels,  and  who  sends  down  numerous  misfor¬ 
tunes  in  order  to  divert  the  Christians  from  evil  deeds. 

In  course  of  time,  Chroniclves  appeared  in  various  parts  of 
Ukraine,  among  others  a  Galicio-Yolhynian  Chronicle  of  some 
significance.  This  Chronicle  deals  with  the  era  when  Kiev  lost 
its  prestige  as  the  greatest  city  in  Ukraine  from  the  political 
and  economical  point  of  view,  and  when  in  the  middle  of  the  12th 
century  the  Western  Ukrainian  territories  rose  into  prominence 
and  came  into  rivalry  with  Kiev,  and  when  culture  got  a  good  start 
and  literature  thrived.  Naturally,  therefore,  the  local  chroniclers 


-145- 


Kr  ' -  'y  •  ; 

R  ,  >  _  ;i5^  trj  o."  :;n-  f>f.oajiq  n<  r-^eV'  .  y  :/vti:i'.^i-;ci 

Wkr  :  :^v<l  -'“.5'  '  :'i^  *•■>.-' if<rio  filul  c;',  .■^  frig’s  I- 

.  lUi  «i/  ‘-'r  J  ’b  ’;flri  n  ’  ^ 

'  -  ‘r^jj  --dC  ' 

4'?  '  _  • 

•  '-  ■•:r  ,,,  f,-:-.  r;  :'i  I  .  ;  srfc? 

.  '> 

'  •  /  *  ^  i  » ■  ’■ 

-elcc  :  «54..ru  .  ■  .  .  •' 

'  :Xr  ;>ofc  '  :  •  .  t  tX©i>.f ;  :•  J 

»  1  .7«  ..'<■■  ..  .  4  b  ot  Iv'fcTO  ••,  •’ •  ■  ' 

:  "  '■  n*i<:4/nc:  ^«2i>  t- of>  -nj  .. 

•^1 


f  r  -  j  '  -.  -.r  - 

> 

E  c.  '-*  ■  ?  -'f" 

Q'S  ‘*  i  -T  i-  M  V:  ■■  :i  ■  ■  ^ 

p  -  •'  :4  *  V  ■;  .  •  '  t 


were  able  to  proceed  with  the  work  similar  to  that  done  by  their 
predecessors  in  and  around  Kiev,  The  Galicio-Volhynian  Chronicle 
has  one  outstanding  characteristic  which  distinguishes  it  from  the 
other  earlier  chronicles,  and  this  is  that  the  authors  of  it 
show  an  intellectual  superiority  over  those  of  the  former.  They 
make  no  mention,  for  example,  of  the  heavenly  signs  and  miracles 
as  do  the  earlier  authors.  On  the  other  hand,  they  make  references 
to  Homer  and  Greek  Chronologists ,  with  which  they  appear  to  be 
familiar. 

It  would  be  Interesting  to  trace  the  making  of  the  chronicles 
in  detail,  but  this  process  would  necessitate  much  time  and  space. 
Most  of  them  are  elaborate  documents,  showing  that  men  who  com¬ 
piled  them  were  diligent  students  of  the  history  and  the  litera¬ 
ture  of  their  people.  The  style  of  the  narratives  brings  out  the 
simplicity  of  the  national  legends  and  folklore.  Various  struggles 
and  wars  are  described  in  detail.  The  chronicler  was  invariably 
a  patriot  and  exhibited  his  patriotism  in  the  warmth  with  which 
he  wrote  his  articles.  Another  fact  "which  shows  this,  is  that 
apart  from  certain  imitated  characteristics  as  to  style,  the 
Byzantine  Chronicles  had  no  influence  on  the  Ukrainian.  The 
fact  that  they  show  Chri stain  spirit  in  their  works  in  the  same 
way  that  the  Byzantine  writers  did,  is  due  to  the  rapid  growth 
of  Christian  ideals  in  Ukraine  in  those  times.  But,  though  it 
must  be  conceded  that  considerable  material  recorded  is  permeated 
with  a  strong  religious  feeling,  there  is  a  considerable  amount 
of  it  of  entirely  secular  character.  Many  varieties  of  chronicles 


-146- 


V'  i  jnMi  * 

,,  i  f  'A  •  ’  .  j-  •'■ 

*  '•  0  ;■  . 

■  "-‘■‘i  '.♦ 

•<  f'  V ^  V‘^ 
iO^pi '#^fi8il'  •  '■■•  JJIJ>».<  c  eff.; 

•'7  "v"  *  i  :>ij’  ,.  . 

?j^\o  /j  '^'V  •-  '^  ' 

k>  f9  * 


■'- ■  J, 

i."- 

■  . -il; 


V.  rtii  •’ll/'  li  '•  .'* 

••  'C  T-' 

Vf  •.'  t  ■  •  ’Uvi  •:r.,:S'. 

"■  :'\  .  (-e  ofriX?  ^ri  rfc. 

^  ••  --y-if^  x  0  'i  V  ^  ^  ‘■'  o  >1  cflt 

r  <»a1v  ;,■• 

.:^.r-^  ■'■'  f^rrjy  ^ 

:  r;''‘-  '‘:.  ':yi  y;  '<:  :lf  '  Ji  .i\~'  ‘  r;2 

v-'i 

■  -■■  ,,  '  *^-.x  ';./■•  viii;:  .  ..t  ■^.■■rJ 

I'- 

-.'? ‘'s  ;  c;/:c' 

.»  '.o--!  '•i.i^rid 

.1.  ■  •;  lo 

i  I’  ;  .  '  ’  KKrr.w  i  — ■’ 


■  “  'I  ■*  ' 

«  r-  1  *rT  .. 

’  •  ^  ,  •  r 


•  ■  V..  ■ii.'if  JJf.  ’f*. 

'  .  '  .  /  .!  '  •  4  '  lo 

H.-VyflC)  ..'  &^4i:dW^C^  W  '’*11  • 


appeared,  each  depending  on  the  conditions  of  the  country,  time 
and  place  of  which  they  treated.  And,  though  generally  speaking, 
they  lack  in  one  important  particular  as  to  the  method  of  narrating, 
and  that  is,  they  fail  to  show  the  cause  of  events  and  simply  show 
us  persons  and  things  act,  as  it  were,  in  a  pantomime,  yet  the 
chroniclers  made  them  interesting  by  showing  vigorous  life  in  them, 
poetic  traits  and  reality.  They  are  fond  of  bringing  nature  into 
play;  they  weave  into  their  narratives  interesting  epical  episodes; 
they  show  an  ardent  seeking  for  truth,  no  matter  what  the  expense , 
and  spareno  efforts  to  make  their  narratives  as  thorough  and 
complete  as  possible  and  in  the  best  language  available.  These 
high  qualities  of  the  Ukrainian  Chronicles  put  them  on  a  very  high 
pedestal  in  the  eyes  of  a  student  interested  in  the  development  of 
Ukrainian  Literature. 

Poetry. 

If  it  were  not  for  the  chroniclers  very  little,  or  probably 
nothing,  would  now  be  known  of  the  early  Ukrainian  poetry.  In 
the  chronicles  are  found  both  the  poetry  in  its  original  form  and 
style,  and,  even  much  of  the  prose  is  poetic.  The  fact  that  the 
ancient  Ukrainian  Literature  had  to  be  translated  from  the  Slavonic 
script,  in  which  the  chronicles  were  written,  hardly  takes  away 
the  beauty  of  the  works,  for  the  similarity  of  it  to  modern 
Ukrainian  is  so  close  that  an  educated  Ukrainian  can  understand  it 
without  much  difficulty.  The  similarity  of  the  two  is  far  greater 
than  that  of  the  ©Id  English  to  Modern  Engligh. 

But  before  going  on  to  consider  some  of  the  old  poetry. 


-147- 


o  * 


,v 


■::i<.  ‘'OjilJ  V 


'  =•■.-•;'•  s't^Aoi 

*  ■'/  ":  J.  i;  O  *1..  i-'  ih-^  «  / ‘  '.■; ^  0  It  -fpc-  C 


c:t£fq“  Lt\z  •»  «. T-.(  't.'.'i  cs-fe!  ■ '.  *  O-^-. i  \ .  .  ..  :'<j.. 


C  ,.  .  w  .  i  ^ 


it  will  probably  not  be  amiss  to  recall  the  fact  that  what  poetry 
has  been  handed  down  to  us  is  a  very  small  fraction  of  what 
had  actually  been  composed  by  the  people,  some  of  which  was  put 
into  writing;  while  some  travelled  from  generation  to  generation 
merely  by  word  of  mouth.  Looking  back  into  history  we  find  that 
of  the  various  marks  of  the  ancient  Ukrainian  culture,  their  poetry 
has  been  one  of  the  greatest  sufferers*  Against  it  militated 
the  times,  people  and  events*  In  the  beginning  of  the  second 
part  of  the  thesis  were  mentioned  the  Greek  ecclesiastics,  who 
in  their  zeal  to  permanently  establish  Christianity  in  Ukraine, 
endeavored  to  their  utmost  to  completely  stamp  out  all  the  remains 
of  Paganism.  This  included  the  people’s  poetry,  their  songs, 
music  in  any  form,  entertainments,  any  appearance  of  pleasure 
and  poetry  in  human  life.  We  must  remember,  too,  that  poetry 
in  olden  days  was  more  a  part  of  a  man’s  life  than  it  la  new, 
since  it  emanated  directly  from  the  heart  of  the  declaimer;  he 
had  it  in  his  mind  all  memorized  and  did  not  have  it  all  in  writ¬ 
ing  as  we  have  it  to-day.  Poetry  and  the  intrument  7/hich  produced 
it  were  in  olden  days  inseparable,  and,  when  repressions  on  the 
people^  were  exercised,  much  was  lost.  But  what  has  escaped 
destruction,  is  of  high  literary  and  artistic  value.  This  is  true 
of  old  Ukrainian  poetry  and  the  fact  is  acknowledged  even  by 
foreign  critics.  Professor  Briickner ,  in  commenting  on  the  Ukrai- 
nisxi  Chronicles,  states  that  when  he  compares  them  with  those 
of  the  Northern  people,  the  latter  appear  unpoetic,  dry  and 
unreal.  Professor  Pipin  acknowledges  that  they  are  vivid. 


-148- 


i  ':wJ-  : I  F 

.  '■  . IT'  -O'*  : '  £:  i 


i,;  *»>:. 


■i  :  Itr 


.1  ‘  ^ •■  ;*y''  X  iff^r i  J  i-  T'7  c  X  f>'i 


•">.  •'ftr:  Ai'’-  ';•%' 


■>■  .f  ^^ffr 


•  -'  I 


'i-  s  C'-li  M»ilo  ^C'  ‘  ''''V  fl 

•  '  '  •''  ■'  ’  ■  ■  './ii  n 


'  ■  '''  .■  :  T 


r  hi:^  t  ISlv^^Xv, 

^  4 

c i  ■' ;  '■•-•■:'•  ■•■S .:  -2  i'*!-#'  ic 


'  iuTi^^.t^q  ,  <J J  I  'i  ’■  ii  J  ,  c« . 


>  ,V-^ 


(ti  .  f  )ii  :„.  .'■'a 


■■  •  •  :  '®i 


‘j.ir‘  nx'-mr'w  '  I- 


■^;4 

:•  7v*'‘‘  ■ 

;a<  -  - 

‘OXv 

'“  i}^  t  ' 

^oa.i.'*':  ‘a’ 

EKU^«ll 

5#-  '-■> 

V  Si:  ^^>C.\  i? #.;>?'  p.Y/b 

*'1''  .  ^vrp“'! 


ax  ijVi‘:\  e 


■  ^  .'•iy‘-ou’io'r.«'5  .1^ 

.  ^  yy ; 

i-lfoa  -y  rio 

Darl'a  iiidi  t  ‘-i 


^Ci  , 


dramatic,  contain  many  details  in  connection  with  the  events  of 
the  time,  and  a  poetic  spirit  which  is  seldom  found  in  chronicles 
of  other  nations  written  ccntemporarecusly  or  at  a  later  date.  These 
opinions  are  easily  borne  out  by  the  contents  of  the  manuscripts 
which  are  available.  Vestiges  of  the  old  ballads  with  their 
fragrant  poetry  are  to  be  found  in  such  narratives  as  the  one  deal¬ 
ing  with  the  prophetic  Oleh,  Olha  and  her  revenge  on  the  Derevllani 
tribe,  Sviatoslav,  who  was  as  light  as  ‘’a  beast  of  the  forest”, 
the  attempt  of  Rohnida-Horislav  to  slay  Volodimir  the  Great,  the 
seizure  of  Kiev  by  the  Pechenihy  tribe,  the  wars  of  Sviatoslav  with 
the  Polovtzi  in  the  Spring  of  the  year  1093,  and  other  narratives. 

The  earliest  poetry  is,  of  course^^  that  of  pre«Chr istian  period* 
In  course  of  time  when  Christian  Faith  became  the  basis  of  national 
beliefs,  the  Christian  legend  took  the  place  of  the  ©Id  heroic  Epic. 
Hence  in  a  histor ically-critical  analysis  of  the  Ukrainian  litera¬ 
ture  one  comes  in  contact  with  interesting  types  of  plots  end  poetry 
of  different  periods*  In  th©  Galicio-Volhynian  Chronicle,  a  refer¬ 
ence  is  made  to  ”Spivetz”,  (singer  or  poet)  named  Mitue,  who  had 
refused  to  serve  King  Danilo.  A  poet  named  Boyan,  after  whom  many 
choirs  and  dramatic  societies  even  among  the  Canadian  Ukrainians 
have  been  named,  seems  to  have  enjoyed  great  popula.rity  and  his 
fame  spread  throughout  the  Slavic  world.  He  became  a  synomym  of 
the  ancient  Ukrainian  poetry  and  also,  to  a  certain  extent,  the 
father  of  Slavonic  song,  Boyan  lived  in  the  beginning  of  the  11th 
century  and  made  compositions  on  the  lives  and  careers  of  the  Ukrai¬ 
nian  princes  and  on  their  domestic  feuds.  The  author  of"siovo  0 


-149- 


i.''  ^ 


•■  'i  V  T^ 


,  -tr 


tv  1 


I 


I  ‘  *v/ 


-  ’  ■^^  .f-.-  -o.]  'p~r  *iv 

.t 

"!?.  s'ra 

'  ivrtjo*  -  ‘^';^^  S^’T^nkT,  :*  ;;"'v,.^»7,l 

^.'v  .  o.i- 70  ^rfj  rl-^xr  i^ni 


.’  -(«■  «.*  *»  .'-ia  »f  — ’  ■  ^:,>>.  ,  vi'r«o.fj?i''i'  ,  -.«?i'. 


'  ;-  ti 


•?  r.-'  ^ 


.  J'.. 


Vf-Tv  /^:^  ,-•  S:  v^,  "ic 

Jt  ''^.  -■.-■  a.  '.'a‘ Y.'-4;'>i  .lo  ■■"*^1 


■ '  ■T’-.J  .  ai  as4'' oX'  S 

&ri'. 


'.  c  I- 


■ -i  .i-M  7<:..  "i-Tf^-  rr?^  nl 

.  ..  ..r  .  '  0  .  ,  ri^  ':>>d 


t  V/#V.-;.-  X.".:  -  r,IX-7  );'*to41^i;4f'^  ;,A  7:'. 

.;-  >•.  Jr^i  ,  rti  "C '•■  &fic 

a  ni'cr  , . -  '  i''?  .■■  .  •»■«•,. 

'fx  ■- >C  ■:••  .’^iovi.jv  ’  qS  6i  oonsr 

. ^  .  'Vi  .c/iC-zbU  1  X  ’.  '.'Wlvd  t-.J  b0^ij^^l‘'''\f! 

•  '  ''■••>  h( 

•■  3.:7.-  ;--t>  fan^  e'JXOnt)>X 

,  •  ' i ^  in*  7  .*vv;.j/}.^  .^v^^i^‘^ 

■  ’ 

.--  V--;  .  -  I'  .  T»0BljS^J 

/'  V*»  *H  c;  £!X  if  -'  erfi’  .J 


)  ni  fi*»' 


■  0-*  i  _  'n 

. -  -••' 


V  -  *4  /  ^  i5  ;  /,0  ji  (!,*»  .gjc  '  T 


Polku  Ihorevim”,  pays  a  great  tribute  to  the  poet  in  saying; 

’’Hey,  Boyan,  thou  Nightingale, 

Of  the  renoimed  ancient  herol 
If  to-day  thou  coulcfstbut  sing  us 
Of  the  battles  of  Ihor! 

If  thou  would’ st  dart  as  a  nightingale 
Over  trees  of  thought  —  of  contemplation, 

Or  soar  high  on  the  wings  of  an  eagle 
Yonder,  where  the  skies  slope  downwards 
And  relate  in  wreaths  of  fame 
The  triumph  of  our  moment. 

Speeding  in  the  steps  of  the  Trojan 
Over  valleys  on  t®  the  heights”. 

He  continues  the  poem  showing  how  Boyan  arranged  musical 
accompaniments  to  his  own  verses: 

’’Boyan  was  a  master  singer  .... 

He  would  recall  the  past  years , 

Conflicts  of  the  ancient  ages, 

Further  in  the  poem  praises  are  showered  on  the  old  ruler 
Yaroslav,  bold  Mstislav  and  the  handsome  Roman. 

Ukrainian  epic  poetry  indeed  holds  an  important  position 
in  the  chronicles.  The  chronicles  contain  metrical  compositions 
of  very  remote  times,  and  in  them  may  be  found  the  old  epic  songs. 
These  lyrically-epic  songs  arose  usually  as  a  result  of  some 
memorable  event  in  a  community.  They  contained  three  important 
elements,  namely,  a  narration  of  the  event,  an  expression  of  the 


-150- 


e  .V  V...  V  -.-m 

■  '  ^  :Jori<r  12 

i"  '^'  '‘  *Vn.'  'I 

'vj/a  i’  J'--<  :  ■■  '  ■-i.fjon'  ,  1'J  'I 

.  ...  ■ 

-<•  ■*'.''  '.i^- 

■*  '  ^  '  •  .'7  ■.,.■■■  '  -'^ 

>■--■•  -Air".,  ■ 

fixi  ;.:oTr  or.«.C.'.“x  on,' 

'.‘jj 

:c;  fV  /-J 

^  -t;  ’r.i 

C  ■■  t  OV'O.’Ii"^  '•••"'Vv 

[  ..rjss 

r.^ik^  .•■  ;  •  «3«*X/r;l  .l‘.  •-  .,: 


i- 


■■.i‘*.M^;r  s^ ’r  a  .’ 

I  '  •  ■  ‘Ci  vile  .  :‘v.;  Mv  -.  ,  i.-j..O'^fi: 


.' '.  "/'■  I / 1' ■  ,^• '!  ti  ••;  - f 
i  -vr.^  (tx:1>  ■'  •*  ^v?  Alnc'' 


W^V:-rv> 


•'■•:  ■  Ic  '•  ••,  r  '  ‘  .  .-; 

-  ■  .■'  i-i!"  V  0'*/v^  .'^■•I..'^  ' 

-V'  ‘  '  KTOi-fj  .  ; 

,i  ^  z>'  ^  ^ 

r 

■"  ir^i, 'i:' 


'^'  -4 


people  from  becoming  Polonir.ed;  3)  The  period  of  the  ’’Haidamaki” 
(robbers  or  freebooters),  who  as  a  last  resort  in  fighting  their 
oppressors,  formed  into  bands  and  plundered  the  property  of  the 
Poles  and  distributed  it  among  their  own  aggrieved  people.  The 
Duma  about  the  hero  Bayda  is  even  to-day  recited  and  sung  in 
practically  every  Ukrainian  home,  both  among  the  educated  and 
uneducated  classes.  It  is  sung  with  such  warmth  and  vigor  as  if 
Bayda’ s  life  were  but  a  very  recent  reality. 

The  ’’Bilini”  (tales  of  old  times),  in  view  of  the  poetical 
spirit  of  the  time,  bore  a  close  resemblance  to  the  Dumi.  They 
belonged  to  the  oral  literature  and  were  sung  by  wandering  min¬ 
strels  who  disseminated  them  far  and  wide  amongst  the  people* 

Some  writers  who  are  not  very  familiar  with  Ukrainian  literature 
seem  to  be  under  a  misapprehension  as  to  the  origin  of  the  Bilini. 
The  Encyclopaedia  Britannica,  when  referring  to  them  in  the  article 
on  Russian  Literature,  treats  of  them  as  being  a  purely  Russian 
type  of  poetry,  though  in  classifying  them  it  includes  the  Bilini 
composed  in  honor  of  Volodimir,  Prince  of  Kiev,  who,  as  we  have 
seen  was  an  Ukrainian  Prince.  There  are,  at  the  present  time, 
in  existence  Russian  Bilini,  but  they  originated  in  Ukraine  among 
the  Ukrainian  people.  Sufficient  proof  of  this  is  contained  in 
the  poems  themselves.  The  recurrent  mention  therein  of  such 
Ukrainian  cities  as  Kiev,  Chernihov  and  the  River  Dnieper  bears 
this  out.  More  than  that,  they  paint  pictures  which  are  entirely 
foreign  to  Russian  scenery*  Then  too,  the  context  of  the  poems 
points  to  historical  events  such  as  the  wars  with  the  Eastern 


-152- 


v '  V  ^  V ..  -  •  r  :■ 

OfK^  "  M 

.  t  ,  1,  •.  .' t  •,•  JI  .  5  :.'h  -i't^J^rXl' 

'«  ^ ‘"’XCievvi 

.  ..crr.^t  ii  t ..  I;afi  ai^X< 

G,‘  0  ■  ^  ^yoJ:3  <;Mr,jj;; 

^  w  .  •:  i .  j  ■  '•  *r  ^.L  ' ., 'rtV^  v. X - ; .  oi .t  p-O 

■.  :j«  «.i  ^.1.  ..Ji;5‘‘','aJtio  -nv 

■■ 

."■.  •;.v,:  erf-: 

erfi  *tc  criiXqa  *' ;.  ^ 


’  ^36  *|'i^\*I*»i)<^<>V  Vt;  *-•'  ♦’ 


tribes  which  beyond  doubt  took  place  between  them  and  the  Ukrai¬ 
nians  and  not  the  Russians.  In  addition,  a  long  list  of  Ukrainian 
historical  persons  including  Princess  Olha  proves  conclusively 
that  the  Bilini  first  sprouted  on  Ukrainian  soil  and  were  first 
given  expression  t®  by  the  poetic  Ukrainian  minstrels. 

In  view  of  the  above,  it  may  seem  stdange  as  to  why  this 
type  of  poetry  vanished  from  Ukraine  and  only  left  behind  it 
evidence  of  its  former  existence.  The  underlying  reasons  for  this 
are  not  far  to  seek.  In  the  first  place,  on  the  fall  of  the  Kievan 
State  and  with  it  the  ‘’Druzhina” ,  among  which  the  Bilini  thrived, 
there  was  no  one  left  to  promote  them.  Them  too,  a  Bilina  is  a 
re-echo  in  poetry  of  certain  events  which  had  happened.  It  is 
sung  in  the  place  of  its  birth  until  the  happening  of  another  event 
which  by  its  temporary  importance  overshadows  the  former  ©vent  in 
the  eyes  of  the  people  and  the  poets.  The  new  events  become  a 
subject  for  new  Bilini,  while  the  old  ones  pass  into  oblivion. 

This  is  especially  true  in  cases  where  the  more  recent  events  are 
in  no  wise  related  to  the  former  ones.  In  Ukraine  shortly  after 
the  times  which  produced  the  Bilini,  a  period  of  the  Tartar,  Turkish 
Polish  and  Muscovite  menace  set  in.  During  this  period  the  minds 
of  the  people,  by  fate  of  circumstances,  turned  in  another  direction 
The  people  and  the  poets  composed  and  recited  poetry  —  the  Cossack 
ian  epic  poetry  in  particular.  The  Bilini  which  were  introduced 
into  Russia  from  Ukraine  found  there  a  favorable  soil  and  princi¬ 
pally  in  those  remote  parts  where  wars  or  disturbances  seldom  took 
place.  There  they  were  preserved  until  the  literary  age  came  on 


-153- 


r  ••  '  ■  r>f 

ort  ►  ,^on 


F- 


)t,'ir -If 


~  r^ir'a 
'if:  U 


•.  .1'.'“"  >i *r.c  i'ilil  ^ 

.-• .  I  •T  rii^ktic  *3ri^  •  .i  o'  r;i>va‘’^ 

l' 'jt  ,'  ~  v>  .•‘'  <  ■**  oilv’  ic  ^  tsj"  •*  ijj. 

Vino  ^/l^  '  ;  Y*irooq  'lo  uq\^  r  . 

:  \. '^^  i ':fi''.i;/  -I i  'rr^^'ViOl  c  «:.  •'■r.^?i>i  v« 

,i>> 

\  ,  •  ^•.  3:'i  .  .  oj*  --iVi  ^C.r  " 

..n  ,  V--i::(-;na^  ii  ;CJxTr 

.  '  T.  ■  '  ^ 

^rr,  .  ,.  V.  s  .  o't  ^*i^X  0 1'^  0'^  ^ PA**  '.‘i  Ki.  i\ 

.rt-'  '  '  ^■'o  '’■xcj  ni  odot  -^' 


effect  which  the  event  had  upon  the  poet,  and  the  commendation 
of  the  heroes  of  the  event. 

Another  reference  of  considerable  importance  which  shows  the 
existence  of  tJkraihian  epic  poetry  is  made  in  the  same  Galicio- 
Volhynian  Ghronicle  under  the  date  of  1251*  It  states  that  when 
King  Danilo,  together  with  his  brother,  Basil,  returned  victorious- 
over  the  Yatviaki,  the  poets  eulogized  them  in  their  songs.  Then 
again,  the  Polish  Chronicler  Dlugosz  relates  under  the  date  of 
1209  the  war  between  a  Polish  King  and  the  Ukrainian  Prince 
Mstislav,  the  Bold.  On  Mstislav  gaining  victory,  the  Ukrainians 
signified  their  exaltation  by  loud  and  emphatic  applauses  of 
approbation,  saying,  "O,  thou  wonderful  light,  Mstislav  Mstislavich! 
Thou  undaunted  falcon!”  ... 

It  is  rather  unfortunate  that  most  of  these  old  epics  with 
the  change  of  histories,!  events  lost  their  original  form,  but, 
at  the  same  time  though  they  are  transformed  into  prose  narratives , 
we  must  consider  them  of  value  in  so  far  as  they  serve  as  a 
connecting  link  between  the  old  and  the  new  era  in  Ukrainian  liter¬ 
ary  productions.  Traces  of  the  ancient  Ukrainian  epic  are  partic¬ 
ularly  noticeable  in  the  so-called  ”Dumi”,  which  are  a  type  of 
ballads.  They  may  be  divided  into  three  groups*. 

1)  The  songs  of  the  ”Druzhina”  (prince's  suite),  treating  of  the 
princes;  2)  The  Cosaack*^eriod  when  the  Cossacks  endeavor  to 
keep  Ukraine  free  from  the  control  of  the  Polish  Lords ,  and  to 
prevent  the  Roman  Catholic  religion,  thrust  upon  the  Ukrainians 
by  the  Poles  ,  from  taking  root  in  Ukraine  and  thereby  save  the 


-151- 


7^17  f 


< 

.  •_  ->TdP^f^W  r* 

-  .-  •  V  1  :i' 'r  :■  «-r 

'  ''•',  « >•  j 

r-..'  •  v  ‘ fr& -  ;!'j  i  -a  ■ 

'•  ’.^r  I  'f.;.  v:j;.  'tfi'i,  ^■  'vX.-:?i^'iC’2rro  it'iim’i'iiX''' '' 

.•)%•'  ••  *  ,  .i : '-  • 

, fi'.''''  '  •'"■0/  o..'  a1  >:::;•  W 

.  --r' 

■S  cf  B'V  >.  'i^V'-' 

i  rrj  ’tf'ftntf 

:v  :■^t 

■  ;.;  ;  ;;  i;*’  '■  ■  ' 

t  'f^  '^-5  TiijW  :  ‘-.ohij;  . 

rt*- •  **  -;•  ,■  '^• 

:i  f/R-^  /‘tiM  <•  ^  aC»'  • 

P 

t  '*■*  '>  '1  i ..  /  «••  . 

•  ■■  v::;  ,  '  . .  ,  c,..- - r^oi, 

,  ,  .  '  f  (C.'ijt'j.  rruito^'.;  riO;( ' 

'*  i  "O 

.^-■u  .N'  r;ic'lau  . 

.  ,  :  1:  ■.:- 

j  rf-.rsvft^  £i»;/Af'oi  ^  ' 

■  .-•»•  :.  -  -•■>r  •:-:*. 

•i;-’:  CM  ■  -.j  ;  ^  "/ri  tnW- 

fi  ijirr  fi'o  1'  rf-ii-*"  :-;rfi.:  -onnc-j 

J-MCr  •  :.‘  *:o  .  v,  u‘ 


-  .  1  . 

'■■•■  '  -Jjj>’:.y  .t  i  O'V;  i:*  'Idt::-r»icon 

i- 

•  f  ■•'  •  •).  •  wc  7>*LJ  -  '’'■- 

p  ^0  ,, 

;oori  t  !  I  >  J*.  (  ;•"■.  '  .  ‘ 

’■<'1'  I#  ,(•■>4.  OJ.5  ji'iU  i>-v-  •^, ;. 


|t|»  t  •.■'•  .  it’lii- 

«**»'.  .X.;-; 

'4'uflj  I  '  vC-.*  •  ■  V'  4  J  i^X'i}- 

and  saved  them  from  total  loss. 


The  old  Ukrainian  "Koliada”  was  another  form  of  poetry, 

Koliadi  were  carols  sung  on  the  occasion  of  a  holiday  in  honor  of 
some  Pagan  God.  They  were  later  used  to  eulogize  a  prince,  and 
for  this  reason, when  now  examined,  are  found  to  be  of  epic  character. 
The  Koliadi,  which  were  composed  in  more  recent  times,  correspond 
to  the  English  Christmas  Carols,  But  a  great  number  of  Ukrainian 
Christmas  Carols,  even  those  which  were  composed  for  purely  Chris¬ 
tian  purposes  and  at  the  time  when  Christianity  had  already  taken 
a  firm  root  in  the  land,  are  characterized  by  a  strong  tinge  of 
mythology,  Paganism  and  characteristics  of  the  epic.  However, 
these  qualities  in  the  Carols  do  not  in  any  way  detract  from  their 
worth  and  beauty.  On  the  contrary,  they  do  in  fact  enhance  the 
charm  because  of  their  naturalness,  superstition  and  their  reality 
in  dealing  with  gods,  demi-gods  and  men. 

While  the  Koliadi  held  a  significant  position  among  the 
songs  of  the  people,  there  were  numerous  metrical  compositions 
of  a  purely  national  character.  Some  of  them  were  merely  repeated 
in  rhyme  while  others  were  sung*  Even  more  so  than  in  the  case  of 
the  Carols,  neither  the  poets  of  the  verse  nor  the  composers  of  the 
music  to  the  national  songs  are  ascertainable®  The  product  was 
spontaneous,  coming  direct  from  the  lives  of  the  people.  Like 
the  Carols,  ma.nj’’  of  which  had  their  origin  in  a  triumph  or  a 
tragedy  of  some  national  her«,  the  national  chants  were  the  out¬ 
come  of  some  event  of  great  consequence.  Among  these,  probably 
the  most  important  incidents  were  wedding  celebrations,  funerals. 


-154- 


V"  0^  ‘4*^ 

.  .«*r^ 

-.J  '  •  O't'e*';  XV;'-'.’''. 

,,,  •«:  ■  ‘  .  br  v 

t  '  -  . 

y-vr".  '  on  r:  it*  \.<' 

■  ■.  xr  •:  "■  ■  :  •"■'•c'-.'p*  t  f'-'T 

...  ^•-  •  p^-r  c; 

'Ur',  u'  '' iJ  ;  .:  •  •'  t  ■' 

>*  ‘Xb'  ;r  biixi*  riisi../ . 

■,;.  jiXi'  •■  ;  -  ■ 

^  -■  <  boo-  ij 

,1  '■/)’  .  'i- -  ^  r: .^jjXor-iJYr 

(U;  ^.*  V  9.lc*^  •;  -yl.f  ■'/ 


I '  ;5  .■»  -MO  1  i  ' 


t  '•  p'VH' ■  Crff  ■  r  . ;w‘4!9<avfci‘ii»  iiC’,.r. 

'ti  ••  .‘  i  v-<b'^rj  ©SjfAOdrf 

^  i-  :  mA 

£ 

.i:^  ’;(.■  •  .b:.  c  •■:>'  u;_ 

c/,ti«<'  ,  -5v5if7'>i-  r  bJ.  '  i'' '  2.1,'.. 

r.i'^j  •  poiT  C?'-?  -'•:;--!  ^  .  .2' ot^fj '  ^Jl*- *':,c 

- <pK''.<i'.  ;•'  j-  •'L.fjlo  v;X'»xy<}  ''  *!<? 

r  -■•;•;•■  ,  .  fii 

■■  r  ‘y  '.  '  ;u  j<,  #.;br  ^ 

r,  .  .V  'jL.i':-'  i.  .1  iCp  C':^ 

‘L  0:f  •  ■^2  i-.-tX!-  :^r:i  3  ;<  Oi;nX /KXJfr'' 

.  .1  )  '  ■  '  ^  •  .:i:  'i.c  v.;r..  ^  a.Co'x-oO  u 

,.  '  ■».  '7  i/'-i'  .  '  .'  «  ‘  i.,'i'.v;.’,  'niOr.  If; 


.  ■  •  *7;  ■  -'-.O  bt  v/'t'J 


O 


7  . 


»  f  :i 


I’-' '  ri  i  ix.f’icnvix  o/  .' 


and  partings  between  members  of  a  family.  As  an  example  of  the 
last  mentioned,  an  extract  may  be  cited  from  '*Rusalka  Dniestrova" , 
which  is, literally , 

’’Gateman,  gatemanl  Open  thou  the  gate  I 

But  who  hails  from  behind  the  gate? 

The  servants  of  the  Dulie; 

And  what  gifts  do  they  bring? 

Spring  bees  . 

Ah,  these  will  not  suffice! 

Then  we  shall  add  to  these. 

But  what  will  you  add? 

A  young  maiden 

Crowned  with  a  wreath  of  a  rue,” 

The  composition  is  of  a  very  simple  structure  indeed,  but 
it  derves  to  illustrate  the  point  raised.  It  is  noteworthy, 
however,  that  in  spite  of  theii^implicity  and,  at  first  appearance, 
trivial  context,  verses  similar  to  the  above  have  been  handed  down 
by  word  of  mouth  from  age  to  age,  and  it  is  not  unusual  to  meet 
even  nowadays  an  illiterate  Ukrainian  peasant  who  can  recite  them 
until  one  wonders  if  he  would  ever  run  short  of  his  material.  The 
peasant  delights  in  declaiming  the  verses  to  anyone  who  lends  him 
his  ear,  even  in  the  fields  during  an  intermission  in  the  work. 

But  he  is  in  a  still  better  humor  and  more  willing  to  do  it  during 
any  kind  of  festivity.  For  example,  at  christening,  wedding  or 
funeral  celebrations.  He  would  then  reiterate  affairs  and  happen¬ 
ings  from  ages  long  past.  He  would  probably  dwell  upon  the  days 


-155- 


:r  •  .  •  ■  r  .V>.  .\-  ,  ,.V^  r  :^a«;f 

•.-"  -.ij  :i  X 

I  '.  «  I  ;ivj.  ^ 

r  -  '•y  »:. ..  y.v-.'  o.1v 

--i*  ‘lO  .  o-*"' 

,  .^i'yy  x^'.^  t-j>  l;:/. 

i  .-:  J  :  /,;  -  n  .  <  liW  •  _ 

.  *;'rf+'o:  i;.^r‘s  ^V'  i,:-,J 

b  \‘  '■■•'  V  XIXw. 

H  •  /  •  ‘  j 

iruov  V,  •  ' 

:  .  .•>  ;•.*■  >  wiW  b'^^TIKCl'J  . 

•;  .  ;  '.  ■  wi  ■'T' fj  ■'  ‘bd'i'. 

»  :vj;i  fi^: /*:eto 'sTi 

,  .  .-.'Vi  1o  niJlqt  J-A..  ^  . 

..,  -  c  '  :  lA.i.:  •  Ly&dif  .  t  ■'iry  ^0  ■ 

u  rvrt  ,0;:^-  o  ■ 

*•■  '.,  T  -j;'. -■  ■,  -o.,' v;p?.Ti'Ii i  ,'i.v  v/',:' ;)ffnr:  v.^vo 

T  ■  y  'll  :■'^  .VL 

•  -  '  >  iHj  .  't».  -'  *  i  i 

•  -  ^  •':  ..  ■  ,  ,  -ff-r  -.Jri 

ntx/i*  ‘K-'t  ■  '■'.  -L  ^i  .frr’  J’UH 

^  •  ■!»•  ,  i  vBcl'  ^o  br/>;  v'rx 

>  T  :  ic*i  '  \  .  L  .  ^l-j.  VJ-  ,*  ■J-rj  .T  a 


of  Paganism,  the  treatment  of  his  people  by  the  Gods,  then,  upon 
the  glorious  days  of  the  Ukrainian  Kings  and  Princes  and  their 
heroism  in  sacrificing  everything  to  save  their  country  from  the 
wild  hordes*  In  fact  he  would  recite  anything  that  he  learnt  from 
his  father  or  grandfather  which  appears  to  him  real  and  important, 
including  such  an  event  as  the  kidnapping  of  a  pretty  maiden  by 
the  Tartars  and  carrying  her  away  into  the  land  of  the  infidel. 

It  is  fortunate  for  the  cause  of  literature  that  in  compara¬ 
tively  early  days  there  was  evolved  a  division  of  labor  in  so  far 
as  the  making  of  Ukrainian  culture  is  concerned*  So  that,  with 
respect  to  Ukrainian  literature,  while  there  were  common  poets 
and  minstrels  who  were  not  concerned  much  with  what  was  to  happen 
to  their  verses  in  the  future,  there  were  minstrels  or  poet-laureates 
who  often  recorded  much  of  what  they  composed.  They  were  minstrels 
of  the  Princes,  they  lived  in  their  courts  and  composed  poetry 
exalting  an  eulogizing  their  sovereigns  and  their  deeds.  With 
them  they  went  to  war  in  order  to  witness  their  courage  and  chivalry, 
upon  which  qualities  they  later  dwelt  in  their  compositions.  Out¬ 
standing  among  these  minstrel  poets  is  said  to  have  been  Boy8.n 
above  mentioned,  who  is  presumed  to  be  responsible  for  the  cele¬ 
brated  poem  on  Prince  Ihor’s  March.  Boyan  is  considered  in  tradi¬ 
tions  to  have  been  of  a  semi-divine  origin,  since  he  is  said  to 
have  been  a  grandson  of  God  Veles  (an  Ukrainian  PaganGod),  and  a 
prophet  and  poet*  He  is  said  to  have  b^een  very  popular,  not  only 
because  of  his  masterly  compositions  concerning  the  princes,  which 
works  showed  earefxil  planning  unlike  the  ordinary  village  songs 


. ’  ’J  ^  \  : 

,,,(_  ■.;  ••v.ott  •  r  '^tii  jrrg’oT^rf  /  .-'^ 

*  ^  '■'  ,  ■  -'6  /.-  .  •  I 

i'.  v  •  -  o>^'  .  ois^  ~  ^ 

"■!*j 

"i  *  "  l■^•''iI^^*  ■ti^'j4l3Ef-' “  -ic  ■ ’loilvt.e'?  tM  -  -■ 

■■-.;•  •  *..  •,•  >'  v<«;^  ^si  .^'::--:iV\}  u.e  :^r;ibiU :.:t.: 

'■. ‘v’.  *tc  /«r:oi  ••  .'  '.  ^  -■  ..•>.%:•  'j.'  ■  t ‘saI*  «n'.r 

.1  ..:  'Jhi.'  r  X  Ic-  -*.  •;  'lO  '  tt"  J  l  V''^ 

\(  /  >^,r(i'  ?  tf'-trif**  ^V.J^  Vl  "ifS 

'  ,  '  '■‘-•I  ■‘<‘>^11 

r-.lf  ;.Cfit  ■'  -;  ••  ^ -j^ c  ’  ^ -vijr ■*<•■.■, iX  ti.iA  0/  •j'oeqAV-'  /  •  ^ 

~  ^  ‘  Tf.’  .:  *  if'jtfia  X:',»f  r  .:.■  hcA  '■'  ■ 

•  J^v.  A.  ■  ^  '.iXo.:  •  -■'  ' 

,  „  ;  J -■•;  ^/;.v  d'Mfci 

g 

a  •  ■5J",,  ’  .  -■• 

.  •  .  to-/;!  ^  :.v.  ^  y;d 

.■^  .*  /V.  ,  ■  ^.('J  '>iuof  I :c;  : '' 

•  >  ^  tlpui^  cp'!  *  ri  ‘Xf  v:  j 

.  0|x-frj:>  :  ■  V  ?•.  ^  4  ,  '  X  voM*  8«i.).tX<n^o  'o&w 

.  .  ’  :  .  .  .r**  “ft  S*s^O(l  oc..  ■;irc^'  litrij..'/ :*>’ 

.••.*•■  V.  O  ,  b  CX-  '•  t  'robfl  ’ 

L  'r  ^ 

1' '<  '  v  ^  i  *3  ■'  no  I-.;.;-  t.j 

'  ,  V'  ff«0<'i  O-X  •’/  ro; 

,.••  *f  ■  'lo  noc'Orjjt^  #»  ^  ..  ■  H 

*  . 'r,  .  '  t)ni 

;■  ;>/  ■  '  ,  -  r' f’.  ■  .  -/Jf «/jc  •:*J!  '  "I 


heretofore  considered,  but  also  because  as  a  minstrel,  he  gave 
expression  to  them, which  exhibited  great  skill  and  charm  of  his 
production*  It  is  with  proper  justification  that  the  commenta¬ 
tors  have  likened  him  to  a  nightingale  and  have  compared  the 
speed  of  his  thought  to  the  swiftness  of  a  squirrel  leaping  from 
tree  to  tree,  a  wolf  racing  upon  the  ground,  and  the  eagle  soar¬ 
ing  beneath  the  clouds.  The  principal  work  of  Boyan  which  was 
organized  and  put  into  form  by  an  unknown  author  and  which  follows, 
is  worthy  of  individual  consideration*  This  particularly  in  view 
of  the  influence  it  had  upon  the  later  literature  of  Ukraine. 

”A  Song  C oncerning  Prince  Ih or ch”  (in  the  original);  ” SI o vo 
0  Polku  Ihorevim”. 

Critics  agree  that  the  ”Slovo”  is  not  only  the  best 
Ukrainian  poem  written  before  the  coming  of  the  Tartars,  but 
that  it  is  in  general  the  most  forceful  expression  of  the  thoughts 
and  feelings  handed  down  from  the  ancient  era* 

The  theme  of  the  ’’Slovo”  is  based  on  the  march  of  four 
princes  of  Sivershchina,  namely,  Ihor ,  Vsevolod,  Volodimir,  and 
Sviatoslav  against  the  Polovtzi  (Polovians). 

The  Polovtzi  or  Kumans  was  a  horde  which  migrated  into 
the  Steppes  along  the  Black  Sea  after  they  annihilated  the 
Khozari  and ‘drove  away  the  Uzy  who  camped  there  between  the  years 
1060-1064.  The  warlike  wild  hordes  of  the  Polovtzi  had  wrought 
irreparable  harm  to  the  Ukrainian  inhabitants.  They  occupied 
the  wide  stretch  of  land  from  the  Ural  to  the  Danube,  where  for 


-157- 


wjtt. 

.•^i'.»  '  V  ■^-  '  •♦"'  ’:vi’>'  ,■« 

",ilK?i  ’  .iC/C'-V'J<Xc’  '*•  . 


■c  /'  .<^  ^  '1-^  '*,• 

•  .  *-  ;  •  ,rv  ■••?■'  ■  ,  -■  -<0  u^i  >  i.  ,<jv.  . 

j--*''’  L'  .’  *  'jc  f ‘  aXV*’ J  /:  iri 

t  -.';  cnI  t  rto'jV  ■  <, -.^s/Vs/  oJ-  »  ' 

■■  '  . 

r  i  ■.  •  •f'*  -  .  :-  .  .. 

L„  “  - 


;,  i  '  >i'v  ^ '?^"vtd  ;;,.r  ' 

.J  -'j-ic/J  c.,  * .;  i^rR*  ti<''?'ir‘i5'i''TC 


JT  16';  4*WJAJWh7 


xrr;.  i^of' .  .' J:\r  i  cnJ 

(i\i 


'  ir.ii  -i,  jnriii  ■  ';c.'*J  ^;k  C 

.■i^ynig  -  -'^  .  -  .  St - - 


^  ^  ■/  *  * 


^  ‘  "S  .  * 

m:i|  "c;-/( 

'  T 

0-:;'*:;^  RO.idxiO  -  '  .' 

’ V’’  - 

r--.  f: 

'i.'  •}'  .r  Tw  .  i  n i  ■>» *5  ^1' 

erf.J  ';r. 

'  •  .'.'  efd^ 

j.;  rrl  fi  .ti 

,  ?r 

■  J:'.  ■-.jr^.. 

fwc'  i\  fr-c 

r.  :v  i  tt,»»4  ajxilii'ja'!  biif. 

rOToSll  r  ':  ‘  ':o  Wfjjtij'  erfT 


■  c  ^  ■,;•<■  c-  '. 

.  ■It'r  .  .>•.,'■  .  ;  , 

'^v  a 

:'v  ii  ^Jyt 

c 

M  m  ,  ':c  ii.,' Vi. ‘A-li 

O'.r 

»  *‘*i  ; 

.-;V' 

’ .  c  .  •-.  M  « '  ;r  ( 

'• ■' 

nid  '••■.vos'*-' 

'•'  .Cl.TiOilii 

• 

^  C  l.  •■  •.  J.'»  OJti  J'i/"" 

.  ^  .  /-(.-OJ 

• 

-  i:/.i  v  **/..  t-  r  :'  '1  .<fi  t: 

•i  U’lfiijd-i'ii 

^  '  .  ■  *  *  '  .  ■  *.  ■  '  ' 

V,  i 


I. 


4»^ 


two  hundred  years  they  had  their  s^^va^e  way  in  retar  dine;  the 
development  of  Ukrainian  culture,  ruining  the  economic  wealth 
of  the  country  and  beating  back  Ulcrainian  colonization  from  the 
South.  Having  well  established  their  settlements  on  the  Steppes, 
the  Polovtzi  became  a  constant  menace  to  Kievan  and  Pereyaslav 
territories.  Volodimir  Mon omakh, being  quite  powerful  at  the  time, 
subdued  them  on  several  occasions  and  thereby  checked  their  aggres¬ 
sion.  Unfortunately  when  domestic  trouble  arose  among  the  Ukrai¬ 
nian  princes,  the  Polovtzi  were  invited  to  assist  them  in  their 
wars  against  each  other,  with  the  result  that  the  hordes  again 
became  powerful.  And  in  the  middle  of  the  12th  century  are  once 
more  a  dreaded  enemy  of  the  Ukrainians#  Once  again  Monomakh  ' 

asserted  his  power#  In  the  summer  of  1184  and  in  the  following 
spring  he  recruited  a  large  army,  and  with  the  assistance  of 
Yaroslav  Osmomisl  routed  the  ranks  of  the  Polovtzi  and  even 
captured  the  Khan  himself  together  with  his  sons# 

Prince  Ihor  and  other  princes  of  Sivershchina  were  invited 
to  take  part  in  the  campaigns  against  the  Polovtzi,  but  they 

1 

were  reticent  with  regard  thereto#  Yet,  when  they  saw  the  success  | 

of  the  other  princes  and  in  particular  of  Sviatoslav,  they  became  ! 

ii 

jealous  of  their  growing  poorer#  Thereupon  Ihor,  with  his  brother  | 

j 

Vsevolod  and  with  his  nephew,  armed  his  suite,  and  in  the  begin-  ; 
ning  of  May  1185,  started  out  on  his  ill-fated  march*  The  poet  j 

relates  in  verse  the  departure  of  this  army  in  words  to  the  follow-  | 
ing  effect: 

Prince  Ihor  mounted  his  horse,  stepping  into  the  golden 
stirrups  and  set  out  on  his  march,  his  fearless  suite  following 


r!' 


.S-.U:  .  ,  .■  ■  ■  ^  V.'J  *<•■“ 

.-^J’  ,  ,  /•  _ 

•  i-ii  '  ■  r^{  .;e&' 


(i^v’.'.l.  ;•  :0'K;'  ".t.’-Ii'-  /•'  •  ,  10  .ti'-no  ^ 

■•lo.’i.;, .  OT  beiJboi/s 


Wi.:  ' 


f- 

h' 


t/t  •  L,,  ^ 


y-  - 


^.cV 

’/IttiP  Hm'-' 


€»a .  es 


■voq  n'iff 


.  Jo:*- ; ,; 4;ip#: ‘i '  en  :^,nl\c «• 


•—  --*'4L,--.-.-; 


*“  teT  ‘  '.^'oii ,  o'^.i'':  voj,VixJi- 

.  ’ic  S':  o:irj.,  *;..- r  o  b‘.-u  c;>rriv'i 


..^vc 


'■*  J4nJ^';-./3' f'-'-'j!..  '.  y  0*1  j'  fa  -  ©sUii  oif' 

.  n'i*,  o 

V  '!  o  -o  x:  ■  iroi  'ia 

■  •  .  -'"■  '  ■ifj.!’  :  •:  •  ‘;j  o;jDleei‘, 

.'•jriH  «Ii'  n'Jivf  ,  bcj'^  viojiV 


.c  oof/J*':*.' 


3  VO 7  ni  sw^JtXa- 

■-'  1 

:  J 


c  • 


-  •  .•'  ‘iO'l 


'*c  .' ■fJ^  .'  .''/‘lO-ic 


him.  When,  alas,  he  and  his  army  behold  a  bad  omen:  the  sun 
became  eclipsed  and  the  whole  of  his  suite  became  obscured.  Ihor's 
army  became  sad,  for,  the  eclipse  of  the  sun  portended  misfortune. 
But  Ihor  himself  was  not  affected.  "Rather  that  they  cut  us  up 
into  pieces  than  that  we  permit  them  to  take  us  into  captivity”, 
said  he  to  his  suite. 

Further  on  the  march,  his  brother  Vsevolod  joined  him. 

Again  natural  phenomena  signify  bad  omens.  Shadow  is  cast  before 
them  barring  their  progress  ahead,  a  loud  groan  is  heard  in  the 
darkness  wakening  the  fovfl  and  the  beast,  and  Div,  the  God  of 
shadow  is  heard  to  give  a  terrific  yell  from  the  top  of  sT  tree. 

On  the  first  day,  which  was  a  Friday,  the  Ukrainians  overcame 
the  ranks  of  the  Polovtzi.  But  on  the  following  day  nature 
manifests  new  omens:  black  clouds  emerged  from  the  sea  and  in  them 
flashes  blue  lightning.  Stormy  winds  blow  from  the  sea  upon  the 
ranks  of  Ihor]  the  earth  groans,  the  rivers  are  filled  with 
troubled  waters,  dust  covers  the  fields,  the  standards  hum.  The 
Polovtzi  rush  out  from  all  quarters  like  bees  from  their  hives, 
but  Vsevolod  fights  heroically  against  them.  The  battle  is  kept 
up  for  two  days.  The  wind  and  the  sun  were  of  great  assistance 
to  the  Polovtzi,  while  the  Ukrainians,  who  were  not  accustomed 
to  these  unfavorable  elements  were  gradually  becoming  exhausted. 
Hoping  to  reach  the  water  where  they  could  refresh  their  parched 
tongues,  they  dismounted  their  horses  and  continued  the  struggle 
on  foot.  On  Saturday  Prince  Ihor  was  wbunded  in  the  left  arm. 

The  next  day  the  divisions  of  Chernihov  became  routed  and  commenced 


A  i] 


’Q 


t 

hi. 


< 


C- 


cji; 


jr 


7.  ^"1 


;  i 


r 


a  retreat.  Prince  Ihor  took  off  his  helmet  in  order  that  he  be 
recognized  and  hoping  that  they  might  return,  but  he  was  not 
heeded.  Meantime  the  Polovtzi  cut  him  off  from  his  army,  and 
this  decided  the  battle.  Most  of  the  soldiers  were  killed,  and 
Prince  Ihor,  Vsevolod,  together  with  their  suite,  were  captured 
alive,  the  two  brothers,  Ihor  and  Vsevolod,  parting  on  the  bank 
of  the  River  Kayala.  Only  fifteen  men  escaped  and  returned  home 
to  relate  the  sad  tidings. 

About  this  time  Sviatoslav  was  preparing  for  his  third 
march  against  the  Polovtzi.  While  at  Chernihov  he  learned  of 

the  ill-fated  march  of  Prince  Ihor  and  wept  bitterly  when  he 
reflected  upon  the  outcome  of  the  disharmony  among  the  princes. 

He  tried  to  organize  an  army  in  order  to  rescue  Ihor,  but  failed. 

Meanwhile  the  Polovian  Khans  attacked  Ukraine.  Where,  outside  of 

Volodimir  Hlibovich,  who,  when  defending  Pere^/aslav,  was  wounded 

three  times,  very  little  resistance  was  offered  them. 

Prince  Ihor  remained  in  Polovian  captivity  until  the 
following  Spring,  To  his  surprise,  his  captors  treated  him 
civilly  and  their  general  attitude  towards  him  was  no  worse 
than  a  man  of  higher  culture  could  expect.  He  was  allowed 
various  privileges  of  a  free  man,  even  to  the  extent  of  going 
out  hunting,  though,  of  course,  he  was  constantly  under  surveil¬ 
lance.  For  a  patriot,  however,  this  was  no  consolation  and  he 
longed  to  go  back  home  where  his  wife,  Yaroslvna,  weeps  for  him 
and  beseeches  the  winds  to  take  her  over  to  him,  while  she  can¬ 
not  even  leave  the  city  of  Putivel,  for  the  Polovtzi  hold  it  under 


-ISO- 


^  ''Ut 


siege.  In  her  lament  she  says: 


”Like  a  Cuckoo  I'ti  fly  to  the  Danube, 

I’d  dip  my  sleeve  in  the  River  Kayal , 

To  wash  the  bloody  wounds  of  my  own  Prince, 

Winds,  0  stormy  winds,  why  did  you  sweep  the  fields. 

And  blow  the  enemy’s  arrows 

Straight  ’gainst  the  armies  of  my  Prince? 

....  I’m  weeping,  weeping  bitterly, 

My  tears  I’d  send  to  my  beloved 

In  the  grey  dawn  of  every  coming  morn”. 

The  chances  of  Ihor’s  escape  are  many, yet  he  is  reluctant 
to  take  advantage  of  them.  But  when  news  reaches  him  that,  as 
soon  as  the  Polovtzi  return  from  Pereyaslav,  they  intend  to  execute 
him,  he  makes  up  his  mind  to  flee.  With  the  aid  of  a  converted 
Polovian  named  Lavur  he  slipped  out  of  the  camp  and  crossed  the 
river.  All  nature  sympathizes  with  him  and  comes  to  his  assist¬ 
ance.  The  mists  cover  the  earth  so  as  to  conceal  him  from  the 
enemy.  When  he  comes  to  the  River  Donetz,  he  enters  into  a  con¬ 
versation  with  it.  The  Donetz  is  very  hospitable  to  him;  it  offers 
him  the  soft  green  grass  which  grows  in  abundance  on  its  silver 
banks,  for  a  rug,  and  envelops  him  in  its  warm  mists  under  the 
shadow  of  the  green  trees.  In  vain  the  two  Polovian  Khans ,Hza  and 
Konchak  endeavor  to  overtake  Ihor,  He  reaches  his  native  land, 
and  the  sun  once  again  shines  in  the  heavens  in  its  full  splendor. 
He  comes  to  Chernlhov  where  he  finds  his  brother,  Yp.r  os  lav.  From 
thence  he  goes  to  Kiev  to  meet  another  brother,  Sviatoslav,  And 


-161- 


n 

'■I 


..  ..  "v  >r  •  '.  ( »'\C  '..lU 

. . .  )•.•.'<.••  '■ 

-D^.'c'.'i'r/^  o'  tt:iT  WO  id  b.^’' 

■  ■>  vr  "io  ''A  i  .^;s drloii't.t-S’ 

■*“  '*  ■■'  .._  '  -.'li,--  ■  .ri  ,  .... 

0  c  ’■:c  /  ’  '.>r  ■  o‘  r  bnt>  .  ■:i '  *  'i  Ti  \.M 

■•.;■  ■:.  j  ■  v'^.rv;.  Ic  eri^f  r.: 

0 

iJi  tnri  4  '■'■••■'  ■i , '.  , 

.  ^  -  .  -^C-)  o 

5  O.-’/i  ca  -  ■  ‘UfVxiU  f.  ■..'-'v.c«£' 

>,  -.  -  •  ..;'U)*ignTV  .  i-^  .r  ^ 

»  •-'x:  '  O.:^  0:i.  .-C--. 

■  r  •’  •••*  *i'-vi."l  c-'  'I'-  O’.  ■  '*'■  '  • 

C  i  ..  .  i 

FI.  L  '  j’jb J  sfii  O'.' 


3] 

H 


f 


.'i  ’.  ^v.’  .>V 


vtVv  ■'  * 


there  was  ^reat  rejoicing  in  the  land.  The  princes  and  the  people 
welcomed  him  everywhere,  and  much  was  said  about  their  intentions 
to  take  a  revenge  on  the  Polovtzi.  With  this  the  poem  comes  to  an 
end. 

Such  were  briefly  the  historical  circumstances  as  related 
in  the  Ipatian  Codex  of  1185  on  which  the  poem  is  based.  With 
the  exception  of  a  few  things  added  and  poetic  symbols  employed 
for  the  purposes  of  embellishment,  the  context  wholly  answers  to  the 
historical  facts  contained  in  the  Codex,  though  for  reasons  unknown 
to  us  the  author  does  not  enumerate  in  detail  all  the  events  con¬ 
nected  with  the  march.  In  fact,  in  some  places  he  merely  intimates 
the  incidents  which  took  place,  so  that,  without  the  aid  of  the 
information  in  the  Codex  of  the  same  dat©^  some  passages  would 
really  be  quite  obscure.  On  the  strength  of  this  it  is  presumed 
that  the  author  was  not  a  member  of  Prince  Ihor*s  Suite  and  took 
no  active  part  in  his  march. 

The  poem  on  Prince  Ihor®s  March  begins  with, 

’hVhat,  brethern,  if  we  sing 
A  song  in  the  olden  fashion 
About  Ihor,  ’bout  his  army. 

And  their  military  pas si on  I 

Let  us  sing  then,  as  it  happened. 

As  we  heard  it  and  as  know  we. 

For,  to  sing  as  did  great  Boyan 
Is  not  now  so  customary”. 


-162- 


*1  '■V. 


•  J-tk  ti '  ■  x'jX^J.  '\kX  '  *^f!S 


.;/  r<'-.;  :;<•»,•  r\.  c 


r 


■  55^, A  m 

•;  1.0 

y  \  (  -erfo  -tc? 


Ji^a^irr. 

■  ■ 

*.v#- 


'^i3 

J,  f  c  J  •!- '. ,  rrx  »  .  yf.f'n 


/!l  ’v 


'iCvl: 


» lo'iA;,:  L’c.hy  .. 


t  ^  ■■>■•  iq  1' 

y{  iv'  rir ;  f;  ' 

..  ••^‘  '  V  ;:.  .0.1 

V  «vw  '  *  .  ' 

-  -•':  •  /-:  ■-<’. 

■:^0  f.-  ^ .  ;■ : 

'lOK^fn^v.  '.  '■ 

'i,C':^'‘i'»'!'cA.^  .iwrf^ 

•  \is  .J  1 

f  i  J  ■'■•:■  -• .;  .  ^  (,j7 

^  .  » .  ,. 

•>'..,  rvcq  !»/f 

■  ■  ■ 

,'1  •'’  ^  * 

t  ^/li  C 

•(.  .  .r'_'i^ 

Bf.  ■ 

-'  ^::.  •  j. 

fW 

■  *  >.i.t^ 

t  ■ 

4r.^* 


:>i 


•i 

■ 

.1/-] 


C  V  W 


But  in  spite  of  the  import  of  the  introductory  lines  which 
refer  to  an  historical  fact,  the  author  is  very  much  under  the 
influence  of  Boyan,  whom  he  seems  to  revere  in  a  great  degree  and 
whose  song  and  music  in  general  he  praises  in  a  wonderful  manner* 
Prince  Ihor  appears  on  the  scene  when  he  takes  his  place  at 
the  head  of  his  army,  and  in  spite  of  the  had  omen  interpreted 
from  the  eclipse  of  the  sun,  declares: 

’’Either  this  day 

To  march  towards  the  Don,  or  never! 

I  long  to  break  the  point  of  my  lane© 

Yonder  at  the  far  end  of  Polovian  lands”. 

Prophesying  the  dovmfall  of  the  army,  the  singer  stops  to 
reflect  on  the  quarrels  among  the  princes  to  which  he  attributes 

all  the  future  perils  of  the  army.  He  particularly  blames  Oleh 

1- 

Sviatoslavich,  who  ’’sowed  seeds  of  discord,  as  darted  the  bows 
of  an  arrow”.  Then  he  describes  to  us  the  battle  in  brief,  strik¬ 
ing,  and  unusually  plastic  words.  He  does  not  enter  into  details  , 
but  simply  relates  general  impressions  and  causes  us  to  feel  as 
if  we  were  in  fact  hearing  the  fading  din  of  the  battle,  and  as  if 
we  were  really  witnessing  the  fight  for  life  between  Asia  and 
Europe. 

YOien  the  poet  arrives  at  the  point  where, in  the  middle  of 
the  third  day  of  the  battle,  Ihor  is  apparently  beaten  once  and 
for  all,  and  when  the  sad  parting  of  the  two  brothers  takes  place, 
he  observes,  ’’The  grasses  bowed  down  weeping,  tall  trees  bowed 
down,  they  bent  down  low  and  grieved”.  The  poet  again  very  skil- 


-163- 


*s 

.}  \i  f  V.  r  r^;Ta,rr.'  ’/  .li'  £:n,e 

,  .-  ;y.:.  ./,;  :k  ,  'ircxil 


■'  ‘  '  -r?^ 

.*  i^'if.l-.'ii  ''  'ffifiT  vus/''*V'  t.,6«’|iX-U*>  '■' 


:rtS  (XiVi  "^''  . 


'•rsi^Xhr 


’'w* 


^  f  *  ‘J 


*%  i  ■  M  ^ 

mil* 


..■(■in  'r  'l<,  8 

H’U^q 

Vi\i:  1, 

"  0}v 

t  ci-'X  vr  j  ao  j  v<i 

,.'  ..•-  i3';-. 

^  ,  vX 

vr.?^ 

'^il' 


./  •"  »•  r.  '  t';'!  '’/uJJ/T 


*  C*  ■'.«*'>  {•  '  ri-r^-iwr  0n  ’^1  ,  ^, 

'  '  '  ,  ■■  -  ■  •  J 


«j<J  .?!<  y«v  -I'ir-  ;> . a*  «-U’ 


‘♦'nK  ^ 


4  i),0  ^A-. .  ’t  i.'!.':i^:*  e^rtc^ 


I?  ••<* 


‘-0- 


1  ‘i. 


-fully  introduces  natural  phenomena  which  has  an  even  greater 
effect  than  the  signs  of  bad  omen  which  appeared  at  the  beginning 
of  the  march.  At  the  beginning  the  signs  were  well  made  use  of 
in  the  poem,  for  they  kept  the  reader  in  suspense  as  to  what  wks 
going  to  happen  next.  Here  the  forces  of  nature  come  into  play 
and  thereby  make  us  realise  not.  only  the  outcome  of  the  battle 
but  also  that  the  situation  is  so  grave  as  to  arouse  the  sympathy 
of  the  whole  of  surrounding  nature  for  Ihor  and  his  army. 

The  poet  then  changes  the  scene  and  takes  us  back  home  to 
Kiev#  Here  Prince  Yaroslav  has  a  horrible  dream.  He  dreams  that 
he  is  lying  on  the  mountains  covered  with  a  cloth  of  mourning  and 
drinking  poison  of  bluish  color.  The  cowans  flock  around  him, 
cawing  ....  When  it  was^  explained  to  him  that  the  dream  signified 
the  defeat  of  Ihor,  Sviatoslav  became  greatly  moved.  With  tears 
in  his  eyes  he  rehearsed  the  departure  of  Ihor  and  Vsevolod,  and 
then  dwelt  on  the  necessity  of  harmony  among  the  princes  and  a 
united  action  for  the  purpose  of  defending  their  native  land  and 
-freeing  Ihor  from  captivity.  But  here  the  poet  is  pessimistic, 
for  the  princes  do  not  seem  to  heed  his  admonitions.  He  sadly 
recalls  the  reigns  of  the  first  Ukrainian  princes  who  were  the 
pride  of  their  country.  Here  the  poet  is,  as  it  were,  interrupted 
by  a  woman's  voice,  who  is  Yaroslavna,  the  wife  of  Ihor,  and  who, 
tearfully  reprimands  the  River  Dnieper  and  asks  it  why  it  does  not 
bring  to  her  on  its  blue  billows  her  beloved  husband#  She  also 
grievously  reminds  the  sun  how,  during  the  battle  it  mercilessly 


-164- 


scorched  the  gallant  suite  of  Ihor,  thereby  weakening  it  and 
hastening  its  defeat.  Her  prayers  are  not  passed  unheeded  — 

Ihor  escapes  from  captivity. 

As  already  stated,  the  poem  ends  with  great  rejoicing. 

i 

The  Donetz  assists  Ihor  and  all  nature  is  at  his  service.  When  i 

he  steps  on  Ukrainian  soil,  the  poet  shows  us  not  only  his  country¬ 
men  v/ho  are  exhilarated  to  the  extreme,  but  nature  once  more,.  i 

i 

This  time  it  is  again  the  sun.  It  will  be  remembered  that  signs 
of  bad  omen  commenced  with  the  eclipse  of  the  sun,  who  is  the 
giver  of  light,  life  and  happiness.  ?Jhen  Ihor  returns  the  sun 
again  shore  brightly ,  indicating  that  he  and  his  people  were  once 
more  free  from  danger.  For  indeed,  when  Sun-God  showed  His  interest 
and  approval  of  Ihor*s  escape  and  return,  a  bright  future  of  the 
Prince  and  his  nation  is  assured. 

While  reading  the  poem  one  is  reminded  of  Homer *s  ’’Odyssey”, 
owing  to  a  touch  of  mythology,  whough  the  mythical  element  could 
not,  on  account  of  the  Christian  era  in  which  the  poem  was  -vritten, 
be  as  prominent  as  it  is  in  the  Odyssey,  But  probably  it  does 
not  call  to  our  minds  any  other  poem  as  much  as  it  does  Coleridge’s 
’’Ancient  Mariner”,  There  the  elements  played  a  very  important 
part  in  the  whole  story,  but  there  they  went  into  extreme.  So 
that,  when  the  Albatross  began  to  be  avenged,  one  could  almost 
see  and  feel  the  horrible  sights  surrounding  the  ship.  In  the 
’’Slovo”  there  is  the  eclipse  of  the  sun  but  there  are,  I  think, 
more  manifestations  of  nature  which  are  pleasant*  For  example, 
the  conversation  of  Donetz  River  with  Ihor  and  the  brightness  of 


-165- 


i  •»* 


-  ‘ -n*  w  ^ 


■  -'V"! 


VI  m-l 
,.  •*  aiir^‘^*<'  ' ,' 'I 


• f 


..  •  .  ^  ‘  :pj;i  v;-,:  !,'  ',  :  ;:  4^*i^  .  :_ 


4  -  .  .  tn  \  •  ,r:*  vx  :^^ 'tjf  j. ..  v:,  v  rr'^^: 

''fr  '  ■  ,•'■'  ■' 


f» -><!;<!**;■■  ' 


ni  ."  s  '4:  ^  '15 


v, 


f.  '-  •sdvJ' ic5  *’6' 


V  •  wri>'i  t)‘>i  l  'u; -'’ivviv 


-rtL'.i.'y^iii^?'  u^ii  ooni; .  . 


,}.;  ©'.^C  '  "X  ,r  - 

:  '  ;,  ■  .  •  I 


.r  *  • 


t  .’ 


•■.  .  \’;' i'Xo'f:’-v7:  'if:  rv;rf0.t  «  C.J v:c 

(••(  "  '  '''-j  Iv  ."i  f  ,  pn 

:  '.  ‘  ;:i  CAi  ^7 -.u- ;  r;c 'i-.?, 

.  ,.  f  '’>i''.1v'  X'"  '•’■^i’.i 'J  'r(f<- ’«'*  i  li-'©  ^Oir. 

v/-i:j  fj  .-  (4! ’14?^ '  .. ., -'i '^rr 

-■r  v.t-'  V  tV't-'.’'-  "u 

iX  o>!  :'7,  ,'‘  .  •''i.f*‘.;IX/t  '  ..  .  f.  '■  .:  ' 

r.I-:  '1  •:  71L*I  ■  ,^ -.M  V» K' •  X'.  Pr 

hj  *!?'  .“r'  ’y  -ir,  |^,•(/  w’  .  -I  ',ij  *‘ovo.rfi 
^oif'  V.  •'  7:  ’*0 


aJofK/U  Vj  npj  .  •?':  :  'V.'TOp 


..  .r 


the  sun  at  the  conclusion. 

As  to  the  leading  thought  in  the  poem,  it  is  unquestion¬ 
ably  the  love  of  one's  co\mtry,  a  boundless  love,  but  at  the 
seme  time  sound  and  sane.  In  the  second  half  of  the  12th  century 
the  Kievan  State  was  very  much  disorganized,  for  therein  arose 
various  political  organizations  with  different  political,  econ¬ 
omical,  and  sometimes  even  national  tendencies.  The  fear  of 
one  another's  power  led  to  jealousies  among  the  princes.  Conse¬ 
quently  each  one  endeavored  to  weaken  his  rival  and  to  become 
possessed  of  as  much  power  as  was  possible  to  attain*  The  tragic 
consequences  of  the  Ukrainian  Princes  are  very  graphically  depicted 
by  the  author  of  the  "Slovo”.  The  poet  brings  before  their  eyes 
a  dreadful  picture  of  their  national  enemy,  the  Polovtzi,  and 
his  greatest  hope  is  that  all  the  princes  who  have  been  allotted 
portions  of  Ukrainian  territory  would  unite  into  one  solid  body 
politic  for  the  purpose  of  combating  their  common  enemy. 

Warm  patriotism  emanates  from  the  whole  poem.  The  poet  has 
carefully  reflected  on  the  past  of  his  native  land,  candidly  looks 
on  the  present,  and  foresees  what  the  future  may  have  in  store  for  ii 
And,  as  to  his  prophesy,  it  may  just  as  well  be  here  said  that  his 
mind  and  feelings  must  have  been  tuned  to  the  incoming  premoni¬ 
tions,  which..to  the  great  grief  of  the  whole  Ukrainian  nation 
were  not  long  in  becoming  realized  when  the  Tartars  came  swarming  i 

into  the  country  like  ants  plundering  the  property  and  massacring  j 

or  carrying  away  the  inhabitants.  Seeing  the  existing  chaos  in 


-166- 


hie  country,  and  being  conscious  of  the  coming  danger,  the  poet 
gathers  up  all  the  forces  at  his  command  and  warns  the  princes 
and  the  leaders,  "Change  your  course,  or  else  destruction  awaits 
you".  The  emphatic  warning  has  a  great  effect*  And,  it  brings 
us  to  the  realization  that  the  battle  is  not  between  some  two 
rulers  for  a  piece  of  land,  but  it  is  a  struggle  for  life  or 
death  of  two  cultures,  of  two  worlds  and  two  races.  The  author 
sees  Ihor's  mistake  in  setting  out  with  two  weak  a  force,  but, 
at  the  same  time,  he  does  not  reprimand  him  for  his  downfall, 
for  he  sees  he  did  it  because  of  love  for  hi?  country,  and  so, 
he  is  a  hero.  He,  therefore,  calls  on  the  princes, 

"in  your  stirrups  for  Ukraine 
For  grievances  'gainst  Polovtzi 
And  for  the  wounds  of  our  Ihor  — 

Beloved  son  of  Yaroslav!". 

The  author  very  ingeniously  interspersed  the  poem  with 
figures  and  analogy  from  nature,  the  worth  of  which  could  only 
be  well  appreciated  if  the  whole  poem  could  be  here  transcribed. 
The  epic  element  is  reconciled  wonderfully  well  with  the  lyric, 
the  world  of  reality  with  that  of  fancy,  and  the  national  song 
witi  the  literary  traditions.  The  real  world  is  represented  by 
the  princes,  princesses,  Polovian  Khans;  while  the  fantastic  world 
are  the  supernatural  powers,  the  echoes  of  Ukrainian  mythology, 
and  nature,  A  study  of  the  poem  shows  that  the  writer  was  not 
only  a  leerned  person,  but  also  a  genius  in  his  line.  For,  only 
a  genius  could  produce  a  poem  which  could  stand  the  test  of  ages^ 


-167- 


and  which  is  imperishable  as  a  literary  masterpiece. 

The  Decline  of  Ukrainian  Literature. 

The  environment  and  circumstances  are  always  a  E^reat  factor 
in  moulding  the  destiny  of  a  nation.  So  that  its  history,  and 
its  culture  always  have  an  indelible  stamp  thereof.  In  the  ce^ee 
of  the  Ukrainian  people  it  is  impossible  to  conceal  the  fact 
that  they  appeared  on  a  definite  historical  arena  some  centuries 
after  the  nations  of  Western  Europe  had  been  already  rapidly  pro¬ 
gressing  in  their  well-defined  aims  in  national  and  cultural 
developments.  The  Classics,  which  early  gained  admittance  and 
which  took  root  in  the  West,  were  an  invaluable  fountain  from  which 
these  nations  constantly  drew  out  and  are  still  drawing  out  pre¬ 
cious  jems  and  adding  them  to  their  local  traditions  and  thereby 
vastly  enriching  them.  But  this  was  not  so  in  Ukraine,  Two 
decisive  factors  in  the  Ukrainian  historical  life  were,  the  estab¬ 
lishing  of  the  Kievan  State, and  the  introduction  of  Christianity. 
The  former  effected  the  union  of  the  various  Ukrainian  tribes 
into  one  people  which  gave  them  a  beginning  as  a  nation,  while 
the  latter  gave  the  Ukrainians  much  of  their  early  translated 
literature  and  left  its  strong  mark  on  all  their  earlier  litera¬ 
ture,  As  we  have  seen,  Byzantine  culture  gave  them  a  moral  stand¬ 
ard.  It  therefore  had,  to  a  certain  extent,  an  influence  on  their 
creative  art.  However,  from  the  point  of  view  of  the  free  expan¬ 
sion  of  literature,  it  cannot  be  said  that  Byzantium,  through 


-160- 


:  ■’•.»<'  •-■  r  tr  .  I'ij'i.:  >  n.:  '  '  , 

_■..'  (•  ,  •'i/-'-  jc.  “’■?•  •''*..  ‘‘»r\i:-  ^;u'ivUJOfi^  !">i  i' 

,'.C  .'  •  -v  '  ■  :  .I.  V  i:  ■  JSvi 


‘i  ft*'’.''  ’ 


'L' t  di'iOi'fatA  .  ' 't  3-' 


t '  ' ' 

‘•^XJ2*f;-jii..|.  .n  •  •  ni  ;^(ij  aav;"'*? 


I 


I 


,i  ..--.• 

‘.  ru. 


•  ■  -.  f.  ‘ 


1  r 


-  0 


*  0^.'  »  P' 


^  ;‘ji.  '  'ii,  ’ A.!  Mo  rv9io 


its  missionaries,  was  very  tolerant.  In  this  respect  strict 
conservativsm  was  adhered  to,  with  the  result  that  what  was  brought 
in  was  taken  as  such  without  much  or  any  alteration. 

Quite  naturally,  however,  from  the  earliest  days  of  Ukrainian 
history,  original  works  have  been  produced  by  bards  and  writers 
vrho  loved  and  studied  their  people  and  the  trend  of  events  in  their 
history  and  put  down  in  writing  their  observations  and  sentiments. 

We  have  seen  that  from  the  remotest  times  poetry  and  tradition  of 
the  people  endeavored  to  express  themselves  through  the  select  ones, 
and  that  this  was  much  enhanced  by  the  invention  of  writing.  Of 
course,  it  was  rather  unfortunate  that  from  the  beginning  of  writing 
in  Ukraine  a  certain  drawback  in  the  making  of  literature  bad  to  be 
met  with.  This  drawback  was  the  persistence  of  writers  to  write 
in  Old  Bulgarian,  while  the  common  people  spoke  Ukrainian.  This 
•was  due  to  scarcity  of  schools  where  the  people  could  be  educated 
in  their  own  language,  so  that,  when  they  ventured  on  a  literary 
field  they  would  write  in  that  language.  But  we  are  glad  to  note 
that,  notwithstanding  the  obstacles,  when  the  people  once  commenced 
to  create  a  literature  and  to  put  it  into  proper  form,  the  process 
was  kept  up.  The  early  Christian  literature,  owing  to  its  conserva¬ 
tism  was  at  first  stereotyped,  and  therefore  the  progress  thereof 
was  slower  than  it  otherwise  might  have  been.  But,  knowing  human 
nature,  we  could  always  expect  a  change.  And,  a  change  did  come, 
for,  the  Christian  ideals  about  brotherhood,  compassion,  and  right¬ 
eousness  gradually  became  tinged  with  the  social  character  of  the 
people.  They  became  inured  to  the  social  and  political  conditions 


-169- 


.•’:  A  -.  / 


,  c .  ■ 


c-  -i  b  r:  Gx'-'r  ■  <s.i^;> 

/  ‘■■■■..  ;  ■%  "■  V.  ;■  .' 


t-i 


.<;.t 


t  .>  ■y.jci*’  ,  V ;a  "iLf f-’J'Jtij  ':  ^ 


.  '  •’ 

j  r'T  o'’l  '  ^‘; 9 a' bs;i 3* 3  bovo.I  o  'V 


■  i’'. M  ''.  'i''  ■'  ’irri ^ nl  ta^  .  if 

'■*’.■  'Hf?’:'  '■ 

■  .^■  •  .1  r,  ^  •  ^Hv-‘  K?o*t'i  'olf/f 


J-  ■  ,  .  f 


x-T”  ‘^r  •.  V.  j  .AOtt  ; 


. 


.)  7.'  ,,.*f vti' ■  t  .«''i!;Gc*' 


...,* . 't#' 


^  ■;  S?il,t  H  ”  i  "r ■'^’J  '  olv  fJ 

'  ■  '  ''''-I 

'.  .tt:  c  <in  i;  "ir'  ■  ■_  '* .':  ■  Ic  ■  •  j.  ^  i: 


1»'V-:V  .■■  G  '  iiflfO  ,  .  ■  .  :i.l 

tS.  ■  , 


.t  . .  ■;  .■  jh-,;  ,r 


.>/'•}  bx-i-  O-t).'.!  >■  '.  V  VwV 

wt 


*- -■ '  .' -t  h^'\  ii-:  )  >;^.!.t^b  t-  :'  ,  .  '  e«^r, 

* 


.1  * 


< '«>^px?3  ■ji4Ni5i 


'  j'  o  JO'  .  ’  '.  .)xl!0,\>  tf  t 

!  iViM^  iXt!!>  ll’'i  ;  *.0  1 

5* 

•-►I.—,..,  V^.* -.i'l;"  V  C*iV  '9r\.* 


'gH 


of  the  day.  We  see  this  very  well  borne  out  by  the  teachings 
of  some  of  the  princes  during  the  period  of  the  princes’  Suites. 

One  of  them  says,  ’’Wherever  thou  goest,  offer  food  and  drink  to 
the  weak.  Neither  the  guilty  nor  the  non-guilty  shalt  thou  slay 
or  suffer  to  be  slain.  Remember  the  poor,  etc.” 

Much  of  the  original  literature  was  a  result  of  the  inter¬ 
mittent  struggles  with  the  nomadic  Invaders.  It  was  highly  patri¬ 
otic.  It  dealt  with  the  burning  questions  of  the  day  —  the 
threatening  dangers,  and  the  heroism  of  the  peoples'  princes  and 
warriors,  the  triumphs,  defeats,  joys  and  sorrows.  These  things 
could  not  but  offer  a  favorable  soil  for  a  nation  of  bards  and 
singers  that  the  Ukrainians  are  reputed  to  be.  Judging  by  what 
small  portion  of  it  has  escaped  destruction  and  has  been  preserved 
to  our  day  by  jealous  times,  their  literature  towards  the  end  of  the 
12th  century  was  already  both  voluminous  and  valuable.  The  Slovo 
Concerning  Prince  Ihor’s  March  is  an  outstanding  gem,  and  it  is 
the  climax  of  the  first  period  of  Ukrainian  Literature.  And,  if 
a  question  is  asked  why  was  this  literature  not  introduced  to  the 
world  at  that  or  at  a  later  time,  the  answer  will  be  found  in  the 
history  of  the  people  from  then  until  the  present  day. 

Early  in  the  13th  century,  in  the  year  1223  to  be  precise, 
the  Asiatic  hordes  carried  an  overwhelming  defeat  over  the  Ukrai¬ 
nian  princes  on  the  River  Kalka.  This  was  again  followed  in  1240 
when  they  moved  as  far  as  Hungary  and  on  into  Schleswig.  They 
destroyed  most  of  the  large  cities  of  Ukraine,  including  Kiev 
and  the  Pecherska  Lavra  therein,  where,  as  we  recall,  was  the 


rc  . 


u'-' 


./4'  • 


•  "ic  »roe  1. 

.  r  •  ■  '  'U't 

.  -  ■  ■■ 

•  V«:'..  ,}i.  v  V 

,C  •  'io -...  ''-.*  'At;  '**^!'''  'V.' 

■  ^■.  "-.r-iftii  L  ':o  <  Ic  ;iosjU, 

•.••.<b‘'k'.o  o.'v.  ,  .o.i  «ttl- rfj/w 

—  >  -^yj'  'ic  l;.  r  ■■'  T'Ji.fj'iTi'J  <  v+i’e^.o  -”!•!'  .o'i.rc 

'  . ,  ■*  Ji^  r-'u  '  •  - -iS.  ,  vi'iii  . .1'  ’•rrirr’eci'i^j 

r  .-  '.,5 *«»/'* 

,  -  ..  : 


.f.  :!■;*.{  j  -i/  A  ls. 


^  .  *i  j-irc.  ^:/:t  m 


'St;ai^f-t£AvC  vA\:\'^  a'icp/rj?  , 


J’-i  A,..  ‘3' 


i 


i  .«/ 


;;*  ■  .jiAOB.  ■•>  li.'.  ;f.cc  ;■ ...  .' 

b  i:'..  ic'',  •v/'t't.'rfi  "''rjrr.h*^'  .".'iimc'aot}  '  ^ 

^  '  ^  .  ■.'•  f)v  ./■•-'•.£  .''*;'i.f'i.  ''.ui  ' 

*  '  ‘>*:.*  J  i  -H.:';-;’.  ']»•.'.•  .TO  .'■  5 ‘'‘.rv.^p 


•'•‘-di'Hi  5-  c  ’..  t '  r.  Jj  i*-'  XjXhcV  ,*' 


."C 


’SH  r 

’  j.A 


,  r  ■''•'■rO 


low 

.  I'  w 


"  ':  f 

.  oiJ"/;*  i  A  ya* 


c;  ;  : .  ciC' 


■«.  a  *!•*  ff 

-  irA,—  .  ■■'-‘•.^ovAv.oa  ( 

^  -  w  .*■» 


greatest  and  the  best  collection  of  literary  works.  The  Lavra 
was  left  in  ruins  and  could  not  be  rebuilt  until  towards  the  end 
of  the  14th  century  by  order  of  Metropolitan  Kiprian.  The  progress 
in  literature  was  for  a  long  time  arrested,  so  that  at  the  time 
when  other  Slavic  races,  as  the  Czechs,  the  Poles,  and  the  Serbians 
were  opening  up  universities  and  other  higher  institutions  of 
learning,  since  the  Tartars  did  not  bother  them  very  much,  the 
Ukrainians  were  too  busy  defending  their  borders  to  stop  and  think 
about  literature.  The  invasions  were  now  too  frequent  and  too 
destructive  for  allowing  the  fixing  of  the  people* s  attention  on 
anything  but  the  struggle  for  existence,  which  existence  was  in 
great  danger. 

One  might  note  by  way  of  contrast  that  about  this  time  there 
was  a  transition  period  in  English  Literature.  The  Norman  Period 
(1066-1350)  was  a  period  during  which  English  literature  had  under¬ 
gone  a  complete  change  in  its  character.  It  commenced  with  the 
Conquest  of  England  in  the  year  1066  by  William  the  Duke  of  Normandy. 
But,  let  us  examine  what  the  normans  brought  into  England  which 
had  a  direct  bearing  on  the  country's  literature  and  culture.  In 
the  first  place  they  brought  with  them  the  culture  and  the  practical 
ideals  of  Roman  civilization.  This  was  very  much  desired  at  the 
time  when  England  had  just  passed  its  golden  era  in  its  literature, 
and  civilization,  and  when  it  needed  infusion  of  new  blood.  Then 
too,  they  brought  into  England  a  strong  national  idea  to  replace 
the  loose  system  of  a  tribal  union.  The  result  of  this  was  a 


-17L 


-  #  ••  . . 

■  Pfoi  .  ■  .'f  J  L 

.;-:rvC'^  .  Otr  'hivf.  .>  h- 

’iJ  ,'  \  ^ 

la'c'vj;  0fi  ■  '  :-(rKiI  ir  i 

.  rJi  '.’Hj  2>i  ,^tiiO\-‘i  ^.'.iv^'Xli  ‘^v -.'Je  rrortv 


JO'l  ii 


-A 


'■  -  -%i;  '  ■  " 

.  ■  ■%•  '  , 


o,T  3-»ei 


X1  O'<0'f 


-.a 


;ivr4'roJif  iyotf'-' 


^  ,  f  ■!  :m  I'm  1  -x  *■ '  'tc  1  v  v  i  -r  *!».• 

'4<f.>  j;,rd ‘Jj  i;Jo^vr, . 


-•V^vi-s, 


’.  0*^  V - 


vt^:,  «r5  r 


'*»  /.V  ’;^f;r 


• ..  -  j- '.X*  Y/W  v:-'  ^c'.^:,bvi'-ir.-iir. 

'-  '  A'  '.  ,  '  ’  ..  ■ 

-  -■  /  ;  :■  r.’.  :, -'/  a  iTJ  iv’f  j-'  i3A'!y 

r'.i<..yrx:  .  .j':,^AKfb  bci*i©cj.  JS. ‘JX)W  \ CfS-,.;: -obCX  } 

,?'',',ii:-,vi;  .':  f i  -  ■  ©ri'i '■-ff'5  a f^.  ''^ri<.S, 

1$  ,■(;.  xj4};.  ffr  &';•:«) V.  Js!3rpf.‘c:> ' 

.':  .  •..  •^/(''■rjon.  e.iif' wJ'^viv,  ^ 

'  ^^J'\Tej  ‘  .fll'WtOw  ioc  T.f  i>  3  had 

*  '■  'i  .  ■  '  ft  ::. O'  ':c.  no>^  ':■'- 

•  •..  -  ffjV’r  J-Tfr  ,,  f  '.tji!* 

.-vin  j'i  v'  .-^''.'.'O.i  .ii  r'd^f*’  t  i  3  k-r'a  , 

rj^.  l^a  .t  b<i«^3f$  OJoi,  cf;...,r'''':o  * 


stable,  centralized  government  which  was  a  great  step  in  the 
political  life  of  the  English  people.  And,  finally  they  con¬ 
tributed  to  English  life  a  new  language  and  literature  which 
were  proclaimed  in  Chaucer*  True,  the  literature  and  the  culture 
of  the  Normans  could  not  at  all  measure  up  to  that  of  the  Anglo- 
Saxons.  They  were  inferior  in  many  respects.  And,  the  reason 
why  this  new  culture  in  literature  predominated  over  the  older, 
is  simply  because  bhe  Anglo-Saxons  were  a  conquered  people,  and 
therefore,  the  conqueror  had  his  way.  But  still  we  have  something 
contributed  by  the  Normans  which  has  either  literary  or  historical 
value.  They  left  us  Geoffrey's  History;  Riming  Chronicles  like 
Layamon's  Brut;  Metrical  Romances,  which  were  of  various  character, 
some  of  which  were  of  considerable  value  as  for  example.  King 
Arthur  and  his  Knights  of  the  Round  Table;  and  a  considerable 
amount  of  the  literature  of  the  common  people  which  included 
various  ballads  and  Robin  Hood  songs.  The  Normans'  presence  in 
England  was,  of  course,  at  first  abhorred.  For  a  time  the  two 
nationalities  did  not  live  a  mutual  social  life,  nor  did  they 
intermarry.  But  they  remained  in  the  country  and  were  interested 
in  its  welfare,  which  fact  goes  to  show  that  they  would  eventually 
become  in  a  greater  or  smaller  degree  a  benefit  to  the  nation. 

And  now  let  us  examine  what  the  Tartar  hordes  bring  and 
contribute  to  Ukraine,  its  civilization  and  culture.  The  answer 
is,  what  could  one  contribute  if  one  possesses  nothing  himself. 

And  indeed,  the  Tartars  left  nothing  behind  them  that  was  v/^orth 
\vhile.  With  the  exception  of  a  number  of  words  which  the  Ukrai— 


-172- 


r 


*  ■  f  ~ 

t:,. 


^  .  ,i;'/ro^,  _rI-  .-r.-i  '  “ic  .r::;Di/Hc7 

■j  j  ..  .:  ^  ,,•..  -.'  Tt::r  ; 

*•'  j  -o'.T  r'-'-i  *.  H  -t'"'  ;Ti  .i>«»i>*i':oTr-t>\OTT 

■;.  ir‘<^  OJ  cjt>  -  a"  s  -  ^fIit^'^•tol:  e/f-i  lo 

:u  vf.-i:'  .,  ,.  ic .. 'r,  ;->j||g-f  .  ariox/Zc, 

i'V;  ;;-.‘^tfnj:'i '  -  A. '..Tiv  ;:  V  :  •.  ;•  v-er: 

•  V,  • 

ftnrwjo  jft  .  .‘  y.  „- .‘ivl  i  "i 

It*  •;-  *..,.■  •:•  •>  :«!si1  :-‘fc’;  beM.^■^}  '  lo-*'- 


f  .<-  -,i  ■“ 


‘I  M  :■  ;,•  ■  ' :  'I  .  »j  A  o*  V 


♦» 


,.•’ '.;  b  X  e  i.t.C'  ’ '  V'^  '  o  '..v. 


lo.  -ijn:'  V 


^  ^^2  . 

J  “  w  ’ 


r 


.  J, ...-. 


y  J.  ■•»<:» '-■  •>  -"iTiig  ,_  •■  :  'l'>  ^n.uoaift 

-Ff..  iFT  •  ■■ 

*  i,-  .  ..  .;..n'i^  ^  ^  ^  ^  .  . 

^  A-  ■  ■  •  ;  •  u'l'ar  ^  ^  '  I, 

Y‘ ■  "“'  ■'  ^  f;  1j^.  ,..m.  ^.ri  \jj^\;.  j'  . ■ 

'  liU  ■  o  •  t  .:  rv.^.|-r''  .  ^  r}'-:ii\1/e'V  «;x  ai 

I  •  -  '^r-j'  .-i/T'if?!  -V  '.i  -  CJi.  o/ioooji.^ 

F  -  •  '  ri  ■  .  iv’i  •'w  '*  bhk  *  'M 


>U  0.1  -"JJ. 

m 


.  '  f'Xa  *  ;  :  f.^  .  •) 

•••^'..  etiC  'i  ’  •;  WYO  Mfc-V.- V.ifitr' 

'  I'l  ^  .  t  :  -oO'fi  f>rA 


nians  acquired  from  them  and  added  to  their  vocabulary,  and 
probably  a  method  of  making  one  or  two  weapons,  their  unwelcome 
visits  were  of  no  benefit  to  the  country.  Mostly  all  that  the 
Ukrainians  can  remember  about  them  is  their  most  barbarous  warfare, 
their  plundering  of  homes,  whether  or  not  resistance  was  offered 
them,  their  torturing  and  killing  of  innocent  woman  and  children, 
and  kidnapping  .of  beautiful  maidens  into  their  own  country,  where 
they  forced  them  to  become  their  wives.  Some  verses  composed  at 
the  time  by  the  people  are  to  this  day  recited,  an  example  of 
which  follows; 

"Ukraine  is  in  mourning  that  ’tis  hard  to  live; 

Hey!  the  hordes  have  trampled  to  death  her  little  children 

They  have  trampled  upon  the  little  ones,  the  older  ones 

they  captured, 

Bound  their  hands  behind  them,  and  drove  them  to  the  Khan" 
Under  such  state  of  affairs  it  is  plain  to  see  that  a  proper 
development  of  a  literature  was  impossible.  Many  of  the  inhabi¬ 
tants  fled  to  the  woods  where  they  eked  out  a  miserable  existence 
by  hunting  the  wild  beast  and  picking  berries,  while  those  who 
remained  at  home  did  not  even  try  to  build  worth  while  permanent 
residences  as  they  formerly  did,  for  it  was  only  a  matter  of  time 
when  they  would  be  destroyed.  Still  less  could  we  expect  them  to 
direct  their  attention  to  the  writing  of  prose  and  poetry.  So  that 
there  was  very  little  written  for  some  time.  And,  when  we  consider 
the  ways  in  which  the  Tartars  destroyed  everything  they  came  across 


-173- 


,''*'t  'Tio  OV  J  i ‘^  .  ;  t-'-'U  or,  'X'O  "/  '.iX'. 


■;  'i  !/>>'cj  t'  ';  :j'.rinV'ir.C?'I  dn '.'  yi'ijB  '  il,:  ' .  ' 


'.  *4«:r  '}  ••..  V  VI*! 

I  •  *0f  t'  ■  ■  ir*  ^ Cl J: .,-7 

:  ',.  '  Cl.rr  ••  ;•,!<-  )OC;;Ti  '’,0  'I  *1.;^,,;:;+  ^  :i„ 

’  .  'v 

lyg  ^v'-jfr, 


uV'j-  ■  'ry 


,  au.  n.,,«C'>5  Hm  .aiSiJ'  o<u.. 


,  ••’  V  1*1  ':n'.  .  A  ■  ’•'  \  ■ 

‘  ‘‘i.  , ' 


UfSA'.'i 


'!»f^  J'  ^ Iv'jH  ■'  '•'  "■  'r  ■' 

^  .  '  »  >V‘ 


'  -v  :  '■"  '■■  ■  '■  -  ■  '  ■  ■  ' 


Vd; 


i^-v’  - 

Si'  ’4 


,.  Oji.--.' 

•‘■i  "''.  •'Ha/*''"  K.iijf;  *(O.*»0 


f  »  ^ 

fk 


^ ?,  c  c.  w  H  jii  '6-;^,  b  c  1  'i '  -• 

.  ;  bni* ,  .;i  ;  a ^  ] 

J.  ,  '  '  '" 

c..*  iJa^/ -  f'i'n  '  r.  v^^■•.  i'r>:5ir..r»c  . 

i'-’iU  ..u  I'i''  vi*’*- 


d’  ■JO'vni-C' 

.  '  ■  '1!? 


JC>*,v 

•‘‘'  '■’  '  I 


■;',tL 

p  I  *u^  'i'  .ctoaT'^ts  ■, 


■'i  ,ivr  ‘»x*,.*i^  9iJ» 


■r  a/u’ 


W9  can  easily  understangl  that  they  had  no  more  respect  for  books 
or  manuscripts  than  for  any  other  property.  Luckily,  when  the 
Russians  ruined  Kiev  in  1169  they  could  not  also  destroy  the 
Ukrainian  culture.  The  latter  conquered  the  Russians.  They 
adopted  the  Ukrainian  culture  including;  literature  which  was  at 
the  time  far  superior  to  theirs.  These  they  were  then  in  a  better 
position  to  preserve  than  the  Ukrainians.  And,  though  most  of 
the  literature  had  been  Russianized,  still  it  is  gratifying  to 
know  that  it  did  not  completely  perish.  The  Ukrainians  have 
been  able  to  identify  aconsiderable  amount  of  it  and  to  claim  it 
as  their  own. 

Spasmodically  between  invasions  of  the  Tartars  there  was 
something  YTitten  which  has  come  to  us.  Chroniclers  left  us 
records  of  several  good  sermons  and  epistles.  Among  these  are 
the  sermons  of  Metropolitan  Serapion,  who  died  in  1275  and  who 
is  said  to  have  been  very  learned  in  the  Bible,  Like  other 
churchmen  of  the  time,  Serapion  laid  great  stress  upon  the 
proper  and  sincere  belief  in  the  Holy  Word,  for,  he  argued,  the 
Tartar  menace  ceme  as  a  punishment  for  the  people* s  indifference 
to  the  teachings  of  the  Bible, As  to  the  epistles  written,  many  of 
them  were  a  result  of  the  negotiations  between  the  Pope  and  the 
Orthodox  Church  for  a  union.  A  few  compilations  of  the  14th 
century  contain  a  number  of  quite  important  works.  But,  most  of 
them  are  a  remodelling  of  the  writings  already  known  to  us,  and 
they  are,  therefore,  not  original.  This  alone  points  to  the  fact 


-174- 


v'ff'  V 


.  “a 


:c 


i  •y 


.?^w 


•  Ik  v*-' 


r-A  ’  t 


■  ■’  ipA  ‘''v  ■  -:.-^i?J'T^i:;n,ir:.’'  *iC 

r/'jsrij'ari'H 

■'  ■'  ► 

'..’■/.r  07<j:‘.U’"  raiiYi V- ■.,  vr:i 

ji  '  '  - 

■  g .  n  JX’  r,  hih  j  i'pj  inci  f r:i' 

--.  \;'u  ;-■  -  ^  <(r 

:«•  -  iisn 

'■'  v-.: 

i  ■*''■2^?^•<*»^;  Vo  001 


•>'  '  icr:c '.^'U' 


^  -  U^r* 


•  Xc?  .' 


i'  (■>  ■..  ^  •;’'”.. 

.  It  r.«r,d3'T.t;rf;.' 

<  ‘  1  ■!  :<  0 /  ?  tns  ■'-'if'C,’” i'j ". '. 

■  r/ 

%  -  ,  . 

*  V  "  '•>  .\- «ct  %tiJ  c/ 


.C'  { 


■  i-Ck' 


'■r  .'.  f.  >  fj. ;  !iO<fl«’l  r  ;.• ’'i  *' ' 


that  Ukrainian  literature  at  this  time  was  on  the  decline  as 
compared  with  the  literature  of  former  times.  Literature  was 
also  subject  to  foreign  influence.  During  the  13th  and  14th 
centuries  the  Southern  Slavs,  i.e.,  the  Bulgarians  and  the  Serbians 
made  rapid  progress  in  their  literary  fields.  It  was  naturally, 
therefore,  the  Eastern  Slavs,  and  among  them  the  Ukrainians  who 
copied  what  they  themselves  were  not  then  in  a  position  to  produce. 

The  period  just  considered, being  the  first  period  in 
Ukrainian  literature,  it  was  necessary  to  go  into  it  at  some 
length.  For,  the  beginning  of  a  literature  is  probably  the  most 
important,  since  usually  many  of  the  later  writings  are  either 
based  on  the  original  productions  or  bear  a  close  resemblance  to 
them.  So  that  a  careful  study  and  a  proper  understanding  of  the 
foundation  of  Ukrainian  literature  will  give  us  a  good  start  and 


an  interest  in  what  is  to  follow 


.,  ■..'.  ,1U 


r/  -a  1-sli 

. .  ';<•>  f  S'^  "*'i»‘r;;  1-  oaiO«’' '?,» 

■  '  z:  > 

L'Ji<'/  'r^if' '!o‘'  c.s' .;, 


.:v--..lv.  "'';^  C-iC.Ar^7ii^:i4;  ,;■ 

iu'  nU-'4iii^.iyrf  •  "■7.!:j^3^exf> .  vo;f<r  v^^ik 


.J|  o.’r?  r.'  ,  ^  -t,-^ -!*“■*:. ,1.'  ,  il.' 

■*  ,-.  '  -  ,  ■': 

‘  -  y-^ii  ■' r  J 


I 


-.  ■  ..  •  /  <fy.3q^‘#p>if6o’'r^i  .i-.'.;p['i:>t.<  "JO  ao 

'hi,.- 

w-wo  k.r^fU  '*.t'*<jP "i‘ <  V  “ijp '.j  j. u- O'di' 

■  ■  "  ?■  .  ■  *■- 
*r ^  Tf -ftif  'i'T’i:''  '-  ■'  ••  .' r.'-' ..f 

■  ^  ^ 

.  i.-^  fcP  rr  f '  c5-£Kri;  iai  Hr* 


,,;^-iE 


■'■jp 


THE  INTERMEDIATE  PERIOD 


The  Tartar  menace  had  dealt  Ukrainian  civilization  such 
a  severe  blcrw  and  had  set  the  generel  progress  in  the  country 
so  far  back  that  it  took  a  long  time  to  recover  consciousness. 

And,  when  it  did  partly  come  to  itself,  we  find  it  to  be,  by  force 
of  circumstances,  not  as  an  independent  state  but  as  a  part  of 
the  Lithuanian  Kingdom,  and,  for  that  reason,  very  soon  after, 
as  we  have  seen  in  the  historical  sketch,  a  part  of  the  kingdom 
of  Poland.  The  decline  in  literature  continued  to  an  indefinite 
time.  But,  it  may  safely  be  stated  that  it  terminated  about  the 
beginning  of  the  16th  century,  when  it  budded  out  anew  with  new 
life  and,  at  the  same  time,  with  substantial  variations  from  the 
literary  characteristics  and  tendencies  heretofore  considered. 

All  this  is  due  to  the  political,  religious  and  social  conditions 
which  the  country  was  in  and  which  had  a  decisive  influence  on 
the  Ukrainian  literary  life. 

As  it  happens,  a  revival  of  learning  in  other  countries 
also  commenced  about  this  time,  and  the  preceding  temporary  torpor 
was  due  to  various  political  and  other  changes.  In  England  for 
example,  the  causes  for  a  comparatively  low  standard  of  literature 
were  the  long  war  with  France,  the  Wars  of  Roses,  the  Reformation 
which  occupied  men’s  minds  with  religious  problems,  and  the  atten¬ 
tion  which  was  at  that  time  directed  to  the  study  of  the  Classics, 


-176- 


Uc-^  Dii/.  1.  -rlv  SdT 


■t  D »?  k'l  0-U  {■'  *:  t  T<'0  i C  0"i  tf  V  ^>.  CJ 


^  ••;  -  i  •- ■  :v;.iiv‘  ■  'C‘  ■■;,  -*'1  -iioy.:  is,*!  Ci' 

.  '  ,  ..;  ■:  • .'  -  '•■  e q'-  '  .'uC  j  v...U+'iJ^  a  i't.r"-'  ^'  -  .\  ■ 

r  itni  e.-f*^  r  r-L-  ^  vO<-.:  ,  Kf5rn;ji5?.m]>;:r.-ip/‘^ 


■  4 


pv^  -ro 


;•:'  .iv-'b’f'j:.-  (K"  j|-,/:;/ri  .r  .  1  rl^.^“‘ 

'  '  &i 

.»-<.■  ,  ;•)■•  , ifl  f.  ^  u;-  «>+■!  fsi  w.  ■?<> 


V 


iiC'*  ■■ '  il’  M2 


V  > 


,  .<  .♦j- ,  ,  ;•■  ■.,  r;.»e.i  ,,^f>  ^.P  fiJfJdti;-. 

’  .  .*'  "■  .  '  V’ 


‘•^/i  ^pi 


which  left  little  time  for  the  creation  of  native  literature. 

But  in  England  the  revived  interest  soon  created  such  valuable 
works  as  Erasmus'  Praise  of  Folly,  More's  Utopia,  and  Tyndale's 
translation  of  the  New  Testament,  and  Malory's  Morte  d' Arthur* 

Yet  this  was  only  a  foreshadowing  of  the  golden  Elizabethan 
period  of  religious  tolerance  which  gave  England  and  the  world 
several  great  literary  figures  and  teachers , among  whom  the  foremost 
are  Shakespeare,  Spenser,  Bacon,  Marlowe  and  Ben  Jonson. 

Ukraine  could  not  at  this  time  attempt  to  compare  with 
a  nation  like  England  in  the  field  of  literature*  But  some  of 
the  influences  that  affected  the  countries  of  Western  Europe  had 
also  reached  Ukraine.  And,  when  it  fell  under  the  rule  of  Lithu¬ 
ania,  which  was  rather  tolerant  with  it,  and  which,  like  the 
Russians,  assimilated  Ukrainian  ideals  and  accepted  Ukrainian 
culture  rather  thanthrust  its  own  upon  them,  it  also  directed 
its  attention  to  learning.  It  is  here  then  that  we  commence  a 
new  period  in  Ukrainian  literature.  This  epoch  is  marked  not 
only  by  a  rebirth  in  national  consciousnoss  but  also  by  a  rebirth 
in  literature  as  to  its  context,  its  form,  ideals  and  general 
tendencies,  and  extends  over  a  period  of  approximately  three  hun¬ 
dred  years. 

Since  the  causes  for  a  revival  of  Ukrainian  literature 
were  both  internal  and  external,  it  will  be  well,  before  going 
into  some  detail,  to  make  a  brief  survey  of  these  causes. 

At  the  fall  of  Constantinople  to  the  Turks  in  1453,  the 


-177- 


?  T 


.  b'or}'  'h^  di'f  i’j^.,:  trZ 


f  s  ,,-• 


/”iu4-y 


.  ■  <  C  ;-  er' •  '■  vliw  «in» 

'  ■  '  ■  ■  ■■'*’  '  ;> 

i,  ■-•  /m  -*  ;  ■  ■ ■•'‘'fi>  -.  ■  Ic.  .bc-i'jo, 


'  ,  '  .M  •  ''■  '.1  i ■  / 

•-___  .■■?■■  ■  ,jy: 

•i./o.^^r.  ■ft.^r  «rl4i4’ •■>'-'  .  oa  t/im'O*  ■ 


fc-1»  ■■■ 


:v  .  ij/vi'  i  -\^  wi  ' ‘.'.iX  f^xx.,.-  .*.. 

tt- '. . -i;;  X’i;;i  <  _i 

,Vr;-’  '^k.  .  .  c  , 

^  »:c-^'S'Vi  .v;-  .  .  ^•Lniy;4T;>--  p«''Di:r;-7  os^X^' 

I  ' '  ■  <?x' « 'J  i X  ‘1  ?<  •  .  '  r  r  I  n  -■-' 

■‘A ;.X  ■- ’:  i'j  X  nXjii ii'fr.i ^,i->  ■•, 

^  '''  *‘ 
a;  ,  "Xi  j*  :,  v.A'r  ^  '  , 

:*  .iV  v.vJ'  -.J 


;:f 


-■  £»i; 


L  >.  .'•-•tj 


,  '  I' 

•;  lyi  ff>i ita-Xv '.  ,•>  V.'-  vino 


•  sjr  - 

•a?v'-f.*Xr-A*  til  t 

!  .UiA#»n  ferti  , 

*  iff  ‘i'ie- 


learned  Christians  fled  from  the  Mohammedans  to  Western  Europe 
and  settled  in  Italy*  Here  they  continued  their  educational  and 
literary  work  which  was  now  much  facilitated  owing  to  the  invention 
of  the  printing  press.  The  Greek  educators,  who  left  Constantinople 
while  in  Italy  took  a  great  interest  in  the  Ancient  Greek  and 
Latin  ivr iters  and  in  the  arts  of  architecture,  sculpture  and 
painting.  They  began  to  import  and  publish  the  works  of  these 
ancient  iirriters,  and  this  latent  knowledge  soon  spread  far  and 
wide  through  Germany,  England,  France.  Bohemia,  Poland  and  Ukraine. 
We  all  know  how  Classicism,  then  conservatively  rooted  in  France, 
became  so  strong  that  it  required  as  strong  a  man  as  Victor  Hugo 
in  the  beginning  of  the  19th  century  to  undermine  it. 

The  first  man  to  go  to  Italy  for  literary  purposes  from 
Ukraine  was  Frantz  Skorina  who  received  his  degree  of  Doctor  of 
Medicine  at  the  University  of  Padua, and  printed  in  Prague  the 
first  book  in  Ukrainian  in  151?,  which  was  a  translation  of  the 
Bible. 

Besides  the  so-called  humanism  which  was  being  disseminated 
from  Italy,  and  the  invention  of  the  printing  press  which  gave 
literatures  of  many  nations  a  strong  impetus,  there  was  another 
cause  of  no  little  importance.  This  was  Luther's  Reformation 
which  started  in  Germany  and  affected,  among  other  countries, 
also  Poland  and  Ukraine.  Ukrainians  soon  followed  the  example 
of  Luther  in  writing  religious  and  other  books,  not  in  Latin 
which  language  was  known  to  very  few  people,  but  in  their  own 
tongue  which  the  common  people  could  understand  and  therefore 


-17a 


V, 

■  V' 1 

-.i'’  -^ifpsi: 

>  .(  '  !.•*.*  •  f  •  •  <  fr‘' 

.  '.r  ::^  Vf/* 

'v  •  '.  ,:.;'g< 

,  ■  ud.'f  ,  K 

■  '  '^ '■'■■■■  >y  V 

,  ■■  -.  ..;  iiu-ldiii/is  lie 

j  >-'■  f  .;;  .  i  V 

- '•*^''5s3r  \itK:l  ni  aXi.ifi*  i 

,  V  .tv' 

.1  .’lliXU-j  •■  •:gr;ui 

'  % 

<-.i  \yi  ,  :.c  .'  rji  .:  _ , 

.  y.:  ••  .  ■..  .V.,.-*^, 

g’ .  ^  *i'tx  - ^  !  C'  i  *y r? 5  '"  -*' 

'■■'■•  •  ,  '  "  •  '  ^  . ;.  e-o;  W'Z'  -cj;  :  [a*;  • 

i  ^'%rty  ■ yx  ,!J  -gi 

.  /■  ■' 

•,  .'•>  ^  C”  C  .'  j-iwai.  n,T  <j  X ’.  .'d- 

•  '■  -V^. 


;  •  '.■•*■  *  •  U  t, 'Vo  'i 

^  '■ 

.  •  ■•'  i  ■  ohi  'jf 

(\:,,M:-*'.  ‘  .:  '>■•'*•  .’•-•iiiv/  .  V  j  ,  ■  ,1  .,• 

■■  .  -  g  ri'  D'.oG'.'f 

fh 

>  ■«■*/«*■' g-  £:■•„,  '  ■«.,. 

:  •  -  Pd  J  '1 

'  t*"";  ■■■  '■>■<-  lo  ''j-. 

,Ttvj>:  rrU  !  t  '  ?i  .  jc 

.-«  '  ■  ,--.'‘’li, ■■.■-■  -x  M.  .  iilt 

•',•■♦•  ■.  -tjl 

'  '■ '■  ^•.■.,  I.-:  >.  '  , :  'tg  ea.:  ■”> 

'  •  ■  .  '  <J  J  '  *.'  'i'j  n  - 

’fffg;  •,.  ‘  •./■.?*  d-jrdw  >'ij 

‘  .  -v.  !'  ce  3 "f.j  /f i-j^ 

'  br.jSjggjpXo^  oeii 

.  '.  V,C-.  *;  IVilif  B',/ 

vcr/A-iv  r,jt  iei>tLu  ‘‘^ 

,  ‘.M  1  #  A 

.  '  .  v,c-. 


could  derive  benefit  from  the  knowledge  contained  in  the 
books.  Of  course  during  the  Lithuanian  sovereignty,  the  language 
used  among  the  educated  classes  in  Ukraine  was  White  Russian  which 
contains  so  much  of  the  Ukrainian  linguistic  element  that  it  is 
now  more  akin  to  Ukrainian  than  to  any  other  Slavic  language. 

When  in  1569  the  Lithuanian-Ukrainian  Kingdom  was  united 
with  Poland,  the  communication  of  learning  from  Western  Europe 
into  Lithuania  and  Ukraine  became  much  facilitated.  The  rulers, 
lords  and  the  richer  classes  became  interested  in  the  general 
education  in  the  country  and  established  schools  and  printing 
presses.  Prince  Vasyl  Ostitzhky  in  1577  founded  in  the  town  of 
Ostrov  a  High  School,  and  in  connection  with  it,  a  printing  press. 
This  was  the  first  High  School  in  Ukraine  and  the  first  Printing 
Press  of  some  importance,  Ostrov  was,  therefore,  the  first 
centre  of  higher  learning  in  Ukraine,  The  second  educational 
movement  took  place  in  Lviv  at  the  clo>se  of  the  16th  century 
where  a  High  School  was  established.  It  was  built  by  a  society 
called  "Bratstvo”,  organized  about  1500,  which  had  for  its  purpose 
the  welfare  and  education  of  the  people,  and  which,  at  the  end 
of  the  16th  century  had  its  own  church,  a  hospital,  a  High  School, 
and  a  printing  press.  As  the  only  means  of  protecting  and  defend¬ 
ing  the  church  and  the  Christian  Faith  against  the  enemies,  it 
entered  a  union  with  all  the  other  Fraternities  in  Ukraine,  From 
1593  on  the  association  was  called  ’’Bratstvo  Stavropigiyske” , 
signifying  that  it  was  independent  from  the  Bishops  and  Metro¬ 
politans  and  recognized  the  Patriarch  at  Constantinople  as  its  head. 


-179. 


The  Hig;h  School  at  Lviv  soon  got  a  name  for  being  a  great 
institution  of  learning.  Students  came  from  various  parts  of 
the  country  to  study  there.  Able  instructors  were  brought  in 
from  foreign  countries  to  teach  in  the  School.  One  of  them  was 
Arseney,  a  highly  educated  man,  who  with  his  iudents  prepared 
in  1591  the  first  grammar  of  the  Greek  and  the  old  Church  langua¬ 
ges.  This  grammar  was  immediately  made  use  of  at  Vllno  and  the 
city  became  the  third  centre  of  learning. 

But  the  fourth  and  probably  the  most  important  cradle  of 
learning  in  Ukraine  was  the  College  at  Kiev,  established  by  a 
Kievan  Metropolitan, Petro  Mohyla,  in  1653.  Students  in  this 
college  were^ taught,  in  the  first  place,  Philosophy  and  Theology, 
then  also  the  old  Church  language,  Latin  and  Greek.  Latin,  however, 
was  the  only  language  in  which  the  students  were  aloowed  to  converse 
The  aims  of  the  college  were  both  religious  and  patriotic,  the 
intention  being  to  turn  out  men  who  would  stand  up  in  defence 
of  their  religion  and  country.  And  truly  the  young  men  who  got 
their  training  in  this  institution,  did  become  the  defenders  of 
Ukrainian  Faith  and  nationality.  Many  of  them  remained  in  their 
own  country  and  spread  knowledge  among  the  people.  They  endeavored 
to  come  to  a  friendl^^  understanding  with  the  Poles  and  the  Russians, 
and  by  united  efforts,  to  clear  the  Slavic  countries  of  the  Turks, 
and,  if  possible,  to.  go  as  far  as  to  reta^ke  Jerusalem  from  the 
Infidel.  Others  went  North  to  Moscow  to  start  an  educational 
movement  there.  For,  the  Russians  were  at  that  time  quite  behind 
the  Ukrainians  in  matters  of  education. 


-180- 


;  r  .jl  < 

?  ':(rT."^''i  ^  '  vmr.fR  xiT/aw'^o  ■  w.!:?: 

.  ■'.  '•^‘'•  ■  V.-:  ‘  /.•  -•"'  p\  ,$'«’w  r  ‘ 'u-oo  wo-j" 

,  •.,  ^ri>::  U'«-  . V;,M^.cr!  p  .x^nofiiA^ 

,  ..^  ';<>  ’m«  ■'*  I'.c-i  .ni 

'•cn.'  ?  ^  , Of-.'  '.'■K^'  i';. S-'f  .  •* 


.■•I'-^'r  ■»••,;..  ’If;  r;'  -.  ji. 

.  b'lJ  ariJ  ,  V.:  j;  0 

''  ’■  .  W  -iv  '■**’  •■» 

.-■.,.  Ml'  «:■.. 

^'^^J5:’X.»'  i..r  ':r;i;:Tii^*i 

[/I  .'*■''' 

*  {Tejv^r*. 

.  V  ■  'A  ‘  ‘ 

,  J:;Vi 

1 

^  t!  -I-  fy’V  v»  *•- 1 1 0  '1 

n’t’  i: 

bj-i  ’ 

bX<>  r  ^.I.S"  a^.nigr- 

V 

g 

.  ■  .  !■  .  .'Vtl^'  ffl  -'<’• 

j  ^lf\o  or.-,"‘ 

? :  i  a- 

it. 

.  •  -  V  .  -  , ..  .,  -.j  ■, ,  ‘v  : 

[  of 

.  L  V  -r 

0  f  nc >  •('■  ' ; 

m  '  •■-■ 

.,■-:>  b;  , 

’■  t  , .  .■t((ii*i4:.  'i  .  .  : 

i  '  .i’.'.-t;  „  --ioriy^ 

► 

Of?  .  ■■  .  •  •■\t-'  i  ’-'“-'t;-!  0/*'' 

.  .  .in  ‘  i;.'f.  .y 

,' ’■'‘t  /- 

Qt 

.*.• 

•  b  ...  0.-  ,  a 

.  bi 

\:\  -Ihjl 

;  fit  0.'  .  *^.'1  v  c 

y :  ^ 

**  .' 

•..’  C;-^  .’»  *l'.'' 

* 

'If*  ttf  o/aalfH  ■*  /  . 

■  A  ,r'.,  :  . 

Needless  to  say,  this  was  a  period  of  greatly  enlivened 
educational  activities  in  Ukraine.  The  leaders  were  naturally 
the  clergy,  and  they  had  great  sympathy  for  the  common  people, 
who  were  very  subservient  to  their  lords  and  the  selfish  officials. 
So  that,  all  classes  received  some  help  from  the  college.  And, 
probably  more  than  by  actual  instruction  did  knowledge  spread 
through  reading  of  books  which  were  written  by  teachers  v;ho 
taught  in  or  were  graduated  from  the  Mohyla  College.  Much  was 
written  on  religious  subjects  but  historical  works  were  also 
being  produced.  For,  the  wars  with  the  Turks,  the  Russians  and 
the  Poles,  supplied  ample  material  for  same. 

Since  the  Ukrainians  and  the  White  Russians  had  in  the  16th 
and  17th  centuries  much  in  common,  and  since  they  intermarried  and 
lived  on  friendly  terms,  they  were  naturally  both  affected  by  the 
same  changes  in  the  general  trend  of  events.  And,  when  a  certain 
class  of  Jewish  polulation  of  the  country  attempted  a  reform  in 
their  beliefs  by  renouncing  the  "Talmad** ,  and  once  more  the  popular¬ 
izing  the  Old  Testament  and  thereby  approaching  the  Christian 
ideals,  the  Ukrainians  and  the  White  Russians  became  interested 
in  the  movement  and  were,  to  some  extent,  influenced  by  it.  The 
Psalter,  a  book  on  logic,  metaphysics  and  other  books  were  trans¬ 
lated  from  the  Hebrew  and  were  studied  with  interest  by  both 
nationalities. 

As  far  as  the  Ukrainian  people  were  concerned,  great  benefit 
was  derived  from  these  translations.  For,  they  were  put  into 
a  language  which  the  common  people  could  understand.  Though, 


-181- 


m 


r 


.  ;!>*XXo  arY.  a  s/-  c- nx  vfi  :f^:. 


•:  ■; 

r/4»n4] 


I  c^l'^  ' 

•t*  ■  ^ 


i'ff  :;i  :■  -■  t  iVH OT  \«0  ir c  ?  i- i ir'. 

V'*-  .  ■ 

..  '  ■/  '.".nv  .  ■ 

.'.  ■•  :  Ir:'  rv^ir^I.:! eifi'  •C'o.'it 


^  TOrr:; 


r'X^.  .■'r;\■^'^  diWl  bzf- 


1 


it  is  true  that  the  lancua^e  used,  and  particularly  in  the  New 
Testament',  was  not  pure  Ukrainian.  Manuscripts  then  written 
show  a  conglomeration  of  old  Church-Sl.avonic ,  Ukrainian,  White 
Russian,  Czech,  and  Polish  words.  At  the  same  time  every  one 
v;ho  could  read  in  his  own  language  had  access  to  the  contents 
of  the  translated  hooks.  The  translated  works  of  Skorina  account 
for  much  of  the  religious  educational  progress  in  Ukraine  in  the 
beginning  of  the  16th  century.  His  Psalter  appeared  in  the  old 
Slavonic  language,  but  with  many  Ukrainian  notations  and  explana¬ 
tions.  But  all  of  his  remaining  translations  were  in  Ukrainian. 
He  had  a  threefold  intention  in  editing  his  books,  namely:  from 
the  moral  point  of  view,  a  moral  improvement,  and  the  bringing  of 
good  custom  into  vogue;  from  the  religious  point  of  view,  the 
saving  of  the  soul;  and  from  the  educational  point  of  view,  the 
teaching  of  kno?rledge  and  wisdom.  Skorina*  s  patriotism  cannot 
be  overlooked.  In  the  preface  of  one  of 'his  books  he  remarks 
that  the  wild  beasts  which  wander  in  the  desert  know  their  caves, 
the  birds  which  soar  in  the  air  knoi-v'  their  nests,  the  bees  and 
the  like  defend  their  hives,  and  so  the  people  too  should  have 
a  great  respect  for  the  place  where  they  v/ere  born. 

After  Skorina  came  several  other  writers  who  worked  on 
the  translations  of  the  New  Testament  and  hymns.  Probably  the 
most  zealous  worker  on  this  field  was  Tiapinsky,  who  saw  salvation 
of  his  country  only  in  the  study  of  the  Bible  and  who  forthwith 
took  upon  himself  the  task  of  translating  it.  He  tried  to  arouse 
interest  in  all  the  Bishops  and  Priests  to  uphold  the  traditions 


-182- 


T 


J  I  -  .  >  •  M  p  :--  . 


■CX  l  ■%'I«i5'  7j,i 

t  '  '^'j  \  i:. 'll  LZiSk 


•i^>f^\:u 


,«r.-f 


;  -  <  . 


.T, 


'  ill  '  ^i;jo  i  ^  o  1# , ; 

.  "  u  »L’w'  i  ;^r  xr:." .' '  t '•' 


i♦’^5 


■;  vie, 


’  •■■  .,:  *;  -X  0 ; 

,,  .  -..  i,  ,.r,  ..,- ,r-  ^._r  - 

•'•*'.  «;7<' i.:  ..  ii'  ■■  .-...•'  Vo  'Xl^?  ti  .  'c  i:^ 

^vV  .  /fr*/Jr{/t  /il£t  ■■■'[:  ■  i  ,  •  i 

■  ••■  j.:  i- 

,•':  •  •  <^i  ^  v-rv.i  v  C7(;:  ^c^2 


■  ...hV’  tC 

:  .  r-yl  ': ...  r-r.X.’i-if 


*  •* 'J 


•*i  <■•'»  ,'ic  -c 


v-oi 'f.rc  or* 

»  a#i.  •  1  •  .*..i:;V  at  ■ 


.  / 


♦ 


.1  'O,^  :'■ 


f'  i 


■  I  A  -  7  •''■-  .  --•  ^  •  (•  'U:  -  f 

-  ■  *•'  •  . 


d  '’io 


of  their  forefathers  by  undertaking  to  the  best  of  their  ability 
and,  like  himself,  with  great  self-abandon  to  work  for  the  cause 
of  education  among  the  people.  Of  course,  it  cannot  be  supposed 
that  either  the  people  or  the  clergy  were  altogether  united  in 
their  work#  The  general  education  was  naturally  of  a  more  or 
less  religious  character  and  v/as  not  uniform,  firstly,  because  of 
the  spread,  particularly  in  Volhynia  and  Pidliashe ,  of  a  theory 
known  as  Anti-tr initar ianism,  conceived  by  Sotsina  and  purporting 
to  discredit  the  dogma  concerning  the  Holy  Trinity,  and  secondly, 
because  of  the  introduction  of  Protestant  ideals  into  Ukraine, 
the  chief  among  which  was  a  closer  examination  and  study  of  the 
Bible  rather  than  believing  blindly  in  all  that  was  written.  How¬ 
ever  the  effect  of  the  above  two  factors  on  the  general  progress 
of  the  people  was  not,  it  is  believed,  in  any  way  harmful.  On  the 
contrary,  it  gave  rise  to  public  debates  and  tended  to  give  the 
educational  movement  a  life  which  otherwise  it  would  have  lacked. 

The  Existence  of  the  Ukrainian  Nation  is  Threatened. 

The  Lublin  Union  of  1569  had  a  dangerous  effect  on  the 
Ukrainian  nation  in  so  far  as  its  ethnic  existence  v;as  concerned. 
This  union  indirectly  brought  Ukraine  under  the  Polish  sovereignty. 
And,  since  Ukraine  was  at  this  time  only  recovering  from  the 
severe  blow  which  it  had  received  from  the  unwelcome  invaders  from 
the  East,  its  resistance  to  exterior  influences  was  weak.  There¬ 
fore  Latin  and  Polish  culture  then  spread  in  Ukraine  rather  rapidly. 


-183- 


f^.1- 

,SC.  0 


-  V  {  ,  V 


.  r  J.''  l'. 'jq'  f-i/Ti '.iji-rr'iit;'  '  ^ 


r;  (Ow 


.  ^ '  i .  *I  c  ‘  »-*.  ."■^i  rf w .( W  <!',(»: ! 

,  './v-,^  U.’'V  ouoi^jly'^ 

,  ei  ’’.  Tr^’V  ni  '-■  ■■'i -■  '■>  :  ^-7  V  .  M^4 


i'.,'.v  iik'-*  v -f  ,t,r^  O 


‘.eil*  <T' ;  /  /f  ■?  '.^iii'  Zo  y -j ;.( 


'  >«5*rto  .  t/f-t' 

/,:  •  '  ':;■ 


-r  Tr  •: 


iS!’';  ■’it  •  ■ 

4/.-!C  y<’/  »;•:  ■ 

;/  •'$]!)!  <5 .^  i  •;  ■,  ’'«>^  .;  i  ,  ;:o  » 

■•. '  j.’ i  i  a  ' .t  !*».  ''C;  i  ^  -•  t'  tj o  a‘ 


'..>  ftOMC',  Tj. 

;‘<0;l-’‘!^  I*’'T 


•UA^C  :4 ;  i-. 


•i  .•<?.(rijfl'nlX^ 

. :  \ 


1  .  „  -•  '  ^  V  - 


!  .■* '  J  «* 


5 


This  fact  itself  would  not  have  been  obiectionable  had  not  so 
many  of  the  Ukrainian  nobles  who,  because  of  unfavorable  circum¬ 
stances,  becam.e  indifferent  to  Ukrainian  national  and  cultural 
traditions  and  who,  in  order  that  they  might  be  allowed  to  retain 
the  old  or  be  appointed  to  new  important  positions  in  the  State, 
became  Polonized.  Polish  language  used  in  courts  and  other  public 
offices  called  for  the  sarnie  language  to  be  studied  and  used  by 
the  whole  polulation.  Along  with  this  came  the  manners  and  customs. 
Consequently  before  long  Polish  culture,  simply  because  Poland 
held  sovereignty  over  the  country,  was  regarded  as  superior  to 
the  Ukrainian,  and  the  subject  people,  particularly  of  the  higher 
classes,  were  gradually  being  assimilated. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  under  normal  conditions  this  absorp¬ 
tion  of  Ukrainian  nobility  by  polish  influential  sections  vrould 
have  been  beneficial  to  the  Poles  themselves#  But,  as  a  matter 
of  fact,  it  was  not  beneficial  to  either  nationality#  The  Catholic 
Church,  which  was  well  established  in  Poland  and  vrhich  taught  and 
maintained  a  strict  moral  discipline,  became  during  the  Heforma- 
tion  disorganized#  Yet  this  alone  was  not  as  dangerous  as  the 
fact  that  the  priests  became  disloyal  to  it,  becamw  materialistic, 
and  stayed  in  the  profession  merely  for  the  purpose  of  gain.  Their 
own  morals  were  corrupt  and  their  teaching  could  not  have  been 
any  better.  However,  the  Jesuits  who  commenced  their  work  in 
1664,  reconstructed,  after  considerable  effort,  some  of  the  things 
which  the  Catholic  Church  had  lost  during  its  dismemberment#  The 


-184- 


ij .  '■*  o ;  .  “iQ  &-'■-  ■■■'<'- 

■  •:„■(., o  ■  '••• .  '  .  ..-OXC', 

’i,  f  ^  ^  ,.  IS--  '  ' 

VI  f,  -'i*  ;; 

>f.-^iw  rj.-oa/  ‘  tfK  y.!<..H7.-v-r\' 

■  .  '  LU':  •-•.•-■-i  't  >  vi4ft«n;p^ftiYoO 

y,  ~ .  .  ,.  '  : 


r  i:  ,'‘.Hri  ;  :-:Jr'of:;  '.?r»  ^i  '  7-,/'..  •  ’  ^,4; 

’  .  ■  -.  ' 

'fj'.  Vi  ■  . 

.'  '  vi'.-v  .o.r  «> f'li  fi(o<*4’-'’> ■«%'■•;** 

.  _;  ‘  ■■  ,  ifi'j  ■;£-'*  ■' /  ,  'ic; 

•.  M  •v‘;'  ■  :A.nV 

^  .-  ■  ..  tcMr 

s-  fr.ml..  Ji  ll  ,  V  *:  yrjilfjl'trtaih 


£.  yieit  ■■ 

f'y*s  {)rT«  i 

'  ’< 

.1 1-- '  ii ,'. ,  .■■  :.'  I  ’■'  ■■' ' ' c‘j irey  ’ ■’ if-j/H'  ftifo- 


-tion  .  J  0 

■  r,i  *to  • ' 

^  ‘■'r  *  '7:1  W 

Jesuits  were  zealous  workers,  and  through  peaching  and  public 
debates  they  succeeded  in  bringing  many  of  the  apostates  back 
to  the  Church,  But,  it  cannot  be  said  that  their  schools  and 
the  instruction  therein  were  not  irreproachable.  The  teaching 
was  confined  to  Latin,  Greek,  Rhetoric,  Poetics,  and  a  few  other 
subjects,  but  none  of  which  tended  to  develop  individual  thinking. 
Then,  also,  their  schools  were  schools  of  privilege;  a  rich  man's 
son  had  far  better  chances  of  being  admitted  to  them  than  had  a 
poor  man's  son,  for  they  would  bring  a  better  material  remuneration, 
and  their  influence  on  their  relatives,  would  be  of  more  value, 
for  it  would  gain  strong  supporters  of  the  Jesuit  movement.  While 
the  movement,  to  a  certain  extent,  did  succeed,  we  can  see  that 
progress  as  regards  the  advancement  of  general  knowledge  was  not 
very  great,  since  in  their  conception  theology  embodied  all  know¬ 
ledge*  The  sciences  which  always  tend  to  broaden  out  man's  view 
of  the  world,  were  carefully  excluded  from  the  curriculum. 

The  Ukrainians  took  advantage  of  what  the  Jesuit  schools 
offered  to  give  them,  but  from  the  national  point  of  view,  the 
character  of  the  education  was  dangerous  to  them.  Ukrainian 
students  studied  in  foreign  languages,  and  naturally,  gradually 
came  to  like  them.  They,  therefore,  neglected  their  own  language, 
and  with  it  their  traditions  and  culture,  which,  owing  to  their 
recent  decadence,  were  now  awaiting  a  fair  opportunity  to  resume 
their  developing  process. 

But  the  Jesuit  schools  were  merely  a  forecast  of  the  danger 
that  was  about  to  come  upon  the  Ukrainian  people  and  to  threaten 


-185- 


—  r- 


‘.' 't  OV;.  'b’^i  i  ft  c  i  - 

ri 

'  •:  ^  -  .f':i  -  ’  .  ■'■'  ■-■  6uv.'.Ji«<v' 

■'  ,  :;r:.  ,  ; 

\  0  *  a.0i'j:ioc 

.  "  '^w 

‘1 •  .f.  ■,  ■  ■  -  f i’  Tc  e  i  wX-oc'-'^ f>»,:  ■  t  o  u  X^.  « ;; -a  ft  .  9  j 


■  ‘  ‘1-!.  '  '--^v  '#  •■^'  ::  '•■  ■'  '  ■  -  ■  ^-  ■'  ' 

:«•.  I.£*v  .  ■'  1.  •.y,''■•^- ‘ -1.; ' '■  ■  *'£•/■  "Xic'd,:  hir.'  '  fi 

i  '  -y  ,  ’  ,..  ^  ■,  a. 


.  >, •  a  .  f»  - '  ._  - ' 

,  f  ;t 

X  .i*.X,";'ao '  JD-.. «  *  -  ^os  ii-  j 

-  7 ■  -c  • 

^..l  v'-IX  yi'-iJH'ifcn  t  ‘  t^i^.n^cuq 

}  '  ‘.1  *  :.,  •  f? 

,:  ^  -  -s'  1 X  O..V  i.  r  i  ■'  K  V . 

■  *  ^r. '  , ." 

.f')!  ■!■•.•  73  '"0t.  -  .  36»i 

i  ..  ■'  1  i 

.■  ■  '  .L 

.  r"-  .  ;  '  '  V 

.  li,  ,7  ©11  iu 

*j  ,♦ ' ur  l^/•*J.•';'  vT'f  .  iC' 

'.^7  7  .‘  ;  ■  .i'' 

'  <■' ‘ .  7*  i' ;  u  i< v*li  t.'  iH 

.  •:  ^  ,^'■f: 

^  X..  ‘;^vi:-.  07  b'-ST'j'l'. 

1  '  \i  V.  n  7  i: 

r .1^ '  AO  I/ll  7  o  iiJ‘  J.  .■  %  '•  *  f  ,.'  >  1  -P.  I f  ■.• 

'  ■  . j; rr 

r., 

Ki  f) 49 

-  ■  '  .  .-:•>  •  .  . 

■  , 

«  ’■  o-t 

'.,»•»  , .  « 

« >  1 .  *  t 

.  r  .  ,  "[  i  (‘Vf  7  JX  /•“  :  l,nA 

'  ■  _  7-  <•’  f .  ' 

■|i;. 

■i.ii  .7  -  O'JfjLl 

.  jZKionv^ 

.■>*.  lilfl 


their  national  life.  The  unhappy  union  of  the  Roman  Church 
was  the  real  danger.  The  political  and  economical  disorder  in 
Ulcraine,  lack  of  schools,  and  many  other  causes  brought  about 
a  disorganization  of  the  Orthodox  Church.  To  these  may  be  added 
the  shameful  corruption  of  the  clergy,  banning  with  the  High 
Patriarchs,  some  of  whom  were  Greeks,  and  ending  with  the  Priests. 
The  higher  officials  of  the  Church  were  of  course  the  greatest 
culprits,  for,  their  treatment  of  those  under  them  was  very 
inhuman.  They  arbitrarily  practised  severe  extortions  upon 
their  inferiors,  and  all  this  for  material  gain  and  pleasure. 

The  clergy  in  general  was  in  pursuit  of  worldly  things  and  often 
lived  in  immorality.  Such  a  state  of  affairs  could  not  but  shake 
the  foundations  of  the  Ukrainian  Orthodox  Church.  The  Poles  saw 
this  and,  since  they  lost  hope  of  Pol oni zing  the  Ulcrainians  and 
the  White  Russians  through  other  means  as  quickl?/  as  they  expected, 
they  decided  to  thrust  upon  them  Roman  Catholicism  and  thereby 
hasten  assimilation.  They -were  obliged  to  act  hastily,  for  the 
Russians,  who  for  a  long  time  recognized  the  authority  of  the 
Patriarch  at  Constantinople,  severed  in  the  year  1589  all  connection 
with  him  and  established  their  own  Muscovite  Patriarchate.  It 
then  became  very  probable  that  the  Patriarchate  might  presently 
absorb  both  the  White  Russian  and  the  Ulrralnian  Churches  and 
thereby  give  Moscow  a  decided  influence  over  White  Russia  and 
Ukraine.  The  Poles  acted  before  it  was  too  late  and  sent  many 
missionaries  into  Ukraine*  The  chief  one  of  these  was  Skarga 
who  used  clandestine  means  to  effect  his  object.  He  wrote  books 


-186- 


o.  L$ 


■":  i  .i  •  i-Tf- ' 

s.:  .•.;??*  , '(  ■••in i  ll  itfcj't ^rnr-* 

ixOi'rjjd.  t  ■«!•■; .‘U'j'^'lj 


L'j  ''U 

■tr,  .  1  .:,1  .  ■' 

..  '-Av' 

■  ■  .  .  ■•  ;r.r'.r>’’^  I'f  ^ 

O'tftw  I...V.!  A  V.  .C  , 

’  V 

lia  t  •  V  .v- 

■  ^  V  " 

td^^4'  r  iC  I. 

♦  *iO  ■'!£•:•■:■  '  ^  ■;■ 

■-'  ■'  ^  ■  .'  , 

.  •  m«£(r  ■  '  '  •£»t74>,i;un  *-.o:  .  i  :  '  \ -i 'i.r..-.it’‘ 

■A  «:  *  v:^  ‘Ici  'a;':  j  ■  Ci!"' 

*r..  •  Lii?--'.  a*ifi*‘;'»-  '■  AX  .  . 

.'  j 'r  ,•  ,,,  '  ■.■»•. -'v  !^0  'm  .'  >; 


f'.  ' -■  ■’  » \:J.j. '  c ‘iai  $4  i i'k 

rr  *  ':c  V  /*l^  .  .''liliMBBB 


‘'i;^.‘iS *■•  -''ic;:  •,,»=. f '*.’^■'1^1  .  .  ^.xKj 

>  •?:..•,•  •■(<.■■  G  sv  .j  R  (v.  v-,'' 


T!:>r-\  '  ::,’■ 

.-* 

,  "  ?  vt .'1 4  i  .t;  f  ’X  'i  ■•  a  s } '  *\‘ 

:  .J  .;4  5,|f)t  £vDt|i|r'’;l ‘'■I  '  ll  foa  C*(i'  ‘jd«. 
rv/.  ,"  ■ 

o:30W'itf  j  I  I  I  Tt'Tn  lilMMff  f  ^  .''':---4i:j 


ltb^4 


®3cpounding  •  Catholic  doctrines  and  criticising  those  of  the 
Orthodox  Church  .  In  appropri.ate  places  he  exerted  considerable 
effort  to  eulogize  gome  influential  Ukrainians,  as  far  example, 
Konstantin  Ostrozky  who  was  at  that  time  the  most  distinguished 
official  of  the  Orthodox  Church, 

Besides  these  means,  some  horrible  repressive  measures 
were  employed.  PolisVi  authorities  closed  up  the  Orthodox  Churches, 
suspended  and  abused  the  clergy,  and  therefore  religious  work 
was  greatly  hindered.  This  continued  for  some  time.  Hopes  for 
a  better  future  were  diminishing  day  by  day.  Meanwhile  the  Poles 
carrisd  on  their  propaganda  and  their  negotiations  with  Church 
dignitaries  for  a  union.  It  occurred  to  some  Ukrainians  that 
probably  by  uniting  with  Rome  they  would  be  choosing  the  lesser 
evil  and  that  they  would  then  be  left  alone  to  conduct  their 
Church  affairs  without  external  interference.  Accordingly,  in 
1595  two  prominent  heads  of  the  Ukrainian  Orthodox  Church,  namely, 
Terletsky  and  Potey,  after  negotiations  with  the  Polish  King, 
went  to  Rome  where  they  publicly  announced  their  willingness  to 
unite  with  the  Roman  Catholic  Church,  This  was  avery  important 
event.  When  they  c ame  back  they  found  that  many  people  would 
not  give  up  their  Orthodox  Faith.  The  result  was  that  there 
were  now  two  Churchesln  Ukraine  instead  of  one  as  before.  A  conflict 
between  the  two  immediately  arose  which  continues  up  to  the  present 
day  affecting  Ukrainians  all  over  the  world,  and  attempts  to 
conciliate  the  two  Churches  have  proved  futile. 


-187- 


', n‘*  ^  >  I' ’/  -‘  '  ■'*  fjcxtvo^i  ..f  *  , . 

-.  : '.v  :‘ii, 

tn,  '  '  ■  :  .’'?  c.-I*?.  I  -  o'rjrO  iit>^nfi4C‘Tii>}i 

.  :)'.r  f;  :■  r  C  vix^  ":e.  V  ivt  .in ^  aIo 

r'-  Cfi  ri-i2iXv»>  ■  <■••:’••.•• 

■«  ’''.-vT  ?ri.»(.  .  ■  ■•  -  -i  ‘••,  ■'  t  ■C'":  *■  b/iSVC-T  i - > 'h 

•’  \ ;!  .  .-  :■  ‘j  ‘-■tti.P'i  .V  ut> J  ;■■  , '>.1  ■•  -.• 

.  ’:  ^  -:  •, 

.?  TT?  “I/OH.*  TO  burriffC- 

'  ■  •■’rufoor  * :-  ^  :  rtj  4  *iot  ■ 

'.  -  'i  'Xi.cv  ■  ■  h  i/U'  V^: 

-''XJUjiC’O  f  .  .f'Mn  ■  '.  •  ::*;W.'  bl'  -J  :->  X-tVa 

*  '  ^  ■  .  ■  .-is  r 

■  '.-TJ.  ,  _ 

■•  ■  .  -v  ■  ■'  ■  ‘  -i'  Inrr^^^3C«  :  ':.■ 

;:^  •  ,  -  ■:.  .  •  •  ;ti ;.:c  —  .;v... 

, '/;odtCV  •  -  .  '  i  •  . 

'T  -  •rv  ')(•;;(•  ■  ^  ‘M  \T.'  ■  '  :*• 

'  v  V  ,  T^:'.''..  .j.,  '  ■  ^  '-v^v  C'J.i:r:; 

9 

^  .  Cu7.  ■  V  ■  • ..  .h.-  .  <;  . 

•  ■•  ••  7**’'  i  Cilw  '  .•cc.r'.cii.') *(C  qii 

■P^.  '  '  •  >•'•'■  ^  j/l'o  ov.  r’.'ri  •'jvr'llX)  t  •'  ’.'Ci.  ^ 


\'j  ■ 

t  « 


ir 

I 

w 


'7*  ■  ^.Mfr^  .  ‘''in  J  -i  ^rj  nui  <jC 

yy  '  t!..  >-■  ■ 

^  .  ■  -  .‘\  -  c..-jC  Ci-rcH  ■©  '  -.-..v  "  J  'J.IO 


0 


As  affecting  literature  the  Church  Union  gave  rise  to  a 
lively  literary  controversy  which  was  at  first  adopted  by  the 
Fraternities.  Presently  a  Bible  published  by  the  famous  Ostrozka 
Printing  Press,  which  constituted  a  very  important  work,  was  a 
strong  and  effective  weapon  of  the  ©rthodox  Church  against  Catho¬ 
licism  .  And,  outside  of  its  use  for  polemical  purposes,  it  was 
also  invaluable  as  a  religious  text  book.  The  Ostrozka  Printing 
Press  did  in  fact  contribute  a  great  deal  to  the  religiously 
national  polemics  of  the  day,  and  it  was  a  secure  stronghold  of 
the  Ukrainian  national , religious ,  and  cultural  life.  Among  the 
writers , whose  works  were  edited  here  ,  were  such  noted  education¬ 
ists  as  Smotritsky,  Surazkv,  Filaret,  Ostrozky,  Paloma,  Melety 
and  Vishensky,  But  while  considering  the  work  of  this  press  one 
must  keep  in  mind  the  Petro  Mohyla  College  which  together  with  the 
former  was  undoubtedly  the  foremost  of  the  four  sources  of  learn¬ 
ing  mentioned,  Mohyla,  who  acquired  his  early  education  in  the 
schools  of  Lviv  and  afterwards  in  the  Universities  in  foreign 
countries  was  well  equipped  as  a  Church  dignitary  to  lead  in  the 
religious-educational  thought  of  the  day.  And  yet  his  loyalty  to 
the  cause  of  education  was  perhaps  of  a  greater  consequence  than 
his  academic  qualifications.  That  he  was  whole-heartedly  devoted 
to  the  cause  is  seen  from  the  fact  that  he  not  only  wrote  at  his 
own  expense  on  religious  and  moral  subjects,  but  also  assigned 
to  the  college  all  his  wealth  in  order  to  make  its  existence  and 
progress  secure.  Mohyla' s  dreams  were  in  a  great  manner  realizec^ 


-188- 


.  mV 


»  Jr  < 


»>T.  M>{S  •■ 
li-’ 


-siriL* 


.  •’  ■:«  .i^X  n  'I t»  .if  It?  ■'?%■. 
•  rr;v:  ^  c  vn 'i.  i  j  ufj'  i 
'  ;  t  "'V  •  r  .  -s :  ^ 


■v4^w^i  ...  ..  w  .  •’ 

V  '  '• 

:i  *”:  'rH  ‘  ^ ^':-'0'>  i  ■.).<>.’>.  .26 1*! 


'Oj''r 


V  nj,>  ■  J-J.  ^rt,.  ^  'Xf^  ;i Xti/fox^^n 

.  ,  j ■  1  '^D ni'.  _  „  \i  I  jj. el^ tii  j i x.- 'i : . ,  ■  .  ■ 

(,  .  ‘*",  r'-j'  •  t.'*  ■  '  (  ■  '4/1 ';’.!. ‘i  jo racfei  3x'  -’-;SiX 

'  ;>,: 

.  ■  [1^  fut  ,\>.2nonz.iV  hiu 

xjIo.  ..4;,  oHj‘‘ 

•,  io-'  .*  ■  r.v  ^l^;y  Ciar  .':«•  ^ 

,:  ••  ,  “  'V  sni 

i. Vi' ot^i -■••.••  *  'u  <  .J-.  ■.**,(,  .’vX’i  :sr--i-i,j  Jo -^l:2Cii0'a 


>.  *  diiii  , 


ii.S  ' 


.•  I  Vr  ‘■.‘•■‘v.'-'  irr '"■ .’ ■♦/oi  -  i  I-' T 

'iu  3'..  ^f.*:oq  :ii''.'  /i  ‘  K  r^al’a'i 


♦.til 


ji'j  }.if^fi^‘  '  'i  ■: 


h  * 


i  ^-  • 


,  > 


^'1 

t; ...  '  '  XQ\  nc  -aon^i^i^ 

‘  ■  1 .  .  -h  .  ii'  i.' 


for,  the  men  who  graduated  from  his  institution  proved  that  they 
were  qualified  to  carry  on  the  plans  initiated  at  the  establishment 
of  the  college. 

The  above  is  a  rather  concise  resume  of  the  rapid  changes 
which  took  ple-ce  in  Ukraine  in  the  16th  century.  Many  details  , 
of  necessity , had  to  be  omitted,  for  the  intention  is  rather  to 
show  the  striking  turns  in  the  course  of  events  in  contrast  to 
past  centuries,  and  thereby  to  establish  a  foundation  for  consider¬ 
ing  the  new  literary  tendencies  than  to  dwell  at  some  length  on 
matters  of  minor  importance  and  not  immediately  relevant  to  the 
matter  under  consideration, 

^  KeT^  Literature  Evolve d . 

The  preceding  survey  of  the  religious,  educational,  and  to 
some  extent  social  state  of  affairs  in  Ukraine  is  a  clear  indica¬ 
tion  as  to  the  subsequent  productions  in  the  literary  field. 

The  age  being  a  religious  one,  the  writers  centred  their 
attention  upon  religious  subjects.  Considerable  constructive  work 
in  Orthodoxy  was  done.  Books  of  the  Bible  most  appropriate  to  the 
time  and  likely  acceptable  to  the  people  were  being  translated, 
studied,  and  even  used  in  the  schools  as  text  books.  Then,  during 
the  Reformation  in  Western  Europe, the  ultra-rays  of  which  reached, 
however  faintly,  as  far  as  Ukraine,  gave  cause  for  new  ways  of 
thinking  and  writing.  And,  finally  the  Church  Union,  in  some 
respects  good  while  in  others  bad,  changed  the  whole  order  of 
things.  As  might  be  expected  a  heated  struggle  arose  on  Ukrainian 
soil  between  the  Western  Catholic  and  the  Eastern  Gothodox  culture. 


^,T3r 


fxndi'.rt  'Vi*  V  ",')C  <.'v-^  C^®77' 


<..'0  (j- 


.'^i;  -')  ■  4. 


•■  .'.'i  ^  i**'  '*'•’.  t.  ?'.r;jc  at^  ^  tu  .'r/v  *.t*i>5,S!6?'r 

'C'  ;  Ki  C« 


'vt.-T'” 

■  '  ■  ■  ■/ 


rr 


.  «,.!'<«  r,.f  '.rr  ni--^  v  no^i;:.  -O 

■’'  •■-HCiC.  ‘X^bn'J  lf,V  : 


'..‘‘i  .f  • ' ‘4  '^;tj  it.;  '"  '*■''. 

'  '  jJi  'i(-  ^.t-i.Ht.1  .U}  f ’*'„  .• 


r  ■ 


•: j|rf!0.Knj-  ''^  0^ 

^  :f-  V4-rr 


:C  J 


;i  ■■' t;*) '  Bf  '•:. :  ;■! -*■  ■*  ’  •'>  -  *  'f- 

'Ic  ,  ’  ’.  vxc  :■>"•.■, M. 


•'  dT#  vlh:<U?r 


il  "'C  ;•  '1 , 


i.^.  r  ,. 


.f.-‘ .  ti'qu  i"'.^ 


l/i 


t  '8.:^':  ■  -^5  yi 


:fdr 


■'  J  V. 


The  strugc^le  was,  practically  speaking,  limited  to  religious  matters, 
for  religion  was  the  burning  question  of  the  day.  Insofar  as 
Ukraine  and  Poland  were  concerned,  however,  the  solution  of  the 
religious  problem  was  backed  up  by  political  motives.  The  efforts 
of  the  Ukrainian  clergy  and  writers  were  therefore  exerted  both 
for  the  protection  of  their  traditional  church  and  for  the  preserva¬ 
tion  of  their  nationality. 

In  view  of  the  rather  stormy  period,  and  in  view  of  the  fact 
that  the  schools  produced,  many  learned  men  ,  a  great  number  betook 
theaselves  to  writing  and  defending  the  ideals  which  they  favored. 

Of  these  writers  only  a  few  of  the  more  prominent  ones  can  here 
be  considered. 

Herasim  Smotritsky. 

Smotritsky’s  fame  as  a  writer  of  learning  and  wisdom  was  so 
wide  than  Prince  Ostrozky  selected  him  for  the  task  of  editing  the 
Bible.  It  is  as  yet  unknown  as  to  where  he  acquired  his  learning. 

He  himself  says  that  he  got  his  knowledge  by  erudition  and  that  he 
has  never  been  to  school.  Nevertheless,  he  is  considered  to  have 
been  highly  educated,  and  a  Polish  historian  states  that  he  was  well 

I 

versed  in  Greek,  Latin,  and  Ecclesiastic-Slavonic  languages, 

Smotritsky  was  a  strong  adherent  of  the  Orthodox  Church  and 
he  used  his  wisdom  to  argue  with  great  skill  against  the  acceptance 
of  the  Catholic  Faith  by  the  people.  It  is  said  that  through  his 
writings  against  the  apostates  and  the  heretics  he  materially 
assisted  the  cause  of  Orthodoxy,  An  important  work  of  his 

i 


-190- 


y  vrt  .‘,>;;V*'''^'}V.yr,'’'^h^‘d '  '''■ 


■  ,■  ,' '  •'  'V’  '>  ■'■  '  v  V *J  *TC.''*i 

-‘  ^  r  VO  '-'Tv-w-  i‘ i ■ ' ‘ -  i-frt  1  fc- 'iij.'- . 

'"''  s^' 


v.  T  5': 

.  _  *  -.’r*  i  '  ‘  *  - 


’l-=j  J  0  fttU  ‘i' '  ■-  ■-  '  ^' 

■;  Vo  •'A'.  ’i 

,  „  'z}‘Sia{^  'I'v  «ci.cr 


I  A  <  '  *  '  ww 


•i  -.  ';c  .'.'/iJffi:  O"  '  C'  "''O-dV  Oa 

'  . .'  'i  V'^eoi.'-  C'"^  ^6’' 

■  r*:  •■  ®  ' 

'  -in^rinv^  r:  <,■■  ’'^:.-c9:a<.W■ 

“>:.  ’’C  -^e'l  i’  ^:-li:0  Vi'U’  ’"C 

•  ^  *"■  -IfV  •  ■' :  •''  vO 


>* 


■  V w  •'  i  -^cnif'-r..  iT £ fc.'.-  ■; H 


Vi^ 


75^  * 


+  .C  ;'..*TM 


-■t'. 


•* ;>♦? :Vb 0  j  on i '.  7  '’; ■'.  -■^ w^,-. 


; 


Gi’H  J  , 


•', :/  :r  ■'.  a.-r  ^  ■ ' 

•,-  rsv:;/  fiV:#5 

o.^iioa  04^  :.iyoQ  i-'.'Vor  e/jii  ' 


•‘-■si 

ll  »  '■/.  %  'fc 


••  ’-t'' 

yij 

7: 


*  / '  ‘  AIL  ^ 


ii.* 

"•.»  *J.W" 

.  niU: 


i3  a  took  dadioatod  to  Alaxandar  Oatrozky.  In  the  very  beginning 
of  the  book  the  author  addressee  Prince  Ostrozky  as  a  descendant 
of  St.  Volodimir  (Prince  Volodimir).  And.  seein.  in  him  one  of  the 
greatest  strongholds  of  the  Orthodox  Church,  he  warns  him  lost  he 
should  waver  in  his  beliefs,  "it  behooves  the  Prince  to  consider 
his  position  and  youth",  he  says,  "during  which  not  only  to  waste 
one  day,  but  even  one  hour  is  a  serious  loss".  He  calls  his  atten¬ 
tion  to  the  urgent  necessity  of  youth  to  work  on  spiritual  self-im-  ' 
provement  and  that  to  waver  in  religious  belief  is  the  most  fatal 
catastrophe  that  can  befall  a  man. 

In  another  of  his  writings,  entitled  "The  Key  to  the  Kingdom 
oj.  Heaven',  Smotritsky  cites  passanges  from  the  Bible  and  con¬ 
vincingly  shows  the  superior  principles  of  the  traditional  ehurch 
to  that  under  the  monarchrical  authority  of  the  Pope.  ' 

The  author,  in  a  separate  article  contained  in  a  book  edited  l' 
in  1587,  takes  a  definite  stand  in  opposing  the  adoption  of  the  new,  | 
i.e. ,  the  Homan  Catholic  or  Gregorian  Calendar.  "The  result  of  I 

this'-  ,  says  ha,  "is  great  confusion  not  only  in  church  life,  but 
also  in  all  social,  and  other  matters,  and  the  cause  of  many  unneoessaryf 
difficulties  and  losses."  He  begins  in  a  very  simple  but  effective 
mannar ; 

"A  poor  man  who  by  the  toil  of  his  hands  and  the  sweat  of 
his  brow  gainedhis  daily  bread,  and  out  of  this  toil  and  this  sweat  I 
had  to  give  to  his  overlord  ,  and  to  satisfy  him  as  he  was  conananded, 
was  accustomed  to  give  to  God  his  portion  and  to  the  lord  his  portion. ’ 
Whereas  now  the  same  can  never  by  any  means  be  accomplished.  Now  | 


-191- 


the  l:>rd  orders  him  to  work  on  holy  days  which  were  set  apart  for 
the  praise  of  the  Lord.  He  fears  God,  and  he  is  also  scared  of  the 
Pan  (lord)  ;  he  is  constrained  to  neglect  the  greater  and  to  serve 
the  smaller,  i^'or  ho  is  told  that  the  former  is  ever  patient  and 
ever  sympathetic,  while  he  knows  that  the  latter  lacks  patience  and 
that  his  sympathies  are  small.  The  holiday  of  the  Pan  will  also 
arrive,  a  poor  man  would  gladly  work  that  day  to  alleviate  his 
poverty,  hut  is  afraid  of  the  Pan  and  dares  not  do  so.  And  some¬ 
times  amidst  all  these  trlhulatlons  he  often  not  only  does  not 
remember  the  new  holiday  of  the  Pan,  but  also  forgets  his  omi 
old  one,  in  which  case  he  does  injustice  both  to  the  Pan  and  to 
God,  and  with  regard  to  himself,  he  is  seldom  or  never  unjust. 
Misery  gnaws  his  flesh  externally,  while  his  conscience  stings 
him  from  within.  Whatever  cannot  be  adjusted  in  the  regular  way, 
he  is  obliged  to  settle  by  murmuring,  sighing,  and  with  tears, 
and  thus  soothe  his  woe.  So  that  one  cannot  say  as  to  whether  he 
oftentimes  does  not  in  this  plight  of  his  curse  the  man  who  ef¬ 
fected  the  alteration  of  the  Calendar”. 

Most  of  Smotritsky's  other  writings  were  also  articles  of 
criticism  in  respect  of  Catholicism,  some  of  which  were  straight¬ 
forward  arguments,  while  others  overflowed  with  irony  and.  apt  re¬ 
marks  whereby  the  ceremonies  and  the  customs  of  the  New  Church 
were  very  dexterously  ridiculed,  the  purpose  being  to  turn  the 
admirers  of  the  ritual  thereof  away  from  it  and  to  get  those  who 
had  already  joined  the  Church  to  reno\mce  their  adherence  to  it. 


-192- 


A.-*- ,\o  •''.cir 


}■ 


t  ,1  I  lO 

•.•  i  /Til.  :  '1^ 


■lT';r  a 


•  '  ^  .  -at  •  Xr  '  .:a 

■'.  ■  •/%•  -i-fi  iurfi  '  .  'r:  ^^^^^  , 


a  u-st  «/Ta 


ri 


f^a/i 


•r'  ,  .-jav.  ^-T-* '121 

a  -^■■■'  -JXT.ftil  . 


.  , ';^v  'T'JJR 


f 


'Xr?c  ''Or  '  •■' fi.*}  ■•;«.•  a 'i  •'  Xlfj  .tfjBia-jft  c*'v.  iX»'- 

■  '  •  r-c-Xji  ^  iai  1(3  idr-XX:./  :-  '  'T/yff' ii"rfa0<i.t»'' 


*  * 


rti'.’-f  O.t- .-ac..  v/.) .f A  i'  -■•".o''  riP^O'' *^0  l^.lo  . 


■■-  V'JfV.KL 


-V'^.-"’  "'f''  ii;of. /*•'■ 

•j':'  '  :  ' -‘  t  ,  ..  .eXrf  ^ 

ht>  '  '  -j-  ..'-^r  t^o- 

•:.*  1-*  ^  i  ^  vr;  :•:»>“* T-tr'-;  ■  ■  '’  •;-.  f  •  l  J  f 

'V*t  »■’!  ■'>  '^'.-  .'■  ’  ‘  -  T  'ri  T*«'‘ ■f’c  r  c 

'-ijirr  un  .,  5*tv;;  'j'  !  "  ;!•  :  1’.)  tii  '■  *'ii  <tp^T  '  ’ 

.►i  Crf»C)  ,^4f  j  Xo  ifCi■^:.  b.'fJ 

•  '.  cl-  <■'  .'f  •:Oi  J(, 

••  ■' '  ,'  ■  ‘:v'  ,  •  .  a  fci' 

'  fi^’f.ojL’r-'  'c  '  , 

•  *:♦>  n(TJ-'i..o  ?ni,  c  ■,  /'X  -.ceiorfw  r :.*• 

. ft  <  ■  '"3if5.h.  ’‘J<su'^'.:< 

.  ■■  '•.  — 


•'■'■  Ac-  -'PC '4,^  .  ' 

> 

*:  ;•  .'  ;n  -:  r*  /  /  t  j  o  /  X 1  t  o 


IJl 


./I  , 


Ivan  Vishensky. 


Vlshensky  wVio  became  famous  for  his  epistles  was  born  at 


Sudova  Vishnia  in  Cralicia,  He  led  a  monk’s  life  for  soma  time 


on  Mount  At on.  Ha  was  the  author  of  about  twenty  different  works. 
Throughout  his  writings  one  can  see  an  ardent  love  for  his  country 
and  a  strong  desire  that  the  Ukrainians  worship  with  sincerity, 
for  it  is  only  herein  that  the  author  sees  an  assurance  of  real 
happiness  on  earth  and  beyond  the  grave. 

One  of  the  first  of  Vishensky’ s  works  is  a  book  dealing 
with  what  he  calls  the  Latin  temptations.  The  author  replies  to 
a  question  as  to  wha.t  is  temptation  and  the  wisdom  of  a  viser  and 
refutes  the  dogmas  of  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  with  regard  to  the 
origin  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  the  superiority  of  this  Church,  the 
sovereignty  of  the  Pop©  and  Purgatory.  The  part  of  his  criticism 
which  has  reference  to  the  new  Calendar  is  a  striking  denunciation 
of  the  methods  of  the  Roman  Church  in  persecuting  the  Orthodox  ' 

Ukrainians  and  enforcing  them  to  conform  to  the  orders  of  the  Pope. 

In  a  positive  manner  he  ©numerates  all  the  atrocities  that  the 
Roman  Catholic  Clergy  "may  commit"  ,  as  he  says^on  the  helpless 
inhabitants  and  then  go  to  Purgatory  and  be  cleansed  of  all  sins*  ^ 

Vishensky’ s  opinion  with  regard  to  Purgatory  is  therefore 
quite  evident.  As  a  moralist  he  sees  in  Purgatory  a  cloak  wherein  i 
lies  hidden  the  Justification  of  the  Pop©  and  his  clergy  to  abuse 
all  the  principles  of  Christian  religion.  He  therefore  severely 
condemns  it,  for  he  is  very  humane;  he  sympathizes  with  the  masses 
and  tries  by  his  work  to  alleviate  their  afflictions.  It  is  ,■ 


-193- 


■  '  ‘ ^  K  !'  I  '■  ■  .' 

•7v.v 

0-  :  '  ..  •  ■'  .  , 

,  .'  ffi,  '  'f.  .■  V  /»V-'  '  i  Z 


'V  '.'  •  -■'’  .  /'  ^..',1  f:Q,^ 


■  ■-  ■..vf-; 

c  £!;k:^v.;ow  v 

•,*’.  V ' :  i  '^'iit.;.t  C.-’T,:  .it  '.i  TIO’X^'*  -  i  '  ii 

'#**■»* 

1 '•'  ‘’v’ •''^'  'i/irf.-h  r  1 ':;':fv'!'  "'j.xjt;  oi.  ’ro*' 

-^.:M 

.  _- -'3  <*’,1:^  0 5*  15^ 

r  i  .  w*. 

V  '^0  »]■'<.<•  ’itt  Ui: 

^ 

‘1  ' 

< 

& 

(  ■  or  ; 

.•’,.(  .:!i>^jrrwt*  '.:  5  ’•.  ’  •'  )  !ii  ijuiv”  f^  +  irr- 

'ii  brut  rrcic'ECij'p  '« 

,  .'•;  ■  •■  ■•■ 

:  .•  t  )i  'iO. , cs^'^Lrl.v: 

.  ‘  ^  ■‘■'rcri-r'  f-''"  '  'lO  (?*;’=»’ .'iv 

►It  .  i  r'i-;-  .  n.J- ,.  •  4' •; 

J  X'tJ<  »  'i  ■•■'>'  dj-?.-  .  .tlj' 

*■'  * '  ■ 

.'  .  ’  i  ■  ■•  -'.Kj  fli  •'  •  :  ' :  tu  .'^  'U'  '.^i.  ■  .  C.”  '•1'^''  rfC- 


'.Vf’.'/CT  \/:\ 


?  -i.'J  ''■<  .”';o  oa  *i^r*n 

.j  ’: :  '■  ’  li)  j!  ■  :i:  ji 

-  v'--.  :ap*f-0^  V  ■ 

*.  .  -  ■  ;'--r  .r;-'- -K-ji'l  'iC  fo*  .  -4,-t  j  j  ?  j.  ■£•  t 

t-i  .;  t.*'  *  .  i  f  *  'It  '-f 

■  !■  *  ,  J .  i’:  ■'  *!o  9*,.'  _-  ~.i"7: 

‘  \  ^  ,  4  >•  •  ?  ^f’  ‘I 


because  of  this  spirit  in  his  work  that  he  is  considered  to  have 
been  the  greatest  moralist  in  Ukrainian  literature  before  Skovorada 
and  Shevchenko,  with  whom  we  shall  deal  later. 

Another  of  Vishensky's  writings  is  also  a  moral  work.  He 
purposely  copies  the  example  in  the  Bible  where  Christ  on  the 
Mount  is  being  tempted  by  Satan.  But  in  the  place  where  Christ 
stood  some  fifteen  hundred  years  before,  now  stands  an  ascetic. 

Upon  being  asked  a  question  by  the  ascetic,  the  demon  commences 
a  lengthy  dialogue.  He  e-cplains  in  the  beginning  that  though 
ostensibly  there  are  many  Christians,  yet  the  ma.iority  of  them 
are  after  the  riches  and  pleasures  of  the  world,  and  so  they  con¬ 
tinue  to  worship  him.  He  has  Satan  say  that  immediately  after  the 
ascension  of  Christ  into  Heaven  there  weee  a  considerable  number 
of  people  who  were  kindled  with  the  love  of  Christ,  and  so  Christ 
scored  a  victory  over  the  Kingdom  of  Satan,  but  this  victory  was 
only  temporary.  Then  Satan  enumerates  all  the  positions  and 
prestiges  which  he  is  ready  and  willing  to  offer  to  the  ascetic 
if  he  would  only  bow  dovm  before  him  and  agree  to  worship  him* 

In  reply  to  all  these  temptations  the  ascetic  resolutely  chases 
Satan  away  from  him  and  thereby  prevents  him  from  tempting  him 
further. 

In  his  "Epistle’*  to  all  the  inhabitants  of  the  land,  written 
before  the  year  1596,  Vishensky  shows  perhaps  a  more  vivid  picture 
than  in  any  oth«r  of  his  writings  of  the  lamentably  little  atten¬ 
tion  the  people  paid  to  religion,  and  of  a  hopelessly  low  moral 


-i94- 


'  .7'  *  ■ 

»*;• 

ic/: 

?f  *  •  - 


> 


i 


’-  s..*.*,v--  »  V  " '^c‘‘  '^q:  <»’V  •  ',  .•r^' 

■  •  ■  n  ‘  '  ■  ; '  ' 

i '.  f  '  .  ;.  ^•;!.:.?l|^^^^- 3^’ '  rr 

.  *:■  I '  »».'(>  a  ^  ^fivq-ac  :  nX' 

f  t-  ’  ■  •  '■  ■•’  ^  .  ':.c  ’tc  ■  ',.  ■■■ 

^r:  [  -  T:  f I Q fi  ,^ ^  0  ^  •  PC  q  1  {j>  ■' 


.'-  Jii/  »  71 


"a 

.it.:  ^hcOe  •.tor'.f  3 


ni‘<-ci'  fTpiJt 


i*i> :iir’ ■  jyf</  tf'  •  _  *•  ir'J.'o  ■*>’  •"■•.-  ;r"r  4 


'  .’  "  :?ff  > 


.a'  ;:.  ' -T  .  '  . 

'  ’  ^^.^X  ‘"i  .'1  ,  .* 

''  -  ■  'n  ; .  ^  ■  .  ^  .. 

■■  •,  ■•"  f; >,:''■  *  .  -xf  ’  •*  ■ '-'o*?'  ir  J 

".:  ^'.^  ■  rj  '0  ;'K:.ifi':  eocrs 


•■ -T  v;’.'  v  0^;  - ‘•i;:;- 


C'  xl 


"•'w  ’Jt'VO  .  • 

<1  •  ''.-•j-,  '■•'.'J'..-  r-fW,'  ,  . 

■:’.t  t  ..;■.  '  .-  ei1‘ r  •! '  ; 

■>  ■  <'  '<  *r /:  L-»fi ..  ;■  i.  f>',.  ■'  >0  ii-ci'  v.'c-tf  ’'iri^vR-X.  :  ? 


I 


:  i 


O' 


tflcci^  >/>  ’U!  •  r  ^  o  X  X .»  o  V  \:  r .  T 


I  , 


c  v-r.r£ 


V."r; 


*  ,.••:-<<  X  .u  -  >  ji-  ■  : 

'•7  <rwt4t  — -  *'■  ^  r. .:  ffX.-  — 

?  '1  .  ■  r*'  .  ••'.'c  '■'  <.  rf.; 


Sr  ;  ' 


standard  to  which  the  people  deteriorated  in  the  whole  of  the 
territory  then  under  the  sovereigntyof  Poland.  He  is  horrified 
at  the  existing  conditions  and  denounces  more  forcibly  than  else¬ 
where  the  slighting  by  the  people  of  Christ’s  teachings  and  in 
breaking  His  Commandments .  He  begins  thus: 

"l  say  unto  y'ou,  that  the  earth  whereon  you  trod  and  vrhere 
you  were  born  for  this  life,  and  where  you  live  to-day,  complains 
against  you  lamenting  before  God;  it  groans  and  asks  the  Maker 
to  send  a  sickle  of  death,  a  sickle  of  penal  destruction,  as  He 
had  once  sent  on  Sodom,  and  a  flood  which  would  destroy  and 
eradicate  you  (so  that  jjou  would  stop  soiling  it  with  Satan* s 
ungodly  infidelity  and  with  your  filthy  paganized  lives),  rather 
than  it  remain  vacant  but  pure,  than  be  settled  by  you  Infidels 
and  be  soiled  and  devastated  by  your  evil  deeds,  and  be  de¬ 
prived  of  the  Grace  of  God  on  high,  the  Maker  of  Heaven  and  Earth..” 

The  author  then  curs  es  all  the  feigned  Christians  and  the 
heretics,  and  in  despair  calls  upon  the  clergy  and  all  the  people 
to  repent#  He  hopes  that  if  all  do  not,  at  least  the  Orthodox 
Christians  v^ould  lend  him  their  ear  and  fulfill  his  admonitions 
and  become  saved# 

Two  other  important  epistles  of  Vishensky  were  one  to  Prince 
Ostrozky  and  all  the  Orthodox  Christians,  and  another  to  the 
Bishops.  In  the  latter  he  again  in  his  original  way  takes  the 
Bishops  to  task.  He  directly  asks  them  to  prove  to  him  that  they 
who  professed  to  be  working  for  harmony  amongst  the  people,  them¬ 
selves  fulfilled  the  six  Commandments,  namely;  to  feed  those  who 


-195- 


hunger,  to  give  water  to  those  who  thirst,  to  shelter  thosee  who 
travel,  to  clothe  those  v^ho  are  naked,  to  minister  to  those  who 
suffer,  and  to  visit  those  who  are  in  prison.  Having  conclusive¬ 
ly  proven  that  the  Bishops  are  wholly  incompetent  to  hold  offi¬ 
ces  as  dignitaries  of  the  Chiirch  and  to  lead  the  people,  he  calls 
their  attention  to  the  fact  that  if  they -continue  to  meddle  with 
religious  affairs  without  first  reforming  themselves,  the'^^  would 
be  bringing  upon  themselves  the  curse  of  the  Lord.  He  urgently 
appeals  to  them  to  save  their  souls,  for,  the  punishment  is  co¬ 
ming  which  is  so  appalling  that,  ’’they  would  all  flee  naked  and 
without  taking  time  to  put  their  dress  on  at  the  sight  of  it’*. 
According  to  Franko,  the  Epistle  just  considered  is  from 
the  literary  point  of  view  avery  important  work.  He  says; 

•»«  Never  up  to  that  time  did  the  mighty  of  this  world,  the 
secular  or  the  spiritual  hear  from  an  ordinary  Ukrainian  such 
lofty,  rwsolute  and  tremendously  strong  words*  Theysavor,  though 
the  author  himself  is  not  yet  conscious  of  it,  that  fresh,  new 
spirit  of  emancipation  of  the  thought  of  the  individual  from 
the  fetters  of  almighty  traditions,  which  on©  hundred  years  be¬ 
fore  burst  out  in  Germany  like  a  thunder  In  Hutten’^s  battle  cry 
”  Ich  hab's  gewagt’*,  (  I  have  dared  to  do  this  )!  And  here  one 
had  to  have  a  great  deal  of  moral  courage  to  thrust  straight  into 
the  eyes  of  the  mighty  prelates  and  the  whole  of  the  Polish  ruling 
system  such  a  fiery  Epistle.  Be  it  that  from  the  point  of  view 
of  theological  argumentation,  it  does  not  present  to  us  anything 
new,  and  that  from  the  point  of  view  of  practical  politics  it  is 


-196- 


in  places  even  artless,  — —  herein  is  not  its  power >  it  is  not 
herein  that  its  permanent  literary  and  historical  Importance  is 
contained,  but  in  that  lofty  elevation  of  the  moral  force,  v-’ith 
which  vibrates  every  word,  in  that  fervid,  cordial  blood  of  the 
author  and  of  the  whole  of  the  Ukrainian  nation,  which  blood  co¬ 
agulated  in  every  line  of  this  work".  > 

Vishensky  continued  to  write  epistles  with  remarkable 
skill.  They  were  all  overflowing  with  his  great  personality, 
his  sincerity  and  his  ardent  desire  for  a  moral  uplift  of  his 
people.  Besides  the  epistles  he  produced  other  works  on  reli¬ 
gious  and  educational  questions.  Some  of  them  were  more  or  less 
of  a  polemic  mature,  as  for  example  his  reply  to  Skarga  to  his  ^ 

book  on  the  government  and  the  unity  of  the  Church  under  one  shep¬ 
herd.  But,  he  is  not  really  classed  as  one  of  the  polemic 

writers  of  the  period,  for  he  has  such  strong  and  unwavering  faith  ' 

in  the  Word  of  God,  upon  which  he  builds  his  convictions,  that  ' 

'j 

he  stands  independent  and  without  a  rival  or  opponent.  It  must  ^ 

be  admitted,  however,  that  after  his  journey  through  Ukraine,  during 
which  he  visited  Lviv  in  1G05,  his  writings  appear  to  be  much  weaker  ^ 
than  those  published  formerly.  One  cause  of  this  was  probably  ^ 
his  age,  while  the  other,  a  more  important  one,  was  the  disap-  '] 

pointment  with  which  he  met  in  the  different  parts  v/hich  he  visited.  1 

Until  this  time  he  knevr  of  the  corruption  of  the  clergy  and  the  | 

shortcomings  of  the  people  in  general  in  matters  of  religion.  The 
knowledge  of  this  gave  him  a  fiery  zeal  to  minister  unto  them  and 


-197- 


to  reform  them.  But,  when  he  peraonally  met  some  of  his  opponents 
and  became  convinced  that  a  geeat  number  of  his  countrymen  held 
divergent  viewd  to  his,  and  that  there  was  little  hope  for  a 
mutual  endeavor  to  fight  for  the  same  cause,  he  became  somewhat 
discouraged.  At  the  same  time  he  was  invincible  and  was  far  from 
departing  from  his  inviolable  purpose.  In  one  of  his  later  epistles, 
namely,  that  to  the  Stavropegian  Fraternity,  he  gave  them  paternal 
admonitions  to  stay  with  Orthodoxy,  that  they  should  not  be  lured 
by  the  wisdom  of  the  Catholics,  and  that  for  the  time  being,  they 
rather  remain  in  ignorance,  holding  out  with  their  traditional  Faith, 
which  was  the  only  true  religion,  and  which  would  eventually  bring 
them  to  light. 

One  can  hardly  leave  out  of  consideration  a  valuable  work 
of  Vishensky^  entitled  ’•Perestoroha”  (a  warning).  This  is  a  compo¬ 
site  work  and  contains  brilliarat  thoughts  in  connection  with  edu¬ 
cation  both  secular  and  spiritual.  He  urges  that  schools  be  built 
for  the  purpose  of  educating  the  youth ,  which  he  hopes  will  raise 
the  status  of  the  Orthodox  Churchy  and  which  will  sponsor  the  move¬ 
ment  for  a  renaissance  of  Ukrainian  laationhood.  The  fact  that  he 
sqw  the  value  of  education  for  raising  Ukraine  from  its  decline 
is  evident  in  his  reference  in  ’’Perestoroha”  to  history  and  traditions. 
"Every  one  of  you.  Orthodox  Christians,!”  he  says,  "ought  to  ktiovr  where 
from  CViristian  religion  came  into  cur  land;  otherwise  you  will  only 
know  that  Ukraine  sxcepted  the  Christian  Faith  from  Gr96ce( about 
twenty-five  years  before  the  Pol€»s  got  their  Roman  religion  from 


\-i4 


*«.-•  '  C'. 

Tfr- ■•  HYii 

.iT;t:.\0/'*v:'-iiii''V.'' 

'■.-V 


c 


.  - 


••  '  .  ,'J.^y-  ■  ■  vv,’:^- 


^  .....  .t.  .  ■  -f  ...'i^Xoiv!;!  ■ 


(O  •s*^  ;■  iv.C  AL:  r> '> 


'  i  ;■<  ■vv  J  A*  7  \  '  ?.0  i-  '^’  o’'iv 


•<,l^i  ■■ 


^  ’  hoi<<f ’50:  rf.t .^Tr',\jat.3  ..o^ .. ^noi  .  i'^caibJi 

.  ' '  -  '  -  ■ 

;  .  'ir  oMr  '.cf  ’0, 


n^po'i 


.ro-*  ■^■>;v^v.tfI^  ,‘c.>-i:X4,  j  -.’li  ;.;-■  a- tjK 

.  ■'  '  ,  Jr^i  i  ■  '-.o^ 


0«*'  I, 


r 


•:;■  ■'  'I'  ^f 

X  r  ■  ,  ■:■  ■  •:.;-r. ■■  'iiV  »vjanl  .'.^-rtOX^, . 

.  ^  /;.f.  .:I-:f’i:Xr.  ^  : '• . -^  t  'r;. 

•  -i  •  ^ ■•  UiTf  ..-I':,'-  '{':crr 

'  f  .  'Mi't/  •sAii:o>n!  njod 

'  '  '  '  \ 

Z-  c  t  i;0'-  ■■  ■>3'  '/.>'q  ’iu  i  • 

.  •  -vr  ,?r»r-t>^-'-  ,  :^y'".^^'{0  ’^c.'fvrvr.t-?C’  ^<-’  aifi  . 


.1 '  /u 


A-  ^  * 

^:-J'  ^ 


.i'-v'  ■; 


0  ^  ..  ,(■  <~<  ^  M  .  /  _ 

t  '  -  ■  IS  ,  .  . 

;  .■:  -J  bv'fl  -t  -Jn  of ,  ,u  vhvvol-;- 


no*’:': 

rl.j  cf;»r(.^  '.~.[rj 

,  ,  ■  .  /  ■  .  -..V  •-, 


the  Germans),'*  He  then  rehearser  the  gradual  decline  in  Ukrainian 
cultural  life  owing  to  the  selfishness  and  materialism  of  the  priests, 
and  how  this  could  not  be  remedied  by  the  common  people  because 
of  their  lack  of  education.  In  this  respect  the  author,  being 
cognizant  of  the  past  and  looking  forward  to  the  future,  was  in  a 
sense  an  initiator  of  future  progress. 

Since  Ostrosky  was  at  the  time  a  great  national  figure, 

I 

Vishensky’  held  him  in  very  high  esteem.  He,  therefore,  gave  him 
a  prominent  place  in  his  "Perestoroha",  Wishing  to  shovr  how  the 
Christians  were  being  persecuted,  he  quotes  Ostrozky,  who  says, 
in  part,  the  following  to  the  Polish  King:  ’*And  your  kingship, 
seeing  the  abuses  to  which  we  are  subjected  and  the  interference  j 
with  our  rights,  do  not™  heed  your  oath,  whereby  you  bound  yourself 
not  to  violate  our  rights,  but  to  augment  and  to  extend  them.'* 

i 

The  author  continues  with  severe  reproaches  of  the  government,  and  ^ 

\ 

predicts  great  confusion  in  the  State  unless  the  king  changes  v 

y 

his  tactics  with  regard  to  the  treatment  of  the  Orthodox  Christians.  | 

i 

His  prophecy  came  true,  for  it  was  not  very  many  decades  before  . 

* 

Poland  reaped  the  fruits  of  its  mistakes  and  lost  its  status 
as  a  sovereign  State, 

As  to  the  style  of  Vishensky,  it  is  so  rich  and  beautiful 
that  there  is  no  doubt  that  in  the  whole  of  Ukrainian  literature 

' 

up  to  Kotlia,revsky  the  only  other  writer  who  rivals  him  in  pl8.sti-  1 
city  and  individual  expression  is  the  author  of  the  '*Slovo'’.  As  a 
to  his  charaeteristics  as  a  writer,  we  have  already  seen  that  he  II 


-199» 


.  \  o 


\rt! 


•  C  ‘ 


'  ^o./  ,  ’\t\for:>  ei'-'  'f-  iV  ■  .j  ?• 

.  '  .  :Ci  'M’Ulh*  :-0  UO^.f  'K’ 

•.o':,  .'  „'i'  <'•-  '’  .,,•■■  .tV’-*?  :-^'f  'it*  jrr.i?'- .r  •  ,.  ' 

.  '  A  ic  T.t  n-p,  ’i 

:?•;:•  ,r>  %  A  r.0'^4■ii0r 

r:  f'.v/r:  v-Xi^jV'  ti  *;i.:  .'...Lt^Xt;  VsIafK'.i'Ci 


r  ... 


t-  » . -:o  .'j  p 


C.  ^  '■■f-i  C.' Ijiff 

'{f^  *t.  T  . 


:r  •.  ::'t  ■',  acf-  ^;;:f '.X-i'lcV  Si  ,  :<  fiX 

/■'  .  -"r’J  :■•  * 

;  •■  *  ,  P': .  x*'  i  ■ ; 

)«*'  ■  )  i*v- H •' fiir  oi  JS  f  ’  ]■  i.'l^nsi'i 


I-  ■  '  -  ■•  '  r.  tVC^  •-. 1 : 1,  A’ 

'  v’'  » c  l  jc:- 


•ir-:7&*  ^jct.rrl.'twiCJv'  ".c;fr  . 


'r  .  ■  . .  r.- 


Mu  ^7x  f.  ^'.  Inob'' c.  .;  '‘'Vi! 

«.  ■'•  •■•■::^  .*»:i‘.  Ck*  ’  "•:  '^X*.  :X- 

'■  ‘  X"-  •’  ■■'••  ■^'’  '  ■-  .  r'j-  ■}  v,,no  •i.,  •■  ••;.  -Tih 

-  ’  ■  :^  X  '  '  '  >  ' 

.  ^'v^.  iL  f:,  .h'^'l^jcor.  ;; 

^‘-s  -  :  ,'•.  lio  -f’  ■  an  . 

..Jf  ho‘i  ,y-  .•  '  =•  jr'A^r'L  os:  •  i- •  9Tsdf  JxjxW 

-  r  O'  O.:-.-  •  ‘  j 


.  c 


X-' 


.  /•’’jAiiXfc.H  0  '  f  ;y: 

•  ■▼mi 

■XviDrri  ,htiA  *i  v\ 


0-1 


/  i  ■  ^  7/ 


shows  a  very  strong  feeling,  a  lively  imagination  and  an  eager 
concern  for  the  cause  he  supports.  He  is  very  hiunane  and  full 
of  sympathies,  but  he  is  at  the  same  time  strict.  Hoivever ,  if 
he  was  ever  too  severe  in  his  criticisms,  be  always  did  it  with 
sincerity.  Vishensky  is  very  poetic,  which  characteristic  adds 
much  to  the  beauty  of  his  writings.  He  has  a  strong  poetic  ima¬ 
gination,  and  is  wont  to  think  in  pictures  rather  than  use  abs¬ 
tract  ideas  for  reaching  the  same  purpose.  He  is  also  artful  to 
a  high  degree.  Besides  this,  his  writings  are  characterized  as 
containing  a  great  deal  of  dramatic  quality^  and  his  language  is 
lively,  energetic  and  simple.  It  flows  easily  and  clearly  like 
a  quiet  rivulet.  He  selects  his  words  from  whatever  source  he  can,  so 
long  as  they  serve  his  purpose. 

As  a  literary  personage,  Vishensky  has  no  equal  in  the 
Middle  Period  in  Ularalnian  literature  ,  He  is  a  distinguished 
representative  of  Ukrainian  renaissance.  He  is  the  great  defender 
of  the  conservative  old  Faith  amongst  the  IHcrainians,  but  his  own 
conservatism  savors  of  new  ideas,  as  his  seen  from  his  policy 
regarding  education.  Vishensky  is  whole-heartedly  with  the  op¬ 
pressed"-  masses.  He  endeavored  to  show  them  the  means  of  liberating 
themselves  here  through  education,  and  in  the  hereafter,  through 
sjjrong  faith,  in  Orthodoxy.  This  is  evident  throughout  his  Epistles 
and  other  writings,  where  he  invents  many  new  forms  to  effect  his 
purpose.  And,  it  is  because  of  this  that  he  is  regarded  as  a 
master  of  his  art  and  wonderfully  original  throughout  his  works. 


-200- 


,  f 


,<  5.1  o.-f  Si 


T  ..  •  !•  •'.*  ’  **» 

<:  'ikYl  r.h"v'}<rN.  f  ^ 

?4.Vinirjv:f.  'xci . 


•.  .  ■•■)  cr.'t  ;'i  ri  1.'^^  OO'I  ':•:  VC  ••“.'iV  ': ''i 

< 

'  '■  '^"V  -^gs/cr'Di^  + 

c  •  ‘  i  '»  *  ■• 


>4:1 


,fc',. 


I'CC’i  Vilw  Ov 


'f. 


Jfl 


li  -  <fS  ^  no^r  '  r><.  '  *?6i -T  ^ '.:  ,  ■ 

&  '  r-  ,  .  t  •  •  ' 

'  -  *  -r  '  '  ,  ,  '  JL 

cdoj?€>%  .tet  ci'c-v  . 


,-*;A.rr^4-]p ':>j  ^  ‘tC 


/n 


V,- 

.  «f 


:.y’ 


.aj.  .hr 


4^. 


.'..,i.  ■-'.*•  ;i  ■:•' rl  ■ 


:*^iR 


. 

*;  .:,  ^  t; v‘i:  111^4*:  *sm8 

-  -  +  ,h  -/h  cr*’:'«'Vv  fli  - 

i  :  .-'T^  ■'  '. 

■  '  n^v  i V."  ey.t'/JV,T^  'I'  '  ••  r-;*  iC 


•xo  ;fl3i:  ^•■•/'K:P:'cl 

»•:  '• 


,.••  floq'/  . ''ic  ^  fi-o'i  ’>v  ^'CC‘ ..’'tA* 

d/  tr-'OW'!*’.  r.”  •  ■  •■"'■ 

^  ' /.'’kc •!  '■■  'li  <ltV,i 

,  •^,..  .  OiW'jC.n.-  t  I 

«••■  '  ■  :  fw  w.vtc-  ■> 


Kirrl o  Tr ankvillon  Stavrovet sky • 

This  writer  becomes  known  for  t?ie  first  time  in  1589, 
when  it  was  his  lot  to  defend  the  Stavropegian  Fraternity  before 
Patriarch  Yeremy,  As  a  punishment  for  this  defence.  Bishop 
Hedeon  Balaba.n  ordered  that  his  beard  be  cut  off.  'Whereupon  he 
was  called  “the  beardless”.  He  continued  active  in  his  work, 
however,  and  held  responsible  positions  in  the  Church.  About  the 
year  16^?6,  he  became  a  Uniate  and  remained  such  until  his  death 
in  1646. 

One  of  the  most  important  works  of  Stavrovetsky  was  his 
”Mirror  of  Theology”,  which  was  published  at  Pochaiv  in  1618,  and 
which  was  then  regarded  by  many  as  a  wise  philosophical  treatise. 
The  writer  was  really  the  au.thor  of  the  first  Ukrainian  Orthodox 
dogmatic  system,  which  he  divided  into  three  parts:  the  first ,con- 
oerining  God,  the  second,  concerning  the  world  in  its  four  phases; 
the  invisible  or  angelic  world,  the  visible,  that  is,  heaven  and 
earth,  the  latter  of  which  is  a  human  and  an  angry  world  of  evil 
where  Satan  reigns;  and  finally  the  world  of  future  life,  that  is. 
Paradise  and  Hell.  The  writer's  theory  is  that  the  visible  world 
is  made  up  of  four  different  elements,  namely,  fire,  air,  water 
and  earth.  Out  of  these  four  elements  are  made  all  the  things 
in  the  world;  out  of  fire;  the  sun,  moon,  stars  and  all  light; 
out  of  air;  the  breath  of  all  creatures,  animals,  fowl  and  man; 
out  of  water;  fish  and  fowl;  and  out  of  earth:  quadrupeds,  trees 
end  various  seeds.  He  then  reflects  on  the  relative  positions  of 


-201- 


the  different  elements  in  the  world  system  and  the  scheme  of 
the  Creator  in  arranging  them  thus.  He  particularly  empha¬ 
sizes  the  fact  that  two  elements,  namely,  water  and  fire,  are 
in  perpetual  discord,  and  that  is  why  the  Allwiso  Creator  out 
them  far  apart,  the  former  below,  and  the  latter  high  up,  with 
the  air  Ir  the  middle  as  a  partition  and  peacemaker  between 
the  tv;o.  The  author,  however,  betrays  his  ignorance  of  astro¬ 
nomy  when  he  states  that  God/^'itthe  waters  on  the  top  of  the 
heavens,  i,  e* ,  in  the  clouds,  so  as  to  prevent  the  heavens 
from  catching  fire  from  the  sun  and  the  countless  stars  shining 
from  below.  Then,  too,  he  says  that  the  waters  of  the  sea  are 
salty,  because  if  they  were  not  so,  remaining  in  one  place  fri>m 
the  beginning  of  the  world  would,  make  them  stagnant  and  they 
would  become  a  source  of  disease  and  epidemic  which  would  de¬ 
stroy  all  human  life.  The  author,  in  logical  sequence,  comes 
to  Man,  and  here  he  shows  some  knowledge  of  pyychilogy.  Accord¬ 
ing  to  him,  the  human  body  is  made  out  of  four  elements,  that 

is,  earth,  water,  air  and  fire.  In  this  God  implanted  an  im¬ 

mortal  soul.  Besides  this  are  the  Will,  Mind,  Virtue,  Thought, 
Reason  and  Dexterity;  Imagination,  Deliberation,  Joy  arid  Love, 
The  dogmatics  of  Stavrovetskjr  were  too  far-fetched  for  the 
age,  anditbook  little  time  before  he  realized  it.  A  great  number 
of  the  Ukrainian  clergy  disagreed  with  him.  They  thought  he  went 
too  far,  that  some  of  his  theories  were  not  Orthodox,  and,  they 
went  30  far  in  their  criticism  as  to  accuse  him  of  heresy.  It  was 


-202- 


this  discouragement  that  later  drove  him  to  join  the  Roman  Catholic 
Church.  When  in  1619  he  attempted  to  carry  on  his  work  hy  pub¬ 
lishing  a  collection  of  109  sermons  for  Sundays  and  varfous  holi¬ 
days,  he  was  met  with  severe  criticism  and  contempt t.  But  he  would 
not  give  up.  Commenting  on  his  persecution  he  says,  ”When  the 
devil,  who  despises  what  is  good,  became  greatly  enraged  at  me, 
seeing  that  I  prepared  for  him  a  poisoned  arrow,  he  opened  against 
me  a  fearful  war,  arraying  a  gigantic  army,  so  as  to  wholly  des¬ 
troy  the  fruits  of  my  work  in  bloody  sweats,  and  to  put  out  the 
light  of  such  a  bright  torch  of  knowledge  of  salvation  as  ”The 
Gospel  of  Christ”,  (i.  e.,  his  collections  of  sermons,  etc.), 
Gtavrovetsky  had  some  of  the  clergy  on  his  side.  This, 
coupled  with  his  firm  belief  in  his  theories,  helped  him  to  con¬ 
tinue  with  great  zeal  the  work  of  moral  reform.  His  sermons  are 
original,  and  he  shows  no  regard  for  the  opinions  of  others  with 
regard  thereto*  He  interpreted  the  Word  of  God  as  he  understood  ii 
and  appealed  to  the  moral  nature  of  the  people  to  follow  it,  and 
thereby  to  become  uplifted  morally. 

While  the  writers  just  considered  largely  dealt  construc¬ 
tively  with  the  questions  of  Faith,  and  with  the  dogmas  which 
they  favored,  they  could  hardly' avoid  incidentally  to  intermingle  ^ 
thiir  writings  with  matters  which  were  of  a  controversial  nature,  S 
The  conditions  were  such  that  ample  material  was  available  for 
polemic  writing.  The  Church  Union  had  created  a  gap  between  the 
Orthodox  adherents  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  Uniates  and  the 


-203- 


Ct 


vy  V  V  !  ■/  •  V'^- 

.  C-*  4-  .  .’  ■  O'i'  *>.--  •►*  .  ' 

c  '  c  ■  •  '  .  ’  i  '■ 

c  . .  -  o  C  O  ■  .  ' 


.  '  ■) 


C  "S  ^  •  ir.  0  J 


(,  Jc: 


r  .  c 


t  ■■  - 


'  cl' 


cX:' 


c  rgi  . 

'ic  -:rfCi*To  ;.:o 
.c  ■■• 


1 


c 


Mb 


r 


i 


RomanCatholics  on  the  other,  which  could  by  no  means  be  filled. 

Those  favoring  Eastern  culture  could  not  bear  their  old  tradi¬ 
tions  to  be  downtrodden  by  their  Western  rival,  while  the  Western¬ 
ers  persistently  endeavored  to  thrust  upon  them  Western  ideals  and 
to  convince  them  of  the  idea  that  the  Romish  Church  was  the  onby 
true  Church,  since,  according  to  them,  the  Pope,  who  is  the  head 
of  it,  is  the  direct  successor  of  St;  Peter.  i^Vom  the  point  of 
view  of  the  Orthodox  Ukrainians,  therefore,  they  wewe  opposing 
Roman  Catholicism,  firstly,  because  they  revered  theit*  traditional 
religion;  secondly,  because  of  the  brutal  methods  used  by  the  Poles 
in  their  propaganda  to  plant  the  Romish  Church  principles  in  the 
whole  country;  and,  thirdly,  because  the  propagators  of  the  church 
union  were  the  Poles  whom  the  Ukrainians  hated  together  with  their 
Catholicism,  owing  to  the  fact  that  Ukraine  was  then  in  their 
clutches  groaning  oppresed  nationally,  economically  and  politically. 
Naturally,  therefore,  with  such  state  of  affairs  a  compromise  was 
out  of  question,  and  there  is  no  wonder,  then,  that  so  many  men 
connected  with  the  Church  resorted  to  their  pen  in  the  fight.  Nor 
should  one  wonder  that  these  writers  often  went  into  extremes  in 
their  methods  of  argumentation  in  order  to  overcome  their  opponents, 
i  •  -  There  were  many  writers  who  engaged  in  these  polemics,  some 
of  whom  were  more  while  others  less  popular.  It  would  be  interesting 
to  examine  in  detail  their  con tent ions,. But  this  would  be  a  study  in 
itself.  Then,  too,  this  is^  in  my  opinion^ a  subject  of  more  importance 
for  church  history  than  for  literature  proper.  However,  it  will  prob- 


-?.04- 


<- 


.  -C 


^  C  •) 


c  .^  -  C 


„.C' 

c 


vi-'r 


) 


.1  ^ 

.  o  .  -  *•  •• 


c 


c  ^ 


G 


t, 


0 


.  in  '  » 


C-.  ^:o 


< 


G 


,t,  •  r  V <  .  ^  G  t 


3 


<.*•.-■  -w-:*'  ilo'mWTi  ff3  ■•  V  (  ’  •  ^vl 

r-*^c,v'ir  '  ■■  ■  '.  t t 

•;•  ,  '  -m  '  ■  .  ■  ■  •  •■  .  ■  • 

:g-^’  cr-.n  o'Tljl.'pi^  ^ 

■ 

'j  iiSiii,  \  '  i  ^ 

■  *1 .  * 


^  •:  •  '-'Up  on  ^  ‘  ^  ■•'  •■ 

I  '  •  , 

'•  '  •":■  Oji  i'-^*  '  ■! ‘-'g  rj'jcj' .■  ••»' 


L'.-r-" 


‘HK!-.\TC^ri  "<’1  i.- 


.  r.  .  ;  :  ^1{^'  tS'0^  '‘I  iw;,.  "  'i  ^ 


pbly  not  be  amiss  to  touch  upon  some  of  the  writers,  and  to 
examine^  more  closely^  particularly  those  works  which  have  mate¬ 
rially  contributed  to  literature  • 

We  are  already  familiar  with  Skarga*s  name.  In  1597  he 
published  a  book  in  Polish  in  defence  of  the  Church  Union.  The 
book  was  made  up  of  two  main  arguments,  namely,  that  the  union 
effected  at  Berest  was  of  an  historical  character  and  that  the 
decisions  of  the  Council  held  at  Berest  were  properly  and  legally 
arrived  at.  At  the  conclusion  of  his  book  Skarga  tries  to  show 
the  Eastern  Sla,v3  the  moral  and  material  benefits  which  are  bound 
to  accrue  as  a  result  of  the  union.  Skarga* s  book  was  met  by 
a  book  entitled  ’’Apokrizis’J  written  by  an  author  who  went  under 
the  pseudonym,  of  Filalet.  The  book  dealt  extensively  with  the 
questions  raised  by  Skarga,  and  contained  such  effective  refuta¬ 
tions  of  all  the  contentions,  that  the  author  of  the  former  book 
dared  not  make  a  reply  thereto.  Filalet*s  sound  argumentation 
was  due  to  his  high  scholarship  in  Latin,  Greek,  and  to  his  wide 
know3.0dg0  of  church  history  and  familiarity  with  the  works  of 
many  famous  historians  and  theologians.  This  enabled  him  to  cite 
authorities  to  support  his  views,  which  gave  him  superiority  over 
his  opponents.  But  Filalet’s  book  was  answered  by  Ipatey  Potey, 
who  with  Terletsky  signed  the  Union.  He  wrote  his  book  in  1599  and 
entitled  it  ”Antirrizls”,  Potey  also  interchanged  argumentative 
letters  with  Klirik  Ostrozky.  The  criticism  of  **Apoki’izis’*  was, 
however,  not  strong  enough,  for,  though  Potey  was  often  clever,  he 
was  not  always  logical. 


-205- 


Me  1 9 tey  Sinotritsky. 

A  -writer  who  here  deserves  5ome  attentior  is  Meletey  Smot- 
rltsky,  son  of  Herasim  Smotritsky.  In  1610  he  published  a  book 
to  which  he  gave  the  title  ’’Trenos”,  1,  the  weeping  of  the 

Orthodox  Church.  This  book  was  his  masterpiece,  and  is  considered 
to  have  marked  the  height  of  all  the  polemics  between  the  Ortho¬ 
dox  ,^nd  the  Uniate  and  Catholic  Christians,  The  author,  being 
himself  of  exceedingly  sensitive  nature,  keenly  felt  the  lamentable 
situation  in  which  the  Orthodox  Church  was  found.  Being  a  patriot 
as  well  as  a  churchman,  Smotritsky  was  greatly  moved  at  this  si¬ 
tuation,  and  he  shows  it  throughout  the  whole  of  his  ”Tr0nos”.  In 
it  he  reviews  the  state  of  affairs,  complains  bitterly,  and  in  ac¬ 
cordance  with  his  nervous  temperament,  vehemently  reprimands  those 
who,  in  his  opinion,  are  to  blame.  The  ”Trenos”  unconsciously 
reminds  one  of  the  lament  of  Yaroslavna,  wife  of  Prince  Ihor.  The 
Church  weeps,  as  it  were  a  mother,  for  being  altogether  deserted 
by  her  children,  and  the  effect  created  ^s  pathetic i 

’*Wo0  is  me”,  says  the  Church,  ”  woe  to  the  unfortunate,  ah, 
robbed,  robbed  am  I  of  all  good  on  all  sides.  Woe  is  me,  stripped 
of  my  robes  and  left  to  be  derided  by  the  v/^orld.  Woe  is  me,  heavy- 
laden  with  unbearable  burdens.  hands  are  in  fetters,  a  yoke 
on  my  neck,  schackles  on  my  feet,  a  chain  on  the  back,  while  over 
my  head  is  a  two-edged  sword.  The  water  under  my  feet  is  deep, 
inextinguishable  fire  on  either  side  of  me.  Prom  one  quarter  come 
prayers  for  relief,  from  another,  fear,  and  still  from  another,  per¬ 
secution.  There  is  misery  in  the  cities  and  the  villages,  misery 


-  206- 


Oil 


O;-' 


O 


f! .  i.:.'  ■  ' 


.  ...0 


V  -  0 


-C'  .  '■  o  "  '  ■ 

m’  "'  '  ■  _  ' 

,,  ....  .  _  ;  i  vr:/:  !!’  1C 


-■."0  c/"  '  "  •  , 

c "  ",  'to  .tt  '  '  f  > 

...  -'  .r . ,:;  t 


:  0 


<. '  • 


«.■ 


4 


I  K  '  '  f. 

.  rrj  '  'r.  : 

dSitei _ _ '£c^ 


in  the  prairies  and  the  forests,  and  misery  in  the  mountains  and 
the  depths  of  the  earth.  There  is  not  one  peaceful  spot  nor  a 
safe  dwelling;*  The  day(is  passed)  in  pains  and  wounds,  the  night, 
in  groaning  and  sighing.  Sumn'er  is  so  hot  that  one  faints  (^rom 
heat)  jVfinter  freezes  one  to  death;  I  feel  miserable,  for  I  suffer 
nakedness  and  I  am  being  persecuted  to  death.  Once  wonderful  and 
rich,  now  ravaged  and  poor;  once  a  queen,  beloved  of  all  the  world, 
now  scorned  and  tortured  by  all.  All  who  live,  all  ye  people  and 
ye  citizens  of  the  earth,  come  unto  me,  hearken  to  my  voice,  ye  will 
realize  what  I  formerly  have  been,  and  ye  will  wonder.  I  am  r.ovT  for 
the  world  a  subject  of  contempt ,,  while  I  was  once  a  marvel  both 
for  people  and  for  angels.  I  vms  beautiful  before  all,  attractive 
and  beloved 

Then  the  Church  goes  oh  to  explain  who  wer  e  the  ones  most 
responsible  for  her  doamfall.  It  accuses  her  children  of  this 
crimes 

'*!  gave  birth  to  my  children  and  raised  them,  but  they 
renounced  me  and  contribued  to  my  downfall.  Why  do  I  now  sit  as 
one  of  the  widows .who  moan,  -  once,  a  ruler  of  the  East  and  the 
West,  the  South  and  the  Northern  lands,  I  weep  during  the  da^^-  and 
the  night,  and  my  tears,  as  it  were,  the  yearly  floods,  roll  down 
my  face,  and  there  is  no  one  to  console  me,  -  .  All  have  deserted 
me,  and  despised  me.  My  relatives  are  far  from  me,  my  friends  became 
my  enemies 

The  lament  is  continued  and  the  culprits  are  being  enume¬ 
rated.  The  Bishops  are  severely  censured.  Among  them  is  the 


vrm 


f 


.  •{ 


4 


\o  ‘cix 


)'  ' 


V 

-  C'X,  -’'I 


^O-  -.),. 


•  ■'■<0 


';_•  Ci’. 


I. 


I'i  V.i. 


.'.  ■  ■  iB/  Ic  ,Br'vv ;  ,’.i'>  '' 

e<rf.h;.  '  fL-  '  ■  .1  .■-' •*■'? 


c 


V' 

;  ;  '  ‘  :  f 


^i.; 


c 


son  of  the  Church,  Potoy,  who  with  others  deserted  her*  Her 
complaint  against  him  is  almost  tiring,  for  she  so  or*-;;, erfully 
reiterates  to  him  hov/  much  she  had  inconvenienced  herself  and 
suffered  for  his  sake,  and  now  he  would  not  hear  her,  that  she 
convinces  the  reader  of  the  righteousness  of  her  pleading,  and  he 
can  hardly  bear  it,  knowing  that  no  one  answers  her  prayers. 

Considerable  part  of  the  book  was  devoted  to  criticizing 
the  Pope  and  the  Catholic  clergy*  The  author  spared  no  pains  in 
depicting  them  in  the  worst  possible  light*  Smotritsky  was  not  only 
a  lyric  poet,  but  was  also  a  master  satirist*  He  had  no  difficulty 
in  obtaining  sufficient  facts  to  show  to  the  world  the  scandals  of 
the  Romish  Church,  and  the  moral  perversion  of  the  Pope  and  his 
clergy.  No  wonder,  therefore,  that  the  Catholics  became  fear¬ 
fully  enraged  over  it  as  soon  as  the  book  was  published,  and 
Skarga  and  Morokhovsk^^  hastened  to  make  a  reply  thereto, 

Anong  the  Orthodox  Ukrainians  ’’Trenos”  was  a  great  trea¬ 
sure*  It  was  read,  studied  and  quoted.  It  became  a  vade  mecum  for 
many,  and  some  went  as  far  as  to  have  it  placed  with  them  in  the 
grave . 

r 

”  Trenos’*  is  valuable  as  a  literary  work  for  what  it  con¬ 
tains  and  how  the  author  went  about  it  to  make  it  as  effective  as 
possible.  It  is  written  in  rhythmical  prose  style,  shows  a  pro¬ 
found  feeling  of  the  author  for  his  church,  and  the  comparisons 
and  figures  make  itna  poetical  work  of  great  value*  The  author 
is  almost  redundant  in  his, words  ,  but  he  is  logical,  and  his 


-208- 


C,. 


r 


V  \y 


«. 


0' 


3 


L  ■  .,.v  C  - 


c  o 

j>;iriC'  o 

"'t 


.^ti 


c  ■' 

.0  ■  ^.'  ■  .'  C 


:,c 


.  ’  .'  C  '  v'  '■-)  •'  ■:  '  ■  C  1  f*:  o 

*'  •„.  V  .:  !  :  .  ,  :'  '  .  ;■ 

■  G-  ..  .  'fr  t  i  ■  :  ...:■' 


)i 


w'  >r*  :  :• 


-  ■  .X  -{i  G  ^  vji?  TV' 


.  '  TS  , 

.  *ta  ** 


v’fwir  Tpfl'il 

■  '•  «■> 

:ii^at.  rtji 

««w 


t"./: 


multiplicity  of  words  is  easily  overlooked  when  we  take  co^^hi^^ance 
of  the  fact  that  he  does  it  knowinrly,  though  heedless  thereof*  for 
it  his  method  of  attaining;  the  desired  object.  And  attain  it 
he  does,  as  may  be  indeed  from  its  popularity  at  the  time  and  its 
value  which  permitted  it  to  stand  the  test  of  time. 

The  controversy  between  the  Orthodox  and  the  Romish  and 
Uniate  Churches  continued,  becoming  more  heated  each  year.  There 
were  various  questions  at  issue.  Each  side  disputed  relevant  and  i 
irrelevant  questions  to  the  issye  with  a  strong  determination  to 
win.  In  the  middle  of  the  17th  century  the  controversy  was  at 
its  height.  Zakhar ejJ^pistensky  came  out  with  his  book  entitled 
"P^.llnodia” ,  which  was  a  reply  to  a  book  written  in  Polish  by 
Leo  Krewza,  under  the  heading  of  'Va  Defence  of  the  Church  Union’*. 

From  the  nature  of  the  defence  and  the  arguments  used  therein,  there 
are  good  grounds  to  believe  that  Krewza  had  been  much  assisted  by 
Josaphat  Kuntsevich,  who  has  since  been  canonized  by  the  Catholic  ; 
Church,  and  who  is  regarded  as  one  of  the  heroes  thereof.  It  may  be 
noted  that  **Palirodia’* ,  similarly  to  many  later  w^'itings  of  Orthodox 
writers,  bears  marked  evidence  of  the  influence  of  Smotritsk^^* s 
**Tr9nos’*,  Here,  like  in  "Trenos**,  Mother  Church  speaks  to  the  Uniates,| 
to  whom  the  author  tries  to  prove  that  the  Orthodox  Church  avoided 
with  justification  the  challenge  which  the  Uniates  made  for  a  formal 
public  debate  on  the  question  as  to  which  Church  was  founded  on  solid 
Christian  principles.  The  author  of  “Pallnodia"  deals  with  various 
questions,  with  heresy  in  Ukraine,  the  harmful  books  which  are 
used  in  some  of  the  churches,  the  persecution  of  the  Orthodox 


-209- 


}  iL  T  '  v  ;  ^ 


■  r  0 ^  V. p^:; ;  -i  J  f t'.  "i  . ’  ■ .  I ■ 

-  'f  •* 


<  at) 


► 

^*.?-:  j.- v-'^o'. 

&.'  ■»  a.  ■'••’  .-Th-'i 


-  •'•.•  i  •'•  •)  )\‘?X  jjTvS  ■•  n  • 


;.0  5''  J  O,  i'  SV','  .'.  ..  . 


f 


oni:  t  .''5A  oT'J 

•  -■'>  cfit.'  ^/(T:  ©riv'  r'-O'f. 


e 

.C!.  i.'‘ 


•'  •.  i  iMf>< 

■  ■  jy -i  >  OT  i,M:;  Ci'*;.: ’Ov  :  ;  r.t© 

v  :"  Te.*>^  -)  "  ta  ->■  o  -  ^  ..^^’^q.‘■5ao•. 

,  A  ■* r  f •  ’i '?.  j! 


It' 

1 


^t:  t."  c  ;  tfi'i'iffnJ  3 

',';•* ^ I i<- it'  ,  "i^.rf  ^^^.^  /t  ’  *  ^  "“C': 


i*w 


•if  / 

.’r  ri^nir. 


"  .  '  •  '  ’’’.-iii  'ioriwc/a*  *:)iv^  :uo  t';;  o* 

'  ©‘T'.  ■  '»  £’:'i’  wi 'i/  .'  iJi.'J,  -icfiV' 


r.Jlp  fl.-f  P. 


.  r. 


i 


iq  0,4  ^ 


4  v.-v 


‘1.  ■  ©i  , 

iftjMik  iMill 


clergy  by  the  Poles,  and  other  matters.  i 

Kopistenslq^  is  enlightening  and  at  the  same  time  inter¬ 
esting.  He  keeps  the  subject  alive  by  appropriate  narratives 
and  passages.  He  says,  for  example,  ”Look  for  fire  in  the 
water’*,  or,  '*A11  that  thunders  from  Rome  are  not  thunderbolts.” 

The  author  is  often  satirical  and  accordingly  resorts  to  gentle 
humor.  His  language  is  liter arj^,  but  is  not  the  purest  Ulcrainian, 
for  it  contains  a  large  admixture  of  Polish.  His  book  shows  a  clos^ 
study  of  the  Bible,  and  is,  therefore,, a  work  which  is  suitable  not 
only  for  the  times  when  it  was  written,  but  is  also  valuable  for 
later  theologians  and  students  of  religious  questions. 

The  Orthodox  Ukrainians  kept  up  this  struggle  for  their 
ideals  with  wonderful  tenacity.  They  had  their  strong  belief, 
the  traditions,  and  the  masses  behind  them,  but  their  opponents  , 
besides  using  arguments,  also  used  force  which  they  employed  and 
which  would  listen  to  no  reasoning.  The  natural  outcome  of  this 
were  the  s^/mpathies  of  the  Zaporoglan  Cossacks,  who  came  to  the 
assistance  of  the  masses.  Pogroms  on  the  Orthodox  Christians  could 
only  be  resisted  by  an  armed  force.  The  Cossacks,  who  then  wielded 
great  pcr-ver  as  a  national  organization,  betook  themselves  in  defend 
ing  the  rights  of  their  oppressed  countrymen.  They  stood  not  only 
for  religious  but  also  for  national  rights  and  the  rights  to  which 
they  were  legally  entitled  under  the  Polish  rule.  Y/ith  them 
the  Poles  had  to  reckon,  for,  great  leaders  like  Sahaydachny  and 
Khmelnitsky  would  not  be  satisfied  until  their  grievances  were 
righted. 


-210- 


•  'f 

•'•1"  !  ‘ 

‘'/.J  1  J  ■  '•■  *  ' 

cn’v  ‘434  ■  V  .  . 

t  •-O'i.  ' 

fi-::  tr./: 

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,.:OX'X  '.r:  'rTf/A-f 

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i-::i  I-ru'U) 

'-;j  -^'i' ■"O’ri?’ 

Uf;  *■:■  . 

'  .  '.;rrr 

or  '  ‘ 

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» 'iOv:’A  . : 

, '  •  '  f 

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yiAff 

3(1C‘  •  . 

.  ’ '  t  ^  :(c}  Id  ■- 

:  (  V*  t 

f  ■  ' .’  >i  i’ 

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,t' .«  vXriO, 

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i  '  .  #  .  *  •/ 

Much  of  the  literature  of  this  Copsack  period  is  embodied 
in  the  so-called  Cossack  Chronicles.  The  chronicles  of  this  period 
which  have  been  preserved  to  our  day,  number  about  twenty.  From 
them  we  get  much  information  about  the  .  political  and  social  order 
of  the  time.  Like  the  ancient  writers,  some  of  the  chroniclers 
commence  with  the  beginning  of  the  world  and  reiterate  the  importan-t 
events  up  to  their  ovm  times.  The  subjects  which  interested  them 
most  and  on  which  they  dwelt  more  than  on  any  other  topics  were 
the  ward  of  Khmelnitzky ,  the  great  Zaporogian  Cossack  leader  in 
the  middle  of  the  17th  century.  Probably  the  greatest  chronicler 
of  the  period  was  Samuel  Velichko^  who  was  assistant  of  the  General 
Secretary  of  the  Cossacks.  He  ably  dealt  with  the  question  of 
the  eight  years  of  war  between  the  Ukrainians  under  Khnelnitzk;^' 
and  the  Poles.  He  carefully  gathered  all  diaries  and  information 
from  various  sources,  and  used  all  which  he  considered  to  be  aiithenti 
A  valuable  chronicle  on  the  history  of  the  Ukrainians, 
dealing  with  the  events  commencing  with  the  reign  of  Prince  Volo- 
dimir,  the  Great,  until  the  middle  of  the  IBth  century.  The  author¬ 
ship  of  this  work  is  debatable.  Some  critics  attribute  it  to 
George  Konisky^  while  others  to  Basil  Poletitsia,  Another  writer 
of  the  time  was  Kaslan  Sakovich,  a  mn  of  some  ability.  Before 
he  was  a  year  old  a  pig  bit  off  one  of  his  ears,  and  his  oppo¬ 
nents  in  later  years  often  referred  to  this  incident  when  they 
\7lsh0d  to  jest  of  him,  Sakovich  is  remembered  for  his  verses  de¬ 
dicated  to  Hetman  Petro  Konashevich  Sahaydachny,  and  for  his  re¬ 
ligious  Tn*itings,  which  are  at  times  conflicting,  since  he  was 


’T  ;  •■j-:  -g'uj  rf  - .: 

S^' 


-  ,  .^-i,  ‘tK  y.,.i 

O',  *0  ■'■  .  ',-  • '.C'  •^‘  -  - 


.  f#  n-.j.tiO 


‘“Tij  ffV'O  1.“.,.  •  f  gw  C.U’-;'- 


?r  ;j..r!  -  "  • 


i-fw  ff/  .- .'  ' 


i I  ■  vr."  O','  o/ff' ‘  ao  L< n j.-  .'v:  on 


f.'* 


A,  , 


fc.'VC  •  .  0 

r 


■- j  c *oq -0 

0-:,'  ;^  .. ♦:-  .'.i^  vji  t'  .-0  «ivvi.  od*j 


,  ‘.c  lo-io.'  -iii  ■  ' 


[*>  n*  ' 


’  ‘  ^/  'T  ^ c  irtoi Xf'V  j.-v«  4jc.e";-oc 

^  vX<St  '  :jr'  AO  'C0  ^■•:>  Ito  •  '3. 


V  -*  ^  'V,  'f^'  -'O  '^o  ^»r^; 


■'•“  ^  nik. '  'iM(^tjS^  ■ 

■S  '0^ 

^  hiiiti  ' 

;V  '•; 

•.,  ^ .  V  Sir. 


^  .  v.Xc'x 


^:5.\:  b 


r.>-c. 

J*r 


to  '.*,'!  ;j,iilO'ffio  «h.. '^•"’.L>:v  i. 
h^MmOO  8.^W)V‘-,  .  -.'ir 

'’'VC  ,11  ■r'^  "  t 

^  )  ,’  '.  >  ijO','  >'  J,  j  4V  »•  “,*•'■*  ' 

. ’,  ■••^  I  ' vJ-r^  .  X'"/.':  6^  ^ 

*j  .  ..I-':-— .  -  _ 


,iO  .'.0  il-1  ir  *‘'t)Xo  '  •  r^H 

'  ■ 


t  ft ''  '  *’ '  . .. 


*ja^>vkj".  O' 


/0'4. 


’■*f  .  p  ^ 


^  -l  •'  «:0v/ 

•tli.  '»*  .  .  '  •  V 

•i'L'  /i,'  i,  ^i>' 


at  first  an  Orthodox  and  later  joined  the  Uniates. 

With  the  assistance  of  the  Cossacks  the  Ukrainian  Church 
leaders  made  alarming  headway  in  regaining  the  rights  which  were 
due  them.  The  Poles  themselves  saw  that  the  disorder  in  the 
country  would  continue  as  long  as  the  great  number  of  the  in¬ 
habitants  are  dissatisfied.  During  an  interregnum  before  the 
ascension  of  Vladyslav  IV  to  the  Polish  throne,  a  special  com¬ 
mission  was  appointed  which  passed  a  special  statute  granting 
certain  rights  to  Orthodox  Christians  and  to  White  Russians. 

With  this  the  Ukrainians  saw  a  long  fought  for  triumph  of  Or¬ 
thodoxy.  Several  polemic  writings  appeared  in  connection  with 
these  final  negotiations  with  the  special  commission.  The  one  most 
deserving  of  note  is  the  '‘Synopsis**,  The  preface  to  this  document 
deals  with  the  intolerable  position  in  which  the  Orthodox  Church 
found  itself  as  a  result  of  the  persecutions  and  oppressions.  The 
memorial  showed  how  the  different  rights  which  vrere  denied  to  Or¬ 
thodox  Christians  were  their  birthright,  and  that  no  one  had  or 
could  claim  a  right  to  moledt  them.  In  ansvrer  to  the  ’’Synopsis’* , 
Kasper  Skupensky  prepared  a  dialogue  between  two  Ukrainians,  one 
an  Orthodox,  the  other  a  Unlate.  The  Orthodox  claims  that  had 
tehy  not  gained  a  vistory  over  the  Uniates  in  the  ordinary  argumen¬ 
tative  way,  they  would  have  done  it  with  the  help  of  the  Cossacks. 
The  Uniate  advances  an  argument  that  the  blame  lies  on  the  Jesuits* 
However,  the  Orthodox  eventually  score  a  victory,  and  the  two 
Churches  went  on  developing  independently  of  each  other,  according 


-212- 


•:C'.  r. 


1  ,  •  ■,  ..;j-j‘,  io'i’ «  r 

..vn-.-  ^  e^7T^J’i::i3;: 

■  ■  ■.  .  . 

\r.-  cn  *  .O'-  Vi ^-C*  rio*  ^“•ri§>o2® 

'  '  '  ■  '  •  -  V;’’..  ■  ■ 

w.ri0CtV0  ,  "■*^'’‘  fic.c-=;.v.  " 

:.  ..  „  ,  i".  .:  ■  jJ;V:i.:)  xolc:j^'i(4- 

.*;  ,;n  .1  1 /.';■;■•  r!v^ 

V5j(^  '  ’  V-v  .^o;^^r/  X/  .-X" 


c  . 

VO- 


..  ' ' ') 


,  vTV*0 


no  J  '  -i: 

■  ::vV  .;.^.  :  , 

'?  0 


o  '*)  :<  :  o.  /Xn6<3''v  -JK  fi,«  l-X  -  ‘ "  '  {v'  ^'o.', 


to  their  ovm  ideals 


Many  distinguished  personages  had  token  part  in  the  great 
controversy  betvreen  the  Churches,  The  leading  educationists  of 
Kiev  became  in  the  latter  half  of  the  17th  century  very  much 
involved  in  the  polemics.  The  result  was  that  Ukrsinian  lite¬ 
rature  for  that  reason  naturally  at  that  time  got  e  mark  imprinted 
on  it  which  was  characteristic  of  the  Kievan  writers,  prominent 
among  whom  was  Petro  Mohyla,  who  inside  a  reply  to  Sakovich*s  ”Per- 
spektiva”. 

It  will  be  remembered  that  at  the  beginning  of  the  17th 
century  Kiev  became  a  centre  of  a  literary  movement  in  Ukraine 
in  the  same  way  as  it  once  formerly  served  as  a  political  and 
cultural  centre  of  the  Southern  Ukrainian  territories.  About  1650 
the  Kievan  Academy  becomes  noted  as  a  school  from  v/hich  a  great  num 
ber  of  learned  men  are  being  sent  out  to  all  parts  of  Slavdom.  It 
also  becomes  an  authority  on  literary  form  and  style,  which  dominated 
the  character  of  Ukrainian  literature  until  about  the  end  of  the 
18th  century.  As  we  have  already  seen,  the  establishment  of  the 
Academy  had,  undoubtedly ^  from  one  point  of  view,  a  very  beneficial 
effect  on  the  Ukrainian  educational  and  cultural  life  as  a  whole. 

In  fact,  it  marked  the  beginning  of  real  educational  life  in  the 
country.  But,  like  the  religious  polemics,  though  in  one  respect 
they  were  somewhat  beneficial,  since  they  necessarily  brought  o\tt 
the  genius  of  many  writers,  in  another  respect  they  were  almost 
harmful  for  they  submerged  the  gradually  evolving  Ukrainian  national 


-213. 


iJ  \%0 


c.  '  t 


I 


c 


o 


•  A* 


e,. 


,  c 


f'.-  c 


.^:y':i%  '  ■}  V  ‘C 


I  '  • 


i.\c- 


fcp  -• 


4 


( 


.  I  L 


.  '  1  ' 


literature,  the  Kievan  Academy  also  had  its  disadvantages.  Draw¬ 
ing  on  the  ready  form  of  knowledge  from  the  West,  the  directors 
of  the  Academy  accepted  that  which  the  West  had  already  outlived. 
They  adopted  the  scholasticism  of  the  middle  eges,  while  Europe 
had  already  turned  its  attention  to  a  newer  life.  In  the  West 
there  Shakes  pears,  Milton,  Cervantes,  Moliero,  Galileo,  Newton, 
Bacon,  Descartes,  Spinoza,  Leihmitz,  and  others.  The  great  new 
movem.ent  started  hy  these  men  did  not  then  reach  Ukraine,  Instead 
there  was  propagated  in  the  Kievan  Academy  the  scholasticism 
of  the  middle  ages  together  with  its  rigid  formalism  which  left 
no  room  for  individual  expression. 

The  Kievan  Academy,  being  born  at  the  time  of  the  Catho¬ 
lic  reaction,  and  being  under  the  influence  of  the  schools  which 
were  part  of  the  reaction,  also  acquired  their  character.  So  that 
little,  if  any,  room  was  left  therein  for  the  European  humanism^ 
freedom  of  thought,  and  the  realism  of  Bacon,  It  must  he  admitted 
that  though  no  encouragement  was  given  for  real  creative  work  of 
the  human  mind,  nor  for  conceiving  of  new  ideas,  (for  even  verse- 
making  was  according  to  a  borrowed  Latin  form),  yet  the  Academy' 
afforded,  an  opportunity  for  a  training  of  the  mind  snd  for 
accustoming  it  to  abstract  thinking.  However,  this  was  not  the 
best  that  could  be  desired  for  the  development  of  Ukrainian  li¬ 
terature,  The  tendency  of  literature  was,  in  fact,  dangerous, 
for,  writers  were  wont  to  pay  strict  attention  to  form  at  the 
sacrifice  of  the  context,  and  thereby  considerably  retarded  the 


-214- 


lA’ <  ■':  ^.:- 

;  ■-  V  '.  C  i'.O',.  >.  ■  •  ^  O 

■  ''  ■+^  ’•>'.0  ^  L.^'  -- 


.'■-.O 


3',-- 


ac.'  •>■ 


,  1  .  Jt.  '.  '■  t  ;  ' 'I  ■  :J  3  .  ,  ,  0  ■-  . 

r  O^O^^C^  •,;!  ^  ■  ■;•.  ,p  ■■  ;■' 


"1. 


or; 


rvf  T's; 


nSX 


'  i  ■ 


•■)  ( 


0 


t 


t 


9S‘ 


*  C'i'  fl  ;  ■  ■  t  '  '  ’f" 


t 


fto  ,'■<! 


i’»> 


r.  \^A1|  oi  'I'.;’'* 

rr^-toA  '  ■  ■' 


progress  of  the  Ukrainian  cultural  life. 

Quite  naturally  even  the  moat  prominent  educators  ^vho 
were  graduates  of  the  Academy  were  true  to  its  teachings,  so  that 
among  the  Kievan  adherents  of  the  subtleties  of  the  academy  there 
were  such  men  as  Hizel,  Baranovich,  Polotsky,  Tuptalenko,  Kaliatov- 
sky,  Radivilevsky  and  others.  They  were,  to  a  great  extent, 
responsible  for  keeping  alive  the  schola-^tic  formality  which 
resulted  in  pseudoclassicism  on  Ukrainian  soil,  and  the  con¬ 
sequent  continuous  gap  between  Ukrainian  culture  as  it  was  being 
evolved  among  the  learned  circles,  and  that  oft ho  common  people 
with  practically  no  m  eans  of  reconciliation  between  the  two. 

However,  the  inner  forces  behind  the  national  and,  therefore, 
natural  literature  were  at  work.  Human  nature  rebels  against  any¬ 
thing  that  is  unnatural.  Scholasticism  was  not  only  foreign  and 
unintelligible  to  the  common  people,  but  also  repugnant  to  them. 

We  have  seen  that  from  times  immemorial  the  common  people  have  been 
creating  real  literature—  something  that  p  roceeded  directly  from 
their  own  3.ives«^  As  evidenced  by  the  ballads  and  stories,  this 
literature  was  at  first  unwritten.  Later,  much  of  it  was  collected 
by  various  chroniclers  and  writers.  From  then  on  the  two  litera¬ 
tures  kept  evolving,  running  parallel  to  each  other.  Unvrritten 
literature  and  literature  vritten  by  the  common  people  remained 
close  to  the  lives  of  the  people,  while  that  written  by  the  edu¬ 
cated  class,  particularly  during  the  Kievan  scholasticism,  put 
on  a  foreign  cloak,  ana  was  gradually  becoming  alienated.  The 
struggle  between  the  two  for  supremacy  was  a  violent  one  during 


-215- 


r:  ss"* 


- 


.t; :: 


■■ 'f .  f\',V'TV  J  '.  ■  •  '•  >V, 

•..+  *  .i -’-  ri  '5.97^1a  :)no.::iP 

.  ..  ■-  ,■  ' 
■■■_-•  t  •■'’•'•  t-  ■  ■  '.  ^  .,, ,  :'  - 

'.-■’-T?  >;  ^  ..-^ 

^  ■  i'c  '^  .JO  iaiioi2.mi-:)obiJtfy^q  rti  0-4 •••.u;>?''/'i 

•:  T,.'  'a  '  ^•ir>i."i’iit;\BO.--wn'i  a.»i@  ...  oj'ni'.i-croa  cUtouf^® 

.  >--iV  •<9131"’'''  .is-l'-’ti,  !)"n“.«.I  .,;<.i’'.'^rcmi!;  I'-jvIavr, 

_  ._*■»  ^  ...  ’  :  .t'. . '  ■;  •  '  .  '  ■  ’  ,  .  , 

^  '  '  r  .f*^  j^,t«(i.Iv  :jC  r-'i 

i;  P  ’O', 

•  r"  ■  ..  .  .  .,  ^ 

-  -a  I.^i.'^o^l^>fl/ ■  • 

,...f,rti>:H)-:  (■■  .  ---.••i‘-i''':;’.!.r  X-ict  3.'!.;j-''vJo 

..  ,  ...  ;.,,•  ...;j.  y*  '•  •'’■it.iv#  '•-  •« 


I: 


,  ,  I  ■  ^  «  ..  .  ■  .  .  ^ 

to  Hi'it'  -ion’.  .  .:*.n\m  ■'■■  I  4-JfX-'if!0-..:Q  ...Jf .:.•<  '■  V.X 


.  V 

^..rs  crt  £f>X.X/i/i/^<.j  ;Tn.'. 

c.tr': 

■2':VtJ 

‘c  •  •■ 

.  (  )  ».KU  IV  ,i  '■■■ 

.;.'aiia‘ii-  ‘-•‘TUJ' 

.^i  i 

■  - .  V.  •* 

•jor'i  vrl^  c'“ 

0"'../  ■ 

J  *.  •  /Cdott  " 

v  'C- 

■  t  -'X'? 

'  iK' 

./jAi  A  ^  ■• 

■j  I’O? 

.xO 

the  17th  and  the  18th  centuries.  The  dislike  to  cold  scholasticism 


became  more  and  more  pronounced,  while  at  the  same  time  the 
national  literature  wbs  gradually  gaining  ground.  The  daivn  of 
a  new  era  was  approaching.  The  ever  active  elements  of  a,  so- 
to  speak,  living  literature , were  becoming  more  active  with  time. 

The  people  were  coming  to  a  realization  of  their  national  con¬ 
sciousness  and  demanded  literary  productions  in  pure  Ulcrainian, 
in  the  language  of  the  people.  Towards  the  end  of  the  18th  century 
the  coming  revival  was  piercing  the  vrall  of  the  old  order,  with 
productions  in  drama  and  verse,  history,  and  moralistic  philosophy. 
The  first  of  these,  of  course,  originated  in  the  Bible  long  be¬ 
fore,  and  was  a  later  development  of  the  miracle  plays.  This  was 
then  carried  into  schools  which  drew  great  crowds.  Various  kinds 
of  verse  poetry  was  produced,  including  the  hymn,  lyric,  satire, 
panegyrical  and  historical  verse.  The  historical  works  reflect 
on  the  immediate  past,  the  times  of  the  Cossexks  and  their  futile 
fight  for  the  independence  of  Ukraine,  while  the  moralistic  phi¬ 
losophy  was  really  the  continuance  of  the  ^.nfluence  of  the  Chris¬ 
tian  Church, 

The  revival  in  Ukrainian  literature  finally  came;  the  ' 

endeavors  for  the  emancipa.tion  of  thought,  the  attempts  at  realism 
and  freedom  of  rational  feeling  culminated,  in  Kotliarevsky ,who  is 
called  the  father  of  the  now  Ukrainian  literature,  the  precursor 
of  which  was  Skovoroda,  With  him  begins  the  third  and  undoubtedly 
the  most  active  and  the  most  important  period  in  't^ralnian  literature. 


-216- 


o  r: 


r:-  .  ;o'-  . .  .. 

■  ',  ■  i  '  ;■  '.  t  0'S  V,,  ,  •’  6j 


>•<!  ■:  .  .  Kfawwo-.  . 

.-tc  j.o  ~-'t  ’.‘c  J.,‘.i;  -  ■■i-)  ^fpb’fp.tc  fii'',  X«v.?V‘.tT  griltJt;-?  'Arif 


.(.,•  ,  .,or,  ••<  .'o^'o,  '  \  ■■).^i''ti  \f 'iV^iA  >.rT-oi<towoQ*iq  ■ 

*J*  :■  -i-  v  .  •  .'Jl  .  <  „  •*  V,  ;  «  '  ■  '.  “ 

.  ■  : 


5r 


■■  f“ 


.  O'to  ffi'n  ■.'.:-''t6  ';'.V.tq/r  tiXoO'iorV  ’Ov^i  ■ 


5 


‘ji'rQ-^^'  e^.-vr 


‘i' 


fi  t  -■^rn  •  *.:-'j  *"0 


tO.11  •  c#..'. 


t  »r.'  .'t)/jO‘':ot-' ;0  a  v‘*'i!/ii'.t- 

•;  «rf-i  «/:r-  '^rlqcvci 


iv 


0  V.A 


-r/Sr  'i3<s^ 


rf,: '  '  lie tis':  ’•  tt-' ^^■  ■ 


;'o;,  ;J  fv.i.-fiir'.Ii.'*--  r  X^.  .u,t#(t‘^o.Vo5v.T. 


’  c  r:  tn 


,.  j. ;. ^  '  ■  .j-;-n'’vT  iv’^m;  o.^  ^  i  ’'  ’  ,../^  > 


.f  ...V  f 


'JVVO;.!?.  Ur^-r- ibi/fy 


It  is  to  be  ereatly  regretted  that  owing  to  lack  of  time  and 
space,  only  the  most  outstanding  literary  figures  and  works 
of  this  period  can  be  dealt  with.  However,  it  is  deemed  ne¬ 
cessary  that  the  writers  who  are  the  most  prominent  be  considered 
spmewhat  fully,  and  that  their  biographies  be  taken  into  account, 
which  particularly  in  this  period  in  most  cases  played  a  very 
important  part  in  what  the  writers  were  to  produce. 


v.3ir''’  Hi 

■ 


4'  ^ 


-217- 


i 

THE  MODERN  PERIOD 


On  the  threshold  of  the  new  era  in  Ukrainian  literature 
stands  out  very  prominently  Hrehory  Skovoroda  (17E2-1794),  He 
was  born  in  Poltava,  Uk>*nln0,  and  studied  in  the  schools  at  Kiev 
and  also  outside  the  border  in  the  l/Yest,  Having  acquired  consi¬ 
derable  knowledge  of  philosophy,  he  returned  to  Ukraine,  where  he  i 
became  teacher  of  a  Seminary  at  Pereyaslav*  He  later  gave  up 
his  position  and  was  employed  as  family  tutor  by  a  wealthy  UVral-  'j^ 

nian  named  Tamara*  About  this  time  he  commenced  writing  his  I; 

first  tales  and  composing  verses*  Then  he  was  given  a  position  >1 

in  a  High  School  at  Kharkov,  where  owing  to  the  radical  views 
which  he  held  and  which  could  not  be  reconciled  with  those  of 
the  other  teachers  on  the  staff,  he  was  forded  to  revsign*  4 

This  was  a  turning  point  in  his  career.  Sacrificing  his  u 

personal  comforts,  he  set  out  wondering  over  Ukraine,  oftentimes  | 

suffering  from  hunger  and  exposure*  His  purpose  was  to  give  I 

the  common  people  a  good  education  and  make  them  realize  that 
they  have  had  their  past  history  and  that  a  bright  future  wasb'efor 
them.  Having  seen  the  greater  part  of  Poland,  Hungary,  Germany 
and  Italy,  through  which  countries  he  travelled  on  foot,  he  formed 
his  own  ideas  about  the  progress  of  hiamanity,  and  when  he  return¬ 
ed  to  Ukraine  he  denounced  the  Intelligentsia  ^or  keeping  the 
common  people  in  intellectual  bondage,  ’*who” ,  he  said,  ’‘though 
they  are  asleep,  are  not  dead  yet,  and,  when  they  have  awakened. 


-218- 


■>.  1  'Mil  n 


c  i\  ^’i"t  J‘  :iO 

jV  cJ't.ci 
nl 


n 


^>7“^'-'  , ..  .■  -c-io  c  >  .•%>  'U 

>.*'  iii!oot{ofl  '  -  ^o  1 1  "C  .5  •:’.  fi  ^ 

■\*  'USi'-'-d  T>'-^y  :ii  ^.;t 


•  c  i 


-r .  ;  / 

c  '■ 

y^’s'ji';:  \  C'iS' 

Xo* '  tC'*  ■  eru^oi^'f 

•  .  •  V:.2  *<0 

•Lti 

7' ■'  0  '■?  j'  f  i  d  J  i  i  i&c  V  .  -S  r. 

l}k  4iT  ■  ".'■ 

w 

■..*  '"■  •' 

.V  ■■ 

•V,'  ^  ii‘  '•'.  ' 

*■*  »t  <y w;ivt  ?  i  'i  f  ^•- '  > -^  ■ ' 

'  ;  nti-yl  b '  ‘Cl  ^  ■  ■'  '■ '  ri  7  Cl 

K  ^ 

, .’  -'f  ■  l>  ’ 

.  ^  ».’  •’ 

..-.f 

nvi;* 

C'> '1  5n/’^ 

*  "  -^  •'  ?  * 

*  ‘  :e^ 

•'ri-O  t  /oorfOii  lljili.  -t'  n-v' 

:o  ■  ■  ^^ 

*-  —  T| 

■  .^.'..A  Al. 

■)*^'  7 

« ■  'J  »  Xtw- '  >'  ^ 

Lu-fj  o.‘w.'>A 

»  ‘ 

.  Owl  '  .■' ^ fti.o'.t, 

fin  m 

M-CJ* 

•*  ^  l”»  i  '  ••  ■  «'•' 

-O' 

*5  ;  A> 

^lir!  ni  in|o'. 

t.  t  .5y.v  i^T 

r  ’.  *I-‘'  ^ 

'r.m  ? 

..>vr 

:!uo  '  iofl 

w  is'iO'w'wC^  I«70  21‘  :, 

rr:;.  •-*.  •■• 

»  laoq- 

. 

'7  ,  A '?*C'*-  bnjw 

;fl i; : (  70 >; ^ .'.^  ''■-' X ‘iil 3 

„.j.  .  ;  <,Mj»  ffc .t  - boO'^  c  ■  cu^qOTx^  .ro'iijrq’^ 

■  .'V  '--  •:-o‘.M’ •i'i«‘«  bets  *v  ,.  \;« 


no  ^'^ 


■;fr’‘  '.  •. 


^i  .7'U'-  •;:  ''  ’  '■' 

^  ;-t  i..-.' --^nX  *5»n  ■  ..•  '  "ont^^  orf  rr^i o.*  hf* 

i,'nn  ' ')^iwti  1  I'A  i'i  9i';0  . 


J"' 

o 


Jj3i 


j.  ji  •■>': 


will  shew  the  world  that  they  are  men  of  mettle”.  Skovoroda  soon 
hecejne  very  popular  among  the  lower  classes  and  was  also  respected 
by  the  higher  classes.  For  his  teachings  he  waacalled  the  Ukrain¬ 
ian  Socrates  or  ”a  w  alking  University".  Nor  were  his  efforts 
in  vain.  A  good  proof  of  this  is  the  fact  that  a  large  sum  of 
money  was  raised  by  the  intelligentsia  and  the  common  people  which 
money  was  used  in  establishing  after  his  death  a  University  at 
Kharkov.  This  was  the  direct  result  of  the  labors  of  the  poor 
philosopher  . 

Skovoroda  attained  his  object  not  only  by  his  ethical  teach¬ 
ings,  but  also  by  his  own  life.  This  young  man  with  a  knapsack  on 
his  back,  a  flute  under  his  belt,  and  a  cane  in  hand,  never  despise'^ 
the  poorest  and  never  feared  the  richest.  He  did  not  hesitate  in 
imparting  knowledge  to  a  crowd  of  people  wherever  they  would  meet, 
be  it  in  the  Churchyard,  the  fair  grounds,  or  in  a  poor  man’s 
cottage.  But  his  favorite  sport  was,  as  he  himself  says  in  his 
verses,  out  in  the  fields  and  in  the  blue  sky  and  close  to  nature. 
The  character  of  his  writings  which  were  not  published  until  late 
after  his  death,  show  the  influence  which  natural  enviroment  had 
upon  him.  As  nature  is  humble  and  free,  so  was  he  in  the  ideas 
which  he  propagated.  "Let  nature  take  her  course",  was  his  motto. 
He  well  expresses  this  in  one  of  his  songs  when  he  says, 

"Why  should  I  waste  time  in  worrying 
Who  was  in  a  village  born? 

Let  those  who  are  bent  on  flying  high 
Stretch  their  brains  to  find  it  out, 


-219- 


!  /  V' 


'.V  :  ■ '  bfii-  ^ 

■:  5-!  Y ;  V'' i '  - ; V :  ..^,  1  z'  %■ '  ?.  • .  ^o2  '  fi  ■ 

1^"  •;,  'y*iK'x  V.  -  'ii  .  ■  ■*  ■  -';*'*•'-  r)w-.  ..  »  !■. 

rjR: .  '  ■ 

f?'  ■ 

|jiVt  .  f)'./  '  \  ‘  ■'.(a:':  "ijrv 

'••^‘  n .,  :i  ‘ '^^.> 'J  -a^rj  V  .  sa  i  i:ifi.r  ;’.i  ^  b^iJ 

f  '•‘"  ’"'*  vlwiii"'/!:  +o»-"j[i*n  v‘:*^  }i>w  .^:j:  ,  C'/"ind)i. 

3.'.\  J'  rr  :xovo?b 

.'-c-  ‘.it  U  )W(0  t 

,  M.n-:?;;  .ii  ^  ,.^'!c^f  av'i  ^*'vA  ^ 

R,.^4»fCM.*  ’•;<.<*  "  *»  JevnvC-''  r 

;  •  3/v^  -..'  ‘^o  •'  C'Y 

fe’  •’  :<:■■.  q  C-  i  '  ~  .-  <■'  '^cV  ',•  '^'•rrc 

I  .  • 

jH'..t  '  I  '  Ot'  C  i  *‘f.  .  <  'f  '  ■  '  ‘i*  l'»f“  M-  ''  i'Xv.  •  ©  •  '  ■ii’  J" I  .  t 

Iffi  .1  ■•5.:  I.  .,'•;  '  ,!  .  r  ./>  r  rv;  --  ’  lu'rajJ'ia'ao  vh'^ 

f"  .  rr9  I, A '■-■■*' ;■*  -  t'X'i;  i  ■  i'' J  "  ■  t  /‘.fib  3.i  rf  *?e^’.Ti5 


'  r*';.  :V,  o?  ^*11 

'fl  bi  S  ■f ;  IJ  ■  -r. 

!/•’.■::  nj-  .  xri  no((e'“ 

,  ^  ^  '•  tj'  ■  • 

O  '  wUJ/Jn  v^:;.^ 

,.  ..;  QV,.  .  ; 

<'f^C  *i  SXJK' 

j 3 9  :  ;r, »i  £L’,r  ’ 

i*icr  I'i  faivT  1 

.T*  . 

''k*ic '.'•  ‘I  nfi  d/^.'. 


T  prefer  to  sof^nd  in  silence 

The  dear  life  ’?7ith  which  I*m  blest. 

Thus  no  harm  will  I  encounter 
A  happy  mar.  will  I  be." 

The  verse  gives  us  a  good  idea  of  Skovoroda’s  philosophy. 

There  is  no  doubt  but  that  he  is  a  hedonist.  Reading  more  of  his 
works  reveals  the  fact  that  he  was  a  close  follower  of  Socrates. 

His  philosophy  savors  much  of  epicureanism  and  pantheism. 

But  Skovoroda  is  an  important  Ukrainian  figure,  not  so 
much  for  his  philosophy  or  his  literature  as  for  his  attitude  to¬ 
wards  his  country  and  people.  His  works  leave  no  doubt  that  he 
was  thoroughly  sincere  in  his  efforts  to  educate  the  people  in 
order  to  alleviate  their  condition  and  thereby  to  raise  his  nation 
to  a  higher  standard  of  culture.  He  loved  his  land  to  the  extent 
that  when  he  travelled  abroad  he  was  always  sad  and  yearned  to 
come  back.  But  no  less  than  he  were  his  people  praying  for  his  i 

return.  And  they  had  good  reasons  to  love  him  as  much  as  they 
did.  His  teaching  was  the  kind  which  they  had  been  waiting  for  i 

for  a  long  time.  At  the  moment  of  his  appeara-nce  in  public  life 
the  question  of  the  whole  nation  was,"  to  be  or  not  to  be?"  When  j 
his  work  bore  fruit,  the  unanimous  answer  of  the  people  was,"  to  bo", 
and  this  answer  gave  them  coura.ge  to  carry  on  in  spite  of  obstacles 
placed  in  their  way  by  foreign  oppressors  to  keep  them  down  and  to 
deprive  them  of  their  national  rights, 

Ivan  Kotliarevsky  1769-1858. 

Kotliarevsky  was  born  at  Poltava,  Ukraine,  There  he  spent 

his  boyhood  days  and  acquired  his  education.  His  father  was  ; 

^ 


.'  -  v.-.  u:r<;  io  i?  ri  uOO  J-  U7  tifi'l’  ■  .  .  > 

■'  . ' '  ■'  i 

,  ;c-  k:  s-cf^lryi*-  v./c.  UJiiOL' t'lT  0i-  OTi^/'.;' 

•:>''■ '.A/rV  ^  w  fiX-.'.'OV;*-': 

')!-. ;  r{"-v“;n  ^  '.h-  '■‘oaKS  y^‘^fiici.i(<u,  c^^u. 

f.  I 

d  i  1 1 1 '  if'  ,■:  X  a  4  rf  *«:■  .  • j  so  1  i  fiq  •  rij,  no  1  ;  •  -  '.v.; 

(-^.  ''  'v.!  v\.Qjif.H  .  ab'ijEr^ 

•’-*^  -^-^^ •>{/}''■;.  ovf  nX  r  <icno4^  c.- 

•  '  'fir  no,J-^  ^:r,:J  -  "^i'v  if  j  ^Klri  v^' I !«;  oi 

a;  .  ...V  i'Xi/a,' 'ly  Torl^td'ij  (,'J. 

‘  Hi?.?  ti  J ;i^..i ,  ■ 

■■  :  .•  '•.ri,0<>;.i  tJ:.'l  •  ■  ■r'*'  Of?' -t!’!'  .  ^OnOO  ; 

■•:f]H  >  r:J,  :  .;7' X  o?  ''.j  J  tir,  ■  ,n"w;.>‘^'r 

v'a”--  ^ 

’  5-v  ..  '  r'yvf-r.'^  bff'i:^^  c^.i*  a.;v  -j 

"''  •  X. 

•  jt;  ,^.'  'U-  i/w>iaf'  •  >  '  ,onii  ;-fjcX  u  net  *)., 

..  w'l  o  '  t  •■  oplja^r  -  ''■  ■  •'  ''.r  r;o 

T<7-'  '.;l*  ‘If'  ■•  ;  f.T  "  .  ■  '^• 

.  '  "’*  ■ 

r  .•.;  rro  '  •■•';;o  r  X .  ■j^^U'O'o  .•■■r«ffv+  'r.’...j,;j:  iiii.t  brtW4  ' 

-r:*  ''■*  '8nc'  .  •-  C  :;  in'ic't  '  .  •  .'’'■'I.:'-'-'--  :.: 

.  .s--  i  ./  •<.  .  ;^  o’rXn'roo 

'  .  •-“  •  /  -r  n/*hr>c  7i,  > 

.  ,  '  r^.-.cn;  '  *•  7  C(*  i  x  x 

•-'■rJ 

^  •  >*■:  •*  Fii.'-  nr  . '*'1  ■  -«•*" 


Fember  of  the  Town  Council,  Unlike  other  people  in  his  position 
he  spoke  Ukrainian  at  home  and  not  i^ussian.  He  was  a  good  father 
and  often  related  to  his  son  stories  concerning  Ukraine,  the  Hetmans, 
the  destruction  of  the  "Seech"  ,  slavery,  and  the  inhuman  treatment 
which  the  common  people  received  at  the  hands  of  their  overlords. 

In  the  Seminary  Ivan  was  taught  in  Russian,  which  he  found 
rather  diffidult,  but  by  dint  of  hard  work  he  soon  became  regarded 
as  one  of  the  best  students  in  the  school,  while  his  abi^ty  to 
write  verses  and  stories  gained  him  great  popularity  among  the 
students#  Graduating  from  the  Seminary  he  was  engaged  as  a 
private  teacher  in  the  homes  of  the  wealthy  classes  in  the  villages. 
Here  he  had  an  opportunity  to  mingle  with  the  peasant  folk  and  to 
study  their  life,  customs,  language  and  song.  When  he  stopped 
teaching  he  became  employed  in  the  Court  at  Poltava,  Later’  he 
entered  the  army  where  he  served  for  ten  years  with  great  success, 
and  was  in  due  course  given  a  commission  as  Captain,  At  the  end 
of  this  term  he  retired  on  a  pension.  Then  he  became  principal 
of  an  Institute  and  a  Director  of  a  Theatre  in  Poltava.  He  was 
never  married,  and  when  he  was  dying  he  distributed  his  property 
amongst  his  relatives  and  friends,  while  to  the  two  slaves  who 
were  in  his  service  he  granted  their  freedom. 

Comparing  the  time  of  Kotliarevsky  with  the  date  in  the 
historical  sketch  we  find  that  he  lived  at  the  time  when  the 
Ukrainians  became  completely  deprived  of  their  freedom  as  an  inde¬ 
pendent  nation.  In  1764  Catherine  II  disallowed  their  Hetmans  to 
rule  them;  in  1775  she  destroyed  the  "Seech",  and  in  1782  sanctioned 


f'/  ’c/'  .•'■'»’•  •/'VAY^'fj  '^  .  j t • '~-  , '  i. 

.  ••'!.  -^v,  1*:>..-  v»«.VI.  4'^  f' .' 'fi'i.  > 

t  '  .  _l  .:C.-}  'ci  h-  .>£lii"i  rrO'^lc  ,.  :  ^ 

t‘,  w*‘  t  •?>?:’  o:'.-  v<*  -  niJ-il-'v':. 

C  .s  'C  ri  :  ;  .  '.  :* -:  V  i  OO 'i  >..  .•„  .  C  'aTtOa  ?i<iv^ 


'■  'M 


*V^  - 

I 


n-  I a/*v'I  v.  f 


,1 


■  0 


.*  ■  t  ..■  :  .\6:i  iv!^;vr  c  ,'■  'rc.  ' ''O  f.  v 

1 


-:i 


rx 


V ‘J/f/iJdW  .4»x  •;  to  T '5iirc'if,  5p  /  .-..f 


-v.i"'  'A » ; 


’  ■  '  «»;•,  '  nx  ’)  ■  :iQfect  -  ,  I  ■  . 


.*  \‘A  vbY-i'j'}  i  '  '«‘:on  -'  ^.r-'’v2'  ^■’: 

■■  -i  lire O  -ftJ  .’  'V; 

• ''f  ■  ■■  v.  o  ■  .  ‘.[‘.'^r.  pj  oi' 


’fCk^i  r.  '.i  j  Of;'*  .  '-i 


^  ^  C>  t  j  i  ■.!  i‘2  b  iH  QOFi'ij. .-  - 

'  ,  ';<'-7.‘'-'’*;  ■«  •■.i,*''  SOiV  .^“  .‘■j. 

■'''"'''  •  '-'•  ■  •  ■'  .'■J^Jr'  'v  c:  ij  ^.■;.;  c  ' 


-r  ■  S  ■•f 


*^o:  ,Ix  ^  ^  '.f.  -  .'  !^ 


V  X  '!<;/  -■."»  '  i  V.  '  ■•  I'l:  .r 


ox>d  j; 


o  . 


.n“  .;:i  ‘'.-jfj' 


..  ■'?- 


»«.  V  ^  j. 


serfdom  in  Ukraine*  Young  Ivon  lived  through  these  refor’^s  and 
changes  which  impressed  him  considerably.  The  discussions  of  the 
Ukrainian^*  final  attempt  in  a  struggle  for  political  liberty  en¬ 
gaged  in  on  all  )occasions,  and  he  listened  to  these  with  great 
interests.  Then  too,  he  saw  how  the  last  act  of  the  Czarina  divided 
the  Ukrainian  people  into  two  sections,  namely,  the  higher  class 
who  disclaimed  their  nationality  and  neglected  their  language,  and 
the  class  of  common  people  who  loved  their  language  and  traditions, 
but  who  were  deprived  of  the  rights  to  develop  these. 

When  he  grew  up  Kotliarevsky  though  himself  a  son  of  a  family 
belonging  to  the  former  class  of  people  did  not  hesitate  in  throwing 
in  his  lot  with  the  latter#  The  common  people  were  that  material 
foundation  upon  which  the  father  of  the  new  Ukrainian  literature 
based  his  valuable  works.  He  was  well  versed  in  foreign  literature, 
but  was  above  all  fond  of  the  old  Ukrainian  works.  Realizing  full 
well  that  all  the  nations  of  Europe  endeavored  to  create  a  literature 
in  their  own  tongue,  he  took  a  rather  new  and  a  bold  step  to  write 
in  Ukrainian.  There  is  no  doubt  that  in  doing  this  he  was  to  a 
great  extent  prompted  by  Skovoroda* s  philosophy  in  which  he  strong¬ 
ly  ^expressed  that  learning  was  not  meant  to  servethe  interests  of 
the  rich  and  the  intelligentsia  only, ’’but  for  everyone  who  could 
call  himself  a  ma-n”.  So  that,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  spirit  of 
Skovoroda  of  loving  on0*s  fellow-men  runs  throughout  and  dominates 
moat  of  .the  works  of  Kotliarevsky.  In  them  the  theories  of  the 
philosopher  became  cast  into  a  form  of  a  concrete  literary  activity 
in  the  language  of  his  own  people,  ’’When  Kotliarevsky  appeared. 


i  'vsm  ,  r.iTixrjV , s«3^ "m-d 

O'-'".V0C.-  •tf:.’!  vj‘<.  .:■.  fti.-i'l  ■  ^ 

■  "  t  . 

,.-•«•  •  '•  '•  «;•••;,)■' if  A  Oil  h^-  t  *;rroi’- .-"voGc  >/•'  rK> 

•  -  .  ItM 

-*  I  '  , ’ip' ‘^e.f  ■  'Xa, ."f . ‘o'i’jv.  •'  ^  ‘A--V  ■'-.■ifi**'  *  ' 

•  e  iv.  ^  ,  ox%J‘o.:v;i  o',\\‘  ^?AncK;  V '-i  a 

^  •  •  •vi,/ -  ?■■  ‘  -;x\v' ' 'i.i 5a  ''.‘  :.‘ ■J't:/?,  6frW 

,  J  ^  .  .  ''i'.'  •■-'  '.  ',•.’  •;c;-'XjOO  Oiii 

^'\,,07uf;  0  *  ■': -’lo  o  rX'.Taf).  'e -'iV  Jui 

r  ifij  ^^K^a  '  '?X-<xr.';-*  n‘*rfO:'ci'  /y;;j‘XIXon  ;.x?  rrerl^'f" 

►*'-  ^  i;'  -.■■■:!  -'<  iT  't-X“c\sJ  '  .  .  r^..  iV.’trxoX  oX  ifr/^ rtuxyc: 

t  * 

.ii»  ;:  y*:<W'  •i^-x'Xr  ■•.•■  c  -  r.-/  «/:;■.•  rfXiv  .:>6X  '-jr;-:  al 

0  v  ^ 

JV’ 

i.O  »  ^;iO' 

t  '  -  ■  '  ..  'v7-fi  '  ' 

' 'li  •  TOX ’L'i  •:•'■■•  'r  ■  .  .  ■\^■..yf'Sfl■if‘:.:'1^2V  oos.::^ 

...y  -  '  •  .  •' 

:/  -  ^ 

5fc*'X  .  :■- •■  :•’  *iX  i.Lo  -nMKt  ':ci  iX*  ^vcofx:  t|.ww  iwd 

,„  >■.*:•'  G  X-j':yv^fo'no  icioTi^t-^c  .  .;;.r;  la:-;  +  XX^B ■ 

-1- iinj*' -.u-.  -•',.  ^  /re  ;fi 

’  *JiJ'5■ir^3V•^'  ;;X  -'.•  '' ^i’.'  :  .f  f  ly’if'.i*  ,  'i.rj^;i::-  i  X 

-U  ^  '  '  '  ■'^  'i'  ..  ■'  '  <  .' 

y»  '  '  -  - 

.'  i  .;r'J  .  3  ,X  .ton  /ifv-'  ;  .'.;  .y.  :vf)-.;;.*.i;v  ^ 

X  ■'  .  '  '  '  .  ■  ';  '■  ^  •  .’  -c  •  -  ;.,  VM-'.r  »-  -'o'*"  ddj 

■»  . 

*  7*  -  - 

■  ■  V  iiv  ^  ^  o 

.  x;’ •_  'Miw:  ■  "  c  .  X.  ’  y 'C  '‘oi  -•‘5o^cva  \;;. 

•  *  1  .,  .  ''i.  •:.  *  XtiMdconx 

■:  v->c  •  ^  "-y  /*3o''  <.  Xr(j  »a4?o  orw’'^''*  'i-t  '  icooXX/l'i 

*  .  ■’*'  ■  'XyTdojl  iiV"'  '  .  Bfik'i  "  ■  .1  ' 


3ays  Serhoy  Yefrsraov,  an  authority  on  Ukrainian  literature,  ’’the 
field  of  Ukrainian  literature  waa  already  cleared,  but  it  re¬ 
mained  unused  -vvaitin^;  for  someone  to  come  with  a  suitable  instrument, 
add  his  labors  to  it  by  breaking  it,  and  soav  thereon  select  seeds  for 
the  benefit  of  his  native  land.  This  last  work  is  the  result  of 
Kotliarevsky^s individual  labors.  For  this  reason  his  works  had 
and  still  have  not  only  the  literary  value,  but  they  also  became 
a  social  factor*  Bhey  became  that  kernel  whence  grow  both  the 
Ukrainian  literature  and  the  social  activities  in  Ukraine  as  a  de¬ 
finite  whole  of  ideas  which  leave  the5.r  mark  on  all  matters  of 
national  character.  ” 

Kotliarevsky* s  first  great  work  of  invaluable  importance,  by 
which  he  virtually  started  the  literary  revival  and  the  restoration 
intellectually  of  the  nation  v/hich  was  now  enslaved  politically  was 
his  translation  of,  or  more  accurately,  his  parody  on  the  ’’Aeneid”, 

The  first  cantos  of  this  poem  appeared  in  1798.  In  this  work  the 
poet  set  up  a  memorial  to  his  nation  by  transfer ''•ine;  the  unhaopy 
state  of  things  in  U>rai.ne  to  the  city  of  Troy  and  applying  it  to 
the  Trojans  driven  away  from  their  home,  which  were  sympathetic 
features  to  the  Cossacks  who  were  in  a  similar  way  made  fugitives 
from  their  own  home*  The  Aeneid  was  written  in  a  popular  way,  so  that 
it  was  not  difficult  to  understand  it.  The  Ukrainian  and  Russian 
intelligentsia  on  the  first  appearance  of  the  book  ridiculed  it; 
but  when  they  read  further  on  and  ca.me  to  the  point  where  the  poet 
described  the  agonies  of  the  lords  in  Inferno,  they  began  to  re¬ 
flect  on  the  treatment  of  their  slaves.  In  reprimanding  the  rich 


yf. '  “  ’’H 


■■:  V  " 

.A'i  V*  ...  -.-:  ;■  '/;d  u  ’  or  e'iQ.d^jj’  ^irf 


’  a 


'C-O  •'■  '.’  *,'.  J.  V-*  .  ^ 


.  j 

ir/i 

■•tA 


'  ’i^r\i'J; .‘lO  •‘•oi’'  v”7s:'; 


■  .  ■-■■  4‘  1  ‘  .  -^ 
"*  .  '‘^’  -**' ,  <*1 


,>:■  v-ilV 

,  .*  <v  ‘ t>  {!  .  ''  ’  '*■  ■' ■*•  ■  -f'.^  • ’.  •  '^' .j" 

'  •  '  ’■’■■  ■/■>''  ‘  '  '  ■  "  ., 

i'v/^  ■  'l/^o'ro  i  '  '  '*.  j 

■‘Y’ ’  "  •  '  .  1  /  . ,  , 

>  ;-  ■;-^r  ■.•'{  r  ; '".Jf ’X5v  o*l  rfoitiw 

.•  '  ,  r.v;ir  ■.  ^-f  fini'"’  tr  ^  l-ilh  -jO  V^Xwr'ov 

,  ...  ".V.  ^  .1 '•}  ".lavfoojfa  v)':vCK'T  lo 


’iCi 

f'.'  .!"'  .  „r  , 


■,r 


','  I*. 


•■  -  .  t;  Y-'n‘‘wr*i^:  ^  Li-  o '  ‘  i  '■••  ■  'C' 

■*  '.  .  .  '  ■'.si*.* 

....  ■  '  •.  .’,  -U  '/r  c:  ,fyi.-i''r-'':'  Cd 

..i  y/.o\1  f  '■■'•■' Cv- 

';  /  ,  y  ■  ,J 

;*)'ri  v  ':  .1.1-  >  i;j  O'i7i^!o-(’V  'i;iyi'''Ko  f-y.y  f  r  v  '  ’i; 

:  'j-<v»*;  ’  iM.’J  fO'iW  •♦t.-i-  . 


‘i*t  ■  t(.I -JC  or-t*  0^’^'' 


tri'.,-.  fi‘,i?V? 


-'Y 


class  he  says; 

’*Th'=»r9  they  tortured  all  the  Pans, 

And  scorched  them  from  all  sides, 

This  for  giving  the  poor  no  peace 

And  for  treating  them  as  beasts.  ” 

Here  the  author  clearly  shows  his  s^/mpathy  for  the  serfs, and 
the  verses  are  no  doubt  a  sincere  expression  of  his 'inner  feelings* 
In  reply  to  Aenea^*  inquiry  as  to  who  is  eligible  to  be  admitted 
to  Paradise  he  replies  in  part: 

*'Not  the  ones  whose  coffers  are  filled  with  gold, 
or  those  whose  bellies  bulge  out. 


Not  those  with  book  in  hand 
Not  the  knights,  nor  robbers. 


But  those  who  are  poor,  humble  -  -  - 
Those  styled  as  fools. 

The  aged,  cripplled,  blind 
Those  who  are  ever  ridiculed  -  - 

Kotliarevsky  does  not  therefore,  leave  us  guessing  as  to 
his  sympathies  or  antipathies.  He  takes  the  tv^o  extremes. 

Heaven  and  Hell,  and  around  these  he  centres  the  whole  of  his  dis¬ 
course.  He  is  actuated  by  strong  ideals  which  ha  determined  to  put 
before,  the  public  and  thereby  to  effect  the  reformation  of  the 
social  system.  This  was  the  burning  question  of  the  day,  and  he 
felt  that  it  v/as  his  mission  to  devote  himself  to  the  work  and  to 


-224- 


'.C 


ondeavor  to  brinf^  about  the  changes  ,  the  time  for  which  was  long 
overdue.  In  England  the  correanondinc  period  was  more  clearly  de¬ 
fined  for  the  work  in  purely  litgr^ary  pursuits.  There  Gray  and 
Goldsmith  a  few  decades  prior  to  this  date  marked  the  triump  of 
Romanticism  over  Classicism.  And  though  a  little  later  ^"^r iters  like 
Burns  dealt  with  the  cause  of  the  common  people  and  with  the  social 
conditions  in  their  country,  yet  we  see  that  their  not  far  distant 
followers  like  Wordsw’orth,  Coleridge,  Scott,  Byrom,  Shelley,  Keats 
and  others  took  a  great  interest  and  found  time  to  treat  in  their 
works  not  only  of  matters  immediately  pertaining  to  human  life,  but 
also  of  inanimate  nature,  Kotliarevsky  was  not  as  free  to  do  the 
same . 

In  his  Aeneid  the  poet  is  so  clear  in  depicting  the  character¬ 
istics  of  his  Gods,  and  he  makes  them  such  earthly  characters  that 
no  difficulty  is  encountered  in  finding  their  prototypes  on  earth* 
Having  shown  us  the  life  of  the  Gods  on  Mount  Olympus,  Aneas  hastens 
to  the  earth  below  to  join  the  conmion  people  of  whom  he  is  very  fond. 
He  says, 

"And  new  must  part  I  with  Heaven, 

‘Tis  time  for  me  to  descend  to  earth 

Here  he  finds, only  on  a  smaller  scale  than  on  Mount  Olympus, 
similar  quarrels,  drunkenness,  oppression,  injustice,  and  disorder. 

Two  other  very  important  works  of  Kotliarevsky  besides  the 
Aeneid  which  are  in  fact  a  continuation  of  his  advocacy  for  the 
emancipation  of  the  coimnon  people,  are  his  dr amae  entitled  "Natalka 
Poltavka"  and  "The  Muscovite  Wizard".  They  were,  as  it  were,  another 


-2?.5- 


.  c 


■'  *'■  ■  i!j|';’ :w^’-:'v _  ,.  ^  '»i  ■ 

■■f  :  nj.iinov  ’j 

f  ^•'*  -s  V  ‘  '.,  '•’•■ ' 

.  ,-vAi.:.'  v-';.>'t’fg.  rit  ’';ii 

<  ’{Q  -  i3->xb/VJ’i6»&  1- +’1 t  [f‘i.t^<sf'».l0\^, , 


ff  w 


c  i'‘C’i  -1^ 


.  "  1 


•ro;,v:'0';)  la  '  Oi''.' 

■■*.%’■■  '  •  .  ■ 

,  i.v'  ,1  ,  ^  ^  V;i^Wto!:v 


':v  )■ 


•■  ■,,  ■  '.1  hrjito’.’  f-  ■  V  «vt*/n'' !#W*t?  ci-iooJ'jvi-v-.'icit  £>0'''  iX'.'Xi 


’-('M.  'W  ''f  ,  j--i:-iS-.ax_:AO  av'  l>:'. 


/ ; ,.., 


‘  '-i'*  i:i'  i^'oc;  -xd.;!  6d  Br(e/  <i '  ■ 


«•'  T'x4r:f;ofino  '^^nvyVVXxb  'c.'^ 
.I-  U’C^V  no  \vOoV'  -vX;  Ic  cdi '  nt:f  •r-rcif^ 


INI*.-  .  .  jOi  .^ir'rtAV 


*'• 

.  P 


■(  :■■  1C  <,'.:iCorr  ruin' .oy^b-  r';cr.  Cl  i .  d  r:  '  V'n  ^  c?d  r' 

.  .  .  ■  ■■  '  '■■'.M.'."'  "X/'  • 

,  „  ■  H'lt.fcv, 

t  'it  '-iH-ii-  I  d.’.  f';.*'  ‘u.ft.#* 

^  vru  ^iO"x  0*:t;.,  '  •  ' 

>:  ;r '  ffO  Hi'K).  •d^^f.:1  '^M  u*l-:'*l 

■^1  ■  .  >•  ii’ 

/fH*  '  ’  '•/'>’ 

.  /.JV--  '.'Q  vbr.c'.^ 'toot*  ^ 

\  '  ''  '  '  '  .  'd.  *^V '‘-Ik 

KHv'  ,’»  r/n  ''c?  (iq  ‘  Vj-' 

n,  ■■■■'.  SlOO  :  ':c  fY''>  \  .•  ■•.  :  ■■  ‘I 


•  ,•  !'. 


phase  of  his  attacks  and  criticism  of  the  higher  classes.  The  former 
drama  even  to-day  enjoys  a  great  popularity  pjnong  the  Ukrainians, 
and  in  travelling  through  the  Canadian  West  one  often  comes  across 
a  quaint  country  school-house  or  a  "Reading  Room"  where  a  party  of 
amateurs  find  great  joy  in  acting  the  play,  and  their  audience, 
in  watching  the  performance. 

Kotliarevsky  wrote  little,  but  that  which  he  has  written  has 
proven  to  have  been  of  great  consequence.  Ho  was  consistent  in  his 
tendencies , and  his  outlook  on  life  was  indivisible.  Having  in¬ 
herited  from  his  predecessors,  particularly  from  Skovoroda,  a 
humanitarian-democratic  inheritance , he  succeeded  in  dressing  it 
in  a  new  robe  and  supplying  it  with  new  blood  by  means  of  a  living 
language  of  the  people  •  Once  started  ,  he  continued  to  sow  the 
seed  of  justice  and  human  sympathy.  The  people  were  a  foundation 
on  which  he  commenced  his  work.  Former  literature  and  its  ever¬ 
lasting  traditions,  supplied  h5.m  vfith  moral  essentials,  while  his 
motive  from  the  psychological  point  of  view  we^  a  love  of  his 
country.  The  fortunate  combination  of  these  circumstances  counled 
with  his  education  and  genius  made  Kotliarevsky  the  foremost  figure 
in  the  revival  of  Ukraianian  Literature  and  a  leading  personage, 
both  in  theory  and  in  practice,  in  laying  down  the  foundations  of 
a  democratic  national  movement  in  Ukraine.  Up  to  the  time  of 
Kotliarevsky  Ukrainian  literature  was  not  in  the  strictest  sense 
altogether  national,  for  the  essential  element  in  which  is  the 
language  of  tre  people,  was  generally  speaking  missing,  while  in 
cases  where  it  was  employed,  it  was  done  so  rather  sporadically 


.226- 


J 


'  ‘it/:  ^ 


■  .  ’  .•'*•''■*■  '<  .  ^  f  r  ^  ^  ■*  ’  •'  1 


n,9^^^  .xv-xgv: 
'•» . 


.I-'  ^  C 


■.  v;tj  -  *''-‘'J<i  •*  \.  - 

r .'  j  ■  ■  T.jip ’■  /' i'’.c -'« i  .-4,^  ns.  !in 

^  .C^-  V  '.  itX  c’  J.'./'i-,-  urri'i 


tfffl:  .r: '2  •;•“;•  'i.ffj  -  ;  .^';b''^y‘V  .r. 

^  . 


^ICfCn'.'i  '.  y  •-■  <  j'  •-' '^ir.c  ■•  ;'■■•’■'  ^  7^C  .Vi’'f'6-j 

-V'  ■  ,  ^  ^  •  vi-  'c  n/,  :i3i  7:70fc{tt;^ 


.  C  ■•*  .,  'if  xL!>iJ  rfff  RX)Yj, 

i  '  '  •  .'  ■  : 

:  :‘^'  r  Tv  bot'r7c};77Xlf2i; 


V'*  (fv  '  r  .f.c  br*/.  abo *( V .  r .’ 


,0"i 


.-r/' 


'.Ic 

!0 


•  cjr  r  '  ■  ^ 


■«X^otiq  o£.j  'io  e  jj.’iw;  .i'_ 

•■  jiC*ni  ■\  .  •.<£.(•’'•7  r  - 

37:'.''  r  .  'V  ■'*:■'  •.  '.h**' '.'C' ?.;<  rini^v:  H 

..  '  ■•'Tufi-  ‘  V-  ... 

jv  '. <:•  f  ■.’rq  ....  .  .‘i’  ''i:  3'i;  •  ■  >.] 

^  'i y:fi  !  ’". ' '  ( j  .)  >  .-f  ►  I .•  L.'  J  30 :*  O l1'  «  .  fU?C  3 


C:  r.i' •  -'Oj' 


;■( 


:c 


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y-w  sT«> 

c 


S'/,‘  .3  '  ":c  .'  RviV'?3  o.  ..r  ■ 


f;.;  37-/  ’  30 7  /  r,:  .  ; 

•.  .'C  •  .f  fT<  ■  i  O  •  ' 3  jO'-*  'V  A 


*3  . 


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■'■■  '  V-S/'O 

37ii "O 

.*•  -so-  .S’- 

r  iJrr  'iv*. 

c 

V*  *C 

-  o  ,  ,«5.y.1|  ^  h .*'  *. p- .  , .  •; i 


than  continuously,  and  was  often  not  lon^  adhered  to.  It  is  ho 
who  marks  the  commencement  of  e  period  wherein  native  lan£uag;e 
■becomes  a  condition  precedent  to  the  creation  of  Ukrainian  liter¬ 
ature  and  forms  a  nart  and  parcel  of  It.  He  observed  the  fact  that 
”?.e  ton  fait  musique"  as  Yefremov  states,  and  he  shaped  his  works 
accordingly.  In  his  opinion,  and  history  has  proven  that  he  was 
correct, a  reform  towards  democracy  ,  humanism,  and  national  inde¬ 
pendence  could  only  be  rightly  and  speedily  effected  with  the  aid 
of  the  language  of  the  people  concerned. 

The  literary  activity  of  Kotliaredsky  and  particularly  the 
great  popularity  of  his  works  awakened  the  Ukrainian  intelligentsia 
to  a  life  of  thinking  which  a  great  number  of  them  were  secretly, 
consciously  or  unconsciously  ,  follov/ing.  There  existed  latent 
powers  ,  but  someone  had  to  arouse  them  to  action.  Kotllareveky 
started  the  stone  rolling  and  no  opposing  force  has  ever  since 
been  able  to  stop  it. 

Naturally  this  great  Ukrainian  revivalist  had  ready  follo?rer3. 
The  new  ideas  propagated  by  him  became  a  living  factor  in  the  nevT 
movement.  The  language,  traditions,  and  the  songs  of  the  people 
were  loved  and  respected,  as  is  seen  in  the  various  works  of  the 
numerous  writers  of  lesser  and  greater  importance.  Among  the 
more  talented  of  his  followers  were,  Artemovsky-llulak,  Hrebinka, 
Kvitka  and  Borovikovsky  who  wereamong  the  first  to  meet  the  advent 
of  a  new  character  of  literature  which  was  now  making  its  way  into 
Ukraine  from  the  If^est,  namely.  Romanticism. 


-227- 


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Petro  Artemovsky-Hulak  1790-1866. 

Artemovsky-Hulak  was  the  first  writer  after  Kotliarevsky  to 
gain  prominence  and  popularity  in  Ulcraine. 

He  studied  in  the  Hiph  Schools  in  Kiev  and  completed  his 
University  education  in  Kharkov  in  the  University  which  was  estab¬ 
lished  in  1805  as  a  result  of  the  untiring  efforts  of  Skovoroda. 
Students  of  various  nationalities  attended  the  University,  and 
Artemovsky  had  an  opportunity  to  learn  foreign  languages  and 
something  of  the  customs  of  foreign  people.  He  mastered  the 
Polish  language  on  which  he  lactu^'ed  during  his  undergraduate 
course.  Meanwhile,  he  was  preparing  for  his  eramination  in  history. 
Having  passed  this,  he  became  professor  of  Russian  history,  which 
position  he  filled  until  1850,  He  then  retired  and  lived  on  a 
pension  in  Kharkov,  until  his  death. 

Not  having  yet  broken  away  from  the  old  system,  Artemovsky 
at  first  wrote  in  Russian,  but  when  he  became  familiar  with  the 
works  of  Kotliarevsky ,  ha  began  to  use  Ukrainian,  and  soon  becpjne 
a  noted  satirist.  Like  his  predecessor,  he  did  not  epare  the 
Pan  in  his  satires.  This  he  shewed  in  his  story  entitled  ’’A  Pan 
and  a  Dog”,  which  story  is  responsible  for  the  very  common  Ukrai — 
nian  quotation  ,  ’‘Every  Pan  is  a  dog”.  His  slogan  alw8.ys  was  , 

”Hs  is  a  fool  who  goes  to  serve  foolish  pans, 

A  double  fool  is  he  who  tries  to  please  them.” 

A  protest  against  serfdom  runs  through  every  line  of  the 
story,  and  critics  of  the  time  expected  nothing  but  continuation 
of  the  work  which  he  undertook  with  such  boldness.  The  story  was 

-228- 


well  written  ,  and  the  life  of  the  peasants  and  their  subservianre 
to  their  overlords  was  clearly  depicted.  Owing;  to  this  he  soon 
brought  upon  himself  the  wrath  of  the  Pans,  which  he  did  not  hood, 
however,  and  carried  on  his  work  riving  promise  for  a  great  literary 
career* 

But  it  was  not  long  before  a  turning  point  come  in  his  success, 
which  disappointed  his  friends.  Due  to  his  epicurean  philosophical 
tendencies  he  became  inconsistent,  and  without  any  apparent  justi¬ 
fication  verged  off  from  his  original  purpose.  He  well  expresses 
his  irresponsible  spirit  in  two  lines,  saying, 

’’Whether  you  shall  live  or  die,  Parkhom,do  not  worry. 

Care  thou  but  that  thou  have  enough  to  drink." 

It  is  really  difficult  to  understand  Artemovsky,  but  when 
reading  his  poetry  it  stakes  one  as  if  there  is  in  him  some  curiously 
cynical  trait,  a  mixture  of  high  idealism  with  a  correspondingly 
low  practicalness,  but  the  inevitable  sumning  up  is  almost  in  every 
case  the  pessimistic  "all  is  vanity". 

So  that  Artemovsky  apparently  made  no  attempt  to  7o  back  to 
his  earlier  tendencies,  and  died  much  less  popular  than  at  the  be¬ 
ginning  of  his  career.  At  the  same  time,  it  must  be  remembered  that 
his  earlier  works  were  timely  and  therefore  affective,  and  they 
insure  him  a  place  amongst  the  leading  writers  of  the  period. 

Hr ehory  Kvitka  (Hrytsko  Osnovianenko) ,^778-1843. 

Knltka  was  born  of  a  wealthy  family  in  Osnova,  near  Kharkov, 
Ukraine,  He  was  an  invalid  from  childhood,  but  life  in  the  open 


-229- 


out  in  the  country  where  he  was  raised  was  very  favorable,  and 
he  eventually  completely  recuperated.  He  acquired  his  education 
at  home  where  his  father  had  tutors  for  him,  one  of  whom  was 
Skovoroda.  He  proved  to  be  a  diligent  student,  and  in  addition 
to  what  he  got  from  his  teachers,  he  eagerly  listened  to  the  stories 
of  his  father,  who  was  a  great  story-teller  and  never  ran  out  of 
material  for  stories  on  patriotic  subjects.  At  the  age  of  23, 
Kvitka  joined  the  monastic  order,  but  in  spite  of  his  strong  re¬ 
ligious  proclivities  he  remained  in  it  for  only  four  years.  Then 
he  went  back  to  live  among  the  peasants  whose  life  he  studied  and 
he  got  so  fond  of  them  that  he  pledged  thereafter  to  work  in  the 
literary  field  for  the  cause  of  the  common  people.  Leaving  his 
home  he  went  to  Kharkov  vrhere  he  came  in  contact  with  many  educated 
people.  He  was  anpointed  Director  of  a  theatre,  and  later  the 
principal  of  an  Institute  for  Girls,  and,  ajz  the  same  time,  an 
Associate-Editor  of  a  paper  entitled  "Ukrainsky  Vistnyk”.  He  died 
in  Osnova,  his  home  to7m. 

It  was  during  his  connection  with  the  ’’Ukrainsky  Vistnyk" 
that  this  contemporary  of  Kotliarevsky  commenced  his  literary  career 
He  began  writing  novels  at  first  in  Russian  and  later  in  Ukrainian. 
He  was  therefore  one  of  the  first  to  commence  novek  writing  in 
Ukrainian,  In  them  he  embodied  the  life  and  customs  of  the  peasant 
folk,  and  his  success  in  this  field  was  so  great  that  he  was  soon 
proclaimed  as  a  novelist  of  the  first  order.  He  is  a  didactic 
w-'iter,  for,  while  in  some  of  his  novels  he  described  the  people 
as  they  were,  in  others  he  tried  to  point  out  what  they  ought  to  be 


-230- 


and  how  they  ought  to  live.  In  fact  his  whole  aim  seems  to  have  been 
to  put  the  Ukrainian  peasant  In  as  favorable  a  light  as  was  possible 
and  to  show  that  although  ha  was  virtually  a  slave,  ho  possessed 
very  desirable  traits >  and  was  deserving  of  as  much  respect  and 
consideration  as  the  Pans  and  the  intelligentsia  whom  he  oftentimes 
ST(;trpa3SQd  in  his  conduct. 

Among  the  more  important  works  of  Kvitka  are  ’’Marucia’’  , 
"Perekotipole”  ,  and  ’’Kozir  Divka’*.  These  were  really  amongst  the 
first  novels  not  only  in  Ukrainian  literature  btit  in  all  literatures 
dealing  with  the  life  of  the  people  and  showing  a  sincere  sympathy 
towards  them®  His  desire  was  to  show  that  in  cases  of  the  most 
simple  there  ^’^•as  beating  a  human  heart  similar  to  that  of  the  privi- 
lagsd"'  classes#  It  may  he  noted  that  Kvitka  outstripped  both  the 
French  and  the  German  ^^Trlters  belonging  to  the  same  class,  for  he 
wrote  his  novels  before  George  Sands  who  described  the  French 
peasants  in  his  works  in  1841,  and  Auerbach  who  wrote  his  ”Dorf- 
geschichten”  in  1842*  This  circumstance  could  probably  be  explained 
in  the  first  place  by  the  fact  that  Ukrainian  literature  ,  being  in 
a  sense  since  the  revival  a  new  literature,  v/as  less  bound  by 
the  set  form  8,3  those  which  developed  without  such  a  serious  decline 
as  it  did,  and  in  the  second  place,  since  the  Ukrainian  language 
was  now  coming  into  use  and  prominence  as  a  literary  language,  it 
was  quite  natural  that  the  tendency  of  the  writers  be  to  use  it 
for  advocating  democratic  principles  and  to  treat  of  subjects 
vrhichWere  of  greatest  concern  to  the  classes  which  formed  the 
majority  of  the  nation,  and  which  heretofore  were  sadly  neglected. 


-231- 


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Kvitka  had  a  thorough  kr.orrledg©  of  Russian  literature,  but 
it  cannot  be  said  that  be  approved  of  its  generslcharacter •  His 
criticism  of  it  vras  ,  that  the  Russians  were  soaring  to  the  skies  , 
forgetting  that  virtu©  and  beauty  were  more  easily  to  be  found 

I 

amongst  the  coimnon  folk  and  in  the  simple  things.  In  this  respect 

he  resembles  Wordsworth.  His  "Marusia”  shovrs  probably  most  clearly 

and  effectively  his  warm  sjTrpathy  for  the  people  and  his  sincerity  , 

and  it  is  therefore  nothing  to  be  wondered  at  that  the  reading  of  the ' 

novel  brings  tears  to  one’s  eyes.  He  has  one  of  his  characters 

expressed  well  his  predominating  principle  by  having  him  say, 

’’Everyone  Is  a  brother  of  ours,  be  he  of  our  own  village,  or 

that  of  another,  of  a  city,  a  German,  e  Turk,  still  he  is  a  ms.n  , 

a  creature  of  God»”  In  his  ’^erekotipcle”  (Ja  certain  piece  of 

land) ,  Kvitka  showed  how  right  triumphed  over  wrong  .  This  is 

done  with  the  aid  of  such  a  dumb  witness  as  the  rushes  of  the 

Steppe.  Unfortunately,  Kvitka  was  blind  to  the  evil  of  slavery. 

The  worst  evil  which  he  could  see  was  in  the  moral  downfall  of  a 

man.  For  this  reason  he  is  quite  forgetful  of  the  social  phase 

of  human  life  and  centres  his  moralizing  r9m*e,rks  on  human  morality. 

He  very  well  saw  the  disorder  and  unfairness  of  the  social  structure,  ■ 

and  criticised  it  wherever  possible.  But  he  regarded  the  evils  5^ 

more  as  personal  faults  and  did  net  seem  to  realize  that  they  J 

underlie  and  are  responsible  for  the  existing  injustice  in  society. 

This  is  probably  due  to  his  origin.  But  we  must  give  him  credit  f 

.  .  1= 

for  his  consistency  in  unwaveringly  adhering  to  the  ideals  which 

r? 

V. 

he  formed  and  ever  endeavoured  to  spread  by  means  of  his  novels.  £ 


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Evhen  Hrebinka  (1812-1648)  , and  Leonid  Hlibiv  (1827^1893), 

Theaa  two  writers  are  considered  by  critics  as  the  most 
popular  of  all  the  Ukrainian  welters  of  narratives.  Hrebinka 
was  born  at  Poltava,  where  he  spent  his  boyhood  days  and  attended 
school.  When  he  became  of  proper  military  a-e,  he  entered  the 
army  where  good  training  and  promotion  Enabled  him  to  get  a 
position  as  teacher  of  military  schools  at  St.  Petersburg.  IThile 
there  he.  corresponded  with  a  number  of  Ukrainis.n  men  of  letters, 
and  formed  a  close  friendship  with  Shevchenko.  His  first  volume 
of  stories  were  edited  at  St.  Petersburg  in  1634.  But  it  was  rather 
unfortunate  that  he  wrote  mostly  in  Russian.  Influenced  by  the 
environment  in  which  he  found  himself,  he  slavishly  followed  Gogol, 
and  fpund  little  time  left  to  devote  his  energies  to  purely  Ukrai¬ 
nian  literary  pursuits.  But  what  he  has  'vritten  has  its  value 
not  only  because  he  was,  to  a  certain  extent,  a  pioneer  in  this 
field  of  literature,  but  also  because  he  impresses  a  reader  with 
his  subtle  method  of  employing  animals  for  the  purpose  of  pointing 
out  the  social  inequality  which  was  the  cause  of  most  disorder's 
in  the  State, 

Hrebinka  preferred  writing  in  verse^  which  will  ever  remain 
a  gem  in  Ukrainian  literature.  But  his  prose  works  are  also  worthy 
of  mention.  In  some  of  his  prose  works  he  gave  us  a  beautiful 
view  of  nature  in  Ukraine. 

Hlibiv  was  born  at  Poltava,  the  birthplace  of  the  former 
writer, where  he  studied  both  in  the  public  school  and  in  the 
^Gymnasium** ,  in  which  latter  school  he  was  forced  to  give  up  his 


course  for  awhile  owir?;  to  vsickness.  Having  regained  his  health 
in  the  country,  he  returned  to  the  rriTnnasiuTn  and  graduated  there- 
iVom  in  1855*  Three  years  later  he  was  appoir.ted  to  the  staff  of 
a  Gymnas  iura  at  Chernihov,  and  there  he  established  a  newspaper 
which  was  edited  both  in  Ukrainian  and  in  Russian.  In  1865  the 
Russian  Government  forbade  the  publication  of  It,  and  also,  for 
this  defence  of  the  Ukrainian  people,  dismissed  him  from  his  po¬ 
sition.  Life  to  him  was  miserable  now,  for,  after  the  death  of 
his  wife,  he  remiined  for  a  long  time  in  po«"'  health.  In  1867 
fortune  smiled  upon  him  a  little,  for  he  was  appoi^^ted  manager  of 
a  large  printing  pre^ss  in  Chernihov  in  which  he  worked  until  his 
death, 

Hlibiv  wrote  mostly  narratives,  and  besides,  he  was  the 
innovator  of  a  new  poetry  which  dealt  with  riddles  and  jokes. 

He  took  great  pleasure  in  writing  for  the  children,  and  for  all 
young  people  in  general.  Like  Roherf  Louis  Stevenson,  there¬ 
fore,  he  has  the  reputation  of  thoroughly  knowing  the  psychology 

of  the  child.  His  characters  and  examples  were  very  true  to 
life,  and  his  style  simple,  so  that  his  works  became  very  popu¬ 
lar.  Hlibiv* s  poems  are  very  fine,  lyrical  and  touching.  One  of  his 
poems  has  been  arranged  to  music  and  which  is  a  great  favorite 
amongst  young  and  old  is  that  entitled  ”  There  Stands  a  Lofty 
Mountain”,  Here  the  poet  strikes  a  sad  note  in  saying  ”  And 
youth  bygone  once  and  for  all,  *  twill  never,  never  return”.  He 

seems  to  have  been  a  close  observer  as  well  of  inanimate  as  of 

human  nature  and  also  of  animals, 

-254- 


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f/r'.  -'tfjffi  I'i  '  ;  ^-c^-i  ir  c-'fi/,; 

,■}  uCf«  ::urU^Ll  ni  ■'i;;,rr:A* 

‘to  •. .  jT  vrUt  co:.4d7</z ,  v.f*ivrifr''iCVoO 

,  .,;■.  ‘j;.  r  ^  ■  -qo.^q  -n’:.' 

\  t  '■■•■iu.o \ .Ut  'JLOcd  'o^  .ol-.t-’' 

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^•  -,f'  I.,  .*  avo-t  ft  ' ;  L  “t'K  ,  .”  ;;7joiyc.'t 

tC’ 

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,  ..  7  '  / *iV/*i''iO  ‘■.‘•icJ.  .  '  ' '.  -  *”  '  ..'  .'.'O': 


'.'0  <, v..^.'  ■  •. 'ir .1;  ni^.’ 

^aVlrtk^y^Ali  •  ilV  ^ 


In  all  these  he  finds  the  essence  of  good,  **Truth,  education, 
virtuous  life”,  these  are  tie  guiding  principles  in  all  his  tales. 
Henever  forgets  to  give  his  own  opinion  as  to  what  he  thinks  is 
good,  and  he  uses  concrete  and  striking  examples  to  illustrate 
his, point.  For  example,  after  he  has  related  a  story  about  "A 

Straw  Man”,  he  adds: 

”Such  straw  mwn  are  also  found  amongst  the  people,  and 
they  do  no  one  any  good; 

^Tis  time  that  neople  stopped  to  act  as  straw  men  vroulc. 

We  ought  now  to  a  greater  aim  aspire,  to  seek  a  living  word, 

knowledge  and  truth”. 

In  rare  cases  Hlibiv  to  a  certaih  e^rbent  used  the  satire 
for  the  purpose  of  correcting  wrongs  done  in  commuhnity  life.  In 
one  of  his  tales,  for  example,  he  compares  a  poor  man  with  a  lamb 
and  a  Pan  with  a  wolf,  v^hich  ,  desp  ite  the  weeping  and  entreat¬ 
ing  of  the  mother  to  spare  her  child,  mercilessly  chokes  it.  This 
in  his  view  is  not  onl^;  inhuman  but  also  unpatriotic,  for  it  tends 
not  to  order  but  to  dis  order  in  the  State,  It  may  be  noted  that 
the  writer  is  sincerely  patriotic  and  constantly  refers  to  such 
virtues  es  goodness  ^nd  truth,  not  merely  as  desitable  virtues 
from  ethical  considerations,  but  also  because  they  tend  to  bring 
harmony  in  the  community  and  in  the  state.  Ever  keeping  this  thought 
in  his  heart  he  interweaves  all  his  stories  with  his  moralistic 
admonitions.  His  great  patriotism  almost  restricts  him  in  his 
works  to  his  own  country,  and  he  is,  therefore,  not  univeraal  in  his 
scope.  But  the  history  of  the  period  .justifies  him  in  this.  Yet 


-235- 


t 


i:.  ‘  c 


P? 


tun 


Y 


n 


,  .^  , 


"•<?'!T  tii'T’rf,’!"  1^;  'rT'  :  ■' 

pn4'i 

o.*-  I-'.  '  - 

.  ... 

.  Vf.  '  o;. 


'rtci* 


'i 


P 


.  tdicc,,, 


■  '^■;  -■■  '  ■  ’. 

'•  .■jiii/Q*!  ^ ricj-fc :' 

-  ^  ■■  ■'•j.t^oc;  •■•■'■•"■  o!i  it 'c-  .■’.■•  I v* 

-  ■':•  y.L'':*e  {)<?■■/ O".'-.  .'-..'.T* 


.  ;  !*,•»,■.£  •  '•  ■  -  u’i'noT*'’  1^1 ’j » t v> "i "i o  ■  >  'xc  V'* 

. >•■  ^  ■  K  'j'  ’^’..  o‘>  ^  ^  ^  *‘.tf{'''^''  -no. 

^  <  ,*>J0W  A*  f 

,•):  -j'iirfswiV(f  i»iMj|  fi/i(iiiini'.c  >  ■.:■'•  ->'  i'-'' .  '"•^ 

,,j  .  .  ^  ^  i-,-\  11}  ■  *'*»h'u  ct  ;^r<P  '  0.  ^ 

•>•»  'V.*!  y.  .  •  '  I  '  ■  "'I  ’^,I.V  '’iUi'’'.>n  ‘  4(  ;  ^ iifTt^  •  '.^ 

•  •  .';.W,!.4'M.  V'-'-’-"  .'■  ■  br^r 

'r  ,  ,>  ,  c  J,''  ■  ,  '.!■ 

Ip  ,.  ,  .  ..VJtfi-'  .W  »  '  '•  Vj:'^h:mn- ,^{'-  ':i  v^ICiir/‘'‘* 

,,  ..  •  •  ;  :C  '  ^  JI.^  .V::  .'  ^’it:s::i'  ‘tl 

*  ,  -p*-  .  •' ;  U  lys  '  ^oi'i'-  cl-  * 

■•  .  ■  ,  ^  tfri,  ,  'Cl- 


he  is  always  orij^inal  and  has  not  yet  been  surpassed  by  any 
other  Ukrainian  writer  in  the  same  field. 

Amvros e y  Metlinsky  (1814-1870). 

Metlinsky  was  a  son  of  a  poor  family  who  lived  in  Poltava. 

He  studied  in  the  public  schools  of  Hadiach  and  later  in  a  Gym¬ 
nasium,  and  in  the  University  in  Kahrkov,  Durinp;  his  under¬ 
graduate  course  he  lived  with  professor  Artemovsky-Hulak,  who 
helped  him  considerably  with  his  study  of  Slavonic  languages.  He 
also  became  familiar  with  Slavonic  writers  who  wrote  on  Ukrainian 
subjects,  and  these  first  opened  up  to  him  the  beauty  of  Ukrainian 
poetry  in  which  he  became  so  interested  that  he  soon  began  to  'Com¬ 
pose  verses  and  himself  becaraie  a  great  poet.  Having  graduated  he 
became  instructor  in  the  University  in  Kharkov,  and  later  in  Kiev. 
Returning  to  Kharkov  he  lived  there  until  the  beginning  of  his 
mental  sickness  in  1858.  He  went  to  Geneva  and  later  to  Crimea 
for  purposes  of  a  cure.  But,  ?/hile  in  Crimea,  he  fatally  wounded 
himself  in  a  fit  of  mental  derangement  and  died  a  premature 
death. 

Metlinsky  dealt  extensively  with  the  fortunes  and  misfortunes 
of -the  Cossacks  whom  he  considered  to  have  been  great  Ukrainian  he¬ 
roes.  He  wrote  mostly  lyrics,  and  as  a  lyric  poet  is  considered 
to  have  been  the  greatest  before  Shevchenko.  He  edited  a  volume 
of  poetry  in  1839.  In  this  volume,  besides  hfs  own  works  he  also 
included  translations  of  Bohemian,  (Czech)  , Slovak,  Polish,  Ser*bian  , 
German  and  other  writers.  A  book  of  his  purely  Ulcrainian  songs 
and  ooems  was  edited  some  fifteen  years  later. 


-236- 


The  political  works  of  Metl^nskry  are  filled  with  pessimism, 
which  sow'^times  makes  them  difficult  reading.  He  seems  to  be 
always  ’’crying  over  spilt  milk”  and  has  little,  if  any,  hopes 
for  a  better  future.  He  bewails  the  sad  lot  which  befell  his 
native  land,  but  has  not  enough  courage  or  initiative  to  denounce 
those  who  are  responsible  for  the  existing  despotic  rule  in  the 
country.  On  the  contrary,  apparently  under  the  influence  of  Russian 
writers  like  Pushkin  and  others,  he  talks  well  of  the  Czar  and 
his  attempts  to  keep  his  enemies  under  his  heel.  His  ourpose  may 
haae  been  in  this  way  to  gain  the  ruler* s  good  will  with  respect 
to  the  Ukrainian  people.  If  so,  his  efforts  were  not  in  that  par¬ 
ticular  crowned  with  success. 

Like  Hlibiv,  Metlinsky  is  sincerely  patriotic,  and  he 
attributes  much  of  his  patriotism  to  his  old  grandmother,  who  was 
the  first  who  taught  him  Ukrainian  songs  and  the  language  which 
he  later  thought  was  the  most  musical  language  he  had  ever  heard. 
Remembering  his  grandmother  in  his  poems  he  says  ; 

”Sh0  ever  loved  me;  in  songs  she  enwrapped  me. 

With  the  native  7rord  she  nurtured  me, 

-  The  native  tongue  she  taught  me”. 

As  later  his  own,  so  were  his  grandmother  * s  songs  replete 
with  stories  of  the  old  glory  of  Ukraine.  It  was,  therefore,  she 
who  was  indirectly  responsible  for  his  recasting  of  such  a  valuable 
work  of  his  as  ”Kozacha  Smert”  (The  Death  of  a  Cj^ssack),  although 
it  is  true  that  he  got  many  of  his  ideas  for  it  from  a  German  poet 
who  had  previously  written  on  the  subject.  He  saw  the  dangers  threat 


-257- 


,  f  I 


. .-  T  s.  .  ■-  -\-,  '  ..  'j  ,’  “u.'':  'T.":.  ^  . 


_-lr:.:'  iruitu  ■/''■  ^  .v  a"’ '-'  -■'■ 


0  ..:.e'r 


,  ■ r  .  N  ’  ", 

VT.',  ',  -  .-  '  ■ 

.  ,o  '"(■  :’-'  ror;i, 

«,•*#».  j.tta'i".  '-W  it,-.  '■  ^ 

/  ,  n  ':v:j  I'/.'-  '44?  v  4'ir.rr-.:' ' 


f;  '  ■  ••  f  '>W>  .' 


u/'.  :':4i-: 


:  .  Kr*K-"|  •  'f-  ao;‘  ;orw  ••. 

,  .  ,•;  .’  ;  *ip:'", 

^  1.  fv,st  P'tov-  ' 

.  I  ,.  I(.,^  , 

'  ,  tU  ■  r.f,  '..  i  /  ^  .  r  '•■  ^■''- 

^  1:0*  ^’oXS?'J -r  c-iOj'- 

<■..  -h  ■  .  .i..  ■,..  vM  M.e:-!,:  .  i-** 

^  ’T  ;V.<a'*i  -»r  t  '  !«:<'  io,/'  f’.**  %i  .;  "I'C' 

-  r.-  .  V  ..'■  -  '*:•  .  ;  "•  ■  ■^-  -•' 

■  'i;:  1  .0  rr.;,</v. 


ening  his  mother  tongue,  and  on  many  occasions  he  seems  to  show 
his  anxiety  for  its  existence.  But  about  the  year  1338,  when 
certain  writers  reported  on  their  investigations  ort  the  Ukrainian 
language,  he  became  hopeful  of  its  future  development.  However, 
in  spite  of  his  love  for  his  own  language,  Metlinsk;^  would  not 
exclude  foreign  influences.  His  purpose  was  to  educate  his  people 
no  matter  where  the  knowledge  came  from,  and  this  he  well  expresses 
In  one  of  his  poems  in  which  he  says  ; 

**Out  into  the  world,  let  us  seek  knowledge.* 

There* s  no  use  sinking  with  hands  raised  un! 

The  brains  of  others  is  our  assistance, - 
Out  into  the  world  let  us  depart.” 

Mikola  Kost omar  iv  (1317-.1885) . 

In  a  striking  contrast  to  the  lyric,  pessimistic  poet, 
Metlinsky,  stands  out  the  optimistic  historian  Kostomariv. 

Born  of  a  wealthy  parentage,  Kostomariv  was  sent  to  schools 
to  be  educated.  When  he  ^ms  in  his  ’’teens”,  he  lost  his  father 
who  was  killed  by  his  serfs  to  revenge  his  mistreatipent'  of  them. 

In  "his  seventeenth  year  he  registered  in  the  University  of  Kharkov 
where  he  became  a  member  of  a  secret  society,  and  through  which  act 
he  incurred  the  displeasure  of  the  Czar.  VJhile  here  he  commenced 
to  compose  poems,  to  study  Ukrainian  and  to  write  articles  on  the 
historical  value  of  national  poetry. 

In  1845  he  obtained  a  position  as  teacher  of  a  gymnasium 
at  Kiev.  Two  years  later  he  was  arrested  for  being  an  active 


-238- 


■...;  ti”  .  vt  .V ’■',1  .  >^0^1  ^  !.r- 


■,  ‘  r-  ^ v'i';  ■  i'-  f,  .;:•■■  .  c 

I  %  •*>•'  i:a.  '■  '  C  o 

^ CvfT.i’ 

'J  •i:  ■  t/,'  ''i  .  ‘  .  -  ;  4.  X.;  J  .  ?  V/  >4?  .  .  I 

^  Xl/O^  e-C  C.  ■  ■•  ■'-I;-: 

>fl  w'  ■*'’4  CXf^;t  >. 


't  ■  ,  il  :<•;•:■' 


{*  ^  ^  ■  •'  ;>'  'fwb*!>i  -I  .'.J, 


'>■•  1  ■,  .  ■ 

^  :.tr^ 


member  of  the  Society,  which  had  for  Its  object  patriotic  work 
amongnthe  Ukrainians.  He  remained  in  prison  at  Petropavlovsk  until 
his  pardon  in  1856  by  Czar  AleKander  11,  After  his  release  he 
became  professor  of  the  University  at  St,  Petersbu>"2  from  1859  to 
1862.  He  died  in  St.  Petersburg  in  1885, 

Kostomariv  left  behind  him  a  name  of  a  noted  Ukrainian 
historian.  He  wrote  considerably  in  Russian,  but  contributed 
much  to  Ukrainian  literature.  He  is  said  to  have  been  the 
first  Ulcrainian  historian  who  paid  more  attention  not  to  the 
States,  as  is  the  custom  of  many  students  of  history,  but  to 
the  people,  having  regard  to  their  life,  customs,  traditions, 
songs,  stories  and  beliefs.  He  was  a  close  student  of  the  various 
Slavic  nationalities,  and  was,  therefore,  in  a  position  to  defend 
the  historic  rights  of  the  TJlrrainlan  people  and  to  show  thet  they 
were  a  distinct  nationality  from  the  Russians.  So  that  v/-ith  his 
death  in  1885  it  was  particularly  the  Ukrainians  who  mourned 
his  loss  and  not  so  mnch  the  Russians,  as  the  informant  in  the 
Encyclopedia  Britannica  would  have  us  believe. 

As  an  historian,  with  an  open  mind,  Kostomariv  doe^n 
not  merely  record  historical  events,  but  also  stops  to  dwell 
on  the  economic  and  social  conditions  in  the  State.  He  resents 
tyranny  and  injustice  practised  on  the  helpless  classes.  Truth 
and  will,  fortune  and  fate,  are  in  his  opinion  the  attributes 
of  Christianity.  He  stood  for  Slavdom  free  and  unfettered,  and 
for  each  nationality  to  develop  according  to  democratic  principles. 


-239- 


' -  mriolk 


i 


f  f,: :  1  '.C 


Oy  •  /;  - 


<, 


t.- 


;  ijOi-c' 


I'C  .. 


•J 


t. 


e 


0,‘ 


(  ^  0 


.A'il  _ 


j .  A  *<>;< 


Khmelnitsky  is,  therefore,  in  his  opinion,  a  real  democrat, 
fully  conscious  of  hi?  national  duties.  What  Kostomariv  fails 
to  achieve  in  his  historical  treatises,  he  effects  with  his 
dramas  where  he  very  skilfully  introduces  charactF^rs  to  represent 
the  forces  stru^^glin^  in  society  for  supremacy,  ms  stron£;0st  wish 
is  expressed  in  one  of  his  short  verses: 

'*A11  races  will  awake, 

A  legacy  eternal  will  they  take, 

The  foe  of  a  thousand  years , 

A  foe  will  heslege’*. 


Taras  Shev  chenko  (181*1*1061). 

Practically  every  nation  has  had  its  beginning  away 
hack  in  the  mysterious  past,  in  times  which  are  beyond  the 
memory  of  man.  Then  it  lives  a  life  of  a  human  individual  in 
many  respects,  but  one  on  a  larger  scale.  It  lives  a  life 
of- vigor,  prosperity,  progress,  happiness,  weakness,  poverty, 
decline,  tribulations]  all  these  depending  on  the  internal  con¬ 
ditions  of  the  State  and  the  management  thereof,  on  its  relations 
with  the  neighboring  States  and  on  various  other  considerations. 
Ordinarily  if  any  changes  take  place  in  the  life  of  a  nation  they 
appear  to  be  slow  In  coming.  Yet  in.  rare  cases  a  man  arises 
oftentimes  ont  of  an  insignificant  source,  becomes  a  great  warrior , 


-240- 


■C'. 


,  ic  ; 


^  m 


^  s: 


.  0  'i  :  o 


c'r‘.  .  ■) 


’".  ?■■  ■ 


^  l'‘u (d  'Xf\  ':Jt  .  jJiio.n  -  o: 

■<  c  z^  ;s  •  ..../•■'..‘.^•S’e- V- -  ■“  ■ 

•■  ■  f:.:  MV-:?  ••■ 

:  ex:i  "it  t  ..:  t5  .»s-';'9  w.i^'  s': 

Vv  ••  /..'/. 'V 

^  -Ifc;’  '.y  ■  '  \  '  A 


t  R  ■:,  V  :  j  n  f ‘  u  i/u  it.-'  a 


lo  vo‘i  -‘M’T 


~  S  A  .'.  'W  .'C  »  ' ,  . 


f® 


'■ 

■  ■  ..  •  -  %f 

S-^' .  SXj  a"3k/V.^  r!  "i  >Ky^ 


:.'.:c  ...  -■•  •,,"'v're  ^ ■  •'' 

^:A’J:y  '  '  \  ‘  :• 'X'' i_  .  ‘  « V  :' '  . 

•C  w  ■’  \^.ovXl  ^  ('■  ;'  .  '.o 

*t/;X  '  VC  ;;»o  -^'v’ 

,  '.:  -  S',  <  /  '•- 


■ ‘vii.f'.ii  ?.j‘  . 


'.■■Sjii 


statasman,  or  writer  and  is  hailed  ns  a  leader  of  men.  Ukraine  m 
had  oassed  through  its  golden  era,  and  through  its  decline,  it  had  | 
leaders  great  and  small,  but  it  was  not  until  the  beginning  of 
the  19th  century  that  the  greatest  of  all  the  distinguished  ITktal-  ^ 

I 

nians  arose,  a  Ukrainian  without  an  equal  — -  Taras  Shevchenko. 

Out  of  a  country  where  the  national  and  social  conditions  were 
rigidly  fixed,  there  came  from  the  lowest  ranks  of  a  morally  and 
economically  oppressed  people  a  poet  whose  whole  life  ws’*  a  steadfa? 
and  continual  protest  against  all  forms  of  despotism.  He  was  a 
serf,  yet  his  spirit  and  genius  have  placed  him  in  the  foremost 
position  in  Ukrainian  literature,  and  it  is  hoped,  v/hen  he 
becomes  known  to  the  world,  be  will  he  accordedthe  position  wpich 
he  deserves  in  the  literatures  of  the  world. 

Shevchenko  was  born  on  the  9th  of  March  1814  in  the  vil¬ 
lage  of  Morlntsy,  on  the  River  Dnieper,  in  Ukraine,  a  nlace  south 
of  Kiev,  the  ancient  cradle  of  Ukrainian  culture.  H|.s father 
was  a  serf,  and  while  Taras  was  still  a  young  lad  they  were  moved 
by  their  master  Engelhardt  to  the  village  of  Kiriljwrka.  Fere  Taras 
lived  for  fifteen  years  of  his  young  ILfa,  and  of  this  spot  he  has 
vivid  reminiscences* 

At  the  age  of  ten,  Taras  lost  his  mother,  his  father 
married  again,  his  new  wife,  a  widow,  bringing  in  her  children 
to  the  family.  Two  years  later  his  father  died.  He  was  now  a  help¬ 
less  orphan,  and  his  troubles  began,  for  his  stepmother  was  quite 
open  in  her  discrimination  against  the  poor  boy.  And,  indeed  he 


-241- 


i: 


V  , , 


< 


C 


4 


poor  and  left  to  shi^t  .for  hlmsolf,  Tn  ban’^^H.thing  his  nroporty 
to  the  family^  his  father,  Gregory  Shevchenko,  apportioned  so  mrch 
for  each  memher ,  but  to  Taras  he  gave  nothing,  saying  that  he 
will  be  no  conin'on  man.  By  using  his  ability  he  will  either  be¬ 
come  a  great  man  or  a  rascal,  and,  therefore,  in  either  case  the 
patrimony  would  not  be  of  any  use  to  him.  He  was  obliged  to  mind 
cattle  f>’oin  Spring  until  Autumn,  while  during  the  winter  he  con¬ 
tinued  his  studies  which  he  began  during  the  life  of  his  mother, 
with  a  local  precentor  who  did  not  believe  in  sparing  the  rod, 
and  particularly  in  his  periods  of  inebriation,  which  were  ra¬ 
ther  frequent,  as  a  result  of  which  he  often  used  to  run  away  and 
conceal  himself  for  several  days  at  a  time  in  the  shrubs  of  hi s 
neighbor  in  the  same  way  ffs  he  did  to  e^scapo  the  wrath  of  his 
stepmother.  Lucky  was  he  if  before  making  these  retreats  he  could 
take  along  with  him  his  brush  and  paints  vrherewith  to  attend  to 
his  hobby,  and  if  his  faithful  sister,  Iryna,  could  find  him  and 
stealthily  supply  him  with  food.  In  one  of  his  poems  of  early 
boyhood  he  recalls  the  few  happy  years  vrhich  he  enjoyed  during 
the  life  of  his  parents;  how  happy  he  v/aa  minding  sheep  on  the 
outskirts  of  the  village,  but  how  the  sun  had  soon  set,  +he  sky 
became  overcast;  he  looked  at  the  lambs,  they  wore  not  his;  he 
looked  towards  his  home,  and  it  was  not  his,  ’’and”,  he  says, 
’’heavy,  heavy  tears,  streamed  dovTi  my  cheeks”. 

Tiring  of  his  treatment  at  home  and  at  achool ,  and  seeing 
that  while  he  remained  in  his  home  village,  he  would  have  to  soend 
many  of  his  days  in  hunger,  he  made  up  his  mind  to  go  out  into 


-243- 


the  world  and  to  try  his  Inch  itiTie:'ant  oainter  of  TconvS.  He 
thought  that  fortune  was  smiling  on  him  when  he  fotind  a  man  who 
required  his  services  as  apprenticed  painter,  but  who  required 
Taras  to  get  a  written  permission  from  his  master  to  allow  him 
to  enter  apprenticeship*  But  when  he  applied  for  same  to  the  ' 

manager  of  the  master's  estate,  he  noticed  the  cleverness  of  the 
boy  and  decided  to  keep  him  and  make  him  his  valet, 

Taras*  new  life  now  began.  His  master  was  very  fond  of 
travelling  through  Russia,  He  now  took  the  young  boy  with  him  on 
all  his  journeys.  The  boy  secretl^r  painted  whenever  onportunity 
presented  itself.  His  master  soon  found  out  that  no  amount  of  bru¬ 
tal  treatment  could  prevent  him  f’^om  stealing  pencils  and  caper 
:**or  his  drawing,  so  he  conceived  the  idea  of  exploiting  the  boy's 
talent  for  his  own  benefit.  He  would  apprentice  him  to  a  minter 
and  reap  good  returns  theref'^om.  Accordingly  he  left  him  with  a 
painter  at  Warsaw^  where  he  rema^ined  for  a  year.  Prom  Warsaw  he 
was  transferred  to  St,  Petersburg  where  he  was  apprenticed  as  paint¬ 
er  and  decorator.  Needless  to  say,  this  was  just  the  work  he  cra¬ 
ved  to  do.  However,  it  cannot  be  said  that  he  was  very  happy, 
for  he  could  not  forget  the  beautiful  natural  surroundings  of  his 
home  in  Ul^’aine,  and  he  often  longed  to  go  back  there.  But  his 
freedom  ss  painter  was  not  as  much  circumscribed  es  when  he  served 
as  a  valet.  He  often  got  out  and  wandered  through  the  streets, 
where  he  studied  the  pitiable  conditions  of  the  poor  enslaved  people. 
He  contrasted  them  with  the  ruling  class,  and  his  spirit  resented 
the  injustice. 


-243- 


'  * 


^  '  w'^w-iotr.  'iWTi 

■'  "r  ' \  ■ 

».  <.  .n  ' -^'jS*  •  ^  -vv  ■ 


r.r:  r;.'  ■  o:;- 

“  -  ^  .’  ;  ;-j 


:i'f 


•J'  Q  o’: .'O’  •'  i  t  o-'^’-'V’^?- :  ^ '• .' * «sj?:';t  ',’. '‘■;..r;rj;.;';i 

'i-v  •;>:  rii-'  vo  ‘ 

L .  ,-■■  ..^  ^r:  t !  ^  )';,i  ,;  ,  Wf “if,  y 


■'fy 


-.■  j 


XXr 


*■  riv> 


I  •>  •■  :“.  r  i  'I  I 

<♦  * 

■a ;  o- 


.  ;'"r>u  ■>■.■;;  ''ol  '  ;  :.v 

"  ^  IS 


,.  ••  c'  ■"-  ■  ■'  '■j:'  'Xv:  rA'q  '\Lp'-*  -^.r  ,  . •^* '■ , oi''; 'xuo ",  oji' 

.irr.-.-'  CO  r>rMO'i  rscoi’ 

•.,•■■■•,  I.-: v,dvXx- '  , 

‘' •rXf/'ToO'-^'  .-osSu'i'  :>  ctir;r;'3'i  Koo;'  rrx.‘>ot  ,bvfJ8 

/  ’  '  v.  ;.,.  in' 

o  ,  '  ■  •  •  '^*  •;,  9a‘.'.C<!)©el'‘  . 

M  -  ..  qfo«  •  -  ^  -;:;  o  :'.r  ^/rxoov:v''  .c  '  cJ  h^-V 

.;, -'-rio"  •  If  r-*f  X  ^  o-M  ,;r‘  'r'‘  '*00,  f-f' 

•  V.  ,  ,  '  ■  :••  ";,o  cr'  ;>■  ^  -•x.o.-f 

.■  '*•  ".•ji  1  f’  '  BA  i??irr  '^'i/v'.-.y  •  ..x  ^'■''>‘s1 

„  f-  '  .>»vo  ■  toi^  rr^.l'ro  /j  .  ■■ 

.  R(’.o  *  J  ■  j'‘;ftXX.cu  ■'i.'*'  P'^'i'^o  X  vii 


*#<JCQ 


mf 

f- 


.iBVlr,y  ‘its  'j 
.JLl.*-Ai 


•  >U' 


*  In  St.  Ptaterabur^  be  formed  «<'qn‘ilTitance  -^Ith  h5  3  country¬ 

man,  Soshenko,  which  acquaintance  proved  to  be  of  o;reat  beno-f'it  to 
him.  Sonhenko  be^'ame  much  interested  in  hir  studies  and  hia  life, 
and  gave  him  to  read  works  of  various  writers.  He  also  introduced 
him  to  Hrebinka,  the  poet,  to  the  noted  painter  Brulov,  and  the 
Russian  poet,  Zukovskj’. 

Taras*  distinguished  company  of  new  friends  saw  In  him  a 
man  of  unusual  intellectual  abilities  and  agreed  that  he  ought  to 
be  registered  in  the  Academy  of  Arts,  where  he  could  develop  his 
talent.  But,  this  was  not  possible  without  encountering  some  obsta¬ 
cles—  a  serf  was  absolutely  debarred  from  admission  to  the  Academy. 
However,  the  Director  of  the  Academy,  Brulov,  was  determined  to 
have  him  as  his  student*  He  conceived  a.n  idea  for  the  lad*s  eman¬ 
cipation,  A  pxjfctfaitof  a  fsmious  poet  was  painted.  In  which  work 
Taras  collaborated  with  Brulov*  This  was  raffled  bringing  a  return 
of  2500  rubles,  which  were  a  sufficientamount  to  purchase  the  boy* 
freedom*  For  the  first  time  in  his  life  Shevchenko  was  a  free  man 
This  very  important  event  took  place  on  the  4th  day  of  May  1838, 
when  he  was  24  years  of  age. 

Now,  Shevchenko  felt  that  he  was  a  man  in  the  full  sense 
of  the  term  and  that  his  origin  would  no  m.oi’e  stand  in  his  way, 
barring  ,  as  it  did  heretofore,  access  to  the  educated  world.  We 
have  proof,  however,  thatsince  he  was  now  himself  free,  he  fully 
realized  the  privilege,  and  his  heart  ached  more  than  ever  before  , 
for  it  was  no57  to  others  that  his  s^onpathies  went  out. 


-244- 


■  c>=: 


'..K  u- 

’*^-0 '!:*)(/». vl’o^  '  ..c  : , ..  ^  s 


•)  •  T  ‘ 


r'  x  .  .. 


...’•G  .  ...  o 


;  'x:::  ./:■ 


r? 


IG 


t 


/4 


As  to  the  use  he  made  of  his  ovm  freedom,  one  can  vrell  ^ 

imagine  how  he  would  try  to  gratify  his  desire  for  learning.  His 
friends  were  very  gene>-ous  to  him,  with  the  result  that  ShevchenVo 
soon  read  the  history  of  the  world  and  translated  works  of  a  num-  | 
her  of  great  poets  and  writers.  His  knowledge  of  foreign  literaturei*^ 
was  in  a  great  measure  due  to  a  Pole  named  Dembinski  and  a  German 
named  Schternberg.  Through  reading  Shevchenko’s  eyes  became  open-  / 
ed  to  the  nast  of  his  motherland.  An  ancient  Ul?:rainian  history  made  ^ 
him  realize  the  place  which  his  country  once'  occupied  in  the  his-  I 
tory  of  the  world,  its  present  condition,  and  what  position  it 
should,  as  of  right,  hold.  Diligent  studies  and  consideration  of 
these  questions  were,  of  coiirse,  to  a  certain  extent  an  obstacle 
in  his  progress  in  painting.  But  as  far  as  we  know  the  director  of 
the  Academy  was  well  satisfied  with  his  work.  That  his  personality 
and  genius  were  appreciated  is  also  apparent  in  the  fact  that  men 
like  Count  Tolstoi  and  the  Governor  General,  Repnin,  were  among 
his  intimate  friends. 

But  the  reading  of  literature,  his  own  and  foreign,  aroused 
the  Ukrainian  Muse  in  Shevchenko,  Valuable  works  of  Grecian, 

RoWn,  British  and  other  great  writers  had  a  considerable  effect  ] 

on  him^  Of  the  British  writers  particularly  Shakespeare,  Byron  j 

and  Scott,  who  were  his  favorites,  and  with  whom  he  was  very 
familiar.  The  condition  of  his  onpressed  brethren  gave  his  mind 
no  peace.  As  he  himself  admits,  oftentimes  while  he  was  busy  ; 

painting  in  the  Academy,  there  would  appear  before  him  a  Ukrai-  * 
nian  village  with  a  blind  ’’Kobzar”  (a  wandering  minstrel  playing  I 


-245- 


o 


If. 


J'O:.'  '  J."  ■  7(0-'  i 


)  it\ 


( 

♦ 


i  I,  Z'  ^  iui/- 


•  '  ”\f  flit* 

■  •'•«  h/rc.- 


c 


on  an  Instrument  which  resembles  a  mj^ndolin)  ,  playing  a  sad 
tune  on  his  instrument.  Then,  too,  he  would  see  the^Hetmana” 
and  the  ’’Hnidamaki'*  (hii^h'myman)  .  His  ^’^edltatJ.ons  ^avr-  expres¬ 
sion  to  poetry  which  he  began  to  write  with  success.  Presently 
he  had  a  small  collection  of  poems  .  With  the  financial  assistance 
of  his  fri^nd#^  Martos^he  edited  them  under  the  title  of  "Kobzar”. 

In  the  follo^ving  year  he  edited  his  ’'Haidajnaki'* ,  an  historical 
poem  of  the  days  of  trials  in  Ulcraine.  The  effect  of  these  poems 
vras  instantaneous.  A  concentrated  latent  force  was  set  free. 

The  whole  of  Ukraine  felt  it  and  proclaimed  the  poet  its  indisnu- 
table  leader.  In  his  poems  he  spoke  on  bahalf  of  all  of  his 
countrj^en,  and  he  spoke  in  tH^'^ir  ov/n  tongue,  which  had  hitherto 
been  sneered  at  as  being  a  rude  jargon  of  the  serfs  and  peasants. 
He,  therefore,  lifted  it  above  arjplaced  it  in  the  ranksof  the 
literary  languages  of  tVie  world.  Natui'ally  xn  reclaiming  the 
language  he  also  reclaimed  the  self-respect  of  his  people.  He 
brought  back  in  his  poems  the  past,  described  the  pitiable  condition 
In  which  his  people  were  found  groan5,ng  under  a  yoke  of  oppression 
and  admonished  them  to  open  their  eyes  to  see  the  exivstine:  injus¬ 
tice.  What  he  wrote  was  a  plain  truth,  and  the  ideas  which  he 
expressed, "^heref ore ,  spread  very  rapidly.  As  a  free  man  awakened 
once  more  in  a  serf,  so  was  the  spirit  of  the  vrhole  people  born 
again  with  new  hopes  for  the  future. 

In  thb  year  1843  Shevchenko  visited  his  own  country,  now 
as  a  man  learned  not  only  in  the  art  of  painting  hut  also  in  other 
branches  of  kncrwledge,  for  he  had  been  occasionally  attending 


^-246- 


r  '  4  •  ■  *  .  •  ■  '  .  * 


Xnl''-  ■  ■  ’lo -f! 

I  ' .  •  .  .  .  ' 

•-■'  '?■..•  '  ^  .iv-J-iot*  .,oi  if:  :‘Sii  ■' 

.  «  ^  *  * 

j.'  *'  '  •■  '  "  ■<  V  • 

<\\P^  ‘‘O'l'L'-fJ  ■'  »?^v  .$-i^.i 'i.i'  ::«>  Yc- 

".  ■  '  '  ' 

j  '-:  y'v:o''  ,-i  , ■jtro-^r.'^;c,’'ni'4 oui:  ‘  ' 

'  .  ,  ••  ■'  .  Mi 

d-r  j-  rji'tiv '’X?x>'iY^  fvfTJt*  ■:  ‘’.wor  u-it  ;• 

.  • 

<■'  'io  '^y^^^^■:.6^^  a'ytdOif  '4'^  ^ ‘y  r,y^  1  0X4^ J  ■■  '  ' 

•  .  .  .  •'"to  "'  ' -o  /si  ^V'  '■  :  U>^’ ‘ 

T  ’  u‘.r*;  -  ^  ,^r  t  rc  '\’i-'r  .-  •  u  ' 

-•■I  ec^i-J'r}  ri  „  .  .fw  :^'’0'’  ''  :';  i 

■  .  ■  ■  '■  >  ■•  ■ 
..:'Yc  IJ< 


"■-'“I'  '.  f  Ci1r7;|' 

.O7-  'I  p7.i;i 

.  •.  >V  ^r‘  •  ••.;  1*  C.L-.-: 

'  •.  ...  . 

.  zU'".  rr  .*-  - 

,::•  ■7W'. 

-C  .  \o’,.  '»  '  •. .-  :;i; 

.  O':  ■  r.i^n'i  /:rt.  ••/ 

;■(,  .'•  ’  - 

.1  .1 

#*7^  de»  »v,  -; 

'  '  .  att''-'c.  Ci  ; 

r .;  ju'  ;  J 

-.  ‘  X.  ' 

;.  •  V’  '.;  fi 

^  / 

_'7j  •  1: 

rr;->  -*i‘:.  ■:  .  ,  ■. 

Y’:-  '  fv  *■  -• 

t  nr/X  t 

r  V'"  .  '.. 

..  ■  ■  ‘ :  t  ^  A't7  .  n  ,  c  C 

':o-r  ,  -  "o 

.  IJ'i  yi’f  'lo'l  5'-.70.i  '  ^Ol. 

‘  ^  \  \<i  ^Mtiy  0i‘:X 

'  ■_- 

.'•’  ^'■'*  i  l/fj  ‘--O 

•■  '  *  '1  x_t)  ^ 

k  w  baI 

r;%'  tr. 

.  L«  All 


lectures  at  the  University,  and  besides,  read  ext^ensively  in 
private.  After  a  short  stay  in  Ukraine  he  hurried  back  to  St, 
Petersburg  to  the  Academy  from  which  he  was  gradu'^ted  a  year  later. 

To  his  personal  freedom,  and  accomnlishments  there  was  nov/ 
b)it  one  thing  lacking,  and  that  was  to  return  to  his  homeland 
once  and  for  all,  and  to  devote  his  life  to  the  service  of  his  people 
This  he  did  soon  after  his  graduation.  As  was  to  be  expected  he  was 
hailed  by  his  countr^anen  as  a  great  hero,  and  both  the  rich  and  the 
poor  arranged  banquets  and  receptions  in  his  honor,  and,  i  t  is 
said  that  a  lady  of  high  rank  and  great  wealth  kissed  his  hand  as 
a  mark  of  respect  for  him.  Happy  was  he  too,  to  once  more  re¬ 
unite  with  his  relatives  and  friends,  and  to  listen  to  the  Great 
Dnieper,  which  he  fairly  idolized  ,  to  view  the  wide  Steppes  over 
which  the  Cossacks  once  roamed  fighting  for  freedom,  and  to  admire 
beautiful  Kiev,  the  mother  of  Ukrainian  cities.  Here  Shevchenko 

'  r 

was  engaged  in  a  very  agreeable  work.  By  an  arrangement  with  an 
Archaelogical  Commission  he  was  sent  cut  through  the  Province  of 
Poltava,  Chernihov  and  others  to  make  drawings  of  the  historic 
Ukrainian  buildings  and  places.  This  work  was  a  God-send  to  him. 

He  could  not  have  en^cyed  anything  better.  These  travels  were  an 
aid  to  him  to  learn  still  more  of  the  past  history  of  his  people  , 
and  thereby  to  gather  material  for  his  poems.  His  work  was 
pleasant  ,  for,  because  of  his  genial  personality  and  generous 
spirit  he  was  quick  in  form.ing  acquaintances.  Like  Goldsmith 
he  was  always  poor,  not  because  he  was  not  earning  enough,  but  be¬ 
cause  what  he  ma.de  ,  he  either  gave  away  to  the  needy  or  sent  it  to 


-247- 


>  L*.  -■  *=  'i 


■  ■  "r  sa% 

.1  /  • 

'  J I 


■"  ?  '  t  . 


■  ■  .  w^} 


''ii  :  i '  •  •.'7''r  9 id  -'v 


.■;;d  r^x'  ^ 

''fM!'.  \Vk'^..  M  r\  •  fT, 


i ''’7’,r  :  'iC 


-■i  0  rf’O 


'ipy^V' 


■  ■  C':;  t  '  ■■  ■  vr'. 'rrii'O'' 

,  ,  ■  '{  ri' e v •'■  7  rim-..  ■'  '  ^  7'..r<v 

■  •  >  ’  ■  ,  1.  k  ^  '  . 

-‘z.  ■•-•'••v’lr  '•■  .*?;  h/’sp":  ,.1  *'<•••  :'.^:^.';i 

J*  *  »  -,'  ,  -. 

TIW.I  'v-"  tO'u^  "v/^-  ,• 

5  •r.Ci'-;  '-.■■  •  '.  ■•'  c  ?  e^.t^  trr^.  .' ■  f.'.'v 

:  ^  ^  \J’xcy'^i  o'  V),’  t  "^oaeinO. 

•  .*  ■'■  *11.''  •  .;,r?:V:^:>*l  :'-i  r-cv  ^Q/fO  ..’ ;  ...  * 


;  'c 


ri-.t  .: 


r/":'^  :  4io: 


-.K 


.>  .  ’-  Mryi;.’  '■■■.■ ':  ,  ti’! 

Ty;.*-. -.  ■^v.  V  '  ,rj 

4'.' 

*#T!  .';o.  '  .1  '>  j ''  -J-c^  o  £wy?rftHit‘' 


>■' 


,  0  ■>'  r  '  li-:^  f  V  ^  ^  >0  .  f" 

<Jdi  ‘■/o  Jl 


•;  <:■  ^ 


-.'■.  ^  jsiT'  7V^^'^  oj)  cd ',  v--’*'  '  ■’  ^■<:i''' 


l.J  >. ■^  J'p 


■U  «»i.  -•■''»*!  ,  '>,1 


y.  •*» 

.  ;/r'a 

"  t'd.  ,  V 


his  relatives  who  he  hoped  to  eventually  emanicipate  f'rom  bondage. 

But  probably  Shevchenko  ras  happiest  at  Kiev  vrhere  Ukrainian 
culture  both  old  and  new  was  concentrated.  Here  there  had  been 
reviving  for  some  years  past  an  intellectual  life  in  which  he 
was  much  interested.  Shevchonlco  and  a  number  of  other  intellectual 
leaders  in  various  fields,  including  University  professors,  formed 
a  society  called  the  ^’Cyril-Methoditis  Brotherhood’*,  the  aim  of 
which  was  the  federation  and  freedom,  of  the  Slavic  races.  And, 
while  the  poet  was  an  active  member  of  the  society,  his  friends 
planned  for  his  further  studies  in  painting.  The  wife  of  the  most 
intimate  of  his  friends  Kulish  was  willing  to  sell  her  family  jewels 
for  that  purpose,  and  he  w'^s  to  be  sent  to  Ttalj^  to  continue  his 
art  studies  there,  A  probability  of  a  future  Ukrainian  Mazsir.i 
would  at  this  stage  of  the  poet’s  career  not  have  been  too  pre¬ 
sumptuous  to  conjecture.  Then  too  arrangements  had  also  been  made 
to  establish  for  him  a  chair  as  professor  of  art  in  the  University 
at  Kiev. 

Unfontuna.tely ,  his  dreams  and  the  dreams  of  his  friends  could 
not  be  realized.  In  1847  the  Russian  Secret  Service  discovered  the 
’’Cyril-Methodlus  Brotherhood”  ,  and  ordered  the  arrest  and  banish¬ 
ment  to  Siberia  of  a  number  of  the  prominent  members  thereof.  Among 
these  was  Shevchenko,  who  in  addition  to  his  connection  with  the 
conspiracy  ,br ought  upon  himself,  particularly  through  his  poem, 
’’Caucasus”,  tthe  wrath  of  the  autocratic  Ruler  Czar  Nicholas  I  . 

To  illustrate  the  point  I  v/ish  to  cite  a  few  verses  of  the  poem 


-248- 


•  . . 

■  ■  ^  ^  \ 


■■  .•■  ;  .*,  ,  -Afte 0.  ^pv' -H-jQ.  ru.'v  bS.0  J4c4 

;  I .  ■  I J-o Ai  j.  ;■  : .-  ;  j3 ;:  u.c ^ \,  "o':  rM' V  •  'i 

.'  ■  ‘ '“  v^V  <i.ii{i^^i-ii^4h‘:l-  ,■ .'  ;^->^',i-r:,'  >i.,'-' 

:^'  .  ’‘"'O  ->■:,  ■ 

“  •  ■"  ^.....  •  >•■'  >'  ■'.'^; 

■  "  ■  .•'  *■- 

'V..'  0  •■f/'flO  ,\:  ttlioOfi  ~ '4. 


► 

'"^Ci  nol 

-  ‘  ■  ■■■  ’  '  ;■:  .-.‘- 

-  ;>’U^ 

•  ■  ^  ■•'.  v;':  J..  '•..!•"»■•  o^tv^.v  ;  -^0 

.f  :'■  ■  "  -■(  ■'  •  '•:  ’ 

'  r  :?  - 

d'cT  C'!r  ^  f*'-' 

-  •  ’  '  •!  . 

:'i:4U  i»  "< 

f'  ■■ 

•'?tv  oX,:r 


(ij; 


'.(■■■ 


;  ,  ^  ■;.  '■'  '..x ' 

,  r  '  n  '■•'  a;:  ■  i' -:’u'‘':  . -c 

»  '■  ■'v:^  '■'  ' 


*,<«! 


iViaC'  Oi‘  ‘  *:€  6)1  ■  i;5'  o '’ 

■  *  *  .  '  .  ■  ^ 


tr  f'u'fJrV 


•".Av't'-  'i*"  *9'r'  '  '.  ' 


;!*t^  -i '  .  •  ■  t 

' )  ^  c  r/ 

-•f  ’f'’' *  V  I. ',  -  t  .  c^rJ 


1 5.4  >)  .  ; /cJifA  •jn.t  Sjij':  # 

.)  ;  L  !  •  K  I  .^  - 

IV  //  i  , 


ably  translated  Into  English  by  Dr.  A. J. Hunter  of  Teulon 
Manitoba; 


’’Beyond  the  hills  are  mightier  hif  s. 

Cloud  mountains  o’er  them  rise. 

Red,  red  have  flowed  their  streams  and  nulls, 
They're  sown  with  human  woes  and  sighs. 

There  long  ago  in  days  of  old 
01jTr.pus'  Czar,  the  angry  Jove, 

His  wrath  did  pour  on  a  hero  bold. 

On  brave  Prometheus,  he  who  strove 
The  fire  of  heaven  to  seize  for  men. 


Look  at  us  in  tender  heartedness, 
All  in  hunger  dire  and  nakedness. 
Forging  freedom  in  unhappiness, 
Toilingever  without  blessedness. 


In  faith,  there's  wido'Ts'  tears,  I  think. 
To  all  the  Czars  to  give  to  drink. 

Then  there's  tears  of  many  a  maiden 
Falllng  so  soft  in  the  lonely  night, 

'  Hot  tears  of  mothers,  sorrow-laden. 

Dry  tears  of  fathers,  in  grievous  plight. 
Not  rivers,  but  a  sea  has  flawed, 

A  burning  sea, 

A1  all  the  Czars  who  in  triumph  rode. 

With  their  hounds  and  gamekeepers, 


-249- 


Their  dogs  and  their  beaters, 

Msy  glory  be  ! 

To  you  be  glory,  hills  of  blue. 

All  clad  in  montrous  chains  of  front. 

Glory  to  you,  yo  heroes  true. 

With  God  your  labors  are  not  lost. 

Fear  not  to  fight,  you* 11  win  at  length. 

For  you,  God*s  ruth. 

For  you  is  freedom,  for  you  is  strength. 

And  Holy  Truth.” 

For  such  and  other  bold  denunciations  of  the  Muscovite  Ruler 
and  for  refusing  to  retract  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  the  Govern¬ 
ment  offered  to  be  lenient  if  he  would  do  so,  he  wss  sent  to  the 
fortress  of  Petropavlovsk  from  whence  he  was  exiled  to  far  Orenburg, 
Later  he  was  transferred  to  Orsk  amidst  the  Kirkhiz  Steppes  ,”tliat 
God-forsaken  place”,  as  he  says.  His  guards  were  specifically  in¬ 
structed  by  the  Czar  that  he  should  be  given  no  books  to  read  nor 
be  allowed  to  write  verses  or  to  paint.  One  can  easily  imagine 
the  sorrow  and  revolt  in  the  soul  of  the  freedom  loving  young  man 
against  such  ahominable  restrictions  on  his  liberty.  He  could  not 
live  without  writing  and  painting,  and  he  hated  army  life  which  '■ 

was  thrust  upon  him.  Some  of  the  officers  realizing  his  abilities 
and  being  impressed  by  his  personality,  permitted  him  to  occasionally  ' 
stealthily  do  some  painting  and  waiting.  And,  it  is  during  these 
spasmodic  efforts  that  he  wrote  his  best  works  in  spite  of  scarcity  ; 
of  the  necessary  material.  Two  of  his  letters  written  to  his  friendsj 


I 


H,;.- 


I.  ■  r  f 


r . 

o  r  I 


r 


*•■  ;hi‘i-^ 


^'‘^■  ■'.'(■  v-rk). 


r 


■,rUf..  C 


c  o:,  ‘  ,i 


“.c 


1 1  ^ . 


0 


0  i .. 


‘  .  .  ^  *'0  V  ■''  '  'I  ■’■  ..  '1 


A.  Ill* 


( 


■£, 


ft 


Yo  «f 


at  home  in  which  he  prays  for  immediate  necessities , move  one  to 
tears.  A  few  sentences  of  a  letter  written  to  one  ,Li3ohu‘b ,  read  : 

"l  have  asked  W.N,  that  she  send  me  some  hooks,  and  novr  I 
am  asking  you  for  them  also,  for^  outside  the  Bible  I  heve  not 
another  letter.  If  you  succeed  in  finding  Sh<ikespeare  in  Odessa, 
or  a  translation  of  Ketcher  or  the  Odyssey  translated  by  Zukovski, 
then  in  the  name  of  the  one  who  was  crucified  for  us,  send  same  to 
me,  or  else.  My  God,  I  shall  go  insane  from  tediousness!  I  would 
much  like  to  send  you  some  money  for  these,  but  God  knows  —  it 
has  all  been  lost,  to  the  last  coin.  But  if  the  Lord  sends  me 
some,  I  shall  some  day  repay  you.-  ---------------- 

Pare  thee  well,  do  not  forget  your  faithful  and  unfortunate  friend’^ 
In  another  letter  to  one,  Lasflj?evskl  he  says: 

”l  am  not  cer+Taln  that  a  little  hungry  child  on  the  appear¬ 
ance  of  its  mother  would  gladden  as  much  as  I  did  yesterday  on 
receipt  of  your  gift,  my  only  comrade.  I  rejoiced  so  much  that  I 
am  not  yet  fully  recovered  from  the  ecstacy.  I  stayed  awake  all 
night  long-  I  examined,  admired,  turned  it  over  and  over  again  in 
my  hands,  thrice  kissing  all  the  little  paints;  and  how  can  I  re¬ 
frain  from  ks sing,  them,  not  having  seen  them  for  a  whole  year.  My 
_God!  Wb.at  a  tedious, long  year  I  But  in  spite  of  all,  with  God’s 
help,  it  passed  by  at  last”. 

An  occasional  message  or  a  gift  from  home  were  a  great  con¬ 
solation  “to  the  poet. 

In  1848  while  on  a  march,  the  commanders  showed  a  particularly 
humane  attitude  towards  him,  and  in  fact,  permitted  him  to  dress  5.r. 


c 


c 


-ar: 


r>v7. 


«  ■  ■  -  jh:  c 


C  •  c 

!■  C  ■  '.-c  '!  "r,  - 


<  -  0  -. 


.  •  -k- 


'  C' :  '.  : .  ,!  :  -  "  ■;.  .::<  t:r  i  ; 

.-  1'' 

■ :  i '  , ; ;  ^  b  /'  no  ■>,'  'P'n<if6r‘^'-'  2  '.  c 

•■  -  t  ■  •''-  '■ 

<  '"-  '.  ’  ■  .  /-  y  -  ■  ■  ■-  I  C  ' 

'  t  "*  :.■  ■  •■  .  .  'C..  ,;■  .1 

1  '“J  ',  ■  ^  w-, 

•'*'t  yc  ,  :  r:/  c.o'i" 

i  ,  ('  •!;  ! 


o 


civilian  clothes.  Then  also  at  this  tiire  one  Captain  Butakov, 
who  was  out  on  a  scientific,  expedition  observed  that  the  artist 
was  talented  and  took  him  alonp;  to  sketch  the  banks  of  the  82a 
of  Aral.  Here  in  his  spare  moments  Shevchenko  wrote  poetry.  The 
relaxation  of  the  rierid  rules  of  the  prison  did  not  continue  in¬ 
definitely,  however.  In  1915  the  authorities  at  St.  Petersburg 
on  learning  from  one  of  the  officers  of  Shevchenko's  persistence 
in  writing,  searched  his  cell  and  discovered  that  he  had  in  his 
possession  a  Bible,  copies  of  Shakespeare , and  Bushkin,  writing 
and  painting  mater  tali  It  was  then  that  he  was  transferred  to  the 
desert  vrastes,  where  he  could  see  no  flower,  nor  a  tree  but  the 
sullen  skies. 

From  thence  xintil  1857  little  is  heard  of  Shevchenko  .  For 
seven  years  he  wrote  not  a  line  of  poetry.  He  was  dead  to  the 
world.  His  closest  friends  had  forgotten  him.  Only  Count  Tolstoi 
and  Countess  Repnin  who  did  not  fear  the  government,  kept  petition¬ 
ing  it  on  his  behalf.  But  this  was  of  no  avail.  At  the  trial 
of  the  arrested  members  of  the  Brotherhood,  Shevchenko  was  indicted 
and  convicted  of  writing  "abominable  verses-  dangerous  to  the  safety 
of  the  Czar  and  the  State",  so  that  no  leniency  could  he  shown  him. 

[  ^ v  after  the  Crimean  War  that  the  Czar  found 

it  a  wise  policy  to  change  his  tactics  with  respect  to  the  subjected 
classes.  Csar  Alexander  II  madeseveral  reforms,  amongst  which  was 
an  amnesty  to  political  prisoners  sentenced  during  tVie  reign  of 
Nicholas  I.  Shevchenko  vras ,  however,  not  so  fortunate  as  to  be 
included  in  the  list  of  those  pardoned.  He  was  considered  to  be 


*•■  ^  T  ^4^:-'  '"-■  y  ieH.i;t^f/4i^  y/i  /•;  ic  4-C'  Q'\'T  ,  ' 


^  -  ' 


'i  ■  ‘.'  ■'').—  >i  of', cj  n}ii  .i-.(  ^  ,'  s.'^v,- 

o.'  ■  c  :oY^>d'.  oir; 

%  ‘  —  (  r 

^  c^-=  ’•  Y  >4)  ■I0>^;f'?7  4i.o‘  vi- ,  ■_  Jv'fY 

f  -  "  “  .  ■  ■  'c*r:4  CIvI  r  ,  <...  ^  .,  .:f,;:'-c’:^d 

■■  -  '  "i*?  '  vr*;:  '^'o  iko '^ro  ■  .uns^^sj,  or 

"  '.  ,>:V  A  V  .  ,', 

'i  ■ '  :  'T;t'.';r  v^lii  b  4j:/'r4  ij,'?'.-  '(^I.ii  onor*^..*':  ■.  <,  I'iTT  r,' 

-'^I  ■  ■■''  ■  '  #"  ■  ' 

’ '  ■  . '  '  ‘ 


^  ■  5^ 


'!>  P 


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K^.'3 


*.'•  •:;  I.:.,  rr •'  oc-Yi  •: 


0  . 


4 


h\  \i 


'  *  Ol  ru-'i't/ 


o:. 


■  "  -or;  c.lr"  iTO  j fan  ' 

.  ^  ■  ■•;•>#’- 
'  o  "■-:  ,; .,  ^  .  „'.'  .,.  ,  od!  :v;n  f  o  V.  '■■'’ 

^'  ■  ,  >  '  '■  ■  s^ 

I  to  n‘i'  ‘  ’  W'C:^  ""i” 

‘''  ^  vf  ■'  ‘>yv  .’'c  •  r)-ri 

I 

■'  '  f  V  .  ^  •  .,  -©ji:*-  'f..  ,<;•'  ,  '\c 

*  ■"  -i 

*•  '„■ 

.  •■  '  ’  ■  - '  .r  *1  '  Jt^^au  K  o  j  '•.•.■  : : 

«^  '  •■>.!-  '!-'■  V,0-Ig:'_  ^.'.i'l  r. 

Y'*’  n  ■*  >•  ,  '■  ■  T 

rrc*?!'  i^'  1 '»*/.•  .*  :  :ov7  I  ia>faffjf(iffi.i( 

'■  ■  ••'!  I-"  .  ■  •'. 


•« 


"too  ds.npQrous  t.o  "bh©  to  to  at  large.  Howovor,  Shevchonlco* 3 

friends  were  persistent  in  their  petitions  to  the  Czar  for  the 
liberation  of  him.  Finally  an  amnostv  was  obtained  for  him  chiefly 
through  the  efforts  of  Countess  Tolstoi,  and  in  the  second  list 
given  out  in  May  1857  Shevchenko's  name  was  also  found.  But  it 
vras  not  until  April  of  1858  that  he  came  to  St .Petersburg.  Ton 
years  before  he  left  the  city  a  33  year  old  healthy  young  man, 
and  strong  of  body  and  soul.  He  returned  an  old,  baldheaded, 
physical  wreck  with  only  his  will  still  ruling,  supreme.  This  is 
quite  evident  from  the  fact  that  when  on  his  way  from  exile,  he 
was  already  writing  verses  similar  to  those  of  pr<>vious  years. 

After  his  return  he  spent  considerable  time  in  St. Petersburg 
where  he  was  still  under  the  surveillance  of  the  government  officials 
Hero  he  was  engaged  in  painting  in  the  Academy  where  many  learned  men 
including  Turgenev  came  to  see  the  celebrated  poet-marytr . 

In  1859  Shevchenkoreturned  to  Ukraine ,  and  succeeded  in  pur¬ 
chasing  freedom  for  his  relatives.  His  next  desire  was  to  get 
m.arried  and  to  settle  on  the  Dnieper  from  whence  he  could  view  the 
whole  of  Ukraine.  He  had  even  purchased  a  parcel  of  land  whereon 
to  build  a  cot-'-age  but  his  dream^s  did  not  come  true.  He  remained 
a  batchelor  for  the  rest  of  his  life  .  He  returned  to  St.  Petersbur 
for  a  short  time  vfnere  he  suddenly  took  sick.  Still  he  would  not 
give  up  his  work,  he  wrote  letters’j  pa5.r.ted,  and  sometimes  composed 
poetr^^.  Gradually  he  was  getting  worse.  He  knew  that  the  end  was 
com.ing,  for  in  his  last  verses  he  says,  "i'll  have  to  get  my 
waggons  ready  for  a  long  journey,  to  the  next  world,  to  God." 


-263- 


Jl  '  * 

r-: 


r 


* 

9 

, :  ‘  • 

I  ft  .  ff. 


ir  • 


'  '}  T  n.'  .  ■' 


_ 

/■  i  ^..  .’’‘It 


ill  '  o  .  i;o/ .'^  oT wiX 
ri'iuo^.i-j 


c  .  u-j.^  -,. .  •,  T ■:/>'  '  'o:‘fiO(to'rr.nts  Yli^VI  v.f^.3^  J 

:;TV-.'';'i.v*>*  ■*  '  ^  -  o  '  ^  *!' . .  i.i:Tra;  ^01  o'.R^‘ 


M'*  ^iVJ  .  i’)i»J.  -  f  ..•■'rc’U.^  «Ta?v  r 

Kr'j:-  v  ,  *  ■•  AT'iJf.Tv'c  .  ,.C.?;On  i-: 


•  ;  ■  •  u.  •• 


■  .  >. 

:  c  :’  ‘.‘■C  ,T,tiO’’S.tS  t::. 


fr; 


'  V  •  •  •  "  ,.  '  VA 


.-  •.:')  tft  ?6.- vX 


'rf bTf;'  ■'<•''>’  'Oii  Yto 


eX  vn/iTtr  GV’  >'  'tj, 


r:;  Vi. T  rrf 

,  ,  ■  '  *. ' '  >  ■  ■’  ^ 

'.<>!'  ^--^0  ^Trinip'/i'i  :’  :ri(f.’^  •  X"  .X 


X<  5'j  ■  -,  •■  ^'-'•.'^•".t  i.  7  ;XvX  ::I 

It.. 

c-t  !*•  ■  'iX''-'--  "'  ,  '■Xr'  -.p's 

•  '  /’'C*'  ‘  7j.  ■"':  'i  rX!  ^^  i:o 

..  :c-  i<’‘  "  a  f  or.  fr<  —  '  .  ' ^  ^VlT^ 


•3  ..tC"  '**’’' 


.  ■•  1.. 


i  i  U’:  '.fr. :  'o  - 

:  ¥f  -yr)  •• 


"10  'T- 

^rhc  *'  ati  f/vi^; 


-  r  r  » 


*1  *7  i 


i  ia^ji  'iir<  .‘X.r 


^  ’)iT7i:3U 


On  the  9th  of  March  he  suffered  eztrene  patrs  ,  but  let  out 
not  a  groan.  On  the  following  day  at  5  o'clock  in  the  morning  one 
of  the  greatest  Ukrainian  martyrs  breathed  his  last.  He  had  one 
consolation  when  dying,  and  that  was  to  know  that  a  manifesto  for  the 
abolition  of  slavery  was  already  signed  and  only  awaited  the  pro¬ 
clamation  which  was  made  a  week  after  his  death. 

Thus  out  of  the  47  years  of  hisvlife  Shevchenko  v;as  a  serf 
for  24  years,  in  exile  10  years,  for  years  under  police  surveil¬ 
lance,  and  enjoyed  9  years  of  freedom.  Such  a  tragic  biography 
has  no  other  poet,  and  it  is  therefore  hoped  that  for  this  reason 
the  rather  detailed  and  lengthy  treatment  of  the  poet's  life  will 
here  be  pardoned. 

The  remains  of  Shevchenko  were  temporarily  kept  in  St.  Peters¬ 
burg  until  Spring,  when,  according  to  his  dying  wish  as  expressed 
in  his  poem  entitled,  ”My  Testament”,  or,  ”My  Bequest",  they  were 
carried  ,  with  a  great  procession  following,  and  others  joining 
on  the  way  to  his  beloved  spot  in  Ukraine  where  he  once  wished  to 
build  himself  a  home,  and  where  pilgrims  to  this  day  visit  his 
resting:  place  on  the  Mound  at  Kanev  on  the  Dnieper  to  pay  tribute 
to  the.  great  martyr,  Shevchenko's  "My  Testament"  follows: 

^  "When  I  die ,  remember ,  lay  me 
I  Lowly  in  the  silent  tomb, 

M  Where  the  prairie  stretches  free, 

'  Sweet  Ukraine,  my  cherished  home. 

There, 'mid  meado^rs'  grassy  sward, 

Dnieper's  waters  pouring 


-254- 


'■,■•*"'  •''#■.'■  i,.‘ ■„.* 

■  T'l'HXiJ-  ^4-  t 

■.;^K.-  br*  U^un'X'  ybi^-W;:.--  v/i.^-  J.  ’  'i-i  ."<'i  .•  i  "■  ■  ^ 

.  :  -  .’w  ■ ' /if  i‘>.-  v^-•^5•■  ii'  i;.-  /-.  -  i-«^v  i:-'j ■ .  ... 

r;  ,  -joi  ,  a  oI.^Xx>  t;..  , ^  ^'^  \<:": 

■  ^  ff  -  ;^'  ■"■  •">'■  :->'.;C/'^i.^ t  ^  J  >  :.■'  . 

'  '  ''?*  ’  ■  .  .  ,  '^ 

^  .'-,■  -,  '  '  .  .. 


■  .  .-  .  ‘  '-C  i-)-  --‘■'-'■‘i. 

•  '  '  fr'ovr  '*^.o  vriT  :.  - 

r  r>''  ■  ■  • 

oA/i  yj  ^  •’;q  ^ :J"',r  'l 

-  •  i'-A  •<^-''.L<'>  I  V4  >'  t^»'X  ’*■■; 

.‘  .’^  ■' ,  D fj TOl 9a >  '  A  c- 


'«  c«  ►>  *  1  iA  , '  ^ 


iJ.  T,.ii 


Bffck  rrO'  ■*"■'  " 


•■|’>  ”  ‘nr  •  1‘  ' 


•I  V'l^ 


May  be  seen  and  mat  be  heard, 
Mighty  in  their  roaring. 
liVhen  from  Ukraine  waters  bear 
Rolling  to  the  sea  so  far 
Foeman's  blood,  no  longer  there 
Stay  I  where  my  ashes  are. 

Grass  and  Hills  I*ll  leave  and  fly. 
Unto  throne  of  God  1*11  go. 

There  in  heaven  to  pray  on  high. 
But,  till  then,  no  God  I  know* 
Standing  then  about  my  grave. 

Make  ye  haste,  your  fetters  tear  I 
Sprinkled  with  the  foeman's  blood 
Then  shall  rise  your  freedom  fair. 

Then  shall  spring  a  kinship  great. 
This  a  family  new  and  free. 
Sometimes  in  your  glorious  state, 
Gently,  kindly,  speak  of  me.  *’ 

(Translation  of  Dr .A, J, Hunter ) 


5.:--  As  a  poet  of  Ukraine  Shevchenko  is  great  not  only  because  of 
the  quality  of  his  productions,  and  the  ideas  therein,  but  also 
because  he  has  demonstrated  with  his  own  life  his  belief  in  the 
principles  which  he  propagated.  His  v^hole  life  was  s^Tnbolic  of 
his  suffering  nation,  and  the  trials  he  went  through  were  es'^en- 
tially  the  trials  of  the  rest  of  his  countryman.  However,  he 
himself  had  great  hopes  for  his  people  even  when  he  saw  little 


-255- 


'2j*“X  G3  >.^0  Oi. 

^rm:ok 

1^- 

.  ■•'  ‘.if 

V 

C  . .  j,  1  O';  -.  >01  r  ■  t  V  DC .  X ' 

■  '  -  "KireoH 

./  ■'  * 

*.  ^  »/ 

,  ^ :i'3 r.  -'(f  rjr-‘T:n , ■ . 

*'  \  c'» 

mV’  ^  ■" 

■  “  ■  .  ■  ■  ,J<V'‘  -  'V'^'^'  v' 

^  V'r  i-’.  ’  r  lu  Ovti.C 

‘ -.'■  ■  , y  '  '  '  ^'  ' 

V  *  Xiii'.-^;^  i;  '■■* 

.  ,  •(  'N<ia  "  -;■■  ,,  ^  'M  ;;rjT  9:U^l 

rrv  ;  :  .■•! '  o«!5J'  la-v. 

•V 

,Um.;i '.jj.:.i*T 

^  XX;?:l£  iirjffffX  . 

.  lif /;  Vn ' :'/ aijXT 

i 

t  *•  :i;^,  „:'  ‘  _  !:;ov .  e^j;i  '  ;,  .*: 

.  ,  t  t  jri?i)  ’ 

^  'iO-  it0X^;..’'-r(«'i^'; 

-V"-  :ir.,:  Kt.iiy'iZ’-  J'^-  V  . 

^  Ou  .  ■*  ■  I  cr.;  >r;rX7q  c  \: 

.'  -  ■  ■  n-'C  ir  ^■ed>'.'lvt(fi;o*r.r.'tj  air  .•!'«  •: 

'■  M  '',  '  alJ  .  ^  rfoiiiw  :r 

^  -  ^. . .  •.:  V  :/•■ 


chance  of  getting  rid  of  his  own  chains  ,  for  ho  says  to  thorn, 

’’study  my  brethren’. 

Think  and  road. 

Learn  ye  from  foreigners 
But,  scorn  not  thine  own.” 

Here  he  shows  both  his  optimism  for  a  bettor  future  through 
industry,  and, at  the  same  time  ,  that  he  is  always  with  them  in 
their  endeavors  to  rise  intellectually.  He  is  a  genius  high  abo'^e 
an  ordinary  man,  yet  he  calls  men  his  brethren  and  thereby  proved 
his  humble  spirit.  It  is  this  spirit  that  makes  him  one  of  the 
greatest  lyric  poets  dead  or  living  .  As  a  result  of  his  labors 
Ukrainian  literature  became  real!:/  a  national  lltoraturo,  and,  at 
the  same  time,  social, with  strong  indications  that  the  rest  of  the 
civilized  world  will  in  the  near  future  recognize  him  as  one  of 
the  literary  geniuses  of  the  world, as  has  already  been  done  by 
some  noted  writers  ,  amongst  whom  is  Dr.  Alfred  Enzen  of  S'veden, 
who  a  few  years  ago  wrote  a  valuable  and  exhaustive  thesis  on  the 
poet  and  his  works. 

Shevchenko  did  not  at  any  time  lose  contact  with  his  people, 
that  is,  he  never  ceased  thinking  about  their  welfare,  and  in  this 
respect  he  stands  ethically  higher  than  for  example  some  of  the 
Russian  poets  like  Koltzov.  As  a  freed  serf  he  always  remembered 
that  he  was  born  in  bondage,  and  that  his  relatives  and  his  nation 
were  still  suffering  under  soda.!  and  moral  humilia,tion.  It  is 
for  that  reason  that  his  lyrics  are  so  truly  national.  His'  ex¬ 
pression  was  the  expression  of  a  sentiment  which  any  friend  of  men 


*51 

.  t  "OT  ,bl1iii’  L  . 

*  f  .  '  ■  .  ' 

•  ‘  :  * 

-1  ■.•';<■. 'i  ■ 


V 


•  :'.;  •'.tfh-"  ’tj'V  f.  {^i-’  .ik  ’.'■  ^  ■•  *  "■:!  ^ '■"!  ■*  ^urni 

.  ■  .  ■  .  ,  ,,  .  • 

i.;-  rf;..}  ■  .?  r-l  inovs  tjnv  'ii.u\-!- 


feVr  -...c,  ii'iific-  ax.fi  ^?i  ;^;  ,  Jx -rlqa  si.f  i 

Sir.:  X  '*  .  'i'  ;i  •■ '  .,  “-fv'X  'x  bi.^o  .  3vroo~  o'T.;I  iao.- :o6'2ri  - 

.  '  '  /  f 

^  '.:>i-il  Ixr^  :>x?r!  ^-4,v  jo-i  mi;;*  x  'rsirri>«\.ii:  ,  " 

:  i 

'^C€-:  ii'X  j7>rii  nxcci  J.'oiD -?X  j 

.•  ..  '  •..-’  x'x  i’i o'.;rx'-'b  *;;«rrT  xjf!*  n-J:  ISi  ■'  (yl'sc-z  f  .ciJ  -'ro  -v  "* 

'  ...  .  ij 

•  ■  ’•ii'T  ':  •  •  '  ^  -a'icvc  wr:  '  '  ' '■  '  ^  ..  _  | 


T^ould  vent  to  if  his  s;,Tnpathies  for  tho  people  could  rise 

to  such  a  decree  of  perfection  as  to  enable  him  to  pour  out  from 
his  heart  that  which  is  found  therein.  He  spoke  out  In  the 
language  of  the  people  and  expressed  on  their  behalf  all  that  they 
inwardly  felt.  He  collected  and  concentrated  the  sad  tunes  of  all 
the  '’Kobzars”  (wandering  minstrels),  of  Ukraine  and  sang  them  In 
his  poetry  for  his  people,  and  they  immediately  acclaimed  him  their 
prophet  and  liberator. 

True,  Shevchenko  is  very  sad  in  places,  as  every  lyric  poet 
is,  and  he  chooses  suitable  characters  to  bring  out  this  inclina¬ 
tion  effectively.  In  many  of  his  poems,  for  example,  in  his  '*Kate- 
ryna**  he  pictures  a  person  solitary  and  complaining  aoa.inst  fate. 
This  is  undoubtedly  partly  a  reflection  of  his  own  unhappy  state. 

But,  at  the  ss-me  time  he  never  completely  loses  his  innate  opti¬ 
mism  which  he  uses  to  encourage  his  compatriots  to  hope  and  work 
towards  a  happier  state  of  things.  One  exception  to  this  general 
rule  is  known,  to  the  writer,  and  this  is  found  in  one  of  his  poems 
vjritten  in  1848,  where  he  says,  ”0,  wherefore  have  ye  become  so 
black,  ye  green  fields?”  To  this  the  fields  answer,  ”We  have  black¬ 
ened  from  blood  shed  in  fight  for  freedom.”  Further  on  in  the  same 
poem,  the  fields  say  that  they  will  once  more  become  green,  but 
that  the  descendants  of  Zaporogian  Cossacks,  who  fell  here  and 
covered  them,  will  never  again  regain  their  freedom  but  will  plough 
the  fields  complaining  of  their  fate.  The  poet*s  spirit  of  hope  is 
well  brought  out  in  his  ”Haidamaki”  (Knights  of  Vengeance),  he 

^57- 


0  c 

'  '  .  •  '  O  ''■^" 

.  ^  .  '  S'  ■.<:  C  • 

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.  '  ,.C 


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. -c-s '  r  :; 

c  !r:5V  -';y  ^ 


>  G_ 


.'3.'.  ,•:  : 


J'.'' 


Alt^4 


says, 


’’My  sons,  Ha’’’ ^^amakil 
Behold  the  wide  world,  freedom,  - 
Go  and  xvander  far  and  wide 
And  find  your  happy  lot." 

His  optimism,  however,  did  not  go  as  far  as  to  cause  him 
to  he  fully  complacent  even  in  his  moment  of  liberty.  He  was  too 
altruistic  for  this,  and  he  would  far  rather  share  the  unhappiness 
of  his  neighbor  and  help  him  carry  the  banner  of  strugfrle  than 
seclude  himself  in  his  good  fortune.  He  always  has  in  mind  his 
native  land.  When,  however,  he  does  reflect  on  his  own  unhappy  lot, 
since  no  man  alone  in  the  wilderness  could  altogether  forget  him¬ 
self  when  his  ^reedom-loving  spirit  is  bound  in  fetter g,  he  almost 
apologizes  for  it„by  fully  explaining  his  position.  This  is  quite 
apparent  in  his  poem  entitled , "Thoughts  from  a  Prison",  which 
poem  Mrs.  Florence  Randal  Livesay  tra’^slated  into  English,  and 
as  in  most  of  her  other  translations,  succeeded  in  conveying  the 
real  spirit  and  intent  of  the  poet.  The  poem  reads; 

"The  sun  sets;  mountains  fade 
^  Into  the  darkness;  the  bird*s  note  is  stilled. 

The  fields  grow  silent,  for  the  peasant  now 
Rejoicing,  dreams  of  rest, 

'  And  I  look  with  desire. 

Longing  desire-  to  an  orchard  dark. 

The  Orchard  of  Ukraine. 


-258- 


And  I  pour  forth  my  thoughts 
As  though  heart  were  resting. 

Fields,  forest,  mountains,  darkening  still- 
And  in  the  shadow^^  blue  appears  a  star 
C  Star I  My  Star!  And  the  tears  fall  ,,, 

Hast  thou  then  also  risen  in  Ukraine? 

Not  for  the  people  and  not  for  the  praise 
These  verses  now  are  written.  Nay,  I  write 
But  for  myself,  my  brothers,  for  heart* s  ease, 

Lo,  from  beyond  the  Dnieper,  as  from  far  away 
The  v/-ords  flow  in  and  spread  tlie  paper  o*er; 

Laughing  and  crying  as  the  children  do 
They  gladden  my  poor  soul,  uncomforted. 

Raw,  inconsolable-  I  joy  in  them. 

With  them  would  always  stay.  They  are  my  o^m. 

As  a  rich  father  loves  his  little  ones. 

So  am  I  glad  and  merry  with  my  a\TO, 

Yea,  I  rejoice;  and  the  Good  God  I  praise, 

That  He  lets  not  my  children  fall  asleep 
In  this  so  far-off  land,  but  says,  ”Run  home. 

And  tell  the  others  in  the  dear  Ukraine 
How  bitter  *twas  to  live  in  such  a  world!  '* 

In  the  marshy  Kirghiz  Steppes  he  is  deprived  of  the  beautiful 
natural  surroundings  in  which  he  was  born  and  raised.  He,  there¬ 
fore,  recreates  in  his  imee'lnation  the  places  where  he  roamed  as 


a  boy.  Like  Wordsworth  he  personifies  inaminate  nature  and 
speaks  to  it,  or  makes  it  speak,  and  thereby  express  most  effec¬ 
tively  what  he  intends  to  say.  Personifv^ng;  nature  was  of  course 
always  characteristic  of  him,  for  even  before  his  exile  he  says 
in  one  of  his  poems,”  Thou  calm  world,  beloved  country,  my  Ukraine? 
Wherefore,  hast  thou  been  thus  plundered,  wherefore  diest  thou,  my 
mother?  Didst  thou  not  at  sunrise  offer  thy  prayers  to  God?  ”  — - 
But  while  he  speaks  to  inanimate  objects  showing  his  grievances 
against  the  cruel  fate,  he  quickly  reverts  to  his  countrymen  to 
spur  them  on  to  action,  for  he  well  realizes  that  only  through 
their  ovm  efforts  can  they  free  themselves.  And,  two  years  after 
writing  the  above  words  he  wrote  his  ,”Poslani3''  (  an  epistle)  , 
which  is  probably  the  best  expression  of  his  love  for  his  Mother¬ 
land,  and  which  was  written  to  awaken  the  conscience  of  the  young 
educated  Ukrainians,  and  to  make  them  realize  the  responsibility 
which  they  owe  to  their  country.  He  entitled  his  ”Poslanie” , 

”To  the  Dead,  and  the  Living,  in  Ukraine  and  those  out  of  it, 
my  Epistle  of  Friendship.” 

In  this  poem  he  both  reprimands  his  countrymen  for  the 
neglect  of  their  duty  to  their  country,  and  also  strongly  coun¬ 
sels  them  ”to  awake,  open  their  eyes,  to  see  the  truth  and  to 
breek  the  chains  by  which  they  are  bound.” 

As  a  national  epic  poet,  Shevchenko  not  o’^ly  equals  but 
even  surpasses  Kotliarevsky.  We  have  seen  in  the  histotical  sketch 
of  Ukraine  that  this  country  was  under  the  most  democratic  govern¬ 
ment  while  the  Cossacks  ruled  it.  Their  management  of  the  affairs 


-260- 


J 


fr 


c 


X-Un  :  O' 

c  c  '  '  t  ■  ’  1  .  f  •; 


c 


o 


c 


f 


c. 


c 


o 


of  the  State  7/as  nearer  to  the  ideal  than  that  of  any  of  j 

their  predeceesora.  They  won  ijlory  for  their  country  through  their  ^ 

1 

encounters  with  the  enemy ^  both  on  land  and  on  sea  .  It  is,  there¬ 
fore,  on  the  Cossacks  and  the  Cossackian  period  that  most  of  the 
ITIcrainian  epic  is  founded,  of  which  Shevchenko  is  a  master. 

His  Kobzar  sings  of  the  times  of  glory  and  defeat.  He  converses 
with  the  elements  ;  the  wind,  the  sea,  the  wide  stenpes  and  the 
sl?y’  all  spoak  to  him,  rejoice  and  mourn  with  him  rnd  sunply  to 
him  the  tune  suitable  to  the  occasion.  The  poet  is  an  artist  in 
bringing  in  these  elements  to  shoir  the  feeling  which  the  Kobrar 
wishes  to  express.  So  that,  in  spite  of  his  very  simple  versi¬ 
fication,  in  which  he  employs  very  little  variety  of  form,  he 
does  by  frequent  resort  to  alliteration  and  on.OTnatopoeia  bring 
out  the  desired  effect.  Now-  he  describes  the  wind  as  softly 
breathing,  the  sun  shining,  the  waves  of  the  sea  gently  splash¬ 
ing:  but  a  moment  later  the  wind  becomes  violent,  it  brings  the 
clouds,  shi^tting  away  the  sun,  the  billows  roll  rapidly,  and  the 
sea  foams  and  roars. 

In  numerous  cases  the  poet  actually  addresses  the  natural 
objects  or  has  his  characters  do  so.  In  an  historical  romance 
entitled  **Hamaleya” , after  the  name  of  an  Ulcrainian  Hetman  who 
headed  a  company  of  Cossacks  against  Skutari,  a  Turkish  city 
on  the  Bosphorus,  imprisoned  Cossacks  in  Skutari  beseec'x  'the  \ 

wind  to  blow  from  Ukraine  and  bring  them  tidings  of  their  home. 

■j 

’’Dry  our  tears”, they  say,  ’’chase  away  our  woe”.  And  the  Bosphorus  | 
which  had  never  before  heard  the  wailing  of  the  Cossacks,  groaned  t 


ol 


c .  c 


c 


^  ■  c 

'?f  J  c  ^1,  :'■  .'r.  ■  .  cO 


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0.'':.  f;  ■ ; .  - 


) 


c  :  •  /i:o'  .% 


c  :  '  '  .0  ■ 


r 


r  r  ■•> 


s 


O  •  ,f 


c 


C  (. 


■  4  'X' 

,,r  yd 


:  ,(  ■: 


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c' 


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r'  ■  •  C  '  f  ^  C  ■  r  C 

'  •  ■  ■  '  '  ”  '■  c  ■;■.  Cl  c  f  vi.l  . 


o 


1 


c 


like  a  bull  and  hurled  the  complaints  of  the  Con  sacks  into 
Dnieper,  'vhirh  in  turn  ^oke  up  brother  Forest  and  the  sister 
River .  Thereupon  the  Zaporo^ian  Cossacks  set  sail  with  Hamaleya 
as  their  leader*  The  poet  relies  on  hottire  to  such  extent  that 
he  brings  it  into  very  many  of  his  poems,  and  particularly  in 
the  opening  lines. 

This  ability  to  draw  on  the  resources  of  nature  was  deve- 
lop^'d  bv  Shevchenko  not  because  of  his  poetic  genius  alone.  As 
a  painter  of  natural  scenery,  he  was  akeen  observer,  no  doubt 
more  so  than  if  he  had  not  studiedthis  Art.  This  combination 
was  very  advantageous  to  him  in  his  poetic  work. 

While  reading  Shevchenko* s  poems  in  connection  with 
political  reform.  ,  for  e.xample,  his  poem  entitled  ‘*A  Dream**, 
it  strikes  one  on  first  reflection  that  he  is  somewhat  ha.rsh  in 
his  satire,  but  when  other  of  his  works  are  considered,  it  will 
be  found  that  he  does  this  with  no  ill  intent.  He  was  an  apostle 
of  freedom,  and  therefore  could  not  write  without  hurting  the 
feelings  of  those  who  would  retard  the  acquisition  of  that  freedom. 
.He  is  essentially  a  Christi8.n,  and  that  is  seen  in  his  frequent 
references  to  the  Bible,  He  believed  in  the  maxim  that  love  is 
stronger  than  revenge,  and  he  practised  the  former,  showing  it 
in  his  charity,  forgiveness,  and  great  respect  for  wonen.  He 
had  for  his  friends  people  of  various  nationalities.  He  considered 
all  the  people  as  his  fellov^Tnen.  Even  some  of  the  Poles,  who  as 
we  know,  did  much  tcrwards  the  dcn^nifall  of  Ukraine,  liked  him  , 
and  he  had  several  of  their  writers  for  his  intimate  friends. 


Ke  had  little  to  do  with  the  Western  world,  '>.nd,  therefore,  does 
not  say  much  concerning  the  Western  nations.  But  as  to  Slavs 
he  Shows  in  his  poem  **The  Heretic’]  or  "Ivan  Hufs"  his  desire 
for  a  harmony  amon,f!;3t  them.  In  concluding  the  poem  he  prays 
to  the  Lord,  "  that  all  the  Slavs  would  become  v/orthy  brethren  of 
the  Sun  of  truth,  and  be  heretics  as  was  the  great  heretic  of. 
Constance", 

The  work  of  Shevchenko  as  a  poet  considered  from  various 
points  of  vievr  places  him  indisD\'’tably  firstly,  as  the  greatest 
postnof  Ukraine,  and  secondly,  and  assures  him  a  permanent  place 
in  the  literatures  of  the  world* 


Panteloymon  Kulish. (1819-»1399) . 

Kullsh  was  born  in  Chernihov  and  was  a  descendant, 
of  the  old  Cossackian  femilly.  After  completing  his  studies  in 
the  Gymnasium  he  registered  in  1S?7  at  the  University  of  Kiev. 
Later  he  taught  in  the  G^annasiums,  and  on  certain  occasions  tra¬ 
velled  around  Kiev  for  educational  purposes.  He  tried  to  meet 
as  many  Kobzars  as  possible,  and  from  them  collected  material  for 
his  ballads.  In  Kiev  he  got  acquainted  with  Kostomariv,  Shevchenk 
and  other  intellectuals,  and  enrolled  as  a  member  of  the  Cyryl- 
Methodius  Brotherhood,  At  this  time,  he  was  offered  a  position 
in  the  University  of  St,  Petersburg,  but  he  preferred  to  go 
abroad  for  the  purpose  of  post-graduate  work  in  Slavonic  langua¬ 
ges,  Vfhen  he  came  to  Warsaw  he  was  arrested,  taken  back  to  St. 

-?65- 


V 


10,  .■  ''f  .  ■  :^o.. 

•<  -I.  .■  :.  < 

’  ■  :.  ,':c  •  '  ^ 

^  "-c  ■* 

■-  ,  "■  ■?  'iU 


f.o  .  ■ 


c ‘  -r'  '.  '  1  :\  <  ■'■  c '.  ■<  o  . :  :  ■  -  il" 


c 


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,  '  .  ‘  c.  ■  '.  C  Jr'( 


r 


:  I  f  :  C  ■  I  r 


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.  ..’.  .  j  •'  ;  c  c  '  ^  M  '0^^  ..  ■  (  .  ,/  ..r  -1 

,  c  .  (  •  .  .0  "  . 

:  C  ^  'f-  .  .  C  e  .  '  ■)  .  [  .V  C 

c  t  .  c  ..  .  ju-'.  i.  / 

c  C  .  d  .  !■  f  ’  .  '  -  -  I 

.  .  0.'  C  '  .  .•  .  J  ."  .  C  '  '*  -  O  '  O'..  - 

'  ..  It ^  r  •  .  •> 


Petersburg,  and  then  to  Tul.  ( 

In  Tul  he  spent  three  years.  hIs  sentence  was  not  as  ■ 

heavy  as  that  of  Shevchenko,  and  he  was  therefore  able  to  ■vvrite  ■ 

I 

na'^ratives  and  at  the  same  time  to  study  foreign  languages.  In  1350 
he  was  pardoned  by  the  Czar,  and  was  allowed  to  return  to  St.  Peters¬ 
burg.  From  there  he  went  to  live  in  Poltava,  and  when  in  1856  he 
obtained  permission  to  publish  his  wo""^s,  he  returned  to  St.  Peterr- 
burg  where  he  established  a  printing  press.  While  engaged  in  this 
work  he  often  travelled  abroad,  and  particularly  in  Galicia,  in 
connection  with  educational  matters.  He  later  lived  in  Warsaw,  beinp  | 
in  the  service  of  the  Hussian  Gove'^nment ,  but  In  1868,  owing  to  I 
his  refusal  to  give  up  his  Ukrainian  patriotic  ideals,  he  was  forced  i 
to  resign  his  post.  Then  he  worked  on  the  translation  of  the  ' 

i 

Bible  and  wrote  a  history  of  Russia  and  IP^raine.  The  latter  pro¬ 
duction  made  him  very  unpopular  among  the  Ukrainians,  for,  in  it 

i 

he  shows  marked  inconsistency  with  regard  to  his  former  policy  to¬ 
wards  Ukraine,  and  strong  leanings  in  favor  of  the  Russians.  | 

'Shortly  afterwards,  however,  he  reverted  to  h-^s  former  convictions,  | 

and  through  his  writings  at  Lviv  tried  to  bring  about  a  compromise  j 
between  the  Ukrainians  and  the  Poles,  But,  being  unable  to  regain 
the  confidence  of  the  people,  he  was  unsuccessful  in  his  attempts. 
He  returned  to  his  home  in  Ukraine  where  be  wrote  quietly  until  his 
death  in  1897. 

Kulish  was  of  a  changing  disposition,  but  he  is  nevertheless 
no  small  contributor  to  Ukrainian  literature.  He  was  a  successful 
writer  both  in  nrose  and  poetry.  With  ShevchenJco  and  Kostomariv 


he  stands  in  the  rriddle  of  the  19th  century  at  the  head  of  the 
Ukrainian  intellectual  movement,  so  that  many  writers  not  as  ac 
complished  as  he  looked  up  to  him  as  an  authority  in  literary 
matters , 


Kulish*s  field  is  epic  and  lyric  poetry,  and  novels.  But 
he  is  klso  kno^ni  as  a  dramatist,  historian,  publicist  and  a 
literary  critic*  He  also  made  translations  from  foreign  litera¬ 
tures.  Out  of  the  English  writers  he  chose  Shakespeare  and  Byron 
as  his  favorites,  and  in  beautiful  language  translated  some  of 
their  works* 

Tn  his  poetical  works  Kulish  often  reminds  one  of 
Shevchenko*  His  ballads  are  based  on  the  chante  which  he  copied 
f''om  the  village  -  Kobzar 3*  They  are,  therefore,  simple  but  ef¬ 
fective.  In  them  he  expresses  the  grievances  of  the  common  people 
against  their  oppressors,  and  intimates  that  it  is  time  they  got 
equal  rights  ,  which  he  firmly  believes  must  some  day  be  obtained  . 
In  one  of  his  poems  he  says  ; 

"Kobza,  thou  who  art  our  only  joy 
Before  our  sleeping  country  wakes. 

Before  its  Spring  shall  come- 
I  Ring,  thou,  in  our  poor  homes, 

■  Silently  ring  thou,,  that  the  hearts  of  our  brethren, 

Beat  fast  in  accord 

As  strings  of  a  mandolin  do  harmonize.” 

Some  of  Kulish’ s  novels  are  very  valuable  works.  His  histo- 


rical  romance  founded  on  the.  events  which  happened  in  1663  and 


ff.f 


1  ^ 


C  •  '  T 


I  '•  ^  ’  "loz 


<  ^ 


t 


C  i  J  .  :  I  ■  ■  j'  V"^  -- 


.'  C  o  C  J  •  ;.<  ■  ,0 


c 


c 


"I 


-> 


c 


c 


c  .  .  ( 


c '  r  c  .'  (  •  'C :  ^ .  o 


r  C: 


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r  C'  .  ,  r 


.  f 


<  .cc 


-•  Msi  4^/5 fi*  ■  bi  ct-ir .  aiittiJia  i  .  c  . 


entitled  ’’Chorne  Rada  '»  (The  Black  Connell),  is  a  bold  attempt 
to  orodnee  a  romance.  In  Chorna  Rada  he  camo  ont  siicceseCul ,and 
having  obtained  the  desired  effect,  the  Work  r/ill  r^ontlnue  to 
hold  an  honorable  nosition  in  Ula'alnian  literature,  and  particu¬ 
larly  since  some  of  his  characters  in  group  scenes  are  depicted 
with  great  artistic  ability  and  skill. 

Kulish  though  ordinarily  quite  simple  in  expression,  is 
often  difficult  to  understand  owning  to  his  contradictions  ^n  logic 
which  he  appears  to  make  kno7fingly.  Yet  in  spite  of  this  defect 
his  many  works  Including  lyrics,  epics,  novels,  idyls,  ballads, 
legends  and  fables  are  in  general  so  well  executed  that  he  will 
always  be  regarded  as  one  of  the  leading  Ukrainian  v/riters  of  the 
19  th  c  e  ntur  y ,  u. :  . 

Maria  Markovlcho-^a,  (  **Marko  Yovchok”) ,  (1354-1907) . 

The  sixties  witnessed  several  Ukrainian  writers  worthy 
of  note,  Oleksa  Storosenko  (1805-1874)  is  remembered  for 
his  legends  and  anecdotes,  which  are  never  very  deep,  but  are 
good  reading,  for  their  gentle  humor  and  elegant  language, 

Yakiv  Shchoholiv  (1S24-1398)  ,  a  witer  for  approximately  50 
years,  is  knovm  for  his  beautiful  nature  poetry  in  which  he 
depicts  natural  scenery  in  Ukraine  and  the  lowly  life  of  the  peo¬ 
ple,  for  his  historical  poems  ,  his  lyrics  and  his  poems  on  the 
community  life  of  the  people  ,  Due  in  all  probability  to  the 
rather  extended  time  of  his  literary  activity,  one  may  find  in 
his  poetry  romantic  str9.5.ns  from  his  youthful  years  and  realistic 
characteristics  of  later  years.  But  the  best  remembered  ■tvriter  of 


.  t.  ‘  D  Ort.y c  '.  r,  '■■c' 

arr-r  ^n.  "  /  ,■  I-  ;  os  ■  ■i,s  >>: 

^  fO:  .  '  r^6u.^4:.i  ,  rr.'siff 

I  ^  :j\  ■  .r.  ^  .  C-  .  7  '  -.-J 


c 


C  ./.- 


t  V 


o . '  .  o  :  c' 


■.  C  0  ■  ^:  r?:- 


•  r  '  c 


tA 

.  .’.‘r; 


.'  - '  o  r  -1 


i,'A  '■  0  ' 

•'''  I.  oik  'L 


. .  j . 


t  . 

'  „>  'i  ■■  ':  fWi  .  '‘-(-.--.  c 


;t:' 


Lix> 


‘these  years  is  Maria  M«rko‘7ioheva,knCT7T'.  under  the  pen-name 
of  M'^rko  Vovchok.  She  -vraa  horn  and  raised  in  the  ^ovi  of 
Orel  in  Russia,  and  studied  in  Kharkiv>  Ukraine,  until  her 
teenth  year,  "by  which  time  she  mastered  the  French  lan{j;uag;e. 
Returning  home  she  "became  acquainted  with  one  Opanas  Markovich, 
whom  she  married  in  1851. 

Her  husband  was  a  well  educated  man,  and  was  edito>*  of  a 
paper  at  Chernihiv,  andlater  a  teacher  in  a  G^nDnasium  at  Nemirov, 
From  him  she  learned  the  Ukrainian  language,  in  which  she  was 
deficient  before  her  marriage.  Also  when  she  started  to  write 
she  had  him  revise  her  work.  In  1858  Kulish  published  her 
first  collection  of  novels  In  St.  Petersburg. 

1i?h.en  her  husband  died  in  1867,  Marko  Vovchok  wrote  no 
more  for  over  thirty  years.  She  remarried  in  1871,  In  1902 
she  oublished  her  new  novel  on  the  life  of  Ukrainian  pep.sants. 

''r  ' 

The  first  novels  which  appeared  in  1858  attracted  considerable 
attention  in  the  Ukrainian  literary  world,  and  gave  the  authoress 
promise  for  a  brilliant  literary  career.  Her  first  book  of 
novels  placed  her  in  the  centre  of  the  literary  movement,  and 
Shevchenko  himself  welcomed  her  as  his  close  second.  The  noted 
Russian  writer  Turgenev  ,  too,  realized  and  appreciated  her 
genius  and  set  to  work  to  translate  some  of  her  works,  while 
another  Russian  ,  Dobrolubov,  dedicated  to  her  one  of  his  chief 
writings. 

When  one  considers  t  he  character  of  her  works  there  is 
little  wonder  that  they  became  so  popular  in  a  very  short  time. 

«267- 


In  her  novels  there  were  to  be  found  artistic  form,  elegant 
language,  a  force  of  a  rep.l  feeling  and  a  de^^p  and  serious  thought 
She  could  touch  the  most  sensitive  strings  of  the  reader  and  exh? 
bited  her  thorough  understanding  of  the  problems  of  humankind.  Her 
narratives?,  ■  in  which  she  dwells  on  the  unhappy  plight  of  the  serfs 
and  the  poor  people  are  a  great  revelation  of  her  s^mipathies  for 
her  fellowmon.  They  are  remarkable  for  their  touch  of  sincere 
sorrovT,  for  the  unfortunate,  and  a  humane  feeling  towards  all  to 
whom  consideration  is  due.  She  is  a  master  in  bringing  out 
the  deepest  hiiman  feelings  by  making  her  characters  converse  free¬ 
ly  amongst  themselves.  And;,  ,  so,  her  characters  who  are  serfs 
speak  from,  the  depth  of  their  hearts,  and  shovf  their  just  indig¬ 
nation  against  the^unjust  laws  which  allow  such  a  horrible  practice 
as  enslaving  a  human  being. 

Of  course,  serfdom  was  on  the  point  of  being  abolished  at 
the  time  Vovchok  commenced  writing.  When  the  change  was  made, 
she  still  continued  to  write  in  that  same  sad  mood,  describing 
the  lives  of  the  people  who  were  not  exactly  serfs  but  who  were 
forced  to  live  a  similar  life,  that  is,  servants.  One  of  the 
best  of  her  works  dealing  with  their  lot  is  ’*S93tra’*,  (A  Sister). 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  poetess  wrote  as  little  as 
she  did,  and  thereby  did  not  come  up  to  the  expectations  of  the 
literary  critics  and  her  friends.  But  she  wrote  enough  to  show 
her  genius  and  to  impress  her  style  upon  some  of  her  followers. 

As  a  writer  of  belles-lettres  she  stood  on  a  very  high  level,  and 
traces  of  her  styleo>i4  literary  form  may  be  found  in  the  first 


of 


such  eminent  writers  as  Fsdhovlchj  Frfinko  and  others.  Immediately 
her  works  "became  kncwv^n  there  appeared  a  number  of  ivriters  vrho 
closely  imitated  her  and  contributed  some  valuable  Ukrainian  belles- 
lettres.  Among  them  is  Oleksandra  Kulisheva,  who  was  born  in 
1828,  and  wenr  under  the  pen-name  of  Hanna  Barvinok. 

Stepan  Rudansky  (1830-1875). 

Thai"e  are  four  other  Ukrainian  v^riters  of  this  century 
in  Greater  Ukraine,  who  deserve  special  mention,  namely,  Rudansky, 
Anatol  Swidnitsky  (18?4-16'71)  ,  Danilo  Mordowetz  (1850-1905),  e.nd 
Ale2:s.nder  Konisky  (1836-1900) •  However,  the  most  important  and 
Interesting  writer  of  the  group  for  our  purposes  is  the  first  one 
named.  Of  the  others  suffice  It  to  say  that  Swi(3nitsl:y'  gave  us 
a  clear  picture  of  the  old  form  of  national  life  in  Southern 
Ukraine  during  the  transition  period.  Mordovetz,  who  particularly 
in  his  early  nerratlves  belomgs  to  the  school  of  Marko  Vovchok, 
stands  high  in  the  estimation  of  critics  as  an  historical ' nove¬ 
list,  while  Konisky,  who  extended  his  literary  activities  for 
about  forty  years,  is  remembered  for  his  strong  patriotism  and  his 
varied  works  in  poetry  and  prose,  for  his  critical  works  and  for 
his  articles  as  a  publicist*  He  was  in  his  time  a  leader  of 
the  old  Ideals  of  freedom  and  brotherhood.  His  native  country  and 
the  people,  these  are  his  heroes.  A  good  example  of  this  is 
found  in  the  following  verse  of  his  ”Ratay’*: 

’’Harnessed  in  a  yoke  of  want.,  snd  shackles 

A  weary  life  he  drags 

Having  subdued  his  pains  in  the  heart 


‘J'C  C  ^  'O'  ■  .?SP- 

:  -  iJ 

'  0  ■■ .1  '.Jl'O  J 


x.’l'f-'  ^'  f  .,■  'j  it 


-  ^■■j!  *K*rtv 


\  1- 


0  -:  -  ■  :.. 


'■’■T'  -^  •  c  o  oi.';-;.  .  ,  .’,  .1-  :  .  :^Jc'  [■]:,.  .,c  . 

■-  ^  t 'v*  ■  -c  .  .  ,  -“•  ‘S,  •  A 

'  '  ■  ■*  "  ■'  '  c  'o.j'.:'»vr  '  i> 

f  -■  .  c-  'i'  ‘  ff’  >' t  .  ,  .  , 

'"C ‘.:r  'O'.  ,o  .'  .r  ':'-r  ■  >’  ■; 

-.  jJ'  .vr::t 

V  U^T'^'k  J.  ■  .  .  ■'<.  ^ 


C  '  c  .  c 


.<-<■  .'j  ■  c  c,. 


.  '.0  '  O  ;  ;  ;  ,[.  - 

■  •’  '>  '  -  ■'  ■  '  ’  r  J.,.'  o  ^  rs.:. 


c  •. 


'  c 


C.  i.  oO 


■  ■  <■  C  j  '  ■ 

J-  ''r''  '  , 

■■<■  '  '  f  .■-  j.  'Jo  J 

;  <  '  J'  ,  ■.  .  r  . 

f-  '  '■'  O.  Xc',  J"  i,v  Q 


i 


And  not  complairing  aj^ainat  fate. 


He  ploughs  the  soil  -  ao+  his,” 

Konisky  was  one  of  the  leading  men  who  with  others  figu¬ 
red  in  connection  with  ’’Oannova”,  a  paper  which  was  during  its 
publication  a  great  educational  factor.  Then  also,  like  Kulish , 
he  was  greatly  interested  in  the  future  of  the  Ukrainians  5,n 
Galicia,  and  we  have  to  credit  him  with  taking  a  hand  in  the 
beginnings  of  the  literary  progress  in  that  part  of  Ukraine. 

Rudansky  deserves  a  special  mention,  for  he  is  regaried 
by  most  Ukrainians  as  their  Mark  Twain.  And,  he  is  in  fact  the 
greatest  humorist  that  they  have  had.  Yet  In  spite  of  what  he 
wrote,  when  we  looknclosely  into  his  life,  we  have  reason  to- 
doubt  the  popular  opinion  concerning  him.  One  thing  we  must  re¬ 
member  about  him,  and  that  is,  that  during  the  whole  of  his  life 
he  labored  under  adverse  circtmistances ,  And,  such  being  the  case, 
he  could  hardly  at  all  times  be  happ;,^.  In  a  letter  to  his  brother 
he  writes  ; 

'*They  forbid  me  using  my  native  language  -  my  father  forbids 
me.  My  father  listens  not  to  my  language,.  -  but  ot hen  perchance 
after  my  death  fw'a'teen  million  of  my  compatriots  will  listen 
to  me  . , ,  Probably  my  father  does  not  like  his  langi^pge  for  the 
reason  that  the  “lEuzhiki/”  (common  people),  speak  it;  But  do  not 
the  '*Mushiky’*  of  Muscovy  not  speak  Russian?  And  besides,  in  what 
respect  are  vre  better  than  the  ’’Muzhik”?  -  We  ere  all  equal  both 
in  the  face  of  God  and  natui'e.” 


-270- 


Rutiansky*  s  pessimism  is  in  many  'of  hi?  nooms  very  stronr. 
And  this,  coupled  with  his  ability  as  a  maker  of  verse,  for  a 
time  indicated  that  he  would  probably  in  time  reach  the  reputation 
of  Shevchenko  as  a  lyricpoet.  Similarly  to  Co’wper,  he  constantly 
find  himself  isolated  from  relatives  and  friends,  and  he  spills  out 
his  grief  in  his  poems.  But  throughout  his  works,  though  he  is 
very  pessimistic,  he  uses  his  power  of  will  as  an  antidote..  In  his 
'*Ode  to  an  Oak”,  he  says  :  "Let  the  willow  bend,  but  you,  oak  tree, 
keep  up  your  spirits  and  stay  erect”.  In  his  historical  poems 
through  which  runs  a  lyrical  note,  he  is  aware  of  the  almost  hope¬ 
less  condition  in  which  his  people  are  found.  He  bewails  it.  But, 
on  hte  other  hand,  he  is  determined  to  encourage  them  v^hich  he  does 
through  his  wit,  satire  and  humor.  H^s  intimate  knowledge  of  the 
common  folk  was  the  best  qualification  he  had  for  this  kind  of 
work.  He  could  write  on  any  subject  hc^^evGr  insignificant ,  and 
make  it  acceptable  to  the  crowd.  But  he  was  also  familiar  with- 
other  classes  of  people,  and  particualrly  those  who  lived  as  para¬ 
sites  on  the  work  or  the  poor.  It  is  in  ridiculing  these  overlords, 
Polish  Pans,  and  Jewish  traders,  that  he  made  himself  so  populsjr  with 
the  Ukrainian  peasarxtry  and  became  known  among  them  as  a  great  humorist 
Physically  Rudansky  vfas  a  weakling,  and  he  was  battling 
against  sickness  all  his  life.  Here  one  is  reminded  of  Robert 
Louis  Stevenson,  who  wab  similarly  disposed  and  at  the  same  time 
kept  on  composing  some  of  the  best  verses,  especially  those  about 
children,  that  we  have  in  the  English  language.  Rudsnsky  knew  that 
he  could  not  live  very  long,  and  in  mentioning  this  fact  he  e:c- 


-271- 


J 


r  '  "  ■  ^ 


-•-.CO  ^ 


/  '•’  '■ 


: .'  .  ;  :•c.^:'..; ;  ,  'O  : 

,  .'.■  f  •:  ^^oc  '  c 

'■•  ,.  '■  r  '  I..  '  '  .  ■  ■  ■  .  ■  .  - 

^  '"■  j  .  Ic  :  c.  ■  co’ 

■c  i' iiiQu  't  .  c 


I  C  Ji  •  .’  C 


O  ••(  t  o 


) 


;c: 


( 


presses  a  hope  that  thoit£;h  he  die  premat'dr-^ly ^  his  poems  vrill 
live  on  long  after  his  dea.th.  This  wish  has  been  fulfilled. 
They  live  on  and  it  is  hoped  that  it  will  be  possible  someday 
to  translate  some  of  them  into  English, 


PROMIMT  WRITERS  OF  GALICIA  AND  BUKOVXNA 

Markian  Shashkevich  (1811-1845). 

While  in  Greater  Ukraine  national ‘  and  cultural  life 
was  undergoing  rapid  ©lianges,  Galicia  and  Bukovina  were  not 
left  behind.  Influences  from  Ukraine  not  only  acted  as  a  stimulus 

i; 

to  a  national  revival  in  these  provinces  and  in  Galicia  in  par- 

ticular ,  h\it  also  enabled  them  to  foster  literature  and  make  pro-  .j 

gress  therein.  When  persecutions  of  Ukrainian  intellectuals  by  J 

the  Russian  Government  made  it  impossible  to  make  any  headway  in  J 

H 

Ukrainian  social  or  cultural  life,  Galicia  felt  the  natural  bond 
with  Ukraine,  and  this  bond  became  a  dynamic  force  which  caused  ■; 

y 

it  to  continue  the  work  begun  by  the  latter  country.  At  the  | 

head  of  this  revival  movement  stands  above  all  in  the  beginning  I 

of  the  19th  century  Markian  Shashkevich,  | 

For  many  years  prior  to  Shashkevich  Galicia  was  practically  ' 
speaking  dead  intellectually.  Yfe  knovr  that  the  territories  which  i 
were  later  taken  over  by  Austria  were  very  backward  150  years  ago. 


-.7  72- 


’■fr/' 


-■  o 

■ J 


C' 

•  c 


'  '■  ;''  c  ’c."  :  ■•'  ■'  '• 'o '.'  ..  j  '2 

>  -  '  H.rf  ;V'Ci  fc  -Oi 

'  ■  ■  ^0  ■  ■  '0  :;o  V^.:.-  ■■■^' 

-  ^  *-■<.  C  , -1’  .  ':.  C 


■  V-  ’ 

’-V  :  ■:'.T/  ■  ■'  '- 

"f  ^  “'i''.;.  '  ii  'i  , 

^S'-'  It,;  0  -'i.-LC  ttv. 

r.c'^  ’K /)i("t:iIV.i,.;  /  u  ^  l 

.C-‘  ''."'  f '  '  _  ,  ;.o,f  .■'■'-’i:  H  ^ 


f 


CJ 


r-fK  i.f: 


r  ’  c 


Mi,  '  ^'^'■ 

c  '  •  .'  ; 

.  "'-f/.-'o 

/  :j  '/t  .  '. 


Yjif..  '.OV 


V*  7 


.O 


And,  the  greatest  curse  on  the  civilization  of  that  country  was, 
of  course,  serfdom.  There  were  few  schools  end  not  even  the  weal¬ 
thy  people  were  educated.  With  tv coseion  .of  Galicia  to  Austria, 
at  least  a  partial  relief  came.  In  1781  serfdom  was  abolished  end 
the  Doeple  vrere  then  only  obliged  to  work  for  their  ove^'lcrd  so 
many  days  a  week.  Some  schools  were  then  built  -iin  Vienna,  Lviv  and 
other  places,  and  the  people  began  gradually  to  teke  advantage  of 
the  opportunity  offered  for  intellectual  improvement.  There  was 
only  one  drawback,  however,  and  that  is  that  TVfing  to  lack  of 
teachers,  most  of  the  instruction  was  given  in  the  old  Church 
language.  But  eventually  between  the  years  1816  and  1820  the^« 
appeared  in  Galicia. several  educated  Ukrainians  who  were  eager  to 
ipread  the  knowledge  of  Ukrainian  among  their  people.  Some  of 
the  notables  in  this  were  Metropolitan  Mikhaylo  Levitsky,  Ivan 
Mohilnitskj^,  Joseph  Levitsk^^  and  Joseph  Lo3lnskn%  The  most  active 
worker  in  this  educational  field,  however,  was  Markian  Shashkevich. 

Shashkevlch  was  born  In  Pidllse ,Berezany  in  Galicia.  His 
father  was  a  priest  and  wished  his  son  to  enter  the  same  field  of 
work.  Yeung  Shashkevich  was  educated  in  the  High  School  at  Bero- 
zany  and  then  registered  for  a  course  in  philosophy  as  a  prepsra- 
tion  for  theology.  He  became  very  studious  and  gra-sped  a  good 
knowledge  of  German,  Polish  and  other  langua.ges.  He  also  came 
across  some  Ukrainian  works.  He  longed  for  these  long  before,  and 
when  he  read  them,  his  latent  desire  to  spread  the  knowledge  of 
Ulrrainlan  history  and  literature  among  his  Galician  countrimien 
grevr  more  intense.  The  problem  was  not  an  easy  one.  By  force 


-273- 


J 


jI:  •  1*  c 


O'  c 


J  r  .  (  or  .  ,0 


i^-C.  ■  f  ■'  *'  ■...  j  ■■  :  .1  'I  si. O' ' 


'c_  O''-  :  •  :.'vOT  .  '  .,.:.c  l''o  f 


'.  n*  ,  0  •  c 


-  "  ^  V  -■  ‘  '..'■o  0  ^  :  ;jx 

~  •  --  :  ;'o  .  -.‘.r/i  ixi,.  ■  'r::o  ■•'i'.:/  'o  -x  ^  i 

■:•■'•  O  i-C  .  ■•  ,it  oi  •  i  -■  q  •  C 

•-'  -•^■’  o  0.0  :7  "c  jev  ■  ^ ;-jooa 

^  ■  '-■•  .-'  '•  y  l/’vOu:;0--  oc;.o  » 

r  '  y  :.  :  ■!;?&' O' x‘r.io-  j.^wov.  -'  ■■■'}  o:r-v»^ 

^  '■•f'"’  ♦  -•  ■  '.  '^c  'O  -i:'  ... 

'>  f'  0  J'..0'- c 'O'- ,  ‘  ■  J:  \'--  rii  n  r  ■'•^' 

■  '  '  0 


>L  '  "  ^  -  .'/'  i  ci  0  ■  ■  V'  .  -  JQC  •-  ■  o 


t 


r 


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c.  o 


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.  I’t! 

i’ifi'  6  7  ^  Tc  rot 


c  • 


,  k-  •  .  ■  .  .  O.; 


O  (  . 


3  '  /  J.  . 


/iC 


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oIc:  ••  J'  ■;  ,  r.f  i. 


'-0  G'.O, '• 


'O-W  I  .  ,.o;  r 


x>  .  .  .  :;.v  .  c  ■ 

.1:1  .  ,  . 


of  circumstance 3  the  Ukrainians  in  positions  and  power  were 
Polcnized.  It  was  only  the  peasantry  who  spoke  iJkrainian,  and 
the  work  had  to  be  commenced  with  them.  Shaahkevich  and  two  other 
men  who  had  similar  inclinations  namely,  Holovatsky  and  Vahilevich, 
wore  the  ones  who  commenced  this  work  and  who  were  known  as 
’’The  iJkrainian  Triumvirate”,  . 

After  completing  his  course  in  philosophy  Shashkevich 
registered  in  the  Theological  Seminary,  but  he  was  expelled  there¬ 
from  owing  to  his  coming  in  late  to  lectures  after  his  walks.  Pour 
years  later,  i.e. ,in  1833  he  was  re-admitted  to  the  Seminary  and 
continued  his  patriotic  work  among  the  students.  H:s  labors  were 
fruitful, , for  in  1835  his  ’’Voice  of  a  Galician”  and  other  works 
though  strictly  censored  were  greatly  welcomed  by  the  people  and 
were  effective.  Then  later  in  1837  with  the  co-operation  of  his 
fellow  students  he  published  (in  Budapest  to  escape  censorship) 
another  book  in  pure  Ukrainian  which  he  entitled  ’’Rusalka  Dnies- 
trova”  (A  Naiad  of  the  Dniester).  These  few  books  i?diich  were  pub¬ 
lished  was  the  first  positive  step  in  putting  into  use  in  literature 
the  language  of  the  Ukrainian  people  of  Galicia,  ViTith  Shashkevich 
therefore  begins  a  new  period  of  Ukrainian  literature  in  Galicia 
■^In  the  same  way  as  it  began  In  Greater  Ukraine  with  Kotliarevsky. 

’’Rusalka  Dniestrova”  was  in  great  demand , although  it  must 
be  admitted  that  some  people  turned  a  cold  shoulder  to  it  for 
this  was  something  new  and  strange  to  them,  but  the  authorities  at 
Lviv  soon  confiscated  all  the  copies  they  could  find.  This  action 
of  the  authorities  was  a  severe  blov/  to  the  author  of  the  book, 


-274- 


'■'  'V...---::  ■  r  «'•; 

t  >•.:  Tr*-  ^  Cl.'.',  c?^ 

hn,'  1;  ■  r'  ijiur  x>l.Kv- 

'  ■^q  as  q^\ucc  rl:i  r:o.:"::A  , 

■■  "’  ■  ■  V  ■'  ■  '■  ■'/  ,'  ■  -■  '<'  '*'. 

*  •t,?X.*‘f  j|#i'{XCiO  Hv^r  •':<■• 

.  ’  /  ■:■'!•  !.*y  ■  ^rc^;w.  jijoys^p.^^^c-}  .  i  >!  '.;- 


f'.'jr.^  7Ji.'-:t 


0  n 


ft 


-AT 


V 


’i,}  ( 

■:  ■■  '■  •  ,'  •'-  u  T  J'  .  d-.t/o...  r.^,  - 

.{  .ti  •;,i.J',< 

.T  i7n9  -  '  f'irTSp 

ft;-.'  ‘•::.-r  c  r-i'jr  •Tvr'j'i  v.iS’^  •>8^11'?  .  •■.'■'  .  ..  .  ,•■  "  *  .. 

;;  ^  ij'  '■  ’•■'... 

:y  .  ‘if.  iij'-ro,;  I'tci.'iM-t^  •  .■.  ';r  .'•’‘•'I  i 

li  .-  'f'O  -  '  .  .  VoA  ''  yi.'  "v^  ':• 

]p5^0  7i>*I-  ■  c  '■-■>■  -,■■£■•,  T.*  ,  r-  *3^  fit 

"  :.'r  ■' t ,  V  'i  ---.''«  ".V',  ■  ’  -.  .':  ■ 

'  ii  0.-  •■  '.  tX'-'O  M  *'.mt\':j  f...  a-  ;  .'.c-'  '  i,''.i  u5>-^>7i  .hjj 

^  -nrj  .  ,.  'ar.r  ’•-ir*'!  V' ^'‘■^0*04.  "i.r'-^:' 


^.nOO  4'7t^4•. 


but  he  would  not  be  disheartened  ,  and  kept  on  with  h'.s  work. 

’^Aion  he  completed  his  course  in  theolop:y  he  f^ot  married. 

Then  he  was  ordained  and  preached  to  the  people  of  the  villages. 

As  a  priest  he  was  greatly  loved  by  the  people  both  for  his  sermons 
and  for  his  patriotism.  He  read  widely  Ukrainian  literature  re- 
cei%’’ed  from  Ukraine,  and  wrote  beautiful  poetry  for  which  he  was 
highly  respected.  But  this  work  was  more  than  his  frail  body  could 
bear.  His  lungs  which  bec«m*e  affected  during  the  four  years  that 
he  was  absent  from  college  and  when  he  was  forced  to  lead  a  very 
hard  life,  were  gradually  weakening , and  he  died  in  his  thirty- 
second  year.  The  poems  of  Shashkevich  are  essentially  sad.  He 
was  really  a  Shevchenlco  in  spirit.  He  was  a  patriot  sympathising 
with  and  desirous  of  helping  his  nation  to  extricate  itself  from 
the  clutches  of  foreign  rulers  and  oppressors.  The  first  step 
for  his  people  in  that  direction  was  to  lead  them  to  realize 
who  they  were.  In  one  of  his  poems  his  plea  to  the  people  is, 
literally: 

”Au  IT^crainian  mother  gave  us  birth, 

I  An  Ukrainian  mother  nursed  us, 

'".7/  And  she’s,  the  one  who  always  loved  us  ,- 

Wherefore  then  should  her  language  not  be  dear  to  us? 
f  ^  Wherefore  then  should  we  disown  .it 
t,  g>nd  love  one  that  is  foreign?  ”, 

Shashkevich  did  not  live  even  as  long  as  did  Rudansky  and 
therefore  did  not  contribute  as  much  as  did  the  latter  to  Ukrai¬ 
nian  literature.  But  judging  from  what  he  wrote  he  gave  promise 

s 


-275- 


rt  K-i  ‘  , 

^  7  ■  I  '  '  .if*  '' '  XO 


^i•^^^f.^^F•'^^■':}  .*r  »  ■DA’'^o>-‘' 
t}:^.  ?•  v:  ;:I(7'..c :)  >>f;l  r^'rr< 

,  ‘.IP  b; 


L'v  -*1 

**  '  '  ‘‘'J-'  ••  '"'1  ,..C-'tiir  .  '•!  ‘  ,  ,;,r«'.  j ' 

v’'-  '*  ‘  v  ■  -c";  U'"x::tj^c  ^n:-.  ^ 

C'-  V:  .;•  rr'f'j  f’lCM  >r; 

' .  <♦  :■•••:•*  .'r'f  ^ri;  w  .  i  m.*':  »r  5 t'.'a.e  4c  ''>  "  c 

..  '-'**1*5^"  ' 

4"  *  ■ 

S  Tfty.  ..;•  03<rfo'Nov7vfh  d 

y.r 


“r. •  ii  .. 

'•  ■  ..'  ;  ■■ 

•'  ■  q  X  <;<i, 

.•^C;  .1 

.1,-- 

:  Tib-. 

-U  .  . 

;  Yl^/^ 

nb!;  ‘^  ■' 

1  i- 

’I  ','KJ 

'fiJ'-;  ■  or! 

.{■b'  ,  f; 

;.\‘J  y\p--> 

■^-  '  <•  •  ■'•  I'.'r, -Cmi  ’:c  s<.*J  v: 

•  -n  .  •"drCTf^x'o  ■ '■  ;  f‘'?io,io*i*'^':(:  b  .  r,...  .  ’ 

'  ■'■  O'X  •■  ■  '' v;  {i:-^tf  /TC  !:,*■■%■ '^.: I  nj-  -i''*.  -ro'. 

-  t...i  uJ  n^»r-  -  ff  s-  ,yr 

;\;i  X/”;o.'‘  .:  .1 

^  . “f :  '■■ .’ a ;/  <  ■/ /  ■  -i'  •  "•  t,.  •  '•  rr^’  .  ut’  /  'i  ••  i?  ^yV  r. 

O  I  I 

f  '  :•  ^9<V7f/r'  -  .• 

<.  ,'•  iY  isno  €>/ 

JTur  v/q/»C,7'' ■•  I  'ifj;i  h.ly  .ir  ' .  rr 

'  '  ■  .  '  ' 

'"’-i  ^Tt  -f  iC’  r>vc.I  .fifr'ij 

;,:tra-.v,,  hi*  .^c  •  ./.  ,ffi.:  ,  ,.  ,,j 

;■"  ’.  '  •''■  ■■<”'■'  :  '-OV^afS  5(11)  ;'•)..■■  o:-/tW 


I  «  ^ 


oi'  a  brilliant  literar’’^  career.  He  left  us  a  few  of  his  thoughts, 
but  these  are  sincere.  Thev  are  sai  as  was  the  life  of  the  poet, 
and  his  poetry  is  full  of  sorr-ow.  He  left  us  a  few  of  his  prose 
works,  i,e,  ,  his  tales  and  some  translati ons.  Two  important  c 
characteristics  stand  out  clearly  in  all  these  works,  and  that 
is  sincerity  of  feeling  and  simplicity  of  expression.  But  nowhere 
is  this  as  evident  as  in  his  lyric  compositions,  and  that  is  why 
Bohdan  Lepky  thinks  that  had  the  poet  not  died  so  early  in  his 
literary  career  he  would  have  become  a  g-^eat  lyric  poet. 

However,  we  seldom  think  of  the  amount  Shashkevich  wrote  and 
of  the  quality  of  his  works.  He  is  to  the  Ukrainian  people  of 
Galicia  a  father  of  the  new  literary  and  national  movement ^ 
for  a  recognition  of  the  Ukrainians  as  a  separate  and  distinct 
nationality  .  As  a  mark  of  appreciation  of  his  srrvices  there 
now  stands  at  Lviv,  Galicia,  a  monument  erected  in  his  honor. 

The  movement  started  by  Shashkevich  and  his  colleagues 
gradually  gained  approval  of  the  Ukrainian  people.  It  awakened 
national  consciousness  in  them,  and  they  began  to  realize  that 
the  language  which  they  spoke  and  which  the  Russians,  the  Poles, 
end  the  Austrian  Germans  considered  only  as  a  jargon  or  dialect, 
was  as  good  a  language  as  the  rest  ,  and  since  it  was  proved 
that  it  was  fit  for  literary  purposes,  there  was  no  reason  why  they 
should  feel  that  it  was  inferior  to  other  languages.  But  the 
Austrian  rulers  did  not  welcome  this  noveraent.  They  saw  what  was 
behind  it,  and  therefore  censored  every  book  and  article  wh'ch 
appeared  in  ’’that  dead  language  which  the  Ukrainians  want  to 


-276- 


■  *  ‘  1*^  '.  •■ 


?  2  *  i 


-'■  ■v:^f 'roGfr^ ri  sX 


’ar;  G 


.T.i-  .-  •i.T^jiov^tC  0  ^-^ff  i'fji  J:.;:  s.r  ?]r'^  fli 

■  '  .  'r,  .  '  ■  ,  •  ■  ■ 

q  >.":  '  ^rv^w^'  hXl^W^ 

.'vhr-  •.  V  v^tfwoa^ 

"c^aq;  (i>I.-,-'z:Xij  H,.  ^ ; -^9 

t  ‘•'Cfvi  .:i‘noi4^rT.^.-o  v-';-r:^^  yr^a  j! 

■'v  V  «'  ;,  v-''.>.:n.vi1')??(0  O'i?-  ‘Xo  /tois^J’.'^^-O.'.’-a  ,  i  ,tf>l 

•’  ■  ’  '■  '  -^  '  To'^i^rr:  .€  ^,.y.  .  - -■ 

^l^:T;'-t.5  ••'O'*. 

-iJ&^  yv'u  « XT 

^ •‘'  -V'  •-•  r  '  X/i VO  iLTr; jt|  u '.  r:  1/:^  xt  f,'  hi: o  o  X^, 

•v-i  ^  l/^t' n| 


■  ;h»/:,'  ' 

,  p  ,  ^  ^ 


z'.^iOri>.  v^'edi  .,,( ■  ^  '••'  -  : '  * 


i 


■  ■  -)  '  ,  ••  jy^i  ‘  7  r-r  r .. 

rf  f _  »/r-i/:.  ■’. oya  j 


•  '  i-'O’ ft.;..  ■'  .'^ 

\wu^,rfii  ;i.  ><:c;:  .n  -  v 

T^-AX^^O'i  ^fl  ,  Vm: 

-  J*  ■  ■'  • 

■  ■  .'^JC  ii!  'iw  X.  o'x  o.tj’orf.i;  . 

,  .  . 

■  ,  J;  :»  3-:-)i!r-  .  J 

"liJk 

X  ^  ,:;j 


tring;  back  to  life”  ,  as  they  put  it.  For  a  time  therefore  the 
group  of  followers  of  Shashkevich  were  subject  to  severe  criticism 
on  the  part  of  the  government  officials.  Nothing  was  alicnfred  to 
be  printed  in  UVrainlan,  not  even  the  translation  of  the  Austrian 
National  Anthem,  ”for",  they  said, "how  cou‘’d  such  a  common  lan¬ 
guage  be  used  in  praise  of  so  worthy  a  person  as  the  Emoeror”. 

However,  this  state  of  affairs  was  not  to  continue  inde¬ 
finitely.  In  1846  the  Revolution  came.  Two  years  later  the 
Socage  system  was  abolished  in  Galicia,  and  the  censorship  regula  - 
tions  were  lifted.  This  news  was,  of  course,  welcomed  by  the 
Ukrainians.  The  government  now  appeared  to  assume  an  entirely 
different  attitude  towards  them  ,  It  recognized  the  Ukrainians 
as  a  nationality  and  procured  them  to  help  quash  the  Polish  re¬ 
volt,  Taking  advantage  of  thei  relief  given,  the  Ukrainian  In¬ 
tellectuals  immediately  formed  in  Liviv  the  "Central  Ukrainian 
CcTincil”,  which  issued  a  manifesto  to  the  people  in  which  they 
were  reminded  that  they  belonged  to  a  nation  which  was  once  or¬ 
ganized  in  a  powerful  state,  that  it  had  its  history,  traditions, 
language  and  literature.  In  the  manifesto  they  were  called  upon 
to  unite  in  common  in  the  great  work  of  spreading  education  in  the 
country.  The  work  was  commenced  by  the  establishment  of  newspapers 
and  the  teaching  of  Ukrainian  in  the  Gymnasiums  and  i  n  the  Uni¬ 
versity  at  Lviv. 

The  revival  movement  was  well  begun,  but,  unfortunately 
it  was  not  carried  on  as  successfully  as  was  to  be  devsired.  There 
were  at  least  three  main  factors  which  counteracted  it,  firstly, 


-277- 


.'•■  *■'•.  t-  mri«ji 

e .  .i  -yw^  ^  .^^^,X''.--  C-  '  %o(*  -  ;.rT.F  >,r 

:t  ■iu.\ilit  /:rf;f:?r^:.:  '^^o  '  C'TOVA>Slr.‘:'  ^:: 


-■Vi..  :-!-c,  .  .. 

i  ''V'.iVOv  v’JO'.  JK.A  ;;0 

-  V  ‘  \n.Vyi  ,  .! 

"  ■  -0  )  ■•  »•:>;/»  pSyc  >  : 

'.  •■  .  'AH  •■??%/  M 

'xo-  Pi  ;rr'»2t/' <^•1  x-^^i.i:\ 

t.  c  )  r  *  -c  •  :USt 

-  -^-  '.r ' ' '•  ■’'  •■-<■’  •■•‘0  •►^iw .1  '.y(tc:- art:^  i'  ^ , .<iX' '■.;■: v; ' r^ai.jx 'i  ' 

>?. 'i'.,>MM':  0  tO.M'C  rti' 

'io  V  J.^, 


■  •>  ■  ^T,^^  .tf ,  c'  v'  •:'. ij  -  - 

A'  '  :ri;  i 

•'■  ■.,. '  '  i  ';,. 't  ^ 

.  PA  •  '  ?••  7Ae‘io'r*ixfc 

‘ir  L'Pi;  c'f‘ 

'■-’"  A.  •'  .  f  'V .  •  ': , , 

'.'-•P  1^.  lo  ,-...;-7A.  ■. 

'■\.,  •••■'  <•■  ■  0  '•  ^•o7i-ff/5PT' f>eif*o^  ■■'.r.’  /‘II or-^r,  D  ^ 

'iiV  j/o,c»t^!n  Aj  YiP.**/  {ju  ''.'  -1 


t  :i:  1  A 

A'  :;:  ^  :CJt*6^Sj 

■ }  '  \,  ...  -'  c»! ..  i  i 

-  -  ,.. ,  ■  *'.■, 
''• '  *'■  *  -'  -•■/rV’*.i'.iX  fcfi®  ^ 

•  .  ^  'i 

■  •  '  ’•  ■  ^'-rt  r.'-.  :;  '♦  - 

'  '  rii  noc;..;o  ,')  p.?  ad/iU  .c-i  ^ 

;C3ii  'j’£/?J‘7  r.  , 

.  -  A(.  ■.  ■„  ,'  ,  r^'  .'  ' 

•V 

•  ''A'r  ;;nj  1  ;;•  <  ,'. 

.  '.fr,!.  .i  -  t-Xiiiop’ 

.  .  ...  , 

:XMWrtjr:^  ^fiCJX'e70|a  y'V'J'X  Afiy  . 

y’  Jy 


,no-'’-'4^f  J  1 


the  number  of  TJkrainian  intellectuals  available  for  the  work  wc 
not  sufficient  for  the  big  task*  secondly,  the  leaders  did  not 
always  agree  as  to  the  policy  they  were  to  follow;  and  thirdly, 
the  Poles  did  all  they  could  to  create  discord  among  them  and  thereby 
to  weaken  their  forces.  In  consequence  the  Ukrainian  literary  move¬ 
ment'  was  making  a  much  slower  progress  than  it  would  have  under 
different  circumstances.  For  a  time  no  writer  of  note  appeared, 
and  what  was  written  was  of  15-ttle  f^alue.  Generally  speaking,  there 
was  no  one  purpose  in  the  literary  field.  Everything  was  in  a 
chaotic  state.  It  was  not  until  after  the  unsuccessful  war  with 
Italy  that  Austria  again  returned  to  its  constitution,  which  had 
in  fact  been  put  out  of  existence  during  the  reaction.  With  this 
change  the  social  life  of  the  people  once  more  began  to  gain  a 
momentum.  Then  too  the  literary  progress  in  Ukraine  had  its 
effect  on  its  Western  borders.  Works  of  Shovchenko,  Vovchok,  Kulish, 
and  others,  became  to  be  in  groat  demand  in  Galicia,  They  were 
read  and  studied,  A  nuTjber  of  writers  soon  appeared  including 
Kiimkovlch,  ISTorobkevich^  Zharsky  and  others.  Among  them  was  also 
found  the  highly  talented  Fedkovich,  But  though  this  last  mentioned 
writer  may  be  considered  to  have  started  his  work  as  a  result  of 
his  connections  with  the  Galician  revival,  he  was  not  a  Galician 
■vriter  but  a  Bukovinian,  and  we  shall  treat  him  as  such, 

Osyp  Yurey  Fedkovich  (1854-1338) . 

In  the  Province  of  Bukovina  from  the  time  of  its  annexation 
to  Austria  in  1775  until  the  year  1860,  the  Ukrainians  though  they 


-278- 


r 


a:^ 


t?  :a.v,  W~<.T  rClA/i^irr 

V(K\S  VJiilO^  '•  :  •-  ■.  a'p 


'  '-c  'ii  rt  ^  n  .  o  f  hSuor)-  •j«:/;d:  r ' 

‘X  :".  rvifi  f»'mdrr|i i-rrjn 


4  f  .  .'  '■  ■  .  ■  ''^Jk 

:’  .  "A  .* /:'f  ttcn  f.k  rurf  s  •,.  >a  .^ai•^^A'!  ;e 


v-fc;*  A-  J5  *«  ,  .  i  'rrt,arurA^;  ;>  ,i  f: 

,  -ss-  ,  ^  Y 


j  r  i  ><50  S  V"!  >  IJ: '■ 


,  -  ii/.v  1;- -  ; 

J  o;r)ur o^:  t;rw 


>• 


)*■'  t  Ui  /  ’.tAjib-O  ebi  Q.i  .‘.t ';’ 

:'  '  ... 


V'’ 


f#;- 


>..>•  I:.:'  'N 


^-V'C  :'-<C:.  oonf?  'fv.rcv-;  *0  J  -  .5 ' 

'•  ■  ■  .  ^ 

'2:y^X;':>1:‘  \;':b'i  iX  Orf"  CCCT 

'  ■  .  ■'H  , 

t  'fj'’ ■'r*‘o7'>r^t  *4.  -  .rjc  '^0'^'>.a’& 


‘  ijii  i  biT.I«'05  ff’rri;j,^.r  O;i:..  /  ,  :v’-^:-'*o  b:Ui 


*■'  .  '  5>wC  (>*7^  ,  ^.voiv^x'ob'io;:  ^  -  .  .,;i  '.  . 

.'i^.t  ^iW  •■--■-•■  ,  .,.•,(*  Oj-  !v.--:^'^«-cj  nd'  ■\'t 'V'**.-'’:^''- 
•  Of.,  'Miv  '.  >■^7,  :fC ’;  vi  ,i 

'.*. '  '  ■•  ■"  .•  'i '  r>  ^rff  ■  ^  '  *vo.'b>  •'.  ‘ 


l£’'  }  ,.■  ''./, 

'  ••  ■.  -  :  a 


•:o7i  n.' 


!  ..  .yc- 


.  • 


Tsrcr*?  the  most  numerous  nationality,  they  wero  practicp.lly  dor¬ 
mant  politically  and  intellectir-.lly.  The  Government  considered 
them  as  Roumanians,  so  that  if  there  were  any  schools,  only  Rou¬ 
manian  was  taught  in  them.  But  education  even  in  Roumanian  was 
for  a  lo  ng  time  sadly  neglected,  with  the  result  that  Bukovina 
was  one  of  the  most  backward  provinco^s  of  the  Austro-Hungarian 
Empire,  lith  Podkovich,  hcwrever,  began  the  nevr  period  of  Ukrai¬ 
nian  intellectual  life  in  Bukovina,  He  therefore  fulfilled  a 
similar  mission  in  Bukovina  that  Kotliarevsky  did  in  Ukraine  and 
Shashkevich  in  Galicia, 

Fedkovich  was  born  in  Stor onka-Pultova  in  Bukovina.  Fis 
parents  were  well-to-do  farmers,  iVhlle  at  home  his  eldest  sister, 
Maria,  had  a  great  Influence  over  him#  She  often  told  him  inter¬ 
esting  tales  and  sang  folk-songs  to  him  which  he  always  enjoyed, 

Fedkovich  commenced  his  studies  at  Chernovitz,  but  six  years 
after,  during  the  time  of  unrest  he  went  to  Moldavia  where  he 
studied  privately  and  at  the  same  time  wrote  poetry  in  German  .  In 
1352  he  was  conscripted  to  the  army,  and  remained  there  for  a  few 
years.  In  1359  during  the  march  against  Italy  he  wrote  his  first 
p°oem  in  Ukrainian, 

Returning  from  the  war  Fedkovich  spent  considerable  time 
ib  writing,  and  1862  published  his  first  collection  of  poems.  These 
were  well  received,  and  the  fame  of  the  author  soon  spread, not 
only  through  Bukovina,  but  also  through  Galicia  and  U’-'raino,  Ob¬ 
taining  a  complete  discharge  from  t'^e  army  owing  to  ill-health  he 
settled  at  home  on  the  farm#  In  1867  he  was  appointed  inspector*  of 


;•  { 


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:'(j 


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..  . 


(■J 


v: 


r  f''i;  r 

a  : 


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school.^  .  He  later  r9si{;;ned  his  position  and  went  to  Lviv, in 
Galicia,  and  there  en^a^ied  in  literary  work , specialising  in  parti¬ 
cular  in  the  translation  of  dramatic  works.  But  he  did  not  long 
remain  away  from  his  home.  The  following  year  he  returned  to 
Chernovitz, where  through  his  own  efforts  and  those  of  his  fellow 
vrorkers,  a  newspaper  was  established,  and  a  Uniw^rsitv  and  a 
library  were  opened® 

Fedkovich's  first  attempts  at  writing  were  influenced  by 
the  poetry  and  the  folk  songs  which  he  learned.  In  these  early 
poems  he  described  army  life  and  its  horrors,  and,  at  the  same 
time,  always  expressed  a  longing  to  be  back  home  in  his  own  country. 
In  one  of  his  poems,  namely,  ’’The  Flute”  a  ooem  which  was  trans¬ 
lated  by  Mrs  F.R.Livesay  and  published  in  ’’The  Book  of  Sorrow:” 
by  Andrew  Macphail,  are  expressed  his  reflections  on  war.  The  poem 
reads  in  part: 

’’The  midnight  fire  flickers. 

The  embers  slowly  dying; 

The  father  sits  at  the  table, 
j'  Heavily,  sadly  thinking, 

I  The  mother, too,  sits  quiet, 

•h  Sending  sv^ift  prayers  to  Ksavan* 

Her  heart  is  filled  with  grief, 

But  she  knovrs  not  words  to  tell  it. 

The  sisters  finish  their  sewing 

By  the  light  of  the  "Kahanetz” . ( a  little  lamp). 


-280- 


tA:-  -'r-x  *31  ,  •  ^ 

•  /  -  -  W  ■  -  ' 

•'■-  6::,-  r  xl:i  l^  E;j.‘ 

■l"  •#*  ,  ■ 

'  .  ii^;V.ij-s“  ^  ^  ^ 

.■:'...  -j/a  IjVr.^  ^ 'iO-fUfJXsx...>.v''  :  ,;•  e"‘  ■.''•>  v.nv 

-.  *  '  '.  -s.  __  ■  ■"’  ■  .1, 

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a  .  <0  ^v. 

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/ 

,■>» 


The  brother  ha?  sought  a  corner 
To  pipe  tunes  on  a  flute. 

He  plays  on  the  flute  of  Ivan, 
Ivan  who  the  Emperor  serves. 


And  on  the  hot  sands  of  Italy_, 

On  the  green  grass  lies  a  soldier. 

Shot,  avraltlng  deat^,  alone,  alone. 

As  a  leaf  in  desert  lands. 

0nl3^  the  soon  is  shining- 

Above  him  proud”Chereinshina  "(birdcher ry) 

Her  buds  fling  outward. 


And  on  the  hot  sands  of  Italy, 

Under  the  boughs  of  Cheremshina, 

W-at  does  he  dre9-m,Ivan? 

Does  he  dream  of  the  bay. 

Or  of  Kateryna?.  ” 

The  works  of  Shevchenko  and  of  other  writers  had  a  con¬ 
siderable  effect  on  Fedkovich’s  later  writings,  A  great  number  of 
his  novels  deal  with  the  fate  of  his  people  overburdened  with  a 
foreign  yoke  ,  and  express  hopes  that  some  day  they  would  be  freed. 
One  cannot  say  of  him,  hovrever,  that  he  tried  very  hard  to  pick 
out  an .jd  show  us  in  minute  details  the  characters  of  individuals, 
as  many  novelists  do  .  He  would  rather  take  and  treat  a  society 


-281- 


‘  i  : 


A 


n 


< 


c 


'XK%  r  ( 


«  ■  ■  .  V' 


>'^  nn'  ■  ' 


.". ;  J 


■I'aJ  'o 


or  a  community  as  a  whole.  But  though  in  his  description  he 
omits  a  closer  analysis  of  the  everyday  life  of  the  people,  which 
is  often  very  desirable  in  novels,  be  very  effectively  brings  out 
the  morality  of  the  crowd  ,  because  of  his  knovrledge  of  its 
psychology  .  In  this  respect  he  differs  from  MarVo  Vovchok,  who 
scrutinized  and.  depicted  the  characters  -dn  every  important  particu 
lar . 

Besides  poems  and  novels  Fedkovich  also  wrote  and  translated 
drejnas,  in  which  work  he  was  very  successful.  best  dramatic 

work  is  probably  ’*Dowbueh"  .  Oleksa  Dowbush  ,  the  hero  of  the 
tragedy  was  a  notorious  highland  robber,  who  had  a  number  of 
associates-.  The  members  of  his  company  under  his  able  direction 
did  much  clever  work.  Many  songs  and  takes  are  still  recited 
among  the  Ukrainian  people, of  the  heroic  deeds  of  this  mivhty 
robber  who  took  from  the  rich  in  order  to  help  the  poor. 

As  a  writer  and  educator  Fedkovich  is  not  only  a  leader  of 
the  Renaissance  in  Bukovina, .but  also  as  a  loading  figure  in  Ukrai¬ 
nian  literature  in  the  sixties.  His  contemporaries  Sydyr  Vorob- 
kevich  (1336-1903),  who  is  known  under  the  pen-name  of  Danilo 
"Mlaka,  and  Hrihory  Vorobkevich  (1838-1884)  ,  a  priest  and  a 
brother  of  the  former  Vorobkevich,  were  his  great  helpers,  and 
two  of  the  other  important  contributors  to  Ukrainian  thought  in 
that  province.  The  former  is  noted  as  a  dramatist  and  the 
latter  as  a  poet* 

Mlkhaylo  Drahomaniv  (1641-189-5) 

Heretofore  Ukrainian  writers  in  Greater  Ukraine,  Galicia. 


-232- 


t  r  1 

■  -'f  ?  - 


.  cc 


^  '^'■ 

^■'  ■•;  -foo-'o 


t  V  >  ^  'D.  ?C  O  €•*  1  J  C  ■  ■  y  ■“  i  .'  ,‘'  C .  f 


'jl-n  -: 


O^Xe  fc:-;.- 

*  ■ 


^i7^/fflao  ^ir:  'Ir' 


•:■ :  '  j 


^  ":  '  :  ■  :•  .  '’V 


.1  /.ri. 


f* 


and  BnVrovina  ,  confined  their  literary  activities  more  or  less  to 
their  re’^pective  territories  .and  many  of  their  worksconvey  to  us 
an  impression  that  they  were  meant  for  the  local  people.  But,  be¬ 
ginning  with  the  sixties,  there  is  a  fast  departure  from  this 
characteristic.  It  has  already  been  mentioned  that  when  in  Russia 
censorship  was  more  severe  than  that  of  Austria,,  Ukrainian  writers 
often  migrated  to  the  latter  country  for  literary  purposes.  This  , 
coupled  with  a  closer  relationship  of  Ukraine  and  Galicia,  had  a 
unifying  effect  on  the  writers  of  both  countries,  and  the  tendencies 
of  the  writers  of  Ukraine,  Galicia  and  Bukovina  were  thence  for¬ 
ward  more  in  co’tunan.  Marking  this  change  more  than  any  other  man 
is  Mikhaylo  Drahomaniv. 

With  Drahomaniv  the  protest  of  Ulcrainian  men  of  letters  not 
only  continued  against  the  political,  social,  economical  and  national 
oppression,  but  it  was  now  done  with  a  united  front.  The  people, 
work  for  their  benefit,  study  of  their  lives  and  service  in  their 
interests,  all  these  henceforward  rang  louder  than  ever  before 
throughout  Ukrainian  literature. 

Drahomaniv  is  a  unique  writer  of  his  time.  His  specialty 
was  history.  But,  as  he  himself  says,  he  would  .iust  as  soon  create 
history  as  record  historical  events.  He  was  essentially  a  re¬ 
former  and  worked  hard  against  the  old  order.  His  motto  was  , 
’’Destruam  et  aedificabo” ,  which  he  later  qualified,  saying, 

”at  aedificabatis”  ,  so  as  to  appease  the  people  who  were  opposed 
to  his  radical  views.  And,  he  did  work  hard  to  destroy  all  that 
he  thought  was  inimical  to  public  good.  When  this  was  done  ,  only 


-283- 


then  could  constructive  work  be  carried  on  succons fully.  He 
stood  up  for  unity^  and  he  says,  ”l  give  no  n'^eferenco  to  eit^e^ 
*?oclal,  cultural,  political,  o'"  oconomicel  interests;  I  place 
them  all  on  the  ssune  level".  Yet  in  spite  of  his  radicalism 
Drahomaniv  is  not  a  revolutionist,  and  thoun-h  his  attitude  to 
mat ter 3, which  in  his  opinion,  are  not  for  the  public  benefit,  is 
always  negative,  he  is  e  believer  in  a  positive  constructive  v:ork. 

Drahomsniv  kne^v  the  conditions  in  Galicia  and  Ukraine  thorough 
ly.  Standing  by  a  conviction  that  national  independence  without 
education  will  give  neither  llberali.sm  nor  democracy,  he  desired 
proper  education  for  the  people,  education  which  would  raise  all 
to  the  same  level*  However,  his  work  was  not  confined  to  Galicia 
alone*  Through  his  influence  the  Russian  Ukrainians  came  into 
a  closer  relationship  77ith  those  of  Austria.  As  a  result  of  his 
efforts  a  library  was  established  at  Vienna,  amd  at  Czernovitz, 
B’lkovina,  a,nd  also  Ukrainian  books  were  for  the  first  tii^e  intro¬ 
duced  airs'ngst  the  Ukrainians  in  Hungary.  The  n  too,  he  established 
connections  with  foreign  press,  and  articles  concerning  Ukraine 
appeared  in  English,  Italian,  French,-  Spanish,  Serbian  and  Polish 
^iournals. 

Unlike  some  other  Ukrainian  ^vriters,  Drahomaniv  ,  while  being 
a  worthy  Ukrainian,  did  not  forget  the  fact  that  proper  progress 
was  only  possible  when  people  of  every  nationality  in  the  State 
became  educated.  He  vms  a  federalist  for  he  treated  the  various 
Ukrainian  territories  as  a  unity,  and  he  advised  that'  people  of 
all  classes  and  nationality  work  in  harijony,  and  with  a  proper 


-284- 


^•,  ’^-Z '  ‘*  -iy  i;;»> •  ■'  jvJfJlR 


;:;;  '’::::'i''L,ju,';  ,,  . 

•  .  . -.  :'‘^'X  •  ..:ii‘c'  'v  fic  X.i/'  ■uo/ii'’  ^ 

-a-f^  ^  js 'r^c  'r  ,'.  j>i  v::i^;::t  -'u^v: 

T.;v^  .  ■>  •/  ’i  ^  ;v,?  .:'Oi;yr.\ 


'yr;  /  ■  •'  .li.  ■.  ^  v  '  r/:, 

'i'-K 


1 

I 


'  *  A  V  '  i’ 

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ffGi^  /’Ol  -"^G  .  „■  ',•/;  '  ■ 

'.  ■<  •,  '^6  'ten  'a?;  ' . 

■.7'' .  .i  yl‘  ,  rT^> 

.>XC£j>\  rf’jiiV  re  •3'/  0*7! 

t  aXco<v'j  atU'  ■  ^,. .:■  • .  • . 

.  -^  '  : 

■  -j  c'o  .T  ^y:/ :iy 

'•TT  &}ii  ^  ‘;"/'.<'r6  ;■!  ‘  *  Ir- /■•.'‘X  ■.:.<(' a  en'i  Ov. 

■  -T  .  0 

ir!j?  '.  j  tGi-T.i 

’J.- '  bo:*:-,‘i7X'x7'-i'  al  f 

\ .  ■  f  *  •  7 

_  -  ■  f'  ' 

■  X -i-XXf  c-r/?>ar.o  .MAlT&7  “?9ao£:> 

CT'C')-  7 

A.»;  i.  ^  ■  '  '  '  "■ 

V  fi 

-■'  •7--  "  *  ''■••-■■ 

?7oca  r,  ■  ..  ,^  ,,-.57-^,. -, 

'  t 

0  1  ~n  y**  1 

^  * '  •  '-‘X  •  -  X'^'ft/  ■  :■  ■ ;  •  ;c'-  K  0  e  oi>f> 

li 


tX  •  ■  •"no?:ca  a*; 


f  '.  ^  '‘:c-  “y.v.'frc;: 

^  ,  ^,:ii^.;  .1  r?i 

'  .  :7  '-•ji.c'; 

;.';  ■  -I  'su'i'^X  •. -j^  (' .  y.  ’i  • 

•  -  ^  v'f*  J  '"  •:■  ’•  .71"  L' V.’.  Jr;  .■*■.  '■^'’'lov,* 

ij— }  '  V  •;.•  r.,; 

t  '«yt  v+ffi  .  T  /• 


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^  > 


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A  w  - 1:  .  -a  9  i :  /  ■ .  X  .Hi?;  ■, 


:'9lation5!hip  with  States  and  thereby  reach  their  r^oal. 

Several  other  eminent  writers,  contemner arias  of  Drahomeniv, 
greatly  enhanced  Ukrainian  culture.  Amongst  them  figure  Mikhaylo 
Staritsky  (1840-1904),  the  poet;  Marko  Kropivnitsky  (1841-19100, 
and  Ivan  Tch'levich  (1845-1907)  both  dramatists  of  the  first  order; 
T’^n  Levitsky-Nechuy  (1838—),  the  novelist,  Petro  Nishchinsky 
(1832-1896)  translator  of  classic  works,  Ostap  T^rletsky  ^1850-190'’), 
publicist  and  critic , Mikhaylo  Pavlik  (1853-1914) , novelist ,  and 
Olha  Kosareva  ’’Olena  Pchilka",  (ISS?--)  dramatist  and  publicist. 

But  s  pace  permits  me  to  treat  rather  fully  of  only  one  writer, 
greatest  of  them  all,  a  man  who  in  many  respects  stands  on  the  par 
with  Shevchenko,  this  is  Dr.  Ivan  Frank, 

Ivan  Franko  (1856-1916). 

Franko  was  born-  on  the  15th  of  August,  1856,  in  the  District 
of  Drohonich,  Galicia.  His  father,  Jacob,  \7as  a  peasant  of 
moderate  means,  and  had  knowledge  of  the  blacksmith’s  trade.  He 
appreciated  the  value  of  education,  and  wished  to  give  his  boy, 

Ivam,  all  the  possible  opportunities  for  obtaining,  it.  .\nd,  since 
in  his  own  village  the  public  school  was  located  too  fa^  away 
from  his  he  sent  him  to  a  neighboring  village  where  he 

stayed  with  his  uncle.  In  two  years’  time  he  learned,  besides 
other  subjects,  something  of  Ukrainian,  Polish  and  German  languages. 
Ha  was  then  sent  to  the  normal  school  in  the  city  of  Drohobich. 

At  the  end  of  the  school  term  he  was  awarded  first  prize  for 
his  efficiency.  While  receiving  his  scholarship  at  a  conrTocation 
he  heard  someone  in  the  crowd  sobbing.  Turning  around  he  noticed 


-285- 


that  it  vr&£.i  his  father  v/ho  v/at  so  over that  he  could  not 
keep  hack  his.  tears.  Two  months  Irter  this  mood  father  and 

young  Ivan,  with  otVier  children,  vruu  left  an  orphan.  His  mother 
soon  carried  again,  however,  ^^nd  his  stepfather  seeing  that  the 
hoy  was  progressing  well  at  school  willingly  supported  him. 

In  1868  Ivan  was  edmiubed  to  the  Gymnasium,  where  he  was 
a^ain  acclaimed  one  of  the  cleverest  students  i’^  hi"  class.  But 
being  a  son  of  a  peasant  >'e  often  ridiculed  and  abused  by 
the  sons  of  the  rich,  who  formed  the  great  majority  of  the 
enrollment.  Ivan  plodded  on  patiently,  however,  realising  that 
through  persistent  efforts  he  would  eventually  attain  his  object 
in  spite  of  obstacles.  Besides  his  regular  studies  he  devoted 
considerable  time  to  the  study  of  Ukrainian  literature.  So  that 
during  his  course  in  the  G^minasium  he  thoroughly  famiiliar ized  himsel; 
Vi-ith  the  works  of  Shevchenko,  Rudansky  and  others.  He  also  took 
■  great  interest  in  French,  English  and  German  literatures.  While 
still  in  the  college  Franko  was  already  writing  verses,  and  in 
1873  gave  us  two  of  his  valuable  poems,  ”  Kotliarevsky”  and”  The 
National  Songs”  Before  he  completed  his  course  in  the  Gymnasiujr  * 
he  lost  his  mother.  Then  he  Virent  home  to  help  manage  domestic 
4  affairs.  After  some  time  he  travelled  considerably  for  the  pur¬ 
pose  of  broadening  his  outlook  on  life.  Returning  to  the  Gymnasium 
he  matriculated  therefrom  with  distinction  in  1875. 

His  next  step  was  to  register  in  the  faculty  of  Philosophy 
at  the  University  of  Lviv.  Here  he  became  one  of  the  most  active 
members  of  the  ’’Academic  Circle”  and  a  contributor  of  poems  and 


-286- 


o 


novels  to  the  paper  "Druh”  (  >4  101^:1).  Ar  infloentis.l  man 

who  also  had  connections  with  the  "Circle”  and  the  paper  vms 
the  v;riter,  Professor  Drahomaniv,  Franko  took  ^^reat  liking  to 
D-ahomaniv's  attitude  ;towards  the  common  people,  and  like  the 
latter  he  sympathized  with  the  folk  from  which  he  himself  sprang. 
This  sympathy  is  well  manifest  in  one  of  his  great  poems,  en¬ 
titled,  '*Naymib”(  A  Servant),  which  poem  hy  its  spirit  reminds 
us  of  that  masterpiece,  ''Crrey*s  Elegy”,  and  by  its  style,  of 
Wordsworth’s  "Michael.”  It  reads  in  oart: 

”0n  his  lips  a  mournful  tune,  in  his  hands  the  handles 
^  .  of  a  plough, 

Thus  I  behold  him; 

Poverty,  toil  and  worry. 

Have  ploughed  his  wrinkled  brow. 

In  his  soul  he  is  a  child,  thoujgh  his  head  is  bent 

As  'tvrere  an  aged  man, 

For, from  cradle  days  he  spent  all  his  life  in  misery 


And  in  adversity. , 


That  servant  -  our  people  from  whose  brow  streams  of  sweat 

trickle  dovrn. 


Upon  a  foreign  soil. 


Ever  a  youth  in  heart,  in  thought  ever  sublime, 
Though  trodden  do^vn  by  fate. 

He’s  waited  for  his  destiny  centuries  long 


-287- 


And  still  he  •'"p.its  in  vain: 


He  has  endured  the  ruin,  the  Tartur  cruelty 
And  the  heavy  yoke  of  Socaj^e. 

But  howe'er  he  the  heart  oppressed 
Yet  hope  lives  on.” 

In  1877  while  Frank o  was  in  his  second  year  in  the  Uni- 
versity  he  7ms  suddenly  interrupted  in  his  progress*  Without 
in  the  least  suspecting  it  he  vras  put  under  arrest  and  indicted 
for  being  a  member  of  a  secret  society,  which  as  a  matter  of 
fact,  never  existed  in  the  Galician  Ukraine,  and  also  for  his 
acquaintance  with  Drahotnaniv  7rho  ?ms  regarded  by  the  Austrian 
rulers  as  dangerous  to  the  State.  Some  little  guilt  was  es¬ 
tablished  against  Franko  and  he  was  sentenced  to  six  w'eeks  im¬ 
prisonment  for  it,  but  before  his  case  came  up  for  trial 
he  was  kept  in  custody  for  eight  months, 

Upn  his  release  from  prison  Franko  was  forbidden  to 
re-enter  the  University,  Nor  could,  he  now  expect  to  get  a 
position  as  a  professor  as  it  formerly  appeared  that  he  would, 

^Ke  7/as  now  an  undesirable  and  abandoned  even  by  his  own  peo¬ 
ple,  who  were  afraid  that  any  friendly  reletionship  with 
him  might  bring  upon  them  the  disfavor  of  the  government- 

Franko  could  not  remain  inactive,  however,  and,  co¬ 
operating  with*  Pavlik  he  commenced  to  edit  a  paper  entitled, 
’*HroTnad3k;,'"Druh’*  (A  Friend  of  the  Community)  ,akerein  he  pub¬ 
lished  so  many  new  ideas  that  many  issues  of  it  were  confiscated 


-288- 


t  \ 


f  \ 


i 


c  o 

-.0  J-  • 


Tbe  articles  were  of  a  political  and  narrative  c)iai'acter. 

In  one  of  his  narratives,  '*Boa  Constrictor”  he  depicts  the 
horrible  aV’se  of  the  labor  class  by  their  employers • 

But  the  authorities  watched  his  every  move.  In  1880  v:hile 
on  a  visit  to  a  fi*iend  in  Kolomeya  he  was  arrested  for  an 
alle^e^  agitation  amongst  the  peasantry.  After  three  months 
of  investigations  he  was  released  and  taken  back  under  n  guard 
to  his  place  of  birth*  This  escort  was  a  very  tortuous  one, 
and  his  temporary  imprisonments  at  Kolomeya,  Stanislaviv,  Striy 
and  Drohobich  belong  to  his  greatest  hardships  in  life.  He  vras 
often  ill  and  in  hunger*  While  being  escorted  by  an  officer 
from  Drohovich  to  Nahuyevichy,  his  home  town,  and,  while  he 
was  feverish  they  were  caught  in  a  rain  and  drenched  to  the 
skin#  After  a  week’s  stay  at  home  he  went  to  Kolomeya  where 
he  soon  found  himself  without  means  for  livelihood,  and 
one  day  lived  on  three  cents  which  he  had  found.  Finally 
he  shut  himself  in  his  room  and  there  in  fever  and  hunger 
a\mited  death  to  come.  A  friend  of  his  found  him  and 
saved  his  life. 

Franko  was  arrested  for  the  third  time  in  1889 
and  was  kept  under  arrest  for  two  and  a  half  months  with¬ 
out  knowing  what  for.  It  was  during  this  time  that  he 
wrote  his  highly  prized  ’’Prison  Sonnets’]  and  his  narrative, 

"To  the  Light”. 


-269- 


After  f.n.  unsuccessful  carrp*^.5.^n  as  can'iidate  i^o  the 
Austrian  Parliament,  Franko  studied  in  Vienne,  and  a  de;;;ree 
of  Doctor  of  Philosophy  was  conferred  on  him.  Iri  1895  the 
Senate  of  the  University  decided  to  offer  him  professorship 
of  Ukrainian  literature  in  the  University  of  Lviv.  But 
the  government  refused  its  assent  to  this  pr onosition. 

In  1898  the  Ukrainians  celebrated  the  25th  Jubilee  of 
Franko* s  literary  career.  Many  literary  men  and  women  came  to 
honor  the  writer  on  the  occasion.  Among  the  speakers  was  also 
Natalia  Korbiska  who  welcomed  him  as  a  defender  of  the  rights 
of  women,  which  he  very  well  proved  himself  to  be  in  his  drama 
’’Ukradene  Shchast’e’*  (A  Stolen  Happiness),  and  l.n  other  works. 
The  poet  in  a  trembling  voice  replied  to  the  speaker  and  stated 
that  he  v;as  raised  on  hard  bread  of  a  peasant  and  he  felt  in  duty 
bound  to  devote  his  life  to  the  service  of  this  peasant.  He  would 
serve  his  .oeople,  he  said,  to  the  utmost  of  his  abilities  by 
his  work  as  writer  and  by  bringing  in  the  culture  of  other  na¬ 
tions  in  order  to  enrich  his  own.  It  m8.y  be  noted  that  as 
to  this  latter  statement  he  well  lived  up  to  It,  He  wss  probably 
the  best  educated  of  all  former  Ulcrainian  writers  and  he  made 
translations  of  the  works  of  Byron,  Heine,  Uoethe,  Sophocles 
aad  others,  and  his  translation  of  "Don  Quixote  of  Cervantes" 
is  always  a  welcoirie  book  in  an  Ukrainian  home. 


-290- 


Thenceforward  we  see  Franko  as  active  as  before  in  hie 


literary  work,  and  narticularly  in  connection  with  a  literary 
journal  of  which  he  was  associate-editor.  To  this  iournal 
he  contributed  many  of  his  poems  and  novels. 

The  <;ireat  War  found  Franko  a  nervous  wreck.  He  had 
vnder£;one  too  much  hardship  during  his  life  and  at  the  same 
time  was  always  a  hard  worker.  The  death  in  1914  of  his  bosom 
friend  Pavlik  also  had  its  effect  on  him,.  During  the  Russian 
inva.sicn  of  Galicia  Franko  wavS  forced  to  stay  in  Lviv,  Then 
little  could  be  heard  of  him,  until  May  ?.9th,  1916,  when  the 
sad  news  was  spread  that  the  poet  was  dead.  Condolatory  telegrams 
were  sent  from  many  parts  of  Europe  s^nmpathizing  with  the  rela¬ 
tives  of  one  of  the  greatest  Ukrainian  poets. 

F->^anko  is  an  author  of  a  great  number  of  works.  His 
historical  novel  ’*Zakhar  Berkut’J  "Semper  Tlro’%  "Dream  of  Prince 
Sviatoslav",  "A  Servant”  and  "Kameniary"  (Masons),  will^  It 
seeras  to  me,  never  grow  old,  and  his  "Moysey",  ’^ich  is  his 
masterpiece  written  in  1905,  certainly  will  not.  In  this 
lengthy  poem  he  places  himself  in  the  position  of  Moses,  who, 
like  himself,  tried  to  lead  his  people  to  a  better  life. 

He  commences  it  with, 

"O  people  of  mine,  tormented,  disunited. 

As  ^twere  a  paralytic  at  the  crossroads 
The  further  addressing  God  he  says. 


r 


'  1  j'.'v  '  ).V  ,  ,'^¥ 


c  :  •.  O';  I  . 


■  A-)  V 


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c  ( 


t  c 


o 


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C,-  '..  •v.'  '^1 


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'T' 

-< 


"Forty  years  I*ve  worked,  taught, 

All  immersed  in  Thee 

That  out  of  serfs  I  create  a  nation 

According  to  Thy  likeness". 

It  would  require  a  separate  study^  and  a  wide  study 
at  that  to  closely  examine  at  least  the  most  important  v/orks 
of  Franko,  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  some  future  student  will 
undertake  to  do  this.  One  can  here  only  mention  in  a  fceneral 
manner  that  he  is  a  great  contributor  to  Ukrainian  litera¬ 
ture,  His  sympathy  for  the  people,  his  broad  education  and 
his  genius  well  qualified  him  for  the  position  of  a  leader 
of  Ukrainian  thought,  which  he  was  for  some  years.  His  lite¬ 
rary  anx  social  activities  were  such  as  to  place  him  In  a  unique 
position  as  a  literary  figure.  He  had  exceptional  ability  in 
clearly  expressing  his  convictions,  and  he  wrote  so  much  in  his 
time  as  if  he  were  pouring  his  ?rorks-  out  of  a  Cornucopia, 
Franko,  a  poet,  writer  of  valuable  works  for  children,  youth, 
translator  o  foreign  works,  a  critic  and  historian  of  lite¬ 
rature,  writer  of  folk-lore,  dramatist,  novelist,  publicist, 
student  of  social  and  economical  conditions,  disseminator  of 
various  branches  of  knowledge,  a  popular,  well-loved  agitator 
of  new  thought  among  the  youth  an  d  an  editor  of  efficiency, 
he  well  deserves  the  esteem  which  is  accorded  him.  Always  indus¬ 
trious,  a  humanist,  moralist,  hopeful  of  success,  he  gave  an 


-292- 


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(  0 


cl~. 


;  i-.  •  J.  ■  .r:  . 

■  j-’:  ^  Mi) 

i  -■  ■.■-■  O'  J  io  i  ■  N 


O'  ' 


_e  ( 


t  i)fii 


.  o  J 


^:c'?TPTDle  by  his  life  that  if  people  keep  on  tollinp,  for  the 
';lev'tion  of  their  condition,  they  will  finally  succeed. 

As  to  his  own  life  he  could  have  made  it  easy.  Because 
of  his  ability  he  could  have  easily  obtained  some  official 
position  and  make  a  comfortable  living  therefrom.  But  he  felt 
that  he  had  a  mission  to  fulfill.  He  chose  the  thorny  path  of 
life  which  was  even  mo-^e  aggravated  by  il  e  fact  that  even  many 
of  his  own  compatriots  were  his  opponents.  He  realized , .however 
that  such  fate  had  also  befallen  some  of  his  predecessors  who 
sacrificed  the  whole  of  their  lives  to  the  service  of  the  people. 
He  vms  often  discouraged,  but  he  would  not  cease  spreading  his 
ideas.  He  brought  about  a  period  of  storm  and  stress  in  the 
intellectual  life  of  his  nation.  Most  of  his  works,  which  eked 
out  an  existence  until  the  end  of  the  19tVi  century  foster  radi¬ 
calism  and  free-thought.  This  versatile  activity  of  his  bore 
fruit,  and  his  many  followers,  creating  the  so-called  ”Franko*s 
School  of  Young  Ukraine”,  have  carried  on  the  work  begun  by  him. 
Franko  strengthened  the  focus  of  intellectual  life  of  Ukraine 
in  Galicia,  being  the  guiding  spirit  of  1+  for  a  long  period. 

And  to  h5.m  is  due  much  credit  for  the  present  desire  9rd  endeavors 
of  the  Ul:rainians  to  rise  socially,  politically  and  intellectually 
They  have  obeyed  his  teachings  and  exhortations  as  he  has  put  them 
in  one  of  his  patriotic  poems  "He  Pora"  (meaning  that  the  Ukrai¬ 
nians  are  no  more  bound  to  serve  foreign  rulers)  , which  poem  is 


-29?- 


now  bein^  sung  bv  the  Ukrainians  as  their  second  National  Anthem, 
and  in  which  he  says  , 

”W9  will  die  that  freedom,  and  glory,  renown. 

Native  Land,  we  may  win  for  thee”. 


A  number  of  other  Ukrainians  have  become  famous  in  the 
literary  field  since  1880,  Probably  those  most  worthy  of  mention 
are  Boris  Hrinchenko,  Trokhim  Zinkivsky,  Natalia  Kobrlnska,  Volo- 
dimlr  Samiylenko,  Pavlo  Hrabovsky,  Lesia  tUrrainka,  of  whom  the 
Russian  publicist,  Paul  Tuchapsky,  said,  ”lf  Lesia  Ukrainka  wrote 

m  * 

her  verses  in  one  of  the  leading  languages,  she  would  be  famous 
world  wide,”  Ahafanhel  Krimsky,  Mikhaylo  Kotsubinsky,  Mikola 
Cherniavsky,  Liubov  Yanovska,  Modest  Levitsky,  Yasil  Stef an ik, 
Prof,  Mikhaylo  Hrushevsky,  Olha  Kobilianska,  Volodimir  Ylnnichen- 
ko  and  Petro  Karmansky*  The  last  four  mentioned,  who  are  still 
living,  are  among  the  indefatigable  workers  for  the  advanceipent 
"of  edification  and  culture.  And,  Prof,  Hrush0vsk3/*  s  name  will  go 
down  as  oneof  the  greatest  Ukrainian  historians. 


«294- 


’■W  V"'. 


( 


«, 


'O 


■  'f- .  *?^.'‘ 

,  T  \  '^v  ^1^,i 


■  .  ,  ■  ,  •':::'  ■  ■ 'c  '  \c  ‘ 

r  ,5-  (•  ..  ■^  ■■  -  '  f  ■  ‘''-  ’  '>•■  V  S'  •  '^■ 

_.  ,,.  X  .  ..  .  _.  .,s  , 

,  •■  -r,'  ^  .  ,  xrv  ....  ,:  ■  r-  '/;■ 

,  -'■  ,  j  ■  . 

■  V'V'V/;; 

,  •  .  ,  ‘  fui'  , 


•/o.'r.;  5 


■i .  '  '  fiih 


CONCIUSION. 


Since  the  time  of  Shevchenko,  and  even  more  co  'vlth  tht; 
beginning  of  the  literary  career  of  Pranko^  rjkrainian  literature 
has  undergone  a  hurried  change.  We  have  seevi  that  in  the  first 
period  Ukrainian  language  merely  penetrates  the  foreign  language, 
but  is  not  yet  used  much  in  literature;  in  the  second,  it 
comes  to  the  fore  -with  more  self-confidence ;  while  in  the  third, 
it  becomes  the  fundamental  language  and  a  sine  qua  non  of 
Ukrainian  literature.  In  the  second  half  of  the  third  period 
the  scope  of  Ukrainian  literature  broadens.  There  is  more  variety  ' 
of  siting,  works  of  foreign  writers  are  being  translated  and 
imitated,  and  culture  of  the  West  is  readily  absorbed.  Ulirainlan 
literature  here  goes  beyond  itself  and  grows  at  a  remarkable  pace. 

During  all  these  periods  Ukrainian  literature  met  ob¬ 
stacles  which  at  times  seemed  insurmountable.  Many  a  time  its 
existence  was  endangered  at  the  same  time  that  the  life  of  the 
people  was  in  jeopardy.  But  5„n  spite  of  it  men  of  vision  by  self-  ' 

sacrifice  carried  the  work  on.  They  embodied  the  spirit  of  the 

people  in  their  works;  they  sympathized  7/ith  them  in  their  defeat,  « 

suffering  and  grief,  and  they  gave  us  the  drama  and  the  sad  ly¬ 

rics*  they  rejoiced  with  then  in  their  victory, ' happiness  and 

i 

mirth,  and  they  gave  us  humorous  tales  and  poems.  Various  valuable  i 
works  from  time  to  time  were,  and  still  are,  b05.ng  produced,  with 
■result  that  Ukrainian  literature  can  new  contribute  to,  and  In 
the  near  future  will  take  its  place  among  the  litersti^.res  of 


the  world. 


Istorla  Ukraini  (A  History  of  Ukraine)  - 
Mlkhaylo  Hrushevsky. 

Ukraintsy  Yak  Narod  (Ukrainians  as  a  nation)- 
V.  Pachovsky. 

Ukralnska  Revolutsla  (Ukrainian  Revolution)- 
1917-1920,  Vols.  I  and  II.  - 
Pavlo  Klrstluk. 

Ilustrovane  Ukrainske  Pistnenstvo  v  Zhytleplsakh, 
(Illustrated  Ukrainian  Literature  with  Biographies); 
Dr.  M.  Pachovsky. 

Korotky  Ohllad  Ukralnskoho  Plsmenstva ,  A. D. 1100-180 
(A  Brief  Sketch  of  Ukrainian  Literature)- 
0.  Makarushka. 

Istorla  Ukralnakoye  Literaturl  (A  History  of 
Ukrainian  Literature)  Yols.  I  and  II. 

M.  Vozniak. 

Istorla  Ukralnakoye  Literaturl  (A  History  of 
Ukrainian  Literature)  - 

Serhey  Yefremov, 

Llteraturny  Kharakter  Istlkl  Ukralnsklkh  PUmennlkl. 

I  Ivan  Franko  (Poezia)-  (Literary  Characteris  Ic 
of  Ukrainian  Writers  I  Ivan  Franko  (Poetry) 

A.  Krushelnltsky. 

Llteraturny  Kharakter istlkl  Ukralnsklkh  Plsmennlkl^ 

II  Markian  Shadhkevich,  z  llustratslarnl ,  (Literary 
Characteristics  of  Ukrainian  Writers,  II  ,  Markian 
Shashkevich,  illustrated- 

Bohdan  Lepky. 

Hacherk  Istorlyl  Ukralnakoye  Literaturl  (An 
of  the  History'^of  Uki’a'nian  Literature)  Vols.  I  ano 
Bohdan  Lepky.  I 


-2 


Taras  Shevchenko,  Yeho  Zhytia  1  Tvori  (Taras 
Shevchenko  His  Life  and  Works) 

Dr,  A.  Enzen, 

Ivan  Franko  Biograf ichno-'  llteraturny  Naris  (Ivan 
Franko  Biographical-literary  Sketch.  , 

Vibyr  z  Ukralnskoho  Harodnoho  Pisrnenstva  (Selection) 
out  of  Ukrainian  National  Literature)  Vola  1  and  II- 
Antin  Krushelnitsky 

Ukraine-  The  Land  and  its  People  - 

Prof.  Stephen  Rudnitsky. 

The  Kobzar  of  the  Ukraine- 

A.  Hunter. 


Songs  of  Ukraina- 

Mrs  F.  Randal  Llveaay. 


The  Ukraine- 

Bedwin  Sands. 

Meraorandurn  of  the  Ukrainian  Question  in  its 
Rational  Aspect- 

Yaroslav  Fedortchouk. 

The  New  Europe,  23rd  August  1917. 

”  **  ”  2  0th  December  1917, 

Current  History,  February  1918. 

Munsey's  Magazine,  October  1918- 
”The  Ukraine,  A  New  Nation.”- 

Prof.  Frederic  Austin  Ogg  (Wls. ) 

Uorks  of  Various  Writers  dealt  with  in  the  Essay. 


' .  i,