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74C1T REPORT 



OF THE 



Royal Commission 



ON THE 



740x1 



University of Toronto. 



PRINTED BY ORDER OF 

THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF ONTARIO 



r—fj 









TORONTO : 
Printed and Published by L. K. CAMERON, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 

1906. 



4& 



WARWICK BRO'S & RUTTER, Limited, Printers 
TORONTO. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



Wm. Mohtimee, Clark. 
Province of Ontario. 



J. J. FOY, 

Attorney-General . 



EDWAED THE SEVENTH, by the Grace of God, of the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the 
Seas, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India. 

TO Goldwin Smith, Esquire, Doctor of Civil Law, Sir William Ralph 
Meredith, Knight, Joseph W. Flavelle, Esquire, Byron E. Walker, 
Esquire, Doctor of Laws, Arthur Hugh Urquhart Colquhoun, 
Esquire, Bachelor of Arts, the Reverend Henry J. Cody, Master 
of Arts, and the Reverend D. Bruce Macdonald, Master of Arts, all 
of the City of Toronto in the County of York. 

Our Commissioners in this Behalf. 

Greeting. 

Whereas in and by Chapter Nineteen of the Revised Statutes of Our 
Province of Ontario entitled "An Act respecting Inquiries concerning Pub- 
lic Matters," it is enacted that whenever the Lieutenant-Governor of Our 
said Province in Council deems it expedient to cause inquiry to be made into 
and concerning any matter connected with the good government of Our 
said Province or the conduct of any part of the public business thereof or the 
administration of Justice therein, and such inquiry is not regulated by any 
special law, the Lieutenant-Governor may by the Commission in the case con- 
fer upon the Commissioners or persons by whom such inquiry is to be con- 
ducted, the power of summoning before them any party or witnesses and of 
requiring them to give evidence on oath orally or in writing (or on solemn 
affirmation if they be parties entitled to affirm in civil matters) and to pro- 
duce such documents and things as such Commissioners deem requisite to 
the full investigation of the matters into which they are appointed to exam- 
ine, and that the Commissioners shall then have the same power to enforce 
the attendance of such witnesses and to compel them to give evidence and 
produce documents and things as is vested in any Court in Civil Cases. 

And Whereas the Lieutenant-Governor of Our said Province of Ontario 
in Council deems it expedient that inquiry should be made into the matters 
hereinafter referred to. 

Now Know Ye That We having and reposing full trust and confidence 
in you, the said Goldwin Smith, William Ralph Meredith, Joseph W. 
Flavelle, Byron E. Walker, Arthur Hugh Urquhart Colquhoun, Henry J. 
Cody and D. Bruce Macdonald, Do Hereby, by and with the advice of our 
Executive Council of Our said Province, Appoint you, the said Goldwin 
Smith, you the said William Ralph Meredith, you the said Joseph W. Fla- 
velle, you the said Byron E. Walker, you the said Arthur Hugh Urquhart 
Colquhoun, you the said Henry J. Cody, and you the said D. Bruce Mac- 



ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Donald to he OUR COMMISSIONERS in this behalf to enquire into and 
report to Our said Lieutenant-Governor Upon : 

(a) A scheme for the management and government of the University of 
Toronto in the room and stead of the one under which the said Uni- 
versity is now managed and governed. 
(6) A scheme for the management and government of University Col- 
lege, including its relations to and connection with the said Uni- 
versity of Toronto. 

(c) The advisability of the incorporation of the School of Practical 

Science with the University of Toronto. 

(d) Such changes as in the opinion of the Commissioners should be 

brought about in the relations between the said University of 
Toronto and the several Colleges affiliated or federated therewith, 
having regard to the provisions of the Federation Act. 

(e) Such suggestions and recommendations in connection with or aris- 

ing out of any of the subjects thus indicated as in the opinion of 
the said Commissioners may be desirable. 
Giving to you Our said Commissioners full power and authority to sum- 
mon before you any party or witnesses and to require him or them to give 
evidence on oath orally or in writing (or on solemn affirmation if such party 
or witnesses is or are entitled to affirm in civil matters) and to produce to 
you Our said Commissioners such documents and things as you may deem 
requisite to the full investigation of the premises Together with all and 
every other power and authority in the said Act mentioned and authorized to 
be by us conferred on any Commissioner appointed by authority or in pur- 
suance thereof. 

And We Do Require You, Our said Commissioners, forthwith after the 
conclusion of such inquiry to make full report to Our said Lieutenant-Gover- 
nor touching the said investigation together with all or any evidence taken 
by you concerning the same. 

To Have Hold and Enjoy the said office and authority of Commission- 
ers for and during the pleasure of Our said Lieutenant-Governor. 

And We Do Hereby Appoint the said Josepb W. Flavelle to be Chair- 
man, and Arthur Hugh Urquhart Colquhoun to be the Secretary of Our said 
Commission. 

In Testimony, whereof we have caused these Our Letters to be made 
Patent and the Great Seal of Our Province of Ontario to be hereunto affixed. 
Witness His Honour William Mortimer Clark, etc., etc., etc., Lieut- 
enant-Governor OF Our Province of Ontario, at Our Gov- 
ernment House in Our City of Toronto in Our said Province this 
third day of October in the year of Our Lord one thousand nine 
hundred and five and in the Fifth year of Our Reign. 

By Command, 

THOMAS MULYEY, 
Assistant Provincial Secretary. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

Act of Federation, The xvi 

Art Schools xxxvii 

Appointment, Tenure of li 

Agricultural College, The xlii 

Board of Governors, The xxi 

Bureau of Self-Support for the Students 1 

Caput, The xxviii 

Chancellor and Convocation, The xxvii 

College Residences : xlix 

College System, The xlvii 

Defects of the Present System xviii 

Discipline 1 

Endowment of Land Ivii 

Existing Situation, The viii 

Faculty Councils xxviii 

Financial Support of the Universitj' liii 

Forestry, Instruction in xxxv 

Future of the University lix 

Historical Retrospect ix 

Household Science xxxvi 

Interchange of Lectures xlviii 

Law, The Faculty of xxxiv 

Library, The Needs of the xxxix 

Metereorological Observatorj' xli 

Medical Training for Women xxxiii 

Medicine, The Faculty of xxxi 

Museum xl 

Music xxxvii 

Outline of Suggested Reconstruction xx 

President, The Office of xxv 

Pedagogy, A Department of li 

Professors, The Remuneration of Hi 

Professors and Students xlix 

Property and Buildings lii 

Research in the University xxxviii 

Residences, College xlix 

[v] 



vi ROYAL COMMISSION RE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



PAGE. 

Senate, The ^^i" 

Scholarships "^ 

School of Practical Science, The xxx 

Scope of the Inquiry ^'^^ 

State Veterinary College, A xliv 

Students, The : 

A Students' Committee • 1 

Professors and Students xlix 

Bureau of Self Support for Students '• 1 

Physical Welfare of Students xlix 

Trinity College 1^'" 

University College xxix 

Veterinary College, A State xliv 



REPORT. 



To His Honour the Lieutenant-Governor. 

The Commissioners appointed by Your Honour to enquire into and report 
upon the system of administering the affairs of the University of Toronto 
and of University College have completed their labours and respectfully beg 
to report to Your Honour the result of the inquiries made, together -with. 
such recommendations as appear to be warranted after a thorough examin- 
ation into the conditions. 

By the terms of the E-oyal Commission, dated the 3rd day of October, 
1905, we were authorized to inquire into and report upon : 

1. A scheme for the management and government of the University 
of Toronto in the room and stead of the one under which the said Univer- 
sity is now managed and governed. 

2. A scheme for the management and government of Un'versity Col- 
lege, including its relations to and connection with the said University of 
Toronto. 

3. The advisability of the incorporation of the School of Practical 
Science with the University of Toronto. 

4. Such changes as, in the opinion of the Commissioners, should be 
brought about in the relations between the said University of Toronto and 
the several colleges affiliated or federated therewith, having regard to the 
provisions of the Federation Act. 

5. Such suggestions and recommendations in connection with, or aris- 
ing out of any of the subjects thus indicated as in the opinion of the Com- 
missioners may be desirable. 

Scope or the Inquirt. 

In order that the inquiry might be as full and comprehensive as pos- 
sible, it was decided to consult representatives of the various governing 
bodies of the University and University College, the heads of the federated 
universities and colleges and affiliated colleges, deans of faculties, and such 
other persons as might be deemed, by reason of experience or special know- 
ledge, to have information of value on the subject. It was further resolved to 
examine the conditions existing in some of the principal universities at 
home and abroad in order to compare the workings of their administrative 
systems with that in vogue in the University of Toronto. It was also deter- 
mined, in view of the strong interest exhibited by the graduates of the Uni- 
versity in its fortunes and welfare, to afford opportunity for the Alumni, 

[vii] 



viii ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 

either within or without the Province of Ontario, to present to the Commis- 
sion any suggestions and recommendations which their attachment to their 
Alma Mater might inspire them to make. We have held seventy-seven meet- 
ings and a great deal of valuable testimony, both oral and written, has been 
presented to the Commission. 

We have thought it well to prepare and submit, in add^ion to our 
report, a bill embodying in detail the suggested provisions of the scheme 
of government. 

It was with a strong sense of responsibility that we approached the 
task of devising a plan for the reorganization of an institution of the highest 
importance, at once to the intellectual life of the nation, and to its progress 
in the practical sciences needed to open to its youth the golden opportunities 
of an age of scientific achievement. We have done our best to equip our- 
selves for the work by visiting some of the leading universities of the con- 
tinent and studying their methods of administration. Dr. Schurman, the 
highly successful President of Cornell University, was so good as to come 
to Toronto for a conference with us, from which we reaped great benefit. 
We wish to thank him and the authorities of other universities for their 
courtesy in answering the questions of the Commission, and for the personal 
attention shown to its members. Those of our number who visited the Uni- 
versities of Wisconsin, Illinois, Chicago, Michigan, Cornell, Johns Hop- 
kins, Princeton, Columbia, Yale and Harvard greatly appreciated the court- 
esy and hospitality they received. With the constitution and administra- 
tion of the English universities one of our members was familiar. 

The Existing Situation. 

The situation with which we were called upon to deal was complicated, 
both by the peculiar structure of the University, due to its origin and hist- 
ory, and by the fact that the advance of science and the extension of utili- 
tarian ideas have changed and broadened the scope of university training 
everywhere. In this new world, with great natural resources to develop, and 
with an ever-increasing variety of material industries to attract the ener- 
gies of young men, the objects of university education have been both mul- 
tiplied and modified. The modern university, still cherishing the love of 
learning and intent upon the pursuit of knowledge, must adapt its courses 
of study to every phase of human progress. It must set the standard of pub- 
lic education. It must minister, in ways hitherto deemed to lie beyond its 
domain, to the practical as well as to the intellectual and moral needs of the 
country. The University of Toronto, as we now find it, with its federated 
Arts Colleges and theological schools, its Faculties of Applied Science, Law 
and Medicine, and its affiliated colleges, is a striking example of the revolu- 
tion that separates the present from the past. Its re-organization twenty 
years ago occurred just when there had come over the academical world in 
general a re-consideration of previous aims and limitations. The English 
universities, v,-hich in their early days had been repertories of all the know- 



1906. UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. ix 



ledge then existing, though in a scholastic form, had in later times become 
finishing schools of culture for a wealthy class, and those destined for the 
clerical and other learned professions. The only subjects taught were those 
specially adapted to the purpose of culture, — Classics and Mathematics, 
with the addition, at Oxford, of Moral Philosophy and Logic. Both Oxford 
and Cambridge, moreover were almost entirely in the hands of the clergy. 
Professors of Natural Science there were; but their subjects had fallen into 
abeyance and their lecture rooms were empty. The universities of the new 
world had, in the main, been formed after the pattern of those in the Old 
Country. But now came the age of science and of demand for an education 
which should not only cultivate the mind but fit for the practical occupa- 
tions, and help to the prizes of life. Even Oxford and Cambridge, now re- 
organized, declericised, and relieved of tests by Parliament, have enlarged 
their courses of instruction by the admission of more modern and more 
practical subjects — Law, History, Political Economy and Natural Science. 
But unlike the teaching of Classics or Mathematics, the teaching of practical 
science required a very costly equipment; and, in Ontario, owing to the 
imposition of religious tests in King's College, the establishment of several 
denominational colleges had unfortunately distributed the resources of the 
Province in university education. There came into being more universi- 
ties than the Province could support. When, therefore, the time to provide 
expensive science training arrived, re-concentration of resources and the 
appeal of a strong Provincial University to the liberality of the people 
became necessary. Denominational universities could not fail to perceive 
that it was only on a very narrow basis that they could henceforth hope to 
subsist on their own resources. But in the industrial and commercial com- 
munities of this hemisphere, the demand for the full recognition of practi- 
cal science and its admission to the university curriculum was naturally 
more pronounced and pressing than in England. A great Canadian engineer 
was bewailing the opportunities which, for want of education in his line, 
were being missed by Canadian youth.' Just across the line, Cornell was 
being carried rapidly to the front by the excellence of its Practical Science 
Department. It was at this juncture that the University of Toronto was 
organized on its existing basis. 

In approaching the task of framing a new scheme of government to 
replace the old, we have been led to realise the duty which rests upon the 
people of the Province.XThe University of Toronto is a State institution. 
It is dependent upon public aid for its existence and development. The 
maintenance of its efficiency as the crown of the educational system is a 
matter of supreme interest and importance. During sixty-five years the 
institution, under the varying conditions that have affected its welfare and 
usefulness, has borne a large and honourable share in national education. 
In its class rooms some of the best intellects of the country have been 
trsiined. The zeal and learning of its teachers, during two generations, have 
left an indelible impression upon the ranks of professional men, upon those 
who have engaged in public affairs, and upon the chief ornaments of the 



ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



teaching body in our primary and secondary schools. It has also trained 
men of talent who have carried the renown of the University abroad and who 
now, to the honour of their Alma Mater and with credit to themselves, occupy 
places of the highest distinction in the educational world. Many of its pro- 
fessorial chairs are filled by its own graduates, whose literary and scientific 
achievements are part of the contribution which the institution has made to 
the national advancement. No university has better reason to be proud of 
its graduates and students, and if we speak plainly and fearlessly, 
as it is our duty to do, of its imperfections of government, we desire to be 
understood as holding in esteem the fame the institution enjoys among the 
Universities of this continent. The State aid bestowed upon it has yielded a 
manifold return to the Province and the nation. The University should con- 
tinue to be regarded as a trust handed on by its founders and the early set- 
tlers of the country to the present generation. The action of the Legisla- 
ture last session proves that the Province does not wish to abandon one of 
the noblest of its obligations or to cease to concern itself with the task of 
providing higher education for the people. A liberal policy in deal- 
ing with higher education is dictated by sound- statesmanship and an 
intelligent outlook. The modern conception of university training imposes 
new and serious burdens, but these burdens are cheerfully assumed in every 
progressive country. It is felt that both intellectual and material advance- 
ment are intimately associated with the most thorough and complete instruc- 
tion, especially in a new and growing community. If we are to heed the 
lessons of the past, neglect of these necessary measures would certainly 
entail a lower standard of national efficiency. This view has happily pre- 
vailed in Ontario. While maintaining the University of Toronto as a seat 
of learning in accordance with the inherited traditions of the Old World, 
the Legislature has not been slow to adopt a wide iiiterpretation of what 
constitutes university training in our day./^An agricultural college, of high 
repute for the excellence of its work in applying the discoveries of science 
to the pursuits of husbandry, has been established. The public funds have 
also been drawn upon for the creation of the School of Practical Science, 
the success of which in respect to the number of students and the variety of 
technical training provided is an indication of popular support and approval. 
Both these institutions supplement the work of the University and establish 
its claim to minister to the educational requirements of all classes and 
interests. 

The labours of the Commission, therefore, have been directed not to the 
severing of the connection between the University and the State, with which 
it is inseparably associated to the welfare and honour of both, but to sub- 
mit such changes of administrative machinery as may tend to harmonize 
and unify its somewhat disjointed parts and lend new vitality to the whole 
system. A method has been sought by which the Province might adapt 
from the experience of other State institutions a plan suited to local condi- 
tions. But the inquiries have been pursued for the purpose of reconstruction 
rather than of destruction. We have been mindful of the fact that the 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. xi 



University of Toronto, altliougli fanlty in its scheme of government, has a his- 
tory and tradition peculiarly its own. In seeking to apply a remedy to an 
imperfect set of conditions, we have not forgotten that these conditions are 
not exactly reproduced anywhere else, that they have sprung from excep- 
tional causes incident to the educational situation of Ontario, and that an 
ideal scheme of university government, pleasing in theory, and apparently 
fortified by examples at home and abroad, might easily prove unworkable 
here . 

Xor should it be overlooked that the future expansion of the University, 
not less than its present needs, is a consideration of vital moment. We have 
a righ-t to assume that in the years to come the University of Toronto will 
more and more assert its influence in the national life of Canada ; draw to 
its academic halls students from every part of the continent, and, as a 
fountain of learning and a school of scientific research, worthily maintain 
the reputation of the past. To limit our vision to the possibilities of the 
immediate future would be a narrow policy. A scheme of government 
created to-day must keep in view the gradual but certain enlargement of 
half a century hence. 

Historical Retrospect. 

Much of the complexity of the system of administration is due, as we 
have said, to the history of the University's origin and development and to 
arrive at a clear understanding of the present situation, it is necessary to recall 
some of the salient points of the record. The Provincial University is essen- 
tially the creation of the State. It found a place in the earliest programme 
of legislation evolved under settled government. Simcoe, the first Governor 
of Upper Canada, suggested in 1790 the establishment of "a college of a 
higher class." At the close of his term of office, five years later, he advo- 
cated the setting apart for university purposes of a portion of the Crown 
domain. The Legislature of 1797 recommended the carrying out of this 
policy, and ultimately 295,705 acres of land were thus appropriated for the 
endowment and maintenance of the University. In those early days the 
carrying out of ambitious projects of education was beyond the resources of 
the country. To Dr. Strachan was due the actual realization of the plan so 
long advocated. The charter he secured for the University of King's Col- 
lege in 1827 provided for "the education of youth in the principles of Chris- 
tain religion" as well as "instruction in the various branches of science and 
literature." But it contemplated a distinctively Church of England insti- 
tution. The Visitor was the Bishop of the Diocese. The President and pro- 
fessors were to be members of the Anglican Church, although no religious test 
was to be required of the undergraduates or of the graduates, except of those 
in divinity. The opposition aroused by the terms of the charter delayed the 
opening of the college. The Legislature in 1837 passed amendments to the 
charter with a view to modifying its denominational character. The Judges 
of the King's Bench were made the Visitors, and the President and profes- 
sors were not required to be members of the Church of England. A college 



xii ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



council of twelve members witli the Speakers of both branches of the Legis- 
lature and the Attorney-General was created. The authority and control of 
the State were thus clearly emphasized before the institution actually came 
into existence and began the work of instruction. It was hoped that the 
Province, in which widely different phases of religious thought were a 
marked characteristic of the population, would accept the amended charter 
as creating a university entitled to the confidence and support of all. 

This hope proved delusive. The Governor in 1837 was Sir Francis Bond 
Head, who exerted his influence to prevent a more complete modification of 
the charter, and was successful to the extent of securing to the authorities of 
one church the guidance and control of the University. To the troubled 
period preceding the opening of King's College belongs the organized oppo- 
sition of other churches to the project and the establishment of two denomin- 
ational institutions, that of Victoria College at Cobourg by the Methodists 
and that of Queen's College at Kingston by the Presbyterians. The corner- 
stone of new buildings for the University of King's College was laid on the 
23rd of April, 1842, and the formal opening of the college took place on the 
8th of June, 1843. On both occasions the proceedings were marked by such 
ceremonial as implied the predominance of the Church of England. The 
Bishop of Toronto was the first President. Although disappointed in the 
changes made in the charter, it was evident from the sentiments he expressed 
that Dr. Strachan had determined to make the best of the new conditions, 
and to mould, as far as possible, the character and policy of the institution 
in the form originally planned. This caused the other religious bodies to 
persevere in the upbuilding of their own colleges, while they maintained an 
unceasing agitation against the State endowment for higher education being 
utilized for the benefit of one church. 

This movement forced the University question into the forefront of party 
politics. Several attempts were made to pass bills settling the matter. In 
1847 the Draper Administration proposed legislation to assume control of the 
property and distribute the revenues among the colleges of the various 
religious denominations. Under this arrangement the Anglicans were to 
receive £3,000 per annum, the Methodists, Presbyterians and Roman Catho- 
lics £1,500 each. The bill was one of the last acts of a dying Administra- 
tion, evoked no strong support in the country, and failed to win the approval 
of Dr. Strachan. The measure was thus fortunately doomed, and was 
withdrawn. The Government fell and the possibilities of a State university 
were improved rather than injured by the delay. Time was given for the 
sentiment in favor of an institution acceptable to the whole country to rally 
and assert itself. The views of the diiferent religious elements were ascer- 
tained in order to supply a basis for future legislation, and a growing opinion 
that the State endowment should be utilized for the common benefit steadily 
ma^e itself felt. 

^ To Robert Baldwin and the Government of which he was the head the 
country owes a declaration of the principles of State education which, in one 
form or another, has ever since been influential in defining the status and 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. xiii 



> 



underlying purpose of the Provincial University. Tke Act of 1849 may justly 
be regarded as the real charter of the institution. It enunciated with a 
wisdom and liberality far in advance of the ideas then dominant, the prin- 
ciples which ought to govern the management of a great endowment set 
apart by the State for higher education. The acute and unfortunate contro- 
versies of twenty years had inflamed sectarian bitterness, and obscured the 
real objects sought to be obtained by a university supported from the public 
funds for the common welfare. To Mr. Baldwin's clear and unprejudiced 
mind there was but one course to pursue in dealing with an educational trust 
intended for all. The diherent religious bodies had created colleges of their 
own, primarily for theological training, but naturally for general culture 
also. The Act of 1849 aimed at making the State university a common ground 
for the youth of the country irrespective of creed/ It was unsuccessful because 
the movement for separate colleges had gone too far. It assumed that these 
institutions would abandon their degree-conferring powers, and group them- 
selves amicably around the State university. It created a system of admin- 
istration which, under the circumstances, was unsuitable and had soon to be 
modified. But it set forth the noble ideal of a well-equipped and powerful 
university for a complete training in the liberal arts and sciences, leaving to 
the religious bodies the exercise of those special influences which make for 
moral discipline and the development of Christian character. With the 
assent and co-operation of the colleges, this basis for the settlement of the 
University question might have been final. It lacked, however, the guarantee 
of permanence, because the colleges were established at distant points and 
could not without financial assistance be concentrated in Toronto, which was 
the seat of the University. . Granted the more favorable conditions happily 
existing to-day, or which even then might perhaps have been produced by a 
bolder policy in Parliament, Mr. Baldwin's measure would have been a 
triumph of statesmanship. 

In this Act are to be found some of the features of the existing constitu- 
tion. The name of the institution was changed to the University of Toronto. 
The Governor of the Province was made Visitor. In future the Chancellor 
was to be elected by Convocation, and the Vice-Chancellor by the Senate. 
Faculties of Law and Medicine were created. The Caput, a kind of cabinet 
subject to the Senate, was called into being. The Senate was given extensive 
powers in respect both to executive control and to legislation. Its statutes 
were subject to the authority of the Crown only. It was in fact the govern- 
ing body of the University, discharging the powers of the Crown in all 
['essential matters. Even in the appointment of professors the Crown selected 
one of three names submitted by the Senate. The secularization of the Uni- 
versity was provided for by regulations which are perfectly consonant with 
the public policy of the Province to-day. They afforded no real ground for 
the cry against a "godless university" that ensued. The Faculty of Divinity 
was abolished, the right to confer theological degrees taken awaj^ and all relig- 
ious tests were forbidden. The chief defects in the new law was its failure to 
secure the friendly alliance and co-operation of the denominational colleges. 
Although they had come into existence because the State endowment had for 



XIV 



ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42. 



years been monopolized by one cliurch, no concession was made to tkem as 
tlie price of yielding up tlieir university powers. Tlie annual revenue from 
the endowment when in excess of the expenditure was to be added to the 
capital. The complaint of "godlessness" became so general and menacing 
that in the following year an amendment was passed giving the University 
authorities power to enforce the attendance of students at religious services 
and to exercise a stricter supervision over their morals and conduct. The 
discontent of the denominational colleges was not appeased, and it soon 
became evident that further legislation was required in the interest of edu- 
cational unity. 

The Act of 1853 was the next great step in the progress of the University. 
It asserted once more the principle of a State university uncontrolled by 
denominationalism, and, as events proved, fixed for upwards of thirty years 
the conditions under which the institution was to do its work. The Act is 
remarkable in several respects. Its aim was to provide for the affiliation of 
the denominational colleges, to secure their aid and consent in the creation 
of a common standard of higher education in the Province, and without exact- 
ing the relinquishment of their degree-conferring powers, to induce them to 
contribute to the gradual upbuilding of a great central university in the 
administration of which they would share. To maintain intact a State col- 
lege, undenominational in character and separate from the University, was 
one of the chief objects of the measure. In this way University College was 
constituted. The only concession to the continued demand for a share in the 
State endowment by the religious bodies was the provision that the surplus 
of revenue over expenditure, instead of being added to capital, was to be dis- 
tributed among them. No such division was ever made, because the State 
college absorbed the whole of the revenue. This condition of things brought 
about in later year:? renewed criticism of the University. Parliament issued 
a Commission to inquire into the financial management, and made grants to 
the denominational colleges from the Provincial revenues as compensation for 
their failure to obtain any portion of the funds of the State universitj-. When 
these grants were discontinued in 1869 by the Government of Mr. Sandfield 
Macdonald, shortly after the erection of Ontario into a distinct Province, the 
University and University College were left in supreme possession of the 
State endowment. Despite the changes and vicissitudes occasioned by new 
legislation, by alterations in the administrative machinery and by recurrent 
political agitation, the principle asserted by Mr. Baldwin in 1849 was 
ultimately victorious although in another form. The maintenance of Uni- 
versity College, with adequate State endowment, and on a strictly non-sec- 
tarian basis, has thus become firmly embedded in the educational policy of 
the Province. 

Like its predecessors, the Act of 1853 was unsuccessful in unifying the 
university system of the Province. The denominational institutions con- 
tinued to be sustained by the self-sacrificing pride of their respective support- 
ers. Bishop Strachnri bnd added one to their number by calling Trinity 
College into existence. The Provincial University had, therefore, arrayed 
against it for some years the powerful influence of the militant element of 



190G UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. xv 



several cliurclies, and it is a striking proof of the hold on the public at large 
possessed by the idea of undenominational higher education, that during a 
period when party feeling ran high, and Ministries with narrow majorit'cs 
in Parliament were searching in every quarter for political support, the Uni- 
versity of Toronto was able to retain the State endowment, to develop its 
teaching facilities, to erect costly buildings, to strengthen itself in popular 
confidence, and to resist the repeated eiforts made in and out of Parliament 
to wrest from it the distinction and authority of State support. The provi- 
sions of the Act of 1853 are chiefly of value for the light they throw upon the 
present inquiry by reason of the changes in administrative methods deemed 
necessary to re-construct and harmonize the whole university sj-stem of tho 
Province. They do not of themselves supply a remedy for the widelj^ differ- 
ent conditions with which we have to deal, nor do they in form or in sub- 
stance furnish a basis for a scheme of government such as we are asked to 
suggest. The early charters of the University of London were avowedly 
the models upon which the new constitution was drawn. The object in Eng- 
land had been to prevent the rise of little universities with the right to grant 
degrees. The government, therefore, resolved to institute a body which 
should examine, but not teach. The two great London Colleges were Uni- 
versity College and King's College, and these, with several medical schools, 
were affiliated with the University. Pollowing this plan the functions of 
the University of Toronto were limited to the granting of degrees in Arts, 
Medicine and Law, and the awarding of scholarships and prizes. The gov- 
erning body was the Senate, all the members of which, including the Chan- 
cellor and Yice-Chancellor, were appointed by the Crown, (In 1858 the 
Vice-Chancellorship was made an elective office.) In the event of the Crown 
not filling vacancies in the Senate, that body might, when its members 
fell below ten in number, elect suitable persons, being British subjects, 'o 
the vacant places. The Governor was continued as Visitor. The statutes 
of the Senate were approved by the Visitor before going into effect. The 
undergraduates of all colleges in Upper and Lower Canada, incorporated by 
Royal charter or by Act of Parliament, could be candidates for the degrees. 
The Senate could decide what medical or law schools were to be recognizpd 
for the purpose of granting degrees. University College was managed anl 
governed by a President, Vice-President, and a council made up of the pro- 
fessors. The President and other members of the staff were appointed by 
the Governor. There were to be no religious tests, and no professor or 
leacher of divinity. The provisions of Mr. Baldwin's Act of 1850, respect- 
ing the supervision of the conduct and morals of the students and their 
attendance at public worship in their respective churches, were continued. 
Professorships in Medicine and in Law were abolished, ''except in so far as 
the same may form part of a general system of liberal education." For 
twenty years the constitution thus outlined formed the University scheme of 
government, and when, in 1873, a new University Act was passed, the rela- 
tions of the Provincial institution to the religious colleges were not dealt 
with. The Act of 1873 provided that the chancellor should Tae elected tri- 



XVI 



ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



ennially by tke graduates, and the Senate was reconstituted. Exclusive 
of the chancellor and ex-ojjicio members it was to consist of twenty-four mem- 
bers, of whom fifteen were elected by the graduates and nine appointed by 
the Lieutenant-Governor. A representative was given to the High Schools 
of the Province. In the same year the Act establishing the School of Prac- 
tical Science was passed "for instruction in mining, engineering, and the 
mechanical and manufacturing arts." The School was to be under th.^ 
direct control of the Provincial Government, and authority was given to 
make arrangements for the attendance at lectures in University College by 
students of the School, and, also, for the affiliation of the institution with 
the University, but "only to the extent of enabling students of the said 
School to obtain at the examinations of the said University" degrees and 
honours in Science. 

The Act of Federation. 

The time for a momentous change was now at hand. The withdrawal 
of the legislative grants had embarrassed the denominational colleges. The 
financial needs of the Provincial University were pressing, and there was 
active resistance to increased State aid. The demands of science, with the 
expensive laboratory teaching which it entailed, became imperative. The 
foundation and rise of Cornell University forced upon the Canadian univer- 
sities the alternative of setting up a costly equipment or of seeing their stu- 
dents go to the United States for training. The emergency, long foreseen by 
the few who had bestowed attention upon the scope and tendency of the 
modern university, came suddenly upon many who were unprepared to grap- 
ple with it. The situation in Ontario was indefensible. The resources of the 
people were being spent upon several universities, when one would have 
sufficed. As early as 1874 one of our body in an address at Trinity College, 
pointed out the evils of a system of separation. While such a system pre- 
vailed it was impossible to have a great university. The idea of a national 
university was thus fairly started. 

The beginning and culmination of the federation movement embody the 
most important considerations with which the Commission has had to concern 
itself. Our instructions enjoin us to have regard to those provisions of the 
Act of 1887, as re-cast by the Act of 1901, which affect the affiliated and 
federated bodies. Even in the absence of such instructions the obligation 
to regard these arrangements with an intelligent sympathy would naturally 
occur to any body anxious to reach a conclusion just to all concerned. Ani- 
mated as we are by this spirit we must still state with candour that federa- 
tion, in itself desirable and necessary, took a form that has laid it open to 
objections. The existence of this Commission is convincing evidence that 
the arrangement lacked the essential element of permanence, and, as a 
working basis of union, has proved unsatisfactory. Making due allowance 
for the difficiilties of the case we cannot refrain from remarking that a fed- 
eration which, within the four corners of the Act, contemplated its own 
termination at the will of the federated colleges, and which gave them power 
to resume after short notice all the rights of their original status, tended 



Itjoo UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. x\ii 



neither to liarmonj^ uor strength. Fresh representations, from time to time, 
with a view to amending the Act, were almost invited by such a provision. 
The negotiations which led up to the Act of 1887 may be briefly sum- 
marized. The Commission, in examining the whole question, has been in 
possession not only of the official documents printed by order of the Legisla- 
ture, but the records placed at its disposal by the Chancellor of Victoria Col 
lege, and the Provost of Trinity College. The Minister of Education (Hon. 
G. W. Ross) invited the authorities of the various universities and colleges 
in the Province to meet in Toronto on the 24th July, 1884. The persons 
thus called together were the Yice-Chancellor of the University of Toronto, 
the President of University College, the Chancellor and Principal of Yi-- 
toria University, the Chancellor and Principal of Queen's University, the 
Chancellor and Provost of Trinity College, the Principals of St. Michael's 
College, McMaster Hall, Wycliffe College, Knox College and Woodstock 
College, and a representative of the Congregational College of British Xorth 
America. The deliberations of the conference were private. No report of 
the discussions was made public and no evidence was taken. The conclusions 
of the conference were expressed in a statement embodying the views of the 
majority, and upon it was based the Act of 1887, known as the Federation 
Act. The essential points of agreement were: 

1. A confederation of colleges in Toronto carrying on work embraced in 

the Arts curriculum of the Provincial University. 

2. Representation of the federated colleges and universities in the 

Senate. 

3. Graduates of the federated universities to be admitted as graduates 

of the Provincial University ad eundum gradum. 

4. Graduate representation in the Senate of the federated universities, 

to cease after six years. 

5. University College to give instruction in Latin, Greek, Ancient His- 

tory, French, German, English, Oriental Languages and Moral 
Philosophy, and to have the power of instituting additional chairs 
which do not exist in the University. 

6. The organization of a teaching faculty in the University with facili- 

ties for adequate instruction in a stated list of subjects free to all 
students of the University. 

7. The State endowment to be applied to the maintenance of the Pro- 

vincial University, the University Faculty, and University Col- 
lege. 
Those who took part in the proceedings of the conference were favorable 
to the general principle of federation, although in matters of detail there 
were differences of opinion. That the desire for consolidation outweighed 
any objections to the plan is natural when it is remembered how urgent were 
the financial needs of the Provincial University, and how critical the situa- 
tion from the standpoint of the independent universities. By united action. 

2 u.c. 



xviii ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



it was hoped the Legislature could be induced to provide the funds for a great 
advance in the facilities for higher education, while the religious bodies 
would be relieved from the necessity of making heavy drafts upon the ge i- 
erosity of their supporters. There were some misgivings on all sides. Twa 
of the universities concerned, Queen's and Trinity, ultimately withhel(l their 
consent to the union. It is to be regretted that the more comprehensive 
plan was not pressed. The reluctance of the federated bodies to resign their 
independent existence sprang from causes honourable to them. It arose 
from pride in their own colleges, and a doubt whether the relinquishment 
of advantages gained by so much sacrifice and loyalty was a wise step. The 
acceptance of federation by Victoria in 1890, and by Trinity in 1903, creates 
a situation which the friends of the Provincial University venture to hope 
may be permanent. 

Defects of the Present System. 

The situation with which the Commission is appointed to deal presents 
for the reasons we have indicated a mass of perplexities and anomalies. The 
scheme of government now in existence would never have been deliberatelv 
created if efficiency of administration and the academic interests of the Uni- 
versity had been solely kept in view. The organization of 1853, modified by 
the changes of 1873, was in itself imperfect. The adoption of federation ii: 
1887, by which the University became a teaching body with provision for 
the grouping of Arts colleges around it, was a complete reversal of the con- 
ditions under which the University of London was selected as the model con- 
sixtution. The various governing bodies have thus been partly a reflex of 
the British and partly of the American models. The University has a Chan- 
cellor, a Yice-Chancellor, and a President, each with vaguely defined func- 
tions. As a means of perpetuating a divided control no better method cau be 
conceived. Instead of centralized responsibility we have had divided author- 
ity. Upon the effect of this on the prestige of the University, on the strength 
and coherency of its policy, and on the discipline of its students, there is no 
need to dwell. The office of Chancellor has possessed few of the attributes of 
real power. The office of Yice-Chancellor has been occupied by some of the 
most influential and devoted friends of the Universitj^ but their efforts could 
not be crowned with permanent results owing to the limitations of the posi- 
tion. The office of President, by the imposition of multifarious duties and 
the absence of large initiatory powers, has been reduced to comparative 
impotence. 

We have no doubt that one of the principal contributory causes of th^'s 
condition is the exceptional and unsatisfactory method by which ihe powers 
of the Crown in relation to the University have been exercised. No parallel 
to this method exists either in Great Britain or in North America. The 
State-owned and State-supported universities of Michigan, Wisconsin and 
other States of the American Union offer the closest examples for comparison. 
In these cases the State invariably delegates its power to trustees or regents. 



190G UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. xix 



These trustees are either appointed by the Governor of the State or are elected 
by the people. To administer the affairs of a State university by a political 
government, occupied with different matters, constantly changing its party 
character, and gifted with no special talent for the management of universi- 
ties, has not commended itself to a practical and progressive people. "VVe see 
no ground for the belief that this plan of direct State control, rejected abroad 
and in ill-repute at home, can be made a success in this Province. 

Another inherent defect in the administrative system is the lack of a 
clearly defined distribution of authority in matters of academic policy. This 
is partly due to the plan of federation itself, but is intensified by the exis- 
tence of several governing bodies with overlapping powers and with liberty 
to act independently of one another. It is also seen in the slackness of the 
federal bond which seems to assume at every turn the possibility of sudden 
termination. The Senate with guaranteed representation for the federated 
universities and colleges is a fluctuating body which delegates its most 
important work to committees. The University Council is not constituted 
so as to promote unity of action either in an executive or advisory capacity. 
The Council of University College is unable to invite and secure that 
co-operation with the faculties of the other Arts Colleges and the University 
Faculty which would promote academic efficiency. The absence of proper 
machinery for the direction of the student body in its various relations and 
for the maintenance of order is also a source of difficulty. 

A remedy for these defects could easily be found in the complete recast- 
ing of the University constitution, but as regard is to be had for the 
rights of the federated members, other means must be sought. A co-oper- 
ation of the various bodies, the creation of a simpler central authority, and 
a clearer definition of the place and working of each part in the whole scheme 
is the course which, after careful investigation, appears to be the most feas- 
ible and desirable. 

The University has also suffered, through a long period of j'ears, from an 
iD sufficient revenue. The effects produced by financial stress and strain need 
nc description. At the time when expansion in University work is almost inde- 
finite and imperatively required, if our national equipment for higher edu- 
cation is to keep pace with the demand, the policy of crippling the State 
university is shortsighted and might prove disastrous. "We have already 
referred to the duty of the Province in this respect. Not less is it the inter- 
est of the State to devote a generous share of the public funds to the develop- 
ment of an institution so intimately associated with the material interests of 
the country. Canada must train her own sons to be her captains of industry. 
The agricultural, mineral and forest wealth and the water power of this Pro- 
vince call for a practical capacity and a specialized knowledge which onh* a 
modern university can supply, and it is the happy function of tlie Legislature 
not only to sustain the moral influences that come from higher education but 
to contribute to the national prosperity by adequate votes of money for the 
training of youth. 

We are strongly of opinion that the University's claim for increased 
endowment cannot, either in wisdom or in safety be delayed or resisted. 



ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Outline of Suggested Reconstruction. 

In drawing up a scheme of goverument for the University we have kept 
in view and have had regard to those special conditions which cannot be 
ignored if the suggested reforms are to be practicable and effectual. The con- 
siderations that have thus weighed with the Commission are : first, that the 
University has a history and traditions expressed in the structure of its 
constitution; second, that it is a federal institution uniting in' one field 
of operation the training given by the State with the training given by 
several religious colleges; third, that the purpose of the reconstruction is to 
simplify the system and co-ordinate the duties and powers of the various 
bodies; fourth, that the University is the possession of the people of the Pro- 
vince and should be so governed as to produce the highest tj^pe of educatitmal 
service consistent with the resources placed at its command; fifth, that the 
support given by the State should be measured only by the educational needs 
of the people. To this end we may briefly summarize the principal conclu- 
sions to which we have come : 

1. The powers of the Crown in respect to the control and management of 

the University should be vested in a Board of Governors, chosen 
by the Lieutenant-Go vernor-in-Council, and subject by the method 
of appointment and by the regulation of their proceedings, to the 
perpetual authority of the state. 

2. The Senate, with its legislative and executive powers and based upon 

the principle of representation of the federated and affiliated insti- 
tutions and the faculties and graduates, should direct the academic 
interests of the University. 

3. The School of Practical Science should be united with the University 

as its Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, and the same 
intimate connection should, as far as practicable, apply to the reia- 
tions of the Faculty of Medicine to the University. 

4. Universitv College should continue as now constituted, with a Prin- 

cipal, Faculty Council and Registrar of its own. its administration 
being under the direction of its Faculty Council, subject to the 
control of the Governors, and appointments to the staff being made 
on tlie recommendation of the President of the University. 

'5. There should be created, a Council of the Faculty of Arts composed 
of the faculties of all the Arts colleges and representatives of Ihe 
federated colleges, and a Council for each Faculty. 

0. There should be created a Caput or advisory committee, ha-vinor 
autliority in certain matters of University discipline, which may 
act as advisory to the President. 

7. Tlie office of Chancellor should be retained, its occupant to be elected 

by the graduates and to preside over Convocation and coufer 
degrees. 

8. Tl)(^ (office of Yice-Chancellor sho\ild no longer exist, its functions and 

duties being transferred, in certain respects, to the President. 

9. The office of President should be clothed with additional ])owevs, 

making its occiipant in fact as well as in name the chief executive 
officer of the University. 



1 



1900 UXIVERSITV OF TORONTO. 



The plan of re-organization of whicli tlie above is a synopsis, aims at 
dividing tlie administration of the University between the Governors, who 
will possess the general oversight and financial control now vested in the 
State, and the Senate, with the Facultj- Councils, which will direct the 
academic work and policy. Upon these two executive branches and whatever 
dependent machinery may be set up to carry out their authority, the whole 
administration should rest. They are designed to be the permanent agen- 
cies in the system of government, with iheir spheres of operation clearly 
defined and the functions of each duly prescribed. To the Governors will 
fall the guidance and management of the University in the broad sense, now 
divided between the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council and the Board of Trus- 
tees. To the Senate will be assigned the duty of determining the extent and 
character of the teaching work of the University and University College, 
the suggesting of new faculties, departments and chairs, approval of the 
courses of study, the conferring of degrees, and the whole range of subjects 
included in the academic programme, subject in most cases to the approval 
of the Board. The Governors and the Senate, between them, comprise those 
portions of the administrative system which will probably not be altered in 
the process of time. The other parts of the system may be changed or modi- 
fied as experience suggests. 

The connecting bond between the Governors and the Senate should be 
the President. His identification with the academic side of the University 
life makes him the natural channel of communication between the two. 
His powers should be sufficiently defined to constitute him the general execu- 
tive officer, subject to the Governors, and the representative of those special 
University interests which are under the guardianship of the Senate. 

The Boaed of Goveexors. 

To administer the affairs of a great University with vigour and dis- 
tinction is well-nigh impossible unless the central authority is strong and 
devotes itself without ulterior interests and motives to the single purpose 
entrusted to it. The history of the Provincial University- has demonstrate^ 
the disadvantage of direct political control. Despite the zealous efforts of 
statesmen and educationists the University became on many occasions 
in times past the sport of acrimonious party disputes. Its interests were 
inextricably confused in the popular mind with party politics, although 
with these it had, in reality, little concern. The various Ministries which 
o> different times since 1839 have tried to re-construct the system of adminis- 
tration, instead of handing over to the authorities of the University the 
carrying on of its affairs, reserving to the State the power of controlling and 

resuming the trust if conditions rendered that proceeding advisable, bur- 
dened themselves with a responsibility which, in many respects, they were 
un-fitted to discharge. The fruits of this policy have been a gradual decline 
cf public sympathy with the pecuniary needs of the University, and an 
element of uncertainty and impotence in its internal management. The 
progress of the University has been due to its situation in the richest Pro- 



xxii ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



\ince of the Dominion, to the prestige of connection with the State, to the 
talents of its professiorate, and the too often unappreciated labours of its 
governing bodies. Under circumstances that were at times discouraging, 
?nd subject to influences that tended to disintegration rather than develop- 
ment, a task demanding unity of aim and concentration of energy has been 
sustained with difficulty. A complete change is imperative if the University 
is to fulfil the high purposes which modern educational conditions have 
made essential to the well-being of the country. 

"We have examined the governmental systems of other State Universi- 
ties upon this continent and have found a surprising unanimity of view upon 
the propriety of divorcing them from the direct superintendence of political 
powers. In Minnesota the Governor appoints a Board of nine regents with 
three additional ex-ojficio members. In Wisconsin the regents are appointed 
by the Governor, while in Michigan they are elected by the people of the 
State. The tradition in these and other States is to keep the university free 
from party control. The regents may be party men, but it is generally a custom 
to re-appoint them, whether the Governor for the time being is of the same 
political opinion or not, so that the two political parties are represented on 
the Board. In earlier days traces of political influence were seen, but the 
tendency now is for the Legislatures to vote the necessary supplies without 
hesitation, and to leave to the university authorities the management of the 
institution. The position of regent is considered a high honour and is 
bestowed upon some of the chief citizens of the State who serve without 
remuneration. It is found by experience that the Legislatures do not cease 
to act with generosity because the university is not a department of the 
State Government. The contrary is the case. The State universities flourish 
under a system which frees them from party interference. 

A proposal to delegate the powers of the Crown to a Board of Governors 
is dictated by the desire to impart strength, continuity and freedom of action 
to the supreme governing body. It is in accord with the practice of other 
communities possessing State universities, and is supported l)y the unanimous 
testimonj'^ of those whose advice has been sought. It is designed to secure 
an instrument of administration truly representative of the whole Province. 

In order that no part of the State's authority shall be surrendered, and 
that the University shall retain the advantages and enjoy the dignitj- of State 
support, we recommend that the Governors be nominated by the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council. The suggestion that some of them should be elected by 
,the graduates was the subject of long and careful consideration. The 
loyal affection of the alumni for their Alma Mater we recognize as a valuable 
factor in the formation of public opinion favourable to the interests of the 
University. This feeling is one honourable to the graduates themselves, and 
in the case of privately-endowed tmiversities has been proditctive of much 
benefit. The Cliancellor, whose office has existed since the foundation of 
King's College, is chosen by the votes of the graduates and has a place, c.r- 
officio, on the governing Board. This office, in our opinion, should be pre- 
served. The President should also be a member, e,x-ofjicxo, of the Board. 
With these exceptions the Governors should be named bv the liieutenant- 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. .\xiii 

Oovernor iu Council. In our opinion no step should be taken to lessen the 
responsibility of the Legislature for the efficient management and support 
of the institution. To confer upon the graduates the power to elect some of 
their number to the Board would divest the State of its full control of the 
governing body. This, in our opinion, would be unwise. We assume that 
in the selection of Governors the Government will not from time to time over- 
look the claims of suitable persons who are graduates to membership on the 
Board and thus confer the distinction without impairing the authority of the 
Crown over the University. This authority should be fully asserted in three 
ways, first, by the provision that of the fifteen Governors all except the two 
ex-offi,cio members should be appointed by and removable at the pleasure of 
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council; second, that detailed statements of the 
expenditures and the investments should be annually furnished to the Gov- 
ernment; and, third, by the provision that no expenditure involving any 
encroachment on the endowment should be made without the sanction of the 
Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 

With these limitations, designed not to hamper the governing body in 
the management of the trust, but to preserve unimpaired the control of the 
State, the Governors would exercise all the authority which is needful. 

The Governors, if fifteen in number, would be sufficiently numerous to 
permit of their being drawn from different parts of the Province. They 
should be representative men. The position of Governor is one of such dig- 
nity and importance as to command the services of the most influential and 
experienced. The Government should appoint the chairman of the Board. 
The term of appointment we suggest is six years, three of the members of the 
first Board retiring at the end of two and five at the end of four years. This 
ensures a more or less permanent body frequently recruited by the Govern- 
ment from those who represent the latest phases of University opinion or pos- 
•sess other desirable qualities. The Board, therefore, would be in touch with 
public sentiment. While the duties and responsibilities of this new govern- 
ing body in respect to the finances of the University are analogous to those 
now discharged by the trustees, the enlarged status and privileges conferred 
distinguish it completely from the Board it displaces. The Governors may 
be expected to regard the high trust they are to assume from the broadest 
standpoint. The University is a federal institution. The vitalitj'- and pros- 
perity of every federal unit of it will determine the success of the whole. 
"The Governors, having no party interests to serve, and no personal ends to 
promote, not being representative of a particular college or its interests or of 
the State institution alone, should command the confidence of the Province. 
The power of appointment should be vested in the Governors, the appoint- 
ments to the teaching staffs of the University, of University College and all 
Faculties controlled by the State being made upon the recommendation of the 
President. 

The Senate. 

By the federation Acts, the Senate is an essential element in the 
University constitution. To abolish it would disturb the harmony at present 



XXIV 



ROYAL COMMISSION RE Xo. 42 



existing, and re-open controversies whicli it would be inadvisable to 
revive. The labours of tbe Commission liave been directed to strengthening 
the bond of federation rather than to impairing it by suggesting drastic modi- 
fications which would probably bear fruit in discontent and suspicion, if not 
actual disruption. By their representation in the Senate, the federated insti- 
tutions are secured in their right of sharing in the determination of academic 
policy. They are given a voice in the framing of the courses of study, the 
prescribing of the conditions for granting degrees, as well as in legislation 
affecting other academic matters in which they are interested. They are 
also guaranteed against radical alterations in the division of suj)jects in Arts 
between the College and the University. This division of subjects is an 
illogical arrangement, but the Commission does not desire to interfere 
rvith it, since it is part of the existing understanding between the University 
and the federated bodies. At present, changes in this division of subjects 
cannot be made without the unanimous vote of the Senate. The power to 
change should be made conditional upon the decision of the colleges affected, 
without requiring unanimity in the Senate. 

The Senate, owing to its representative quality, is necessarily large and 
the attendance fluctuates. Much of its work has, in practice, been relegated 
to committees. Experience has shown that the reports of these committees 
must, in general, be adopted without debate, if the transaction of business 
is not to be unduly delayed. The Senate, therefore, has in process of time 
become a deliberative assemblage where the larger questions of academic con 
cern are reviewed and discussed. It brings together representatives of the 
State college and State faculty, of the federated and affiliated institutions, 
and of the graduates. The Collegiate Institute and High School teachers 
have also been permitted to send two members to represent them, and as the 
secondary schools have a strong interest in the course of study and' the 
standard of matriculation, and : s the University ought to enlarge its facili- 
ties for the training of teachers, their representation in the Senate should 
be increased. The proportionate representation of the colleges, through 
their faculties and graduates, should be respected, and in order that the 
graduates should contribute to the Senate the stimulus of intelligent encour- 
agement and criticism from their own ranks, thus helping to keep the Uni- 
versity more intimately in touch with the outside world, we recommend that 
members of the teaching staff shall no longer be eligible as candidates for 
the graduate vote. No one within the University should have any disposi- 
tion or inducement to meddle with the choice of the graduates. The Faculty 
representation should be equalized and increased, and the composition of 
the Senate as a whole, while distinctly academic in its quality and outlook, 
should provide for a sufficiently large non-academic element. Having 
developed into a ratifying and deliberative body, the Senate need not b« 
called together as frequently as heretofore. 

The work now performed by the Senate committees might properlj' be 
transferred to Faculty Councils, and, with this devolution of authority, we 
shall presently deal. 



lyOG UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. xxv 



The Office of Pkesidext. 

The autocratic presidency is associated iu the popular mind with many 
universities in the United States. The growth of duties that are cliiefly 
administrative in modern universities demands a man of unusual executive 
abilitj', and if he is, in addition, a man of academic distinction, he natur- 
ally becomes the outstanding figure and the ultimate source of authority. 
Both in the privately-endowed and State-supported universities of the Eepub- 
lic force of character and the talent for administration readily secure for the 
r resident large powers. Usually there are no specific enactments giving 
to him the extensive authority which he exercises. As a rule, the person- 
ality of the man determines the extent of his powers. There is commou.. 
although not unanimous, acquiescence in this method of control. The situa- 
tion is not without its dangers, and there is observable some tendency *o 
question the advisability of one-man power with its possible effect of weakea- 
ing the other parts of the system. 

In Canada the influences have been in a contrary direction. The chaugjs 
made from time to time in the constitution of the University have, rather 
from accident than design, reduced the powers of the President to a degree 
which has provoked from one quarter the ironical remark that it might be 
in contemplation to abolish the' ofiice and thus effect a saving of salary. This 
was actually the condition during the tw^enty year period following 1853, the 
position retained being that of President of University College, who was not 
a member of the governing body of the University. To this may, perhaps, 
be traced the reluctance in subsequent legislation to assign to the Presidency 
any particular importance in the general scheme of administration. By 
the Act of 1873 the President was given a place in the Senate, and when 
federation was authorized in 1887, and the University became a tea'chin-^ 
body, the functions of the office were necessarily enlarged, although the Tice- 
Chancellor remained chairman of the Senate, and thus divided with th? 
President the chief place in academic matters. AVhen the University Act 
was revised in 1901 the duties of the position were set forth in some detail, 
but not with the effect of enhancing its authority or making it a working 
force. The practice and traditions of half a century, therefore, have tended 
ic curtail the power of the President, and to deprive the University adminis- 
tration of that directing executive quality which in everj' department of 
effort in the modern world is regarded as indispensable. 

To rectify this blunder it is unnecessarj' to advocate the creation of an 
fintocrat, or to magnify one portion of the system at the expense of the others. 
By delegating to a Board of Governors the general control of the University 
and leaving to the Senate general oversight of academic matters, the offict^ 
of President assumes its natural place, and may be clothed with such auth- 
ority as must greatly tend to strengthen and simplify the machinery of gov- 
ernment. At present when appointments are made by the Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor in Council, when the purse is controlled by the Board of Trustees, whe'i 
the Senate, with the Tice-Chancellor as chairman, directs academic policy, 



xxvi ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



and tlie President is also one of the teaching staff, the Presidency is not made 
an office of sufficient importance in the University. The head of a great 
university, to be influential, must have wide powers, but he need not be 
supreme. 

We believe that the Governors, as representing the Crown, should sele'it 
the President. As their appointment for short terms ensures their accepta- 
bility to the public, so he, owing his appointment to them, must work in har- 
mony with them, and be amenable in all respects to their supervision. The 
lest of his success as an administrator will be his ability to secure the co-op- 
eration of the Governors since, lacking their ratification of his acts, all h"s 
efforts must be futile. 

He should be relieved of all teaching duties. He should be a member, 
ex-officio, of the governing body, but not its chairman. He should preside 
at meetings of the Senate. This would bring him into constant and intimate 
contact with both the business and the academic side of the administration. 
He should be, in general, the channel of communication, between the Gov- 
ernors and other academical bodies. The President should possess those 
academic sympathies and qualifications which would make him a suitable 
chairman of the academic body, the Senate. He should also preside over 
the Council of the Faculty of Arts, of right attend meetings of all other 
councils, and be given power to summon meetings of any faculty, or joint 
meetings of faculties. This would centralize responsibility, the lack of 
which, in our judgment, has been one of the serious defects of the present 
system. The distribution of power over so many agencies, with the final 
appeal to a political Ministry, entails upon the executive officer of such a 
system, a continual effort to reconcile conflicting elements without in the end 
being able to enforce the decision. 

The question of making appointments to the staff concerns the very life 
of the University. It is clear that the governing body should make all 
appointments. The method of procedure is of the first importance. Every 
possible assurance should exist that the efficiency of the staff is not deter- 
mined on any other ground than that of merit and quality. In the case of 
a University with a history extending over sixty years there is sure to be 
abundance of evidence to serve as a warning of what to aA'oid and to suggest 
the best method of filling vacancies, making promotions, and deciding upon 
retirements. The right to recommend should rest with the*President, who, 
as the academic head, is the natural adviser of the governing body. With- 
out his recommendation the responsibility of action would be divided. 
Appointments therefore should be conditional upon his nomination. The 
President, under such circumstances, would necessarily consult with those 
distinctly qualified to give him advice. The fact that the Governors would 
hold him responsible for the character and fitness of the appointment would 
render him careful to exhaust every possible avenue of information. It 
would entail a constant search for promising men in every department of 
university work, and compel the President to have a knowledcre of the stand- 
ard of ability required in other universities which he would be free to apjily 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. xxvii 



at home. The spirit in which this duty would be discharged, and the mea- 
sure of success attending it would go far to indicate his own fitness. The 
highly important, and at times delicate, task of ensuring the maintenance 
of the quality of the work done by the individual members of the staff is 
also best performed by the President. 

The Chancellor and Convocation. 

It has already been said that the office of Chancellor, which secures to 
the graduates an elective representative on both the Board of Governors and 
the Senate, should be retained. Its abolition would eliminate from the 
University system a position created in the original Royal Charter of King's 
College, and possessing many historic associations. It has survived the 

numerous legislative changes of seventy years, and its duties have always 
been discharged with honour to the occupant and with benefit to the Univer- 
sity. The Chancellor is intended to represent, in his office and duties, the 
academic status of the institution, to preside at Convocation, and to confer 
all degrees. As chairman of Convocation, his opportunity to create for the 
graduate body in the University organism a distinct and honourable place, 
assigns to him a function of much consequence. We believe that Convoca- 
tion should be retained, and that its right to organize, hold regular meetings, 
and exert itself to promote the academic interests of the University in such 
ways as it sees fit, should be continued to it by statute. The influence of the 
graduates in favor of the University shows a marked tendency to increase. 
In the case of a State institution their place in the system has not yet been 
definitely fixed. They possess, however, many opportunities of serving the 
University. Their influence could be exerted in the direction of securing 
private benefactions for the institution. The older a university grows the 
more important an element in the community the graduates become, and it 
is our opinion that Convocation should meet more frequently, and that its 
representations to the governing board, expressing the conclusions of the 
graduate bodji, would be of practical value in shaping University policy. 

The Yice-Chancellorship stands in a diiferent position from the office 
of Chancellor. In the English Universities the Vice-Chancellor is usually 
identical with the President or Principal in this country. To maintain both 
offices is to weaken one. We would recommend its discontinuance so that 
the President may be chairman of the Senate, and exercise such general 
powers of management as have hitherto fallen to the Tice-Chancellor. 

Faculty Councils. 

We have already referred to the propriety of creating Faculty Council^. 
First, there ought to be, in our opinion, a Council of the Faculty of Arts 
made up of the teaching staffs of University College, the Faculty of Arts in 
the University, and the Arts Faculties of Victoria College and Trinity Col- 
lege. University College should have, as at present, its Faculty Council, 
The Faculty of Applied Science and the Faculty of Medicine should, each 



xxviii ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 

of them, continue to liave its Faculty Council. While tlie members of the 
teaching staff in each Faculty should be members of the Council, the lectur- 
ers and instructors should act as assessors, and have no votes. Under this 
system a Faculty would practically have control of its own affairs. Much 
of the work now done by committees of the Senate could, we believe, be 
better done bj- Faculty Councils. Each Council should be presided over 
by its own dean, and, in the case of the Council of the Faculty of Arts, the 
chairman should be the President of the University. The proceedings of the 
Councils would, under the arrangements we propose, be subject to ratifica- 
tion by the Senate, but, in practice, they would be the working bodies in 
academic matters, and their decisions would probably be ratified in most 
cases as a matter of course. The Councils would frame their courses of 
stud}', appoint examiners, and conduct the examinations. They would deal 
with applications and memorials by the students, and in all Faculty matters, 
except discipline, exercise full executive control, subject to approval by the 
Senate. 

The most important of these Councils would be the Council of the 
Faculty of Arts. The admission of the federated bodies to a University 
Council of this kind would be an important step, but one which could not 
fail to promote a better understanding in the work- that all are doing in 
common. The relations between the teaching staffs would result in such 
agreement in respect to lectures, courses of study, methods of teaching, and 
other matters as cannot now be effectively secured. The healthy spirit of 
emulation between the colleges, which is a valuable element in the college 
sj'stem, does not preclude practical and reasonable co-operation. There has 
been in existence for some time a system of interchange of lectures in certain 
subjects between the colleges. It has prevented unnecessary duplication of 
work, and should confer upon the student a real advantage. As no machinery 
had been provided for the regulation of this system, it was necessary to eft'ect 
it by a voluntary agreement limited in its scope. The Council could legal- 
ize, regulate, and, if necessary, extend this arrangement. It could also 
deal generally as experience suggests with matters in connection with the 
courses of teaching. An intimate association of all the teachers in Arts 
subjects would, we believe, tend to unification, and a higher standard of 
efficiency. 

The Caput. 

The appointment of a Caput, or committee, consisting of the Provident 
and the heads of tlie various federated inslitutinns, and the Deans of Facul- 
ties, would be another step in the direction of effective co-operation in Uni- 
versity matters. Wilhont encroaching upon the rights of others the differ- 
ent members of the federated system, especially the heads of colleges, fin 1 
themselves confronted by special conditions tha+ call for unity of action. 
At present the President and the heads of the colleges are unprovided wUh 
legal means for joint action in certain matters of discipline. In these caso:^ 
their conferences must be informal, and their decisions without bindin;? 



190G UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. xxix 



eftect. The absence of deliuite autliority to enforce order amongst the undf.r- 
gruduates in specified circumstances where the jurisdictions of the University 
and the colleges appear to be ill-dehned, is not a salutary condition. The 
Caput would provide for such emergencies. Through such a body the Pre- 
sident of the University would have the opportunity of consulting the college 
heads when, in his judgment, the common interest demands it. The Caput 
should, conversely, be given the privilege of advising the President on ques- 
tions that are manifestly of University concern, provided, always, that his 
freedom of action is not hampered, and that the scope of his executive du'.ie^j 
is not curtailed by the advice tendered to him. 



University College. 

The maintenance of the system of education provided by the State in 
University College and the Faculty of Arts in the University is, in our opin- 
ion, of the utmost importance. The division of the Arts curriculum into 
these two parts should not lessen the claim of University College for strong 
and sufficient financial support. From this standpoint it ought to be regarded 
as one effort, neither part being developed at the expense of the other, but 
both entitled to adequate aid from, the endowment provided by the State. 
For this reason we consider that a common purse for the whole State system 
of education in the liberal arts and sciences is essential, and that the govern- 
ing body of the University should also be the governing body of University 
College. In maintaining the college sj'stem the prosperity of University 
College must be regarded as a cardinal principle. Anything that would 
weaken University College would weaken the federal system since this 
system is based upon the Arts teaching provided by the State, and the effi- 
ciency of this teaching is the efficiency of the University. The division of 
subjects made in 1887 was the basis of the agreement with the federated 
bodies. This division is artificial, and not easily defended, but it ought to 
be respected, because the federated bodies consider it to be of vital import- 
ance to them. Out of regard, therefore, for the stability of the federal 
system we recommend its continuance in good faith, no transfer of subjects 
taking place without the full concurrence of the federated colleges. As a 
matter deemed of moment by them, we also recommend that University 
College be separately officered with a Principal, a Faculty, and a Registrar 
of its own. The Principal should be appointed by the governing body on 
the recommendation of the President of the University. The time has now 
come, we think, when the policy of maintaining a complete system of higher 
education by the State with one purse and one governing board, should be 
regarded as definitely settled. The compact with the federated bodies should 
be loyally kept by the State, and the affairs of the University admin- 
istered with due regard to the welfare of all parts of the system. But this 
should include a common control of the State college and Arts Faculty, and a 
clear recognition that the endowment is intended for both. 



XXX 



ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



The School of Practical Science. 

The nature of the tie between the School of Practical Science and the 
University has long been one of the anomalies of the administrative system. 
The form in which their relations were cast by successive Acts of the- Leg- 
islature, and by Orders-in-Council, has been, we are convinced, injurious to 
both institutions. 

On the one hand, the School has been separately controlled and man- 
aged, and supported by a separate vote of money in the Legislature. This 
removed it, as far as possible, from its rightful share in the prestige of the 
Provincial University. Encouraged by a false show of independence, it has 
been at the mercy of the financial exigencies of successive Ministries. The 
Department of Education, directly responsible for its financial and academic 
progress, has been attempting to do for one part of the Universit7/ what, in 
logic and consistency, it ought to have been doing for all. This exceptional 
treatment has not justified itself. The Principal and professors, displaying 
marked zeal and diligence in their executive and teaching duties, have been 
underpaid and overworked. The School has made wonderful progress on 
insufficient funds. The students, who include so many of the alert and active 
minds of the Province, have scarcely felt themselves to be part of the Uni- 
versity body. 

On the other hand, the University has suffered from the inclusion of 
a Faculty subject in no adequate sense to its general control and discipline. 
The University, having no control over its Science Faculty, has been deprived 
of a powerful lever in appealing for national support. The executive func- 
tions of the University have been weakened, and the problem of student dis- 
cipline has not been rendered easier. 

To account for this defective administration we must go back to the Act 
nf 1873, already quoted, which established the School when the future scope 
if University teaching in the realm of the applied sciences was not fully 
understood. Contemporary in origin with the establishment of the Agri- 
fultural College, the School of Science, like its flourishing ally, was per- 
mitted to develop separately from the University. The policy pursued in 
the State-owned universities of the United States is to have the Faculties of 
Science and Agriculture in visible unity with the whole institution, and this 
has, doubtless, led to more generous endowments from the Legislatures than 
if the claims of higher education had been less strikingly demonstrated. 

In recommending the union of the School of Practical Science with the 
Provincial University the belief of the Commission is that closer relations 
will be of advantage to both. In a new country like Canada, with an era 
of constructive undertakings before it, with undeveloped wealth in farm, 
forest, mine and water power, the practical part of the University course is of 
importance. The Provincial system of education must take into account all 
the educational requirements of the country. The development of the 
natural riches nf our northern region creates many openings in engineering 
and induslrial work. This provides careers f( r men with the requi- 



190(; UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. xxxi 



site skill and training. There has been, during the past few years, a large 
increase in the number of students in the School of Practical Science. For 
the Province to turn a deaf ear to the need of greater support for this class 
of training would be a mistaken policy. The scope of usefulness for the 
Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering is widening. The Science 
Faculty must not only perform its University functions, but, if possible, 
minister to the popular demand for special technical instruction. Its labora- 
tory equipment might be employed for the benefit of those who intend to 
apply their knowledge to the manufacturing arts and industries without 
being registered students of the University. The extension of training in 
science by means of lectures delivered at the chief centres of the Province, 
and the enlargement of museum facilities for the study and display of our 
natural resources, are questions which also press for early consideration. 
The exact relation which the Science Faculty should bear toward the primary 
technical schools of the Province, so that its equipment may stimulate and 
serve this department of State education, calls for thorough inquiry and 
decision. 

On the inclusion of the School of Practical Science in the University the 
sums voted by the Legislature for both will be added together. The total 
amount will, therefore, bear the appearance of larger expenditure, when, in 
reality, it will be a transfer of expenditure. This should not be misunder- 
stood. It does not free the Legislature from its responsibility in respect to 
science training. Otherwise the union of the School with the University 
would prove a burden upon the latter. 

The Faculty of Medicine. 

In tne relation of the Faculty of Medicine to the University we have 
another of those defects in the administrative system which weaken executive 
control of the whole institution. The Faculty differs from other component 
parts of the University in several important respects. Its efliciency is mainly 
due to the personal sacrifices made by its teachers, who receive inadequate 
remuneration for their services. It is self-supporting, and this ensures a quasi- 
independence. The members of the Faculty are animated by that honourable 
zeal for the standard of the profession characteristic of medical men gener- 
ally, and are able to give practical force to their convictions. "What the 
State saves at the expense of the profession it loses in the opportunity of help- 
ing to build up, as it ought to do, a great school of medicine, and in the 
absence of a contributory factor to the compact strength of the University. 

The Commission realizes that the situation, in respect of the Faculty of 
Medicine, is intricate, and not free from perplexity. It is well that several 
aspects of the subject should be clearly stated and courageously faced. The 
precise attitude of the public mind toward strictly professional training is 
not easily defined. What the State universities elsewhere have already 
grasped more firmly and intelligently than has been realized in Ontario, is 
the public value of medical education and its intimate relation to the health 
of the people. At no distant date the Faculty of Medicine should stand on 



XXX 11 



ROYAL COMMISSION RE So. i'l 



the same footiug as other Faculties, its cost over and above the fees of the 
students being borne by the State, and its management being identified with 
the governing authorities of the University. That this policy has always 
been recognized, although in a half-hearted manner, is evident from the his- 
tory of the University. More from dismay at the prospect of the expenditure 
involved than from any rooted disbelief in public responsibility for medical 
training the Legislature abolished the Medical Faculty of the University in 
1853, and recognized the work done in the proprietory schools. This lame 
expedient led to the multiplication of schools, and to defective training. To 
the sagacity and unselfishness of the profession itself is chiefly due the excel- 
lent status of the medical profession in the Province. The University Act of 
1887, however, wisely conferred upon the Senate the power to erect a Faculty 
of Medicine, and enacted that the professors, the scale of fees, and the student 
body should be completely under University regulations. The Act also 
imposed the cost of the Department of Physiology upon the University. The 
significance of this step has a direct relation to certain recommendations 
which we propose presently to offer. 

Shortly after 1887 the Toronto School of Medicine became the Medical 
Faculty of the University, and, subsequently, amalgamation with the Trinity 
Medical Faculty took place. This consolidation, with the consequent im- 
provement in educational facilities and the rapid growth in the number of 
students, has been effected at a minimum of cost to the University and the 
Province, and a maximum of effort and sacrifice on the part of individual 
members of the Faculty. That a rich and intelligent community like On- 
tario should owe much of the value of the Provincial Faculty of Medicine to 
the enlightened generosity of eminent physicians who draw upon the emolu- 
ments of their private practice to maintain the efficiency of medical educa- 
tion, is a condition which, to state plainly, is to condemn. 

The somewhat complicated financial scheme which supports the Faculty 
from year to year has this general effect : a percentage of the fees is handed 
over to the University to pay for the training in Arts subjects of medical 
students, and for other purposes, and of the remaining income 40 per cent, 
pays the working expenses of the Faculty, and 60 per cent, is intended lo 
pay the salaries of the teaching members. The cost of additional equipment' 
necessary from time to time falls upon that portion of the income devoted lo 
paying salaries, so that the members of the professoriate must either deduct 
this charge from their remuneration or allow the teaching equipment to lag 
behind its requirements. Such a deduction they have made over a long series 
of years. This position of affairs has led to a special inquiry by the' Com- 
mission into the progress and prospects of the Faculty, and to a consideration 
of what measures of reform in the present system might properly be recom- 
mended. The question involves not merely the necessary advancement in 
ordinary medical education, but also the prosecution of research work, in the 
results of which the country has so deep an interest and from which it may 
reap so great a benefit. In the promotion of both the State has obligatifMis. 
The extent of these obligations it may be difficult now to determine. We 
may, however, express the opinion that the future relations of the Faculty 
and the Universily should bo radicnlly modified, and that some, at least, of 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



the claims of medical science upon the University sliould receive immediate 
acknowledgment. 

What may be termed the scientific branches of medicine are already m 
most modern universities included in the list of subjects of the Arts course. 
This is true of Physiology in the University of Toronto, which was estab- 
lished as a University chair in 1887. To this additions should now be made. 
Under the terms of agreement which united the Medical Faculties of Tor- 
onto and Trinity in 1903, the foundation of new chairs in Hygiene and Pub- 
lic Health, Experimental Therapeutics and Pharmacology, and Medical Jur- 
isprudence, and Toxicology was recommended. The maintenance of the 
present chairs of Pathology and Anatomy in the Medical Faculty, it is urged, 
should be paid out of the general income of the University, and, furthermore, 
the Medical Faculty should be relieved of the fees for instruction in Arts 
subjects, such as Chemistry, Biology, Physiology and Physics, seeing that 
the students of the School of Science and of the federated universities are 
not charged fees for these subjects. To what length the University should go 
in granting these measures of relief to the Medical Faculty demands early 
attention by the governing body. The payment of the salary of one Profes- 
sor of Pathology and one Professor of Anatomy by the University, and the 
creation of chairs in Hygiene and Pharmacology, ought to be sanctioned, 
and an extension of this policy from time to time, as the University finances 
permit, seems to us right and proper. 

When the relation of the Faculty to the University becomes the same 
as that of other Faculties there ought to be a complete re-casting of present 
conditions. The system of financial administration should be altered, and 
the relations of Faculty and University placed on a footing satisfactory to 
both, after friendly conference and consideration. Under the arrangements 
we propose the President of the University would be ex-ojjicio a member of 
the Faculty, so that in future his recommendations as to appointments will 
be made after close consultation with those best qualified to advise him. 

Medical Training foe. Women. 

The medical education of women is a subject which was brought before 
the Commission by the Faculty and Alumnae of the Ontario Medical College 
for Women. Of the many phases of co-education this is the most serious. 
The training of men and women together in the medical course entails 
not only practical difficulties, but, also, in some measure, requires a 
condition of public opinion favorable to the idea. In Canada the absence 
of such approval years ago led to the creation of separate medical schools. 
The Ontario Medical College for Women has been in existence for twenty- 
three years. Its maintenance has been due to the personal exertions of the 
members of its Faculty, who have sympathized with the desire of women to 
obtain medical training. The limited number of students who have sought 
the privilege makes the carrying on of the school a matter of sacrifice and 
uncertainty. During five years the total average yearly attendance has been 

3 u.c. 



xxxiv ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



thirty students, the fees from whom have just sufficed to pay the running 
expenses, without providing adequate compensation for the teachers. In a 
memorial to the Commission it was represented : First, that when the number 
of students fell below that necessary to maintain the College, women would 
demand admission to the Faculty of Medicine of the University on equal 
terms with men ; secondly, that the refusal to admit women students was ex- 
ceptional and anomalous; thirdly, that a Faculty of Medicine for Women 
should be recommended by the Commission. We do not feel warranted in 
recommending the formation of such a faculty. The memorial also declared 
that "as far as the Ontario Medical College for Women is concerned, they 
merely desire that women should have an opportunity of pursuing their medi- 
cal studies unmolested, on fair and equal terms with the men." This being 
the aim of the advocates of medical training for women, it seemed to us 
reasonable that some means should be devised of meeting the request. The 
subject has since been dealt with by a committee of the Senate which, after 
conference with the Faculty of Medicine, has communicated to us the results 
of its deliberations. In future women will be admitted to registration in 
the Faculty of Medicine. This appears to be the simplest solution. The 
precise form in which the Faculty has communicated its views to the Senate 
is as follows : 

**That in view of certain prospective changes which are suggested 
in connection with the method of providing instruction in Medicine for 
Women in Toronto the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Toronto 
is now prepared to register female students in Medicine, and agrees that 
whatever arrangements are deemed necessary should be made for their 
instruction." 

The Faculty of Law. 

Although the establishment of a complete Faculty of Law has long been 
under consideration its organization is still in an inchoate condition. The 
charter of King's College did not provide in express terms for a Faculty of 
Law, but authority was given to set up other Faculties besides that of Arts 
and, since 1849, the University Acts have contained provisions for the estab- 
lishment of such a Faculty. The Act of 1887 expressly declares the inten- 
tion of the Legislature in this respect, and the subsequent founding of chairs 
in Political Economy, Constitutional Law and Constitutional History is the 
first stage in the creation of a Faculty in which the study of law as a science 
can be carried on. 

Legal education and admission to practice law have been from an early 
period under the control of the Law Society of Upper Canada. Until the 
year 1889 no systematic course of teaching was in operation, but in that year 
the present Law School was established by the Law Society. Attendance 
upon a course of instruction in the School is a necessary condition of call to 
the Bar and admission to practice as a solicitor. Since 1873 the Law Society 
has been entitled to representation on the Senate of the University, and pro- 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. xxxv 



vision is made by the Senate for accepting pro tanto the examinations of the 
Law Society for any of its students who are proceeding to the degree of Bache- 
lor of Law in the University, though no reciprocal action has been taken by 
Ihe Law Society. 

In our opinion it is desirable that a Faculty of Law should be established 
in the University, and that, if possible, arrangements should be made with 
the Law Society by which the duplication of the work which is common to 
both in the courses of instruction may be avoided. Such an arrangement 
would, we believe, result in a considerable saving of expense both to the 
University and to the Law Society, and, in our opinion, could not fail to 
raise the standard of legal education in the Province. We do not overlook 
the fact that the purpose of the Law School is, primarily, to train the stu- 
dent for the practical work of the profession, while instruction in the Uni- 
versity has a wider aim, and although this is undoubtedly the case, the 
courses of study in both are, to a considerable extent, common. Impressed 
with this view, we have endeavored to ascertain whether it is shared by the 
Law Society, but have been unable to obtain any expression of opinion from 
the Benchers, their determination, apparently, being to delay consideration 
of the question until it is seen what legislation, if any, follows the making 
of our report. We are of opinion that the subject is one that should engage 
the attention of the governing body of the University at an early day. 

Instruction in Fores thy. 

The distinctively State character of the University entails upon it obliga- 
tions in respect of all the great provincial interests in which higher education 
is an important factor. This is eminently true of instruction in forestry. 
The value to the country of scientific work in forestry has been already recog- 
nized upon this continent, but in Canada little has been done to apply system- 
atically the lessons taught equally by sound economic theory and practical 
experience. It is surprising that Ontario, with its rich areas of timber, lias 
hitherto failed to set up a school of forestry in its own University for the 
double purpose of providing technical training for young men in an import- 
ant branch of science, and of benefiting in the conservation of its forest 
wealth by their knowledge and skill. It would be difficult to mention a case 
in which the State's duty and interest go more completely hand in hand. In 
the United States forestry is now a department of the Federal Government's 
service and is presided over by the Hon. Gifford Pinchot, with whom the 
Commission has held a conference. Dr. Pinchot has practically created the For- 
estry course in Tale University, and from that fact and from the knowledge 
required by his official position in Washington, he is a competent authority 
upon the whole question. The Commission also consulted, during its visit to 
Ithaca, Prof. Fernow, who was the founder of the School of Forestry main- 
tained for a time by Cornell University, and who is justly esteemed for his 
knowledge of forestry. 

There is no doubt that a great work in forestry can be done in this Pro- 
vince by the University, provided it receivps the co-operation and encourage- 



A^xvi ROYAL COMMISSION Rt No. 42 



ment of the Govermneiit. The Agricultural College has already provided for 
instruction in agricultural forestry, which meets the needs of farmers with 
wood lots to care for and develop. The larger problem is that which touches 
the immense Crown domain urgently calling for the application there 
of the newest discoveries in forestry and for the training of skilled men to 
conduct experiments on a large scale in order to test methods of reforesta- 
tion and the conservation of valuable timber. It would, in our judgment, be a 
lamentable error if the direct value of a Forestry Department in the Uni- 
versity to the Province in its administration of timber areas were not ascer- 
tained. 

According to the best sources of information to which we have had 
access, a single chair of Forestry in the Unive'rsitj* would eft'ect little. One 
professor could give theoretical instruction, but he could not produce 
foresters capable of practicing their profession. For this 'field work is 
essential. This requires a staff, not of necessity a large one, but adequate 
to the scope of the work to be done. The Cornell School of Forestry, dis- 
continued owing to a dispute with the State of New York, was a complete Uni- 
versity faculty. The Tale School is also a faculty with three full professor- 
ships, those of Botany, Civil Engineering and Lumbering, with many 
instructors who lecture on different kinds of work in the woods. The lab- 
oratory equipment cost about |20,000. At Tale the students must be grad- 
uates in Arts. We realize that a beginning may be made without incurr- 
ing at first all the expenditures of a complete faculty. The University 
courses in Botany, Chemistry and Engineering could be utilized for the 
instruction required in these branches and this could be supplemented by 
? forestry staff of three possessing the special knowledge demanded to carry 
on both inside and field work. The possession by the Crown of timber 
lands where practical instruction and experiments could be carried on 
simplifies the situation, and we recommend that the closest co-opera- 
tion compatible with the end sought should exist between the University 
authorities and the Department of Lands. It should likewise be kept ni 
view that the private owners of timber lands have a direct interest in the 
supply of trained men produced by such a school, and in the results of the 
experiments made. In the United States the National Luml>ermen's Associ- 
ation is subscribing a fund of |150,000 to endow courses of instruction at 
Tale. Similar action in Canada should be encouraged. "We are strongly if 
the view that the people of Ontario will endorse the action of the Govern- 
ment in creating a School of Forestry, by means of which the scientific 
treatment of our forests can be effectively carried out. 

Household Sciexce. 

A handsome benefaction to the University in the shape of a Household 
Science building has been offered through the generous munificence of Mrs. 
Mas'-ey-Treble of Toronto. "We gladly recognize and commend Hhe spirit 
which ha^ prompted tlio gift, and trust that the University may feel itself 
able to provide for iho maintenance of the department. In respect to a 



t 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. xxxvii 



site on University land for this building, we believe it should be convenient 
of access to the women students of the colleges, and in a position to be worthy 
of the structure. A site which has been informally suggested is that east of 
Wycliffe College on the south side of Hoskin avenue. 

On this point we wish to commend to the University authorities the idea 
of devoting the beautiful ravine which extends north and south from the 
Biological building to the boundary of McMaster University, to the purposes 
of a botanical garden. It seems scarcely fitting that any portion of this fine 
piece of land should be filled in and used for buildings. Its utilization for 
the promotion of botanical study would at once be of scientific benefit and 
provide a scene of great beauty along the eastern boundary of the Univer- 
sity property. 

Art Schools. 

Thus far in its history the University of Toronto has had little, if any 
influence in the development of art either in its higher aspects, such as 
sculpture, painting and mural decoration, or in its relation to our indus- 
tries. It must be quite clear, we think, that a knowledge of the principles 
of art is necessary in very many directions, especially where beauty of 
design is desirable or is demanded by the purchaser. We cannot with safety 
continue to be dependent on Germany, France, Great Britain and other 
countries for workers who possess the skill to develop these qualities in our 
manufactures. We must surely seek in the near future to have our o\<n 
people possess this skill, in order that we may take advantage of artistic 
ability where it exists, in practically the same manner as we endeavour 
to take advantage of the skill of our own people in engineering, physics, or 
any other branch of human activity. 

Experience has shown that a school of art even if established primarily 
for the teaching of design and the artistic use of various materials, must, in 
teaching the principles of art, make it possible for those who have sufficient 
ability, and who also have the desire to become painters and sculptors, to 
secure the necessary teaching. We therefore hope that the time is not far 
distant when the University of Toronto will either have its own art school, 
or have affiliated with it a school conducted on the most advanced principles, 
and able to inspire and direct other schools of art and industrial design 
throughout the Province. 

Music. 

The University has in affiliation, two Conservatories of Music in Toronto, 
and one in Hamilton. It also has representatives in local centres where 
students not attending the Conservatories referred to, may present themselves 
for examination in the various grades. These local examinations enable 
students to acquire a limited training in music, and the nature of the work 
done by the University is satisfactory to that extent. In the University 
year 1904-5 four hundred and seventy-one students were examined, and three 
hundred and ninety passed the examination. 



xxxviii ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Students attending the Conservatories and desiring to proceed to a degree 
in music may do so by conforming to tlie curriculum of the University and 
passing its examination, but the results of this attempt to secure higher 
training in music have been very unsatisfactory. There are in the twC Con- 
servatories in Toronto over 2,000 and in Hamilton about 425 ^students [in 
attendance in the present year, and yet the whole number of degrees con- 
ferred in music from 1900 to 1905, both inclusive, is seven. From 
this it is clearly apparent that the Conservatories make little or no 
effort to train students for the University degrees, while they do not 
hesitate to advertise extensively the fact that they are in affiliation with 
the University. Under the existing system it is therefore doubtful if the 
University can hope sufficiently to control the teaching of music, or exer- 
cise the influence which is necessary if the highest results in musical cul- 
ture are to be obtained. We think the University should look forward, to a 
time when it will have connected with it a school of music over the manage- 
ment and teaching of which it has complete control, and through the 
medium of which it may be able greatly to advance the future of music in 
Canada. 

Research in the University. 

Research has been a feature in the work of various members of the Staff 
of the University during the last half century, but only in 1897 were insti- 
tuted the present courses leading to a degree of Doctor of Philosophy and 
involving research as an essential qualification for the attainment of that 
degree. Since that date there has been a steady but moderate increase in 
the number of research students, but it is expected that when all the Facul- 
ties and departments are organized for such work there will be a rapid 
increase in the number of students who will devote themselves to investiga- 
tion for a period sufficiently long to train them fully for a career of research. 

On the side of the Physical and Natural Sciences the University is 
equipped for this work and in these departments it is performing this duty 
with reasonable efficiency. In Experimental Psychology the results are 
very gratifying and it is satisfactory to know that the research work done 
in that department is specially recognized abroad. In the departments of 
Orientals, Philosophy, Political Science, Historj^ and Mathematics research 
courses are available, but in Classics and Modern Languages it has been 
found impossible to offer such courses owing to the absence from the Library 
o^' the required literature. 

In Medicine and Applied Science a different situation exists. Owing 
to the want, hitherto experienced of a properly organized hospital, research 
on the scientific side of Medicine could not be steadily followed, although 
in some subjects like pathology and physiology very important work has 
been done. Much more could have been done had the facilities on all sides 
been extended. That among the young graduates the workers were and 
are available may be seen from a consideration of the list of those who have 



ltH)6 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. xxxix 



gone to other Universities to follow the career denied at home. It is no 
small satisfaction to the friends of the University that it should have trained 
the successor of Dr. Osier in the Chair of Medicine in Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, and the successor of Dr. Barker in the Chair of Anatomy in the 
University of Chicago and that it should have developed the desire for 
research among not a few of its graduates who worthily represent it in the 
great Universities of the United States. 

In Applied Science, though members of the staff have engaged in 
research work, no attempt has been made to develop this as an educative 
force. The obstacle has been primarily the want of equipment and the 
occupation of the whole time of the majority of the staff by class and labora- 
tory teaching. lu Applied Science the field of possible achievement is very 
large and the results may prove of such value in the industrial life 
of our country that the State will be justified in the necessary expenditure 
to put the Faculty on such a footing as would enable it to undertake all 
lines of research work. In appointments to positions on the teaching staff 
regard should be had to capacity for research work and the highest interests 
of the University demand this qualification. 

The Needs op the Library. 

The present condition of the University Library is a subject to which we 
desire to direct special attention. The accommodation for books is inade- 
quate and in the near future efforts must be made to enlarge it. The num- 
bers of volumes is now upwards of 84,000, and at the present rate of growth 
the space for books will be exhausted in three years. By keeping 14,000 
volumes in other buildings and in other rooms of the Library, the space in 
the stack-room is made sufficient for the present. There is no proper accom- 
modation for maps and charts. Additional office room is much required. 
In the proper sense there is no reading room for members of the teaching 
staff. The reading room accommodation for students, which is barely suffi- 
cient for the Arts students alone, will prove inadequate for the Medical 
students who are now beginning to use the library in greater numbers from 
year to year. The lack of ventilation, and the noise attendant upon the pres- 
ence of so many persons in one large room, render the reading-room an 
unsuitable place for the purpose of study. To meet this want some of the 
rooms intended for seminars are employed for study-rooms, but this is a 
tentative plan and additional accommodation without encroaching upon the 
space required for other purposes should be provided. The enlargement of 
the Library is, therefore, one of the necessities of the immediate future, and 
ought to be undertaken with appreciation of the importance to the Univer- 
sity of the work carried on there. The Library is especially an object for 
private benefactions, and we trust it will appeal strongly to those who wish 
to add something to the educational facilities of the University. 



xl ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Museum. 

One of th.e necessary features of a great modern University is a properly 
equipped Museum. From a narrow point of view such a Museum might be 
effective if it contained only objects necessary for actual teaching purposes, 
but the greater the jp.umber and the wider the nature of the objects contained 
in a Museum the more useful will it be found for such teaching purposes. 
Hence in many parts of the world the Museum connected with a University 
has become the means of exploiting the natural history and the resources of 
the particular country, and has also become the store-house for objects of 
every character connected with the history of man and interesting to the 
student in many branches of science. 

The University of Toronto has a Museum in connection with its Bio- 
logical work which, beginning as a mere teaching Museum, is gradually 
expanding to one devoting itself to natural history. It has been proposed 
that a wing be added to the new building of the School of Practical Science 
to be used as a Museum for mineralogical, geological and palaeontological 
specimens. The University possesses ethnological, anthropological and other 
collections which cannot be properly displayed, and as a recent development, 
it has become, and is about to become to a much greater extent, the posses- 
sor of large collections in connection with the archaeology of Egyptian and 
other ancient civilizations on the Mediterranean, and of ethnological and 
anthropological collections from many parts of the world. 

Victoria also has most valuable collections of archaeological and other 
objects which will doubtless be placed in such a museum. Indeed, the 
theological Colleges through their connection with missionaries may be 
large contributors in the future. 

These particular collections are not only clearly necessary in the study 
of the history of man, but unless every effort is made now to secure the 
material for enlarging and making reasonably perfect such collections we 
shall undoubtedly find in a few years that the time is past when it is pos- 
sible conveniently to do so. As to the necessity of a Museum in which 
may be exhibited the natural history — using the words in their broadest 
aspect — of Ontario, we do not feel that argument on our part is necessary, 
further than to say that every year's delay is a misfortune, not only to the 
education of the students of the University of Toronto, but to the education 
and material welfare of the people of Ontario generally. 

It might be well to draw attention to the fact that a public ^Museum 
is valuable in proportion to the accuracy of its classification and the informa- 
tion conveyed to the public by labels and otherwise, and unless the expert 
ability of professors of the University is used for such classification, the 
•Province will eventually find it necessary to create a separate Museum staff 
at a very great and, in our opinion, quite unnecessary expense. 

We therefore recommend ihat a site be selected in the University 
grounds adjacent to a public thoroughfare and sufficient in area to permit 
of extending the buildings in the distant future, that a Museum on a rea- 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. xli 



sonable scale be planned, and in such a manner as to be built in units, and 
that a sufficient number of units to accommodate conveniently the Museum 
material now owned by the University of Toronto be built as early as pos- 
sible. 

Meteorological Observatory. 

About the year 1840, the University set apart for the use and occupa- . 
tion of the Crown two and one-half acres of the University land as a site for 
a magnetic and meteorological Observatory for scientific purposes. 

By the instrument setting apart the land it was provided that if at any 
time the Crown should cease to use or occupy it for the purposes mentioned, 
the land should revert to the University. 

The land has been in the occupation of the Crown ever since although 
several years ago the magnetic work of the observatory was transferred to 
Agincourt, and the observatory has since been used for meteorological pur- 
poses only. 

In recent years the Trustees of the University finding that the land was 
needed for building upon and believing that the occupation of it for observa- 
tory purposes also seriously interfered with the means of access to the 
main University building from College street, entered into negotiations 
with the Government of Canada for the purpose of obtaining its assent to 
the removal of the observatory to another site on the University land. 

These negotiations resulted in an agreement being reached by which 
the Crown upon certain conditions undertook to give up possession of the 
present site and to accept in lieu of it another site on the University land. 

One of these conditions was that the University should provide the new 
site free of cost to the Government. That has been done and the Crown 
has taken and is now in possession of the new site. All the other conditions 
have also been complied with by the University, and the time for posses- 
sion of the present site being given up will arrive in a few weeks. 

Rumours have from time to time been current that it is the intention 
of the Government of Canada to transfer the principal work that is now 
being done at the observatory here to Ottawa. 

Against this rumoured transfer remonstrances have been made by the 
municipal authorities of Toronto, by the Board of Trade and by those inter- 
ested in shipping and lake navigation as well as by the Trustees of the Uni- 
versity. 

Believing as we do that such a transfer as is rumoured to be in contem- 
plation would not be in the public interest, we would strongly urge that 
prompt communication be had with the Dominion Government with a view 
to having an appropriation for the erection of a new observatory on the 
site that has been provided by the University made during the present ses- 
sion of the Parliament of Canada and the entire work now being carried on 
at the observatory being done in the new building. 



xlii ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



The Ageicultueal College. 

We liave considered the relation of the University to the Provincial 
Agricultural College. This department of the State educational system is, 
in our opinion, of great value. Thirty years ago but little was being done 
in the way of providing higher educational facilities for those intending to 
take up agriculture as their life work. Stimulated by the successful working 
out of agricultural problems in Europe, notably in Germany, public men 
in Canada and the United States came to the conclusion that the success of 
American agriculture demanded colleges for the special training of the future 
farmers, and laboratories and stations for the investigation of agricultural 
methods. In Ontario a Professorship in Agriculture had already been 
established in the University of Toronto, and a Veterinary School was being 
conducted by the Agriculture and Arts Associq,tion. The first Commissioner 
of Agriculture for Ontario, Hon. John Carling, announced in 1869 his inten- 
tion of inquiring into the needs of this Province as to an Agricultural Col- 
lege and an Experimental Farm. He appointed Rev. "W. E. Clarke, Editor 
of "The Ontario Farmer," to inspect such departments and institutions in 
the United States as were making a specialty of agricultural research and 
education, and to prepare a report. This report, which appeared in 1870, 
was based on the work carried on at the Massachusetts Agricultural College 
and the Michigan Agricultural College, and recommended that a college 
similar to the latter be established in Ontario. The college was established 
ultimately in the County of Wellington, and the work of instruction begun 
in 1874. 

The Ontario Agricultural College has from the first been maintained as 
a purely agricultural college, and, after passing through a long period of 
indifference and being subjected to keen criticism, has now established itself 
as one of the most successful agricultural colleges in America. A 
comparison of the number of students during two periods will show conclus- 
ively what a change has been effected in the institution. 

No. of No. of 

Students. Students. 

1885 175 1900 342 

1886 149 1901 359 

1887 110 1902 768 

1888 131 1903 728 

1889 134 1904 833 

1890 146 1905 1,004 

The period of depression in the fortunes of the college apparently reached 
its maximum in 1887. The revival appears io have conix-^ from within the 
College itself. The President and staff at that time inaugurated in Ontario 
a system of Farmers' Institutes. They felt that if the farmers would not 
come to the College or send their sons to the College, they must go out to the 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. xliii 



farmers. Tlirough these Institutes the farmers become acquainted with the 
teachers of the College and their work, and recognizing apparently *or the 
first time that it was really labouring in the true interest of the fanners, 
gave their response in increasing attendance. Once the indifference or 
antipathy of the farmers was overcome the institution began to grow along 
many lines and gradually to assume the large proportions which it has now 
reached. 

The Legislature readily met the increasing demands for the equipment 
of laboratories in various lines of scientific research, and for additional 
instruction. From the first the College has provided a two years' course 
and has granted diplomas to students successfully completing this course. 
In 1887 a third year course was added and affiliation with the University 
of Toronto took place. A special convocation was held on October 1st, 
1888, and the degree of Bachelor of the Science of Agriculture was con- 
ferred upon five students. One member of this class is now President 
of the College, one is Professor of Field Husbandry and Director of 
Experiments, and a third is Director of the Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion of Texas. The University graduation class of 1905 numbered 29. During 
the eighteen years, 1888 to 1905, the degree of B.S.A. has been conferred by 
the University of Toronto upon 192 young men who have completed first their 
two years' course for a diploma and then the subsequent course. The course 
was further extended in 1901 by adding a fourth year, so that now the degree 
is based upon the passing of a University matriculation examination followed 
by a four j^ears' course of instruction. The following is a statement of the 
number of degrees conferred by the University in agriculture : 

1888 5 1897 7 

1889 5 1898 11 

1890 5 1899 9 

1891 10 1900 18 

1892 7 1901 1 

1893 12 1902 ".. 8 

1894 7 1903 16 

1895 9 1904 , 21 

1896 11 1905 29 



Total 192 

Several members of the Commission paid a visit to the College and made 
inquiry into all the workings of the institution. The College is well equipped 
and satisfactorily conducted. Zeal and enthusiasm are shown by the profes- 
sors, and there is a feeling of harmony and loyalty to the institution in 
all departments. We commend to the Legislature the great importance o£ 
continuing tho liberal treatment of this institution. It has done much for this 
Province ; it is now doing a great work, but the demands are increasing and 
we feel quite sure that the importance of enlarging its usefulness will not );e 
neglected. Its value to the Province of Ontario can hardlv be overestimated. 



xliv ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



We liave considered the relation of the College to the University, 
and hnd it to have been mutually satisfactory and beneficial. There 
does not appear to be need of change in this respect. The President of the 
College is a member of the Senate of the Universit}-. The Senate approves i f 
the course of study, appoints the examiners, and confers the degrees. We do 
not believe the University should interfere with or be responsible for the 
management and direction of the College, but owing to the fact that the agri- 
cultural community is not likely to have representation through any of the 
other members appointed to the Senate, we think there might be an advantage 
in having, in addition to the President, two members elected by the graduates 
m agriculture who would represent the agricultural side of UFniversity edu- 
cation. We would also suggest that: 

1. An advisory board should be appointed to assist the Minister of Agri- 

culture in the direction of the College work, to be composed of the 
following persons : The Deputy Minister of Agriculture (Chairman)' 
the President of the College, three graduates or associates of the 
College who shall be resident in Ontario and not members of the 
staff, and, if thought desirable, two representative farmers not 
graduates of the College. This board should be purely advisory 
and should not in any way relieve the Minister of his direct control 
and responsibility. This board should take the place of the advis- 
ory board provided for by statute in 1887 when the College was not 
under the charge of a practical farmer. 

2. In the interests both of the College and the University an annual 

interchange of lectures might be made. 

3. If the advisory board be appointed we recommend that, in addition 

to the President of the College, one of the members be selected by 
the Minister to sit in the Senate of the University. 

A State Veterinary College. 

We have also considered another important department in which the Uni- 
versity can increase its usefulness to the agricultural population of the Pro- 
vince. 

The following paragraph, taken from the report of the Board of Agri- 
culture of Upper Canada to the Minister of Agriculture for the year 1864, 
contains the record of the beginning of the special teaching of veterinary 
science in Ontario. The work was originated by the board which was the 
predecessor of the present Department of Agriculture, and was carried on in 
close relationship to the University. The "efficient veterinary surgeon" 
refered to was Dr. Andrew Smith, the present Principal of the Ontario Vet- 
erinary College, who has occupied the position for over forty years. 

"In the winter of 1861-2, a course of veterinary and agricultural lectures 
was instituted under the auspices of the board, with the advantage of the 
valuable and gratuitous aid of several of the distinguished professors of Uni- 
versity College, Toronto. The first winter the arrangements were incomplete 
and the attendance was small. The progress made by several of the students 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. xlv 



was, nevertlieless, very cousiderable iu view of the limited time and means 
employed. In the winter of 1862-3 the arrangements were more extended 
and the accommodation more adequate. The course consisted of lectures on 
the Anatomy and Diseases of Domestic Animals, the Science and Practice of 
Agriculture, Agricultural Chemistry, Entomology, Botany, Geology, etc. 
This course extended over six weeks and was attended by about thirty young 
men from different parts of the Province, most of them either actually 
engaged in agricultural pursuits or shortly about to do so. It is not too much 
to say that the greater number of these young men, at the close of the ses- 
sion, gave evidence of having made a highly creditable degree of progress in 
attaining a knowledge of the studies brought before them, several of them 
indeed to an extent deserving of special notice; and the result of the experi- 
ment was so far in every respect satisfactory and encouraging. Particular 
attention was paid to the veterinary department of the course. The board 
is strongly impressed wath the importance to the agricultural interests of the 
Province, of having persons resident in the different districts possessed of 
some practical knowledge of the true nature and proper treatment of the dis- 
eases of the more valuable domestic animals, in which description of property 
much of the wealth of the farmer consists. Under this view the board made 
arrangements with a very efficient veterinary surgeon, a licentiate of the 
Edinburgh Veterinary College, to come out from Scotland for the purpose of 
instituting the series of lectures above referred to. The primary object sought 
in originating these lectures was to create an interest in the subjects and +n 
give the young men attending them so much knowledge of the proper method 
of study that they would be enabled to follow up their studies to advantage at 
home. The design was also, further, ultimately to establish, if found prac- 
ticable, a regular veterinary school, at which a thorough knowledge of the 
profession can be obtained." 

The Board of Agriculture was succeeded by the Agriculture and Arts 
Association, and in 1871 the Council of the Association was by statute given 
power as follows : 

"The Council may establish a Veterinary College for the instruction of 
pupils, by competent and approved teachers, in the science and prac- 
tice of the veterinary art, and may pass by-laws and adopt measures 
for the examination of such pupils in anatomy, physiology, materia 
medica, therapeutics, chemistry, and as to the breeding of domesti- 
cated animals ; and upon proof to the satisfaction of the Council that 
such pupils possess the requisite qualifications, maj- grant diplomas 
certifying that they are competent to practice as veterinary sur- 
, geons." 
The diplomas of the College were controlled and issued by the Agricul- 
ture and Arts Association, until the first day of .January. 1896, when the 
Association by statute ceased to exist. On the 16th of April. 1895, there was 
passed an Act respecting veterinary surgeons in which the Veterinary Colleo-e 
established by the Agriculture and Arts Association was continued, and the 
President of the Association was authorized to sign the diplomas until the 



xlvi ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



first day of April, 1896. This was further extended to the first day of 2. jtH, 
1897. On the 19th .December, 1896, a charter was issued incorporating tho 
Ontario Veterinary College, Limited, and in the following year, 1897, afl&li- 
ation took place with the University of Toronto. The Board of Agriculture and 
the Agriculture and Arts Association were organizations which to a certain 
extent represented the Department of Agriculture. From 1862 to 1896, there- 
fore, the issuing of diplomas in veterinary science was under direct Govern- 
ment control, and for the past ten years the work has been in the hands of a 
private corporation having special statutory recognition. The course of 
instruction covers two years and those holding the diploma of the College are 
by statute permitted to style themselves veterinary surgeons. 

It will be seen that the College has not as yet provided courses that the 
University would recognize by granting a degree. The only statutory enact- 
ment at present in regard to veterinarians is that only those holding diplomas 
or proper certificates from the former Agricultural and Arts Association, the 
present Ontario Veterinary College, or "some duly authorized veterinary col- 
lege" are permitted to append to their names the term veterinary surgeon. 
There is no restriction as to performing veterinary work, provided the title 
is carefully avoided. 

FoT many years the Ontario Veterinary College was the most popular 
institution of its kind in America. It was a pioneer in the work. Of recent 
years the large universities in the United States have been developing special 
courses in veterinary science, providing courses of three years and in some 
cases of four years' duration. We believe that the Province of Ontario 
should provide courses in veterinary science as extensive and as thorough 
as any that may be provided in the United States. As it is, Ontario students 
desiring to equip themselves beyond the two years' course are compelled to 
take further work in one of the United States colleges after completing their 
course here. 

The owners of the Ontario Veterinary College have not seen fit, as yet, 
to take advantage of their affiliation with the University of Toronto to pro- 
vide a course leading to a degree. The live stock interests of Ontario 
are assuming immense value, and the success of our agriculture depends in 
no small degree upon the health of our horses, cattle, sheep and swine. Vet- 
erinary science in Ontario to-day stands where the Agricultural College did 
in 1887. We believe the time has come when an expansion should take 
place, and when a three years' course of instruction should be available. 
Further, we believe that this work should, like the Agricultural College, 
be under the direction of the Government of the Province. 

In view of the fact that there is invested no less than !^163,000,000, in 
live stock on the farms of Ontario, in addition to the valuable horses owned 
in our cities and towns, we feel warranted in recommending that the Gov- 
ernment of the Province should offer to do for veterinary science what has 
been done for general agricultural science. 

After careful consideration of the question, we beg to make the follow- 
ing recommendations : 



1906 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



xlvii 



1. That the University of Toronto establish a degree in veterinary 

science, covering a course as thorough and advanced as those pro- 
vided in the leading universities of the United States. 

2. That the Government of the Province of Ontario establish a veterin- 

ary college that will provide courses for the conferring of diplomas, 
and also for the degree in veterinary science that the University 
of Toronto will confer. 

3. That the Provincial Government, in order to avoid having a riv.il 

institution, make arrangements to take over from the owners the 
Ontario Veterinary College, if satisfactory terms can be arranged. 

4. That the Provincial Government conduct the Veterinary College as 

a Provincial educational institution along lines similar to those fol- 
lowed in connection with the Ontario Agricultural College. 

5. That the College be placed under the Minister of Agriculture, and that 

the Minister have an advisory board to assist him in the administra- 
tion of same. We would recommend that this advisory board be 
composed of the following persons : The Deputy Minister of Agri- 
culture; the Principal of the Veterinary College; the Professor of 
Animal Husbandry of the Agricultural College ; two representatives 
of the live stock interests of the Province ; and two practising veter- 
inary surgeons. 

6. That the course be expanded so as to bring it up, at least, to the re- 

quirements of similar veterinary colleges now in existence in the 
United States, and that diplomas be conferred only after a three 
years' course. 

7. That it be affiliated with the University of Toronto, and, at an early 

date, be provided with a building in close proximity to the Univer- 
sity of Toronto, so as to enable the students to take advantage of 
University lectures in such subjects as may be found practicable iu 
connection with the veterinary course. 



The College System. 

The University of Toronto is made up of many diverse elements. There 
are various faculties : Arts, Medicine, Law and Applied Science ; and in the 
Faculty of Arts are various colleges : University College, Victoria College, 
Trinity College ; and three purely theological colleges : Knox, Wycliffe land 
St. Michael's. The organization of the University is not exactly parallel to 
that of either an American or a British University. Through federation we 
have developed a form of organization that is unique. The State pro- 
vides a complete system of education in Arts in the University of Toronto and 
University College. The siibjects taught in University College are taught 
also in the denominational Colleges of Victoria and Trinity. All the stu- 
dents who take lectures in the University subjects must be enrolled in one of 
these three Colleges. "We believe that the University has thus, by apparent 
chance, hit upon a system which, if properly and loyally worked, provides a 



xiviii ROYAL COALMISSIOX RE No. i'l 

combinaLion of strong personai iufluence on students witii the broad outlook 
and widened sympatliies that come from membership in a great University. 
The Colleges will maintain the importance of liberal culture m the face of 
commercial and industrial development, and the growth of scientific activity. 
The Colleges will be able to bring the strongest influences to bear upon their 
own comparatively limited number of students, and to foster a common life 
among them free at once from the narrowness of the small university, and 
the lack of social union of a huge undivided university. In the colleges of the 
United States efforts are now being made to break up the great aggregation 
of undergraduates in Arts into smaller groups which may be more easily 
handled for disciplinary purposes, and for more efficient direction of work. 
The divisions proposed seem more or less artificial; at best they are lateral, 
such as class organizations. In our approximation to a college system we 
have at hand a more excellent method of subdivision by which men of all 
years and all courses are bound together by a tie of membership in a common 
college, and the teachers of the various colleges are enabled to come into 
closer personal touch with the men under their charge. The combination 
of a State college and denominational colleges provides variety of ideal and 
spirit, and avoids the dead level of uniformity that might ensue in one large 
undivided body, and furnishes to each member the needful stimulus of 
healthy rivalry. Out of a situation that to many seemed fraught only with 
danger, we may hope to see emerge a type of institution that shall combine 
college spirit and university spirit, in which each shall work for all and all 
for each. Confidence, not suspicion, must be the basis of such a composite 
institution. The State supplies to its youth a complete system of higher 
education; the denominational colleges avail themselves of the State's pro- 
vision for scientific training, and add to it their own contribution of the 
humanities, with such a religious or denominational atmosphere as seems 
most desirable to themselves. 

Interchange of Lectures. 

We have recorded the fact that there exists at the University a system of 
interchange of lectures, under which professors of one College lecture in 
another, or students of one attend lectures in the other, credit being given for 
such attendance in the respective College requirements for the courses con- 
cerned. At the present time there is no provision in law under which such 
interchange can be properly arranged. We have thought it well, therefore, 
<o include in the draft University Bill which accompanies this report a 
clause under which such interchange may become legal. That the Col- 
leges should have the opportunity to make such arrangements in particular 
cases seems wise, though the power should be very carefully exercised and 
should be subject to revision by the Board, inasmuch as interchange is 
sometimes open to criticism as affording an opportunity for the introduc- 
tion of a system tliat might tend to reduce competition and bring lectures 
to a dead level. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. xlix 



College Residences. 

To make a college system really effective, residences for the students are 
highly desirable. I^i daj^s gone by University College had its own residence, 
to-day Trinity has a residence for its men and another for its women stu- 
dents, and University College and Victoria have provided residences for their 
undergraduate women. We hope soon to see ample residential accommoda- 
tion provided for the members of University College, and for undergraduates 
of the University in all faculties. Such residences, whether College or Uni- 
versity, if under academic control, combined with a reasonable amount of self- 
government on the part of the men, are much more than boarding houses; 
they are places wherein students may be profoundly influenced by contact 
with one another, and with their instructors. The value of the residential 
system has been abundantly demonstrated both in the Old World and the 
New. We wish to express our sincere appreciation of the efforts of those 
friends of the University of Toronto who recently formed a separate trust for 
the erection of residences for University students in the University grounds, 
and have secured large sums of money for that purpose. They are ready, 
we understand, to hand over their trust in due time to such a new governing 
board as that we have suggested. This course is desirable as we believe that 
all academic and disciplinary authority on the University grounds, and over 
all University students, should be vested in the University. 

Pkofessors and Students. 

Recognizing the advisability of the relations between the staff and the 
students being as close and friendly as possible, and at the same time keeping 
in view the fact that the large number of students in attendance at the Uni- 
versity makes it difficult to secure such relations, we are of the opinion that it 
would be well to adopt a plan similar to that followed in other universities, 
under which members of the teaching staff', having volunteered to act as 
advisers, have assigned to them a definite number of students. Each under- 
graduate is informed of his adviser and feels that there is someone in 
authority who takes an interest in his welfare. The advisers frequently give 
counsel on matters particularly relating to the student's work as well as to 
his general development, and exercise a sympathetic interest in the progress 
of those students who have been assigned to them. Such a system would do 
much to prevent students who are not fitted for university work from con- 
tinuing therein and thus wasting their time. Under proper advice they 
could be diverted into a more suitable channel of activity, with benefit to the 
individual, the University and the State. 

Physical Welfare of Students. 

Referring to the physical development of students, the care of their bodies 
and their athletic activities, we are of the opinion that there should be 
appointed at an early date a Physical Director, who should be a graduate in 

4 u. c. 



ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. it 



Medicine and whose duty it would be to examine all students who desire lo 
avail themselves of such examination and to prescribe proper exercise for 
each. Such a system of examination and direction properly carried out 
would result in improved physical strength and constitutional vigour and 
would largely assist in increasing mental vitality. Under such guidance 
over-indulgence in athletics could be checked and the error of sacrificing 
bodily health and strength in the pursuit of knowledge might thus also be 
avoided, while the proper development of all powders, physical and mental^ 
should result in gain both to the individual and to the State. In this con- 
nection- it is in place to remark that the University authorities should exer- 
cise such supervision over athletics as might tend to prevent their undue 
interference with studies and to remind the students that they are to be 
. regarded as but means to the great end of self-development. 

Discipline. 

In matters of discipbne we are of the opinion that as far as possible each 
College and faculty should be responsible for its own students. To deal 
with all cases of discipline which fall outside the jurisdiction of colleges or 
faculties we suggest that the Caput should have disciplinary jurisdiction. 
The Caput should also act in all cases of inter-college or inter-faculty dis- 
cipline and where any doubt arises as to the proper disciplinary authority 
the Caput should have final power to resolve the dovibt. A conflict of juris- 
diction would in this way be speedily removed. 

A Students' Committee. 

We would recommend that in matters affecting the general interest of 
the student body, there should be a Students' Committee, recognized as 
officially representing the undergraduates as u whole. Such a committee 
would be a proper means of communication between the authorities and the 
students, and having a right to speak for their fellows, could come to an 
understanding on questions which might arise before they became serious. 
The composition of such a committee is a question which it is properly the 
duty of the Board to determine. We would suggest, however, that as far as 
possible membership in it should be ex-offi.cio, that is, that undergraduates 
holding office in organized student associations should be brought together 
to form the general committee of students. 

Bureau of SELF-Si^rroET foh the Students. 

In some of the large universities in tlie United States there has in recent 
years been established a bureau of self-help for students. ]\rany undero-rad- 
uates must support themselves in whole or in part during their college 
course. They work in the summer, and, as far as they can, they try to earn 
further sums during the months of their actual college course. It has been 



1900 UNiVERSITV OF TORONTO. 



found most helpful to establish by university authority a regular employ- 
ment bureau for college men. Columbia and Yale have done this with great 
success. The sporadic and necessarily ' limited efforts of the students are 
systematized and employers are more easily brought into touch with those 
seeking- employment. Some modification of this system, adapted to our local 
■conditions, would prove, we believe, of real assistance to the students in the 
various faculties of the University. 

A Department of Pedagogy. 

The time has come, in our opinion, for the creation of a department of 
Pedagogy. A course in the history, principles and practice of education should 
form part of the curriculum. The University examines for the degree of 
Bachelor of Pedagogy and Doctor of Pedagogy, but has hitherto done no 
teaching. Departments of Education have been established in many 
universities, and we have had opportunity for special inquiry into the work 
of these departments at Columbia University and the University of Chicago. 
The work is best performed where the theory and practice can be made to 
supplement each another, and it appears to us that the Provincial University 
should conduct the department on these lines. For this purpose the Uni- 
versity should have power to co-operate with the Board of Education of 
Toronto in securing the use or control of a school or schools for carrying on 
the practice work. We do not suggest the. exact means by which such an 
arrangement shall be effected. The proposal to erect a new High School in 
the northern part of the city near the University may afford the desired 
opportunity. The duty of the University in connection with the teaching 
body of our primary and secondary schools is one that ought to be recognized. 
We believe that the question can best be dealt with by the new governing 
board and that financial provision for the creation of a pedagogical course 
should be made. 

Tenuee of Appointment. 

The tenure of appointment is an important element in determining the 
scale of professorial remuneration, and, in maintaining the general efficiency 
of the teaching staff. In most of the universities in the United States all 
appointments under the rank of professorships ate made for a limited period, 
during Mhieh the instructor is on probation. In some even full professors 
are appointed for a limited period, and are then re-appointed without limita- 
tion, during the pleasure of the trustees. The probationary method gra- 
dually sifts out those who are of less than first rank, and makes it possible 
to select for more permanent appointment such men as have given evidence 
of their fitness. To members of the staff' thus appointed all reasonable secur- 
ity of tenure is given. It is felt to be wiser to endure a possible weakening of 
teaching power in a professor than to run the risk of losing first rate men 
from the University by introducing an element of uncertaintv into the tenure 



lii ROYAL COMMISSION RE Xo. 42 



of the highest academic positions. The President of a great University in 
the United States declares that by reason of probationary appointments the 
necessity of removing a professor practically does not arise. When, how- 
ever, after all possible precautions are taken, and, subsequently, proved in- 
capacity or misconduct is exhibited, the governing body of the University 
should be quite free to dismiss. The University must not suifer for the sake 
of one man. We have felt that the best course to be adopted in the Univer- 
sity is to make the tenure of office to be, unless otherwise provided, during 
the pleasure of the Board. We hope it will be the policy of the Board to 
make all subordinate appointments, i.e., those below the rank of professor, 
and, possibly, associate professor, on the probationary method, and we 
doubt not that in carrying out their policy they will give full weight to the 
complementary elements of security of tenure and efficiency of service. 

The Eemuxekatiox of 'Professors. 

The general scale of salary for professors and other members of the teach- 
ing staff should be re-considered. It was adopted many years ago, when 
the cost of living was much less, and when the rate of remuneration fixed 
bore a fair proportion to the salaries paid to persons in other walks of life. 
The multiplication of pursuits in which men of learning and scientific attain- 
ments can earn large incomes has enhanced the difficulty of securing the best 
men for University teachers. Although larger salaries ought to be paid, 
they should be paid according to a different system than that now in vogue. 
The present system provides for automatic increases, according to the number 
of years of service, and establishes a uniform rate, regardless of the relative 
importance of the-positions to be filled, and ignoring the special qualifications 
required in some cases. This system, in our opinion, is antiquated and 
objectionable. It is not followed in some of the principal universities else- 
where. There when vacancies occur, the authorities look over the whole 
field at home and abroad and have power to offer such salaries as will 
attract the right men. We believe that a revision of the scale of remunera- 
tion should be undertaken as soon as possible, and that it should be based, 
first, upon the principle of recognizing the relative importance of the various 
professorships; and, secondly, that increases should depend upon merit, and 
particularly upon the capacity for productive work which is exhibited. 

Property and Buildings. 

The available ground at the disposal of the University for additional 
buildings is decidedly limited. Pew Universities established in large cities 
have been provided with sufficient land for future expansion. The Univer- 
sity of Toronto is now giving promise of growth beyond the most sanguine 
expectations of its founders, and for that development all possible provision 
should be made. The policy of the University should continue to be to 
acquire as much land as possible in the vicinity of Queen's Park. We- 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. liii' 



believe tliat the present unallotted University property and tlie park lands 
adjoining will be none too large for the series of collegiate buildings which 
the growth of the University and the extension of the residential system 
will, in the not distant future, demand. 

In the erection of new buildings for University teaching reasonable re- 
gard should be had to the convenience of the federated Arts Colleges. The 
students of such colleges might be virtually deprived of the opportunity of 
taking some courses by reason of the difficulty of passing from their college 
to a distant University lecture-room or laboratory. 

The original University building set a standard of architectural excel- 
lence by which all subsequent academic edifices might well be tested. Lack 
of means seems to have made it impossible to imitate the beauty and fitness 
of the main building ; but an earnest effort should be made to combine archi- 
tectural excellence with educational service in all future additions to the 
University equipment. It is not easy to exaggerate the influence of such 
architecture on the minds of those who daily behold it, nor is it easy to over- 
emphasize the gain to the Province of having a group of stately academic 
buildings of which all citizens might be proud. As the University is about 
to enter upon a fresh chapter of its development, we think it most desirable 
that the Board should consider some comprehensive plan for the disposition 
and use of all the property at present in its hands, or which may soon be 
added. Further structures, whether residences, lectures rooms, labora- 
tories or administration buildings, could then be erected as part of one gen- 
eral scheme, wherein e^ch bears a real relation of fitness and utility to the 
other buildings on the University grounds. 

In this connection we recommend the creation of an office found in some 
of the American universities, that of a Superintendent of Buildings and 
Grounds, and the appointment of a suitable person who woiild exercise 
supervision over the property. 

Financial Support of the University. 

The Commissioners would be seriously remiss in their duty if they 
failed to deal courageously with the vital question of financial support. A 
well-equipped university under modern conditions is necessarily a costly 
institution. The privately-endowed univisities both in Canada and the 
United States have drawn millions from public-spirited benefactors. They 
could not have expanded as they have done if money had not been freely 
placed at their disposal. Training -in so many different branches of science, 
costly laboratory equipment, and a larger staff, call for a greatly increased 
expenditure. State institutions, like the University of Toronto, depend 
mainly upon the support of legislative bodies. In the United States the 
response to the claims of higher education has been very liberal indeed. In 
newer States like Wisconsin, Minnesota and Michigan, which are not super- 
ior to Ontario in wealth and resources, the votes for the Universities have 



liv ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



been on a scale which indicates that their wants have only to be known to be 
freely supplied. Not only is the anijual income placed on a secure basis, 
but sums for capital expenditure on new buildings and new teaching depart- 
ments are readily granted. The two distinct objects of university educa- 
tion are mental culture and practical utility. In recent years the latter 
has steadily gained upon the former owing to the utilitarian character of the 
age, and the increased expenditures have doubtless been chiefly for 
the development of this branch of instruction. In Ontario, as else- 
where, the extra sums voted for University purposes have gone into new 
buildings and increased staff for the teaching of the applied sciences. The 
avowed aim has been to train the youth of the country for the varied occupa- 
tions presented by material development. With this we have no 
desire to quarrel, regarding it in fact as the natural and justifiable course 
to pursue in a practical age and country. At the same time we wish to point 
out the value to the nation of maintaining at a high degree of efficiency the 
training in Arts. Without such training a university education would cease 
to possess its true significance. In no respect should this department of 
university work be permitted to fall behind. It is sometimes a just cause of 
complaint that the system of options is so constructed that university degrees 
are conferred upon men who are not, in the proper sense, university men at 
all. Against this danger, observable elsewhere and perhaps to some extent 
here, the authorities of the University should be on their guard. The rela- 
tion of all the science courses to the courses in Arts should be thoroughly 
considered and defined. The modern university must not part with the noble 
ideals of cultivated and scholarly tastes, of high thinking of the love of 
learning for its own sake, which are among the most valuable inheritances 
whirh have come down to us from the past. In the case of the University of 
Toronto we hope that if thorough teaching in the humanities requires more 
money the expenditure will be unhesitatingly incurred with every confidence 
that public opinion will approve. 

A survey of the ever-widening field of M'ork before the University brings 
us to the question of the income needed for present and future requirements. 
It is clear that the University cannot be allowed to stand still. Its necessary 
expansion must be taken into account and we feel sure that the Province 
desires its University to receive adequate support. A financial statement 
laid before the Commissioners by those authorized to speak for the Univer- 
sity shows that a moderate estimate of the amount required from the Legis- 
lature during the next three years is as follows : 

For 1905-6 . ; 1^195 432 

" 1906-T Z^^^'''''''''''''^'^^^''''''^'. ^69^263 

". 1907-8 : 184,378 

This does not provide for the annual cost of the School of Science, the 
expenditures upon which, now voted separately, should, if the two institutions 
are united, be added to the sums required for the University. According to 
an estimate of the requirements of the School of Science during the next three 
years, the net amounts are : 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. Iv 



For 1905 $39,663 

" 1906 56,255 

" 1907 62,930 

In these estimates we fiud no provision for capital expenditures or 
exceptional outlays for maintenance but simply the sums needed to meet 
natural expansion on a moderate basis. For the two institutions, therefore, 
the Legislature would be called upon to vote during the next three years the 
following amounts : 

For 1905-6 |165,095 

" 1906-T 224,518 

" 1907-8 247,308 

With these figures before us, and after a careful inquiry into the addi- 
tional expenditures likely to be required in the immediate future if the 
University is to be placed upon a proper financial basis, we have considered 
the whole question of income. 

In respect to additional expenditures, not included m the estimates given 
above, we recommend that sums sufiicient for the initial support of depart- 
ments of Forestry, Pedagogy, and Household Science, and for the cost of 
maintaining chairs for scientific subjects in Medicine should be provided. 
It is not easj' to state the precise additional amount which these would 
require, but a sum in the neighbourhood of |35,000 or |40,000 is the small- 
est estimate that could safely be made 

In determining the question of income, the amount and the method of 
providing it are both of moment. We believe that some means of fixing the 
income upon a definite basis should be found. It has been proposed that 
a certain percentage of some item of the Provincial revenue should be allotted 
to the University, and that the sum that this percentage yielded from year 
to year would form the amount to be voted annually by tlie Legislature. 
It must be borne in mind that the financial needs of the University will 
grow greater from year to year both because of the increase of the popula- 
tion of Ontario and the growth of knowledge in the world at large. The 
items of Provincial revenue, therefore, from which that portion of the 
income furnished by the state is to come, must also be one which will grow 
greater from year to year in at least as large a ratio as that of the increase 
in population. For this purpose the revenue from succession duties has been 
suggested. It is true that this is a tax which has aroused much opposition 
and which may be subject to change in the future, but it has been selected 
because it is at present a tax which grows in some relation to the growth 
of the Province and therefore to the growth of the University requirements. 
The Provincial revenue from this source during the past six years has been 
as follows : — 

1900 S228.360 

1901 376,661 

•1902 ^ 236.169 

1903 '. 386.948 

1904 '458,699 

1905 684,143 



Ivi ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



or an average for the six years of |395,163. As this particular source of 
revenue is supposed to be allocated under the Act to the discharge of certain 
Provincial expenditures, we have thought that the University income might 
be fixed by statute at a sum equal to a certain percentage of the revenue 
from succession duties. In order that this system might not introduce an 
element of inconvenient fluctuation, seeing that the revenue from succession 
duties varies considerably from year to year, we recommend that the percent- 
age be calculated upon the average of three years' receipts. We believe that 
the income under this system or any other that may be selected, ought not 
to be less than |2T5,000, at the inception. 

In order to show that the figures suggested by this report are not only 
not extravagent but are in fact very moderate, we quote an extract from the 
report of the Board of Curators of the University of Missouri to the General 
Assembly of that State, made in January, 1902. This portion of the report 
was made for the purpose of inducing Missouri to help more liberally its 
State University, but the biennial income of the University as shown by its 
report was |588,339, and of this |226,12G was derived from the Collateral 
Inheritance Tax of the State, a fund similar to our Succession Duties. The 
following is the extract : 

"1. University of Michigan (not including the Schools of Mines or the 
Agricultural College), j mill (2^ cents on the |100) of property. Income 
from all sources in a Biennial period about |1, 000, 000. 

2. University of Wisconsin, about J mill (2| cents a |100), for mainten- 
ance and a large tax additional for special purposes. Its income from all 
sources in a Biennial period nearly $800,000. 

3. University of Iowa (not including the Agricultural College), about 
1-5 mill a year (.02 on the $100). A similar tax in Missouri, would yield 
for the Biennial period $540,000. 

4. University of Nebraska, 2-3 mill (about 6 2-3 cents a |100). This is 
the largest tax levied in anj^ state for the maintenance of its University. In 
Missouri it would yield a revenue in the Biennial period of $1,600,000. 

5. University of California (which has besides an endowment of more 
than five millions), 3-20 mill (1 1-2 cents a $100). Its income from all 
sources in a Biennial period is not short of $1,000,000. 

6. University of Minnesota for maintenance alone (not including build- 
ings), 3-20 mill (1 1-2 cents a $100). . The Biennial income is about $700,- 
000. 

7. Ohio University, 1-10 mill (1 cent a $100). Income from all sources 
in a Biennial period about $600,000. 

8. University of Oklahoma, 1-2 mill (5 cents a $100 . In Missouri 
this would yield $1,200,000 in a Biennial period.' 

9. University of Illinois asks of the Legislature in the coming Biennial 
period $900,000. I have no doubt that the expectation of the University 
will be fulfilled. They nearly always are fulfilled in that State. 

10. The University of Kansas asks in the present Biennial period for 



k 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. Ivii 

1450,000 which it will probably receive. Neither in population nor wealth 
can Kansas be compared with the great commonwealth of Missouri. Will 
Missouri give less money to her University? 

11. Washington University in St. Louis has received in the last Bien- 
nial period about three millions of dollars. It had already received in late 
years a million and a half. When the Institution begins to feel the force 
of this immense sum (|4, 500, 000) the State University may no longer hold 
the leadership of education in Missouri. It is beyond controversy that when 
her new buildings are completed Washington University will be ahead of 
the State University in buildings and equipment. It will also be ahead in 
annual income apart from tuition. In addition to this it has a very large 
revenue from tuition fees. The great commonwealth of Missouri should 
not allow a private institution in one of her cities to excel the University of 
the entire commonwealth. 

12. Departing from State Universities let us call attention to the fact 
that we must all compete in some measure with the University of Chicago, 
whose income exceeds $600,000 a year, or |1, 200, 000 each Biennial period." 

As these figures are all given for a biennial period, one-half will in each 
•case afford the proper comparison with Ontario. We should draw atten- 
tion to the fact that these Universities are also afforded considerable finan- 
cial aid by the Federal Government. 

Endowment in Land. 

Throughout North America little in the financial history of universities 
has been more noticeable than the good effect of large grants of wild land. 
The original grant to the University of Toronto has borne abundant fruit, 
Tias, indeed, made the present state of higher education in Ontario possible. 
By the settlement of the Provincial boundary we have obtained control of 
what is called New Ontario. It does not, therefore, seem unreasonable to 
express the hope that out of this enormous area at least a million acres will 
'be set aside for the University and University College. 

Trinity College. 

The relation of Trinity College to the University and its precise posi- 
tion in the federal system, have entailed special inquiry and considera- 
tion. 

The Act of 1901 provided for the entry of Trinity College into feder- 
ation. Trinity, like Victoria, was to suspend its degree-conferring powers 
except in theology, and its removal to a site near the Queen's Park on the 
University land was contemplated, provision for the delivery of University 
lectures at Trinity College in the meantime being made. The. Act empow- 
ered the Board of Trustees of the University to make an agreement with the 
governing body of Trinity College for its federation on these terms, author- 
ity being also given the trustees to agree to such other terms, subject to the 

5 u. c. 



Iviii ROYAL COMMISSION RE ' No. i2 



assent of tlie Liuetenant-Governor-in-Council as might be deemed best in 
addition to or in lieu of the provisions of the Act. This agreement was to 
possess, and now possesses the force of a statute. When it was framed in 
1903, the policy contemplated by the Act, namely, the removal of Trinity 
to the Queen's Park, was changed, and the conclusion reached was that 
this policy should be abandoned and that Trinity should continue to occupy 
its present buildings, provision being made for, amongst other things, the 
permanent duplication there of lectures, the expense of which was to be 
borne by the Province, and for the setting aside of land on which Trinity 
might erect a building for the use of its students while attending lectures 
at the University. 

The basis of federation then reached is not, in the opinion of the Com- 
mission, a satisfactory one, and we have earnestly sought some means by 
which the whole situation can be relieved and siijiplified. 

To that end we invited the Provost and other gentlemen connected with 
and who are deeply interested in Trinity to discuss informally with us the 
possibility of an arrangement being come to by which Trinity would, as 
contemplated by the Act of 1901, remove to the Queen's Park and the neces- 
sity for the duplication of lectures be avoided. 

Several conferences with the Provost and members of the corporation 
and of the Board of Endowment of Trinity, for the informal discussion of 
the subject have been held, but unfortunately it has not been possible to 
arrive at a basis of agreement acceptable to Trinity, and one that we can 
recommend for adoption by the University. 

The removal of Trinity from its present seat to the University ground 
would entail a large expenditure for the erection of new buildings and Trin- 
ity is not unnaturally unwilling to provide for this expenditure by bringing 
present sale, its valuable property on Queen Street West, and it is open to 
serious doubt whether the proceeds of the sale would be sufficient to meet 
the outlay. 

The policy of Trinity is to hold the Queen Street property for some 
years in order that it may benefit by the increase in its value, which it is 
confidently hoped by Trinity may be expected in the near future and that the 
increased value of the property would eventually provide for the enlargement 
of its accommodation on the present site or for the erection of new buildings 
on another site. 

It was suggested during our discussions that if a provincial guarantee 
of a loan to be raised by Trinity on ihe security of the Queen Street property, 
and the buildings to be erected on the University land were obtainable, it 
would be possible for Trinity to borrow what would be required for the erec- 
tion of new buildings and continue its policy as to the Queen Street pro- 
perty, and that in that event Trinity might be willing to agree to remove 
to the University ground. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. lix 

Though we were unable to reach a conclusion which would enable us to 
make a specific recommendation, the subject is one deserving of further consid- 
eration, and we recommend that it be taken up by the Board of Governors, an,d 
that a further effort be made to arrive at a basis of agreement more satisfactory 
than in our opinion is the one now existing. It would not seem unreason- 
able that the Province should guarantee the suggested loan if the amount 
of it were limited to the value of the Queen Street lands, and proper pro- 
visions were made to guard against the possibility of the security being 
impaired from the interest on the loan being allowed to fall into arrear. It 
would be proper also, we think, to reserve for a reasonable time for Trinity 
College a suitable site on the University ground. In the meantime it will be 
the duty of the authorities of the University to carry out in the spirit as well 
as in the letter, the existing arrangements for the duplication of lectures. 

Scholarships. 

The numerous scholarships and exhibitions open to merit, which are 
attached to the Colleges of Oxford and Cambridge have been the means of 
drawing out not a little of the intellectual flower of British j'outh through the 
Universities into the great professions and the service of the State. The 
scholarships as a rule are a part of the original foundation of which the 
Scholar is the undergraduate, while a Fellow is the graduate member. The 
exhibitions are the gifts of private benefactors, whose names they bear, and 
by whose wills, saving necessary amendments, they are regulated. Here 
private beneficence might find in the foundation of scholarships open to 
merit an object personally interesting as well as highly beneficial to the 
State. 

Future of the University. 

The future of our Provincial University, a vital organ at once of our intel- 
lectual and industrial life, had been imperilled by the multiplication of Uni- 
versities which distracted public interest and dissipated resources not more 
than sufficient at best for the maintenance of an adequate institution ; while 
demand for expensive instruction in Science was rapidly increasing, and 
formidable competition in that department was growing up on the other side 
of the line. To further the process of reconcentration, and so far as might 
)e necessary, to reorganize, was the duty assigned to this Commission. If 
re have seemed in fulfilling it, to aim at a high ideal, it was not because we 
'ere careless of financial limitations, but because to advance on the right 
)ath it is necessary to keep the ideal in view. We have arrived at a critical 
juncture in the progress of University education. The question presents 
[tself, whether the main object shall be, as it has hitherto been, intellectual 
5ulture, or the knowledge which qualifies directly for gainful pursuits and 
jpens the student's way to the material prizes of life. The second object has 
)f late been prevailing, especially where commerce holds sway. The two, 
though distinct, need not be antagonistic. Science, properly so called, is 
nilture of its kind and those who pursue it may in turn imbibe the spirit of 



Ix ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



culture by association. We could not pretend, in confronting this great 
question, to forecast or regulate the future. We could do no more than pro- 
vide a home for culture and science under the same academical roof, uniting 
them as far as possible, yet leaving each in its way untrammelled by the 
union. But whatever may have been devised by us, or can possibly be 
devised in the way of reorganization, it is on the quality of teaching, on wise 
and vigorous management, on harmony among those engaged in the work, 
on the loyal attachment of all, administrators, teachers and students, 
to the common weal, together with the hearty appreciation and generous 
support of 'the people, that the success of the University must depend. 

Dated at the Grange, Toronto, 4th of April, 1906. 

J. W. Flavelle, (Chairman). 

GoLDWiN Smith. 

W. R. Meredith. 

B. E. Walker. 

H. J. Cody. 

D. Bruce Macdonald. 

A. H. U. CoLQUHOUN, (Secretary). 



APPENDICES 



I 



University Commission Draft Bill 



An Act respecting- the University of Toronto and 
University College. 



HIS MAJESTY, by and with the advice and consent of 
the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Ontario, 
enacts as follows : — 

1. This Act may be cited as The University Act, 1906. 

2. Where the words following occur in this Act, unless 
a contrary intention appears, they shall be construed ai 
follows : — 

(1) "The University" as meaning the University of 
Toronto. 

(2) "The Board" as meaning the Grovernors of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto. 

(3) "Appointed members" as meaning the members of 
the board appointed by the Licutenant-Governor-in-Coun- 
cil. 

(4) "Property" as including real property and all other 
property of every nature and kind whatsoever. 

(5) "Real property" as including messuages, lands, 
tenements and hereditaments whether corporeal or incor- 
poreal, and any undivided share thereof and any «8tat« 
or interest therein. 

(6) "College" as including a school or other institution 
of learning. 

(7) "Teaching staff" as including professors, associate 
professors, lecturers, instructors, demonstrators and all 
others engaged in the work of teaching or giving instruc- 
tion. 

(8) "Xow" as meaning when this Act goes into force. 

[3] 



ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



(9) "Trinity College" as meaning Trinity College ad 
established and incorporated by tbe Act passed in the 15th 
year of the reign of Her late Majesty, Queen Victoria, and 
as constituted a University by Royal Charter bearing date 
the sixteenth day of July, 1853. 

(10) "Head," when it refers to the head of a federated 
university or a federated college, as meaning the person 
who is or is certified by the governing body of such univer- 
sity or college to be the head thereof. 

3. The Provincial University, known as the University 
of Toronto, the Provincial College, known as Univer- 
sity College, the Senate, Convocation, the several 
faculties of the University and the Faculty of University 
College, are and each of them is hereby continued, and, 
subject to the provisions of this Act, shall respectively 
have, hold, possess and enjoy all the rights, powers and 
privileges which they respectively now have, hold, possess 
and enjoy. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 3 (1, 21), in part. 
Amended. 

4. All appointments in and statutes and regulations 
affecting the University and University College and each 
of them shall continue, subject to the provisions of this 
Act, and subject also, as to the teaching staff, and all 
officers, servants and employees, to their removal by the 
Board at its discretion. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 21, in part. 
Amended. 

5. — (1) If and when a proclamation to that effect shall b« 
issued by the Lieutenant-Governor, the name of the Uni- 
versity shall be changed to and the University shall be 
known as "The University of Ontario" from and after 
such date as shall be named in the proclamation for the 
change taking effect. I Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 3 (2). 

(2) Such proclamatiton shall n-ot be issued unless and 
until a statute of the Senate approving of the change shall 
have been passed by the vote of at least three-fourths of 
the members thereof who may be present at a meeting called 
for the purpose of considering the question of making such 
change and unless and until the change shall have been 
sanctioned by the Board. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 3 (3). 
Amended. 

6. — (1) The School of Practical Science is hereby united 
with and shall form j art of the University and constitute 
the faculty of Applied Science and Engineering thereof. 

(New.) 

(2) The principal of the School of Practical Science shall 
become and be the Dean of the said faculty, and the pro- 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



lessors, teachers, instructors and officers of the said school 
shall hold and occupy the like positions in the said faculty 
to those now held and occupied by them in the said school, 
but subject always to removal by the Board at its discre- 
tion. (New.) 

(3) Whenever in any Act or document reference is made 
to the School of Practical Science, the same shall here- 
after apply and extend to the said faculty. (Nexc.) 

(4) All moneys expended by the Board in the mainten- 
ance of the said faculty shall for the purposes and within 
the meaning of the agreement bearing date the second day 
of March, 1889, between Her late Majesty, Queen Victoria, 
and the corporation of the City of Toronto, be deemed to be 
money expended by "Her Majesty and Her Successors act- 
ing by and through the Executive Council of the Province 
of Ontario. {New.) 

(5) All courses of study in the said school, all orders in 
Council relating thereto, and all by-laws, rules and regula- 
tions thereof, except in so far as the same are inconsistent 
with the provisions of this Act, shall continue in force and 
applj' to the said faculty in the same manner and to the 
same extent as the same are now applicable to the said 
school, but they may be abrogated or modified by the pro- 
per governing body of the TTniversity in that liehalf as may 
be deemed expedient. {Neic.) 

7. — (1) Every university oind every college federated 
with the University and every college affiliated with the 
University shall continue to be so federated or affiliated, 
subject to any statute in that behalf and to this Act. 1 
Edw. YII., c. 41, 8. 18. Aviended. 

(2) A college affiliated with a federated university at the 
time of its federation with the University, whether such 
federation has heretofore been or shall hereafter be entered 
into, shall be deemed to be affiliated with the University. 
1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 20 (6), in part. Amended. 

(3) The following are declared to be the universities 
federated with the University, that is to say, Victoria 
Un'iversity aind Trinity College. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, i. 
19, in part. Amended. 

(4) The foll'owing are declared to be the colleges feder- 
arted with the University, that is to say, Knox College, 
Wycliffe College and St. Michael's College. 1 Edw. 
VII., c. 41, 8. 19, in part. Avunded. 

(5) The following are deiclared to be the colleges affiliated 
with the University, that is to say ; Albert College, Tho 
Ontario Agricultural College, The Ontario Medical College 
for Women, The Royal College of Dental Surgeons, The 
Toronto College of Music, The Ontario College of Phar- 



ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



macy, The Toronto Conservatory of Music, Tlie Hamilton 
Conservatory of Music, Tlie Western Canada College of 
Calgary, Tlie Columbian Methodist College, and The On- 
tario Veterinary College ; the following the Colleges which 
are affiliated with the University by reason of their having 
been affiliated with Victoria University when the said last 
mentioned University became federated with the Univer- 
sity, that is to say : The Ontario Ladies' College and Alma 
College; and St. Hilda's College, which is affiliated with 
the University by reason of its having been affiliated with 
Trinity College when Trinity College became federated with 
the University. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 19, in part. 
Amended. 

(6) A college which has been affiliated with the Univer- 
sity since the 15th day of April, 1901, or which shall here- 
after be affiliated therewith shall not be enttitled to repre- 
sentation on the Senate unless so declared bv statute in that 
behalf. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 20 (6), in part. 

(7) The Senate may remove from federation or affiliation 
with the University any college, now or hereafter feder- 
ated or affiliated with the University which becomes an 
integral part of or federates or affiliates with any other 
university which has and exercises the powers of confer- 
ring any degrees other than those in theology. 1 Edw. 
VII., 'cap. 41, s. 20 (7). Amended. 

(8) If and when any university now or hereafter feder- 
ated with the University ceases to be federated therewith, 
every college which is affiliated with the University by rea- 
son only of its having been affiliated with such federated 
university shall thereupon and thereafter cease to be affili- 
ated with the University, but shall retain the same relation 
with the federated university with which it was affiliated 
as existed when such federated university became federated 
with the University. (New.) 

(9) The Arts faculties of Victoria University and Trinity 
College in their relation to the University shall be known 
as and may be called colleges of the University bearing 
respectively as such colleges the names Victoria College 
and Trinity College. (Xcic.) 

8. — (1) When any university in the Province of Ontario 
determines to surrender its degree conferring powers (except 
the power of conferring degrees in theology) and notifies 
the Board of such determination, the Board may by statute 
declare such university to be federated with the University 
on and from a day to be named in such statute, and there- 
upon and thereafter the power of such federated univer- 
sity to confer degrees, except in theology, shall be sus- 
pended. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 20 (2), in part. Amended. 

(2) Every such statute shall be published forthwith after 
the passing thereof in Tlie Ontario Gazette. 1 Edw. 
VII., c. 41, 6. 20 (2), i?i part. Amended. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



(3) Tlie power and authority of conferring degrees, 
except in theology, of any university now or hereafter 
federated with the University shall be suspended and 
in abeyance, but may be resumed by such federated 
university; Provided that three years shall have elapsed 
from the date when its federation with the Univer- 
sity took effect, and that after the lapse of such three 
years one year's notice in writing of its intention to 
resume its degree-conferring powers shall have been given 
to the Board, and any such federated university shall 
cease to be federated with the University at and after the 
expiry of the said last mentioned period. 1 Edw. YII., 
c. 41, s. 20 (3, 4), in part. Amended'. 

(4) ISTotice that any such federated university has ceased 
to be federated with the University and the date when it 
ceased to be so federated shall be published in the Ontario 
Gazette. 1 Edw. YII., c. 41, s. 20 (4), in part. Amended. 

(o) The graduates and undergraduates in Arts, Science 
and Law of a federated university and such graduates and 
undergraduates thereof in Medicine as have passed their 
exartjinations in Ontario from and after the date when 
such university became federated with the University, and 
so long as such federation shall continue, shall have and 
enjoy the same degrees, honours and status in tlie Univer- 
sity as they held and enjoyed in the federated university. 
1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 20 (5). Ame>nded. 

9.-(l) Xo religious test shall be required of any professor, 
lecturer, teacher, officer or servant of the University or of 
University College, or of any student thereof or therein, 
nor shall religious observances according to the forms of 
any religious denomination or sect be imposed on them 
or any of them, but the Board may make regulations 
touching the moral conduct of the students thereof and 
therein and their attendance on public worship in their 
respective churches or other places of religious worship 
and their religious instruction by their respective minis- 
ters, according to their respective forms of religious faith, 
and every requisite facility shall be afforded for such pur- 
poses, provided alwaj's that attendance on such forms of 
religious observance shall not be compulsory on any stu- 
dent attending the University or University College. 1 
Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 23 (1). Amended. 

(2) Nothing in this section contained shall interfere with 
the right of any federated university or college to make 
such provision in regard to religious instruction and relig- 
ious worship for its own students as it may deem proper, 
and to require the same to be observed as a part of its own 
discipline. 1 Edw. YII., c. 41, s. 23 (2). 

10. — (1) A separate account of the proceeds of the sales of 
lands set apart for the use of the University and Univer- 



ROYAL COMMISSION' RE NO. 42 



sity College or either of them by the Act passed iu the 
^Oth year of the reign of Her late Majesty, Queen Victoria, 
chaptered 59, and by the Act passed in the third year of 
the reign of His Majesty, chaptered 36 (as amended by 
the Act passed in the 5th year of the same reign, chaptered 
36) and by the Act passed in the said last mentioned year 
chaptered 37, shall continue to be kept by the proper 
ofl&cers and departments and yearly accounts thereof to be 
furnished to the lioard, as provided in the said Acts, and 
all moneys derived from such sales shall be paid to the 
Board free from all charges or deductions for management 
or otherwise. 1 Edw. YII., c. 41, s. 7 (1). Amended. 

(2) The repeal by this Act of the Acts and parts of Acts 
mentioned or referred to in subsection 1 shall not affect or 
impair the right of the University and University College 
or either of them to have the lands mentioned therein set 
apart in accordance with and subject to the provisions of 
the Acts and parts of Acts so repealed, but such right shall 
remain in full force notwithstanding such repeal. (New.) 

11. The annual grant lof ^7,000, provided for by 'the said 
first mentioned Act, shall continue to be paid to the Board 
as provided therein, and the same shall form a charge 
upon and be paid from time to time out of the Consolidated 
Kevenue. 1 Edw. YII., c. 41, s. 7 (2). 

12. All property now vested in the Trustee^s of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto is hereby, subject to any trust affecting 
the same, vested in the Board, and all property which 
heretofore has been or hereafter shall be granted, con- 
vejed, devised or bequeathed to any person in trust for or 
for the benefit of the University and University College 
or either of them or of any faculty or department thereof 
or otherwise in connection therewith, subject always to 
the trust affecting the same, shall be vested in the Board. 
1 Edw. VII, c. 41, s. 6, amended. 

13. All property which is vested in or used by the Crown 
for the purposes of the School of Practical Science, and 
all unexpended appropriations out of the Consolidated 
Revenue for the maintenance thereof, shall belong to and 
are hereby vested in the Board. (New.) 

14. The real property demised to the Cor])oration of the 
City of Toronto for the purpose of a park under the auth- 
ority of section 66 of chapter 62 of the Consolidated Sta- 
tutes of Upper Canada shall, so long as the lease thereof 
remains in force, form part of the City of Toronto and the 
residue of the real property adjacent to the said park 
whi(^h is vested in the Board, shall be subject to the {)olice 
regulations of the said corporation and the council thereof 
and except as herein otherwise provided to the by-lawi 
thereof. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 42. Amended. 



i9or> uxixERsnv oi- tukoxto. 



15. All real property which is now or which hereafter 
ahall be vested in the Board shall, as far aJs the application 
thereto of any statute of limitations is concerned, be 
deemed to have been and to be real property vested in the 
Crown for the public uses of the Province. 2 Edw. VII., 
c. 43, 8. 2. AmenJed. 

16. It is hereby declared that the dedication, heretofore 
by the Citown for any purpose of any real property held for 
the purposes of the University and University College or 
either of them has not taken away from such real property 
any rights or privileges which it enjoyed as Crown lands 
or'prejudiciallv affected the same, but that all such righti 
and privileges remain in full force and effect. 1 Edw. 
VII., c. 41, s. C (c), in part. Amended. 

17. — (1) The real property vested in the Board shall not be 
liable to be entered upon, used or taken by any municipal 
or other corporation or by any person possessing the right 
of taking lands compuLorily for any purpose whatsoever; 
and no power to appropriate real property hereafter con- 
ferred shall extend to such real property unless in the act 
conferring the power it is made in express terms to apply 
to such real property. 1 Edw. VII., c.- 41, s. 6 (c), in 
j)art. Amended. 

(2) The provisions of subsection 1 shall apply to real 
property owned by or vested in any university or college 
federated with the Uriversity. (Neio.) 

18. (1) The property real and personal vested in the 

Board shall not be liable to taxation for provincial, munici- 
pal or school purposes, but shall be exempt from every de- 
scription of taxation ; provided, always, that except as men- 
tioned in subsection 2 the interest of every lessee and occu- 
pant of real property vested in the Board shall be liable to 
taxation. 

(2) The liability to taxation of the interest of a lessee 
or occupant mentioned in this section shall not extend 
to the interest of a lessee or occupant being a member of 
the teaching staff or an officer or servant of the University 
or of University College who or, being an association of 
under-graduates or an incorporated society of under-gradu- 
ates or of graduates and undergraduates which is the lessee 
or occupant of any part of the property commonly known 
as the University Park, composed of the north halves of 
Park lots numbers eleven, twelve and thirteen in the first 
concession from the bay, in the township of York (now in 
the City of Toronto), and including that part of park lot 
number fourteen in the said first concession, described in a 
certain conveyance to Her late Majesty Queen Victoria, 



10 , ROYAL COMMISSIOX A'/: 



registered as number 8654R in the registry office of the 
eastern division of the City of Toronto, but the interest of 
every such lessee or occupant shall be exempt from taxa- 
tion.^ 2 Edw. VII., c. 43, s. 3. Amended. 4 Edw. A^II., 
c. 35, s. 3, m part. 

(3) Those parts of the lots mentioned in subsection 2 
which are now or hereafter may be owned, leased or occu- 
pied by any federated university or federated college for 
the purposes of such university or college shall also be 
exempt from taxation in the same way and to the same ex- 
tent as the real property vested in the Board is by subsec- 
tion 1 exempted from taxation. (Neu\) 

19. Any person with the approval of the Board may, 
under and subject to such termls and conditit)n8 as he may 
prescribe, endow a chair or found a scholarship in the Uni- 
versity or University College, or aid the University and 
University College and each of them by providing an 
endowment for any other purpose or object in connection 
therewith. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 14. Amended. 

THI BOASD. 

20. There shall be and is hereby constituted a B'oard of 
Governors of the University and University College. 
(New.) 

21. The Board shall be a body corporate by the name 
and style of "The Governors of the University of Toron- 
to," and shall have all the rights, powers and privileges 
mentioned in subsection 25 of section 8 of The Interpreta- 
tion Act, and also the power to take and hold real pi'operty 
for the purposes of the University and of University Col- 
lege without license in mortmain. (New.) 

22. The Board shall not be deemed ,to be a new corpora- 
ti'on, but shall be taken to be and shall be the successor of 
"The Trustees of the University of Toronto," with the 
enlarged rights, powers and privileges conferred by thii 
Act. (New.) I 

23. Any action or proceeding now pending in anv court 
may be continued to be prosecuted or defended, as the case 
may be, in the name of "The Trustees of the University 
of Toronto," or the name of the Board may at its option 
be substituted therefor. (New.") 

24. The Board shall consist of the Chancellor and the 
President of the University, who shall be e.T-oficio mem- 
bers thereof, and thirteen persons appointed by the Lieu- 
tenant-Govern'or-in-Council. (New.) 

25. Xo person shall be eligible for appointment as a mem- 
ber of the Board unless he is a British subject, and a resi- 
dent of the Province of Ontario. (New.) 



i90() UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 11 



26. One of the members of the Board shall be appointed 
by the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council to be the chairman 
thereof. {New.) 

27. The Board may appoint one ,of its members to be 
Vice-Chairman, and, in case of the absence or the illness 
of the Chairman, or of there being a vacancy in the office 
of Chairman, the Yice-Ch'airman shall act for and have all 
the powers of the Chairman, and an' entry in the minutes 
of the Board declaring that any of the said causes for the 
appointment of a Vice-Chairman exists shall be conclusive 
evidence of the fact so declared. (New.) 

28. Unless and until otherwise provided by the Board, 
seven members thereof shall be necessary to constitute a 
quorum. (New.) 

29. N'otwithstanding any vacancy in the Board, as long 
as there are at least ten members thereof it shall be com- 
petent for the Board to exercise all or any of its powers. 
(New.) 

30. The appointed members of 'the Board, except those 
who shall be first appointed after the passing of this Act, 
shall hold office for six years. (Neiv.) 

31. Of the first appointed members of the Board three 
shall be appointed and hold office for two years; five for 
four years ; and the remaining five for six years, and all of 
them until their successors are appointed. (New.) 

32. The appointed members of the Board shall be eligible 
for re-appointment. (New.) 

33. The appointed members of the Board and any ,ot 
either of them may be removed from office by the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor-in-Council. (N^ew.) 

34. The head of University College, the head of a feder- 
ated university, or of a federated or an affiliated college, 
a member of the teaching staft" of the University, of Uni- 
versity College, of a federated university, or of a. feder- 
ated or affiliated college, shall not be eligible to be ap- 
pointed as a member of the Board. (New.) 

35. If a member of the Board, after his appointment, 
accepts or occupies any of the said offices or positions, or 
goes to reside out of the Province, or becomes insane or 
otherwise incapable of acting as a member of the Board, 
he shall ipso facto vacate his office, and a declaration of 
the existence of such vacancy entered upon the minutes 
of the Board shall be conclusive evidence thereof. (New.) 



12 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



3n. In the case of a vacancy in the B">ard, rauped by 
death, resignation or otherwise, which shall happen before 
the term of office for which a member has been appointed 
has expired, the vacancy shall be filled by the appointment 
by the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council of a successor to the 
member who has died, or resig'ned, or otherwise ceased to 
be a member, who shall hold office for the remainder of the 
latter's term of office. (New.) 

37. The government, conduct, management and control 
of the University and of University Oollege, and of the 
property, revenues, business and affairs thereof, ishall b« 
vested in the Board. (New.) 

38. All the powers over, in respect of, or in relation to th« 
University and Univ^ersity College and each of them which 
now are or may be exercised by the Lieutenant-Governor, 
save only such powers as are by this Act expressly reserved 
to the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council, are hereby, sub- 
ject to the provisions of this Act, vested in the Board. 
(Neic.) 

39. Without thereby limiting the general powers by" this 
Act conferred upon or vested in the Board, it is hereby 
declared that the Board shall have the following powers : 

(1) To make rules and regulations pertaining to the 
meetings of the Board and its transactions, for fixing the 
quorum of the Board, and for the appointment of such 
commi'ttees as it may deem necessary, and for conferring 
upon any of such committees power and authority to act 
for the Board in and in relation to such matters as the 
Board may deem it expedient to delegate to a commiltee 
with power to act for the Board. (IVeir.) 

(2) To appoint the President of the University, the Prin- 
cipal of University College, the Deans of all the faculties, 
the Librarian, the Bursar, the Registrar of the University, 
the Registrar of University College, the professors, teach- 
ers and instructors of and in the University and in Univer- 
sity College, and all such officers, clerks, employees and 
sprvanf/> as the Board may deem necessary for the purposes 
of the University and University College or either of them, 
and to" fix their salaries or remuneration, and to define 
their duties, except those of the Librarian, and their tenure^ 
of office or employment, which, unless otherwise provided, 
shall be during the pleasure of the Board. Provided, 
alwoys, that no person shall be appointed as Principal of 
University College, or as a Dean of any faculty, or as a 
member of the teaching staff of the University, or of 
any faculty thereof, or of University College, un- 
less he shall have been first nominated for the posi- 
tion to which it is proposed to appoint him by the Presi- 
dent of the University, and provided also that no Dean 



ni)(\ 



LMXHRSITY OF TORONTO. 1^^ 



of a faculty or member of the teaching staff of the Univer- 
sity or of anv faoultY thereof, or of University Col ege, 
shall be promoted, and no principal of University College 
or Dean of a faculty or member of such teaching staff 
■hall be removed from office except upon the recommenda- 
tion of the President of the University, but this proviso 
shall not apply where there is a vacancy m the office of 
President. {Aew.) 

(3) To make regulations respecting and to provide for the 
r^tiremen^ and superannuation of any of the persons men- 
tioned in Pibsection 2, or the payment of a gratuity to 
any of them upon retirement, and to .provide that any 
superannuation allowance or gratuity shall be paid out of 
a fund which may be created for that purpose either with 
the moneys of the Board or by contributions thereto from 
the persons aforesaid, or partly by boili. l.Ldw. \li., 
c. 41, 8. 12. Amended. 

(4) Subject to the limitations imposed by any trust as to 
the same, to invest all such moneys as shall come to the 
hands of the Board, and shall not be required to be 
expended for any purpose to which it lawfully may be 
applied, in such manner as to the Board may seem meet. 
1 Edw. YIL, c. 41, 8. 9 (2). Amended. 

(5) To purchase and to take and hold by gift or devise 
real property for the purposes of the University and Uni- 
versity College, or either of them, without license m mort- 
main, and every person shall have the unrestricted right 
to devise and bequeath property, real and pei^sonal, for 
the purposes of the University and University College, or 
either of them, to the Board, or otherwise for such pur- 
poses, any law to the contrary notwithstanding. {I\ew.) 

(6) To purchase and acquire all such property as the 
Board may deem necessary for the purposes of the Univer- 
sity and University College, or either of them. {I\ew.) 

(a) The power conferred by this subsection shall in- 
clude that of purchasing the interest of any 
lessee in any real property vested m the Board 
which is under lease. (Neic.) 

(7) Without the consent of the owner thereof or any 
person interested therein to enter upon, take, use^and appro- 
priate all such real property as the Board may deem necei- 
sary for the purposes of the University and University 
College, or either of them, making due compensation there- 
for to the owners and occupiers thereof, and all persons 
having any interest therein. (New.) 

(8) The provisions of The Municipal Arbitrations Act and 
of sections 437 to 467, both inclusive, of The Consohdated 



14 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Municipal Act, 1903, shall inutatis mutandis apply to the 
Board, and to the exercise by it of the powers conferred 
by subsection 7, and where any act is by any of the said 
provisions required to be done by the clerk of a munici- 
pality, or at the office of such clerk, the like act shall be 
done by the Bursar of the University, or at his office (at 
the case may be). {New.) 

(9) To acquire, hold, maintain and keep in proper order 
and condition such real property as the Board may deem 
necessary for the use of the students of the University and 
University College, and each of them, for athletic purposes, 
and to erect and maintain such buildings and structurei 
thereon as it may deem necessary. {New.) 

(10) To make such regulations and provide such means 
for the physical examination, instruction and training of 
the students of the University and of University' College ai 
to the Board may seem meet. {New.) 

(11) To sell any of the real property vested in the Board 
or to lease the same for any period not exceeding twenty- 
one years to commence in possession with such right of 
renewal and under and subject to such rents, covenants, 
agreements and conditions as to the Board may seem meet. 
1 Edw. TIL, c. 41, s. 9 (3). Amended. 

(12) To lay out and expend such sums as the Board may 
deem neceesary for the support and maintenance of the 
University and University College, and each of them, and 
for the betterment of existing buildings, and the erection 
of such new buildings as the Board may deem necessary 
for the use or purposes of the University and University 
College, and of each of them, and for the furnishing and 
equipment of such existing and newly erected buildings. 
{New.) 

(13) To lay out and expend such sums as the Board may 
deem necessary f)or the erection, equipment, furnishing 
and maintenance of residences and dining halls for the use 
of the students of Ihe University and of University Col- 
lege, and of each of them, whether such students be gra- 
duates or undergraduates, and to acquire and take over 
from any corporation any rights and powers possessed by 
it in respect of University residences and any property 
vested in it, on such terms as may be agreed on between 
such corporation and the Board, and such corporation is 
hereby empowered to enter into and to carry into effect any 
agreement for the purposes aforesaid, and upon such agree- 
ment being completed such corporation shall, if so provided 
by the terms of the agreement, be dissolved, and its rights, 
powers and property be vested in the Board. {Nexc.) 

C14) To make such rules and regulations as may to the 
Board seem meet for the management, government and 
control of such residences and dining halls. (AVw.) 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 15 



(15) To establisli such faculties, departments, chairs and 
courses of instruction in the University, and such depart- 
ments, chairs and courses of instruction in University Col- 
lege in any subject, except theology, as to the Board may 
seem meet. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 24 (1, 2). Amended. 

(16) To provide for the federation with the University of 
any college established in this Province for the promotion 
of Art or Science, or for instruction in Law, Medicine, 
Engineering, Agriculture or any other useful branch of 
learning, on such terms as to representation on the Senate, 
and otherwise, as to the Board may seem meet, and to 
enter into any agreement which may be deemed necessary 
to effectuate such federation. (New.) 

(17) To provide for the affiliation with the University of 
any college established in Canada for the promotion of Art 
or Science, or for instruction in Law, Medicine, Engineer- 
ing, Agriculture or any other useful branch of learning, on 
such terms as to representation on the Senate and otherwise 
as to the Board may seem meet, and to enter into any agree- 
ment which may be deemed necessary to effectuate such 
affiliation. {New.) 

(18) To provide for the dissolution of any such affiliation 
and of any existing affiliation and for the modification or 
alteration of the terms thereof. {New.) 

(19) To fix and determine the fees to be paid for post- 
graduate instruction, and for instruction in the faculties 
of medicine and applied science and engineering, and in 
any other faculty that may hereafter ,be established, the 
fees to be paid by regular and occasioi^al students in the 
University and in University College for enrolment there- 
in, the library fees, the laboratory fees, the gymnasium 
fees, the fees for physical examination and instruction, 
and the fees for examinations, degrees and certificates, 
and when a federated collefre by arrangement with the 
proper authorities in that behalf teaches any part of the 
course in Arts, to make such a reduction in the fees, ^pay- 
able by the students so taught in such college as may to 
the Board seem reasonable. 1 Jildw. VII., c. 41, s. 9 (4. 
5). ^4 iHPuded. 

(20) To enter into such arrangements with the governing 
body of any secondary or primary school as the Board 
may deem necessary for the purpose of or in connection 
with the academic work of the University or of finy faculty 
or department thereof, and the governing body of any 
such school which is a Collegiate Institute, a High School, 
a Technical School, or o public school, shall have authoritv, 
with the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council, 
to make such arrangements with the Board. {JSew.) 



16 ROYAL COMMISSION RE Xo. 42 



40. The Board shall have power to modify, alter and 
change the constitution of any body constituted or con- 
tinued by this Act, except the Senate, and to create such 
new bodies as may be deemed necessary for the purpose of 
carrying out the objects and provisions of this Act, and also 
to confer upon the bodies constituted or continued by this 
Act, or any or either of them, and upon any new body 
which hereafter may be constituted, such powers as to the 
Board may seem meet, but nothing herein contained is to 
be taken to authorize any abridgement of the powers by 
section 54 of this Act conferred upon the Senate. (New.) 

41.— (1) The Board may make provision for enabling the 
students of the University, University College and the fed- 
erated universities and federated colleges to appoint a repre- 
sentative committee of themselves to be chosen in such man- 
ner as shall be approved by the Board, and which shall 
be the recognized official medium ,of communication on 
behalf of such students between them and the Board, and 
which shall have the right to make communications through 
the President of the University to the Board upon any 
subject in which they are or may deem themselves to be 
interested. Provided, always, that nothing herein con- 
tained shall take away or impair the right of any student 
of or in the University or University College to make com- 
plaint to the governing bodies thereof or to the Board in 
respect of any matter as to which he is or may deem him- 
self to be entitled to complain; but every such complaint 
shall be transmitted through the President to the Board or 
to the proper governing body (as the case may be), and in 
no other manner whatsoever. (New.) 

(2) Nothing in this section contained is intended to or 
shall impair or affect the right of control which any feder- 
ated university or college possesses over its students. (J\eir.) 

42. — (1) The Board shall not incur any liability or make 
any expenditure which has the effect of impairing the pre- 
sent endowment of the University and University College, 
or any addition to such endowment which shall hereafter 
be made, unless an estimate therefor shall have been first 
made and approved by the Lieutenant-Govern/Dr-in-Coun- 
cLi. (New.) 

(2) In this section the term "endowment" shall mean 
and include the real properi;y which is by this Act vested 
in the Board, the proceeds of any part thereof which shall 
hereafter be sold, and the moneys now invested in mort- 
gages or other secui^ies whi/bh are by this Act vested in 
ihe Board. (.A'eu-.) 

43. Save as in this Act otherwise expressly provided, 
tlie action of the Board in anv matter with which it may 



]90G uxi\i:Ksrr\ oi-- rc^Roxio, 17 



(leal shall be by resoluiion or by stat\ite, as the Board 
may detprmine. but it shall not be essential tu the validity 
of any such resolution or sta^tute that it be under the cor- 
porate seal of the Board if it he authenticated in the man- 
ner prescribed by the Board. (Neic.) 

44. — (1) The accounts of the Board shall be audited at 
least once a year by the Provincial Auditor, or by some 
person appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council 
for that purpose. (New.) 

(2) The Board shall make an annual report of its trans- 
actions to the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council, in which 
shall be set forth in detail the rcJceipts and expenditure! 
for the year ended on the nex't preceding thirtieth day of 
June, and 'of the investments as they stood at the end of 
such year, and such other particulars as the Eieutenant- 
Governor-in-Council may from time to time require. {.Xew.) 

(3) Such report shall be transmitted to the Provincial 
Secretary on or before the first day of December next 
after the close of the year ior mhich it is made, and .shall 
be laid before the Legislative Assembly within the first 
ten days of its then next session. (A'ew.) 

45. No action shall be brought against the Board or 
against any member thereof on account of anything done 
or omitted by him in the execution of his office without the 
written consent of the Attorney-General for Ontario. 2 
Edw. VII., c. 43, s. 2, in part. Amended. 

46. If any question shall arise as to the powers and duties 
of the Council of University College, of the council of any 
faculty, of the Caput, of the President, of the Principal 
of University College, or of any officer or servant of the 
University or of University College, the same shall be 
settled and determined by the Board, whose decision shall 
be final. (IVew.) 

THE SENATE. 

47. The Senate of the University shall be composed as 

follows : 

(1) The Chancellor of the University, the Chairman of 
the Board, the President of the University, the Principal 
of University College, the President or other head of every 
federated university and federated college, the Deans of the 
faculties of the University, and all persons who at any time 
have occupied the office of Chancellor or Yice-Chancellor of 
the University shall be ex-ojjicio members. 

(2) The Faculties ^all be entitled to representation at 

follows : 

7 UC. 



18 ROVAL COMMISSION A'/-: Xo. 42 



The Fa(?iilty of Arts of the Unirersity bj the profes- 
sors (not including associate professors) of the faculty, 
each of whom shall be a member of the Senate; • 

The Faculty of Medicine by five members; 

The Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering by 
five members; 

The Faculty of University College by three members ; 

The Faculty of Arts of Victoria University by three 
members ; / i 

The Faculty of Arts of Trinity College by three mem- 
bers; 

And the Faculty of Arts of every university hereafter 
federated with the University by three members. 

The representatives of the faculties of the University 
except of the Faculty of Arts, and the representatives of 
the Faculty of University College and of the Faculties of 
Arts of the federated universities, shall be chosen by the 
i;,i'T:iLcrs thereof. 

(3) One member appointed by each federated universii/, 
two members appointed by each federated college, one 
member appointed by the Law Society of Upper Can- 
ada, and subject to any Statute in that behalf one member 
appointed by the governing body of every affiliated college 
which now is or shall hereafter be entitled to appoint a 
representative. 

(4) Twelve members elected by the graduates in Arts in 
the University who at the time of graduation were en- 
rolled in University College; five members elected by the 
graduates in Arts and Science of Victoria University and 
the graduates of the University who at the time of gradu- 
ation were enrolled in Victoria University; five members 
elected by the graduates in Arts and Science of Trinity 
College and the graduates in Arts of the University who 
at the time of graduation were enrolled in Trinity Col- 
lege; four members elected by the graduates in Medicine; 
two members elected by the graduates in Applied Science 
and Engineering; two members elected by the graduates 
in Law; two members elected by the graduates in Agricul- 
ture; and four members elected by such persons as hold 
certificates as Principals of Collegiate Institutes or High 
Schools or Assistants therein, and are actually engaged in 
teaching in a Collegiate Institute or a High School. 

(5) A university hereafter federated with the University 
shall be entitled to be represented on the Senate in the 
pitoportion of one representative for every one hundred 



190G UXn'ERSITV OF TORONTO. 19 



graduates in Arts, and for any fraction of one hundred 
over one-half the federated university shall be entitled 
to one additional represent>ative; provided, always, that 
in no case shall the number of such representatives exceed 
five. ♦ 

(6) If and when any new faculty is established in the 
Tniversity provision may be made by the Senate, subject 
to confirmation by the Board, for the representation on 
the Senate of the graduates in such faculty. 1 Edw. YII, 
c. 41, s. 26, in part. Ame-nded. 

48. Members of the teaching staff of the University, of 
University College, of the federated universities, and of 
the federated and affiliated colleges, shall not be eligible 
for election by any of the graduate bodies. (Xew.) 

49. No person shall be eligible for election as Chancellor 
or for election or appointment as a member of the Senate 
aniens he is a British subject and a resident of the Pro- 
vince of Ontario. (New.) 

60. The tenure of office of the elected and the appointed 
members of the Senate shall be for four years, and until 
their respective successors are elected or appointed. 1 
Edw. YII, c. 41, s. 26 (7). Amended. 

61. If any elected or appointed member of the Senate 
resigns, goes to reside out of the Province, becomes insane 
or incapable of acting, or becomes a member of the teach- 
ing staff of any of the bodies mentioned in section 48, not 
being the body which he has been appointed to represent, 
his seat shall ipso facto become vacant, and a declaration 
of the existence of any vacancy entered upon the minutes 
of the Senaie shall be conclusive evidence thereof. (Neic.) 

62. If any vacancy shall occur from any cause, the same 
shall be filled, in the case of an appointed member, by the 
body possessing the power of appointment; and in case 
of a member elected by -the graduates or by any class of 
graduates, or by the principals of Collegiate Institutes 
and High Schools, and assistants therein, such vacancy 
shall be filled by the Senate, and the persons appointed 
or elected to fill such vacancy shall hold office for the 
remainder of the term of office of the member \ahose seat 
has become vacant. 1 Edw. YII, c. 41, a. 30 (8). Amended 

63. If anv question shall arise touching the election of 
the Chancellor or of any elective member of the Senate, 
or the right of any person to be or sit or act as Chancelloj 
or as a member of the Senate, the same shall not be raised 



20 ROYAL COMMISSION RE Xo. 42 



or Jetermined in or by any action or proceedini^ in any 
court, but shall be determined by the Senate, whose deci- 
sion shall be final. (Xeu\) 

64. In addition to such 'others as are expressly men- 
tioned in this Act, the Senate shall have the following 
powers and perform the following duties : 

(1) To provide for the regulation and conduct of its pro- 
ceedings, including the determining of the quorum neces- 
sary for the transaction of business : 

(2) To provide for the granting of and to grant de;<?ree«, 
including honorary degrees and certificates of proficiency, 
oXKjept in Theology; 

(li) To provide for the establishment of ExhibitioD*!, 
Scholarships and Prizes; 

(4) To provide for the affiliation with the University of 
any college established in Canada for the promotion of 
Art or Science, or for instruction in Law, Medicine, Engin- 
eering, Agriculture or any other useful branch of learn- 
ing, and for the dissolution of such affiliation, or (;f any 
existing affiliation, or the modification or alteration of the 
terms thereof; 

(5) To provide for the cancellation, recall and suspen- 
eion of the degree, whether heretofore or hereafter granted 
or conferred, of any graduate of the University who has 
heretofore been or shall hereafter be convicted in the Pro- 
vince of Ontario or elsewhere of an oflence which, if com- 
mitted in Canada, would be an indictable offence, or who 
has been or shall hereafter (be guilty of any infamous or 
disgraceful conduct or of conduct unbecoming a graduate 
of the University; for erasing the name of such graduate 
from the roll or register of graduates and for reouirinJX 
the surrender for cancellation of the diploma, certificate 
or other instrument evidencing the right of such graduate 
to the degree of which he shall have been deprived under 
the authority of any such statute; and for providing the 
mode of inquiring into and determining as to the guilt of 
such graduate, and the procedure generally in respect of 
any of the said matters; 4 Edw. YII., c. 35, s. 1. 

(G) To provide for the establishment of any fuculty. de- 
partment, chair and course of instruction in the T'niversLty. 
1 Edw. YII., c. 41, s. 24 (1), in part. Amended. 

(7) To provide for the esiablishmenl of any deparlnieni, 
chair and course of instruction in University College in 
any subject except theology. 1 Edw. YIL.'c. 41, s. 24 
(2), in part. Amended. 



1906 rXI\'ERSITV OF TORONTO. 21 



I 



(8) To appoint scrutineers for the counting of the votes 
for Chancellor and for elective members of the Senate ; 1 
Kdw. YII, c. 41, s. ;3() (•'!), in part. 

(9) To consider and to determine on the report of the 
respective faculty councils as to the courses of study in all 

the faculties; (New.) 

(10) To consider and to determine on the like report as to 
the appointment of examiners, and the conduct and results 
of the examinations in all the faculties; {New.) 

(11) To hear and determine appeals from decisions of the 
faculty councils upon applications and memorials by stu- 
dents and others; {Ne^v.) 

(12) To consider all such matters as shall be reported to 
it by the Council of any faculty, and to communicate 
its opinion or action thereon to the Council; (New.) 

(13) To provide for the representation on the Senate of 
any faculty which may hereafter be established in the Uni- 
versity, and of the graduates in such faculty, if, in the 
opinion of the Senate, provision should be made for separ- 
ate representation of such graduates; (New.) 

(14) To provide for the preparation and publication of 
the Calendars, which shall include those of University Col- 
lege and the federated universities, or such of them as may 
desire that their calendars shall be inserted therein ; 1 Edw. 
VII, c. 41, s. 33 (1), in part. Amended. 

(15) To make rules and regulations for the management 
and conduct of the Library, and to prescribe the duties of 
the Librarian; {Neu\) 

(16) To make such changes in the composition of the 
Senate as may be deemed expedient; (New.) 

(IT) To naajve such recommendations to the Board as 
may be deemed proper for promoting the interests of the 
University and of University College, or for carrying out 
the objects and provisions of this Act. 1 Edw. YII, c. 
41, 8. 33. Amended. 

55. Nothing in section 54 contained shall authorize the 
Senate to make any change in its composition which shall 
affect the rights of representation thereon of a federated 
university or the faculty of Arts thereof, or of a federated 
college, or of the graduates of a federated university, un- 
less the same shall be assented to by the federated univer- 
sity or college affected by such change. (A'ew.) 

56. A certified copy of every statute or other enactment 
of the Senate providing for any of the matters or things 
mentioned in section 54 and therein numbered 3, 4, 5, 



22 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



6, 7, 9, 13, 14, 15, and 16 shall, within ten days after 
the passing thereof, be transmitted to the Board, and no 
such statute or enactment shall have force or effect until 
it has been approved by the Board. 1 Edw. YII., c. 41, 
a. 34. Amended. 

57. Convocation shall consist of all the graduates of the 
University and of the federated universities. 1 Edw. YII, 
c. 41, s. 36. Amended. 

68. Convocation shall have power : 

(1) To make regulations for governing its proceeding's 
and the mode of conducting the same, and keeping records 
thereof ; 

(2) To appoint a Clerk of Convocation, and to prescribe 
his duties; 

(3) In case of the absence of the Chancellor, to elect a 
presiding officer for any meeting thereof; 

(4) To consider all questions affecting the interests and 
well-being of the University, and to make representations 
thereon to the Board and to the Senate ; 

(5) To require a fee to be paid by the members as a con- 
dition of their being placed on the register of members, 
and to provide that no member whose name does not appear 
in such register shall be entitled to take anj- part in the 
proceedings of Convocation; 

(6) To appoint an Executive Committee and to confer 
upon it such powers as to Convocation may seem meet. 1 
Edw. VII, c. 41, 8. 37, in part. Amended'. 

69. Convocation shall meet when convened by the Chan- 
cellor, and also at such times and places as may be fixed 
by Convocation by regulation ^n that behalf, and in the 
absence of such regulation, as may be fixed by Convocation 
or by the Executive Committee thereof, and it shall be the 
duty of the Board to provide a suitable place for its meet- 
ings. 1 Edw. YII, c. 41, s. 37 (4), in part. Amended. 

60. Notice of all meetings shall be o-iven in such manner 
as may be prescribed by Convocation by i<gulation in that 
behalf, and in the absence of such regulation as may be 
directed by Convocation or by the Executive Committee 
thereof. 1 Edw. YII, c. 41, s. 37 (4), in part. Amended. 

61. A true copy of the minutes of the proceedings of 
every meeting of Convocation shall be transmitted without 
unnecessary delay to the Board and to the Senate. 1 Edw. 
YII, c. 41, s. 37 (4), i7t part. Amended. 



mm 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 23 



62. All questions shall be decided by tlie^vote of tlip ma- 
jority of the members present. 1 Edw. VII, c. 41, s. 37 
(5). ni part. Amended. 

63. The Chairman or presiding officer shall b* entitled to 
vote as a member of Convocalion, and any queslion on 
which there is an equality of votes shall be deemed to be 
negatived. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 37 (5), in part. 
Amended. 

64. Xo question shall 'J)e decided at any meeting unless 
at least twenty-five members are present. 1 Edw. VII, 
c. 41, s. 37 (5), in part. Amended'. 

65. If at least twenty-five members by writing under 
tkeir handa, setting forth the objects thereof, require the 
Chairman to convene a special meeting of Convocation, it 
stall be the duty of the Chairman to call the same_^without 
any unnecessary delay. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 37 (6), in 
part. Amended. 

66. No matter shall be considered af any such meeting 
except that for the consideration of which the meeting 
shall have been called. 1 Edw. VII, c. 41, s. 37 (6), 
in part. Amended. 

67. There shall be a Chancellor of the University, who 
shall be elected by the graduates thereof at the time and 
in the manner hereinafter mentioned, (yew.) 

68. The Chancellor shall be the Chairman of Convoca- 
lion. (New.) 

69. All degrees shall be conferred by the Chancellor, or, 
in case of his absence, or of their being a vacancy in the 
office of Chancellor, by the President, or, in case of the 
absence of both of them, or of both offices being vacant, by 
some member of a faculty of the University, to be appointed 
for the purpose by the Senate. (New.) 

70. The Chancellor shall hold office for four years, and 
until his successor is chosen. (Aetr.) 

71. If the Chancellor dies, goes to reside out of the Pro- 
vince, or becomes insane or otherwise incapable of acting, 
he shall ipso facto vacate his office, and a declaration of 
the existence of such vacancy by the Senate entered upon 
its minutes shall be conclusive evidence thereof. (New.) 

72. In the case of a vacancy in the office of Chancellor 
caused by death, resignation or otherwise, before the term 
of office for which the Chancellor was elected has expired. 



24 RC)^'.\L COMMISSION RE Xo. 42 



the vacancy shall be filled by tlie appiuntment by the Sen- 
ate at a special meeting thereof called for the purpose, of 
which at least thirty days' notice shall be given, of a suc- 
cessor, who shall hold office for the remainder of the term 
for which the Chancellor shall have )been elected. 1 Edw. 
VII, c. 41, 8. 30 (7). Amended. 

73. There shall be a faculty council to be known as '"The 
Council of the Faculty of Arts." (Xew.) 

74. It shall consist of the President of the University, 
the Principal of University College, the President or other 
head of everj' federated university, the teaching staff in 
the Faculty of Arts of the University, the teaching staff of 
University College, the teaching staff in the Faculty of 
Arts of Victoria University, of Trinity College and of every 
other university hereafter federated with the University, 
one professor in the department of religious knowledge 
appointed by the theological faculty in each federated uni- 
versity whether now or hereafter federated, and one pro- 
fessor appointed by each of the federated colleges. 
Provided, alwayij, that the lecturers and instructors 
whose appointments are temporary, shall not for the pur- 
pose of this section be deemed to be members of the teach- 
ing staff, and provided, also, that the lecturers and in- 
structors who are members of the Council shall act as asses- 
sors only, and shall not be entitled to vote. (IVew.) 

75. The powers and duties of the Council of the Faculty 
of Arts shall be : 

(1) To make rules and regulations for governing its' pro- 
ceedings, including the determining of the quorum neces- 
sary for the transaction of business; 

(2) To fix and determine the courses of study in Arts, 
subject to the approval of the Senate; 

(3) Subject to the approval of and confirmation by the 
Senate, to appoint the examiners for and to conduct the 
examinations of the Arts courses, and to determine the 

results of such examinations; 

t 

(4) To deal with and, subject to an appeal to the Senate, 
to decide upon all applications and memorials by students 
or others in connection with the Faculty of Arts; 

(5) To consider and report to the Senate upon such mat- 
ters affecting the Faculty of Arts us to the Council may 
seem meet. 

(6) For the purposes of this section the term "the 
Faculty of Arts" shall mean and include the teaching 
bodies and persons mentioned in section 74. (Ae'ir.) 



190G 



l'xi\I':ksitv ok toron to. 25 



76. There shall also be a rouncil for every other faculty 
of the University now or hereafter established, and a Coun- 
cil for University College. (AVw.) 

77. The Council of University CoVleg-c shall consist of 
the Principal and the teaching staff thereof and the Coun- 
cils of the said other faculties shall consist of the respec- 
tive teachin'g staffs thereof. (Xew.) 

78. Teaching staff shall have the limited meaning given 
to it in the p^o^isions of this Act relating to the Council 
of the Faculty of Arts, and the lectjirers and instructors 
who are members of such Councils shall act as assessor! 
onlv, and shall not be entitled to vote, (yew.) 



79. The powers and duties of the Faculty Councils pro- 
vided' for by section 76 shall be : 

(1) To make rules and regulations governing their pro- 
ceedings, including the determining of the quorum neces- 
sary for the transaction of business ; 

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Act, and to the 
approval of the Board, to make rules and regulations for 
the government, direction and management of their respec- 
tive faculties and the aft'airs and business thereof; 

(3) To fix and determine the courses of study in their 
respective faculties, subject to the approval of the Senate; 

(4) Subject to the approval of and confirmation by the 
Senate, to appoint the examiners for and to conduct the 
examinations of the courses in their respective faculties, 
and to determine the results of such examinations; 

(5) To deal with and, subject to an appeal to the Senate, 
to decide upon all applications and memorials by students 
and others in connection with their respective faculties; 

(6) To consider and report to the Senate upon such mat- 
ters affecting their respective faculties as to the Councils 
may seem meet. (Ae/r.) 

80. Except in the case of the Council of the Faculty of 
Arts, the Dean shall be Chairman of the Council of the 
Faculty of which he is Dean. (Xcic.) 

81. The powers and duties of the Council of University 
College shall be : 

(1) To make rules and regulations for governing its own 
proceedings, including the deterniiniug of the quorum 
necessarv for the transaction of business; 



2o ROYAL COMMISSION RE Xo. 42 



(2) iSubject to the provisions of this Act and to the appro- 
■val of the Board, to make rules and regulations for the 
(fovernment, direction and management of University Col- 
lege and the affairs and business thereof; 

(3) To appoint the examiners for and to conduct the 
examinations of University College; 

(4) To consider and report to the Board and to the Sen- 
ate or to either of them upon such matters affecting Uni- 
versity College as to the Council may seem meet. 1 Edw. 
^'11, c. 41, s. 40 (2), in part. Amended. 

82. The Principal of University College shall be the 
Chairman of the Council thereof. 1 Edw. VII, c. 41, s. 
40 (2), in part. Amended. 

83. Tfie Librarian of the University shall be ex-officio a 
member of all faculty councils and of the Council of Uni- 
versity College, (yew.) 

84. Unless and until otherwise provided by the Board, 
there shall be a Committee to be called the Caput, which 
shall be composed of the President of the University, who 
shall be the Chairman thereof ; the Principal of Uni- 
versity College, the heads of the federated univer.«ities, the 
heads of the federated colleges, and the Deans of the facul- 
lies of the University, at least five of whom shall be neces- 
sary to constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. 
(Neir.) 

85. The Caput shall have the following powers and per- 
form the following duties : 

(1) To fix and determine the time tables for the lenturee 
and other instruction in the University which affect more 
than one faculty, or which affect University College, or 
a federated university or college ; 

(2) To authorize such lecturing and teaching in the Uni- 
versity by others than the duly appointed members of the 
teaching staff thereof, and to prevent all lecturing and 
teaching not so authorized; 

C^) To exercise the powers as to discipline conferred upon 
it by sections 96 to 99 inclusive of this Act ; 

(4) Generally to deal with all such matters as may be 
assigned to it by the Board or by the Senate, provided, in 
the latter case, that such matters fall within the powen 
conferred upon the Senate by this Act. (.Veu:.) 

86. A copy of every general rule or regulation made by 
the Caput shall be transmitted to the Board, and no such 
general rule or regulation shall have any force or effect 
until it has been approved by the Board. {.\ew.) 



lOOG LNI\ KRSITV OK lOROXTO. "27 



87. The Caput may act as advisory to tlie Tresident in all 
matters affecting the academic interests of the Tiiiversity, 
but the powers of the President shall not be subject to its 
control. {New.) 

fiR. — (1) There shall be a President of the University who 
shall be the chief executive ^fficer thereof, and shall have 
general supervision over and direction of the academic 
work of the University, and the teaching staff thereof, and 
the officers and servants employed in or in connection with 
such work, including the Registrar of the University, and 
shall also have such other powers and perform such other 
duties as from time to time may be conferred upon or 
assigned to him by the Board. 

(2) He shall be a member of all faculty councils, and 
Chairman of the Council of the Faculty of Arts. {New.) 

(3) He shall be Chairman of the Senate. (New.) 

(4) In the absence of the Chancellor, he shall confer all 
degrees. {New.) 

(5) He shall call meetings of the Council of the Faculty 
of Arts in accordance with the regulations of the Council, 
and also when requested to do eo by at least five members 
thereof. 

(6) He shall have power to suspend any member of the 
teaching staff of the University and of University College, 
and any officer and servant mentioned in subsection 1 
and when he shall exercise such power he shall forthwith 
report his action to the Board, with u statement of hn 
reasons therefor. {New.) 

(7) He shall make recommendations to the Board as to 
all appointments to and all promotions in, and removals 
from the teaching staff of the University, and of University 
College (including the Principal), and of the officers and 
servants mentioned in subsection 1. {New.) 

(8) He shall have the right to summon meetings of any 
faculty council, and of the Council of University College, 
whenever he may deem it necessary to do so, and to take 
the chair at any meeting thereof at which he may be pre- 
sent. {New.) 

(9) He may, also, at his discretion, convene joint^ meet- 
ings of all the faculty Councils and the Council of Univer- 
sity College or of any two or more of them. {New.) 

(10) He shall report annually to the Board and to the 
Senate upon the progress and efficiency of the academic 
work of the University and of University College, and ai 
to their progress and requirements, and make such recom- 



28 ROYAL COMMISSION RE \o. V. 



menJations thereon as he may deem necessary, and he shall 
also report upon any matter which may be referred to him 
by the Board or by the Senate. 1 Edw. YII., c. 41, s. 39, 
in part. Amended. 

Ql) The enumeration of the express powers mentioned in 
subsections 4 to 10, inclusive, shall not be taken to limit the 
general powers conferred by sul/section 1. (JVeiv.) 

89. Subject to the provisions of section 91 in case of 
his absence or illness the President may appoint a member 
of any faculty to act in his stead, and if there is a vacancy 
in the office of President, or if no appointment is made, the 
Board may appoint a member of any faculty to act pro 
tempore, and, failing an appointment, the Dean of the 
faculty of Arts of the University shall act as President pro 
tempore. (New.) 

90. The person acting pursuant to any such appointment 
shall have and may exercise all the powers and shall per- 
form all the duties of President, but not those as to ap- 
pointments, promotions and remo'^'als, unless he shall be 
requested by the Board to do so. (New.) 

91. When and as long as there is a Vice-President of the 
University he shall act for the President in case he is 
absent or ill, if there is a vacancy in the office, or at the 
request of the President, and while so acting the Vice-Pre- 
sident shall have and may exercise all the powers and shall 
perform all the duties of President, but not those as to 
appointments, promotions, and removals, unless he shall 
be requested by the Board to do so. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 
39, in part. Amended. 

92. — (1) There shall be a principal of University College, 
who shall be the chief executive officer thereof, and shall 
have general supervision over and direction of the academic 
work of T^niversity College and the teaching staff thereof, 
and the officers and servants employed in or in connection 
with such work, including the Registrar of University Col- 
lege, and shall also have such other powers and perform 
such other duties as from time to time may be assigned to 
him by the Board. 

(2) He shall be a member of the Council of the Faculty 
of Arts. (Nexr.) 

(3) He shall call meetings of the Council of University 
College in accordance with the regulations of the Council, 
and when requested to do so by at least five members 
thereof, and also whenever he may see fit. 



190G 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



(4) He shall have power to suspend any member of the 
teaching staff of University College, and any officer and 
servant mentioned in subsection 1, and when he shall exer- 
cise such power he shall forthwith report his action to the 
President with a statement of his reasons therefor. L\eu\)^ 

(5) He shall report annually to the Board and to the 
Senate upon the progress an^ efficiency of the academic 
work of University College, and as to its progress and 
requirements, and make such recommendations thereon as . 
he may deem necessary, and he shall also report upon any 
matter which mav be referred to him by the Board or by 
the Senate, and his reports shall, in all cases, be made 
through the President. (New.) 

(6) In case of the absence or illness of the principal 
he may appoint a member of the teaching staff of Univer- 
sity College to act for him and failing an appointment by 
him, t)r ff there be a vacancy in the office of principal 
the senior member of the teaching staff of L niversity Col- 
lege shall act as principal pro tempore. 1 Edw. YII, c. 
41, 8. 41. Amended. 

93. There shall be a Registrar for the University and a 
Registrar for University College, and the offices shall not 
be held by the same person. (New.) 

94. The Council of University College, and the governing 
bodies of the federated universities and colleges, shall, 
respectively, have disciplinary jurisdiction over and entire 
responsibility for the conduct of their students in respect 
of all matters arising or occurring in or upon their respec- 
tive college buildings, including residences and grounds. 
(New.) 

95. The councils of such of the faculties as shall have 
assigned for their separate use any building or build- 
int^ and grounds, including residences, shall have disci- 
plinary jurisdiction over and entire responsibility for the 
conduct of aH students in their respective faculties in 
respect of all matters arising or occurring in or upon such 
building, or building and grounds. (New.) 

96. In all other cases, and, save as aforesaid, as respects 
all students to whatsoever college or faculty they may be- 
long, disciplinary jurisdiction shall be vested in the Caput, 
but the Caput may delegate its authority in any particular 
case or by any general regulation to the council or other 
governing body of the university or college or faculty to 
which the student belongs. (New.) 

97. The Caput shall also have power and authority to 
determine by general regulation, or otherwise, to what col- 



29 



•"^0 ROYAL COMMISSIOX NK Xo. 4.2 

lege, faculty or other body the control of university asso- 
ciations shall belong. (New.) 

98. If Ihere shall be any question as to the proper body to 
exercise jurisdiction in any matter of discipline which inay 
arise, the same shall be determined by the Caput, whose 
decision shall be final. (New.) 

99. Disciplinary jurisdiction shall include the power to 
impose fines. (New.) 

100. As respects the conduct and discipline as students of 
the University of all students registered in the University 
to whatsoever college or faculty they may belong and as 
respects all students enrolled in University College the pro 
visions of sections 94 tp 99 may be abrogated or changed 
by the Board. (New.) • 

101. —(1) The first election under this Act of the Chan- 
cellor and of the elective members of the Senate shall take 
place and be held m the present year, and the present in- 
cumbents of the said offices and the appointed members 
of the Senate, unless they shall be re-elected or re-ap- 
poiuted, shall cease to hold office immediately after the 
meeting of the Senate next following the holding of such 
election. (New.) 

(2) The elective inemljers of the Senate shall be elected 
and the appointed members thereof shall be appointed 
llicreafter (juadriennially. (New.) 

102. The Registrar of the University shall, after the fif- 
teenth day of June, and before the fifteenth day of August 
in every year in which an election is to take place, prepare 
an alphabetical list to be called "The Election Register," 
of the names and known addresses of all graduates who are 
entitled to vote at any such election. 1 Edw. YII., c. 41, 
s. 28 (1), in part. Amended. 

103. The election register shall be posted up in i con- 
spicuous place in the office of the Registrar not later than 
the fifteenth day of August in every such year, and shall be 
open to inspection by any graduate entitled to vote, at all 
reasonable hours. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 28 (1), in paiit. 
Amended. 

104. No person whose name does not appear in the elec- 
tion register shall be entitled to vote at any such election. 
1 Edw. VII., c. 41, 8. i28 (1), in part. Amended. 

105. If from any cause the election register is not pre- 
pared at the time and in tlie manner provided by this Act, 



1906 u\i\I':rsitv of 'JOROXTO. 31 



the Board shall make provisiou for the preparation iberonf, 
and all the provisions of this Art as t(j the election regis- 
ter, exoppt those relating to time, sliall i'.pply to the elec- 
tion register which shall be so jirepared. (Xew.) 

106. For the purposes of all elections at \\'lii<li yradr.ates 
of a federated university are entitled to vote, the Kegistrar 
of such University shall on or before the fifteenth day of 
June in each year in which an election at which such 
graduates are entitled to vote is to be held, furnish to the 
Registrar of the University a list of the names of all gra- 
duates of such federated university who are entilcid to 
vote, with their post office addresses as far as the same are 
known. 1 Edw. YII., c. 41, s. 27. Amended. 

107. The Kducation Department sliall, ujxni th" a])i'li'-a- 
tion of the Kegistrar of the X'niversity, furnish him with 
a list of all principals of and assistants in Collegiate Insti- 
tutes and High Schorls who are actually engaged in teach- 
ing in a Collegiate Institute or High School, with their 
post office addresses as far as known. 1 Edw. Til., 
c. 41, sec. 28 (2), nt port. Aineiided. 

108. The Registrar, in preparing the election register, 
shall make separate lists (1) of the graduates in Arts of the 
University enrolled in University College; (2) of the gra- 
duates of each federated university, including graduates of 
the University who were at the time of graduation enrolled 
in the federated university ; (3) of the graduates in Medi- 
cine; (4) of the graduates in Law; (5) of the graduates in 
Applied Science and Engineering; (6) of the graduates of 
each and every other faculty in the University hereafter 
constituted, the graduates of which are entitled to elect 
representatives; (7) of the graduates in Agriculture; and 
(8) of the principals of and assistants in Collegiate Insti- 
tutes and High Schools actually engaged in teaching in a 
Collegiate Institute or High School, and such lists shall be 
the voters' lists for the election. 1 Edw\ TIL, c. 41, s. 
28 (2). Ainended. 

109. If any person whose name appears or ought to appear 
in any election register complains in writing to the Regis- 
trar of the University, not later than ten clear days before 
the second Wednesday of the month of September in the 
year in which the election is to be held, that his name or 
that of any person which ought to appear therein has 
been omitted from such register or of any error in such name 
as it appears therein, or that the name of any person whose 
name ought not to be entered in the register appears there- 
in, the Registrar shall forthwith examine into the com- 
plaint, and after such notice as he may deem necessary to 
any person whose name is sought to be stricken from such 



32 ROVAL COMMISSION Rh: Xo. 40 



register, rectify the error, if any, therein. 1 Edw. YII., 
c. 41, s. 28 (4), in part. Ainetided. 

110. The decision of tlie Registrar sluill l)e subje.-t to 
appeal to the President of the University. 1 Edw. YII., 
c. 41, 8. 28 (4), in part. Amended. 

111. Xo person shall be elected as Chancellor, or as a 
member of the Senate, unless he has been nominated as 
hereinafter mentioned, and every vote cast for any person 
not so nominated shall be void. 1 Edw. YII., c. 41, b. 
29 (1), in part. Amended. 

112. The nomination shall be in A^riting by a nomination 
paper, which shall be signed by at least ten graduates 
entitled to vote at the election. 1 Edw. YII., c. 41, s. 
29 (1), in part. Amended. 

113. The nomination paper shall be delivered at the office 
of the Ilegistrar, or, if sent by mail, shall be received there 
not later than the first Wednesday in September of the 
year in which the election is to take place, and if not bo 
delivered or received shall be invalid, and shall not be 
acted upon. 1 p]dw. YII., c. 41, s. 29 (1), in part. 
Amended. 

114. Any ])crs()n who is nominated for the office of 
Chancellor or as a member of the Senate may refuse to 
become a candidate for the office for which he shall have 
been nominated and he shall be deemed not to have been 
nominated, and his name shall not be included in the list of 
candidates if he shall notify the Registrar in writing of 
Lis refusal within four days after the day upon which the 
time for nominations shall have expired. 2 Edw. YII., 
c. 43, 8. 11. Amended. 

115. In case one person only is nominated for the office 
of Chancellor within the time fixed for that purpose he shall 
be elected to and be entitled to hold that office. 1 Edw. 
YII., c. 41, s. 29 (2), in part. Amended. 

116. In case only .such number of persons as ave required 
to be elected as members of the Senate are nominated within 
the time fixed for that purpose the persons so nfiminated 
shall be elected to and be entitled to hold the office for which 
they were respectively nominated. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 
29 (2), in part. Amended. 

117. Tlic Kegistrai' shall re])ort to the Scnalc at its next 
meeting tlie results of any such election. 1 Edw. YII., 
c. 41, 8. 29 (2), in part. Amended. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 33 



118. In case a poll is necessary the Registrar shall on or 
before the second Wednesday in the said month of Sep- 
tember send by mail to every graduate who, according to 
tlie election register, is entitled to vote at the election, and 
whose place of residence is shewn in such register, or is 
known to the Registrar, a voting paper in the form set out 
in schedule 1 to this Act, together with a list of the 
persons whose term of office is expiring, and of all persons 
who have been nominated. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 29 (3). 
Amended. 

119. The votes shall be given by closed voting papers, 
which shall be delivered, or, if sent by mail, shall be re- 
ceived at the office of the Registrar not earlier than the 
second Wednesday of the said month of September, and 
not later than the first Wednesday of October following, 
both days inclusive, and every voting paper which has not 
been furnished by the Registrar, or which is not so deliv- 
ered or received as aforesaid shall be invalid, and shall 
not be counted. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 30 (1, 2). Amended. 

120. Two persons to be appointed by the Senate for that 
purpose, shall be the scrutineers; but, if the Senate does 
not at least two weeks previous to the time fixed for the 
counting of the votes appoint the scrutineers, it shall be 
the duty of the President to make the appointment, 1 
Edw. VII., c. 41, 8. 30 (3). Ameiided. 

121. The voting papers shall, upon the next day after the 
time for receiving the same has expired, be opened by the 
Registrar, and such persons as may be appointed by the 
Senate or by the President to assist in the opening thereof, 
in the presence of the scrutineers to be appointed as herein- 
before mentioned, who shall examine and count the votes 
and keep a record thereof in a book to be provided for that 
purpose, and the opening of the voting papers and the 
counting and recording of the votes shall be continued from 
day to day until the same are completed. 1 Edw. VII., 
c. 41, 8. 30 (2), in part. Amended. 

122. Any person entitled to vote at the election may be 
present at the opening of the voting papers and the counting 
and recording of the votes. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, g. 30 (2), 
in part. Amended. 

123. If more than one name appears upon a voting paper 
for Chancellor the vote shall be invalid, and shall not be 
counted, and if more names than the number to be elected 
appear on a voting paper for members of the Senate 
the votes shall be counted as votes for the persons 
whose names appear thereon in consecutive order, be- 
ginning with the first until the required number is reached, 

8~u. c. 



34 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



and all other votes thereon shall be invalid, and shall not 
be counted. 1 Edw. YII., c. 41, s. 30 (4). Amended. 

124. Upon the completion of the scrutiny and counting of 
the votes the scrutineers shall declare the result of the 
election, setting forth the number of votes cast for every 
person who has been nominated, and shall, without delay, 
report the same in writing under their hand« to the Senate. 
1 Edw. VII., c. 41, 8. 30 (5). Amended. 

125. In case of an equality of the votes given for two or 
more jjcrsons for Chancellor or for a member or members 
of the Senate, which leaves the election undecided, the 
Senate shall, at its next meeting, give the casting vote or 
votes necessary to decide it. 1 Edw. YII., c, 41, s. 30 
(6). Amended. 

126. If from any cause any election provided for by this 
Act shall not be held as hereinbefore provided, the Board 
shall make provision for holding the same and fix the dates 
for the nominations and the other proceedings for taking, 
counting and recording the votes thereat and declaring the 
result thereof, and such proceedings shall, as far as may 
be practicable, be made conformable with those provided 
by this Act. {New.) 

127. The course of instruction in the Faculty of Arts 
shall be apportioned between the University and University 
College as follows : 

(1) In the University instruction shall be given in Mathe- 
matics, Physics, Astronomy, Geology, Mineralogy, Chem- 
istry, Biology, Physiology, History, Ethnology, Compara- 
tive Philology, Italian, Spanish, History of Philosophy, 
Psychology, Logic, Metaphysics, Education, Political 
Science, including Political Economy, Jurisprudence and 
Constitutional Law, and Constitutional History, and in 
such other subjects as, from time to time, may be deter- 
mined by statute in that behalf. 1 Edw. YII., c. 41, s. 
24 (1). Amended. 

(2) In University College instruction shall be given in 
Greek, Latin, Ancient History, English, French, German, 
Oriental Languages and Ethics, and in such other subjects 
as may, from time to time, be determined by statute in 
that behalf, but not in theology. 1 Edw. YII., c. 41, s. 
24 (2). Amended. 

128. The subjects of instruction assigned by section 
127 of this Act to the University and University Col- 
lege, respectively, shall not be transferred from the one to 
the other except by the direction of the Board, and no such 
direction shall be made unless with the consent of the feder- 
ated universities. I Edw. YII., c. 41, s. 24 (4). Amended. 



1906 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 35 



129.— (1) The curriculum in Arts of the University shall 
include the subjects of Biblical Greek, Biblical Literature, 
Christian Ethics, Apologetics, the Evidences of Natural 
and Revealed Religion and Church History, ,but any pro- 
vision for examination and instruction in the same shall be 
left to the voluntary action of the federated universities 
and colleges, and provision shall be made by a system of 
options to prevent such subjects being made compulsory 
upon any candidate for a degree. 1 Edw. YII, c. 41, s. 
24 (3). 

(2) The options provided for by subsection 1 shall be 
evenly distributed over each year of the general or pass 
course, and as far as practicable over each of the honour 
courses. (New.) 

130. The Board, with the consent of the federated univer- 
sities, but not otherwise, may provide that attendance by 
a student enrolled in University College upon instruction 
in the subjects assigned to University College or any of 
them, in any of the federated universities, shall be equiva- 
lent to attendance in University College, and that such 
attendance by a student enrolled in a federated university, 
in University College, shall be equivalent to attendance in 
■uch federated university, and may prescribe the terms and 
conditions upon which any such attendance upon instruc- 
tion may take place. (New.) 

131. Save as otherwise provided by the Board, a profes- 
sor, lecturer or teacher of University College may give in- 
struction at or to the students enrolled in any feder- 
ated university in any of the subjects of instruc- 
tion from time to time assigned to University College, and 
a professor, lecturer or teacher of any federated university 
may give instruction at or to the students enrolled in Uni- 
versity College in any of such subjects of instruction. 
Provided, always, that the consent of the Principal of 
University College and of the federated university or uni- 
versities concerned and the approval of the Senate shall 
have been first obtained. (New.) 

132. Instruction in Arts in the University (except post- 
graduate instruction) shall be free to all regular matricu- 
lated students thereof who are enrolled in University Col- 
lege or in a federated university, and who enter their 
names with the Registrar of the University, but this pro- 
vision shall not include exemption from laboratory fees, 
gymnasium fees, or fees for physical examination or in- 
struction. 1 Edw. YII, c. 41, 8. 15. Amended. 

133. The table of fees now prescribed for University 
College shall be the minimum table of fees for University 
College and for the Arts faculties of the federated universi- 



36 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



ties, and no reduction shall be made in such minimum un- 
less with the consent of the Board and of the federated uni- 
versities, (New.) 

134. Attendance upon instruction in University College 
or in a federated university by a student enrolled therein 
shall entitle such student to present himself for any Arts 
examination in and to proceed to any degree in Arts of the 
University, and to compete for any exhibition, scholar- 
ship, prize or certificate of proficiency in Arts awarded or 
granted by the University in the same way and to the same 
extent as if he had attended upon such instruction in the 
University. 1 Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 25 (2). Amended. 

136. If and as far as may be sanctioned by the Senate 
and approved by the Board, the provisions of section 134 
shall apply to attendance by a student of a federated or 
affiliated college upon instruction therein. 1 Edw. YII., 
c. 41, s. 25 (2), in part. Amended. 

136.— (1) All students proceeding to a degree in Arts in 
the University, unless in cases for which special provision 
shall be made to the contrary by statute of the Senate, shall 
be enrolled in University College or in a federated univer- 
sity. 

(2) Subject to the provisions of the statutes of the Sen- 
ate in that behalf, all students proceeding to a degree in 
any faculty of the University other than that of Arts, unless 
in cases for which special provision shall be made to the 
contrary by statute of the Senate, shall be registered in the 
University and receive their instruction therein, except in 
the subjects in which by or under the authority of subsec- 
tion 2 of section 127 instruction is or may be provided for 
in University College, as to which it shall be sufficient if 
being a student enrolled in University College or a feder- 
ated universitv he has received instruction therein. 1 
Edw. VII., c.'41, s. 25 (1). Amended. 

137. Persons who have not received their instruction in 
the Universitj^ or in University College, or in a federated 
university or college, or in an affiliated college, may be 
admitted as candidates for examination for standing or for 
any degrees, honours, scholarships or certificates of profi- 
ciency authorized to be granted or conferred by the Univer- 
sity on such conditions as the Senate may, from time to 
time, determine. 50 Vict., c. 43, s. 54. 

138. — (1) No student enrolled in University College or in 
a federated university or college or in an affiliated college 
shall be permitted to present himself for any university 
examination subsequent to that for matriculation without 
producing a certificate that he has complied with the re- 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 37 



quirements of such university or college affecting his admis- 
sion to such examination. 

(2) A student enrolled in an afl&liated college may, sub- 
ject to the provisions of subsection 1 and of any statute in 
that behalf of the Senate, present himself for any Univer- 
sity examination subsequent to that for matriculation lead- 
ing to a degree in that branch of learning in which instruc- 
tion is given in such college. Provided, always, that such 
student shall not be entitled, unless by special permission 
of the Senate, to present himself for any examination lead- 
ing to a degree in Arts or in any other faculty of the Uni- 
versity. 1 Edw. YII., c. 41, s. 25 (4). Amended. 

139. Every graduate's diploma and student's certificate of 
standing, in addition to being signed by the proper auth- 
ority in that behalf of the University, shall indicate the 
federated university or college or affiliated college in which 
such student was enrolled at the time of his graduation or 
examination, and shall be signed by such professor, teacher 
or officer of the federated university or college or affiliated 
college as the governing body thereof may determine. 1 
Edw. VII., c. 41, s. 25 (3). Amended. 

140. — (1) There shall be and are hereby set apart, for the 
use of the University and University College 
acres of the Crown lands of the Province, and the same 
shall be deemed an addition to and shall form part of the 
endowment of the University and University College. 

(2) The said lands shall be selected, sold, controlled and 
managed and the proceeds of the sales thereof shall be 
accounted for and paid over to the Board as provided by 
the second, third and fourth sections of the Act passed in 
the sixtieth year of the reign of Her late Majesty, Queen 
Victoria, chapter 59. 

(3) The provisions of sections 5 and 6 of the said Act 
shall apply to the lands which shall be set apart under the 
provisions of this section. (New.) 

141. — (1) For the purpose of making provision for the 
maintenance and support of the University and of Univer- 
sity College, there shall be paid to the Board out of the Con- 
solidated Revenue of the Province yearly and every year 
a sum equal to per centum of the average yearly 

gross receipts of the Province from succession duties. 

(2) The said annual sums shall be paid in equal half-year- 
ly instalments on the first day of July and the first day ol 
January in each year, the first of which shall be paid on 
the first day of July next, and the average yearly gross 
receipts of the Province from succession duties shall be 
determined by and be based upon the gross receipts from 



38 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



such duties of the three years ended on the Slst day of 
December next preceding the day on which the first inatal- 
ment of the year is to be paid. (New.) 

142. Nothing in this Act contained shall impair or preju- 
dicially affect the rights of Trinity College under those 
provisions of the agreement made between the Trustees of 
the University of Toronto of the first part and Trinity 
College of the second part and bearing date the twenty- 
fifth day of August, 1903, which are set out in schedule 
2 to this Act, but such provisions shall continue to be and 
shall remain binding on the University, (New.) 

143. — (1) The Board shall have power to make such ar- 
rangement as it may deem expedient for the purpose of 
facilitating the removal of Trinity College to Queen's Park, 
and to that end to agree to such modifications and alterations 
of the terms of the said agreement bearing date the twenty- 
fifth day of August, 1903, under the provisions of which 
Trinity College became federated with the University, and 
to agree to such additional or substituted terms, financial 
or otherwise, as to the Board may seem meet, but no such 
agreement shall have any force or effect until it has been 
approved by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, but when 
so approved such agreement shall have the same force and 
effect as if the terms thereof had been embodied in this 
Act. 

(2) In the event of its being necessary in order to the 
carrying out of any agreement which may be entered into 
under the provisions of subsection 1, that to enable Trinity 
College to remove its seat to a site on the University land 
in or near Queen's Park and to erect new buildings thereon 
a loan to be raised by Trinity College should be guaranteed 
by the Province it shall be lawful for the Lieutenant- 
Governor-in-Council for and in the name of the Province 
to guarantee the repayment of the loan in such form and 
upon and subject to such conditions and stipulations as to 
the nature and sufficiency of the security to be given for 
the loan, the safeguards which may be deemed necessary 
to protect the Province against loss and to ensure the re- 
payment of principal and interest as the same become due, 
and otherwise as to the Lieutenant-Governor ma 3^ seem 
meet. 

(3) Trinity College is hereby authorized and empowered 
to make and enter into any agreement which it may deem 
necessary for carrying out the purpose mentioned in sub- 
section 1, and to make and execute all such agreements, 
deeds and other instruments as may be deemed necessary 
to carry into effect the provisions of any such agreement. 

(4) Trinity College may also borrow upon the security of 
its property, real and personal, or any part thereof, such 
sum of money as may be deemed requisite in order \o carry 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 39 



out such removal as aforesaid, and the terms of any agree- 
ment which may be entered into as aforesaid in reference 
thereto, and may execute such deeds, bonds, debentures 
and other instruments as may be deemed necessary for the 
purposes of such security as aforesaid, and the money so 
borrowed may be repayable at such times and in such 
manner and bear such rate of interest as to Trinity College 
may seem meet. (New.) 

144. The Acts and parts of Acts mentioned in schedule 3 
to this Act are hereby repealed to the extent mentioned in 
the said schedule. 



SCHEDULE 1. 

{Section 118.) 
Form of Voting Paper. 

University cf Toronto. Election, 19 

I, resident at in the county 

of do hereby declare : 

(1) That the signature subscribed hereunto is of my proper hand- 
writing. 

(2) That I vote for the following person as Chancellor of the 
University of Toronto, viz., of 

in the county of 

(3) That I vote for the following persons as members of the 
Senat? of the University of Toronto, viz., 

of in the county of 

etc., etc. 

(4) That I have not for the purpose of this election signed any 
other voting paper as a graduate of the Faculty of Arts {or of Medi- 
cine, or of Law, or as a Principal of or Assistant in a Collegiate 
Institute, o<r a High School, as the case may be). 

(5) That this voting paper was signed by me on the day of the 
date thereof. 

(6) That I vote in my right as graduate of Uni- 
versity {or as Principal of or Assistant in a Col- 
legiate Institute or a High School, as the case may he). 

(7) (In the case of a Principal of or Assistant in a Ccllegiate 
Institute or in a High School) That I am now actually engaged in 
teaching in a Collegiate Institute {or in a High School, as the 
rase may he) viz., in the at 

Witness my hand this day of A.D. 19 

A. B. 

SCHEDULE 2. 

{Section 142.) 

Provisions of the agreement between the Trustees of the Univer- 
sity of Toronto and Trinity College which are not to be aflFected by 
the Act. 



40 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No.' 42 



"The parties of the second part shall be entitled to have lectures 
in the University subjects as defined by The University Act, 1901, 
delivered by the professors and other instructors of the University 
of Toronto at Trinity College in all subjects of the general or pass 
course, and as far as practicable in all subjects of the several honour 
courses, but it is hereby declared that it is not intended that there 
shall be any duplication of lectures or other instruction for the pur- 
poses of which scientific apparatus or other means of demonstration 
are required which are not provided by Trinity College, and which 
cannot be conve'niently taken from the University buildings to Trin- 
ity College. 

"All arrangements for such lectures, including the time table of 
lectures and the personnel of lecturers, shall be made in such man- 
ner as to afford to the students enrolled at Trinity College the same 
advantages in regard to the University lectures as are afforded to 
the students of the other Arts colleges, and the said arrangements 
shall be made in each year by the President of the University of 
Toronto and the Provost of Trinity College, and, in the event of 
their being unable to agree on any matter, the same shall be forth- 
with referred for final decision to such person as they may desig- 
nate in writing under their hands, and, in the event of the Presi- 
dent and the Provost being unable to agree upon such referee within 
one week after such disagreement on any matter as aforesaid, such 
referee shall be appointed by the Minister of Education, and a deci- 
sion in writing of such referee, by whomsoever chosen, shall be final. 

"The expenses connected with the duplication of lectures as afore- 
said shall be assumed by the Government as a permanent charge on 
the provincial revenues in consideration of the suspension by Trinity 
College of its degree conferring powers, and of its surrender to the 
University of Toronto of all fees in connection with degrees other 
than those of Theology. 

"A site to be agreed on between the said parties hereto in or near 
the Queen's Park, in the City of Toronto, on the lands vested in the 
parties of the first part, shall be reserved for the parties of the 
second part, on which they may erect at their own expense a build- 
ing for the use of the students of Trinity College while attending 
lectures in the University buildings. 

"Such site shall be occupied by the parties of the second part free 
of ground rent and all other charges so long as the federation of 
the universities continue, but, in the event of the withdrawal of the 
parties of the second part from federation the said building shall be 
purchased from the said parties of the second part by the said par- 
ties of the first part at a valuation to be determined by the arbitra- 
tion of two indifferent persons to be appointed, one by each of the 
parties hereto, their successors or assigns, and this provision shall 
be deemed to be and shall be a submission under The Arhitration 
Act. 

"Until the erection of such building students from Trinity College 
attending University lectures shall be allowed the use of some suit- 
able roorns in one of the University buildings. 

"Subsections 1 and 2 of section 43 of the said Act are hereby de- 
clared to be incorporated in and to form part of this agreement. 

"The Senate of the University of Toronto shall enact such statutes 
as may be necessary to enable the University of Toronto to confer 
on undergraduates and graduates of Trinity College the degrees pro- 
vided for by subsection 2 of section 3 of the University Act, 1901. 
wliich are now conferred by Trinity University. 

"The examination for the said degrees shall be conducted by the 
University of Toronto through examiners nominated by the parties 
of the second part, and the said degrees shall be conferred by the 
University of Toronto upon the report of the said examiners. 

"All students of Trinity Medical College who have not matricu- 
lated at the date of the issue of the proclamation of the federation 
of the two universities shall be allowed two years from that date to 
matriculate in the University of Trinity College under the regula- 
tions in force at the date of federation." 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 41 

SCHEDFLE M. 

{Section 1 ',').) 
Acts and parts of Acts repealed : 

R.S.O. cap. 300. The whole Act. 

1 Edw. VII., cap. 41. The whole Act. 

2 Edw. VII., cap. 48. The whole Act, except section 7. 

3 Edw. VII., cap. 36. The whole Act. 

4 Edw. VII., cap. 3o. The whole Act. 

5 Edw. VII., cap. 36. The whole Act. 

r> Edw. VII., cap. 37. Sections 7 and 10. 



9 u. c. 



SYSTEMS OF GOVERNMENT IN OTHER UNIVERSITIES. 

The autliorities of other Universities applied to for inforinacion, kindly 
furnished i-«'plie> to the following question- : 

Question No. 1. 

"Has the University any official connection with the State, and if so, 
what is the nature of the connection?" 

Chicago University : 

The University has no connection with the State. 

Columbia University, New York : 

No, except that it voluntarily reports its general condition to the 
Education Department of the State and to the general Com- 
missioner of Education at Washington. 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N .Y . : 

Cornell University is not a State University, but the Legislature 
has established in Cornell University a State College of Agri- 
culture and a State College of Veterinary Medicine, for the 
maintenance of which it last year appropriated $65,000 and 
$250,000 for buildings. 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. : 

The University is a private corporation and has no connection with 
the State. All its personal property and such real estate (in- 
cluding dormitories) as are used for educational purposes as 
distinguished from investment, are exempt from taxation. 

Leland Stanford University, Cal. : 

A "quasi-public" corporation. Partly released from State taxa- 
tion in consideration of free tuition to California students. 
Trustees report finances to Governor of State. Supreme Court 
of State may remove trustees if trust violated — as in falling 
into hands of religious sect. 

McGill University, Montreal : 

No, except that the University receives a small grant annually, 
made by the Protestant Committee of Public Instruction, out 
of the Superior Education Fund of the Province, and also that 
the University undertakes certain school examinations (which 
are somewhat similar to the Junior Leaving Examinations of 
the Province of Ontario), and for this service is paid a small 
contribution out of the moneys at the disposal of the Protest- 
ant Committee. 

Uirhigan University, Ann Arbor: 

Yes, it was established and is supported by the State of Michigan. 

Minnesota University : 

The University is a part of the system of Public Education and 
it belongs to the State. 

[43] 

10 TT.C. 



44 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey : , 

No. 

Queen's University, Kingston : 

Queen's College has not any connection with, the State, except 
ing that it is recognized as in internal part of the educational 
system of Ontario, and its courses of training for teachers are 
accepted by the Department of Education. 

Wisconsin University, Madison, Wis. : 

The University of Wisconsin is the official University of the State. 

Yale University, New Haven, ^Conn. : 

No, except that the Governor and Lieutenant-Governor are ex- 
ojjicio members of the University corporation. 

Question No. 2. 

"If a State University, what part does the State take in making appoint- 
ments to the staff (including the appointment of President)? If the State 
does not exercise direct authority in the matter, what body does make the 
appointments? What part does the President take in making staff appoint- 
ments?" 

Chicago University : 

Columbia University : 

Cornell University : 

All appointments in Cornell University are made by the Board of 
Trustees on the nomination of the President. The board votes 
only on the names presented by the President, and the Presi- 
dent makes nominations only after consulting with the depart- 
ments concerned, although the responsibility for all nominations 
rests with the President. 

Harvard University : 

Leland Stanford University : 

In all staff appointments, the initiative rests with the President; 
the trustees elect. Removals rest with the President, but must 
be submitted to an advisory board of full professors chosen by 
the Faculty. The Board of Trustees is self perpetuating. 

McGill University : 

The Province exercises no authority whatever in the matter of 
appointments, all of which are made exclusively by the Board 
of Governors, i.e., the Board of Trustees. The chief executive 
of McGill University is entitled "Principal," not "President." 
The part taken by the Principal in the matter of appointments 
is to ascertain the best man available for every vacancy, and to 
make recommendations to the -Board of Trustees. 

Michigan University : 

The governing body is a Board of Pegents elected by the people. 
The board makes all the appointments. The President has no 
power beyond that of recommendation. 

10a U.C 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 46 



Minnesota University : 

The University is controlled by a Board of Regents, the Governor 
of the State, the President of the University, and the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction being cx-offLci' m^Bib*»r? of the 
board, and the other nine members being appointed by the Gov- 
ernor of the State and confirmed by the Senate of the State 
Legislature. The President nominates staff appointments after 
consulting faculties, and faculties nominate with President'" 
approval. 

Princeton University : 

Queen's University : 

The appointments to the staff, including the appointment of Princi- 
pal, are made by the Board of Trustt-es, in which is vested the 
general government of the University. The Principal is ex- 
officio a member of the Board of Trustees, and, as such, takes a 
prominent part in making staff appointments. 

Wisconsin University : 

The State does not directly take any part in appointing the staff of 
the University. All appointments are made by the Board of 
Regents, and all nominations to th*^ Regents come from the 
President. 

Yale University : 

Question No. 3. 

"What is the supreme governing body of the University? How are its 
members chosen or appointed? How are vacancies filled?" 

Chicago University : 

The Board of Trustees. Members are chosen for the full term of 
three years, and to fill vacancies by the Board itself, 

Columbia University : 

A body of 24 Trustees are self perpetuating. There are 10 facul- 
ties and a University Council composed of the Dean and one 
elected delegate from each faculty. 

Cornell University : 

The governing board of Cornell University is the Board of Trus- 
tees; the Governor and other State officials, as well as the Presi- 
dent of the University are ex-offi.cio members. In addition 
there are 30 elective trustees serving lor a term of five years; 
of the six retiring annually four are elected by the Board and 
two by the Alumni. 

Harvard University : 

The President and Fellows of Harvard College (sometimes called 
•'The Corporation"), consisting of the President, the Treas- 
urer, and five Fellows. The Board fills vacancies in its own 
number, subject to confirmation bj the second Governing 



46 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Board of the University, called the Board of Overseers, which 
includes the President, the Treasurer, and thirty graduates of 
Harvard College elected by the Alumni of at least five years' 
standing, five Overseers being elected each year for a term of 
six years. 

Leland Stanford University : 

The Board of Trustees; first Board appointed by the founder; fills 
its own vacancies. 

McGill University : 

The supreme administrative body of the University is the Board 
of Governors. The supreme academic bod;^ is the Corporation. 

The statutes of McGill University which accompanied the answers 
to questions provide that the number of Trustees, members of 
the Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning, Gov- 
ernors of McGill College University, shall not be more than 
fifteen in the whole. They shall be laymen of some Protest- 
ant denomination. Vacancies shall be filled by the Board, 
subject to the approval of the visitor, the Go\crnor-General. 
If the number of Governors at any time falls below ten and re- 
mains so for three months the Visitor may name the number of 
persons required to bring the total number to ten, and these 
nominations shall take effect as though named by the Board 
and confirmed by the Visitor. 

Michigan University : 

The first two parts of the question are answered in answers to qiies- 
tions one and two. A vacancy is filled by the Governor. 

Minnesota University : 

The Board of Regents who appoints all members of the faculties 
upon the nomination of the President after the advice from 
faculties. 

Princeton University : 

The Trustees of Princeton University. The Governor of the State 
and the President of the University are members cx-oficio. 
There are 25 life members and five Alumni Trustees. The life 
members are elected by the Board. The Alumni Trustees are 
elected by the Alumni — one yearly, to serve for a term of five 
years. 

Queen's University : 

The Board of Trustees is the supreme governing boay of the Uni- 
versity. Its members are chosen as follows: — 

The Board, as constituted by the Royal Charter, consisted of twelve 
ministers and fifteen laymen of the Presbyterian Church of 
Canada in connection with the Church of Scotland, chosen as 
provided by the Charter. At the \inion of the Presbyterian 
Churches in 1875, the mode of appointing Trustees was chang- 
ed. Vid. as Vict., cap. 76, Ont. (Taylor's Statutes of the Pres- 
byterian Church, pp. 56, 57, 2nd Ed.), and, as provided by 
that Act, the number of clerical and lay Trustees required by 



IU06 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 47 



the Charter to retire annually do so at the annual meeting of 
the Board, and the Board elect their successors at that meet- 
ing. In addition to these twenty-seven Trustees, who must be 
Presbyterians, the University Council appoints five members 
of the Board, being empowered to do so by 52 Vict., cap. 103 
(Can.). 

The University Council is constituted under the provisions of 38 
Vict., cap. 76 (Ont.), Sections 9, 10, and represents the whole 
body of graduates, and the Trustees elected by it are chosen 
without regard to their religious afiiliation. 

vSteps are now being taken to enable the University Council to elect 
five additional Trustees, making ten in all to be chosen by the 
Council from the whole body of graduates. 

Wisronsin University : 

Fifteen regents ; thirteen appointed by the Governor, one from each 
Congregational district, and two from the State at large. State 
Superintendent and President of the University ea--oflno mem- 
bers. Appointments for three years only; part expire each 
3'ear. Vacancies filled in same manner as regular appoint- 
ments. 

Yale UniveTsity : 

A Corporation of nineteen members, viz., The President, a self per- 
petuating bod J of ten fellows, six representatives of the Alumni 
and the State officials. 



Question No. 4. 

"Are there any subordinate authoritative bodies, such as Faculty Coun- 
cils, and what is the sphere of their jurisdiction?" 

Chicago University : 

The University Congregation, consisting of officers of the University 
of the rank of Instructor and above, all Doctors of Philosophy 
of the University, representatives of other graduates, with other 
designated persons, is empowered to make recommendations to 
the governing bodies of the University. By its disapproval it 
may compel reconsideration of any measure passed by the Facul- 
ties; it is not vested, however, with any final power. The Uni- 
versity Senate, consisting of the heads of departments and a 
few designated administrative officers, has a final voice in edu- 
cational questions, subject to the approval of the Board of 
Trustees. 

The University Council, consisting of administrative officers, con- 
siders purely administrative questions. 

The Faculties initiate and consider measures concerning the educa- 
tional policy of the University. 

The University Boards are the governing bodies of some branches 
of the University not primarily concerned with instruction, 
such as the Press, and the Library. 



48 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Columbia University : 

The University Council has jurisdiction over all matters affecting 
more than one faculty; for instance, it prescribes the Academic 
Calendar. 

The Statutes of Columbia Universitj^, accompanying the answers, 
provide that the University Council shall consist of the Presi- 
dent and Deans of the several faculties respectively, ex-offi,cio; 
a representative from and chosen by each Faculty ; of the Deans 
of Barnard and Teachers' Colleges and the College of Pharm- 
acy, respectively ex-ofjicio; and a representative from and chosen 
by each of the colleges named as maintains ten or more pro- 
fessors in its Faculty. 

Subject to the reserved power of control by the Trustees, the Coun- 
cil has power in all matters not referred by statute to the Presi- 
dent or the several Faculties, such as recommending candidates 
and fixing conditions for the conferring of degrees of Master 
of Arts, Doctor of Law, and Doctor of Philosophy. To secure 
the correlation of courses offered by the several Faculties; 
encourage original research; adjust all questions involving more 
than one Faculty. To make such recommendations to the 
trustees and the Faculties concerning the educational adminis- 
tration of the University as may seem proper; to advise the 
President on matters he may bring before it. To appoint Fel- 
lows and University scholars and make rules for their govern- 
ment, subject to such restrictions as may be prescribed by the 
Statutes, or the terms on which the Fellowships and University 
scholarships are established. 
Exercise of the powers conferred upon the Council which involve a 
change in the educational policy of the University respecting 
requirements of admission or conditions of graduation, shall not 
take effect until submitted to the trustees "at one meeting, and 
another meeting of the Trustees shall have been held subsequent 
to that at which it was submitted." 
*'The Council may invite a representative of the Faculties of the 
General Protestant Episcopal and of the Union Theological 
Seminaries, respectively, to sit with it, with power to advise 
only." 

Cornell University : 

There are committees of the Board of Trustees and certain Councils 
consisting of the President, trustees and elected Faculty mem- 
bers. But all committees and councils derive their authority 
from the Board of Trustees. 

Harvard University : 

See answers to questions three and five. 

Leland Stanfofd University : 

Answered by reference to articles of organization which show that 
the Academic Council, in which the power and authority of the 
whole University Faculty is visited, and an Advisory Board 
with power to convene the Academic Council at any time, are 
both subject to the Board of Trustees. Broadly speaking, the 



1906 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



49 



former body has general power and responsibility for the internal 
administration of the University. The Advisory Board shal 
advise the President concerning any matters he refers to it. 
All matters of general importance, recommendations for appoint- 
ments, promotions, dismissals, creation of new departments or 
chairs, abolition of existing departments or chairs, shall be 
submitted by the President to the Advisory Board before becom- 
ing operative, or before submission to the trustees for action, 
when such action is necessary. While the Advisory Board is 
privileged to make recommendations to the President regarding 
-policy, no recommendations for appointments, promotions or 
dismissals shall originate with the Advisory Board. 

McGill University : . _ j nr j • • 

Faculties of Arts, Applied Science, Law and Medicine. 
The several Faculties frame regulations touching the details of the 
course of study in their respective department^; number, time, 
and methods of examinations; the admission of students 
amount and mode of payment of fees; discipline and internal 
irovernment. It is provided, however, these regulations alter- 
ations, or repeal thereof, must be first approved by the Corpor- 
ation, which latter body has the power to repeal or alter them. 
No student shall be expelled without the consent of the Corpor- 
ation, and that body may entertain appeal from any decision of 
a Faculty whereby any punishment more severe than reprimand 
may have been imposed on a student. . . , ., , 

There is also an Academic Board whose duty it is to consider such 
matters as pertain to the interests of the University as a whole, 
and to make recommendations concerning the same. 

"'''''"""^rCeZL departoeats. each governed under general law, ol 
the Regents by its own Faculty. 

""^"""^'^etlslust been established a University Council, It has juris- 
diction over student enterprises involving ^-P^^^lt^? .^,^ ^^"^^ 
student entertainments, commencement and ^YiT^Iin^en- 
entertainments, publications, and an advisory duty as to gen 
eral welfare. 

''""^^%Sty"'Faculty consisting of Acaden>ic Faculty and John C. 
Green School of Science Faculty. 

Queen's ^^^-^^^.^ administration of the University is carried on by the 
"^"^^ Senat" which consists of the «taff of professors presided o.e 
by the Principal. The powers and duties of the ^enate are 
defined in the statutes of the University (^/^J Taylor's Statutes 
relating to the Presbyterian Church, pp. 74 75). 
There is an Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees called 
the Finance and Estate Committee, by means of which the busi 
ness affairs of the University are administered subject to tHe 
Board of Trustees (Vide Taylor's Statutes, p. 7^). 



50 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Wisconsin University : 

No subordinate authoritative bodies. 



J aJe University : 

The "permanent officers" of the several faculties, meeting in various 
councils, make recommendations which have great weight, 
though no legal authority. 

Question No. 5. 

"What are the powers and duties of the President?" 

Chicago University: 

The President is the executive head of the University, exercising 
such supervision and direction as will promote the efficiency of 
every Department. He is responsible for the discipline of the 
University. He presides at the meetings of the Faculties, and 
is ihe official medium of communication between the Faculties 
and the Board of Trustees, and between the students of the Uni- 
versity and the Board of Trustees. He recommends to the 
Board of Trustees appointments to the several Faculties. He 
is responsible for carrying out all measures officially agreed 
upon by the Faculties in regard to matters committed to them 
by the Board, and such measures concerning the internal 
administration of the University as the Board of Trustees may 
enact. He allots Fellowships among the Departments of the 
University. He makes an Annual Report to the Board of 
Trustees of the work and condition of the University in all its 
Departments. 

ColuTnbia University : 

As defined in the statutes, the President has charge of the educa- 
tional administration of the University, is chairman of the 
University Council, and of every Faculty established by the 
Trustees. "His concurrence shall be necessary to every act of 
the Council or of a Faculty; unless, after his non-concurrence, 
the act or resolution shall be again passed by a vote of two 
thirds of the entire body at the same or at the next succeed- 
ing meeting thereof." In cases where there is non-concur- 
rence between the President and a majority of the Council or 
Faculty, each member shall be entitled to have entered on 
the minutes, his reasons for his vote. 

The President takes charge and has care of the University gener- 
ally, its buildings, grounds adjacent thereto, and moveable 
property upon the same. 

He has power to call meetings of the Council and Faculties, and to 
give such directions and to perform such acts as shall, in his 
judgment, promote the interests of the University, so that they 
do not contravene the Charter, the statutes, or the resolutions 
of the Trustees, or of the Council or Faculties. 

To report to the Trustees annually, or as occasion requires, the con- 
dition and needs of the University. 

"To administer discipline in such cases as he deems proper and to 
empower the Deans of the several faculties to administer dis- 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 5i 



■ 



cipline in such manner and under such regulations as he shall 
pi-escrihe." 

Cornell University: , -r. i i- m , ^ 

The President is a member ex-officio of the Board oi irustees and 
a member of all standing committees of the Board of Trustees 
(except the Auditing Committee) and he is chairman of all 
Councils. 
The President also nominates all members of the staff of instruc- 
tion to the Board of Trustees for appointment. He is also a 
member and presiding officer of every Faculty in the Univer- 
sity. And in all directions he is expected to promote the inter- 
ests of the University. 

Harvard University : i ri • j 

The President of the University presides over the Corporation and 
acts as the medium of communication between the Corporation 
and the Board of Overseers and between these Governing 
Boards and the several Faculties, over each of which he pre- 
sides. He has a general superintendence over all the affairs of 
the University, and makes an Annual Report on the condition 
of the University to the Board of Overseers. He nominates to 
the President and Fellows all persons proposed for appointment 
as teachers or administrative officers, informing himself of their 
qualifications with such help as he can obtain from members 
of the Faculty and other competent persons. In the case of 
the numerous^ appointments of young teachers for a one-year 
term he depends very largely upon the advice of members of the 
Faculty in the department of instruction concerned, that infor- 
mation being expressed ordinarily by the Chairman, after con- 
sultation with his colleagues. 

Lei and Stanford University : . ^ . ,_, • 

The articles of organization of the Leland Stanford Junior Univer- 
sity, says the President shall be the executive officer of the 
Faculty of the University ; primarily responsible for the en- 
forcement of discipline; ex-ofjicio Chairman of the Academic 
Council and of the Executive court of that Council; ex-ojjicio 
head of the Faculty or Faculties of any schools which may 
hereafter be organized by the Board of Trustees. He shall be 
the official medium of communication between the teaching 
force of the University and the Board of Trustees, and between 
the students of the University and the Board ; designate a pro- 
fessor in each department to act as executive head of the depart- 
ment Faculty, such head to hold office at the will of every 
President, appointments and removals of heads of department 
Faculties to be made after consultation with the Advisory 
Board and with the approval of the Trustees; appoint the 
administration standing committees (Student affairs. Athletics, 
Public Exercises, Literary Contests, Public Health, Delinquent 
Scholarship), subject to the approval of the Advisory Board. 

McGill University : 

The President of the Royal Institution for the Advancement of 
Learning is elected from among the governors, and shall also 



52 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



bear the title and discharge the functions of Chancellor of the 
University. 
The Principal, who is also Vice-Chancellor of the University, has 
general superintendence of all affairs of the College and Uni- 
versity, presides, when present, at meetings of the several 
faculties, and performs such duties in the instruction of stud- 
ents and otherwise as the Governors may assign to him. 

Michigan University : 

He is simply designated as the Executive officer. He is to preside 
at the meetings of the Board of Eegents but has no vote. 

Minnesota University : 

He is at the head of every Faculty. May preside at all meetings. 
He is the Executive who executes. All troubles, if not settled, 
go to him. The order, peace, and character of the University 
are in his hands. Correspondence with other institutions and 
the outside world is his. He speaks for the University. In 
brief his duties are to do everything he can to help the Uni- 
versity before the people, the Legislature, and the world. 

Princeton University : 

To preside at meetings of the Trustees, in the absence of the Gov- 
ernor, and to preside on all occasions, and to represent the 
University before the public. He is charged with general 
supervision of the interests of the University and has special 
over-sight of the various departments of instruction to sign all 
obligations and contracts and all diplomas and certificates of 
graduation. 

Queen's University : 

Taylor's statutes, 2nd Education, page 69. 

Wisconsin University : 

The President makes recommendations to the Board of Regents or 
to the Executive Committees upon every conceivable subject. 
Sole initiation is with him in the matter of the staff. He is in 
general responsible to the Board for the educational adminis- 
tration of the University, and is depended upon to 
take the initiative as to policies in educational development, 
construction, etc. He is ex-officio a member of the Board of 
Regents, and a member of its standing committees, but has a 
vote only in the case of a tie. 

Yale University: 

Similar to those of the President of a great Railway. 

Question No. 6. 

"What share is taken in the government of the University (a) by the 
Faculty and (b) by the graduates?" 

Chicago University : 

(a) Entrance requirements, courses, ahd disciplinary regulations, in 
short, nearly all points of educational policy are determined by 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 63 



the Faculties. The approval of the Board of Trustees is neces- 
sary to any measure of moment, but it usually follows without 
question approval by the Faculties. 
(6) As yet the only share in the government of the University by 
graduates is through membervship in the Congregation, which 
has been noted. 

Columbia University : 

(a) The Statutes of Columbia University provide that the Faculties 

(subject to the reserved power of control by the trustees and the 
provisions of the Statutes) shall fix the requirements of admis- 
sion, programme of studies, conditions of graduation ; establish 
rules for ascertaining the proficiency of students, and for the 
assignment of honors; fix times' of examinations other than 
entrance and final examinations; prepare and publish from time 
to time a statement of the programme of studies to be pursued 
each year and in each of the departments of instruction; make 
such regulations for their own proceedings, and for the better 
government of Columbia College and their respective Schools 
and Colleges as shall not contravene the charter of the Corpor- 
ation, the Statutes or any resolution of the trustees or Council. 
No exercise of powers conferred on any of the Faculties, involv- 
ing a change in the educational policy of the University in 
respect to the requirements of admission, the programme of 
studies, or conditions of graduation, shall take effect until sub- 
mitted to the trustees at one meeting, and another meeting shall 
have been held subsequent to that at which it was submitted. 

(b) The graduates as such have no formal share in the government 

of the University, though five-sixths of the trustees and a 
majority of the members of the faculties hold degrees from 
Columbia. 

Cornell University : 

(a) As the trustees look after the business and finances and appoint- 
ments of the University, the Faculty is charged with its educa- 
tion and discipline. 

(6) The graduates elect annually two of the six vacancies in the 
Board of Trustees. 

Harvard University : 

The governing boards commit to the several Faculties of the Uni- 
versity the carrying on of instruction and matters of student 
discipline. All courses announced in the University Catalogue 
are so announced by authority of the Faculty, but the Faculty's 
authority in this respect is subject to the Corporation's control 
of appointments, salaries, and expenditures generally. The 
Faculties recommend all candidates for ordinary degrees; but 
the latter are actually conferred by concurrent action of the 
governing boards. 

Leland Stanford University : 

(6) None by graduates. 



64 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



McGill University : 

(a) See answer to question 4. 

(6) Graduates participate in tlie government of the University mainly 
by their representation on the Corporation of the University. 

Michigan University : 

(a) Each faculty prescribes the work and governs its students. 
(6) The graduates have no power. 

Minnesota University : 

(a) Each Faculty has control of the conduct of its students in its 
own college, and may take proper general regulations, to be 
approved by Board of Eegents. Practically, the Faculty gov- 
erns the College. 
Princeton University : 

The trustees govern the University; the Faculty governs the stu- 
dents in all matters. 

Queen's University : 

The share taken in the government of the University by the profes- 
sors and graduates, in addition to what is stated in nnswer to 
question 4, is through the University Council, "whirh is com- 
posed of trustees, professors and representatives of the gradu- 
ates, the representation of the latter being equal to the number 
of trustees and professors." 

Wisco7isin University : 

(a) With the Faculty largely rests the responsibility of the educa- 
tional side of the University. Initiatives in educational mat- 
ters are taken by the Faculty, but all departures from past pro- 
cedure must be approved by the Regents. 
(6) Graduates as such do not have any share in the government, 
. but as a matter of fact a considerable portion of the Regents 
are appointed from the alumni. 

YaJe University : 

(a) The Faculties attend to all details of government. 

(b) The graduates, through the alumni, elect six representatives to 

the Corporation. 

Question No. 7. 

"How many Faculties are there in the University? What representa- 
tion do these have on any general University Council? With what matters 
do the various Faculties deal, and how far do thev act independently of one 
another?" ' 

Chicago University : 

The Faculties of the Junior Colleges, Arts and Literature, Science. 
The Divinity School; the School of Education; Commerce and 
Administration; the Law School. 

The Faculties are not represented as such in any general Univer- 
sity Council. They meet sometimes as the United Faculties 
to consider general questions. 



1006 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 55 



In general the Faculties act independently subject to review by 
the Council in administration questions, or the Senate in Edu- 
cational questions. 

Columbia University : 

See answer to question 3 and 6a. 

Cornell University : 

One University Faculty, consisting of all professors and assistant 
professors in the University, which is charged with matters 
of education and discipline affecting all divisions of the Uni- 
versity, and eight special Faculties — Arts, Law, Medical, Vet- 
erinary Medicine, Agriculture, Architecture, Civil Engineer- 
ing and Mechanical Engineering — which have charge of the 
education of the students in their respective Colleges. 

Harvard University : 

The Faculty of Arts and Sciences, which administers the degrees 
of Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts, 
Master of Science, Mining Engineer, Metallurgical Engineer, 
Doctor of Philosophy, and Doctor of Science ; the Faculty of 
Divinity, which administers the Degree of Bachelor of Divin- 
ity; the Faculty of Law, which administers the degree of. 
Bachelor of Laws ; the Faculty of Medicine, which administers 
the degrees of Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Dental Medi- 
cine; the Faculty of the Bussey Institution (a school of agricul- 
ture) which administers the degree of Bachelor of Agricul- 
tural Science. All professors and assistant professors in the 
University and a few other persons constitute the University 
Council, a body established for the purpose of deliberating 
from time to time on matters affecting more than one depart- 
ment. In practice this body is frequently called together, 
but no important questions have come before it of late. 
Each faculty attends to instruction and discipline in its own de- 
partment; but arrangements are entered into between different 
Faculties concerning the admission of students registered in 
one department to courses offered in another. Such transfers 
occur infrequently between the Faculty of Arts and Sciences 
and either the Law School or the Medical School, the require- 
'ments for the degree in the latter institution being such as 
practically to exclude all work in another department; but 
most of the members of the Faculty of Divinity are members 
of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, arfd the interchange of 
students between these departments is constant. 

Leiand Stanford University. 

A general Council and about twentjv-five department Councils. 
Secretary's note — (The answer to question four is also a reply in 
part to the foregoing.) 

McGill University : 

Four. Applied Science, Arts, Law, Medicine. 

The Statutes of McGill University show that Fellows of the Uni- 
versity, who are members of the Corporation, include 



56 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



tlie Deans of the respective Faculties; any acting or 
Vice-Dean of the Faculty or any registrar of the Fac- 
ulty of Law or Medicine whom the Governors may find it 
requisite to appoint as such Fellows, not more than one such 
appointment, however, to subsist at any time for any Faculty ; 
one member of the Faculty of Law, two of Medicine, four of 
Arts, two of Applied Science (and one member of the Faculty 
of Comparative Medicine and Veterinary Science, a Faculty 
which by resolution of the Board of Governors of April 17, 
1903, has been discontinued for the present) to be elected as 
such from time to time by their respective Faculties. 

The Deans of the Faculties, all professors and associate professors, 
and such members of the teaching staff not exceeding ten in 
number, irrespective of Faculties, as the Academic Board may 
appoint, constitute that Board. 

The various Faculties act independently of each other in regard to 
the course of study, examinations appertaining thereto, admis- 
sion of students, fees, discipline and internal regulations, etc., 
as set forth in partial answer to question four. 

Michigan University : 

Seven. Arts, Engineering, Medicine, Law, Dentistry, Pharmacy, 
Homoepathic Medicine. The members of the Faculty above 
the grade of instructor are members of the University Senate 
which legislates on matters that concern all. 

Minnesota University : 

Eleven. Eight College and three technical schools have Faculties. 

In University Council each College and two Schools having a Dean 
are represented by their Dean, and an additional member for 
every 400 students. The President of the University is a 
member of the Council. 

Each Faculty is independent. 

Princeton University : 

Two. Academic and Scientific. The two Faculties united compose 
the University Faculty to which all actions taken bv the two 
Faculties are reported. 
The Faculties deal with all matters pertaining to students. 

Queen's University : 

There are three faculties in the University: Arts, Medicine and 
Theology. The School of Mining which is situated on the 
University grounds, and which provides a training in Applied 
Science, is affiliated to the University, all degrees being con- 
ferred by the University. 
Each professor is a member of the University Council. The dif- 
ferent faculties meet independently, the Principal being 
Chairman of each faculty. They pass upon all matters affect- 
ing the curricula, and arrange for examinations. The curri- 
cula are referred to the Senate for their approval. 

Wisconsin University : 

Faculties of the University comprise the University Faculty, com- 
posed of all members of the instructional force, and faculties 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 57 



of tlie College of Letters and Science, of Engineering, of Agri- 
culture, and of Law, composed of all their respective mem- 
bers. Voting members are professors, associate professors, 
assistant professors. There is no University tJouncil. Fac- 
ulties of Colleges deal with matters which exclusively concern 
them. All matters concerning more than one faculty must be 
approved by University faculty. 

Yale University : 

Eight. They are all represented. 

They have supervision of all the affairs of their several depart- 
ments, and act quite independently. 

Question No. 8. 

"By whom is the curriculum determined? If each Faculty primarily 
arranges its own curriculum, by what body, if any, or by whom, is it further 
and finally approved?" 

Chicago University : 

The curriculum is determined primarily by each Faculty subject to 
approval by the Senate and the Board of Trustees. 

Columbia University : 

Each Faculty primarily arranges its own programme of studies, but 
any change in the requirements for entrance or for a degree 
must be approved (a) by the University Council and (6) finally 
by the Trustees. 

Cornell University : 

By the Faculty of each College. Changes in the curriculum not 
involving expenditures of money are not reported to any other 
body. If additional expenditures are involved they are reported 
to the Board of Trustees. Changes in the entrance require- 
ments to a College or in the designation of the degree conferred 
are reported to the University Faculty. 

Harvard University : 

See answer to question 7. 

Leland Stanford University : 

Each department determines its own curriculum. 
General matters by General Council. 

McGill University : 

In the first place, by each Faculty separately ; and in the second, by 
the Corporation of the University, by whom it is finally 
approved. The curriculum is also a subject of discussion for 
the Academic Board. 

Michigan University : 

Each Faculty fixes its curriculum, but this must be approved by the 
Regents. 



58 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Minnesota University : 

Arranged by Faculty and approved by Board of Kegents. 

Princeton University : 

The Committee on the Course of Studies; the Faculty Committee, 
which reports to the Committee on the Curriculum, the Trustee 
Committee, which committee reports to the Board of Trustees 
for final action. 

Queen's University : 

Each curriculum is prepared by the Faculty concerned. The Senate 
has a revising power, and passes upon each recommendation 
before it is finally approved. 

Wisconsi/i University : 

Each Faculty primarily arranges ils own curriculum, but since 
almost every curriculum involves to a greater or less extent 
work by men in other colleges, the curricula are commonly 
approved by the University Faculty'. 

Vale University : 

By the Faculty ; approved by the Corporation. 



Question No. 9. 

"What are the conditions of admission to the University?" 

^'hicago University : 

Candidates are admitted to the Junior Colleges on the presentation 
of 15 units from the list of approved subjects. For admission 
8| of these to be in English, language other than English, 
and Mathematics. Advanced standing on satisiactory evi- 
dence of work at other institutions of approved rank. 

Columbia University : 

Each facultv prescribes the conditions for admission to each school. 
Changes must be approved under the conditions prescribed 
in answer to number 8. 

Cornell University : 

From the circular of information and the Calendar sent 
from Cornell University it appears that candidates for 
admission on examination must be rit least sixteen 
years of age, or of women, seventeen (except in the case of 
special students). Applicants must have certificates of good 
moral character, and students from other collefres or univer- 
sities are required to furnish from those institutions certifi-. 
cates of honorable dismissal. The following Elementary sub- 
jects are required to all Colleges of the T'^^rtiversitv, except the 
Teterinary College : English, History, Plane Geometry, Ele- 
mentary Alcrebra. In addition to the Elpmentary subjects a 
candidate must offer from a list of the advanced subjects re- 
quired by the College to which he seeks admission. 



••<>6 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



58 



Provision is made for admission on School Certificates; for admis- 
sion to advanced standing from other Colleges and Universi- 
ties, for the admission of special students whose minimum 
ages are different to those above mentioned, for admission to 
the graduate department, etc., but in every case the conditions 
are clearly set forth in the publications mentioned and must 
, be complied with. 

Harvard University ; 

The Divinity School, the Law School, and the Medical School re- 
quire of all candidates for admission a Bachelor's degree in 
Arts or Science from some recognized institution, or equival- 
ent evidence of piioficiency. A,dmis8ion examinations are 
held m the College and the Scientific School. Provision is 
made for admission from another College or Scientific School 
and for the admission of special students, without complete 
examination. 

Leland Stanford University : 

Determined by general Council through Committees. In general 
15 unit credits and four years of secondary school work. 
McGill University -. 

, The Statutes of McGill University provide that:— Except under 
special circumstances no student under the age of sixteen 
is admitted to First Year Courses in Arts, Applied Science or 
Medicine, or under the age of seventeen, to the Second Year, 
and no student under the age of seventeen is admitted to the 
coursie in Law. Women are admitted to the courses in Arts 
on the same terms with men, but mainly in separate classes. 
Students are classified as Undergraduates or matriculated students 
pursuing a full undergraduate course of study leading to a 
degree. These must have passed the University's Matricula- 
tion Examination or some other examination accepted in lieu 
thereof. 
Conditional Students — Those who not having completed Matri- 
culation Examinations are pursuing a full undergraduate 
course leading to a degree, and are entitled to obtain under- 
graduate standing upon completing matriculation, credit be- 
ing given for their work as Conditional students. Partial 
student^Those not belonging to one of the above classes who 
are pursuing a course of study. Such students subject to the 
approval of the professor may attend any class without pre- 
vious examination. 
"Certificates of having passed the following examinations will, if 
submitted to the Registrar, be accepted pro tanto, in lieu of 
the Matriculation Examination, i.e., in so far as the subjects 
and standards are, to the satisfaction of the Board of Matri- 
culation Examiners, the same as are equivalent to those re- 
quired for the Matriculation of the University ; but candidates 
offering these certificates will be required to pass the Matri- 
culation Examination in such of the required subjects, if any, 
as are not covered thereby:" — 
Province of Quebec : — University School Preliminary Examina- 
tion, and the Official Examination of Grade Academy. 
11 u.c. 



60 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



University School Final Examination. The Examination for the 
Model School, Diploma of the McGill Normal School, under 
certain conditions. 

Ontario: — Junior and Senior Teachers' Certificate Examinations. 
Junior and Senior Matriculation Examinations. 

New Brunswick : — Examinations for Superior and Grammar 
School licenses. • 

Nova Scotia: — The Leaving Examinations, Grades XI and XII. 

Prince Edward Island: — Leaving Examination of Prince of Wales 
College. Examination for first class Teachers' license. 

British Columbia : — Junior Intermediate, and Senior Grade Ex- 
aminations. 

Newfoundland : — The intermediate and associate Grade Examina- 
tions. 

Great Britain: — Local Examinations of the leading Universities, 
and' the Leaving Examinations of the Scotch Education De- 
partment. 

Michigan University : 

Certain proficiency such as our high schools give in a four j ears' 
course. 

Minnesota University : 

Four years' High School course or its equivalent. This does not 
apply to the School of Agriculture where a less advanced pre- 
paration is accepted. 

Princeton University : , 

The Catalogue of Princeton University shows provisions for admit- 
tance by Entrance Examinations ; on certificate issued by the 
College Entrance Examination Board ; admission under cer- 
tain conditions to special courses and to advanced standing. 

Queen's University : 

Conditions of admission to the University are : — Arts Matricula- 
tion; Ontario Departmental Junior Matriculation, which in- 
cludes English composition, English literature, English gram- 
mar, Algebra, Euclid, Arithmeticj History (British, Cana- 
dian and Ancient), Latin, and any two of Greek, French, Ger- 
man, Experimental Science (Physics and Chemistry). The 
medical matriculation is the same as the Arts, except that only 
one language is required. Science matriculation is the same 
as Arts except that no language is required and Physics and 
Chemistry are compulsory. Theology matriculation requires 
three years in Arts. 

Wisconsin University ; 

Graduates of accredited high schools of the State of "Wisconsin and 
surrounding States, or the equivalent as shown by examina- 
tion. 

Yale University : 

On examination of subjects fixed by the several faculties. 
11a u. c. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 61 



Question No. 10. 

"What degrees are granted by the University ? Is it the practice of the 
University to grant certificates of standing to students who have taken special 
courses, but have not fulfilled all requirements for the degree," 

Chicago University : 

Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Philosophy, Bachelor of Science, 
Bachelor of Education, Bachelor of Laws, Bachelor of Divinity, 
Master of Arts, Master of Science, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor 
of Law. 

Titles :— Associate, for the completion of the work of the junior 
colleges. Diplomas and certificates for special courses in the 
School of Education. No other certificates given. 

Columbia University : 

Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Laws, Doctor of 
Medicine, Enginer of Mines, Civil -Engineer, Metallurgical 
Engineer, Electrical Engineer, Mechanical Engineer, Chemical 
Engineer, Chemist, Master of Arts, Master of Laws, Doctor of 
Philosophy, Pharmaceutical Chemist, Doctor of Pharmacy. 
The University will grant a certificate to a student who has com- 
pleted any course or courses without completing the require- 
ments for a degree. 

Cornell University : 

Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Laws, Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of 
Veterinary Medicine, Bachelor of Architecture, Civil Engineer, 
Mechanical Engineer, Master of Science in Architecture, Mas- 
ter of Science in Agriculture, Master of Civil Engineering, 
Master of Mechanical Engineering, Doctor of Philosophy, 
Master of Arts. 

Statement of work, including passes and not passes, are issued upon 
request to all students. 

Harvard University : 

Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Divinity, Master 
of Arts, Master of Science, Civil Engineer, Mining Engineer, 
Metallurgical Engineer, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of Laws, 
Doctor of Medicine, Doctor of Dental Medicine, Bachelor of 
Agricultural Science. 

Certificates are granted to students who have obtained good standing 
in special courses without having been candidates for a degree. 

Ltland Stanford University : 

Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Laws, Master of Arts, Engineer, Doc- 
tor of Philosophy. 
No. A department may issue an unofficial letter. 

McGill University : 

Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Architecture, 
Bachelor of Civil Law, Master of Arts, Master of Science, Doc- 
tor of Medicine and Master of Surgery, Master of Dental Surg- 
ery, Doctor in Dental Science, Doctor of Literature, Doctor of 
Civil Law, Doctor of Science. 



62 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Michigan University : 

In the Arts courses : Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Master 
of Arts, Master of Science, Doctor of Philosophy; in Medicine, 
Doctor of Medicine; in Law, Bachelor of Laws, Master of Laws; 
in Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Chemist, Bachelor of Science; 
in Dentistry, Doctor of Dental Surgery ; in Eno-ineering, Bach- 
elor of Science in Chemical Engineerinp:, Bachelor of Sr^ience in 
Electrical Engineering, Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineer- 
ing, Bachelor of Science in Marine Engineering, Bachelor of 
Science in Mechanical Engineering. Also as a higher degree, 
Civil Engineer, Electrical Engineer, Mechanical Engineer, 
Marine Engineer. 

Minnesota University : 

Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of 
Medicine, Bachelor of Laws, Engineer — Civil, Mechanical, 
Electrical, Mining, Chemical; degrees in Dentistry, Pharmacy, 
and Agriculture. 

No honorary degree has ever been granted by the University. 

Princrton University : 

Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Letters, Bachelor of Science, Civil 
Engineer, Electrical Engineer, Master of Science, Doctor of 
Philosophy. 

Special students receive certificates of proficiency. 

Queen ' « University : 

Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts, Doctor of Philosophy, Bachelor of 

Science, Doctor of Science, Bachelor of Divinity, M.D.,C.M. 
No certificates are granted for special courses which do not lead to a 
degree. 

WiscoTisin University : 

Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Philosophy, 
Master of Arts, Master of Science, Doctor of Philosophy. 

Certificates are given to students who have completed short courses 
not of full collegiate grade, such as the short course in Pharm- 
acy, in Agriculture and in Dairying. 

Yale University : 

Bachelor of Arts, Master of Arts. Bachelor of Philosophy. Master 
of Science, Civil Engineer, Mechanical Engineer, Bachelor of 
Fine Arts. Doctor of Philosophy. Bachelor of IVTusio, M.F.. 
Doctor of Medif^ine. Bachelor of Laws, Mpster of Laws. Doctor 
of Laws, Bachelor of Divinity. 

Question No. 11. 

"By whom are the duties of professors and lecturers deterrnned ? How 
is the efficiency of the staff of professors and teachers secured? By whom are 
dismissals from the staff made? Are the staff appointments made for a lim- 
ited period?" 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 65 



Chicago University : 

By the Board of Trustees and the President. 

By freedom of utterance and conduct within the bounds of reason, 
by the assignment, in general, of only two hours of recitation 
per day and consequent opportunity for research, and by 
emphasis in speech and action on ideals of investigation and 
scholarship. 

By the President with the approval of the Board of Trustees, 
Yes, except in the higher ranks of professors. 

Columbia University : 

We have, so far as I remember, had no dismissals, but all appoint- 
ments are made subject to the pleasure of the Trustees. The 
President is responsible for the efficiency of the heads of the 
several departments ; the heads of the departments are held 
responsible for the efficiency of the instruction in their depart- 
ments. All appointments below the grade of professor are made 
for one year. Professors, in the first instance, are usually 
appointed for three years, and, if their work is satisfactory, then 
reappointed without limitation during the pleasure of the trus- 
tees. 

Cornell University : 

Although the President is required "to see that all the officers of the 
institution are doing a proper amount and satisfactory quality 
of work," he takes it for granted that they are all doing their 
duty. If complaints arise, the matter is generally adjusted 
by private interview between the President and the individual 
concerned. 

Only the Board of Trustees can dismiss a professor from Cornell 
University. 

Assistant professors are appointed for a term of five years ; instruct- 
ors and assistants for one. 

Harvard University : 

Naturally the appointing power is largely concerned with the duties 
of professors and lecturers; but teachers permanently enlisted in 
the service of the University ordinarily offer, by authority of the 
Faculty, such courses as are arranged by the department of 
instruction with which they are connected. The efficiency of 
the staff of professors and teachers is secured chiefly by a system 
of probationary tenure. Usually a teacher is tested by one or 
more years of service on an annual appointment. After proba- 
tion as assistant, annual instructor, or lecturer, the first promo- 
tion for a young teacher is to an instructorship without limit 
of time. This appointment confers membership in the Faculty. 
The next grade is that of assistant professor, the appointment 
being for five years and leading to reappointment upon satis- 
factory service for a second term of five years. The usual pro- 
motion from an assistant professorship is to a professorship. 
Occasionally promotion is made to the intprmediite Q-rade of 
associate professor, a position which is usually final. Dismissal 
from the staff would be made by the Cornoration ; but fh<^ pro- 



64 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



bationary method above described practically removes the neces- 
sity for dismissal, or makes such action of exceedingly rare 
occurrence. 

Leland Stanford University : 

By the President, with vote of Board when this seems desirable. 

The President is held responsible for efficiency and alone has power 
of dismissal. 

Instructors for one year, Art professors for three, others for indefi- 
nite period. 

McGill University : 

The duties of professors and lecturers are determined by the Board 
of Governors and by the Corporation of the University, acting 
through the Principal. 

Dismissals from the staff are made by the Board of Governors. 

All minor staff appointments are made for a limited period, or from 
year to year. Appointments of professors are made subject to 
the provisions of the charter (in brief elected, as is also the 
. Principal, by the Governors and holding their positions subject 
to power of the Governors, confirmed by the Visitor, to dismiss) ; 
this tenure is construed liberally, and in practice has been equiv- 
alent to a tenure of office for life, subject to the conditions of 
efficiency and good conduct. 

Michigan University : 

By the Regents. 

The President is expected to watch for efficiency. 

Appointments of instructors, or sometimes of higher officers, are 
first for one year. After three years' service on annual appoint- 
ment they are appointed for three years, so are assistant pro- 
fessors for three years. 

Minnesota University : 

Every professor at the head of a department is responsible for the 
efficiency of his department. He must look out for the men 
under him. 

Dismissals may be made by Board of Regents. 

Some appointments are made for a limited period, but not professors. 

Princeton University : 

The Board of Trustees. 
By constant supervision. 
The Board of Trustees. 
In some cases, yes. 

Queeyi's University: 

The duties -of professors and lecturers are determined by the Board 
, of Trustees. The Principal reports annually to the trustees on 
the efficiency of the staff. 
. Disjnissals, as well as appointments, are made by the Board of Trus- 
tees, and appointments are made for two years on approval. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 65 



Wisconmn University : 

Duties of professors and lecturers are determined by the professors 
of the department in conference with and with approval by the 
Deans and President. 

Efficiency is secured by committees of the professors of each depart- 
ment under the general supervision and direction of the Dean 
and President. 

Dismissals from staff are made by the Eegents upon recommenda- 
tion of President. 

Professors and associate professors appointed for an indefinite period, 
assistant professors commonly for three years; instructors and 
assistants for one year only. 

Yale University : 

By the several Faculties. 
Chiefly by the President and Deans. 
By the Corporation — but very rarely. 
A part of them. 

Questioa No. 12. 

"List of positions on staff with salaries." 

Chicago University : 

Professor and head of the Department... |4,000 to |7,000 

Professor 3,000 

Associate Professor 2,500 

Assistant Professor 2,000 

Instructor 1,200 to 1,600 

Associate Instructor 1,000 

Assistant Instructor 600 to 800 

Columbia University : 

Professor and adjunct professor, with salary ranging from |1,500 
to |T,500. The normal salary for the head of a department 
is 15,000. Instructor, with salary beginning at ^1,600 and 
increasing |100 annually up to |2,000. Tutor beginning at 
|1,000 and increasing similarly to |1,500. Lecturer and De- 
monstrator without fixed salary. Assistant at $500 annually. 

Cornell University : 

Assistants |150 to |500, according to the amount of time they give 
to the University. 

• Instructor $1 >000 

Assistant professorship 1,500 to |2,000 

Professor 3,000 to 3,500 

And a few ''as high as |4,000 or even |5,000." 

Harvard University : 

Different scales of salaries obtain in different departments of the 
University. In general, it may be said that the sal- 
aries of assistants and instructors vary in accordance 
with the amount of time given. Annual instructors 



66 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences are generally 
paid at the rate of $250 for each course, consisting •of three 
hours a week throughout the year; but some increases in the 
salary of annual instructors are made in the case of those who 
have served for several years. Instructors appointed without 
a limit of time have hitherto received salaries ranging from 
|1,000 to 11,750. In all departments except the Law School 
assistant professors are paid |2,000 a jear in the first five-year 
term and |3,000 in the second five-year term. Associate pro- 
fessors and professors are paid from |3,500 to $5,000, accord- 
ing to merit and length of service, the general practice being 
to raise the salarj- of a full professor by $500 steps every five 
j-ears. In the Medical School a similar scale of salaries pre- 
vails ; but the clinical professors and others engaged in private 
practice are ordinarily given half pay. In the Law School 
assistant professors are paid |2,750 and are usually promoted 
after one term of five years to a full professorship, at an ini- 
tial salary of |4,500, rising by |500 steps to |6,000. 
The above statement applies to the situation existing in the year 
1904-05. Beginning with 1905-06, the following scale of 
salaries will go into force in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences 
as the result of a new endowment of $2,000,000 raised by the 
alumni for the specific purpose of increasing salaries; instruct- 
ors appointed without limit of time $1,200 in the first year, 
increased annually by $100 to a maximum of $1,500; assist- 
ant professors in the first five-year term $2,500, in the second 
five-year term $3,000; associate professors in the first five 
years of service $3,500, to be increased by $500 steps at the 
discretion of the Corporation to $4,500; professors in the first 
five years of service $4,000, to be increased at the discretion 
of the Corporation by $500 steps to $5,500. 

Leland Stanford University : 

President $12,000 

Vice-President 6,500 

Professors (mostly 3,000 to $5,000 

Associate Professors 2,000 to 3,000 

Assistant Professors 1,500 to 2,000 

Instructors 1,000 to 1,500 

Acting Instructors 800 to 900 

Assistants 150 to 800 

McGill University : 

Principal, vice-principal, professor, associate professor, assistant 
professor, lecturer, demonstrator, assistant demonstrator, etc. 

Michigan University : 

Professors |2,000 Ito $3,500 

Junior Professors 2,000 

Assistant Professors 1,600 

Instructors 900 to 1,200 

Minnesota University: 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 67 



Princeton University : 

President, professors, assistant professors, instructors, lecturers, 

etc. 
The salary list is a private document. 

Queen's University : 

Principal and Primarius Professor in Divinity 

(with residence) |4,000 

Vice-Principal and Prof, of Moral Phil 2,500 

Dean and Prof, of Mathematics 2,500 

Assistant Prof, of Mathematics 1,200 

Prof, of History 2,500 

Prof, of Latin 2,000 

Prof, of Greek 2,000 

Prof, of Philology and Sanscript 1,400 

Prof, of German 2,000 

Prof, of French 2,000 

Asst.-Prof. of French and German 1,200 

Prof, of English 2,000 

Asst.-Prof. of English 1,400 

Prof, of Mental Philosophy 2,000 

Prof, of Political Science 2,000 

Prof, of Botany 1,200 

Prof, of Animal Biology 2,000 

Prof, of Hebrew 2,000 

Prof, of Apologetics 2,250 

Prof, of Church History .^ 2,500 

Salaries paid by the School of Mining. 

Director and Prof, of Chemistry |2,450 

Prof, of Mineralogy 1,700 

Prof, of Electr. and Mechan. Engineering 1,700 

Prof, of Metallurgy 1,500 

Prof, of Geology and Petrography 1,500 

Prof, of Mining Engineer 1,700 

Prof, of Physics 2,000 

Associate Professor of Physics 1,500 

Lecturer on Physics 1,100 

Associate Prof, of Chemistry 1,200 

Lecturer on Chemistry 1,000 

Prof, of Civil Engineering 1,700 

Prof, of General Engineering 1,500 

Lecturer on Mechanical Engineering 1,000 

Demonstrator in Mineralogy and Geology 700 

2 Demonstrators in Chemistry, each 150 

Salaries paid by the School of Mining. 

Prof of Pathology, Bacteriologj- and Sanitary 

Science \ ' .$1,500 

Lecturer and Chief Demonstrator in Anatomy 1,000 

Prof, of Biology, Philosophy and Histology 2,000 



68 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



The other professors on the staff are medical practitioners in the 
city, and are paid certain proportions of the medical fees, 
after deducting one-third for equipment and maintenance. 

Wisconsin University : 

Deans $4,000 tq |5,000 

Professors 2,500 to 4,000 

Associate Professors 2,000 to 2,500 

Assistant Professors 1,500 to 2,000 

Instructors 800 to 1,400 

Assistants 400 to 800 

Assistants 400to 800 

Yale University : 

Question No. 13. 

"How is the discipline of students dealt with? If there are various 
Faculties, e.g., Medicine, Science, Law, etc., who exercises discipline over 
each? What jurisdiction has the President of the whole University in the 
matter of discipline when there are several Faculties?" 

Chicago University : 

Discipline is a matter primarily for the Dean of the College or 
School of which the offender is a student, then for the Faculty. 
Each Faculty is responsible for the discipline of its own students. 
The approval of the President is necessary for any measure of dis- 
cipline. 

Columbia University : 

The Statutes of Columbia University provide as one of the duties 
of the President that he is "to administer discipline in such 
cases as he deems proper and to empower the Deans of the 
several Faculties to administer discipline in such manner and 
under such regulations as he shall prescribe." 

Cornell University : 

The discipline of students was formerly vested in the various Facul- 
ties, but to secure uniformity it was in 1901 vested in the Uni- 
versity Faculty, who delegated it to a representative committee 
the members of which are elected annually by the Faculty. 
What the President does in the matter is to appeal to students to 
maintain good order and, whenever danger is apprehended, to 
confer with leaders of the classes and other prominent students 
with a view to its prevention. 

Harvard Univer.nty : 

See answer to number 7. 

Leland Stanford University : 

Discipline is dealt with by a committee on students' affairs over all 
students. This committee represents the President and is 
chosen by him. It has five members. Most cases, however, 
fall under Committ'^e on Scholarship, which removes all not 
doing good work. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



69 



McGill University : • i i i. 

The discipline of students within the Faculty is dealt with hy the 
Faculty. General regulations for the discipline of the whole 
body of students are made by the Corporation of the University. 
All cases of discipline involving the interests of more than one 
Faculty or of the University in general, are dealt with by the 
President. 

Michigan University : 

Each Faculty, with its Dean as executive, deals with the discipline 
of its students. , , j 

The President is ex-pfficio President of each Faculty and may attend 
their meetings. 

Minnesota University: 

Every Faculty attends to discipline of its own college. The President 
is at the head of every Faculty and in all serious matters he 
comes to the front. 

Princeton University : 

By the Dean of the Faculty and by the necessary Faculty com- 
mittees. 

Queen s University : 

The College Senate, constituted of all the professors of the College, 
exercises academic superintendence and discipline over the stu- 
dents. In practice, however, the discipline of the students is 
carried out by themselves. The students of each Faculty have 
a court, called the Concursus Iniquitatis et Virtutis, to which 
the judges and other officers are annually elected, and this court, 
while not officially recognized, actually controls almost all mat- 
ters of discipline. 

Wisconsin University : 

By a discipline committee of the University Faculty, consisting of 
several professors and the Deans of the Colleges of the students 
concerned. The action of the committee is reported to the Uni- 
versity Faculty and always approved by the same. 

The Faculties of the Colleges have no disciplinary functions. 

The President has nothing to do with discipline except as President 
of the University Faculty. 

YaJe University : 

By the professors on the several Faculties. 

The President has a veto power over all students. 

Question No. 14. 

"Is there any court of discipline for undergraduates on which they have 
student representatives? Do they present grievances through any recognized 
organization of their own? To whom do they present their petitions or griev- 



ances 



P' 



70 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Chicago University : 

There is no court of discipline. There are student councils for the 
various divisions paralleling the Faculties, i.e., a Junior Col- 
lege Council, a Senior College Council, a Law vSchool Council, 
etc. 
Petitions and grievances are presented by the councils and by the 
students individually or in groups, directly to the President. 

Columbia University: 

The presidents of the four classes in Columbia College and the 
Schools of Applied Science constitute a Student Board of Rep- 
resentatives. Any communication's from them would be ordin- 
arily addressed to the President. 

Cornell University : 

There is no undergraduate court of discipline. If students have 
grievances they go to the Dean of their Faculty, or, if more 
serious, to the President. They also express their criticisms in 
student publications, which are issued daily, weekly, and 
monthly. 

Harvard University : 

There is no court of discipline for undergraduates on which there is 
student representation, nor is there any student organization 
to present grievances. Petitions or grievances of students are 
ordinarily presented to the Dean of the appropriate department, 
or through the Dean to the Faculty of that Department. 

Lelatid Stanford University : 
No. 

By a committee on petitions or to the President. 
There is an organization, "Associated Students," which controls 
most common interests of students. 

McGill University : 

Xo, there is no such court. They present grievances through th" 
Alma Mater Society, or through the officers of their respective 
years. 

Their grievances and petitions may be presented to any University 
bhdy having control over the subject matter of complaint. 

Michigan University : 
No, 

They present petitions to their Faculty through their Dean or the 
President. 

M*inrsota University: 

No, 
No. 

To the Faculty or the Board of Regents, usually fhrntigh the Presi- 
dent. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 71 



l*rincei<tii U niversity : 

The administration of the honor system is in the hands of a student 
committee by whose rules it is the recognized duty of every stu- 
dent to report to the committee any evidence of dishonesty in 
examination that may come under his observation. If after 
* investigation of such evidence the committee finds a student 

guilty of dishonesty, it reports his case to the Faculty with a 
recommendation that he be finally dismissed from the Uni- 
versity. 

Queen's University : 

Practically answered in reply to queistion 13. 

Wisconsin University : , 

No court of discipline for undergraduates. 
Undergraduates may present grievances through student conference 

committee. 
Petitions presented to President. 

Yale University : 
No. 
To the Deans of the several Faculties. 

Question No. 15. 

"What control, if any, does the University exercise over college ath- 
letics?" 

Chicago University : 

Athletics are under the direction of the Director of Physical Culture, 
who is a regular member of the University staff, having his pay 
entirely from the University. 

Columbia University: 

The President controls them through the University Committee on 
Student Organizations — which supervises and controls all stu- 
dent organizations, athletic and other — and which he himself 
appoints. 

. Cornell University : 

The Cornell Athletic Association is an independent organization in- 
corporated under the laws of the State of New York. Its board 
of trustees is composed of one representative from the Execut- 
ive Committee of the Board of Trustees, and four from the Fac- 
ulties of the University, with one member at large, who together 
with representatives of the alumni, and eight students represent- 
ing officially the different branches of athletics, besides the rep- 
resentative of the undergraduate wearers of the "C." and the 
prosidf*-nt of the Interscholastic League constitute the Athletic 
Council. The Association owns Percy Field, the boats and boat 
houses, a steam launch and other athletic equipment. The 
Association isues an annual membership ticket on the payment 
of «10.00. The holders of these membership tickets are entitled 
to free admission to every athletic contest under the manage- 



72 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



ment of the Association, which, includes all games of baseball, 
football, track, and lacrosse. Members are also entitled to first 
choice of reserved seats, no reserved seat tickets for games or 
boat races being sold until the members of the Association have 
been supplied with the seats they require. No further subscrip- 
tion toward the support of athletics is solicited from holders of 
membership tickets. The Athletic Council is charged with the 
active management of the athletic interests of the University. 
The graduate treasurer is custodian of the funds belonging to 
the Association and to the various branches. Fifty-five acres 
of land adjoining the University campus have been set aside by 
the trustees of the University for a new University playground 
and athletic field, the construction of which has been under- 
taken by the alumni. The University Faculty determines 
eligibility rules and also grants leave of absence to play out-of- 
town games; in this way ultimately controlling the situation. 
And generally once a year, athletics form the subject of discus- 
sion in the University Faculty. Otherwise the entire adminis- 
tration of athletics is in the hands of the Association. 

Harvard University : 

Athletic sports are regulated by a Committee on the Regulation of 
Athletic Sports, which consists of three Faculty members, three 
graduates appointed annually by the two governing boards, and 
three undergraduates elected by representatives of the principal 
athletic organizations. This committee, which makes an annual 
report to the President of the University, has very wide powers. 

Leland Stanford University : 

The University controls, through a committee of five professors, 
with general power to act, if the welfare of the University 
demands it, in any case and to any limit. 

McGill University : 

The University exercises control over college athletics by keeping the 
use of its campus and grounds within its own control. A joint 
committee of the professoriate and the students deal with all 
questions of athletics. The Board of Governors is represented 
on this committee by one of its members and the Principal is 
also a member. The graduate body is also represented on the 
committee. 

Michigan University : 

It has a board of control composed of five professors and four stu- 
dents (elected by students) who have entire control and attend 
to their business very carefully. 

Minnesota University : 

Several members of the Faculty are on the Governing Board of Ath- 
letics, and the Board of Kegents appoints a Superintendent of 
Athletics, who, being already a member of the Faculty, has a 
decided control. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 73 



I 



Princeton University : 

The Faculty Committee on Outdoor Sports lias eritire control of col- 
lege athletics. 

Queen's University : 

The University does not exercise any direct control over college ath- 
letics. The Alma Mater Society, which is composed of the stu- 
dents of all the faculties in the University, annually appoints 
a committee to have a general supervision of athletic interests. 
It consists of sixteen elected members, including two of the pro- 
fessors. < 

Wisconsin University : 

The University has control over athletics as to personnel of teams, 
as to coaches, captains and managers. Authority in these mat- 
ters is exercised through a Director of Athletics and a standing 
committee of the University Faculty, of which the Director is 
chairman. 

Yale University : 

It refuses the right of participation in inter-collegiate contests to 
all except those who are in good standing. 

Questioo No. 16. 

. "What is the number of students attending, classified as to Faculties, 
Arts, Science, Medicine, Law, etc.?" 

Chicago University : 

Total enrollment, 1904-5 : 

Graduate Schools ^ 1,091 

Senior Colleges ■ 549 

Junior Colleges 860 

Unclassified Students 571 

University College , 588 

Divinity Schools 344 

Courses in Medicine 253 

Law School > 160 

College of Education 686 



Total 5,102 

Deduct duplicates 504 



Net total ? 4,598 

The above figures indicate tthe total number of registrations at any 
time during a year of four quarters. The attendance for the 
present quarter, indicating fairly the number of students on 
the ground at any one time is as follows : 

The Graduate Schools 363 

The Senior Colleges 3T4 

The Junior Colleges 792 

Unclassified Students .- 147 

University College 464 



74 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Divinity Schools 1T6 

Courses in* Medicine 152 

Law School 128 

College of Education 157 



Total 2,7e53 

Deduct Duplicates 139 



Net total 2,614 

Columbia University : 

Registration, 1905-06 : 

College 556 

Law 275 

Medicine 430 

Applied Science 559 

Fine Arts 131 

Graduate Schools 763 

Teachers' College 586 

Barnard College 370 

College of Pharmacy 345 



Total, excluding 106 duplicates 3,909 



Summer Session, (1905) *. 1,081 

Cornell Univeri^ity : 

For 1904-05. 

Graduate Department 211 

Arts and Sciences 684 

Agriculture 189 

Mechanical Engineering 1,060 

Civil Engineering 385 

Architecture 68 

Law 228 

Veterinary 110 

Medical ; 406 



Total 3,341 

Harvard University. 
1904-5 : 

Arts and Sciences 2,905 

Divinity Schools 43 

Law Schools 758 

Medical Schools 307 

Dental Schools 106 

Bussey Institution 33 



Total, less 16 names inserted more than once 4,136 

Summer Schools of 1904 1,007 



Total, including summer school 5,143 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 75 



Lcland Stanford University : 

About 1,600 students in all. 

200 or so in law; about 350 in engineering courses. 

No courses in medicine. 

McGill University : 

Arts , 415 

Applied Science 397 

Law 28 

Medicine 362 



Total 1,202 

Exclusive of students taking certain special classes. 

Michigan University : 

At present the number enrolled is : 

Arts 1,514 

Engineering 1,150 

Medicine 333 

Law 867 

Dentistry 130 

Pharmacy 68 

Homoeopathic medicine 82 



Total 4,144 

The summer schools added will make 4,600 

Minnesota University : 
Approximately : 

Arts 1,400 

Engineering 500 

Law 500 

Medicine, etc 412 

Graduates 150 

Summer School 210 

Agricluture 800 



Total 3,972 

Priirceton University : 
1904-5 : 

Graduate School 91 

Academic Department 659 

John C. Green, School of Science 624 



Total 1,374 

Qneen\ University : 

Number of students registered, 1st Nov., 1905: 

Undergraduates in Arts (attending) 308 

General students in Arts (attending) 27 

Post-graduates in Arts (attending) 24 

Undergraduates in Arts (extra-mural) 199 

Post-graduates in Arts (attending) 14 

12 u.c. 



76 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Students in Theology 38 

Students in Practical Science 162 

Students in Medicine 208 



Total 980 

Wisconsin University : 
1904-5 : 

Graduate School 148 

College of Letters and Science 1,476 

College of Engineering 804 

College of Agriculture 526 

College of Law 183 

School of Music 153 

Summer session, 1904 : 

403 less students attending University when this 

statement was compiled 132 271 



Total number of students, deducting 71 twice 

enumerated 3,490 

Yale University : 
Approximately : 

Arts 1,300 

Science 900 

Medicine 100 

Law 300 

All others 600 



Total 3,200 

Question No. 17. 

"How many women students are in attendance? Have thej^ a residence 
of their own? Has the head of this residence any academic standing?" 

Chicago University : 
1,198. 
There are four women's dormitories, accommodating about 240 of 

these students. 
The head of each dormitory is also an officer of instruction in the 
University. 

Columbia University : 

In 1904-05 there were 1,037 women registered in the L^niversity, 

including Barnard College and Teachers' College, 
There is a residence hall for the women of Teachers' College. 
We have an adviser of women graduate students, who is an officer 

of the University. 

CornfJl University : 

In 1904-05 348 women students attended Cornell University. 
Their place of residence is Sage College, the head of which has the 
title of Warden. 
12a u.c. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 77 



In order to dignify the office of Warden of Sage College, the incum- 
bent, who must be a college graduate, is permitted to have an 
elective course of two hours a week in some subject approved 
by the head of the department concerned. Xo other woman is 
professor, assistant professor, instructor, or lecturer in Cornell 
University. 

Harvard University : 

There are no women students in Harvard University, but all the 

instruction in Radcliflfe College, an affiliated college for women, 

is given by teachers in Harvard University. 
Radcliffe College now has only one dormitory, but plans to have 

more. 
The "Mistress of Bertram Hall" has no function but that of head 

of the residence ; but her position is one of dignity and respon' 

sibility. 

Leland Stanford University : 

Five hundred, the number being limited to this figure. 

Two dormitories. The mistress of the larger one has no academic 
standing. 
"VVe have under consideration a general "Warden of Women." 
"Roble Hall," for women, holds 105. The students have a com- 
mitee chosen by themselves; the University maintains a matron 
or mistress of Roble Hall. 

McGill University ; 
183. 

The Royal Victoria College for Women. 

The past and present heads of this residence have both been members 
of the teaching staff in Arts. 

Michigan University : 
About 700. 
No. 
Yes. She is Women's Dean, but is not a member of any Faculty. 

Minnesota University : 
About 800. 
No. 

Pri7iceton University : 

There are no women students in attendance. 

Queen's University : 

There were 110 women students in attendance last session. 
We have a residence accommodating about twenty. 
The head of this residence has no academic standing. 

Wisconsin University : 
• 725 women. 

One dormitory known as Chadbourne Hall, accommodating 100 

women. Many others accommodated in their own houses. 
Mistress of Chadbourne Hall has academic standing of assistant 
professor. 



78 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Vale University : 

From 150 to 200, but not in the undergraduate courses. 
No. 

Question No. 18. 

"Are there any University residences for students? How are these ad- 
ministered? Who has immediate and who has ultimate jurisdiction over 
them? Are these residences open to all undergraduates of the University or 
to undergraduates of particular Faculties only? Are these residences self- 
supporting or supported in whole or in part by endowment or other funds?" 

CJiicago University : 

There are University dormitories administered by the University. 
The Head of the House, who has immediate jurisdiction, holds 
his appointment from the Board of Trustees and is also an 
officer of instruction. Ultimate jurisdiction is vested in the 
President. Except for two dormitories in which Divinity stu- 
dents are given a preference, the dormitories are open to all 
students of the University, graduates and undergraduates alike. 
These dormitories are practically self-supporting. 

Columbia University : 

Yes. With accommodation for 500 men. The two residence halla 
— Hartley Hall and Livingston Hall — have been open since 
October, 1905. It is expected that as an investment they will 
pay between four and five per cent. They are open to students.. 
These Halls are administered by a Hall Council consisting of 
the vSuperintendent of Buildings and Grounds, e.r-officio, of two 
University officers, who shall, when practicable, be residents in 
Hall, and of a representative of each Hall elected by the appro- 
priate Hall Committee. The Hall Council has general super- 
vision and control of the residence Halls sj-ibject to the reserve 
powers of the President of the University. 

Each Hall Committee consists of ten residents in the Hall and the 
' Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds, e.r-officio. Each 
Hall Committee may make such house rules as it deems proper, 
with the approval of the Hall Council. 

There are fixed rates for single rooms, double rooms, two-room suites 
and three-room suites, according to size of rooms, exposure and 
elevation. 

Cornell University : 

No University residences for men students. They live either in fra- 
ternity houses, of which there are 26 at Cornell, or in private 
lodging houses throughout the city. 

Harvard University : 

The University has a large number of dormitories. 

Subject to the rules governing the applications for college rooms, 
members of the University are free to choose between college 
dormitories and dormitories owned by private individuals; but 
both the college dormitories and the private dormitories are 
under the supervision of the Univorsity. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 7« 



In general, University dormitories are open to members of any 
department of the University. Private dormitories are not 
allowed to lodge persons who are not connected with the Uni- 
versit3\ If they are occupied by students at all, the owners 
must choose between college tenants and outside tenants; they 
cannot lodge both. 

All of the University dormitories are self-supporting, and are, for 
the most part, sources of revenue. 

Private dormitories are required to provide, rent free, such rooms as 
are needed for the proper accommodation of the University 
Proctors — one or more to a building, according to its size. 

Lelajid Stanford University : 

For young men, a dormitory-^-Encina Hall — holding 325. The 
business office collects dues. The Committee on Students' 
Affairs controls through a committee of Proctors chosen by the 
Committee on Students' Affairs, from men nominated by stu- 
dents in the hall. 

McGill University : 
No. 

Michigan University : 
No. 

Minnesota University : 

Not in connection with the main University. The Department of 
Agriculture has dormitories for men and dormitories for women. 
The State has erected the buildings and the student pays a mod- 
erate amount for room and board. 

Frinceton University : 

According to the Catalogue of Princeton University, the dormitories 
are : West College, Eeunion Hall, Witherspoon Hall, Edwards 
Hall, Albert B. Dod Hall, David Brown Hall, Blair Hall, Little 
Hall, University Hall, the Pyne Buildings (comprising two 
dormitories), and Seventy-nine Hall.. 

Rent is paid for rooms on a fixed schedule of rates, and rooms are 
occupied under certain regulations. The Faculty of the Uni- 
versity is empowered to suspend or expel students breaking or 
evading these rules, or injuring or interfering with the person 
or property of successors, or assisting others to do so, etc. ; the 
Faculty is also instructed to report, with the evidence discov- 
ered, the name of any graduate or outsider that m-Aj be guilty 
of such offences, to the Committee on Grounds and Buildings, 
and the latter, when the evidence seems to justify it, is directed 
to take legal proceedings against offenders. 

Queen's University : 

There are no University residences for students. 

TT isronsin University : 

Only University residence for students is Chadbourne Hall for 
women, under immediate supervision by mistress of hall, who 
reports directly to Dean of College of Letters and Science, or 



80 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



President. The residence has been open to all women students 
of the University, but beginning with next year, will be open 
only to freshmen, sophomores and juniors, and the year follow- 
ing to freshmen and sophomores only. The aim is to make 
Chadbourne Hall self-supporting, but as yet it is not altogether 
on this footing. 

Yale University : 
Yes. 

Under Faculty jurisdiction and open only to undergraduates of par- 
ticular Faculties. 
They are self-supporting. 

Question No. 19. 

"What are the sources of income, whether from interest on endow- 
ments, State funds, private donations, the Federal Government, fees, etc. ? 
What is the scale of fees?" 

Chicago University ; 

Interest on endowments, private donations, fees. 

In the academic courses |40 a quarter, |120 a year of three-quart- 
ers with laboratory fees additional. In the Law School $50 
a quarter, |150 a year. In the Medical School ^60 a quarter, 
|180 a year, including laboratory fees. In other professional 
schools |40 a quarter, |120 a year. 

Columhia University \ 

Endowments and interest on same, gifts, legacies, rents, fees, etc. 
The annual fee for tuition is |150, except that in Architecture it 
is 1200; in Applied Science and Medicine |250. 

Cornell University : 

Cornell University receives income from the following sources : — 
(1) interest (|34,000 annually) on the proceeds of the Federal 
Land Grant made in 1862; (2) annual congressional appro- 
priations ('$38,500) ; (3) New York State appropriations for 
Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine (|65,000); (4) interest 
on endowments; (5) fees for tuition and laboratory work, etc. 
The statute regarding fees is as follows : — • 

Tuition'. Regulars. Specials. 

Graduate Department (General) $100 

Graduate Department (Technical) 125 

College of Arts and >Sciences 100 $125 

College of Law 100 125 

Medical College 150 150 

Veterinary College 100 125 

College of Agriculture 100 125 

College of Architecture 125 125 

College of Civil Engineering 150 150 

Sibley College 150 150 

The $100 tuition is payable $55 at beginning of first term and $45 
at beginning of second term : the $125, $70 and $55 ; the $150, 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 81 



and |65 ; in the Medical College in New York City, the 
entire fee is paid at the beginning of the year. 

These fees must be paid at the office of the Treasurer within 
twenty days after the registration day announced in the cal- 
endar. 

Tuition is free to 600 students with State Scholarships ; to New 
York State students in the State Veterinary College; to stud- 
ents pursuing the prescribed course in Agriculture and intend- 
ing to complete that course ; and to special and graduate stud- 
ents in Agriculture taking at least two-thirds of their entire 
work in the departments of agriculture, horticulture, and in 
the courses of agricultural chemistry, entomology, origin of 
soils, diseases of farm animals, zootechny, and silviculture. 

Any student who has received free tuition under the above regula- 
tions and who desires to change to a course for which tuition 
is charged, must first pay to the Treasurer of the University 
the tuition fees for the full time spent in the free tuition 
course. For further fees see University Register. 

Matriculation fee of |5 is charged to all students on entering the 
University. 

Graduation fee for the first degree |10, second degree |20. 

Harvard University \ 

The sources of income are funds, gifts for immediate use, dormi- 
tory rents, tuition fees, and laboratory fees. The ordinary 
fee is |150 a year for every department except the Medical 
School, in which it is |200 ; but laboratory fees are charged 
in varying amounts, 

Leland Stanford University : 

Income chiefly from interest on endowments. 

Fees, |20 per year to students outside of California. Special lab- 
oratory fees in Science, to cover cost of materials used up. 

McGill University : 

Interest of endowments, private donations, fees. 
Fees: — Arts Undergraduates and conditional students |61 per ses- 
sion. Applied Science, annual fee for the undergraduate 
course in Architecture No. 1 $100; annual fee for all other 
undergraduate courses $175. Fee for graduate course |150 
("graduates of this Faculty will be required to pay only one- 
half of this amount" says the McGill calendar). Medicine, 
for the whole medical course of four full sessions, including 
Clinics, laboratory work, etc., |500, payable in four annual 
instalments of |125 each. Law |77.50 per session. In all 
cases not mentioned there are fixed fees for partial and con- 
tinued students. Fees for the higher degrees are $20 for M. 
Sc. ($40 in absentia) and $80 each for D. Sc, D. Litt., D.C.L. 
and L.L.D. (in course) no fee being charged for the degree 
of L.L.D. granted "honoris causa." 

Michigan University : 

National endowment. State Tax. Private gifts. Students fees. 
Fees $10 to $25 matriculation. $30 to $55 annual. 



ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Minnesota University : 

Income for current expense : 

State of Minnesota |240,000 

U. S. Government 40,000 

Fees 125,000 

Interest 55,000 

Miscellaneous 40,000 

Total $500,000 

Tlie State erects buildings. Last year the appropriation for build- 
ings was about |700,000. Tbis was larger than is usual, as 
fire had destroyed one building, 

Princeton University : 

Income from investments, fees, room rents, gifts for current ex- 
penses, interest on cash balances, sundry cash receipts. 

Fees. Academic course, tuition and public room fee |150 per an- 
num. Ditto. School of Science $160 per annum. Tuition, 
extra for each chemical course involving laboratory work if 
taken by an Academic student $10 per term. Graduation 
fee, payable second term, senior year $12. 

Queen' s University : 

The faculties of Arts and Theology are maintained from interest 
on Endowment, fees, and donations. The Medical Faculty 
is maintained by fees only. 

Wisconsin University : 

Chief source of income, state grant, this year amounting to about 
$775,000, Federal grant, $40,000; income from endowment 
about $30,000; Fees, about $125,000; also various gifts each 
year for current uses, but total sum not great. 

Yale University : 

Interest on endowments, private donations and fees. 
Fees will average about $125 per student per year. 

Question No. 20. 

"What is the method of managing the funds and property of the Uni- 
versity? Is the President charged with any responsibility in connection 
therewith? Is the financial management separated from the academic man- 
agement?" 

Chicago University : 

The funds and property of the University are managed by the Busi- 
ness Manager under the general jurisdiction of the Board of 
Trustees. The financial management is separate from the aca- 
demic management, and the President is not charged with 
responsibility therewith. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 83 



Columbia University : 

The Treasurer of the University, under the instructions of the Fin- 
ance Committee of the Trustees, has charge of the funds. The 
Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds, under the direction 
of the President, has charge of the buildings and other addi- 
tional property of the University. The Treasurer reports 
directly to the Trustees. 

It should be noted that Barnard College, Teachers' College and Col- 
lege of Pharmacy are financially independent corporations, 
while educationally they are integral parts of the University 
system. 

Cornell University : . 

The business management and educational work of the University 
are kept entirely distinct, the Faculty having charge of the 
latter, the Trustees of the former. Through the Finance Com- 
mittee the Trustees invest all funds and through the Committee 
on Appropriations spend them. The President is a member of 
both these committtees and chairman of the latter. The advice 
of the Treasurer has much influence in making all investments. 

Harvard University : 

The Treasurer is in charge of the funds and property of the Uni- 
versity, acting for that purpose as the representative of the Pre- 
sident and Fellows, in whom the property is vested and who are 
ultimately responsible for it. Important questions of investment 
are often determined by the Corporation ; in the routine chang- 
ing of investments the Treasurer acts with the approval of the 
Finance Committee, consisting of two members of the Corpora- 
tion and the Treasurer himself. 

Leland Stanford University : 

Through a Treasurer who is a member of the Board of Trustees. 
The President has no direct responsibility other than as possible 
adviser. The financial management is wholly separated from 
the academic. 

McGill University : 

The investment and disposition of the funds of the University rest 
wholly with the Board of Governors and their Finance Commit- 
tee; of which committee the Principal is a member. The fin- 
ancial management may be considered as being separate from 
the academic management, but so far as the question of organ- 
ization is concerned, no difficulties have arisen from that ground. 

Michigan University : 

The Regents, largely through their financial committee, manage the 
funds. The President has only a general responsibility as 
executive. The Treasurer and Secretary are not members of 
any Faculty. 

Minnesota University : 

The State -manages all investments. The President has nothing to 
do with the matter as President. He is a member of the Board 



84 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



of Eegents, and of the Executive Committee, and as such has 
much to do with expenditures — but the business is done in the 
Accountant's office. The Accountant is purchasing agent. 
After expenditures have been authorized by the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Board of Regents the Accountant attends to mat- 
ters. 

Princeton University : 

The Committee on Finance of the Trustees has entire management 
of the funds of the University'. The Committee on Grounds' 
and Buildings has supervision of the real estate, buildings, and 
furniture belonging to the University. 

Queen's University : 

The funds and property of the University are managed by the Fin- 
ance and Estate Committee, consisting of five members of the 
Board of Trustees, appointed annually by the board. 

Wisconsin University : 

Funds and property of the University in hands of Executive Com- 
mittee of Regents, consisting of four members, of which Presi- 
dent is one. The Secretary of the Regents and of the Executive 
Committee is the business and purchasing agent. Financial 
management is wholly separate from the academic management. 

Yale University : 

By the Treasurers under the direction of the President and the 
Executive Committee of the Corporation. Financial manage- 
ment is sharply separated from academic management. 

Question No. 21. 

"Are there any Theological seminaries in connection with the Univer- 
sity? If so, what is their relation to it? Have they any representation on 
its governing body?" 

Chicago University : 

The Divinity School is one of the professional schools of the Uni- 
versity like the Law School. As such it has a Divinity School 
Faculty. By articles of agreement entered into with the Board 
of Trustees of the University at the beginning, the Trustees of 
the Baptist Theological Union, which directed the Baptist 
Union Theological Seminary, out of which the Divinity School 
was organized, continue to maintain a separate existence. 

Columhia University : 

The students of all of the theological seminaries in the vicinity of 
New York have the privilege of attending advanced courses of 
lectures at the University without charge for tuition. They 
offer reciprocal privileges to the students of the University. 
The President of the Union Theological Seminary and the 
Dean of the General Theological Seminary have seats in the 
University Council but not the power to vote. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 85 



Cornell University : 

There are no theological seminaries in connection with Cornell 
University. The charter of the University provides that "at 
no time shall a member of the Board be of one religious sect, 
or of no religious sect", and also that "persons of every relig- 
ious denomination or of no religious denomination shall be 
equally eligible to all offices and appointments." 

Harvard University : 

The University maintains a Divinity School. The Faculty of 
Divinity has exactly the same relation to the Governing Boards 
as the other Faculties. It is an undenominational school, and 
many denominations are represented in the teaching staff and 
student body. 

Leland Stanford University : 
None. 

McGill University : 

There are four Theological Colleges affiliated to the University. 
They are represented on the Corporation of the University. 

Michigan University : 
None. 

Minnesota University : 
None. 

Princeton University : 
None. 

Queen s University : 

The Theological Faculty is an integral part of the University. 
The members of the Faculty meet as a faculty, and also sit as 
members of the Senate and of the University Council. 

Wisconsin University : 
None. 

YaJe University : 

There is a School of Theology in the same relation to the University 
as its schools of Law and Medicine, and like them represented 
by two members on the Council. 



86 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



FROM THfi CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD OF TRUSTEES. 

In response to the request of the Secretary, I respectfully submit for 
the consideration of the Commission such suggestions as have occurred to 
me. 

"With regard to the administration of the University it will be in the 
interest of all concerned that its affairs should be governed by a corpor- 
ate board of Trustees or Governors possessing (subject to the limitation 
referred to herea'ter) full and absolute control. 

The members of that Board should be appointed by the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council : should hold office during pleasure and should 
render their services gratuitously. 

The Board alone should possess the power of appointing, promoting, 
changing and removing the members, present and future, of the teaching 
staff and all other officers and servants. 

The Board should be empowered to determine, alter and adjust all 
salaries and allowances in such manner as to them niay seem naeet. 

The management and administration of the University's moneys, 
assets and affairs should be in the absolute control of the Board. 

Power by Statute should be conferred upon the Board to buy for Uni- 
versity purposes, real estate, and when in their opinion advisable to sell 
the same and to acquire by purchase or otherwise the rights and interests 
of terants in their lands; in all other respects the investment by the 
Trustees of the University funds should be subject to the provisions of the 
Trustee Investment Act, embracing, however, if they think fit, Manitoba 
and the Xorth "West Territories. 

The Board should have power to enact all necessary by-laws. 

It should possess expropriation powers. 

It should be enacted that the Corporation is exempt from the oper- 
ation of the Statutes for the limitation of actions in the same manner and 
to the same extent as the Crown is exempt. 

The Board should be empowered to make arrangements for pensioning 
the members of the staff and all other officers, and to make provision by 
way of life assurance, or otherwise, for their families, and to provide, if 
it shall so determine, that contribution to the expenses of these schemes 
shall be compulsory. 

I am not prepared to submit details for consideration, nor would it be 
of service to do so now. I only venture the suggestion because I have 
observed that the absence of these beneficial provisions has frequently 
been productive of distress, causing the Government and the Trustees much 
embarrassment. 

The benefit of these schemes should extend to the present as well as 
the future members of the staff. 

The remuneration received by the staff is wholly inadequate, regard 
being had to the duties devolving upon them and the increased cost of liv- 
ing, and the system of equality in salary now in vogue demands a radical 
change. 

If any members of the present staff have rights, express or implied, 
to a retiring allowance or pension the^e should be preserved or equitablv 
disposed of. Federation and affiliation powers should be conferred. 

^ As to the gentleman who shall be considered to be the Head of the 
University, no professional duties should be cast upon him; he should be, 
what is known as (for the want of a better term) a "business" man — not 
necessarily, but preferably a graduate Subordinate to him should be one 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 87 



tt'ho would be the liead of the Teaching Staff and these two should be ex- 
ojjicio members of the Senate. 

These views were entertained by the late Sir Oliver Mowat. 

Whether it would be advisable under the new order that the gentle- 
man I have designated as head should be chairman of the Board of Trus- 
tees, I am not prepared definitely to say. I have always entertained the 
opinion and still do that the chairman should render his services gratuit- 
ously'. His influence, I think, would be greater, and he certainly would 
not take less interest, nor feel less responsibility thaC' he would if re- 
munerated. 

If the head should not be chairman f the Board he should be one of 
the members and be entitled ex-ojjicio to a seat in he Senate. 

The Departments now under the direction of the Government should 
be placed, as all departments should be, under the absolute control of 
the Trustees. 

The Trustees should annually submit to the Lieutenant-Governor in 
Council a report of such matters and of such of their dealings as may from 
time to time be required. 

I have stated that in my opinion the affairs of the University should 
be governed by a Board of Trustees who should, subject to a limitation, 
have full and absolute control. 

The limitatioD referred to is that in certain circumstances it might be 
nece-sary that the Goverrment should intervene and suspend the powers of, 
or remove the Trustees, and that it should at all times have the right to 
resume possession and control, possessing that which is somewhat akin to 
what is known among Lawyers as "Eminent Domain." ' 

John Ho skin. 

PoSTCEiPT. — Referring to my memo which I read to and left with the 
Commission, I write to say that in connection with that part in which I 
made the suggestion that the "Head" should have no professional duties 
I did not intend to imply that the present President should be superseded 
for no one is bettter acquainted than he with all ljniver?ity business mat- 
ters and details, and no one takes greater interest than he in all Univer- 
sity concerns. Will you please consider this to be a part of my memo. 



FROM THE SENATE OF THE UNIVERSITY. 

Tlie Visitor. 

1. The Lieutenant-Governor to continue visitor. 

Board of Trustees. 

2. (1) That a Board of Trustees be constituted, to consist of not more 
than fifteen members. The President, Chancellor, the Chairman of the Sen- 
ate and the Principal of University College to be ex-officio members of the 
Board; the remaining members, of whom four at least shall be graduates, 
to be appointed by the Government. 

(2) All property of every kind and nature now vested in the Crown or 
the present Board of Trustees for the purposes of the University and Uni- 
versity College or otherwise belonging to the University and University 
College to be vested in the new Board with full power of management and 



88 



ROYAL COMMISSION RE 



No. 42 



administration thereof and of the entire finances of the University and Uni- 
versity College. IT,. 

(3) The powers and functions of the Board of Trustees shall include the 

following : ••, , 

(a) Subjects to the veto of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, the 
appointment and dismissal of all Professors and members of the staff and of 
all other officers, officials, servants and employees, subject as to appoint- 
ment and dismissal of Professors and members of the staff, to a report from 
the President. 

(6) The general supervision of the Professors and other members of 
the teaching staff. 

(c) The control and direction of the officers, officials and servants, and 
the duties to be performed by them. 

(d) A certified copy of every statute providing for the course of studies, 
for the affiliation of any college, school or other institution, or for providing 
for theological options shall be transmitted to the Board of Trustees within 
ten days after the passing thereof for their approval; and no statute shall 
have force or effect until such approval has been given. 

The Senate. 



3. The Senate of the University, shall be composed as follows: 

(1) The Minister of Education, the Chancellor, the President of the 
University, the Principal of University College, the members of the Board 
of Trustees, the President or other head of each federated University or fed- 
erated College, the Deans of the Faculties of Arts, Law, Medicine and 
Applied Science and Engineering; and all persons who at any time have 
held the office of Chancellor or Vice-Chancellor of the L^niversity shall be 
ex-ojjicio members of the Senate. 

(2) The faculties shall be represented by members, each of whom shall 
be the senior professor in the group, for each of the following groups of 
departments : 



(a) Chemistry. 

Physical, General, Applied 

(b) Mineralogy. 

Geology. 

(c) Biology. 

Physiologyi 
{d) Mathematics. 

Astronomy. 

Physics, 
(e) History. 

Political Science. 
(/) Philosophy. 

Psychology. 
{g) Italian. 

Spanish. 

Philology. 



(h) Medicine. 

Therapeutics. 
(?) Surgery. 

(;) Pathology. 

{h) Anatomy. 

(I) Obstetrics. 
Gynaecology. 
Pediatrics. 

(m) Civil Engineering. 
Architecture. 
Surveying. 

(n) Mechanical Engineering. 
Electrical Engineering. 
Mining Engineering. 



(3) Provision shall be made for additional representation in the Senate 
whenever new chairs are established in the University. 

(4) That in each of the following groups : T'niversity College, Victoria 
College and Trinity College shall each be represented by one member, viz. : 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 89 



(a) Latin. (b) English. 

Greek. German. 

Greek and Roman History. French, 

(e) Oriental Languages. 
Ethics. 

(5) That in the above groups each college shall from time to time appoint 
its own representative to hold office for four years. 

(6) Representatives to the Senate shall be appointed in the following man- 
ner, that is to say (a) Every federated college may appoint two members; 
(6) the Law Society of Upper Canada may appoint one member; (c) and the 
governing body of every affiliated college or school in this Province now 
entitled to appoint a representative may, subject to any statute of the Senate 
of the University on that behalf, appoint one member. 

(7) The graduates in Arts of the University, who, at the time of grad- 
uation, were enrolled in University College may elect twelve members; the 
graduates in Arts and Science of Victoria University and the graduates in 
Arts of the University, who, at the time of graduation, were enrolled in 
Victoria College, may elect five members ; the graduates in Arts and Science 
of Trinity University and the graduates in arts of the University who, at 
the time of graduation, were e*nrolled in Trinity College may elect five 
members; the graduates in Law may elect two members; the graduates in 
Medicine may elect four members; the graduates in Applied Science and 
Engineering may elect one member. Persons holding certificates as High 
School principals or assistants who are actually engaged in teaching, may 
elect two members as hereinafter provided. In view of the representation 
thus conferred on the teaching body, it is recommended that members of the 
Faculties be ineligible to represent graduates. 

(8) In the case of any University hereafter federated with the Uni- 
versity, such federated University shall be entitled to be represented on the 
Senate in the proportion of one representative for every one hundred grad- 
uates in Arts. Any fraction of one hundred over one-half shall entitle the fed- 
erated University to an additional representative, provided that the number 
of such representatives shall in no case exceed five. 

(9) All appointments and elections of members to the Senate shall be for 
a period of four years and until their successors are appointed or elected. 
Should a vacancy arise from any cause in the case of an appointed member 
such vacancy shall be filled by the body possessing the power of appoint- 
ment subject to this Act, and in the case of a vacancy of a member elected 
by the graduates or High School masters such vacancy shall be filled by the 
Senate and the persons appointed or elected to fill such vacancy shall hold 
office for the remainder of the term. 

(10) The Senate shall have power to make statutes : 

(a) For the granting of degrees and certificates of proficiency, except 
in Theology ; the establishment of exhibitions ; the regulation of its pro- 
ceedings; and in general, for promoting the interests of the University and 
University College or for any purpose for which provision may be required 
for carrying out this Act. 

(b^ For the affiliation of any college, school or other institution estab- 
lished in this Province for the promotion of Science or Arts, or for instruc- 
tion in Law, Medicine, Engineering, Agriculture, or other useful branch of 
learninor, and for the dissolution of such affiliation or the modification or 
alteration of the terms thereof. 

(c^ For the cancellation, recall or suspension of the degree whether 
heretofore or hereafter granted or conferred on any graduate of the Univer- 



yO ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



sity who has heretofore been or shall hereafter be convicted in the Province 
of Ontario, or elsewhere of an offence which, if committed in Canada, would 
be an indictable offence, or who has been or shall hereafter be guilty of any 
infamous or disgraceful conduct or of conduct unbecoming a graduate of the 
University; for erasing the name of such graduate from the roll or register 
of graduates and for requiring the surrender for cancellation of the diploma, 
certificate or other instrument evidencing the right of such graduate to the 
degree of which he shall have been deprived under the authority of any such 
statute. 

(d) Eor providing the mode of inquiring into and determining as to the 
guilt of such graduate and the procedure generally in respect of any of the 
said matters. 

The Faculties. 

4. (1) That a Faculty of Arts be formed to consist of the Professors, 
Associate Professors of the Arts Professoriate of the University and of Uni- 
versity College, Victoria College and Trinity College, with the permanent 
lecturers as assessors without a vote. In this Council the Department of 
Religious knowledge is to be represented by one professor appointed by each 
theological faculty. 

(2) The function of the Council of the Faculty of Arts shall be : 

(a) To determine the Arts curriculum subject to the approval of the Sen- 
ate. 

(b) To conduct the examinations of the Arts course and to report the same 
for confirmation to the Senate. 

(c) To deal with such cases of discipline and take control of such asso- 
ciations as under the regulations of the Caput fall to it. 

(d) To decide (subject to an appeal to the Senate) all applications and 
memorials made by students or others in connection with the Arts Faculty. 

(3) That the Faculties of Medicine and of Engineering and Applied 
Science have Councils constituted on the same principle, and with similar 
powers and functions within their respective faculties. 

(4) That a Faculty of Graduate Studies be constituted to control the 
curricula for post graduate degrees, subject to the approval of the Senate, 
to conduct and supervise the work in these courses, to conduct the examin- 
ations for the same, and to report to the Senate. 

(5) That the Faculty of Graduate Studies consist of the Professors and 
Associate Professors in the University engaged in the instruction of Post 
Graduate students, with the other permanent instructors taking similar part 
as assessors, together with such other Professors and Associate Professors aa 
may be appointed for Post Graduate work. 

The President. 

5. (1) The President to be a member of all Faculties. 

(2) The appointment of the President to rest with the Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor in Council upon the nomination of the Board. 

(3) The President shall, subject to the authority of the Board, have a 
general supervision over the affairs of the University. 

The Caput. 

6. (1) That there shall be a University Caput composed of the President, 
the Deans of the Faculties and the Heads oi University College, Victoria 
■College and Trinity College. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 91 



(2) The function of the Caput shall be : 

(a) To make general regulations determining the courts to which cases 
of discipline and the control of University Associations shall be assigned. 

(b) To deal with such cases of discipline and to regulate such associations 
as under its regulations do not properly fall to any college or faculty. 

(c) To arrange details of the time table which afi'ect more than one 
faculty. 

(d) To authorize such lecturing or teaching in the University by others 
than the duly appointed professors and teachers as they may deem expedient, 
and to prevent all lecturing or teaching not so authorized. 

(e) Generally to deal with such matters as may be referred to it by the 
various governing bodies in the University. 



FROM THE UNIVERSITY COUNCIL. 

The University Council beg to submit for the consideration of the 
University Commission the following memorandum containing their views 
as to the objects of the Provincial University, together with recommenda- 
tions regarding its re-organization. 

The Objects of the Provincial University. 

The objects of the Provincial University, if organized under proper 
conditions, should be to foster and direct all such higher learning as 
is requisite to the moral, material and intellectual well-being and 
progress of the inhabitants of this country; and, accordingly, its scope 
should include the whole field of professional and non-professional learning 
not provided for by the provincial system of elementary and secondary 
education. 

Its work, under existing conditions, may be briefly described under 
the heads of (1) Undergraduate Arts Courses; (2) Professional Courses; (3) 
Research. 

1. Undergraduate Arts Courses. The object of these courses, which 
lead to the B.A. degree, is to provide a liberal education under a system 
of options which makes provision, to some extent, for the special aptitudes, 
or the prospective career, of the student. With regard to this latter point, 
it may be stated, for instance, that the liberal education thus afforded 
incidentally satisfies the chief requirements for the profession of High 
School teaching in Ontario, and that certain studies pursued are funda- 
mental in the professions of Law, Medicine, Theology and Engineering. 

2. Professional Courses. The University examines in all professional 
courses indicated below. In certain cases it supplies all the instruction re- 
quired; in one case part^'al instruction is provided by the University; in 
other cases the instruction is provided by affiliated institutions; and in one 
case there is no provision for instruction. This will be seen conveniently 
from the following table : 

(a) Full instruction : 

Medicine. 

Engineering. 
(h) Partial instruction : 

Law. 
13 u.c. 



92 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



(c) Instruction in Affiliated Institutions : 

Agriculture. 

Dentistry. 

Pharmacy. 

Alusic. 

Veterinary Science. 

(d) No instruction : 

Pedagogy. 

3. Reseaech. Researcli, with the object of extending the field of 
human knowledge, is a comparatively recent development in the Univer- 
sity. Work of this nature is undertaken by certain departments in Arts 
in the case of students proceeding to the degrees of M.A. and Ph.D.; and 
also to a less extent in Medicine and Engineering. 

It is evident from this summary of the work of the University that, 
as at present constituted, it only partially satisfies the requirements im- 
plied in the general statement given above regarding the scope of the in- 
stitution, if organized under ideal conditions. As regards the professional 
subjects, only in the case of Medicine and Lngineering, for instance^ does 
the University exercise its full function as a teaching and examining 
body. In the opinion of the Council, a policy of closer relations, and, 
wherever practicable, of extension of the function of the University should 
be entered upon, and the following suggestions are offered in this direction : 

1. Full instruction in Law should be provided for by the creation of a 
teaching Faculty in Law in the University. 

2. In addition to examining as at present, the University should also 
teach students in scientific subjects necessary for the courses in Dentistry, 
Pharmacy and Yeterinary Science. 

3. Provision should be made for the establishment of a School of 
Forestry within the University, utilizing the scientific departments of the 
University, and co-operating with the Ontario Agricultural College in this 
work. The latter institution should be made an integral part of the Uni- 
versity. 

4. It is highly desirable that a School of Pedagogy should be estab- 
lished, utilizing, where possible, the staff and equipment of the Univer- 
sity for the purposes of the School. By this means a thorough profes- 
sional training could be afforded to intending teachers in the High Schools 
of the Province. 

5. Schools of Music and the Fine Arts might be established with great 
advantage in connection with the Uni-'-ersity. 

6. Finally, it is of vital importance that the provision for the prosecu- 
tion of research w^rk, which has already been made in some departments, 
as indicated above, should be extended to all Faculties and all depart- 
ments of the University. 

' Ftjrther Recommendations. 

Faculties and Council. 1. That a Faculty of Arts be formed to con- 
sist of the Professors and Associate-Professors of the Arts Professoriate of 
the University and of University College, Victoria College, Trinity Col- 
lege and St. Michael's College, with the permanent lecturers as assessors 
without a vote. In this Faculty the Department of Religious Knowledge 
should be represented by one professor appointed by each theological 
faculty. 

13a u.c. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 93 



2. The function of this Faculty of Arts shall be : 

(a) To determine the Arts curriculum. 

(b) To conduct the examinations of the Arts course. 

(c) To decide all applications and memorials made by students or 
others in connection with the Arts Faculty. 

3. That the Faculties of Medicine, Law and Applied Science be con- 
stituted on the same principle, and with similar powers and functions 
within their respective faculties. 

4. Each Faculty to have its own Dean and Secretary. 
6. The Librarian to be a member of all Faculties. 

6. The University Arts Professoriate, with the addition of such Pro- 
fessors as may be necessary in College subjects, should be constituted a 
Faculty of Graduate Studies. The functions of this School should be to 
settle the conditions for M.A. and Ph.D.. to direct the work of students, 
and to determine the award of degrees. 

7. The several Faculties, together with the Professors in any additional 
Faculties or Schools that may be established (e.g. Forestry or Pedagogy), 
to constitute the Universitv 'Council. 

The Matriculatiox Boaed. A Matriculation Board to be constituted 
to settle the requirements for entrance into the various Faculties and 
Schools of the University — the Board to consis' of the President, the Deans 
of Faculties, Professors selected from the Arts Faculty to represent the 
various subjects of examination, and the High School representatives on 
the Senate. 

The CAPrT. That there shall be a University Caput composed of the 
President, the Deans of Faculties, and the Heads of the Arts Colleges, 
with the following functions : 

(a) To prepare the Calendars for the various Faculties and Schools of 
the University, 

(b) To deal with all cases of discipline, except t^ose it may delegate 
under its regulations to a College or Faculty. 

(<") To decide what are University associations, and to exercise con- 
trol over all such associations of students and their publications. 

(d) To arrange details of the time-table which affect more than one 
Faculty. 

(e) To authorize such lecturing or teaching in the University, by 
others than the duly appointed professors and teachers, as they may deem 
expedient, and to prevent all lecturing or teaching not so authorized. 

(f) To conduct all examinations not provided for under 2, 3, 6, above. 

(g) Generally, to deal with such matters as may be referred to it by the 
various governing bodies in the University. 

The President. 1. In order to simplify and co-ordinate the work of 
the University, the President should be ex-oficio Vice-Chancellor, a mem- 
ber of each Faculty and School, and of all Committees. 

2. Anpointments and dismissals of officers and servants should be made 
by the Board of Trustees only upon the recommendation of the President. 

3. Appointments to and dismissals from the teaching staffs of the Uni- 
versity and University College should be made only on the recommenda- 
tion of the President after conference with the head of the Faculty, >Col- 
lege or School concerned. 

4. The President should be appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor-in- 
Council, and responsible only to the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council for his 
conduct. 

December 21, 1905. 



94 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



FROM UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. 

The Council of University College take it for granted that, among those 
who are interested in the higher education of the Province, there is prac- 
tical unanimity as to the necessity, of the maintenance by the Government 
of All the departments of study which usually belong to a Faculty of Arts. 

They are further of opinion that it is impossible to obtain the best re- 
sults from the work of such departments, maintained out of a common fund 
by the State, while the present division continues between the University 
and University College. In support of this, they beg to draw thp attention 
of the Commission to the following considerations: — 

1. A logical division of the subjects to be taught hy the University on 
the one hand and the College on the other, is impossible. The present divi- 
sion evidently arose from temporary conditions in the positions of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto and of the Federated Universities and their relation to 
one another; tas between the State University and the State College the 
division is meaningless and absurd, as we find, for example, in the depart- 
ments of Mental and Moral Science, and Modern Languages. 

2. It is impossible to make any division of the subjects of the Faculty 
of Arts without ultimately causing one of the two groups jof subjects to be 
depreciated in the eyes of the public, with injurious results to the general 
interests of education in all its grades. 

3. The existence for any long period of such an arbitrary division in- 
evitably tends to increase the separation by the introduction of separate 
machinery for each part; such as separate officers, separate buildings, sepa- 
rate budgets, separate Boards of Trustees, etc., machinery likely to be more 
costly, clumsy and inefficient than what we now have, and to contribute to 
the further weakening of the weaker side. 

4. Any attempt to avoid some of the evil results by a division of the 
endowment is predestined to ultimate failure, as it is impossible to foresee, 
beyond a short period, what the needs of each part will be. Miscalculations 
in the apportionment of the endowment are likely to be especially harmful 
and extremel> difficult to remedy. 

5. The cleavage between the two parts of the State Faculty of Arts, 
wholly artificial and caused by circumstances outside the Faculty itself, has 
introduced needless obstacles in the way of common and efficient action, as 
the experience of the Council, during some years past, has abundantly shown, 
M'oi'^eover, Federation has entailed upon the University, particularl\ in 
the so-called College subjects, a rigid and cumbrous system which hampers 
the work in these subjects, fetters individuality and prevents the develop- 
ment of the curriculum and freedom in methods of instruction. 

Therefore, in order to remedy the evils of the existing state of affairs, 
the Council of University College would suggest : 

That the State Faculty of Arts be re-united. 

As to the status of the Federated Universities, if such reunion were ac- 
complished, the Council would suggest : 

1. That their Arts Faculties be incorporated with and become part of 
the State Arts Faculty, the fees for instruction in Arts being then payable 
to the University. 

2. That they retain their Arts Faculties and that they have the right 
to send their students to such classes of the State Faculty as may be agreed 
upon; that they have the right at any time to increase their Faculties and 
withdraw students from the State Faculty or to decrease their Faculties and 
send their students to any classes whatsoever of the State Faculty, provided 
a satisfactory arrangement regarding fees be made. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 95 



The Council are of tlie opinion tliat the former of these propositions is 
the right one to adopt, a policy already successfully carried out in the reor- 
ganization of the Medical Faculty. 

A united and homogeneous Arts Faculty for the whole University 
would be able to adopt more energetic and progressive measures in all de- 
partments of academic activity, (as for example, in that of post-graduate 
study), than will ever be possible with a Faculty divided as at present. 

As to the alternative proposition, the Council consider that although 
it is inferior to (1) it would give a better constitution to the University than 
that which now exists and would take aw^ay from the Federated Unversitiea 
no right which they now possess. Moreover, it would give greater flexibility 
to the system. 

But if these suggestions cannot be adopted, the Council would respect- 
fully request that no separation be made between the funds and the finan- 
cial administration of the College and the University. 

Mauhice Hutton, 

Principal. 
James Beebnee, 

Registrar. 

University College, November 16th, 1905. 



FROM PRINCIPAL HUTTON, UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. 

1. It may be assumed that University College remains where it has 
always been, that the building which was once University. College only, 
which always has included University College, which by each change and 
addition to the University becomes again more and more, everj year, iden- 
tical with University College, will remain University College. 

2. iPerhaps it must not, however, be assumed that the endowment and 
financial administration of University College will remain identical with 
the endowment and financial administration of the University, but that a 
change and an independent income and separate Board of Trustees will be 
proposed. 

3. Against such a change much is to be said. First, that the endow- 
ment of the College must necessarily involve automatic increase, to make 
room for natural increase of stah' and equipment, which must not depend 
wholly or chiefly on increased fees, since increase in fees is only the reflexion 
of increased efficiency and continuous progress. 

4. Such automatic increase is obviously easier, when the fund out of 
which the College is supported is a common fund, common to the University 
and College. To provide two funds, both involving large promise of ex- 
pansion, might be difficult, even for a liberal Government. So long as Uni- 
versity College is with the University it need not look very far ahead, for 
the expenditure on it can be increased as occasion arises. But if it stood 
alone, it must noiv, when Federation is just establishing itself and the other 
Colleges are willing, receive now its portion for perhaps an indefinite future ; 
it must be much more careful to ask for ample provision ; it must seem much 
more extravagant in its demands — and this involves real extravagance on the 
part of the Province, though not on the part of the College. 

5. There is no occasion for such extravagance. The plan of Mr. Byron 
Walker now in force wull meet every difficulty, with a slight addition perhaps. 
By Mr. Walker's plan, the fraction of the previous year's expenses connected 
with the College and the University respectively sets the pace for the current 



9o ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



year, and if there is any difficulty, the body which is increasing its demands 
must recede. 

6. This has worked for the aggrandizement of the University, as was to 
be expected. Its share has risen from forty-eight per cent, of the whole ex- 
penses of the University -after the expenses of general administration were 
put on one side — to sixty per cent., and then this j-ear has receded again 
slightly to fifty-eight per cent. The College expenses — after putting aside 
the common expenses of general administration — have sunk from sixty to 
forty, and now stand at forty-two. 

This plan works satisfactorily on a rising income, such as that of recent 
years, when the Government has contributed more and more every year to 
the University. Even on a stationary income it would be not more unsatis- 
factory to the College than to the University, but on a falling income 
it woiild be unfair to the College, which has not developed pari passu 
with the Uuiversitj^, and which ought not, by compensation for stand- 
ing still in its expenses almost, to be cut down, A clause is, therefore, neces- 
sary that the fraction allotted to the College, whether fifty, or forty, or any 
other figure, should not fall short of the absolute sum, provided by the aver-, 
age of the six previous years, or should not fall below a certain minimum, 
say — after all general administration has been provided for — 170,000; or, 
again, that the sum spent upon the College should always be equal to two- 
fifths of the whole sum spent on University education. 

7. Apart from financial considerations, which strongly favor a joint 
purse and joint Board of Trustees, what reasons are there for a change out- 
weighing those against it, and chief among these the argument for educa- 
tional unity? 

When Federation was adopted it was recognized, it is recognized still, 
that the Government or Province draw no distinction between College and 
University subjects on the score of relative importance in an educational 
sense; at any rate, no distinction unfavorable to the College. The division 
was based on finance and on convenience, and not on principles of education. 
The equal salarj^ paid to members of each body and the common source of 
appointment, illustrate this point. And the common purse and common 
Board of Trustees do the same. But change the two latter unities, and the 
unity of Provincial Education is much less apparent. 

8. With a separate purse and a smaller purse, with a separate Board of 
Trustees and (it is not unreasonable to assume) a less weighty Board of 
Trustees, everything is done to facilitate the idea that College subjects are 
of less account. No one here really thinks this; at this juncture, when prac- 
tical education has exaggerated support in the Province, probably everyone 
here would prefer to emphasize the very, opposite claims, the claims of the 
College subjects; if only to offset the tide of merely popular opinion in the 
opposite quarter. 

9. These are pedagogical considerations, as the others were financial con- 
siderations. There are yet further considerations, neither one nor the other 
entirely. 

The College, as the unit of University life, is at present too small. Un- 
like the Oxford and Cambridge Colleges, they mean too little, not too much, 
in the life of the student. All the Colleges will want ultimately to incre^ise 
their hold on their students, and will ask for a division between University 
and College, more nearly resembling the natural division in Oxford and Cam- 
bridge. Our students at present feel — the vast majority of them— that they 
have no concern with their College — they saj so; because they are takint? 
University subjects. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 97 



10. That is, the College should have the Humanities, if not also Mathe- 
matics^broadly, the old education, which would add to the present Colleges : 
History, Political Science, Italian and Spanish, Logic and Philosophy, leav- 
ing to the University the Laboratory departments (including Psycho-Physics 
and perhaps Mathematics). 

But if such a re-division is to be kept in view, to be applied when the 
Colleges are all ready for it, it is an added reason for no present subdivision 
of University and College finances, and for no hard and fast lines between 
the two departments in respect of purse and management. 

11. Such a hard and fast line is on every gruund unwise. It rends the 
seamless garment of Education. A common Board of Trustees with a com- 
mon fund is the only body able to balance fairly and apportion equally the 
needs of and the sums due to the University on the one hand and College on 
the other. Such a Board and such a Board alone does what it can for both 
sides, makes concessions, now here and now there, and protects each, ' A sepa- 
rate Board for the College would be in the anomalous position of recognizing 
only one side of education. If funds were ample at first, it would be tempted 
to extravagance; if scant, the College departments would languish, for the 
other Colleges would stand in the way — willingly or unwillingly — of renewed 
application to the Province. 

12. A strong State College is the one guarantee for strong Denomina- 
tional Colleges. It can set the pace and keep up the standard, and the De- 
nominational Colleges are not injured, for they have always the mighty influ- 
ence of the Churches behind them — all the anxious mothers, all the uxorious 
or cautious fathers of the Province. 

13. If the State College be weak, there is no equal guarantee for the 
standard being kept up in the language departments by the Denominational 
Colleges, for these will then have neither a rival nor public sentiment and 
utilitarian superstition to compel them to efficiency. 

14. If the Denominational Colleges demand separation because of the 
difficulty of distinguishing between College and University while they have 
common purse and common Board, the answer is : 

(a) Every day Victoria College grows and the distinction becomes clearer. 
It is a question of a little time and patience. There is no necessity to legis- 
late in a hurry, for a grievance which time is curing, 

(6) The Colleges will all want to expand and embrace the Humanities, 
(if not also Mathematics), and then the local separation of University College 
in the Main Building and of the University in the Physical, Biological and 
Chemical and Psycho-Physical Buildings and the Administraton Building, 
will remove another cause of confusion. This local separation is growing. 
The Main Building will go, by a natural process, to University College, as 
residuary legatee, in a few years. It is only necessary to wait a little longer. 



FROM THE SENATE OF VICTORIA COLLEGE. 

Gentlemen, — In response to your request for an expression of opinion on 
the changes proposed in the organization of the Provincial University we beg 
to submit the following : 

1. That in our judgment it is not in the interest of the University, or of 
the Colleges or of the country, that anj serious change should be made in the 
general plan or ideal of the University. 

The ideal of a general University Faculty for the teaching of the vari- 
ous branches of Science and a number of co-ordinate Colleges for the teaching 
of the Humanities and the administration of discipline, seems to us the best 
that has hitherto been devised for this country. It resembles in its main 



98 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



features tlie system which stands approved in England after the experience 
of many generations and it is growing in favor with the foremost men in the 
University life of the United States. In view of the great and ever-increas- 
ing number of students h seems to us of the utmost importance to perfect 
this organization hy strengthening the Colleges from which the influences 
that make for culture and character must mainly proceed. 

2. In order to obtain this end, it would seem necessary to provide for the 
autonomy of University College, and for its adequate, separate maintenance 
by the State. 

3. As to the Constitution of the Board of Trustees, very much depends 
on the functions to be assigned to that Board. If those functions are to be 
mainly of a financial character, the Colleges have not, in our opinion, a 
strong claim for representation on the Board. But if, as we would recom- 
mend, it is to be a Board of Governors, rather than of Trustees in the narrow 
sense of the word, and if those Governors are to have the direction and control 
in matters of an academic character as well as in financial matters, 
then the counsel and aid of specialists in academic matters should 
be represented on the Board as well as the counsel and aid of 
specialists in financial matters. And, inasmuch as the colleges are 
vitally interested in the academic management and some of them 
have made and are making large contributions to the teaching forces of the 
University, it seems right that the heads of the Colleges and deans of facul- 
ties should have a place on the Board. Such a Board of Governors, more- 
over, would promote a feeling of common interest and solidarity in the Uni- 
versity as a whole, whilst the Colleges would yet retain their individuality. 

4. As to the Senate, we would suggest that some of the work now done 
by that body might better be assigned to the various Faculties, and the Senate 
confine its attentions chiefly to general legislation, the reception of reports 
from the Faculties, the hearing of appeals, the conferring of degrees and the 
awarding of honors. 

We see no sufficient reason to change in other respects the functions of 
the Senate or its constitution. 

5. We further recommend the combination of the Faculties of Arts in 
the University and Colleges, for the preparation of courses of study, the pre- 
paration of time-tables, the appointment of examiners and conduct of exam- 
inations, and the decision of all matters now dealt with by the Senate Com- 
m-ittee on Applications and Memorials. For such purposes the Arts Faculties 
should be empowered to organize as one body and elect their own officers. 
The action of this united Faculty should be subject to confirmation by the 
Senate. 

6. As to the administration of discipline, we recommend that wherever 
possible it be left to the authorities of the several colleges in which the stu- 
dents are enrolled. When, however, two or more colleges are concerned, or 
the University and one or more of the Colleges, the discipline should be 
entrusted to a College Caput consisting of the Chancellor tand President of 
the University, the heads of the Colleges and the Deans of Faculties con- 
cerned. 

7. The control of students' residences and of College Societies and pub- 
lications should in our judgment be with the authorities of the Colleges to 
which the students belong. 

8. We recommend that the name of the University be not changed, but 
reniain as at present. The University of Toronto. 

A. R. Bain, 
Registrar of the Senate. 
Victoria College, Queen's Park, December 1st, 1905. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 9» 



FROM VICTORIA COLLEGE. 

Memorandum from N. Burwash, President Victoria College, in federation 

. with the University. 

Gentlemen, — It seems to be assumed tliat the duty of the Commission 
is not the examination of the past management and government of the Uni- 
versity, but rather of the powers and functions of the governing bodies with 
a view to such suggestions or reconstruction as may result in greater eflS.- 
ciency. 

These powers and functions naturally fall under three heads : 

1. The determination of the general scope of the work of the Univer- 
sity, its financial management and the appointment of its staff. 

2. Academic legislation, ipcluding curriculum and all regulations gov- 
erning teaching and studies and the award of University honors and 
standing. 

3. Executive Academic work; dealing with the general direction of 
students in their studies and work, examinations, teaching and discipline. 

Heretofore these three departments have been represented in a general 
way by the trustees, the Senate and the Councils, but without very well 
defined specifications of functions and powers and without effective connec- 
tion for harmony and unity of action. , 

It is generally unadvisable to make radical changes in the constitution 
of a working body, as much time must be lost and difficulties are likely to 
arise before all parties become accustomed to the new methods of work. 
In the present case, also, so many vested interests and even rights are in- 
volved, that such a shange as the abolition of one of these governing bodies, 
say the Senate, would be attended with grave difficulties and would doubt- 
less meet with strong opposition. It seems, therefore, advisable to secure 
the needed improvement in three ways : 

1. By defining more clearly the several functions of the existing bodies 
and adjusting the distribution of work among them in the light of past 
experience. 

2. By providing such a connection or relation of these bodies to each 
other as will secure perfect harmony and unity of action. 

3. Bj providing such a strong head or leadership of the entire system 
as will secure thorough efficiency and energy of operation. 

The Boaed of Trustees. 

I shall not attempt any suggestions as to the composition of this body, 
It may be appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, or it may be in 
part elected by convocation. The office should in anj case be for a term of 
years, say five years, a small number retiring each year and eligible for 
re-election or appointment. The appointments should be non-political. 

The action of the trustees would, of course, be subject to the sanction 
of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, but should be determinate action 
and not mere advice. 

They Should Have Povfee. 

1. To direct the general policy and scope of the University work. 

2. To institute new chairs and departments of study in the University.. 



100 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



3. To make all appointments and fix salaries. 

4. To maintain general oversight of the efficiency of the work and of its 
needs. Each trustee might devote attention to a special department. 

6. To manage the finances. 

The Senate. 

This body is now entirely representative and its action subject only to 
the sanction of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. The parties represented 
are Convocation, the various teaching bodies of the University or affiliated 
with it, and the High School Masters. The remaining element, ex-Chancel- 
lors and Yice-Chancellors, has not been active. It is quite possible that this 
representation might be so recast as to give a more effective result in the 
united body as a whole. 

Heretofore an attempt has been made to compensate for defects in the 
representation of the teaching staff by electing many of them as graduates, 
thus diminishing the representation of the outside body of graduates. 
The present representation is as follows : 

Graduates elect (Chancellor and 29 Senators) 30 

The teaching staff of University and Colleges (7 heads and 9 

elected) 16 

Federated and Affiliated Colleges and Societies 16 

High School Masters 2 

To these are to be added the Minister of Education, ex-Chancellors and 
Yice-Chancellors, and the Chairman of the Board of Trustees. 

It is evident that the representation of the teaching staff is unduly small. 
But no less than fifteen of the staff have been elected as graduates. The re- 
adjustment is thus : Outside graduates, 15 ; teaching staff, 31 ; affiliated Col- 
leges, 16; High School masters, 2; others, 4. Of the teaching staff, 18 are 
Arts, 6 Medicine, 2 Engineering, and 4 represent Arts colleges, but do not 
teach in Arts. 

The Faculty of Law is represented by the Law Societj^ two law gradu- 
ates and nineteen members of the legal profession, otherwise appointed, 
twenty-two in all. 

By professions the Senate is composed as follows : 

Teachers, 44; law, 22; clergymen, 13; medicine, 11; engineers, 2; agri- 
culture, 3; dentistry, pharmacy and veterinary surgery, each one. 

After such an analysis it cannot be said that the present composition of 
the Senate is not fairly representative of all the learned interests of the coun- 
try. The weak point is the indirect means of reaching that result, and hence 
the uncertainty of the distribution. 

The powers of the Senate under the present Act seem at first to be purely 
legislative and to control the courses of study, the publication of the calen- 
dars, the conduct of examinations, the granting of degrees and certificates of 
proficiency, and establishing and awarding of exhibitions, scholnr^hiris and 
prizes, prescribing the duties of librarian, registrar and other officers, its 
own modes of procedure, and in general to adopt measures for 
promoting the interests of the University and College and for any purpose 
required for carrying out this Act. All this is apparently legislative. But 
in practice the Senate has at the same time attended to the enforcement of its 
own legislation. This it does largely through its officers, the Yice-Chancellor 
and the Registrar, and through Executive Standing Committees, and a large 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 101 



part of its time is occupied with the reports of these committees and action 
thereon. 

Of this executive work the most important part is the appointment of 
examiners and the conduct of examinations and the awards of status, honors, 
etc., as a result. The examiners are now the teaching stalf of the University, 
Colleges and Faculties. The results are all prepared by them and accepted 
pro forma. Later special cases come up on complaint, although there is no 
provision for formal appeal. Perhaps there is no part of the work less satis- 
factory than this. The Faculty of Engineering manages its own affairs and 
never comes to the Senate except with a final report. But all kinds of special 
cases come up from students in Arts and Medicine which could be more safely 
disposed of in the Faculty concerned. 

All this work might be transferred to the Faculties, the Senate legislat- 
ing, and the Faculties acting as the executive branch of the government, and 
reporting final results to the Senate once a year. In legislation the niost 
important work is the fixing of the curriculum. There are now over thirty 
curricula leading to degrees in our calendar. It is evident that these can 
only be prepared by experts, and that the intelligent control of these by the 
Senate can only be of the most general character. 

The Senate does indeed appoint a Board of Studies for each of its depart- 
ments, placing on this Board those of its members who may be experts, or 
regarded as such. But this Board in reality appeals to individual professors 
or groups of professors for help, and gets together material which it is 
scarcely able to digest into a well-balanced curriculum. This duty should be 
assigned to each Faculty as a whole, where the different departments of study 
would balance each other and undue specialization be avoided. We might 
hope that the report which would thus come up to the Senate through the 
Boards of Studies would be much more thoroughly prepared and be in itself 
more perfect than it is at present. 

The introduction of a new curriculum or department of study or chair 
should in every case be first laid before the trustees by report of the Senate, 
and then sent down to the Faculty for detailed preparation. Only thus can 
the trustees maintain control of expenditure and general direction of Uni- 
versity work. If all executive work were thus relegated to the Faculties, and 
legislation fully prepared by the Faculties and standing committees, three 
meetings of full Senate in each year might be sufficient for all work, includ- 
ing appeals. 

It only remains to consider the co-ordination of the work of the Senate 
with that of the Board of Trustees. Heretofore they have been largely inde- 
pendent bodies, the connection link being five members in common, viz., the 
Chairman of the Board, the Chancellor and Yice-Chancellor of the Senate, 
and the President of the University and Principal of University College. 
These five are a majority in the Board of Trustees and should certainly be 
sufficient to secure co-ordinate action if they work together in guiding legis- 
lation as is done in a cabinet. But there does not appear to be any provision 
for such unity or responsibility. To this we will refer again. But in any 
case, for full harmony and unity of action some one body must be responsible 
and that body must be supreme, and for that purpose I would give the Board 
of Trustees, as representing the country to which the University belongs and 
for which it exists, the final control of the general character of the courses of 
study in the University and the introduction of new departments or courses 
of study and the founding of new chairs. It would not be necessary to deny 
to either Senate or Faculty the right to initiate or propose action in these 
directions, but the final voice should be with the trustees and both Senate and 
Faculty should loyally give effect to their action. 



102 ROYAL COMMISSION KE No. 42 



The Faculty. 

We now come to the point where the University must be viewed as an 
aggregation or organization of distinct bodies, rather than as a single body. 
In Oxford and Cambridge these distinct bodies are Colleges; in most other 
Universities they are Faculties. In our University we have both Faculties 
and Colleges. By whatever name called these are in every case organized 
bodies of teachers doing a certain part of the work of instruction in the Uni- 
versity. 

These bodies, as constituent parts of the University, have each a fourfold 
relation : 

1. To the Board of Trustees, which directs the general policy and work 
of the University. 

2. To the Senate, which prescribes the curriculum and general regula- 
tions under which they must all work. 

3. Intercollegiate and interf acuity relations, rn which they assist each 
other and work together for the common ends of the University. 

4. To the students ; more definitely, each to the body of students whom 
they instruct. 

These constituent bodies have had each its own origin, history, constitu- 
tion or charter, and properties, endowments, etc. They have been united in 
the common University under the Act of 1887, and later under the amended 
Act of 1901, by federation, affiliation, or, in one case, by a special compact 
of transfer which took place originally in 1887 and was extended in 1903 to 
form a Faculty of Medicine. In every other case a large measure of auton- 
omy under the original constitution of the federating or affiliating body has 
been maintained, as also the original financial independence. This last is 
also the case with the Medical Faculty. While yielding its power of appoint- 
ment, it has derived no corresponding financial advantage and remains entirely 
dependent upon its own earnings. University College is also attached to the 
University by its original charter, both in the matter of appointments and 
financial support. All the other constituent bodies, both federated and affili- 
ated, are founded on their own charters and endowments, and receive their 
appointments and management from their own boards or other authorit5\ 

If greater uniformity in this respect is considered desirable it can most 
readily be secured by giving to the Medical Faculty and to University Col- 
lege each its own chest and management. Both institutions would thus be 
rendered more independent, to their advantage and without detriment to the 
University. A small board in each case, with charge of the single College or 
Faculty, can give it more thorough attention than it will receive from a body 
in charge of a number of interests ; and at the same time its ambition may 
be trusted to stimulate it to the highest possible excellence, while its line of 
work is under the direction of the Senate. 

Turning now to relations to the Senate, we find each and all of these 
constituent bodies subject to the Senate in curriculum and examinations and 
receiving from the Senate their honors and degrees. This, in itself, secures 
a minimum of efficiency and a unity of work. If any teaching body fails to 
bring its students up to the required standard, such failure must speedily 
prove fatal to its position before the country. 

On the Senate, to which it is thus responsible, each of the major teaching 
bodies has representation. 

Already the Senate has practically relegated to these teaching bodies 
both the work of examination and of preparation of curriouhira. But it has 
done this rather by appointment of individuals than by holding an entire 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 103 



body responsible, e.g., all professors, etc., teaching Latin are appointed exam- 
iners in Latin, so with other subjects. Similarly the preparation of the cur- 
riculum in Latin is assigned to the teachers of that subject, and from them 
forwarded to the Board of Arts Studies. Probably in Medicine and Engin- 
eering the work has been done to a larger extent by the Faculty as a whole, 
as in the past they were accustomed to act together as a School of Medicine 
or of Practical Science. 

If this relation of the Faculty to the Senate is to continue, and we think 
it desirable that it should do so, provision should be made for its being done 
by the Faculty as an organized body responsible to the Senate by final report. 
No professor should be able to say, "This is no part of my duty." The organ- 
ization of Faculties for this and other purposes thus demands our attention. 

The peculiarity of the Faculty of Arts of the University of Toronto is 
that under its federal constitution it consists of professors and instructors in 
subjects which may be designated as scientific, and which are required by all 
the federating or affiliating bodies. In this body we have twenty-two pro- 
fessors and associate professors, twelve lecturers and thirty-five assistants. 
While the subjects handled by the staff are purely scientific, and hence pro- 
perly Arts subjects, they are required not only for the Arts curriculum, but 
also for the courses in Law, Medicine, Engineering, Divinity, Pedagogy, 
Dentistry, Agriculture, Household Science, Commerce, Pharmacy, and even 
Music. They thus naturally form the centre to which every part of the 
work of the University is attached. 

All the Faculties and schools avail themselves of the assistance of thi? 
central Faculty of the University. Their work is pre-eminently work for 
all professions and industries, in fact for the common well-being of the whole 
country. It is important, therefore, that this body should -be so related to 
the other constituent bodies of the University as to afford them the full and 
free enjoyment of its advantages. The difficult points are time-table and 
curriculum. What courses shall this body of professors give? and at what 
times and places? It is evident that these questions can only be answered 
by a small body of men who have accurate understanding of the whole field, 
and who impartially represent all the interests concerned. Between this body 
and the trustees there must be the fullest understanding and co-operation 
so that appointments to staff may correspond to existing needs. 

It will generally be found convenient, perhaps necessary, that many, if 
not all, these professors should hold a dujjlicate appointment. All will be 
members of the Faculty of Arts. Some will at the same time be members of 
the Faculty of Medicine, others of Law, etc., and some may even be members 
of the staff of Arts colleges. 

For the organization of the teaching staff in any of the Faculties or Col- 
leges the term Council has been used and is appropriate. We have at present 
a University Council selected from all the Faculties, a Council of the Faculty 
of Medicine, and one of the Faculty of Engineering, and one of each of the 
Colleges. We think that of these the University Council should be recon- 
structed and its duties divided, and that the other councils should have their 
duties more clearly defined, and in some cases enlarged. 

For the University Council we would substitute a Council of the Faculty 
of Arts, composed of all professors and associate professors in the University 
Professoriate and the Arts Colleges, a body of fifty-three. To these we would 
commit the direction of Art students in their studies, exemption from lec- 
tures, and examinations in Arts, under the statutes of the Senate, subject 
to appeal to the Senate, and the drafting of the curriculum in Arts for the 
consideration of the Senate. 



104 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Similar powers could be given to a similar Council in each, other Faculty 
or department of study of the University. 

The most important parts of the work now assigned to the common Uni- 
versity Council would thus be distributed to the Faculty Councils, together 
with the detailed work on examinations and curriculum. 

To these Councils in the case of the medical students and students of 
Engineering, etc., and to their College Councils in the case of Arts students, 
together with the general direction of their studies, would be committed the 
responsibility for discipline, together with the autonomy at present enjoyed 
by these constituent bodies. 

There now remains a single element to be provided for the government 
of the University, i.e., such a head as will give unity, direction, energy and 
efl&ciency to the entire system in its practical work. 

The experience of modern society suggests two ways of attaining this, a 
strong personal headship, an autocracy, if you please, or cabinet government. 

We think both the genius of our age and country and the constitution of 
our University as a federated body favor the latter. Of course even a Cabinet 
must have a leader, but he must carry his Cabinet with him. 

In composition such a Cabinet might be composed of the President, 
Deans of Faculties and heads of Colleges, seven in all. The entire Cabinet 
would be members of the Senate. They would be represented on the Board 
of Trustees and on each of the Faculty and College Councils. To them might 
be committed directly, as at present, intercollegiate discipline and the con- 
trol of all University or intercollegiate societies of students and of occa- 
sional lectures, etc., and, assisted by the secretaries, the arrangement of 
the time tables and University lectures. 

But by far the most important part of their duty should be the initiation, 
supervision, unification and energetic executive of the entire work of the 
University. They should study and master all University problems. They 
should either directly or through their faculties bring forward all needed new 
legislation, and see that it is fully and effectively presented to the legislative 
body. They should through their representatives carry all such legislation 
forward to the Board of Trustees or Senate for its appropriate action. In 
their several Faculties they should see that all academic laws are obeyed or 
given effect, and they should see that in every department effective service ia 
rendered by each member of the staff and in case of failure report to the pro- 
per responsible authority. 

This last should be done, each in his own Faculty or College, as well as 
by united action in the common faculty, and in case of new appointment? 
they should be competent to give intelligent advice to the appointing bodies 
and should collect and digest all data upon which such advice can be founded. 

Such a headship for the University was proposed under the name of "the 
University Caput" by the Act of 1849, but seems never to have been made 
effective. 

Of course, in such a Caput, the President of the University will be the 
leading figure, but as a leader of ideas and measures and by progressive act- 
ivity and initiative rather than as an autocrat. His ideas must enforce tliem- 
selves by their innate power of conviction and by his practical power of show- 
ing how to carry them into effect. 

Such a headship and leadership of a University may lack the concen- 
trated will power of the single control of the individual President, but it will 
have the safer and more permanent force of wisdom and truth, a force which 
will not cease to be effective wh^en an individual man dies or resigns or 
becomes feeble through age. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 105 



Again, that wliicli approves itself to five or seven or nine experienced 
and intelligent men is likely to approve itself to the whole body corporate 
and to be accepted, not because it is so ordered, but because ii is right and 
true itself. The secret of all good government lies in rational and moral 
conviction. If anywhere this is possible it should be in a University. 

Since my printed statement was prepared a number of points have been 
raised by proposals which have been published in +be press and which require 
brief consideration. 

1. The most important of these is the proposal to merge University Col- 
lege in the University Faculty of Arts. 

This would make the University complete in itself without the College 
system. So long as the State maintains a separate College and this College is 
necessary to the completeness of the University, the College ideal is a part 
of the University sjstem. If we have one College we can have twenty if 
necessary, all doing the same work as competitors in that field, and, so long 
as the University maintains an impartial relation to each and all alike, no 
one suffering any disadvantage which it is not in its own power to remedy. 
The fact that one College is maintained by the State and the others by other 
constituencies need make no difference in their common relations to the Uni- 
versity. But if the University assumes the work of the State College and 
that ceases to exist, then the remaining Colleges become the competitors of the 
University of which they are supposed to form a part, and if their relation 
to the University is to be of any advantage to them, then they become 
dependent on the body with which they are forced to compete. 

What we press as essential is the College system, and the complete equal- 
ity of the Colleges in their relation to the University. The field of College 
work, we think, should be those subjects which make for culture and character 
in education. We regard the College as the body which can most effectively 
deal with all discipline, except that relating to intercollegiate relations and 
the University examinations and lectures and University societies and their 
publications. 

We contend very strongly that each College should manage its own resi- 
dence and we regard it as a fundamental mistake that the University should 
enter into competition with the Colleges in the establishment of common 
residences for students of various faculties or that it should entrust these to 
any other than academic control. 

2. The proposal to do away with the Senate and divide its functions 
between the faculties and the Board of Trustees we regard as a mistaken 
effort to secure simplicity. We secure greater simplicity of operation by a 
proper distribution of work among several bodies each fitted for its own part 
rather than by an aggregation of diverse duties in the hands of one cumbrous 
body. The proposal to lessen the number of members of the Senate is unneces- 
sary, and deprives the University of its touch with the various professional and 
educational interests of the country. 

3. The proposal to put affiliations entirely in the hands of the Trustees 
we think a mistake. Affiliations involve no additional expenditure. They 
bring to the University new feeders for its various courses and faculties. 
The point to be guarded is that these feeders are worthy of the prestige afforded 
to them by this honorable relation and that we do not lend ourselves to impose 
upon the pubic inefficient institutions. No institution should be allowed to 
continue in affiliation which does not discharge the duties of affiliaton, i.e., 
send forward well qualified students for matriculation into the University 
Faculties or as candidates for University degrees. Of all this the Senate. 
which receives the reports of the examiners, has the means always at hand 



106 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



for forming a correct judgment. The Senate should on this account at least 
^hare in the responsibility of creating or terminating affiliations. 

4. The proposal to reduce the School of Practical Science to the present 
position of the Faculty of Medicine, governing all three Faculties by a com 
mon University Council, we regard as a mistake. Each Faculty understands 
its own work and knows its own students and to direct that work should have 
its own Council and internal autonomy; and the plan we have proposed con- 
templates this for the Faculties of Medicine and Applied Science as well as 
for the Faculty of Arts. 

5. Objection has been taken to the present system of federation, that it 
prevents the development of post-graduate subjects, specially in College sub- 
jects. 

This is a difficulty which may be easily surmounted without interfering 
with the College system. 

Post-graduate work is essentially University as distinguished from Col- 
lege work. Its object is not culture, but professional attainments. It thus 
legitimately belongs to the University side of the Arts curriculum. The 
University may form a school or faculty of post-graduate studies in Arts and 
the professors employed in undergraduate work both in the University and in 
the Colleges may also hold positions in this school or faculty. If made a 
separate Faculty then it should have its own Dean and Council and have 
powers similar to those exercised by the other Faculties 

Synopsis of Goverment of the University. 

1. The Board of Trustees or Regents to manage finance; make appoint- 
ments; found or institute new Faculties, departments, courses of study, or 
chairs in the University; to determine the scope and policj" of the University 
work and supervise in general its efficiency. 

2. The Senate to consider and authorize all academic legislation and 
supervise the work of examination through the Faculties, award all honors 
and confer degrees on report of the Faculties and make regulations for the 
same. The work of the Senate shall be based upon and be complementary 
to that of the Board of Trustees. 

3. The Councils of Faculties of Arts, Law, Medicine and Engineering, 
acting as separate bodies. 

To take charge, each in their own Faculty, of the studies and discipline 
of students, conduct examinations under the statutes of the Senate, and report 
to the Senate, to prepare the curricula for the consideration of the Senate, and 
consider all applications and memorials'. 

The Councils to be composed of the professors and associate professors 
in each Faculty with other permanent members as assessors without vote. 

The Faculty of Arts to be composed of professors and associate profes- 
sors in Arts of the University and Arts Colleges and to deal with curriculum, 
examinations and relation of students to their common work, and applications 
and memorials, leaving to the individual Colleges and their Councils the 
direction and discipline of their stiidents. 

The financial management and appointments and control of the common 
Arts work of the University to be in the hands of the University trustees. 
That of the Arts Colleges and other faculties to be determined each by its 
own charter or constitution, but all to be subject to the authority and general 
statutes of the University. 

The Facultv of Divinity to be represented bv the theological Faculties 
^■nii Colleges admitted to federation with the Universitv and these to be 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 107 



autonomous in their own ^v-ork, hut their students when taking Arts work to 
be enrolled in an Arts College and subject to the general regulations of the 
University. 

4. The Caput to consist of the Deans of the Faculties of Arts, Law, 
Medicine, and Engineering, and the heads of Arts Colleges, the President 
of the University being President either by appointment or election, to main- 
tain interfaculty and collegiate discipline to control and regulate all common 
work whether of faculties or students and extra academic exercises, to settle 
time-tables and places of lectures, to consider the needs and problems of the 
University and prepare legislation and business for the Trustees and Senate. 
To bring up from their faculties or Councils all matters prepared for or recom- 
mended to these bodies, and to convey to their councils and to the students 
all decisions of the governing bodies requiring their attention. 

5. A Faculty or School of Post-graduate Studies to be established com- 
posed of such professors in the University and its Colleges as may be able 
to take part in post-graduate work with such additional professors or lecturers 
as may be found necessary. The Council of this Faculty to have similar 
powers over post-graduate studies and students as the other faculties. 



14 u.C. 



108 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



FROM TRINITY COLLEGE. 

This Memorandum embodying certain views of Trinity College falls 
under two main headings: 1. Matters concerning the University as a whole; 
2. Matters concerning Trinity College more particularly. Under the former 
heading the Memorandum deals briefly with (1) The Government of the 
University; (2) The Collegiate System; (3) Residences. Under the latter 
heading it deals with (1) The proposed removal of Trinity College to the 
Queen's Park; (2) The need of transportation facilities for Trinity College 
Students. 

I. 

The Government of the University. 

The Government of the University seems to fall under two distinct 
headings, namely, (1) Business administration; and (2) Academic adminis- 
tration, including academic appointments and removals. 

To meet these conditions we would propose (1) a small business body, 
which should be supreme in all purely business appointments, removals, 
and administration; (2) a small academic body, which should have exclusive 
control of certain defined matters of academic government ; (3) Faculty Coun- 
cils, for the discharge of certain other academic duties ; and (4) provision 
whereby the business body and the academic body would sit together in joint 
session to deal with matters touching closely both the business and the 
academic government of tjie University, including particularly academic 
appointments and removals. 

Note. — Throughout this memorandum, the term "University" is used 
in its strict signification, and is not to be taken as including University Col- 
lege, the administraton of which should, in our judgment, be entirely separ- 
ate and distinct in all respects from that of the University. 

The several governing bodies here suggested might be named respec- 
tively: (1) The Board of Trustees; (2) The Academic Caput; (3) The Faculty 
Councils; (4) The Trustees and Caput. 

The composition of these several bodies to be as follows : 

(1) The Board of Trustees to be composed of the Chancellor, Vice-Chan- 
cellor, and President, as ex-ojjicio members, and, say, seven members 
appointed by the Government, of whom a certain number should be grad- 
uates. 

Note. — We strongly deprecate the proposal which has been made in 
some quarters that certain of the Trustees, in addition to the Chancellor, 
should be elected by the graduate body of the University. 

(2) The Academic Caput to be composed of the President, the Heads of 
the Arts Colleges, and the Deans of Faculties. 

(3) The Faculty Councils. 

(a) The Council of the Faculty of Arts to consist of the Professors and 
Associate Professors of the Arts Professoriate of University College, Victoria 
College, and Trinity College, the permanent Lecturers in Arts of the Uni- 
versity and of the Colleges having a seat on the Council as assessors without 
vote, for determination of the curricula, and at other times when necessary. 

(6) The Council of each Faculty other than Arts to be composed in like 
manner of the Professors and Associate Professors of each Faculty, with 
the permanent Lecturers of each as assessors. 

14a u.c. 



i:906 IQNIVERSITY OF TORONTO, 109 



(c) The Preside-ftt to be an ex-offi,cm member of each Faculty Council. 
The duties of the several governing bodies may be defined in part as 
follows : 

(1) The Board of Trustees should have the power of appointment and 
;removal of the Bursar, Registrar, Librarian, and all other officers and ser- 
vants of the University, not including the President or any Professor or 
other Instructor, and should fix the salaries of the President, Professors aijd 
other Instructors, and of all officers and servants of the University ; it should 
have the control, management, and government of the property, endowment 
funds, and all other assets, income and revenue, and generally should be 

charged with everything (not otherwise provided for) which has to do with 
the business and financial administration of the University. 

(2) The Academic Caput should constitute an Advisory Board with 
whom the President should consult in all important matters of academic 
policy; it should act for the President in his absence, and at other times 
when required so to do by the Trustees; it should consider and report to the 
Trustees upon all matters referred to it by them or by the Senate, and should 
prepare in advance all academic matters which have to be transacted in 
joint session with the Trustees; it should deal with all cases of University 
discipline not falling within the jurisdiction of any College or Faculty, and 
generally should be charged with all matters (not otherwise provided for) 
of purely academic administration. 

(3) The Faculty Councils should be charged with the preparation of 
the curricula ; the disposition of applications and memorials in respect of 
students' courses of study; the conduct of examinations, and the discipline 
of students in matters essentially pertaining to any particular Faculty. But 
the curricula, examination results, and other matters affecting the Univer- 
sity generally must be reported by the several Faculty Councils to the Sen- 
ate for final ratification, amendment, or rejection. 

Note. — No rights or duties assigned to the Faculty Councils shall in 
any way infringe upon the sovereign rights of the Colleges in respect of 
College discipline, the immediate direction of the students' courses of study, 
and all matters touching the autonomy of the Colleges. 

(4) The Trustees and Caput as a joint body should have vested in them 
the power of academic appointments and removals now vested in the Gov- 
ernment, subject always to the veto of the Government, and should be 
charged with all matters of University administration in which the bus- 
iness and academic interets are so closely related that the matters in ques- 
tion cannot be properly assigned to either body for separate action. 

(5) The Senate. In all essential matters the constitution and compos- 
ition of the Senate should remain as at present, so that the Federated and 
Affiliated Institutions may thereby continue to enjoy their due and propor- 
tionate representation and voice in the affairs of the University. 

The Collegiate Stetem. 

"The Collegiate System," as a term used to describe certain existing 
tacts and conditions m the University of Toronto, may be defined to mean 
the system of Arts Colleges sharing with the Universitv proper the work 
of instruction in the Faculty of Arts, each such College having complete 
autonomy in respect of its own government and internal administration, but 
all alike being bound by the rules and regulations of the University in res- 
pect of the courses of study and other matters of general University con- 
cern. There are three such Colleges in the University at the present time 



110 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



namely, University College, Victoria College, and Trinity College. There 
are also a number of Theological Colleges which bear no share in the Arts 
work of the University, but, for the most part, avail themselves of Univer- 
sity College for the instruction in Arts of their students. These are facts 
which have to be borne in mind in considering the government and admin- 
istration of the University. 

- . As to the value and desirability of this system of Arts Colleges we are of 
the opinion that the existing facts should be welcomed as supplying a valu- 
able element of strength to the University. We are convinced that the cause 
of higher education in Ontario is best promoted by the present system of 
healthy rivalry between the various Arts Colleges, including the Arts Col- 
lege of the State. Amongst other advantages, this system tends to keep a 
much larger proportion of the people interested in higher education, both 
financially and otherwise, and affords a safeguard against the creeping in of 
the 'dead level' danger, which is always fatal to the best results. For these 
and other reasons, any plan of reorganization of the University should aim 
at the fostering, developing, and perfecting of the Collegiate system with a 
view to its permanency and greater efficiency, rather than seek to replace it 
by any plan which would make one college co-extensive with the Arts Faculty 
of the University. To exhibit the contrast in concrete form, we would add 
that the system which we uphold is that which obtains in the Universities 
of Oxford, Cambridge, and Manitoba, while the other system, which we 
believe to be distinctly inferior to it, is exemplified in Harvard and Tale. 
In Harvard there is only one College, and it is co-extensive with the Uni- 
versity; in Oxford there are twenty-one colleges, each college solicitous for 
the welfare of its own students, whom it watches over carefully and individ- 
ually in respect both of their academic work and of their general conduct 
and manner of life, from the beginning of their course to the end. All these 
colleges contribute their strength to their one common University. 

Whatever difficulties have been found in the practical working of the 
Collegiate system in the University of Toronto, are, in our judgment, due 
equal footing. The position which the Arts College of the vState at present 
largely to the failure on the part of the State to place all the colleges on an 
occupies in relation to the University is unfair to itself, and unfair to the 
other Arts Colleges. On the one hand it is deprived of the autonomy which 
its sister Colleges enjoy, while on the other hand it is placed in a peculiar 
relationship to the University which is denied to the other Colleges. 

Having regard to these difficulties, and to the unrest and dissatisfaction 
which must be caused thereby as long as they continue, we would respect- 
fully represent that all such difficulties could, in our judgment, be solved, 
and the Collegiate system strengthened throughout to the manifest advant- 
age of the University as a whole, by the adoption of the following measures 
in respect of the Arts College of the State, namely, (1) the complete separ- 
ation of University College from the University in respect of purse, and of 
business and academic administration; (2) providing it with a building of 
its own, entirely separated from ^all University uses; (3) a change in the 
name of the College, from one which to persons not thoroughly conversant 
with the facts suggests some special relationship to the University or excep- 
tional privileges not enjoyed by the other Arts Colleges, to a name not open 
to this objection. The original name, King's College, would seem to be 
peculiarly appropriate in view of the history of the University. 

Before carrying out this separation of University College from the 
University, by giving it autonomy, a bailding exclusively its own, and x 
separate purse, it would be necessary, for the protection of the other Arts 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. Ill 



Colleges no less than for the sake of University College itself, to provide for 
it in an ample endowment, or otherwise to make generous provision for all 
its needs. The due support of the Arts College of the State, and its main- 
tenance as a strong and successful College, is quite as necessary to the per- 
fection of the sj-stem as we believe a change from the present conditions to 
be. A weak State College could hardly fail to aft'ect adversely the other 
Colleges in the University, while a strong State College — given the equal 
relationship for which we contend — will always provide an excellent incen- 
tive to healthy rivalry on the part of the other Colleges. 

Residences 

While not wishing to oppose any system of Residence which promises 
to prove of real benefit to the University as a whole, we yet feel constrained 
to say that, in our judgment, the plan for a University Residence as pro- 
posed" by the Act of the Legislature of last Session has in it elements of weak- 
ness, not to say danger, which seem to us to call for careful reconsideratiion 
of the whole matter. We are convinced that the Collegiate system of Resi- 
dences, which conjoins supervised and healthy home life in the College with 
the Student's academic work, is the best which has yet been devised. In 
respect therefore of Residence for Arts students, we believe that a great 
gain would be affected by providing Residences for the three Arts Colleges 
in lieu of the proposed University Residence. In respect of Residence for 
students in other Faculties, some plan should be devised which would in 
each case coniject the Residence as closely as possible with the work of the 
Professoriate of the Faculty in question. 

In this connection — since Colleges and sport are closely related — it may 
not be out of place to say a word about sport in the University. We think 
it would be no slight gain if Collegiate sports as such, including under this 
name sports organized in the Medical Faculty, the School of Science, etc., 
were encouraged and developed by (1) suitable organization in each College 
or Faculty concerned; (2) the fostering of Inter-collegiate sporting events; 
(3) a recognized system whereby in any given sport the University teams 
would be selected from the different College organizations. 

II. 

The Proposed Removal or Trinity College to the Queen's Park. 

The question of the removal of Trinity College to the Queen's Park, 
which has been raised bj- the Commission, was considered by Trinity College 
some three or four years ago, and decided in the negative at that time on 
three grounds, namely, (1) a strong sentiment on the part of the graduates 
and friends of Trinity in favor of retaining the historic site; (2) the formid- 
able financial difficulties standing in the way of removal; (3) the conviction 
that no satisfactory, and therefore no permanent, basis of co-operation and 
union of the Universities had yet been reached, and that failing adequate 
changes in this regard the withdrawal of Trinity College from the Federation 
might prove necessary. 

If this question is to be submitted again to the general body of Trinity's 
supporters, it seems to us essential that before this is done some thoroughly 
satisfactory settlement should be reached in respect of the last named diffi- 
culty, affecting the basis of Federation; and some feasible plan proposed by 
the Government in respect of the financial difficulties. With these matters 



112 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



satisfactorily settled, we should not deem th.e first, standing by itself, to be 
insuperable. 

The Proposed Street Car Service. 

Whatever may ultimately be decided as to removal, the proposed street 
car service for the transportation of students of Trinity College to the Uni- 
versity buildings is an immediate and urgent need. Even if removal be 
decided upon, it is probable that not less than four or five years must elapse 
before adequate new buildings could be planed and erected, and the trans- 
fer from the old site to the new completely effected. During this period the 
cars seem to us to be an absolute necessity. We desire therefore, with all 
due respect, to represent to the Commission the desirability — from our point 
of view we might even say the vital necessity — of recalling at the earliest 
date possible the request made by the Commission to the Government for 
delay in the completion of the plans which were under way for the estab- 
lishment of this service. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

Signed on behalf of Trinity College, 

T. C. S. Macklem, 
Hexry M. Pellatt, 
Edward A. Welch, 

F. OSLEB, 

J. A. Worrell, 

N. I'errar Davidson. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 113 



FROM THE CONVOCATION OF TRINIIY COLLEGE. 

The Convocation of Trinity College begs to memorialize the University 
Commission as follows : — 

We cor cur generallv in the statement subnjitted on behalf of Trinity 
College itself to the Royal Commission. 

We desire to emphasize particularly the rights of graduates under 
existing legislation and the necessity for reviving Convocation in the Uni- 
versity of Toronto. 

As the successive Acts of the Legislature have guaranteed to the Arts 
graduates of the federated Universities, as well as to the graduates of Uni- 
versity College, separate representation upon the Sec ate of the University, 
we, as graduates of the University of Trinity College, should deprecate any 
change which would decrease the number of representatives, or alter the 
proportion of the representation, to which the federated Universities are 
now entitled upon the Senate. We should also deprecate very strongly 
ary change iu the constitution of the Senate which should tend to weaken 
the College system, or to make any essent'al alteration in the character of 
the federation agreement. 

If the elective principle were abolished in respect of the Senate, there 
is reason to fear that the interest of the graduates in the University 
would be greatly decreased. 

We deem it inadvisable that the Board of Trustees should have upon 
it ary elected representatives other than the Chancellor, but, if in defer- 
ence to the views of other bodies such a policy should be determined upon. 
we contend that the method of representation should be that which now ob- 
tains in regard to the Senate. 

It is not likely to conduce to the well-being of the University that 
matters of financial administration should become a subject for possible 
partisan discussion in an election contest. On the other hand, appoint- 
ments of graduates to seats upoD the Board of Trustees would be more 
likely to be approved by the great body of graduates, because the Govern- 
ment of the day would have to accept the responsibility for the appoint- 
ments made. 

CONVOCATIOX OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TOEONTO. 

As successive Acts of the Legislature of Ontario make mention of 
Convocation, it is to be regretted that this body has ceased to exercise its 
functions. It is questionable whether the present Alumni Association, not- 
withstanding its great activity, has quite filled the place that Convocation 
was intended to occupy. 

Certainly it is to be desired that the federated Universities should have 
upon the Executive of Convocation the same kind and^ proportion of rep- 
resentation as they at present have upon the Senate, in order that their 
views may be from time to time set forth in a manner likely to satisfy their 
respective constituencies, and so to conduce to the good of the whole Uni- 
versity. 



114 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



As graduates of the IjEiversity of Trinity College, we should he glad 
to see provision made for the establishment of a strong Alumni Association 
of University College, separate and distinct from the Convocation of the 
University. This, we feel sure, would redound to the well-being and pros- 
perity of that College, just as the Convocation of our own College and 
University has been the means of strengthening the bond between our 
College and its graduates. 

The Chairman of the Convocation of the University of Toronto ought 
to be ex-officio a member of Sec ate. 

In connection with the Convocation, it is worth while considering 
whether means cannot be devised whereby the permanent members of the 
staff of the University, of University College, and of the federated Uni- 
versities might not be admitted ad eundem gradum in the University. It 
seems to be anomalous tliat a man should be a permanent teacher in the 
University or in any of its Arts Colleges, and not be a member of the Uni- 
versity. 

We regard it as a matter of vital importance that, in everything per- 
taining to the instructioD of the students and their well-being generally, 
members of the teaching staffs should be brought into as close relations 
with them and the graduates as may be possible. 

On the contrary we hold it to be undesirable that members of the 
teaching staffs should take any part in t' e financial administration of the 
University, the Presidect alone excepted. 

In conclusion, we wish to declare that we believe thoroughly in fol- 
lowing British rather than American models; and that we wish to see the 
Collegiate system more firmly established with suitable Residences for the 
several Colleges, and the due maintenance of existing federation agree- 
ments and principles. 

D. T. Symons, 

Chairman of Convocation, 

A. H. Young, 

Cleric of Convocation. 
Trinity College, 

Toronto, December 28th, 1905. 



FROM THE FACULTY OF KNOX COLLEGE. 

The Faculty of Knox College beg to submit the following recom- 
mendations for the .consideration of the Royal Commission appointed to- 
suggest charges in the government of the University. 

1. That the Universitv Council and the Council of University Col- 
lege be abolished, with the end in view of simplifying the management 
of the University, the duties now performed by these bodies to be trans- 
ferred to the bodies hereinafter mentioned. 

2. That the business and academic management of the University and 
University C(dlege, be entrusted to a Board of Trustees and a Senate, or 
to bodies corresponding to these, and that the powers of the President of 
the University be enlarged. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 115 



3. That the Board of Trustees have the management and control of 
the affairs of the University generally, that all the property of the Uni- 
versity and University College be vested in them, that they raake on the 
recommendation of the President all appointments in the University and 
University College, and that all dismissals be effected in the same way. 

It may be desirable that appointments and dismissals should have the 
approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council, or that the Lieutenant- 
Governor in Council should possess the power of veto. 

4. That the President be appointed by the Board of Trustees subject 
to the approval of the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 

5. That the President of the University, the Chancellor and the Yice- 
Chancellor be members of the Board of Trustees, the remaining members, 
of whom a certain proportion shall be graduates of the University, to be 
appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. 

Note : The proposal that the graduates should elect representatives to 
the Board of Trustees is not favored. The most desirable men would 
accept appointment from the Government, but would not run the risk of 
an election. 

It is suggested also that a certain number of the Trustees retire at 
stated periods. 

6. That the President of the University be the Executive Head of tHe 
University; that he be relieved of all duties of teaching; and that he 
make all recommendations of appointments in the University and Univer- 
sity College after consultation with Deans of Faculties, Heads of Depart- 
ments, and Heads of Federated Universities and Colleges concerned in 
the appointment. 

Note : It is important to be able to locate the responsibilitity for ap-^ 
pointments, and this cannot be done if they are made by a Board alone. 

The President should, however, consult those interested before mak- 
ing the recommendation. For example, Knox College has a direct interest 
in the departments of History of Philosophy, Psychology and History in 
the University, and in Ethics, English Literature as well as the languages 
in University College. The Head of Knox College should be consulted in 
appointments to these departments, but the President should still be free to 
follow or reject the advice given. 

7. That the Senate of the University deal with all matters relating to 
curricula, examinations and degrees, and have control generally of the 
academic work of the University and University College. 

Note: It is not desirable that the Senate be replaced by a body com- 
posed of members of the Faculties. Though the curricula, etc., be deter- 
mined chiefly by members of the Faculties the Senate is needed as a check 
upon hasty legislation. Besides, there are other interests involved than 
those represented by the staff. 

If it be advisable that the staff should have a larger share of influence 
in shaping the curriculum, they might be associated with the committee 
of Senate which deals with this matter, and in such a case the Federated 
Universities and Colleges should also be represented. 

8. That the number of members constituting the Senate be reduced. 
Note ; This body as it exists at present is too large.' 



116 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



9. That the graduates in Arts, in whatever College registered, vote as 
one body, and that the present system of separate representation be 
abolished. 

Note : The federation agreement provided that the separate rep- 
resentation should end at the close of six years. The coEtinuance of this 
method acts as a disintegrating force in the University. 

10. That University College be brought into closer relation to the Uni- 
versity than that which now exists. 

Note: Knox College is deeply concerned in the efficiency of Univer- 
sity College, and would strongly disapprove of any proposal to separate 
University College from the University by giving it a separate Board of 
Governors and a separate management, or setting it apart with an endow- 
ment of its own. 

Appointments in University College should be recommended by the 
President of the University. It is not desirable to have two standards of 
appointment. The President, being chosen for administrative purposes, is 
presumably better qualified to select a Faculty than the Principal of Uni- 
versity College, who is primarily a teacher, and the head of a department, 
and who would find it difficult to resist influences brought to bear upon him 
bv those who are associated with him in the work of teaching. 

University College should receive an equitable share of the endow- 
ments of the University and the support given by the Government. 

The position of Principal of University College would correspond to 
that of a Dean of Faculty, 

Provision should be made for the carrying on of post-graduate work. 
This, however, may be done in the University. Even in such a case there 
should be no discrimination in the matter of support against University 
College. 

11. That all matters touching the discipline of students be dealt with 
by the President and the Dean, and Faculty concerned. 

November 7th, 1905. 

The Faculty of Knox College beg to submit for the consideration of the 
University Commission,' the following addition to the suggestions already 
made : 

They have learned that the University Council have forwarded to the 
Commission a recommendation for the formation of a University Caput 
whose chief functions shall be to deal with matters of discipline, to control 
University associations of students, and to authorize all teaching and 
lecturing in the University by o'hers than the duly appointed lecturers and 
teachers. 

When the Faculty of Knox College submitted their suggestions to the 
Commission, the formation of such a Caput had not been considered by 
them, nor were they aware that such was contemplated. They beg, there- 
fore, to be permitted to urge upon the Commission, in the event of such a 
Caput b-^ing formed, that the federated Colleges be represented by their 
Heads. 

On behalf of Krox College the Faculty desire to draw attention to the 
following considerations in support of their claim for representation : 

1. The functions of the Caput, in the suggestions of the University 
Couticil. are substantially those which now belong to the Council, of 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. li: 



T^hicli body the Principal of Kb ox College is a member ex-ofjicio. Under 
the arrangement suggested for a Caput, Knox College would be deprived 
of the right now enjoyed to be represented in such matters. 

2. The Faculty of Knox College teach a part of the Arts course of the 
University. The students who avail themselves of the "Religious Know- 
ledge" option are not merely those who count the subject as a part of their 
theological course, but many others who have no thought of taking the course 
in divinity. They are, it is true, students of University College, but they 
are also students of Knox College, and for them Knox College has its share 
of responsibility. 

3. There are other students of the University who will take the course 
in Knox College only after the completion of their Arts course, but who have 
declared themselves students for the ministry' and are now under the care 
f f the Church. Many of them are already in residence and with the conduct 
ot all of these, Knox College is directly concerned. 

To some extent the College must also bear a responsibility for the large 
number of Presbyterian students who attend the University. 

4. The matters to be entrusted to the Caput are largely of an ethical 
nature. In such matters all the federated Colleges are vitally concerned. 
Their co-operation, therefore, ought to be secured. This would give ground 
for maintaining that in all that concerns the moral wellbeing of the students 
the influence of Knox College is felt as truly as if it were the theological 
fiiculty of a denominational University. 

In the event of a proposal as to a Caput being considered by the 
Commission, the Faculty of Knox College respectfully desire to be heard in 
support of their claim to representation. 

Knox College, 

Toronto, 6th Jany., 1906. Wm, MacLaeen. 



FROM THE PRINCIPAL OF WYCLIFFE COLLEGE. 

I. There are three important objects to be kept in view: — 

1. Simplification of Machinery. 

2. Localization of Responsibility. 

3. Unification of the different elements. 

II. The Board of Trustees. There should be constituted a Board of 
Trustees, or Regents, appointed by the Government, about 12 or 15 in 
number, to be so appointed that about one-quarter should retire each year, 
but should be eligible for re-appointment. The only elected member should 
be the Chancellor, who would represent the whole body of Students. The 
President should be, ex-officio. a member of the Board. This Board should 
ht'.ve complete control of the Finances and of the general policy and admin- 
istration both of the University and of University College. 

III. The President. Should be appointed by the Government, on the 
nomination of the Board of Trustees. He should become a member of the 
Board of Trustees, ex-officio. He should be given very high powers, and 
upon him should devolve the whole responsibility for the management and 



118 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



control of the University in all its Faculties and of University College. 
He should nominate to all appointments, after consultation with the Deans 
of Faculties and Heads of Departments, all of whom should be subordinate 
to him. He should be the unifying and co-ordinating force. He should be 
a man of high ideals, whose character would command the respect both of 
Professors and Students, and the confidence of the Community at large. 
He should not be simply a scholar, but a practical man, capable of dealing 
with all the practical matters of administration, as well as directing the 
educational policy of the University. An adequate salary should be given 
him, so as to secure a man suitable for a position of such responsibility. 

TV. University College. The ideal plan would be to merge it in the 
University and abolish the present distinction between the University 
College Faculty and the University Arts Professoriate. This however, 
seems impossible, on account of the strong opposition that would be made 
by the Federated Universities. In default of this, everj'thing should be 
done to strengthen University College and to place it in the closest possible 
relations to the University, for both are essential parts of the State Insti- 
tution. It should retain its name of University College, as this distinguishes 
it from all other Colleges, as the one in especial relations to the University. 
Its finances and administration should be under the control of the same 
P»oard of Trustees which controls the finances and administration of the Uni- 
versity, Its principal should be subordinate to the President of the Uni- 
versity, by whom he should be nominated and then appointed by the Board 
of Trustees. Its Faculty should constitute a body for its own internal man- 
agement, on the same footing as the other Faculties of the University. 

Subjects, as between the University and College, should be divided on 
some defensible principle, not after the present illogical and hap-hazard 
way. All scientific subjects, requiring laboratories, should be assigned to 
the University, while Literary, Historical and Philosophical subjects should 
go to the College. This matter of division would require to be carefully 
thought out. Of course, it may not be possible to secure an ideal division; 
and the present plan, with some amendments, may be all that is thought 
feasible. 

The Theological Colleges, such as Knox and Wycliffe, of necessity 
stand in very close relation to University College, which is indispensable 
for the training of their students, so that all their students are re^ristered, 
xa Arts, in University College, as well as in the University itself. But Uni- 
versity College has not only these special relations to the Theological Colleges 
whose students attend its lectures, it has also very close relations with the 
different denominations of Christians who prefer to send their sons to the 
non-denominational College, rather than to a denominational one. This is 
a matter of importance, in view of prevailing misconceptions. At present, 
out of 696 registered in University College, only 28 are registered without 
any church or denominational connection. 

The numbers, at present, stand as follows: — 

Presbyterian 323 

Anglican 152 

Methodist 97 

Baptist 29 

Congregationalist 8 

Lutheran 5 

Eoman Catholic 27 



1906 . UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 119 



Jews 12 

Other E-elig'ions 15 

No Reliffion 28 



In all 696 

University College requires to be specially secured in the Constitution. 
It will not do to leave its equipment and maintenance as matters open for * 
discussion. It cannot have the support which our Theological Colleges draw 
from their respective constituencies. Neither will it draw the popular 
support which will be given to the Scientific subjects, as taught by the Uni- 
versity Professoriate. It is cut off from both these sustaining influences, 
which the other Institutions and the other parts of the University can look 
to. Moreover, it must also be taken into account that, while the Federated 
Colleges will all heartly support the University Faculty of Arts they are, 
of necessity, rivals to University College and may view with jealousy any 
attempt made to strengtnen University College and to keep it in its position 
of pre-eminence. But, on the other hand, the Theolo'gical Colleges will be 
the most earnest and whole-hearted supporters of University College, which 
stands to them in the same position that the Faculty of Arts, in a Feder- 
ated Arts College does to the Theological Faculty of that College, They 
can, therefore, be relied upon to do all in their power to sustain and develop 
University College ; but, outside of that, the influence will tend in the 
opposite direction. Some scheme, therefore, should be devised to provide 
for an increasing indowment and equipment of University College, as its 
growth may require. Provision should be made for this, on the same terms 
and in the same way as the provision for the general maintenance and equip- 
ment of the University. 

University College will soon require the whole of the main building. 
A separate building might be erected for the President and the University 
Offices and for University subjects not requiring a laboratory, if |uch there 
be. This might not be possible at once but, for the purpose of discipline, 
some line of separation in the building should be made between the quarters 
given to University College and the quarters given to the University Pro- 
fessoriate and offices. 

The building of residences for University College is a great and pressing 
need. In the future, this is going to be a strong feature in the Colleges. 
Trinity College already appeals to this. Victoria College is contemplating 
the erection of residences and it is of the utmost importance that University 
College should be able to maintain residences amply sufficient for the accom- 
modation of its students. There is nothing that is more vital to its future 
wellbeing and progress. 

V. The School of Practical Science should be brought into the same 
relation with the University as the other Colleges. Its present semi-inde- 
pendent existence should be terminated and it should be the Faculty of 
Applied Science in the University, its Dean being imder the authority- of the 
President and appointed in the same way as the others. All its Professors 
and Lecturers should be appointed in the same way as the Professors and 
Lecturers in the Faculty of Arts. 

VI. The Medical Facvlty ought to be placed on the same footing as 
the Faculty of Arts and Applied Science. The Chairs of Anatomy, Hygiene 
and Public Health should be sustained by the Government, as also other 
Chairs, so soon as this can be effected. 



120 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



YII. Every Faculty — Arts, Medicine and Applied Science — should have 
its Dean, under the President, who should be the unifying and co-ordinat- 
ing head. The University Arts' Professoriate should be the Faculty of Arts 
of the University, with its Dean. The proposal to make the University 
I'aculty of Arts consist of the Arts Faculties of the Federated Colleges, to- 
gether with what is now known as the University Professoriate, would be 
highly objectionable. Any purpose for which it is stated that this is re- 
quired, such as interchange of lectures and Post-Graduate work, could be 
better effected by consultation of these different Faculties or of their Heads, 
with the President of the University. It would not be wise to identify the 
University Professoriate with the Faculties of Federated Colleges, which 
might, or might not, be up to the standard and which might, under certain 
circumstances, band together against the University Professoriate, as a 
body having distinct relations to the Government ana the country. 

VIII. Each College Faculty would deal with the discipline within 
its own limits and any question of general discipline should be dealt with by 
a Committee, or Court of Discipline, consisting of the President, Deans of 
Faculties and Heads of Departments. 

IX. All appointTnents should be made by the Trustees, on the nomi- 
nation of the President. It might be desirable,. in the case of major appoint- 
ments, such as Deans, Heads of Deparments, etc., that the action of the 
Council should be confirmed by the Governor in Council. 

X. The Senate, as at present constituted, should be abolished. It is 
cumbrous and unwieldy. The mode of representation at present, is most 
objectionable. The greater part of the work of the Senate, as it is at 
present constituted, is done by Committees such as the Board of Arts Com- 
mittee and the Committee on Applications and Memorials. In these Com- 
mittees, the real work is, of necessity, done by those in touch with the actual 
teaching and administration of the University and the Colleges. These 
ought to form the preponderating element in a newly constituted Senate, 
or whatever name might be given to the body to which should be committed 
9 11 the academic side of University interests and business. Upon this body 
all the University Faculties, the University College, the Federated Colleges, 
should be represented by their Deans, Heads and elected representatives. 
There should also be a representation of Graduates : but these, in whatever 
College registered, should vote as one body, and the present system of 
representation be abolished, as it hinders that unification which was one of 
the great objects of Federation. There are now some bodies unnecessarily 
represented, whos affiliation may be called indirect and which have come 
into the Senate, as tne result of accident not of intention, and which have 
very little, if any, real connection with the actual work of the University. 
Certain affiliated bodies, such as the Schools of Music, might be permitted 
representation ad hoc, in order to secure what is necessarv in their curricula, 
etc. The President of the University should preside over the Senate as its 
yice-Chancellor. 

XI. It is against the spirit of the Federation scheme to allow advantages 
to be given to one College and not to another, as, for example, in giving a 
free site to one and charging rent to another. University College should 
have the same risrhts as the other Colleges to add to the subjects taught by it. 

XII. The Theological Colleges form a very important factor in the 
general University scheme. Necessarily, they are strong supporters of the 
whole University system, of University College, as well as the University 
itself. Their connection with the Uuiversitv tends to create and strengthen 
the ties between the University and the Christian people generally and to 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 1:^1 



increase the confidence felt in the institution. They are vitally interested 
in the curriculum and discipline of the University and also in securing that 
the University remains Christian in spirit and intention, although free from 
denominational control or entanglement in denominational interests. They 
therefore should be kept in closest relations to the University, as a most 
important element in its strength. It might be too much to expect that 
these Theological Colleges should constitute the Theological Faculty of the 
University, although such a development is not impossible in the future. 
It is very important that the clauses relating to Degrees in Divinity, in the 
Federation Act, should be retained, as they may become the basis of future 
action and help to strengthen the relations between the University and these 
Colleges. 

November 27th, 1905. 



FROM 5T. MICHAEL'S COLLEGE. 

Seci-fctry Univeisity Commission, we would ask the members of the 
Univcisity Commission to kindly give their attention to the following: — 

1. That, notwithstanding, the federation of St. Michael's College for 
a quarter of a century, the University of Toronto has not succeeded in 
gaining the confidence of the Catholic population of Ontario, as is evi- 
denced by the small number of students aspiring to a degree in the Uni- 
ver.-ity, and tke ever increasing numbers attending five Catholic Colleges 
in the Province. 

2. That the only explanation of the above is the want of sufficient provi- 
sion for religious influence in the organization, administration, and general 
life of the University. 

3. That the Provincial Government, in equipping University College, 
and excluding the Federated Colleges from a share in the endowment and 
subsidies to education, would seem disposed to assist students who object to 
religious surroundings, and to deny her assistance to students who feel 
convinced that religious and moral influence should not be separated from 
training in secular studies. 

4. That, believing as we do, that the intimate association of students 
with one another, and with their teachers contributes as much to true 
education as do the lecture room and library, we regret that the University 
has not made greater efforts to bring about conditions of such intimate 
as'^^ociations, and especially do we view with regret the present tendency to 
facilitate the obtaining of degrees by extra-mural students. 

5. That since the project of the University residences, is in contem- 
plation, anci sinre such residences can be effectively disciplined only by a 
system which H'ill place the conduct of the student body under the im- 
mediate supervision of their teachers, we would recommend that the ad- 
ministration of these residences be handed over to the several college 
faculties, viz.: — The faculties of University College and of the colleges 
in federation with the University. 

Respectfully yours, 

D. Gushing. 
M. Y. Kelly. 
December 5, 1905. 



.1122 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



FROM THE COUNCIL OF THE SCHOOL OF PRACTICAL SCIENCE. 

Gentlemen, — The Council of the School of Practical Science beg to 
present the following suggestions and opinions in view of possible changes 
in the relations of the School to the University, viz. — 

1. That the constitution and functions of the Council of the School be 
preserved in their present form. The Council consists of the Principal, 
the Professors and Lecturers, and the Registrar. It has control of the 
buildings, equipment, curriculum, examination, regulations, management 
and discipline of students. 

2. That, in case the management of the finances of the School be 
transferred to the governing body or Board of Trustees of the University, 
the school shall have equal representation on that board with the other 
bodies and colleges concerned. 

3. That appointments and dismissals be made by the governing body 
of the University after a report from the Principal of the School. 

4. That the records of the estimates, appropriations, expenditures, ac- 
counts, and generally of all matters connected with the finances of the 
School be kept separate and distinct from the records of similar matters 
relating to other parts of the University. 

5. That the scale of remuneration for members of the staff and em- 
ployees be not lower than that obtaining in the Faculty of Arts. 

6. That in making provision for retiring allowances such a sum of 
money be placed to the credit of each member of the staff, and of each 
employee as may be a fair equivalent for the retiring allowance to which 
he had become entitled as a civil servant at the date of the transfer to the 
University. 

7. That the staff be increased so that the ratio of the number of teachers 
to the number of students be not less than one to eight or ten. At present 
this ratio is one to sixteen. 

8. That new buildings be erected without delay to provide for the sub- 
jects now accommodated in the Engineering Building. (See Report of 
Mb'nister of Education for 1904). 

9. That, as soon as the increase in the staff, buildings and equipment 
will permit, the pre«<snt three years' course be extended to four years. 

General. 

"With regard to 7, 8 and 9 some further explanations may be desirable — 
At present the members of the staff have no time for laboratory inves- 
tigation, and the* study of ihe problems arising from day to day in engineer- 
ing and ma^iufactures. Their energies are necessarily entirely absorbed in 
the work of instruction; a state of affairs which cannot continue without 
lowering the status of the school as a scientific centre. On account of the 
small number of instructors, cases of sickness which occur result either in 
students being left without instruction or in other members of the staff be- 
ing more than overloaded with teaching. Under such circumstances it is 
impossible for the instructors to undertake any work beyond teaching, or to 
come into contact with the public in connection with matters of general 
interest relating to their several departments. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 123 



Again — the numbers in the classes attended by all the students in a 
year are so great that it has been found necessary to divide the classes and 
repeat the lectures. This difficulty is increasing. There are two ways out 
of it, viz., to increase the size of the lecture rooms in future buildings, or 
to increase the number of instructors. In our opinion the latter is the 
better remedy. It is difficult to lecture with advantage to a class of more 
than fifty, or at most a hundred students. In other words a large number 
of small lecture rooms, and a large staff conduce to much more satisfactory 
work than large lecture rooms and a small staff. The same principle ap- 
plies to all laboratory and practical work. 

The work in each year of the present three years' course has been in- 
creasiijg to such an extent that the students are becoming overloaded with 
studies. The remedy seems to be a four years' course, involving a redis- 
tribution of the present work, and perhaps some small additions, but by 
no means to the extent of a year's work, as this would defeat the object of 
the change. 

Owing to the rapid increase in the number of departments of instruc- 
tion and of students, it is becoming more and more difficult to accommo- 
date the time-table requirements of the school to those of the Faculty of 
Arts. At present, the number of graduating departments is six and the 
number of students 538. 

It is possible now to utilize the whole time of teachers, and the whole 
equipment of laboratories in subjects which were formerly taught by pro- 
fessors in the Faculty of Arts, e.g., Chemistry and Physics. The trajisfer 
of the control of these subjects from the Faculty of Arts to the school has 
resulted in increased efficiency not only through the consequent elasticity 
of the time-table, but also because of changes in the methods and subjects 
of instruction. 

In spite of the relief due to the addition of the new Chemistry, and 
Mining Building, furmer buildings are urgently required. At present the 
old building now termed the Engineering Building is filled to its utmost 
capacity. It was designed seventeen years ago, and is now quite unsuitable 
for the large additions of equipment and extensions of work which have 
been necessitated by the increase in students and changes in requirements 
within late years. 

The nature of the work done in the Engineering Building is such that' 
it would be desirable instead of erecting a single larger building to take its 
place, to erect several smaller buildings of greater combined capacity. 
Experience hps shown that the noise, vibration, steam and dirt necessarily 
connected with part of the work is prejudicial to pther kinds of work car- 
ried on in the sam'e building. The problem of finding the space for the 
erection of these buildings must be solved without unnecessary delay, as 
it is not beyond the bounds of probability that the number of students in 
attendance may reach 1,000 within a few years. 

It will be difficult also, if not impossible, to make the change from a 
three to a four years' cour,-e without an increase in buildings, equipment 
and staff, even though no increase should take place in the number of 
students. 

In connection with the location of the new buildings it is extremely 
desirable that all the school buildings be near each other, and also that 
provision be made for fiiture additions. 

Toronto, January 4th, 1906. 
15 u.c 



124- ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



FROM PROF. WRIGHT, SCHOOL OF PRACTICAL^ SCIENCE. 

In making the following suggestion I wish to be understood as agree- 
ing with the memorandum submitted by the Council of the School of Prac- 
tical Science and believing that the school should be the Faculty of Applied 
Science of the University, working with the other Faculties under the same 
President and board of trustees. 

In looking at the immediate future of the University, it appears to 
me that the present grounds are inadequate, and that any further effort to 
accommodate all of the Faculties within the present limits must lead to 
confusion. 

The buildings for the different Faculties should be so grouped as to 
facilitate the work of each and the harmony of the whole. 

To supply the present requirements of the Faculty of Applied Science 
a number of additional buildings are necessary, some of them large, others 
small. If the number of students in attendance should increase (and there 
is every indication that it will), more extended accommodation would be 
required. The attendance in 1895-96 was 101, in 1900-01 was 231, and in 
1905-06 is 532. 

I should classify the buildings required for the immediate future in 
Applied Science as follows: — (1) A building for Electrical Engineering 
which would contain laboratories, lecture rooms, private rooms, and a 
number of small laboratories for research work. (2) A building, one wing 
of which would be devoted to Thermodynamics and allied work, and an- 
other wing to Hydraulics with the connecting space containing the lecture 
rooms and private rooms. (3) A central heat, power and light plant either 
for the Applied Science group of buildings, or any larger group. This 
would not only be economical, but be invaluable for purposes of instruc- 
tion if located in the immediate neighborhood of the buildings for Elec- 
tricity and Thermodynamics. (4) A building for Strength and Elasticity 
of Materials to contain in addition to the laboratories and necessary lecture 
and private rooms, the Administration Offices for the Faculty. (5) A small 
building for the work on Portland cement, stone, brick, etc. (6) A build- 
ing for Surveying, Architecture and Drawing. 

Further, if the present building accommodation required by the dif- 
ferent Faculties were provided, the present property would be crowded with 
buildings leaving no room for growth. 

It appears to me that a large tract of land should be secured as near 
the city limits as possible, and the Applied Science Faculty moved there 
immediately. This could be accomplished now without any loss in build- 
ings, while, if any further buildings are erected, their plans will be such 
as to render them almost useless for any other purpose. 

Ultimately, the whole University will be forced to move, on account 
of the errowth of the city. As you are aware many of the Universities in 
the United States have had, or are having the question of moving to the 
outskirts forced upon them. 

Amono- ihe advantages to be derived are: — 

(1) Proper groupincr of buildings for all faculties. 

(2) Provision for expansion of all. 

(3) Inter-Faculty discipline more easily maintained. 

(4) Better work would be po'-sible in Applied Science, because of 
freedom from noise and electrical disturbances, and increased facilities for 
surveying and astronomy. 

I am, 

Your obedient servant, 

C. H. C. Wright. 

1.5a u,c. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 125 

MEMORANDUM PREPARED BY THE FACULTY OF MEDICINE. 

Toronto, Nov. 27tli, 1905. 

The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Toronto have prepared 
the following memorandum for presentation to the University Commission, 
the'ir object being to set forth the relation of the Faculty to the University 
and to indicate the requirements of the Faculty for the future. 

HISTORICAL. 

The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Toronto was established 
in 1844, but was abolished in 1853. From 1853 to 1887 we had the era of 
Proprietary Schools. In 1887 the Faculty of Medicine was re-established 
in the Provincial University, and at that time provision was made for a 
reconsideration of the appointments to the staff every five years. Accord- 
ingly in 1892 re-organization took place. 1897, when re-organization 
again became due, a new policy was adopted and the appointments to the staff 
were made permanent, and members of the Faculty of Medicine were thus 
appointed to their various positions on the same basis (except as to emolu- 
ment) as that which existed in the Faculty of Arts. In 1902, the New 
Medical Buildings were begun on the University grounds, and these were 
formally opened in October, 1903. In the summer of 1903, the amalgama- 
tion of the Faculties of Medicine of Toronto and Trinity Universities took 
place. The teaching staff' in 1892 consisted of 34 members, in 1902 this 
had increased to 56 members, and after amalgamation with Trinity in 
1903 to 87 members. 

A full historical sketch of the inception and growth of the Faculty of 
Medicine of the University of Toronto will be found in Appendix No. 1. 
It is very desirable that the relationship of the Faculty of Medicine to the 
Provincial University, should be clearly understood, and the principal facts 
in connection with its development are set forth in detail in the histori'-al 
sketch referred to. 

GEOWTH OF THE STUDENT BODY. 

In the Session 1889-1890, the second Session after the re-establish- 
ment of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Toronto, the total 
number of students in Medicine was 258. At the time of re-organization in 
1892-93 the total number of students was 280, and at the final re-organiza- 
tion in 1897-98, the total number was 230. During the Session immedi- 
ately before amalgamation of the Faculties of Trinity and Toronto, (Ses- 
sion 1902-03), the total number of students registered was 432, and in the 
present Session (1905-6), the total number is 607. This shows a very 
marked increase in the number of students in Medicine attending the 
University of Toronto, and at the present time the Medical School is one 
of the largest on the continent, and it is considerably larger than any other 
Medical School in Canada. 



126 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



The following list gives a detailed statement of the growth of the stud- 
ent body from 1889 to the present Session : 

Session. 1st Yr. 2nd Yr. 3rd Yr. 4th Yr. 5th Yr. Total. 

1889-90 

1890-91 

1891-92 

1892-93 

1893-94 

1894-95 

1895-96 

1896-97 

1897-98 

1898-99 

1899-00 

1900-01 

1901-02 

1902-03 

1903-04 

1904-05 

1905-06 



66 


66 


67 


59 




258 


81 


60 


63 


59 




263 


85 


73 


69 


58 




285 


77 


78 


67 


58 




•^80 


72 


TO 


69 


65 




276 


78 


61 


57 


63 




259 


64 


71 


46 


56 




237 


62 


59 


61 


41 




223 


61 


53 


55 


61 




230 


73 


54 


56 


55 




238 


104 


62 


53 


58 




277 


124 


103 


60 


52 




339 


131 


117 


99 


58 


2 


407 


102 


119 


112 


96 


3 


432 


159 


134 


170 


159 


9 


631 


169 


154 


124 


164 


11 


622 


165 


158 


149 


126 


9 


607 



You will observe by reference to the above list that the total number 
of students has somewhat diminished during the last two years, but this is 
to be explained by the effect produced by taking in the students from Trin- 
ity University at the time of amalgamation. A true index as to the num- 
ber of students coming to the University for their Medical course is ob- 
viously to be found by reference to the number of incoming students in 
the First Year, and it wall be observed that for the three years referred to 
the number of First Year students has remained very nearly the same from 
year to year. Thus we have in — 

1903-04 159. 1904-05 169. 1905-06 165 

In addition to the numbers given above it should be stated that the 
Dental students receive their instruction in Practical Anatomj^ in the Uni- 
versity of Toronto and are registered as Occasional Students. The niimber 
of Or-rasional Students thus registered from year to year has been as fol- 
lows: 

1894-95 75 1898-99 70 1902-03 62 

1895-96 56 1899-00 36 1903-04 90 

1896-97 72 1900-01 55 1904-05 30 

1897-98 76 1901-02 67 1905-06 39 

It must be explained regarding these Occasional (Dental) students that 
they merely come to the University for the purpose of taking their course in 
Practical Anatomy, for which each student pays a fee of $20. These Oc- 
casional students therefore should not be considered in connection with the 
total number of students registered in Medicine, as it would give a false 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 127 



impression of the growth of the student body of the Faculty of Medicine to 
include Occasional students who are merely receiving instruction in this 
one branch, and further by reference to the list you will observe that the 
number of Occasional Students fluctuates very materially from year to 
year. The largest number obtained in the Session 1903-04 when there were 
90 students, and in 1904-05 the smallest number, namely 30 students, was 
registered. During the present year there are 39 students, and next term 
there will probably be' somewhere in the neighborhood of 70. 

FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS. 
Sources or Income. 

The only source of income of the Faculty of Medicine is from the fees 
received from students for tuition, and in addition to this a certain amount 
has been received during the past two years as part of the examination fees, 
which last year amounted to |2,000. One other item must be included as 
a source of income, namely, a charge of |500 rental w^hich is paid by the 
Provincial Board of Health for accommodation in the New Medical Labor- 
atories. With the exception therefore of this item of |2,500, the entire 
income of the Faculty is obtained from tuition fees. In 1887-88, at the 
time of re-establishment the tuition fee was $75 per annum. This was 
increased a few years ago and at present the tuition fee amounts to |100 
per annum. In addition to this there are a few laboratory fees which will 
average about |10 in each year. 

The gross income of the Faculty in 1888-89 amounted to |16,112. For 
the Session 1904-05 the gross income was |57,015. The increased income is 
accounted for, first, by the increased number of students, and, secondly, by 
the increase in the amount of the tuition fee. At the time of re-organiza- 
tion in 1892 it was enacted by special statute of the Senate, that after 
deducting from the gross income, the amount to be paid over to the Uni- 
versity authorities for instruction of First and Second Year Medical stud- 
ents in Arts subjects, the balance was to be divided as follows: 40 per 
cent, of the available income was to be' set aside for working expenses of 
the Faculty, and 60 per cent, was to be set aside for the payment of salar- 
ies.* In only two instances since the time of re-organization has it been 
found possible to defray the working expenses out of the 40 per cent., and 
consequently during all these years it has been necessary to draw upon the 
60 per cent, which was supposed to be available for the salaries of teachers 
in order to pay the balance which had to be provided for. 

Taking the senior professor in Medicine or Surgery or obstetrics as a 
type of the member of the Faculty receiving the maximum salary we may 
make the following statement : 

The maximum salary in 1892-93 was $440.00, and m 1904-05 it was 
$950.00. During the intervening twelve years it will be observed that the 
lowest maximum salary was reached in the Session 1894-95 when the salary 
was $388.50. It will therefore be observed that for a considerable period 

* This arrangement respecting the division of income into 40% and 60% first came into force 
at the time of re-estabUehment in 1887, but no provision was then made for fees paid for Arta 
subjects. 



128 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



of years, the Professor in the Faculty of Medicine has been working for a 
mere pittance, the only exception being in the Departments of Anatomy 
and Pathology. (In each of these cases since 1892 a guaranteed salary of 
$1,500 per annum was paid, and in the Session 1903-04 this was increased 
to 12,000.) 

It must be noted that whilst the Professors' salaries remained at a low 
figure a large amount was from year to year paid for the purposes of equip- 
ment, and this largely accounts for the fact, that whilst the ^ncome was 
considerable, the salaries remained at a low figure. In other words the 
equipment of the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Toronto was 
paid for largely out of the pockets of the members of the professoriate. 

During all these years whilst the emolument of the individual members 
of the Faculty w;as low, and whilst the equipment was gradually acquired, 
a considerable sum was annually paid over from the funds of the Faculty 
of Medicine of the University of Toronto in lieu of fees for Arts subjects 
taken by students in Medicine, these Arts subjects consisting of those of 
Physiology, Biology, Chemistry and latterly Physics. 

The amount paid to the University for tuition in Arts subjects for the 
Session 1892-93 was |2,110, and for the Session 1904-05, |3,876. 

A detailed list of the fees thus paid to the University for tuition in 
Arts subjects from 1892 to 1905 inclusive, is as follows: 

1892-93 .^2,110 00 1896-97 $1,453 00 1900-01 |3,008 00 

1893-94 1,686 00 189T-98 1,317 00 1901-02 3,200 00 

1894-95 1,558 00 1898-99 1,515 00 1902-03 2,910 00 

1895-96.:.... 1,655 00 1899-00 2,154 00 1903-04 3,604 00 

1904-05 3,876 00 

The total amount paid since 1892-93 for Arts subjects being $30,046, 
or an average of $2,311.22 per annum. 

The following- table shows the gross income of the Faculty and the 
amounts paid for Arts subjects during the Years 1892 to 1905. 

Session. 

1892-93 

1893-94 

1894-95 

1895-96 

1896-97 

1897-98 

1898-99 

1899-00 

1900-01 

1901-02 

1902-03 

1903-04 

1904-05 



Gross Income. 


Amt. paid for 
Arts Subjects. 


Net Income. 


$20,713 00 


$2,110 00 


$18,603 00 


21,543 37 


1,686 00 


19,857 37 


17,789 00 


1,558 00 


16,231 00 


21,605 51 


1,655 00 


19,950 51 


18,937 94 


1,453 00 


17,484 94 


21,106 50 


1,317 00 


19.789 50 


21,749 00 


1,515 00 


20,234 00 


26,564 00 


2,154 00 


24,410 00 


34,246 00 


3,008 00 


31,238 00 


40,013 00 


3,200 00 


36.813 00 


43,210 00 


2,910 00 


40,300 00 


62,677 00 


3,604 00 


59,073 00 


60,891 00 


3,876 00 


57,015 00 


$411,045 32 


$30,046 00 


$380,999 32 



1006 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 129 



This shows that 7.31 per cent, of the gross income of the Faculty was 
paid over to the University for Arts subjects from 1892 to the present time. 

The amount paid for equipment and working expenses out of the GO 
per cent, proportion of income available for salaries since the Session 1896- 
97, ia as follows : 

1896-97 11,280 97 

1897-98 2,690 24 

1898-99 85 48 

1899-00 00 00 

1900-01 00 00 

1901-02 862 07 

1902-03 2,524 40 

1903-04 3,694 92 

1904-05 1,375 63 

$12,513 71 



It might fairly be stated that this amount of $12,513.71 was paid 
for out of the pockts of the Professoriate, who were expected by the terms 
of the Statute to reveive the full benefit of the 60 per cent. 

Statement of Amounts Received by the University of Toronto in 
Connection with Medical Instruction. 

Payment by the Fac^dty of Medicine to the University of Toronto out of the 
IncoTne received as Fees from Students in Medicine. 

1. Yearly Rental for the portion of Biological Bldg. 

occupied by the Anatomical Department |1,200 00 

Heat, Light, Water and Repairs for same 700 00 

11,900 00 

2. Annual payments to the University in connection with the 

New Medical Laboratories : 

The New Medical Laboratories cost |125,000, and of that 
amount, the Faculty of Medicine were made respon- 
sible for 175,000, the balance of $50,000 being ex- 
pended for the laboratories in connection with the 
University Department of Physiology. 

Interest on $75,000, at 4 per cent, (annual payment) 3,000 00 

3. Equipment of Medical Laboratories, amounting to $50,000. 
The Faculty of Medicine were held responsible for repay- 
ment to the University of $30,000, and at interest at 
4 per cent, in 20 annual instalments, these amount to 

an annual payment of 2,215 37 

(The balance of $20,000 is considered as the share of 
equipment for the University Department of Phy- 
siology.) 

(Note : The Annual Examination Fee was increased .^4 in 
order to meet this payment for equipment, and last 
year the the income from that source for the Faculty 
• of Medicine amounted to $2,000.00.) 



130 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



4. In addition to this the University of Toronto derives con- 

siderable income from Examination Fees in Medicine 

and the Fees for Degrees. 
Thus last year the fees for Examinations in Medicine 

amounted to $5,654 00 

From this may be deducted a payment made to 

Examiners for conducting Examinations.. 2,172 50 

13,481 50 

(This leaves a net income to the University of |3,481.50.) 

5. The Fees collected for Degrees in 1905, amounted to 2,180 00 

6. Add amount paid for Arts Subjects (see previous state- 

ment. Session 1904-05) 3,876 00 

Total annual income to University |16,652 87 



The total amount paid therefore by the Faculty of Medicine and by 
students taking a course in Medicine to the University of Toronto for the 
various items referred to above, amounts annually to |16,652.87. 

This more shortly stated might be put in this way : 

Rental, Repairs, etc., for the Anatomical 

Department >|1,900 00 

Annual payment of interest on Outlay on New 

Medical Laboratories 3,000 00 

Annual instalment for recouping the Univers- 
ity, $30,000 expended by them in equip- 
ment of the New Laboratories 2,215 37 

17,115 37 ' 

Total annual payment to the University for the provision 
of Laboratories and equipment for instruction of 
Medical Students |7,115 37 

Net Income derived by the University for Examination 

Fees and for the payment of Fees for Degrees 5,661 50 

Income to University as Fees for Arts Subjects, (1904- 

05) 3,876 00 

$16,652 87 



In the above statement cognizance has not been taken of the fact that 
the examination fee was raised three years ago from $10.00 to $14.00, and 
the increased amount thus obtained from Medical students was handed ov'^r 
to the Medical Faculty. From this source last year the Medical Faculty 
obtained about $2,000.00, but in the figures given above the amount does 
not appear in the item stated as representing the fees derived by the Uni- 
versity from the Examinations, and consequently the net earnings by the 
University are those indicated in the above figures, and from those net 
earnings the Faculty do not receive one dollar. (It is difficult to arrive at 
an exact estimate of the amount expended for printing, ink, stationery, 
etc., consequently a small item should perhaps be deducted from the net 
earnings of the University from that source.) 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 131 



We append below a statement indicating the amounts received by the 
University for Examination Fees and Fees for I>egrees for the past ten 
years : 

Year. Examination Fees. Degree Fees. Total. 

1896. 12,070 00 
Less Amt. pd. Exam'rs ... 1,074 50 

$995 50 11,261 00 |2,256 50 

1897. 11,680 00 
Less Amt. pd. Exam'rs. ... 801 00 

879 00 860 00 1,739 00 

1898. 11,830 00 
Less Amt. pd. Exam'rs. ... 894 58 

935 42 1,120 00 2,055 42 

1899. 11,960 00 
Less Amt. pd. Exam'rs .... 739 45 

1,220 55 1,000 00 2,220 55 

1900. 12,445 00 
Less Amt. pd. Exam'rs — 912 25 

1,532 75 980 00 2,512 75 

1901. |3,45T 00 
Less Amt. pd. Exam'rs .... 1,142 54 

2,314 46 1,100 00 3,414 16 

1902. 14,649 00 
Less Amt. pd. Exam'rs .... 1,386 25 

3,262 75 1,130 00 4,392 75 

1903. 14,890 00 
Less Amt. pd. Exam'rs .... 1,473 00 

3,417 00 1,920 00 5,337 00 

1904. 15,592 00 
Less Amt. pd. Exam'rs .... 2,051 75 

3,540 25 2,150 GO 5,690 25 

1905. 15,654 00 
Less Amt. pd. Exam'rs .... 2,172 50 

. 3,481 50 2,180 00 5,661 50 

121,579 18113,701 00 $35,280 18 

Total amt. paid in 10 years for Exam. Fees... $34,227 00 

Less Amt. paid in 10 years to Examiners 12,647 B2 

$21,579 18 

Total Amt. paid in 10 years for Degree Fees 13,701 00 

$35,280 18 

Total amount paid to University in 10 years for Exam- 
ination Fees and Fees for Degrees $35,280 18 

From these statistics it will therefore appear that the University of 
Toronto at the present time derives an annual net income of $5,661.50 for 
Examinations and Degrees, from which the Medical Faculty obtains no 
financial benefit. 

The balance of the $16,652.87 is paid to the University authorities for 
rental of buildings and for equipment supplied for the teaching of Medi- 
f'ine and for Fees for Arts subjects. 



132 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Statement of the Value of the Equipment of the Faculty of Medicine 
OF the University, Including Furnishings, Apparatus, etc.. Pro- 
vided During the last 16 Years. 

The actual amount expended for this purpose up to the time of amalga- 
mation with Trinity was |24,059.81. 
The estimated present value of that equipment -at 

the time of amalgamation was calculated to be. $20,500 00 
*The value of the equipment brought to the Uni- 
versity by Trinity Medical Faculty at the time 
of amalgamation was estimated at 8,500 00 



Total , 129,000 00 

Estimated total value of the equipment after amalgamation 

had been completed $29,000 00 

Since amalgamation the Facultv of Medicine have expended on 

equipment (Sessions 1903-04 and 1904-05) 5,600 00 

Add to this the $30,000 which has been expended and which, 
under existing requirements, the Faculty will be expected to 
repay the University in 20 annual instalments 30,000 00 



Total estimated value of present equipment $64,600 00 

The present total value of our equipment is estimated therefore at 
164,600. 

It will be observed, therefore, that of the above amount $34,600 has 
already been provided by the Faculty of Medicine, and that we are held 
responsible for the repayment of |30,000 additional. 

(Note. — With regard to the statement of equipment, a verj^ careful 
inventory was taken of the equipment of both Toronto and Trinity at the 
time of amalgamation and the figures cited above may be taken as accurate 
in every detail.) 

^OTE ON Fees Paid for Tuition of Medical Students in Arts Subjects. 

It is to be noted that whilst the students in the Faculty of Medicine 
of the University of Toronto are required to pay a special fee for tuition in 
Arts subjects, namely. Physiology, Biology. Chemistry and Physics, students 
of federated institutions are not required to pay that fee. Thus Arts 
students in science of Trinity College, and those of Victoria College are not 
required to pay this fee. The peculiar situation therefore at present exist- 
ing is that advantages which are accorded to federated institutions are denied 
to a Faculty of the University itself. 

UHANGES SUGGESTED FOR THE CONSIDERATION OF THE COM- 
MISSION. 

Relationship of the Faculty to the University. 

It is believed that work in the teaching of Medicine would be carried 
out more efficiently if the Faculty were granted greater power in connection 
wi+h the formation of the curriculum of studv. 



* Note : In order to equalize the amount expended by the two Faculties for equipment, the 
members of Trinity staff ^vho came to the University at the time of amalgamation have under- 
taken to pay $9,500 in 15 annual iiiptalmente for future eciuipment. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 133 



The present machinery for dealing with the curriculum is through a 
committee of the Senate, constituted as the "Board of Medical Studies." 
The details of the curriculum are framed by the committee in question, and 
on approval of the vSenate are incorporated in the calendar of the Univer- 
sity. It is suggested that in future the Faculty of Medicine should be given 
authority to frame the curriculum of study in Medicine. 

In the matter of appointments to the staff of the Faculty, it is suggested 
that the President of the University, before making any recommendation for 
appointment, should consult the Faculty and obtain its opinion. 

Financial Eelationship. 

In a previous part of this statement the details of the financial situa- 
tion of the Faculty have been fully narrated. It is claimed that the finqincial 
burden at present carried by the Faculty of Medicine should be largely 
relieved. 

1st. The Faculty requests that by special enactment the use of the 
buildings and laboratories at present occupied should be granted free of 
charge and that in future all payments demanded as a percentage on the 
outlay on buildings, etc., should be abrogated, and that the Faculty of 
Medicine should be permitted in future to enjoy the privileges granted to 
other Faculties in the University. 

2nd. With regard to examination fees, it is claimed that the Faculty, 
of Medicine should have the full benefit of fees derived from Medical stu- 
dents from this source. They would thus be relieved to the extent of the 
net income at present wholly absorbed by the University from Examina- 
tions. These amounts last Session came to |3, 481. 50. It is urged that the 
University (apart from the Medical Faculty) is deriving an income from 
this source which legitimately should pass entirely to the Faculty of Medi- 
cine, and in which the Faculty of Medicine at present have no share. We 
do not consider the Faculty should benefit from funds derived from fees for 
Degrees. 

3rd. Fees for instruction in Arts subjects : The present arrangement 
is that for every student in the First Year the Faculty of Medicine pays to 
the University I3ursar |14.00, and that for every student in the Second Year 
the Faculty of Medicine pays to the University Bursar |15.00. The amount 
thus paid to the University by the Faculty for tuition in Arts subjects last 
year was |3,876.00. It is therefore urged that in future these fees for Arts 
subjects should not be required by the University from the Faculty of Medi- 
cine, but that their students should be accorded the same privileges as are 
at present enjoyed by the students of Victoria College and Trinity College. 

Endowment of Chaies. 

As part of the federation agreement at the time Trinity University was 
federated with the University of Toronto it was recommended and is on 
record that as soon as possible provision shoiild be made for the endowment 
of certain Chairs in the University of Toronto. 

It is claimed bv the Faculty of Medicine that the time has arrived when 
provision of this character should be made by the Provincial Government. 
It is therefore suggested that the following Chairs should be endowed : — 

1. Hygiene, Public Health and Preventive Medicine. 

2. Pfthology and Bacteriology. 



134 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



3. Anatomy. 

4. Experimental Therapeutics and Pharmacology. 

5. Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology, 

For the information of the Commission it may be stated that the annual 
expenditure required for the support of the above Chairs may be estimated 

aa follows : ~ 

1st. Hygiene, Public Health and Preventive Medicine, $3,200. 
2nd. Pathology and Bacteriology : The Medical Faculty have for the 
present Session guaranteed a salary for the Professor of Pathology and Bac- 
teriology of $2,600.00, and have further guaranteed that next Session his 
salary shall be $3,200.00. The Assistants, Demonstrators, etc., receive a 
total amount of $2,030.00. 

The total endowment therefore of the Chair of Pathology would be — 

Professor |3,200 00 

Assistants 2,030 00 



$5,230 00 
3rd. Chair of Anatomy : The endowment which it is thought should 
be provided in Anatomy is that of a Professor's salary, namely, |3_,200. It 
is considered that in future in consequence of the development of the De- 
partment of Anatomy and the necessary amount of time required for carry- 
ing out the professional duties of the Chair the salary of the Professor should 
be on the same basis as that paid in Pathology. At present the Assistants 
in Anatomy receive $2,600.00. On the present basis therefore the Faculty 
ponsider that the Chair of Anatomy should be endowed as follows: — 

Professor $3,200 00 

Demonstrators and Assistants -.• 2,600 00 



$5,800 00 
4th. Chair of Experimental Therapeutics and Pharmacology : The 
Faculty have not as yet provided a full professorship in this Department 
but consider it absolutely essential that such provision should be made in 
the immediate future, and consequently they recommend that a Chair should 
be endowed for this special Department. The recommendation ia that the 
annual emolument should amount to $3,200.* 

5th. Chair of Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology : It is suggested 
that as soon as possible Toxicology be taught by the University in the De- 
partment of Chemistry, and Medical Jurisprudence in the Department of 
Law. Annual expenditure recommended, $3,200. 

Cost of Endowment of Chairs. 

The suggested annual expenditure derived from endowment therefore 
would total as follows : — 

1. Chair of Hygiene, Public Health and Preventive Medicine... $3,200 00 

2. Chair of Pathology and Bacteriology — 

Profes.sor $3,200 00 

Assistants 2,030 00 

5,230 00 

*Note: The salary of $3,200 is suggested in the above clauses because it is at present the 
full Professor's salary in the University. Should the Professor's salary be increased in the 
University it is suggested that similarly the salary in the Faculty of Medicine should be also 
increased. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 135 



Chair of Anatomy — 

Professor $3,200 00 

Assistants 2,600 00 



5.800 00 

4. Chair of Experimental Therapeutics and Pharmacology ... 3,200 00 

5. Chair of Medical Jurisprudence and Toxicology 3,200 00 



120,630 00 

The Faculty urge that this amount of $20,630.00 should be annually 
provided by the Provincial Government for the endowment of these import- 
ant Chairs in the Faculty of Medicine.* 

The whole question of finance must be considered from another point 
of view, and that is from the standpoint of the Medical student. At present 
he is required to pay a fee of $100 per annum for tuition fees. It cannot 
therefore be urged that tuition in Medicine is provided for by the State or 
by the University. Medical students pay the heaviest fee charged for in- 
struction of students in any Department in the University. The student 
in Arts pays but a fraction of the amount required of the student in Medi- 
cine. Tne fact is, however, that provision for instruction in Medicine is 
so very costly that a large fee must be charged in order to defray the neces- 
.sary expenses of equipment and for the provision of laboratories, etc. The 
expense of providing the necessary equipment of laboratories is increasing 
\ear by year, and in addition to this specialists must be employed lo give 
instruction in the sciences. The Faculty of Medicine of the State Univer- 
sity do not think they should be required to bear the extra expense of pre- 
serving the high standard of Medical education which maintains in other 
great State institutions. 

The Faculty of Medicine of the State institution cannot advance as it 
should d(. if there were no relief forthcoming from the Provincial Govern- 
ment. It is felt that the members of the Faculty of Medicine of the Pro- 
vincial University have done perhaps more than their duty in paying such 
large amounts for equipment in the past and it is desirable that a rearrange- 
ment of the financial relations of the Faculty to the University should be 
made. 

Thus far in our statement we have dealt with the question of Medical 
education in the Provincial University and have pointed out that the State 
must make proper financial provision if the present standard is to be main- 
tained or advanced. We must, however, also refer to the absolute necessity 
of providing for research work in connection with the Faculty of Medicine. 
If one were to enquire into the growth of the larger universities on this 
continent and in Great Britain it is quite obvious that an important and 
essential feature of the development of progressive institutions has been 
in the direction of the provision of research laboratories. 

It is to be observed that whilst in the interests of the public it is neces- 
sary to educate the student in Medicine to the highest possible standard it 
is also obvious that provision for rpsearch work is essential in the Province 
of Ontario to-day if this country is to keep abreast of the advances made 
in scientific Medicine elsewhere. 

Perhaps one of the most striking instances of the manner in which re- 
search laboratories are found to be essential to the development of a great 

* Note : It is considered advi9a})le in the best interests of the Faculty of Medicine of the 
Univerpity that no member who shall in the future be appointed to the teaching staff shall 
occupy a dual posi'ion on the staff, and in the event of endowment of Chairs that the holder of 
the Chair should devote his whole time to the duties of the subject to which he is appointed. 



136 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



university is seen in the provision for research work recently in some of the 
practical subjects of our Medical course, such as in the Department of Sur- 
gery. (In Appendix No. 2 will be found a note on the recent provision for 
Surgical Research Laboratories.) 

We instance the more recent development in the provision of surgical 
research laboratories, but it has long ago been demonstrated that in a pro- 
gressive institution such as that of the Provincial University it is not only 
essential for the student but obviously most important for the public that 
research laboratories should be provided in siich Departments as Pathology 
and Bacteriology, Physiology, Anatomy and Public Health. It is true that 
to a certain extent laboratory accommodation has been provided is some of 
these subjects by the Faculty of Medicine, but it is quite impossible with 
the present state of our finances to carry on research work to the extent rea- 
sonably to be expected from the Faculty of Medicine of the Slate University. 

A. Primeose, 

vSecrfttary. 

APPENDIX NO. I. 



Historical. 

Whilst negotiations were in progress for instruction of students in 
Medicine in the University of Toronto (then King's College) as early as 
1828, it was not until 1842 that actual provision for teaching was made. 

In February, 1842, a resoultion was passed by the Council of King's 
College stating that for the purpose of affording the necessary facilities to 
students in the Faculty of Medicine it would be advantageous if the Toronto 
General Hospital might for the present be utilized, and the Council proposed 
accordingly to devote an annual sum to the maintenance of beds for a certain 
number of patients in addition to those which the funds of the Hospital 
Trustees already enabled them to provide. 

In July, 1842, the first actual appointment seems to have been made 
when the Chancellor appointed Dr. Henry Sullivan, Demonstrator of Ana- 
tomy and Curator. This office was subsequently changed to a professorship 
of Practical Anatomy and Curator. 

In November, 1843, at a meeting of the College Council the following 
Medical ^rn^oc^orships were established in the Univer?itv : 

!('» A Professorship of Anatomy and Physiology. 

(b) A Professorship of the Theory and Practice of Physic. 

(c) A Professorship of the Principles and Practice of Surgery. 

(d) A Professorship of Midwifery and the Diseases of Women and 
children. 

(e) A Professorship of Materia Medica, Pharmacy and Botany. 

(/) A Professorship of Practical Anatomy to be held along with the 
Curatorship of the Anatomical and Pathological Museum. 

The opening lecture of the Facility of Medicine was delivered on Jan- 
uary 15th, 1844. The Faculty of Medicine was then on a par with the Facul- 
ties of Arts and Law in the University, and received its funds from the 
endowment of the College, obtaining several thousand dollars annually 
from that source alone. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TOROxN'TO. 137 



The Medical Department from the very first showed substantial growth 
so that by 1849 the class in Anatomy numbered almost 20 students. Dur- 
ing the Session 1852-53 there were about 60 students. 

The Faculty of Medicine thus constituted was very short-lived, as it 
was abolished in the year 1853. From 1853 to 1887 we had the era of pro- 
prietary Medical Schools. 

The alleged ground for the abolition of the Medical Faculty was the 
supposed popular sentiment against State aid for a lucrative profession. 
Whether this was the real ground is still a matter of dispute. If it were 
the real ground the Legislature of succeeding years manifested great in- 
consistency in the application of the principle, for from 1852 to 1871 no 
less a sum than |65.000 was granted by Parliament to the various Medical 
Schools, aid being given in fact to all who applied. After 1871 all these 
grants were cut off, just as had been the grants to Arts Colleges a few years 
before. 

It would appear that after the abolition of the Medical Faculty in 1853 
nothing definite was accomplished towards its restoration until 1887, nearly 
35 years after, although during these intervening years the evident mistake 
made in abolishing this important unit of the University was more than 
once recognized and many futile attempts were made towards its correction. 

It was felt that Medical students should have as sound a training in 
the sciences as possible, and this could only be obtained by their having free 
access to the laboratories and lecture rooms of a University such as that of 
Toronto. 

During the era of proprietary Schools of Medicine from 1853 to 1887 
efforts were made from time to time by the University of Toronto to raise 
the standard of examination. Thus in 1882 the standard was raised, and 
as a notable result the number of the gradiiating class in Medicine dropped 
from 32 to 15, and eventually to 10. The explanation was that the Schools 
were unable to train the students in the sciences because of the fact -at they 
were unable to provide the extensive equipment and the necessary staff such 
as are required in modern scientific laboratories for efficient training. 

The only reasonable solution for the problem seemed to be the estab- 
lishment of a teaching faculty in Medicine in the Provincial University. 

Accordingly, in 1887, the Faculty of Medicine of the University of To- 
ronto was re-established. This was accomplished after negotiations were 
entered into between the then existing Schools of Medicine and the authori- 
ties of the University, and members of the teaching staff of the Toronto 
School of Medicine entered the re-established Faculty of Medicine of the 
University of Toronto. Under the new organization, the extensive equip- 
ment of the University in Biology, Physiology, Chemistry and Physics was 
put at the service of the Faculty of Medicine. 

The statute governing the re-establishment of the Faculty was con- 
structed so as to provide for a reconsideration of the appointments to the 
staff every five years. This, in fact, meant that a fresh re-organization was 
to be brought about at stated intervals, and that all appointments were to 
lapse when the term of five years had expired. Accordingly, in 1892, a 
re-organization took place, and at that time may important changes were 
made, both in the personnel of the Faculty and in the methods of instruction. 
Thus, for example, the Departments of Anatomy and Patholosry were com- 
pletely re-organized, and in each of these Departments an efficient staff of 
instructors was provided. 

The number of students increased and the laboratory equipment was 
gradually improved, and in every Department the standard of efficiency was 



138 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



constantly being advanced. In 1897, when re-organization again became due, 
tbe whole question of the relationship of the Faculty of Medicine to the 
University of Toronto was very thoroughly considered, and it was deter- 
mined that the policy which had been in existence for ten years should be 
abandoned and that the appointments to the staff should now be made per- 
manent without any arrangement for further re-organization. 

Accordingly, this was acted upon and the members of the Faculty of 
Medicine were thus appointed to their various positions on the same basis 
(except as to emolument) as that which existed in the Faculty of Arts. 

The number of the teaching staff consisted of 34 members in 1892. This, 
however, was gradually increased with the growth of the student body until 
in 1902 the staff numbered 56. 

In consequence of the great increase in the number of students it be- 
came evident that it was necessary to provide new laboratories, mainly for 
instruction in the final subjects and for the provision of laboratories in 
Pathology and Physiology. 

Accordingly in 1902 a building was- begun in the University grounds 
and was completed and formally opened in October, 1903. The completion 
of the Medical Building provided the necessary accommodation for the rap- 
idly increasing classes. 

This building, which cost $125,000, is situated between the University 
Library and the Anatomical Wing of the Biological Department. An ad- 
ditional ^50,000 has been expended on equipment. 

In the latter part of 1902 the question of amalgamation between the 
Faculties of Medicine of the University of Toronto and Trinity University 
was seriously considered, and eventually became a portion of the scheme 
of federation of the two Universities. In the summer of 19U3 the amalga- 
mation of the two Universities was consummated. With the amalgamation 
of the two Faculties the staff was increased to 87 members. The formal 
opening of the new Laboratories took place on October 1st, 1903. 

Recently it has been evident that the very large growth of the School 
demands greater Hospital facilities than have hitherto been available. Var- 
ious atempts have been made during the past few years to deal with this 
question, and a great deal has been accomplished, so that at present the 
solution of the problem is in sight. 

' APPENDIX NO. II. 

We have found that quite recently surgical research laboratories have 
been provided in many of the large medical centres in the United States. 

Thus in Johns Hopkins University there has recently been erected a 
commodious and well-equipped three-storey building, 40 ft. x 80 ft. in area, 
to be devoted entirely to the practical teaching of Surgery and Physiology. 
In Columbia University, New York, the Trustees have appropriated a liberal 
fund for the development of a surgical research laboratory. Harvard Uni- 
versity has made plans for the practical teaching of practical surgical prob- 
lems in her magnificent new buildings. 

In these laboratories advanced students who propose to specialize as sur- 
geons are required to do work which is considered as research work. They 
study in detail the technique employed in surgical operations. They are 
required to prepare the various materials used, and thus acquire a very 
complete knowledge of the details necessary for intelligent work as practical 
surgeons. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 139 



APPENDIX NO. III. 

The Medical Faculty in the University of Michigan is supported by the 
State, and is in this respect on exactly the same plane as the Arts and Law 
Faculties in the same Institution. The same may be said of the Medical Fac- 
ulties in the State Universities |0f Wisconsin and Minnesota. In the Uni- 
versity of Illinois (at Champagne) the Chairs of Anatomy and of Pathology 
are supported by the State. 



FACULTY OF LAW. 

The following memorandum respecting the Faculty of Law was laid 
before the Commission: — 

The PriEcipal and the lecturers of the Law School of Ontario with, 
the title of Professors in the University, and the Professors of Roman Law 
and Jurisprudence of Constitutional and International Law, and Constitu- 
tional History, to be constituted the Faculty of Law in the University of 
Toronto. 

The Principal of the Law School to be Dean of the Faculty. 

The Principal and Professors in the Law School to be appointed by the 
Law Society. 

Lectures to be delivered in the Law School and the University of 
Toronto according to time-table to be arranged. 

Examiners to bfe appointed by the University of Toronto, the examin- 
ers Id the subjects lectured upon in the Law School to be nominated by the 
Law Society. 

The salaries of the Dean and Professors and Examiners to be borne by 
the Law Society and University in the following proportions : 

(For discussion subsequently.) 

The course to be a 4 years' course upon taking of which, and passing 
the examinations, the student to be entitled to the Degree of LL.B., and 
to be called to the Bar and admitted as a solicitor. 

Students entitled to be called to the Bar and admitted as Solicitors in 
three years from their admission to the Law Society to be entitled to the 
Degree of LL.B. at end of threfe years. 

Fees : amount to be paid, and terms of division to be as arranged. 



FACULTY OF EDUCATION. 

The following memo, re a Department of Pedagogy in the University 
of Toronto was presented to the Commission : 

Present position of professinnaJ training in Ontario and in some other 

countries. 

(1) At present the two grades of public school teachers receive their 
professional training in the Model and Normal Schools; First Class Public 
School teachers and High vSchool Assistants in the Normal College in 
Hamilton. All these schools provide instruction on both the theory and 
the practice of teaching. 

16 u.c. 



140 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



The University of Toronto grants two degrees in Pedagogy, B. Poed. 
and D. Pted., alter examinaiicjn in prescribed curricula, but it has as yel 
no teaching depariment of Pedagogy. 

(2) bince the Imperial Order-m-Council of 1902, providing for the reg- 
istration of all teachers, both primary and secondary, there has been a 
great development of depariments of Education at all the Universities. , The 
following, for example, amorgst others, grant diplomas or certificates in 
the theory and pracdce of teaching, and have well organized professional 
courses. 

Oxford, Cambridge, London, Victoria, Durham, Birmingham. 

Edinburgh, Aberdeen, Glasgow. 

Dublin (Trinity College), The Eoyal University. 

Oxford and Cambridge kave had courses for the training of secondary 
school teachers since 1896; but very few except women availed themselves 
of them until 1902. In some cases these universities have practice schools 
attached, and in others the course in training is completed by a system of 
student tea. he: s in unattached schools. 

• (3) In tLe United States, ah hough there are no state systems, depart- 
ments of education have been established, generally with practice schools 
attached, in most of the leading universities, — in Harvard, Yale, Chicago, 
Columb'a, CtLiornia. These departments are specially well developed in 
Columbia and Chicago. 

(4) In Germany, it may be added, many of the Universities provide 
theoretical courses in education, the prac ical instruction being secured 
afterwards in different and unattached schools. 

The future of professional training in Ontario. 

At the approaching session of the Legislature it is probable that thf 
Governmr^nt will take steps to improve the training of the lower grades of 
Public School teachers. As, moreover, the agreement with the Hamilton 
Board of Education will expire at the close of the current session of the 
Normal College (in July next), the present juncture affords a timely 
opportunity for placing the training of First Class Public School teachers 
and High School Af^sistants also on a higher plane, and so completing the 
reorganization of the professional training of all classes of teachers. 

In view of the above general considerations, 1 have reported to the 
Minis'er of Education in favor of es'ablihing a Department of Pedagogy 
in the University of Toronto, whose courses of training in the theory and 
the practice of teaching shall be accepted by the Education Department, 
in terms to be agreed upon bptween the University and ttie Government, as 
the courses in training for First Class Public School teachers and High 
School Assistants; and I now submit this recommendation to the Univer- 
sity Commission in the -hope that it will lend its aid in support of the 
movement. 

In furtherance of my purpose I submit the following details also: 

(1) About 20 years ago the late Government made a proposal to establish 
a Department of Education in the University, but was forced to withdraw 
it on account of the o]i])ositi(m of the University authorities, who took the 
ground that the available funds were needed for purely academic purposes. 
The project was, however, not lost siyht of, for the Federation Act provides 
for tiip anpointment of a Professor of Education 

(2) As is well known, the recognized policy of a modern University is 
to bring directly under its control the main branches of higher educational 

16a U.c. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 141 



ett'oit. Tiiis policy the University of Toronto lias pursued steadily since 
federation. Tlie establishment of a Department of Pedagogy with an 
efficient professoriate is especially desirable because of the intimate rela- 
tionship between the University and the schools. A still closer relation- 
ship than has heretofore existed could not fail, under proper conditions, to 
advance the general interests of education. 

(3) The Department of Pedagogy of the University should include a 
professor of Education, and such other professors and lecturers as the 
course may require, and, for instruction in the practice of teaching, one 
or more of the Public Schools and Collegiate Institutes and other High 
Schools of Toronto should be affiliated to the University by agreement with 
the City Board of Education. It is well to add that another Collegiate 
Institute is now urgently needed in the northern part of the city, and that 
it is rot improbable that an arrangement might be made between the Board 
of Educption and the University for the erection and maintenance of a 
Model High S hool, to the advantage of both the University and the city, 
and of the Province at large. Such a school, moreover, might be the begin- 
ning of a system of practice schools, such as already exists at Columbia 
University. As the complement of the training system an agreement 
should be made between the University and the Education Department for 
the acceptance of the theoretical and practical courses of the Department of 
Pedagogy in lieu of the courses the latter has hitherto maintained at the 
Xormal College in Hamilton. 

(4) A long experience as both teacher and inspector has convinced me 
that ihe complete separation which has been maintained for many years in 
this Province between the academic or so-called "non-professional" train- 
ing!" of teachers and their professional training has been a grave mistake, 
and that the review and extension of academic work should accompany 
the professional courses. This principle will, I believe, be observed in 
future in the p reparation of the lower grades of Public School teachers. 
It is indispensable that it should be ob erved in the higher grades also. In 
this connection it will be admitted that no other educational institution 
and no other city in the Province can afford opportunities for the higher 
(!ulture of the teacher-in-training equal to those afforded by the University 
and the Cit^- of Toronto. It will be of inestimable advantage to the Prov- 
ince if the future teachers of our High Schools and our better Public 
Schools have access to the many educational advantages of a metropolitan 
city. 

(5) Our system of training, in which the theory and the practice of 
teaching are dealt with concurrently, is manifestly superior to any system 
in which the theory is followed by the practice in different schools. Our 
system ensures the necessary correspondence between the theory and the 
practic", and enforces the theory by its immediate application. No pro- 
posal, accordingly, should be entertained which looks to the provision of a 
theoretical course at the University, followed by its application elsewhere 
a+ a later date. 

(6) In 1904, the following payments were made by the Education De- 
partment in support of the Normal College : — 

To the Himilton Board of Education for use of school. |4.5fl0 00 
For salaries of staff 5,920 00 



$10,420 00 



142 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



To this was added the further sum of |1,000.00 in 1905, making, for that 
year a total of |11,420.00. For this sum it is altogether probable that an 
efficient Department of Pedagogy could be maintained in Toronto Uni- 
versity. 

John Seath. 



FROM THE ONTARIO MEDICAL COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. 

The University of Toronto Connnissio-ri : 

Gentlemen, — The Ontario Medical College for Women, and its Alum- 
nae having at heart the interests and well being of the University of Toronto 
with which the College is now affiliated, believe that those interests would 
be furthered, and the plan of education set forth by the University would 
tend to be completed by the creation of a Faculty of Medicine for Women. 

Previous to 1883, women had difficulty in entering the study of Medi- 
cine. Few were so bold as to make the attempt and fewer still had the 
hardihood and endurance to confront and overcome the continual and violent 
opposition, they met with during the entire course. In consequence they 
were forced at considerable expense, and often at great personal incon- 
venience to leave their homes and seek the desired instruction in foreign 
countries. Friends and sympathizers with the women in order to estab- 
lish their right, which had been denied, and to demonstrate the ability of 
women, which had been questioned, to pursue the study and practice of 
medicine and in order to provide a place where this Course of Study might 
be accomplished in quiet and unmolested, founded the Toronto Medical 
School for women. Dr. Michael Barrett a noted Educationist, and Pro- 
fessor of the Institute of Medicine in the Toronto School of Medicine then 
in connection with the University of Toronto, was the first Dean of the 
School, and associated with him on the teaching staff were men who now 
stand high in the Medical Faculty of the University of Toronto. Amongst 
these may be mentioned Dr. R. A. Reeve, Dean of the Faculty, Dr. Mc- 
Phedran, Professor of Medicine. Dr. I. H. Cameron, and Dr. Peters. 
Professors of Surgery, Dr. A. H. Wright, Professor of Obstetrics, and 
others. In 1896 the College was reorganized and a new charter obtained. 
The arduous and faithful services of the College for twenty-three years 
have not been fruitless, many important positions of trust and responsibil- 
ity have been held by its Graduates in the Hospitals and Public Institu- 
tions of the United States and of Canada, In private practice many of the 
Graduates have earned the esteem and respect of their fellow practitioners 
and alonar with a lucrative practice have acquired the confidence and love 
of their patients. Thus, it is felt that should the College pass out of exis- 
tence it will not have lived in vain, having shown the truth and correctness 
of the principles for which it was founded. 

The College at present consists of a teaching staff numbering thirty-two 
(32). For the past five years the average attendance of students has been 
thirty 630). The income derived principally from the students in the same 
period has averaged .$2,906.00, and the cost of maintenance |2,151.00. 
A small sum each yenr being divided amongst the teachers. 

It seems an anomalv that the University of Toronto should open its 
doors to women in all of its Faculties except that of Medicine. It is now 
admitted that women have the' right to study medicine, and the position 
taken by them in the examinations of the Universities, and of the Medical 
Councils demonstrates conclusively their ability to undertake this study. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 143 



From the average cited above it is seen there are women in this Province 
who desire to study medicine, and we believe that many more will present 
themselves when they feel that their instruction will be under the surveil- 
lance of the Medical Faculty for Women of the University. 

There are certain portions of the Medical Curriculum in which co- 
education is particularly distasteful, in other portions there is no reason why 
the work should not be done in harmony. The academic standing of the student 
as expressed in the results of the examination is not a matter of very great 
importance, but to the individual student it appears of vital moment. The 
women feel that as at present situated they have not an equal opportunity 
with the men of becoming acquainted with the idiosyncrasies of the ex- 
aminers, and that this loss influences their competitive standing. There 's 
also an injustice in the position taken by the Faculty of Medicine in refusing 
to register women as Students of Medicine, which they regard as a reflection 
upon their ability and intelligence. 

As far as The Ontario Medical College for Women is concerned they 
merely desire that women should have an opportunity of piirsuing their 
medical studies unmolested, on fair and equal terms with the men. Ab 
long as a sufficient number of students present themselves the College doors 
will remain open, but should the time come when the number of students 
is such that the income from their fees is insufficient to meet the expenses 
of maintenance, at that moment the College will probably close its doors 
and the students will present themselves to the University of Toronto, and 
claim admission, and will probably precipitate that trouble with the Med- 
ical Faculty from which our College at present protects them, and which 
protection will be ensured by the creation of the Medical Faculty for 
Women. 

Opposition to the creation of the new faculty may arise in the question 
of the expense. The scientific and expensive subjects are already taught in 
the University class rooms and no new expenses should arise in this con- 
nection. All that would be required is a little house-room for a few lec- 
tures in the Primary years, and a few Didactic Lectures in the Finals. 
The remainder of the work is clinical and would be done at the hospital. 
We are told that there is abundance of room in the New Medical Build- 
ings, or should this not be the case there are other means which could be 
found to house the women at a slight expense. 

As in the Male Faculty all fees would be received and all disburse- 
ments made' by the Bursar of the University. 

To the general rule now in vogue of the appointments being in the 
hands of the Government on recommendation of the President no objection 
can be raised. Only in the original appointments it is felt that a reason- 
able claim can be made in favour of the staff of the Ontario Medical Col- 
lege for Women, — composed as it is of experienced teachers eminent in 
their d of^ssion, acceptable to their confreres and not likely to detract from 
the dignity and prestige of the University, and in addition the extinction 
of the charter of the College merits some return. 

Ott behalf of the Ontario Medical College for Women. 

R. B. Nevitt. 

President. 

D. J. GiBB WiSHART, 

vSecretary. 
Augusta Stowe Gfllex. 
November 14, 1905. I. F. McMahon. 



144 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



The Chairman and Members of the University of Toronto Comjnissioii : 

Gentlemen, — Referring to the memorial recently presented to you by 
a depiitatiou representing the Faculty and the Graduates of the Ontario 
Medicnl College for "Women, praying for the estahUshment of a Medical 
Faculty f'T WomCm in the Universiiy of Torodto, it would appear wise in 
order to focus attention upon the points brought out in the discussion 
thereof, to briefly re-state the reasons therefor, which are as follows: — 

1. The subjects of the medical course have been taught to women iii 
Toronto bv this College since October 1st, 1883, and it is the only such 
College in Canada. 

2. The average attendance of students has been slightly under 30. 

3. The average cost of maintenance has required the fees of at least 
22 students. The Faculty has been paid out of the fees of the remaining 
eight. 

4. Thr admission of women to instruction in Anafomy in the University 
in ccnncc'ion -uith the B. and P. Course deprives the College of a yearly 
revenue of ?'85.00 per student. The number of female studerts registered 
in this cours'^ now is — Class 1906, one; 1908, two; 1909, three. If the 
coursf^ be modified, as is contemplated, a still larger proportion ■ of women 
students will proceed to medicine via the Anatomy room of the University. 

5. The endowment of the chairs of Pathology, Sanitary Scierce, Jur- 
ispriid'^nce. etc., will throw oppn these courses to the female student, and 
tbe revenue of the College will thus steadily be further and increasingly 
depleted. 

6. The establishment of the new hospital under University manage- 
mert mr-y originate further difficulties in the imparting of clinical instruc- 
tion to women. 

7. Thmefore, the Medical Education of women cannot be carried on 
longer i'> Toronto upon its present basis. 

8. "When the College closes, the women students will look to the Uni- 
versity to supply their needs in medicine as fully as it supplies their needs 
in otber depaHments. 

9. Thp M^dif^al Departmf^nt of the University of Toronto has refused 
definitely to admit women as Medical students, as per calendar 1905-fi. 

10. Womon desiring to enter medicine will therefore be compelled to 
seek instrnction in other halls of learning, unless the prayer of this memor- 
ial be franted. 

Wh'it woTiid this rhange involve? 

1. On th*^ present basis of expenditure, the operating expenses should 
be greatlv reduced, ns the maintenance of a separate building wmild be no 
lorger necessary. The laboratory work being all done by the University, 
but a small amount of space would be required for lecture and waiting 
•room*^. 

2. The women students could be admitted to the University classes in 
Chemi'tTy, B'ology, etc., and be made exempt from the occasional student 
fee now rxfcfpd. 

3. The remuneration to the Facultv could not even on this basis be 
more than -*2.00 p(^r lecture as a maximum. If, therefore, this remuner- 
ation is to bo incr'^ased. or if the work of medical education for women is 
to be dovel'^ped upon the same lines as in the men's departmert, the fimds 
derived from the fee'* would not be sufficient. 

The Government ;it the present time subsidizes the instruction of 
women in other departments, why not then in medicine too, especially as 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 145 



the experience of 23 years shows that the average attendance will always 
rehitively be small. 

4. The Faculty required would be as follows: — 

A Professor of Medicine with assistants. 

A Professor of Surgery with assistants. 

A PxO lessor of Gynaecology with one assistant. 

A Professor of Obstetrics with one assistant. 

A P.o'esior of Diseases of children. 

A Irofess' r of Ophthalmology. 

A Professor of Therapeutics. 

A Lecturer in Psychology. 

A Lecturer in Materia Medica. 

All which is respectfully submitted, 

D. J. GiBB WlSHART, 

Secretary. 
Ontario Medical College for Women. 
December 9th, 1905. 



FROM THE ALUMNAE ASSOCIATION OF THE ONTARIO MEDICAL 
COLLEGE FOR WOMEN. 

To the chairman ard members of the Commission appointed by the 
Government of the Province of Ontario, to suggest an entire reorganiza- 
tion of the government and maragement of the University of Toronto and 
its constituent parts, and to consider and report such changes as in the 
opinion of the Commissioners should be brought about in the relations 
between the said TJriversity of Toronto and the several Colleges affiliated 
or federated therewith. 

Gentlemen, — The Alumnae of the Ontario Medical College for women, 
(hereinafter referred to as the College), all being graduates in medicine 
of the University of Toronto or of Trinity University, acting through their 
Alumnae Association, and in corjunction with the Faculty of the College, 
desire to express great sat^'sfaction that the Government of ihis Province 
has seen fit to appoint a University Commission. They further desire to 
thank th':> members of the Commission for inviting graduates to lay their 
views before the Commission. This irvitation they gladly avail themselves 
of and do now proceed to lay before the Commission : 

I. The history of the College. 

II. The present state of Medical Education for Women in Canada. 

III. Sugges'ions which, in the opinion of this Association, would ad- 
vance the best interests of the College and of the Uriversity of Toronto. 

IV. Information in regard to University Medical Education for 
women in some other countries. 

I. The History of the College. 

This is the only Women's Medical College in Canada. The chief 
founder of the Colleo-e was Dr. Michael Barrett, Professor of Physiology 
in the Urivers'tv of Toronto, and the first formal step towards the orean- 
izatinn of the Collenf-e was taken at a public meeting of citizens in Shaftes- 
burv Hall, in the Spring of 1883, the Hon. Mr. Justice Patterson being in 



146 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



the cKair, at which, on motion of Dr. James Carlyle, seconded by Prof. 
Thomas Kirkland, the following committee was appointed to carry out the 
establishment of a Women's Medical College: — Rev. John M. King, D.D., 
Dr. James Carlyle, James Beaty, Q.C., M.P., Prof. Michael Barrett, Mrs. 
James Goodeiham, Mrs. Adam Miller, Mrs. A. W. Lauder, Mrs. S. Mc- 
Master, Mrs. McEwan. 

The first Board of Trustees was duly appointed by the subscribers as 
follows : — 

James Beaty, Q.C., M.P., chairman. Rev. Principal Caven, Profes- 
sor Michael Barrett, Dr. George Wright, Dr. Adam H. Wright, Mr. Irving 
H. Cameron, Mrs. James Gooderham, Mrs. John Harris, Mrs. McEwan, 
Secretary. 

The trustees purchased the house and lot where the College now 
stands for the sum of $1,411.39. 

The formal opening of the Women's Medical College took place on 
Oct. 1st, 1883, at 2.00 p.m., His Worship, the Mayor of Toronto in the 
chair, and a lecture was delivered by Professor Barrett. During this 
session three students were in attendance, two of whom duly finished their 
course and graduated in the year 1887. In that same year the founder and 
first Dean, Dr. Barrett, died and Dr. McPhedian became Dean of the 
College. In the year 1888, Dr. R. B. Nevitt, who, with Dr. Augusta Stowe- 
Gullen and others, had been on the Faculty from the foundation of the 
College, was appointed Dean, and Dr. D. J. Gibb Wishart, Secretary. 
The present building was erected in 1892. 

The number of graduates of the College is 112, including 23, who are 
Medical Missionaries in Persia, India, Ceylon, China, Japan, and among 
the Indians in our own North West. 

It may be added that the academic record of the graduates is credit- 
able to the College, as a reference to the Honour Lists of Trinity Univer- 
sity and the University of Toronto will show. 

Among those who are engaged in the great work of Foreign Missions 
is Dr. Rijnhart, author of "In Tent and Temple with the Thibetans." 
The other graduates are nearly all practising in; Canada, the United States 
and Australia ; some of them holding important positions, such as that of 
Dr. Stella Taylor, Superintendent of the New England Hospital for 
Women and Children, at Boston, Mass., Dr. Elizabeth Hurdon, Associate 
Professor of Gynaecology in* the Medical Department of Johns Hopkins 
University, and several who are associate-Professcr*? and Lecturers on the 
staff of the College. 

In 1904-5 there were 32 students in attendance at the College. 

1 from China, 

2 from British Columbia. 
1 from Assiniboia. 

23 from Ontario. 

1 from Quebec. 

1 from New Brunswick. 

1 from Nova Scotia. 

1 from Prince Edward Island. 

1 from Newfoundland. 
The Alumnae cannot let pass this opportunity of expressing their deep 
and grateful sense of what the College has done for them. They have re- 
ceived a good Medical Education under favourable circumstances, and they 
feel that they can best show their appreciation of this great privilege by 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 147 



approaching' the Commission at the present crisis, and doing all that in 
them lies to maintain and preserve for the women of Ontario and of Canada 
the opportunities that they themselves have enjoyed. 

The College has heen carried all through these 22 years by the mem- 
bers of the Faculty, who, as we are about to show, not only gave their 
valuable services, for years receiving no remuneration at all, (more recently 
there has been a very small sum given), but subscribed the money neces- 
sary TO carry on the work of the College. These 22 years have been years 
of good work, faithful service and self-sacrifice, never mentioned by the 
Faculty themselves and almost unknown to, others. 

It is true that small medical schools and Proprietory Medical Schools 
should now pass away or be changed into University Medical Faculties. 
This is in the best interests of the public and the profession, and we are 
glad to see this day come in Medical Education in Ontario. But as Post- 
graduate workers in other countries and as phj^sicians at home and abroad, 
we have had opportunities of judging, and we desire to say that the men 
and women who compose the Faculty of the College stand high among 
other workers in the same field and we feel assured that if and when con- 
federation takes place, they will receive the same fair and generous treat- 
ment that the Faculties of other confederating Colleges have received from 
the Government of Ontario and from the University of Toronto. 

II. The present condition of Medical Education for Women in Canp,da. 

Two Universities in Canada admit men and women to instruction in 
the Medical Faculty, viz., the University of Manitoba at Winnipeg and 
Dalhousie University (in Association with Halifax Medical College) at 
Halifax. Nova Scotia. 

In 1903-4, eight women students were in attendance at the latter, and 
one at the former. 

The College was founded to meet the need for Medical Education for 
women, and owes its origin to the feeling of some of the Professors of the 
Faculty of Medicine in the University of Toronto, that women are entitled 
to Medic^^l Education, but that it is not advisable to give that education in 
classps along with men. Up to the year 1904, therefore, women wishing to 
study medicine have always been referred bv the University authorities to 
the College, and the University Professors have frequently expressed an 
earnest desir?^ for the continued efficiency of the College, so that the ques- 
tion of admitting women to Medical Classes in the University should not 
arise. 

In 1894 the financial afPairs of the College reached a crisis, the sub- 
scriptions promised not being forthcoming, and it is dne entirely to the 
generous action of seventeen members of the Faculty, who formed a Joint 
Stock Company under the name of The Ontario Medical College for "Women, 
Limited, and subscribed a ^sum amounting in all to about $10,000 that the 
work of the College has been continued. Since 1894, after meeting current 
expenses, interest, expenditure for apparatus, Sec, the financial affair? of 
the College hnve been carried on sneces-jfullv, but with so narrow a margin 
that there has been no remuneration worth mentioning to the professors 
and lecturers, and that the loss of but a few students at any time might 
have oblis'ed the Faculty to close the College. 

In May, 1904, the attention of the Faculty was called to the fact that 
the University had admitted a woman to the Combined Course, (Biology 



148 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



and Physiology Course, or Six Year Course, or B. & P. Course), whicli leads 
in four years la a Degree in Arts, and in two additional years to a Degree 
in Medicine, and on Saturday, Oct. 1st, 1904, Miss M. L. M., B.A., a 2nd 
year student of the Women's Medical College, registered before the Sec- 
retary of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Toronto as No. 109 
B. in tLe 2nd year Faculty of Medicine of the University of Toronto, and 
on Monday, Oct. 3, 1904, Miss M. L. E., registered before the Secretary of 
the Facultv of Medicine of the Univer ity of Toronto, as No. 290 A. in the 
1st year, Facul'.y of Medicine in the University of Toronto. 

Having regard to the above facts, a committee was appointed, as fol- 
lows, repres'^nting the Faculty and the Alumnae of the College: — The 
Dean, Dr. Nevitt ; the Secretary, Dr. Wishart ; Dr. Duncan, Dr. McMahon, 
Dr. Augusta Stowe-Gullen, and Dr. Helen MacMurchy, to confer with the 
following committee appointed by the Medical Faculty of the University 
of Toronto: — The President of the University, Dr. Loudon; the Dean, Dr. 
Reeve; Mr. I. H. Cameron; Dr. McPhedran and Dr. Davison. 

After conference, this matter, and also the matter of the instruction in 
Sanitary Science, for certain students in the Household Science Course of 
the University was dealt with by the Faculty of Medicine of the University 
of Toronto, and the following official communication gives their decision: 

University of Toronto, 
Medi'^al Faculty, 
Toronto, Canada. 

November 8th, 1904. 
Dr. R. B. Nevitt, 

Dean, Ontano Medical College for Women, 
Toronto, Ont, 

Dear Sir,— I beg to enclose herein copy of the report of the committee 
appointed to consider the question of registration of women students in 
medicine in the University of Toronto. 

This report was received and adopted by the Faculty. 



Yours faithfully, 



A. Primrose, 

Secretary. 



"Report of the committee appointed to consider the question of reg- 
istration of women students in medicine in the University of Toronto. 

"It is therefore recommended by the committee that in future women 
should be refused registration in medicine and shoiild receive no part of 
the Course in ]\redicine, and that Human Anatomy be provided for women 
ini the B. & P. Course, as students in Arts, and not as students in Medif^ine. 

"The commiltoe further recommend that some definite statement should 
be made in the calendar, to the effect that women sUidents cannot under 
any circumstances receive tuition in the Third and Fourth Years (Ihat is 
in the prof ssional subjects') in medicine in the Universitv of Toronto." 

Acco'dingly, in the calendar of the Faculty of Medicine of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, for the academic year 1905-6, the following statement 
appears : — 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 149 



"The Faculty of Medicine will rot permit women to register as 
medical students." 

The in-tructiou of even a few women students in Anatomy at the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, has had and will have a disastrous effect on the before- 
mentioned narrow margio. between the income and expenditure of the 
College. 

The annual fee paid by each medical student is fllO.OO. Of this sum, 
the Ccllege pays to the University of Toronto, (Arts Faculty) $23.00 for 
instruction in Physiology, Chemistry, Histology and Biology, and retains 
187.00 as the fee for Anatomy and Materia Medica. This sum is the chief 
source of income for the College. There is, therefore, a prospect that the 
College may be compelled to close its doors to avoid debt, and as the 
Medical Faculty of the University of Toronto will not admit women, we 
feel that the position of women students in Medicine requires the serious 
consideration of the Commission. 

Conferences were subsequently held between the Honourable Richard 
Harcourt, foimerly Minister of Education, and the committee of the Faculty 
'and Alumnae of the College above mentioned, and the Minister recom- 
mended that ;negotiations should be continued between the Faculty of 
MediciDe of the University of Toronto and the Faculty of the College; 
and it is hoped that now, when all matters pertaining to the organization 
and management of the University and its constituent parts are before the 
Commission, they may be able to devise some plan which shall serve the 
best irterests of the profession and the public, and provide for the Medical 
Education of women. 

III. Suggestions which, in the opinion of this Association, irould advance 
the best Interests of the College and the University of Toronto. 

"We would suggest that the College should become the Faculty of 
Medicine for Women of the University of Toronto. 

We desire further to say, that of the three plans for providing Medical 
Educ tion for Women, viz. : — 

I. Instruction of men and women together in medicine as at the 
Medical Department of Johns Hopkins University. 

II. Instruction of women Id entirely separate institutions as at the 
London (Royal Free Hospital) School of Medicine for Women and at the 
Women's Medical College, Philadelphia. 

III. Instruction in Arts and Science subjects in the University Labor- 
atori'^s, and in other subjects by the members of a Faculty appointed bv 
the University authorities and the Government to form ii Medical Faculty 
for Women in the University. 

In our opinion the last plan is by the far the best, considering all the 
interests involved, and we agree with the opinion, apparently held by the 
Faculty of Medicine of Toronto University, that the ^ledical Education of 
men and women should, to a large extent, be conducted separately. 

At the time of the Confederation of Trinity Medical College with ilie 
Faculty of Medicine of the University of Toronto, it was understood to be 
the policy of the Government and the University to reorard Sanitary 
Science. Anatomv and Pathology, as well as Physiology, Histology, &c., 
as University subjects; or, in other word*, to endow these chairs. No 
doubt, in the near future, this policy will be carried out, and then instruc- 
tion could be provided for students of the College in these subjects in the 



150 



ROYAL COMMISSION RE 



No. 42 



University Laboratories; perhaps in a separate room, or at different hours, 
from the students of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Toronto. 
It will be remembered that the students of the College in the 1st and 
2nd years now receive all their instruction ai the University of Toronto, 
except in the subjects of Anatomy and Materia Medica. As all clinical 
work is done at the hospitals, it will be evident that for other lectures to 
the students in all the years, there will only be required, iri' addition to the 
Laboratory accommodation referred to above, the use of one or two small 
lecture-rooms in one of the University Buildings during some hours daily. 

lY, Information in regard to University Medical Education for Women in 

some other Countries. 

The following information is respectfully submitted : — 
University Medical Education for Women. 

The following Universities provide for the Medical Education of 
Women : — 



University of Glasgow. 
University of Edinburgh. 
University of St. Andrews. 
University of Durham. 
University of Melbourne. 
University of Sydney. 
Um'versitv of Adelaide. 
Dalhousie University. 
University of Manitoba. 
Johns Hopkins University. 
Cornell University. 
University of Michigan. 
University of Illinois. 
University of Iowa. 



L^ni versify of California. 
University of Buffalo. 
University of Aberdeen. 
University of Dublin. 
University of Liverpool. 
L^niversity of Manchester. 
University of Birmingham. 
University of Leeds. 
University of Sheffield. 
The Catholic University, Dublin. 
Bristol University College. 
University of Minnesota. 
University of Arkansas. 



The British Medical Journal, Sept. 2, 1905, says : 

"The Schools of Medicine which provide a medical education for 
women only, are the London (Royal Eree Hospital) School of Medicine 
for Women (University of London), the Edinburgh Medical College for 
women, and Queen Margaret College, Glasgow. Women are also ad- 
mitted to th« Schools of Medicine conducted in connection with the Uni- 
versities of Dublin. Durham, Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, 
Sheffield and AV-erdeen; the Catholic University, Dublin, Bristol Univer- 
sity College, and also to special classes at the School of Medicine of the 
Royal Colleges, Edinburgh; the Schools of Surgery of the Royal College 
of Surgeons in .Irelard. and of the Queen's Colleges of Belfast, Cork and 
Galway. Students of the University of Glasgow receive their. education at 
Queen Margaret College, which is an integral part of the University. Two 
years only of the IMedicil curriculum can be taken at the United College, 
St. Andrews; the remaining three years are taken at Universitv College, 
Dundee, where the whole five years can be passed if desired. Women can 
also attend classes for the first three years of the medical curriculum at 
University College, Cardiff. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 151 

Method of Instruction. 

" University of Glasgow, 

Queen Margaret College, 

Glasgow, Sept. 1, 1904. 

"The most of the medical classes are held in Queen Margaret College, 
which has a large building, separate from the main building, for the 
Medical School, fully equipped for work in Anatomv and other subjects 
The staff is appointed by the University, and consists of University Pro- 
fessors and their assistants for some of the subjects, and lecturers especially 
for Queen Margaret College for others. Two or three of the classes are 
taught in the University as a matter of convenience for access to special 
apparatus, etc., but not at the same time as the men, except a short course 
of lectures on Mental Diseases, and some work in the Botanical Laboratory. 

"The number of women students last year was 387. Of these about TO 
were medical students — fewer than usual, as we consider 80 our average. 
They have their clinical work in wards provided for women students in the 
Royal Infirmary and which contain about 160 beds, besides having access 
to he gynaecological wards, which are open to men students at a different 
time. And they have different hours also for dispensary work. 

" There are extra-mural classes in Glasgow, but they are not such a 
strong feature in the medical work here as they are in Edinburgh. There 
is Anderson's College, and there is also St. Mungo's College, but they are 
both very small M-hen compared with the University Department of Medi- 
cine. The classes in St. Mungo's College are not open to women students; 
nor have those of Anderson's College been so hitherto, except that I think 
one girl attended a class there last winter; but there is some talk of their 
being open to women as, of course, mixed classes, in the future. 

"J. A. Galloway, 

Hon. Secretary." 

" University of Edinburgh. 

MiNTo House, 
Edinburgh, Aug. 10, 1904. 

The Medical College for Women. 

"The women stxidents are not admitted to «ny of the medical classes 
in the University, they take all their classes "Extra-mural," the majority 
are separate classes for the women only, but some are mixed classes. The 
mixed classes at present are: — Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, Materia 
Medica and Diseases of the Eye. All other classes and hospital work the 
women have separately, but they sit for the same examinations as the men 
and get the same degrees and qualifications. 

" Helen Falconer Mack ay. 

Secretary." 

In all the other Universities mentioned, the method pursued is that 
the classes are open to men and women students alike, but usually with 
certain special arrangements, ^s the following extracts will show : — 



152 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. i'l 



■'The Univer.-ity of St. Andrews. 

St. Andrews, X.B. 

Aug. 9th, 1904. 

"Women are admitted to all the classes of the University attended by 
men-studeiits. 

" Andrew Bennett, 

Secretary." 

* 

VJoHNS Hopkins University, 
Medical Department. 

Office of the Dean, 
Baltimore, July 29, 1904. 

"Men and women are admitted od the same terms. The plan so far 
has worked very well 

" George J. Coy, 

Registrar." 

■' Tniversity of Michigan, 

Department of Medicine & Surgery. 

Ann Arbor, July 29, 1904. 

"The orly separate instruction given to women is in the dissecting 
room. Th?y do their dissection in different rooms from those occupied bv 
the men. All other work is given to the combined classes. 

" This plan works well. 

" V. C. Yaughan." 

■* Cornell University, 
Medical College, 

Ithaca, X.Y., Aug. 1, 1904. 

"We have no separate instruction for men and women students ic. any 
subject. In the third year, however, the women students do not take the 
section work in Genito-urinary di eases, which is given in the Dispensary 
at New York. In place of this work they are given some extra section work 
in gynaecology. 

"This plan seems to us to work excellently, and we do not contemplate 
any change in the present system. 

"Abram T. Kerr, 

Secretary." 

"University of Sydney. 

Sydney, 

New South Wales, 

August 15th, 1904. 

"We have never made any distinction of the sexes in the Medical 
School here, nor at the Hospitals for clinical instruction. No separate 
clnss'^s, no separate rooms f^r anatomy, etc. In short, we have gone on the 
principle that the ladies and genllemon come to study science, and there 
can bo no renson for separation and we have found the plan quite free 
from embarrassment. 

"A. Sti-art, 
Dean of the Faciiltv of Medicine." 



i 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 163 



University Appointments Held by Women. 

The following is a partial list of University Medical appointmentcj 
held by women : — 

[Jniversity of Edinhurgh : — Extra-mural, 
Lecturer in Zoology, 
DemOiistra.or in Auatomy. 

U iiiversity of Michigan : 

Dean of women students. 
Irstructor in Histolog-y. 
Four Laboratory Assistants. 

Cornell University : 

Assistant Instructor in Histology. 

University in Iowa : 

Assistant in Pharmacy. 
Dean of Women Student-. 

University of Illinois : 

Professor of Gynaecology. 
Professor of Clinical Gynaecology. 
Instructor in Clinical Gynaecology. 
Piofe sor of Clinical Obstetrics. 
Associ ,te-Professor of Medicine. 
Instructor in Anatomy. 

University of Minnesota : 
Instructor in Hitology. 
Instriictor in Physiology. 
Clin'cnl Assistant in Nose and Throui. 
Clirdcal Assistant in Obs'etrics. 

Johns Hophins University : 
Associate in Anatomy. 
Associate in Gynaecology. 

University of California : 
Assistants. 

University of Sydney, New South Wales: 
Two Demonstrators of Ar atomy. 
Tutor to the Women Students. 

University of Adelaide, South Austrajia : 
Lecturer in Biology. 

McGill University : 

Ciirator of the Pathological Museum. 
Some further information is contained in the re[»rints enclosed (o lli.' 
Secretary of the Commission. 



154 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Finally, — The Alumnse Association of the College would express the 
hope that this matter, through the work of the Commission, may be 
brought to a just and harmonious settlement. 

All of which IS respectfully submitted. 

Augusta Stowe-Gullen, 

President. 
Minerva M. Geeenaway, 

Secretary. 
Jennie Gray. 
Helen MacMurchy. 



FROM THE FACULTY OF MEDICINE, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 

he reference to the suggestion to establish a Faculty of Medicine for Women. 

The Registrar, 

University of Toronto, 
Toronto. 

Dear Sir, — I beg to acknowledge receipt of your communication of the 
13th inst. enclosing certain documents forwarded from the special committee 
of the Senate and dealing with the suggestion to establish a Faculty of 
Medicine for Women in the University of Toronto. After full discussion 
of the whole subject the Faculty adopted the following resolutions : 

1st. "Resolved that the Faculty disapprove of the suggestion to appoint 
a Faculty of Medicine for AVomen in this University." 

2nd. "That in view of certain prospective changes which are suggested 
in connection with the method of providing instruction in Medicine for 
Women in Toronto, the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Toronto 
is now prepared to register female students as students in Medicine and agree 
that whatever arrangements are deemed necessary should be made for their 
instruction." 

I am also instructed to make the following comments on certain state- 
ments made in the Memorials presented by those interested in the Ontario 
Medical College for Women. 

1. In the Memorial addressed to the Chairman and Members of the 
University of Toronto Commission, under date November 9th, the follow- 
ing statement appears : 

"Women desiring to enter Medicine will therefore be compelled to seek 
ipstruction in other halls of learning unless the prayer of this Memorial be 
granted." 

On consideration of this 'clause by the Faculty it was recognized that 
the statement is not absolutely correct as obviously there is some other 
solution of the problem than that suggested as the prayer of the Memorial 
presented. 

2. On pages 2 and 3 of the same Mntaorial it is suggested that the 
Ontario Medical College for Women require a Faculty of the following 
constitution : 

A Professor of Medicine with assistants. 

A Professor of Surgery with assistants. 

A Professor of Gynaecology with one assistant. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 155 



A Professor of Obstetrics with one assistant. 

A Professor of Diseases of Children. 

A Professor of Ophthalmology. 

A Professor of Otology, Laryngology a-n-'J Rhinology. 

A Professor of Therapeutics. . 

A Lecturer in Psychology. 

A Lecturer in Materia Medica. 

The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Toronto would wish to 
point out that there is no University in existence where such a Faculty, 
provided exclusively for the tuition of women, is to be found. 

3. Regarding the matter of expense necessary in establishing a Faculty 
for women, the following statement appears on page 3 of the Memorial sub- 
mitted by the staff of the Ontario Medical College for Women : 

"Opposition to the creation of the new faculty may arise in the question 
of the expense. The scientific and expensive subjects are already taught in 
the University class-rooms and no new expenses should arise in this connec- 
tion. i»'2 that would be required is a little houseroom for a few lectures m 
the primary years and a few didactiC lectures in the finals." ■ 

The Faculty wish to point out that in considering the question of 
expense no notice is taken of the fact that it is proposed by the staff of the 
Ontario Medical College for Women, to create a Faculty for the tuition of 

women consisting of 8 full professors, 2 lecturers and assistants. It 

is to be pointed out that the emoluments necesary for this large staff would 
be a very heavy item of expense, and that, therefore, should be taken into 
account when considering the expense necessary for the establishing of such 
a Faculty. 

4. The Faculty further desire to call attention to the suggestion of the 
Alumnse of the Ontario Medical College for women. On page 11 the follow- 
ing statement appears : 

"We would suggest that the College should become the Faculty of 
Medicine for Women of the University of Toronto." 

If it is meant by ttis to take over the full staff of the present Ontario 
Medical College for Women as at present constituted it is well to point out 
the fact that their Faculty at present consists of 15 full professors, 2 asso- 
ciate-professors, 12 lecturers and 4 assistants and demonstrators (12 of the 
33 are already members of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of 
Toronto.) 

Such a suggestion, if carried out, would entail the reception of 21 new 
instructors in the University. 

5. The Faculty thought that some explanation should be made regard- 
ing the paragraph in the calendar of the Faculty of Medicine of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, which appears on page 48, and which reads as follows : 

"The Faculty of Medicine will not permit women to register as Medical 
students. Tuition in Human Anatomy, however, will be provided for women 
as part of their course in the case of students proceeding to their Arts Degree 
in the honour department of Biological and Physical Science." 

This regulation of the Faculty was adopted last year and the reasons 
why this attitude was assumed towards the question of the tuition of women 
in Medicine may be summarized under two headings : 

(a) The faculty desired to take this stand because they believed that by 
so doing they were acting in the best interests of the Ontario Medical College 
for Women, considering that if they opened their doors to women students 
they might possibly deplete the numbers which would otherwise go to 
their special College. 

17 u.c. 



156 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



(&) A large number of tlie members of the Faculty of Medicine con- 
sidered that tlie institution of mixed classes m Medicine in the University 
o^' Toronto was undesirable. 

This attitude of the Faculty towards the question was therefore assumed 
largely because it was a desire on the part of the Faculty to protect the 
interests of the Ontario Medical College for Women. 

As instructed by the Faculty, I therefore beg to fonvard to you copies 
of the resolutions adopted at their meeting last night and also the comments 
which were thought necessary regarding certain statements which appear 
in the documents forwarded to us for our consideration. 

Yours faithfully, 

A. Primrose, 
Toronto, Jan. 16th, 1906. Secretary. 



SUGGESTIONS FROM ALUMNI ASSOCIATIONS. 

Ill response to the request of the Commission suggestion"--, which are 
given herewith, were received from the following graduate bodies : 

1. Alumni Association of the ITniversity of Toronto. 

2. Alumni Association of Victoria University. 

3. Toronto Branch, University Alumni Associatioji. 

4. University Club of Ottawa. 

5. Guelph Alumni Association. 

6. Algoma Alumni Association. 

7. Universitv of Toronto Club, of New York. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

Toronto, Jan. 4th. 1906. 

Secretary, University of Toronto Commission. 

Sir, — On behalf of the executive committee we have the honour to 
transmit herewith, for the consideration of the University of Toronto Com- 
mission, the foHowing resolutions dealing with matters now the subject of 
inquiry by the Commission, which were adopted by the Alumni Association 
of the University of Toronto, at a meeting held on the eighteenth of Decem- 
ber, 1905 : 

1. The Li evfenant-Governor iyi Council . "That the powers of the Lieu- 
tenant-Governor in Council as regards the general administration of the 
University be confined to exercising a veto upon the acts of the Board of 
Governors." 

2. The President. "That the President be the chief executive officer 
of the University, and in view of the fact that the functions of the Senate, 
as oTitlined below, are purely academic in their nature, it is further recom- 
mended that he be e.r-offirio, Yice-Chancellor of the University and Chair- 
man of the Senate." 

17a u.c. 



1906 UNWERSn V OF TORON TO. 157 



3. The Board of Governors. "That the general administration and 
control of the University and University College, both financial and acad- 
emic, be vested in a Board of Governors consisting of fifteen members, ten 
o*^ whom shall be appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council. That 
ibe Chancellor and three other members be elected by the graduates in all 
Faculties voting as one body, and that the President of the University shall 
be a member of the Board e.r-officio. 

"That the Board shall be entrusted with full control of the finances of 
the University and University College; that it have the power of appoint- 
ment or dismissal of members of the staffs of these bodies after receiving 
ii report thereon from the President, and that the Statutes of the Senate and 
other academic bodies of the University and University College be submitted 
to it for ratification." 

4. The Seriate. "That the Senate consist of representatives of graduates 
of the University and of representatives of the Faculties of the University 
and University College, of the federated Universities, and the federated 
and affiHated Colleges ; that it include also elective representatives of the 
High School Teachers of Ontario, and that the Minister of Education be a 
member of the Senate ex-officio. 

"That the functions of the Senate consist of the institution of courses of 
study, the prescription of curricula submitted by the Councils of the differ- 
ent Faculties, the conducting of examinations and the conferring of 
degrees." 

5. The Faculties. "That it be one of the functions of the Councils of 
the different Faculties to institute all curricula, and to submit them to the 
Senate for approval." 

We have the honour to be, Sir. 

Your obedient servants, 

PitHARD A. Reeve, J. C. McLennan, 

President. Secretarv. 



ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OF VICTORIA UNIVERSITY. 

Victoria College, 

November 27th. 190-5. 
To the Members of the Commission : 

Gentlemen, — You have been good enough to issue an invitation to all 
bodies of graduates interested in your investigation to send to your honor- 
able body their views on matters relating to the subject of your enquiry. 
In response thereto, the Alumni Association of Victoria University, com- 
posed of all the graduates of the said University in all faculties, call^^d a meet- 
ing to consider the question. Two meetings have been held which have 
been largely attended. Careful consideration has been given to the question 
as to the relationship which Vif^toria bears and should bear to the University. 

As a result of careful consideration certain resolutions have bc^n adopted 
which are herewith enclosed a:id submitted to the Commission with the earnest 
hope that the findings of your Commission may result in the recommend- 
ation of a plan that may, be- of the highest valup in advancing the interests 
of the University of Toronto, of which we feel that we form no unimportant 
part. 



158 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



These resolutions liave reference to that portion o^ your problem with 
which Victoria is directly concerned. The graduates of Victoria desire that 
these recommendations be taken as a whole. They were passed unanimously. 

In laying them before you perhaps it may not be out of place to refer 
to a resolution that was unanimously carried by this same Association at a 
very large meeting held in Cobourg in May, 1885, when the question of Uni- 
versity Federation was carefully considered. 

"Resolved — That it is the unanimous opinion of the Alumni of this 
University that we ought not to go into the proposed Federation without 
all reasonable assurance of our perpetual existence as an important Arts 
College." 

Twenty years have passed and Federation has been tried. The Alumni 
Association of Victoria is to-day of the unanimous opinion that Victoria 
should be assured of her existence and recognition as an important Arts 
College in the University Federation standing on an equality with all other 
Arts Colleges. 

Respectfully submitted on behalf of the Alumni Association of Victoria 
University. 

James Allen C. C. James 

President. Secretary. 

RecoTnTnendation of Victoria Alumni Association to the University of 
Toronto Commission. 

1. The general principles of Federation should be preserved intact and 
the three Arts Colleges treated in all respects alike. 

The provisions of the existing University Act as to the division of sub- 
jects between the Arts Colleges and the University should be preserved in 
principle. 

University College should be made entirely separate from the University 
in administration and endowment, and the State should make adequate 
provision for its support. 

2. The principle of government by commission should be applied to the 
University, and the administrative powers now exercised by the Government 
should be handed over to a Board of Governors or Regents. This Board 
should have control of finances, appointments and general University policy; 
in regard to the two latter, calling for reports from Colleges, Faculties or 
Departments concerned, before taking action. All appointments should be 
probationary for a term of years. 

In the matter of representation on this Board the Arts Colleges should 
be treated precisely alike. 

3. The duties of the Senate should be confined to legislating upon 
the curriculum of studies, examination standards, and such similar academic 
matters as call for legislative action. Such action should be based upon 
reports from the Faculties, Departments or other academic bodies concerned, 
and be subject to appeal by any such body to the Board of Governors or 
Regents. For the purpose 'of preparing such reports the Faculty of Arts in 
the University and its Colleges should be organized as one body. 

4. Discipline should be left in the hands of the various Colleges or 
Faculties in which individual students are registered. Questions of inter- 
collegiate discipline, as well as University societies and functions should 
b" placed under an intercollegiate Board composed of the President, Vice- 
President, the three heads of Colleges and the two Deans of Faculties. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 159 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

Toronto Branch. 

Report of committee on University re-organization. As amended and 
adopted at a meeting of the Association held November 20th, 1905. 

Since the first report of your committee was presented, the promised 
University Commission has been appointed by the Government, and that 
Commission has invited suggestions. In compliance with their request, 
your committee has drawn up suggestions for University re-organization, 
which are herewith submitted. The principles hitherto accepted by the 
Association are three : 

1. — The transference of control from the Government to a Central 
Board so far as not inconsistent with the doctrine of ultimate responsibilty 
to the public on the part of the Government. 

2. — A reconstruction of the Senate which must be with the consent of 
the Federated Universities. 

3. — Representation of graduates of the University on both bodies. 

It has seemed to your committee, that among the most serious weak- 
nesses in the present constitution of the University were : 

1. — The method of appointment and removal of members of the staff 
of the University and of University College, and 

2. — The fact that the graduates, as graduates, have no representation 
upon the Board of Trustees. 

Your committee has considered that it must recognize the principle 
that as the University of Toronto is a state-supported University, the state, 
through the Government, is obliged to retain ultimate control. This con- 
trol might be sufiiciently safeguarded by the retention of a power of veto. 

The principle, which has been adopted is that power should be central- 
ized, and that there should be a body which would have a general control 
over all University affairs. Such functions could best be performed by a 
Board of Governors (or Trustees). 

Organization of the University. 

The teaching organization of the University should consist of the fol- 
lowing bodies : 

1. — The Faculties of Arts, Medicine, Applied Science and Engineering, 
and Law. Through the operation of the Federation Act the Faculty of 
Arts has been subdivided into two sections. University 'College and the 
University Department of Arts; these must be treated administratively as 
separate faculties. The various faculties of the University should be under 
the direct administrative control of the Board of Governors, at the same 
time possessing limited powers of celf -government as hereinafter described. 

2. — The Federated Universities and Colleges and the affiliated Col- 
leges. These retain complete automony within the University, except in 
so far as they become subject to the University in matters pertaining to 
University courses of study and degrees. 

Board of Governors. 

The Board of Governors should consist of the Chancellor to be elected 
by the graduates at large; the Yice-Chancellor to be elected by the Senate; 



160 ROYAL COMMISSION RE ■ No. 42 



the President of the University; eight appointed by the Government, aod 
four to he elected by the giaduates at large. 

If it is found advisable to unite the offices of Yice-Chancellor and 
President, then the vacancy so created on the Board should be filled by an- 
other representative of the graduates. 

The Board of Governors should have administrative control of the 
University, including the following powers : — 

1. — Cortrol and management of property and income of the Univer- 
sity. 

2. — Appointment and removal of the President and all members of 
staff of the University Faculties, of course, not including the Federated 
Universities and Colleges. 

3. — Absolute power of suspension. 

4.-— Eatification of all Statutes of the Senate relating to University 
udies. 

o. — -The establishment of new chairs. 

The President. 

The President should be' the executive head of the University and 
direr tly responsible to the Board of Governors. 

Senate. 

Your committee considers that the present Senate is unnecessarily 
large and unwieldy and that a reduction in the number of its members couli 
greatly increase its efficiency and usefulness but would point out that such 
reduction can be accomplished only with the co-operation and consent of the 
Federated Uriversities and Colleges. 

The Senate in addition to ejc-oijicio members, who should be the Min- 
ister of Education, the Chancellor, and the Chairman of the Board of 
Trustees, should consist of members as follows: — 

The Presid^'ut of the University; the head, one member of staff and 
ore graduate representative from University College and each of the Uni- 
versity Faculties and Federated Universities and Colleges; the head and 
one raember of -taff from the University Department of Arts: the head of 
each of the affiliated colleges; two representatives from the High School 
teachers of Ontorio. 

The function of the Seriate is to control academic matters subject to 
the powers of the Board of Governors. 

Faculty or College Council. 

The Faculty or College Council should consist of all members of staff of 
each Faculty or College, presided pver by the Principal or Dean. 

It should r-ontrol the internal affairs and discipline of the individual 
College or Faculty. 

General Eecommendations. 

Each member of the Board of Governors should hold office for four 
years but should be eligible for re-appointment or re-election — one half of 
those appointed by the Government or elected by the graduates should re- 
tire everv two years. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 161 



Each graduate member of the Senate should hold office for four years, 
hut should be eligible for re-election. 

Xo appointment should be made without public advertisement. 

This should not however, prevent the position beitg offered to a per- 
son who may not have applied therefor. 

The membeBS of the University, staff should not be eligible to represent 
graduates upon the Board of Governors or upon the Senate. 

That, subject to the consent of the Federated Ut iversities and Col- 
leges, the curriculum of University College should be enlarged by the 
addition of Philosophy, (except Psychology) Modern History, Political 
Science and the lower stages of pure mathematics. That students registered 
in the Federated Universities and Colleges should be entitled to attend lec- 
tures in such subjects free of all charge and 'ipon lectures in any other sub- 
jects taught in University College, provided only those so attending be duly 
registered in the Federated Universities or Colleges. 

That while recognizing the great importance to the community at 
large of the more "material" departments of study in the Univer.sity and 
the necessity of such liberal provision for such courses of study as will 
lead to the fullest development of the material resources of the province 
and country, we desire still to urge that adequate provision should be made 
for the generous support of the Faculty of Arts as repre-enting in cortrast 
to the "material" the "culture" subjects of the Universitv. 

That the Law School of the Law Society of Upper Canada should b« 
united with the present Faculty of Law in the University to form one 
complete system of legal training and a thoroughly organized Faculty of 
Law in the University. 

We desire to place on record our concurrence in the underlying prin- 
ciples of the Federation Act and we believe that the further application 
of th's legislation, under the wise direction of the Board of Governors, 
would be in the interests of higher education in this Provirce. 

Your committee in conclusion corgratulate the Association that what- 
ever may be the result of its own labors hereby respectfully submitted, 
there appears at the present juncture to be a unique opportunity of secur- 
ing for our Provincial University such an adequate measure of permanent 
support arcl such a rational organization as shall enable it effectively to 
perform th'^ functions of a great national University. 

Dated th's 18th day of Novpmber, 1905. 

D B. Glllies, 

Secretary. 

T. M. Claek, 

Convener. 



FRO.M THE UNIVERSITY CLUB OF OTTAW.A. 

1. That there should be a Board of Governors to consist of the Chan- 
cellor to be elected by the graduates at lar^e- the Yice-Chancellor to be 
elected by the Senate: the President of the Uriversity: eight appointed bv 
the Government, and four to be elected by the graduates at large. 

2. That the Bo^rd of Governors should have administrative control of 
the University, ircluding the following powers: — 

(1^ Control ard management of property and income of the University. 



162 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



(2) Appointment and removal of the President and all members of 
the staff of the University Faculties, of course, not including the Federal 
Universities and Colleges. 

(3) Absolute power of suspension. 

(4) Ratification of all statutes of the Senate relating to University 
studies. 

(5) The establishment of new chairs. 

3. That members of the University staff or of any federated or afl&li- 
ated Universities or Colleges should not be eligible to represent graduates 
upon the Board of Governors or upon the Senate. 

4. That the present name of the University be changed to the Uci- 
versity of Ontario. 

5. That the status in respect of Government and management of Uni- 
versity College, and of that of other federated Colleges as far as prac- 
ticable be made similar to that of other Colleges in the Federation, but 
that ample endowment be provided for University College. 

6. That it would benefit the University if the President were relieved 
of the duty of lecturing in the University in order that his time may be 
devoted to executive duties and the management of the University. 



QUELPH ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

Copy of resolutions adopted by The Guelph Alumni Association of 
Toronto University on November the 16th and December the 4th, 1905. 

1. That in the opinion of this Association the proceedings of the 
meetings of the Senate or other governing body in connection with the 
University, (by whatever name it may be called), should be promptly pub- 
lished, subject to any necessary restrictions, so that the graduates and gen- 
eral public might keep themselves informed thereof. 

2. That the Association approves of the general principles of reorgan- 
ization set forth in the report of the committee on University Reorganiza- 
tion adopted by the Toronto Branch of the University of Toronto. Alumni 
Association on November the 20th, 1905, and believes that it is in the best 
interests of the University that the general control over all University 
affsirs should be centralized in a Board of Governors limited in numbers 
and independent in action. 

3. That a copy of the above resolutions be forwarded to the Secretary 
of the University of Toronto Commission, and to the Secretary of the 
Toronto Branch of the Alumni Association. 

4. That the President of the Association, the Rev. R. W. Ross, be 
authorized to represent the Association before the Commission for the pur- 
pose of presenting the said resolutions. 

R. L. McKiNNON, 
Secretary. 



ALQOMA ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, SAULT STE. MARIE, ONT. 

1. That in the opinion of this association, a Board of Trustees should 
be appointed, who should have entire charge of the financial and educa- 
tional conduct of the University, a majority of whom should be appointed 
from the alumni of the University. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 163 



2. That all appointments to the teaching staff should be made bv the 
Trustees on the recommendation of the principal of the institution to which 
the appointment is made. 

3. That the Government should strengthen the hands of the trustees 
financially by providing a much more liberal endowment such as will 
render impossible the recurring deficits, and provide a fund for necessary 
expaEsion; and further, that some plan be adopted that will attract the 
benefactions of private individuals and will emphasize the need of more 
active support in all matters affecting the general usefulness of a great 
Provincial University. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO CLUB OF NEW YORK. 

Report of the Special Committee of the University of Toronto Cluh of 
New York City, appointed to consider the proposed reorganization of the 
University of Toronto, 

The special committee, consisting of the undersigned members present 
at its deliberation, was unanimous in the opinion that representations 
which should be made to the Commission should relate to questions of 
principle, and should in the main be of a general nature. The recom- 
mendatiors which are made below relate mainly to two problems which 
seem to present themselves for solution at this time, namely: 

(1) To determine in what way the Provincial Government, may, with 
the best results, exercise the control over the University, which it has, and 
must retain. 

(2) To determine the most efficient means for directing the purely 
educational policy of the University. 

The opinion of the committee is that the best interests of the Univer- 
sity would be served if the entire Government control of the financial and 
general policy of the University were delegated to a Board of Trustees, a 
majority of whose members should be appointed by the Government, and 
one of whose members should be the President of the Universitv: that the 
alumni of the University should be allowed to elect a number of members 
of this Board of Trustees; but that, except the President of the University,, 
no person giving instruction in the University should be eligible for mem- 
bership in the Board of Trustees. 

The committee is of the opinion that the educational policy of the 
University should be directed by a Senate or University Council composed of 
representatives of the various Faculties and Federated Colleofes of the 
alumni, and of the High School teachers, and having the President of the 
University as its chairman, and that all legislation of the Senate be sub- 
ject to veto by the Board of Trustees. 

Heform of the organization of the Government of the University of 
Toronto seems necessary in the following particulars : 

(1) The membership of the legislative bodies should be as small as is 
consistent with the efficient performance of their duties. 

(2) Great care should be taken to define the responsibilities of these 
bodies, and also those of all officers of the University. 

(3) Any body or any officer who is made responsible for any part of the 
University Government should be unmistakably clothed with authority 
sufficient for the carrying out of its or his policy. 



164 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



(4) The proceedings and votes of both of the legislative bodies of the 
University should he open to inspection by any elector of the Province of 
Ontario. 

W. F. Chappell. 
E-. A. Henderson. 
W. J. G. Yanston. 
G. H. Ling, 

Chairman . 



RECOMMENDATION OF HIGH SCHOOL TEACHERS. 

A committee composed of Dr. Burwash, Messrs. Embree, Thompson, 
Burt aEd Hagerty representing the College and High School Department 
of the Ontario Lducational Association, met od Dec. 2nd. in Yictoria Col 
lege to consider suggestions relating to High Schools to be laid before the 
University Commission. The following points were decided on: — 

Repeesentation in Senate. 

1. That the represertation of High School teachers in the Senate be 
doubled proportionately. 

This practically seconds the recommendation of the Toronto Alumni 
in favor of leaving the representation at two in the event of cutting down 
the Serate to half its present size. 

2. That before the election of High School representatives regular 
nominations be made, requiring the signatures of at least ten persons 
qualified to vote. 

3. That the travelling expenses of all members of the Senate who do 
not reside in Toronto be paid by the authorities. 

Provincial Matriculation Board. 

The committee decided not to trouble the Commission about such 
academic matters as the standard of admission, but recommended as fol- 
lows : — 

"That a Provincial Matriculation Board of ten be established, to have 
initiative powers of control over the curriculum for matriculation into all 
the Chartered Universities of the province, five to be named bv the Univer- 
sities, and five to be elected from High School teachers, at the annual meet- 
ing of the College and High School Department of the Ontario Educa- 
tional Association, this board to report to the several governing bodies of 
the Universities for a final ratification of its decisions." 

The opinion of the committee with regard to the appointment of exam- 
iners was that it should be left to any consultative council that might be 
adopted by the Education Department. 

Alumni and University. 

The following resolution was adopted by the committee: 
"That an officer be appointed by the University, whose duty it shall 
be to bring the alumni into closer touch with the University with regard to 
all University public functions and exercises, to keep the alumni informed 



1906 UNIVERS1T\' Ol< TORONTO. 165 



of all matters affecting^ the welfare of the University and to promote the 
interests of graduates in every legitimate way." 

Pedagogy. 

"That it would be in the interests of education if a chair of pedagogy 
were established in Toronto XJDiversity." 



STUDENT INTERESTS. 

To the University Commission : 

Gentlemen, — The committee of students which met with you last term 
re University conditions met separately on Monday afternoon at University 
College and beg to present to you the following report : 

1. It is their unanimous opinion that each College or Faculty should 
look after its own discipline in affairs that do not affect other Colleges or 
Faculties. 

2. They think that the best interests of the University would be served 
bv making the payment of Athletic fees compulsory, as is the case with 
library fees at the present time; said fees to give member privileges of the 
campus and admission to Inter-Collegiate srames of football and hockey. 
In this connection a Medical Athletic Examiner should be appointed to 
advise incoming students as to the line of athletics they should follow, and 
to encourage them to take daily exercise. 

G. Ernest Trueman, 

Secret arv. 
Toronto, Jan. 17th, 1906. 



TECHNICAL EDUCATION. 

Toronto, January 18, 1906. 

I'o the Ch lit man mid Memhers of the University of Toronto Commission : 

Gentlemen, — As representatives of the technical Education Committee 
of the Canad'an Manufacturers' Association, we assure you that we are alive 
to the fact that the question of the relation between our Provincial Uni- 
versity and the industrial life of this province is one of great and growing 
importance. 

Canadian industries are in process of rapid extension ; they are devel- 
oping from small to large institutions, and are exhibiting features of 
specialization common to all large undertakings. 

Yet, as a manufacturing country, Canada is in her infancy. Her 
immense and varied natural resources are largely undeveloped. Her water 
powers are of almost immeasurable potential value ; her wealth in forest, 
fisheries, minerals and soil is the basis for manv new and larger industries. 
The scientific utilization and preservation of these resources means every- 
thing for the future of the country, and it is very necessary that our edu- 



166 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



cational institutions should be equipped to answer the country's education- 
al needs. 

In presenting to you our views in this regard we will not confine our 
observations to the question immediately before you of University organ- 
ization, but will also refer to some broader aspects of our educational 
problem. As our educational system is co-ordinated this will make our 
position clearer. 

One of the great phases of our educational problem is to know just what 
the country wants educationally. We believe that in addition to a cultural 
course of studies of the highest excellence, the country also demands a 
training for its young men and women that will best aid the people in 
exploiting their varied natural wealth. Technical education rightly defined, 
is therefore a matter of pressing general interest affecting not any class in 
particular, but all classes. Thus far nieasures taken to extend technical 
education have been more or less spasmodic and tentative. It is now time 
for those in authority to act. 

In securing skilled help, the Canadian manufacturer is often at a 
disadvantage. The Alien Labor Act prohibits the importation of men from 
the United States, and because of differences in business methods and 
machinery Europeans are not usually so satisfactory as Americans. This, 
is more true of some than of other industries. 

Further, because of the incompleteness of our own system of education, 
thousands of young men in fitting themselves for business are compelled 
to resort to foreign correspondence schools for instruction. The joint Com-' 
mittee of the Montreal Branch of the Canadian Manufacturers' Association 
and the Montreal Board of Trade estimated that from that city alone over 
'flOO,000 annually was paid into foreign correspondence schools. A similar 
condition probably exists in Toronto and elsewhere in Canada. The large 
classes in attendance at Business College, Y.M.C.A. educational courses, and 
the like, further emnhasize the fact that our educational institutions might 
be of greater public benefit. 

As regards details of educational policy, the views of business men 
doubtless diverge widely. Yet, we believe that they are a unit as to the 
importance of more or less utilitarian studies for Canadian boys. 

While Educationalists themselves still differ as to what is the most 
desirable training, the existing demands of modern industrial life are them- 
selves gradually bringing about some of the desired changes. There appears 
foi example, to be developing a new form of secondary school, just as there 
would seem to be growing up a modern type of University which has not yet 
assumed definite form. The modified form of secondary education and the 
modern type of University appear to have come in answer to the broad 
demand that educational institutions shall meet the necessities of their 
respective localities. 

We do not believe that a University should become a series of trade 
schools. On the other hand if our educational institutions are to reflect the 
local needs, we can go so far as to say that in this country we can have no 
Oxford type of University, for some time to come, for with very few 
er^ceptions all our men students pass through the UniA^ersity with the in- 
tention of fitting themselves for some bread-wining occupation. 

To illustrate ways in which we think that the University might be of 
still greater help than at present to the industrial classes at large, and widen 
its influence, we mention these possibilities: — 

(1) In the first place, provision for laboratory facilities for men who 
are not r?gular students would be of considerable value. It would permit 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 167 



of our industries having in this important respect the benefit of the super- 
vision and inspiration of the professorial staff. 

Of a somewhat similar nature would be provision for industrial employ- 
ees, who have shown that they possess special ability and are seeking to 
carry on industrial experiments. At present, such men have no adequate 
facilities. 

(2) The extension of the system of local lectures in industrial centres 
might also become of great value. We have in mind a system somewhat 
similar to that now carried on in connection with mining and dairying. 
Many manufacturers would be willihg to co-operate in giving access to their 
factories, and where the instruction related to natural resources the lectures 
should be adapted to the district. 

(3) The summer vacation and evenings afford additional opportunity 
for increasing the usefulness of the university plant, buildings, laboratories 
and technical equipment. A progressive University policy should be framed 
with due regard to these vacant periods. 

(4) Museum facilities is another matter of great importance. We 
believe that Federal and Provincial authorities should undertake a thorough 
organization of museums with the object of adequately displaying our 
natural resources ; an interchange of exhibits should be arranged from time 
to time accompanied with occasional lectures or courses of lectures by our 
public officials and University experts. In such a work the University, by 
its own museum and specialized knowledge, should become an important link 
in the chain. 

We think that the University as the head of the educational institu- 
tions of the Province, should direct in greater measure than at present the 
course of technical and commercial education, higher and lower. 

We find it difficult, however, to come to a clear understanding of what 
the University really is. The older and newer tendencies with regard to 
University organization and work seem still in conflict. At present the 
University seems to us to be a loose federation of technical and professional 
schools. We are not aware that there are any general conditions consti- 
tuting a basis or reflecting a principle according to which any technical or 
other school may enter and form a part of the real Cultural University. 
Without desiring to reduce the prominence given to cultural work in Uni- 
versity instruction, we think it advisable for you to determine as definitely 
as possible the organic relation of the various federated branches to the 
cultural heart of the University. This would help greatly in clarifying 
the organization of technical instruction, and assist in co-ordinatng this 
instruction as carried on by higher and lower schools, and of preventing 
overlapping. In this way, the country would know better what technical 
instruction to expect of our University, and in the end of each grade of 
school as well. 

A well defined and authoritative attitude on the part of the University 
would be all the more helpful, particularly because in this country the Uni- 
versities themselves may be said to be leading the movement in the direction 
of more ample technical education. We trust this movement will receive 
fitting direction and support not merely within the University, but through- 
out our M^hole school system. For from the point of view of the business man 
much of our primary and secondary education has proven to be too diffuse 
and lacking in thoroughness. 

In mentioning these facts we do not wish to be understood as under- 
valuing cultural studies or even as suggesting their elimination from prac- 
tical courses of study. Indeed, a few of the specialized departments of the 



168 ROYAL COMMISSION RE \',,. +•_» 



University, such as Engineering, appear to us as purely teclinical schools, 
and not showing as great regard for cultural studies as one would expect 
from University Departments. In this connection, we think the School of 
Science should form an integral part of the University ; also that within 
prescribed limits the policy of giving options in studies seems calculated 
to aid in adapting University studies to the technical needs of the country. 

Your Commission represents the first Commission of its kind in this 
country, and as your Chairman is especially identified with business affairs, 
we feel that the country at large will expect that the educational demands 
of modern business in so far as they are affected by University Organization 
will have received due consideration. Your findings in respect to technical 
education will constitute the first authoritative pronouncement on the sub- 
ject, and will be looked to as a precedent by the whole country. 

In conclusion, we beg to express our full sympathy with the policy ol 
the University of Toronto in giving technical training to its students, and 
to assure you further of our belief that the needs of the country warrant 
the inauguration of a still more extended policy of technical training such 
as is called for by the great and varied development of our Province and 
of the Dominion. 

Signed on behalf of the Committee. 

S. MORLEY WiCKETT, J. F. M. StEVTART, 

Chairman. Secretary. 



Toronto, January 19, 1906. 

Gentlemen, — We have the honor to appear before you to-day as repre- 
sentatives of the Technical Education Committee of the Canadian Manu- 
facturers' Association. We wash to assure you that we realize the importance 
of the relations existing between owt Provincial University and the indus- 
trial life of our Province, and furthei", that Canadian industrial interests 
are taking an increasingly active interest in the question of industrial 
education. 

Canadian industries are in process of extension ; they are developing 
from small to large institutions and specialization is becoming much more 
marked, hence there is each year a much greater necessity for technical 
training. 

We are satisfied that the findings of your Commission so far as they 
influence the attitude of the University of Toronto to technical education, 
will be of great moment to the whole country. You represent, we believe, 
the first 'Canadian University Commission of its kind, and, your Chairman 
being especially identified with business affairs, the country will expect that 
the requirements of modern business, in so far a<! they are affected by Uni- 
versity organization, will have received due consideration. 

As far as regards details of educational policy you would probably hear 
most divergent views among business men. Notwithstanding this, business 
men, we believe, are a unit as to the importance of more or less utilitarian 
studies in the course of education for Canadian boys. As for ourselves we 
recognize that a University should not attempt to meet all the requirements 
of the manufacturer; trade schools are necessary for that. 

It may not be out of place for us to remark that there seems to be devel- 
oping a modern type of University, which has not yet assumed definite form. 
Educationalists themselves still appear to differ as to what its scope should 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 169 



be. The modern type of University seems to be growing up in answer to 
the demand that educational institutions shall meet the necessities of their 
respective localities. We express the hope that this aspect of the question 
will receive your consideration. 

As we see it, the University of Toronto has come to be of late years in 
large measure a federation of professional schools, the definite relation of 
which to the cultural heart of the University has never been defined. It 
would appear that the Departments of Agriculture, Engineering and A|)plied 
Science as they exist are in effect Technical Schools, and that some of the 
specialized courses of the University approach the same position. We would 
suggest, therefore, that the attitude of the University in this connection 
be clearly defined. 

We wish to express our entire sympathy with the policy of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto in giving technical training to its students, and further, 
to assure you of our belief that the public would support the inauguration 
of a much more extended policy of technical training such as the great and 
varied development of our Dominion calls for. 

Signed on behalf of the Technical Education Committee of the Canadian 
Manufacturers' Association. 

J. F. M. Stewaht, 

Secretary. 



TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION. 

Toronto, Feb. 2, 1906. 

Dear Mr. Flavelle, — I do not wish to appear formally before the Uni- 
versity Commission and take up their valuable time, but thought I would 
take the liberty of dropping a line to you with a few ideas which have been 
in my mind for sometime and of which you would be able to judge. I have 
no suggestion to make about the manner of government as I believe this is 
being very thoroughly thrashed out by the Alumni Association and other 
bodies. The views I had were ratner with reference to the University work 
and are as follows : 

In the first place, that while the subjects which ordinarily form what 
i' known as the Arts course at the University, should occupy the premier 
position in the University, and really be the heart of the institution, yet 
the University should endeavor to cover the field of advanced specialized 
instruction in technical subjects as well. If it does not do so, it will be 
necessary for independent institutions to be developed. These cannot be 
mairtained or inaiiQ-urated as economicfilly as in one large University scheme 
and it will mean that they will be calling for support from private persons 
and from the Government and dividing the support which should go to the 
large University. If the University were to the front in developing these 
specialized courses of instruction there would be no necessity for the insti- 
tution of such separate private schools in the higher branches of technical 
instruction. 

The second thought is that in the technical branches of the University 
such as I have described, literary and arts siibjects should occupy a prom- 
inent p^ace. I think it is essential in the lower grades of technical education 
that this instruction should be given without too much insistence upon a 
knowledge of English and other literary subjects, but when it comes to the 



170 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



higlier branches, wlien a graduate becomes a University man, I feel strongly 
that it should be necessary for him to take at least a four years' course and 
that during that course he shall give considerable time to literary and arts 
subjects. 

My next idea is that it seems far from right that the University with 
its splendid organization, its extensive buildings and valuable equipment 
in scientific branches should be operated for only six months in the year. 
As a business proposition it seems like poor economy.' I strongly believe 
that the University's influence in the community would be greatly strength- 
ened if regular summer courses were arranged with as much attention to 
making them successful as the winter courses. Whether these summer courses 
should lead to a degree or not depends on the policy of the University and 
the method of organizing these summer sessions ; but the important point is 
that the valuable organization and equipment should not stand idle for half 
of the year, but should be operated in such a way as to confer benefits on 
many who cannot avail themselves of the winter course. I would even go 
farther and advocate that arrangements be made for certain lectures and 
the operation of certain departments in night courses at certain seasons of 
the year. This could be arranged with practically no additional expense 
and yet would increase the range of usefulness of the University materially. 

I have much pleasure in laying these few ideas before you trusting that 
if they commend themselves to you in any particular, you may be able to 
make use of them. 

Tours very truly, 

T. H. Rttssell. 



UNIVERSITY EDUCATION. 

By His Honour Judge Hodgins. 

This question of University Education should be viewed in two aspects, 
or should be considered as divisible into two departments. 

1. A University, as the name implies, may be defined as the place or 
institution for studying and acquiring "universal knowledge." 

2. A college may be defined as the place or institution where certain 
branches of knowledge are taught, so as to equip men for the activities of 
life, by developing and stimulating their mental powers in literary, scien- 
tific or philosophic studies or subjects. 

These definitions suggest a division of intellectual labour. The teach- 
ing and training in the fundamental and general details of knowledge seem 
to be the appropriate function of the colleges, while the study of what may 
be called the higher departments of knowledge, or to adopt the more modern 
term, research, seems to be the appropriate function of a University. 

To discover, and to teach, are distinct gifts, and distinct functions, 
and are not commonly found in the same person. Thus the teacher who 
spends the working hours of his day in dispensing his existing knowledge 
to all comers is unlikely to have either leisure or energy for new experi- 
ments or the investigation or acquisition of new branches. 

Cardinal Newman in his work on "University Education" says: "There 
are other institutions, far more suited to act as instruments of stimulating 
philosophical enquiry and extending the boundaries of our knowledge than 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 171 



a University, Such for instance are tlie literary and scientific 'Academies,' 
which are so celebrated in Italy and France, and which have frequently 
been connected with universities a« committees, or, as it were, congregationB 
or delegacies subordinate to them." 

He then quotes a European authority who says: "It is not that there 
is any real {veritable) opposition between the spirit of the Academies, and 
that of the Universities; it is only dfferent aims {vues.) The universities 
are established to teach the sciences to the senior students who desire a 
finished education (former;) the Academies suggest that new discoveries be 
made in the field of the sciences. The universities of Italy have suppHed 
(fourni) the subjects which give honour to the Academies; and the^/^ h^v^ 
given to the universities the Professors who have filled the chairs with the 
greatest distinction." 

Research, discovery, invention and the search after truth must be 
prosecuted and discovered in seclusion and quiet. The greatest thinkers 
have been too intent on their subject to admit of interruption and have more 
or less shunned the lecture room of the College. The great discoveries in 
science, in chemistry and electricity or exhaustive philosophic investigations 
were not made in the lecture rooms of Colleges or Universities. And so while 
teaching involves external, active and continuous engagements, the natural 
home for research, experiment and speculation, is retirement. 

But as a stimulus to University research study there should be occas- 
sional lectures delivered in the University on subjects appropriate to research 
and experiments to be selected by those whose expert knowledge and 
experience appropriately qualify them for such duty of selection. 

And to these appropriate subjects, might also be added lectures on 
Constitutional Law dealing with the general principles of the British 
system of government, the Imperial relations to the Colonies, both self- 
governing and Crown colonies, and the Colonial relations of each to the 
Empire, ard the status of self-governing Colonies as nation-communities 
within the Empire. 

Also lectures on International Law and the right to Treaty-making 
powers by the self-governing Colonies respecting commercial and other in- 
terests with foreign sovereignties, subject to the veto of the Imperial gov- 
ernment as in the case of the former East India Company and the present 
Government of India. And more especially the right of Canada to be a free 
aud assenting nation-community to diplomatic negotiations and treaties 
affecting her national and commercial relations with the United States. 

Taught as I have been by my investigations and reports on the past 
dealings of the Executive government of Upper Canada, and of the former 
Province of Canada and of Ontario with the University, I am in favour of a 
dissolution of the controlling relations of the Government over the Uni- 
versity, except in such educational matters as effect the other subordinate 
Public Educational Institutions. And as an essential condition to such 
dissolution, there should be a liberal land endowment granted for the effi- 
cient maintenance of the University and the Colleges, out of the abundant 
and rich agricultural landed wealth of Ontario. In one of the reports on the 
claims of the University respecting its assets and endowments which I had 
the honour of presenting to the Senate in 1895 and printed by order of the 
Legislative Assembly (Ontario Sessional Paper No. 74.) it was stated : ''The 
Province has partially drawn upon its great landed wealth, which is esti- 
mated to consist of 120,000,000 acres, for the support of its Public Schools; 
bas given liberal land grants in aid of Hallways; and it can out of the same 
landed wealth readily do the same for the more efficient support and aid of 

18 u.C. 



172 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



its University. And, as affirmed in the Legislative Committee on Education 
in the session of 1833, "how can the waste lands of the Crown be more use- 
fully disposed of, than in promoting Public Instruction, and in establishing 
beneficial Institutions?" 

An extract from an old statute of Upper Canada. 1 George IV., Chap- 
ter 2, (1820) may be interesting as relating to the history of the University. 

"That whenever anj- university shall be organized, and in operation as 
a seminary ir this Province, and in conformity to the Rules and Statutes of 
similar institutions in Great Britain, it shall and may be lawful for the 
Governor, Lieutenant-Governor or person administering the government of 
this ProviEce for the time being, to declare by Proclamation the tract of- 
land appendant to such University, and whereupon the same is situated, to 
be a town or township, by such name as to him shall seem meet, and that 
such town or township, so constituted, shall be represented by one member. 
Provided always, nevertheless, that no person shall be permitted to vote at 
any such election for a Member to represent the said university in Parlia- 
ment who, besides the qualifications now by law required, shall not also be 
entitled to vote in the Convocation of the said university." 



THE ARTS COLLEGE. 

To the University Commission : 

This paper is an attempt to describe the function and to suggest the 
possibilities of the Arts College in our University system. To say that its 
function is culture is only to restate the problem. For if it be conceded that 
culture in its essence is a quality, what is that elusive quality which we all 
recognize when we see it, which we detect in men who have never known 
University life and the absence of which we regret in many sound scholars? 
To attempt to define it requires some hardihood, but it is only fair to demand 
(if the writer what sense he gives to this sorely abused word. 

Intimate contact with larger activities and with larger men than our- 
selves, accidental acquaintance with great books, many episodes in our own 
personal lives bring to us a sudden sense of growth and permanent addition 
to life. We call it enlargement of oullook or vision. If we reflect that all men 
do not equally feel this, we hold a clue which may possibly carry us to the 
object of our search. For what is more common than the man who has seen 
the world, who is a walking Baedeker, but who is in no sense enlarged by 
his experience? He is like a dictionary — the subject changes too rapidly. 
Ir is what we take with us that makes travel profitable. A process of com- 
paiison sets up, a readjustment of ideas; we are disabused of preconceptions: 
our human sympathies are deepened: the past is vitalized in the present: 
■A powerful disintegration and reconstruction begin: a sense is awakened of 
the ebb and flow of time, of world-movement, of a vaster issue in human 
affairs. All this requires a previous basis of knowledge, and yet knowledge 
is not of the essence of it. This fugitive essence posits knowledge, but does 
rot consist in knowledge. Often, indeed, is our experience the same in meet- 
ing many a university graduate, many an accomplished scholar, of whom it 

may be said : 

"Er hat die Theile in seiner Hand, 
Fehlt leider nur das geistige Band." 

18a V c 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 173 



Now let us turn again to the man who, having had no academic advan- 
tages, yet impresses many a highly-trained university man with a sense of 
power and outlook, in his own world, greater than that he himself possesses. 
This is no unique situation. iS'^ot seldom the university man is rignt in his 
consciousness of inferiority. But this is equally the feeling of the other. 
To himself he is the inferior man. He regrets his lack of university train- 
ing, and places upon it a value that the university man is often at a loss to 
understand. What he feels is really this — the eccentricities in his judg- 
ments, the uncertainty of his knowledge, the serious gaps in it. He ha£ 
become conscious that there is a great body of opinion, a world of ideas, 
which have had an age-long sifting of debate and experience, in which the 
university man moves, or appears to move, with wholly unconscious famili- 
arity. Ever and anon he finds himself taking up, in a misplaced enthusiasm, 
ideas long since outworn or exploded. He turns down many a ctil-de-sac. 
He may finally become timorous of his own essential strength, and fail to 
see that the defect of his own quality is really less serious than that of the 
university man's. For the badly-trained university man and the intellectual 
blase alike rapk lower in the sr- ile than the naive thinker. Bu-t he is under 
no illusion in his estimate of the value of a true academic training, and in 
truth he better embodies its essence than does many a fire-new system of 
university instruction. 

We are on solid ground then if we find the essence of culture on its 
intellectual side to lie in a reasoned survey, based upon as wide and as deep 
a foundation of knowledge as the years of university life will permit. The 
knowledge is only the means, the survey and outlook are the end. Wnat- 
ever is sacrificed to necessity their relative position must be maintained. 

Frequently in the academic world we hear men opposing "specialization" 
ond advocating the merits of a "general" course. Their conception of either 
is wholly alien to culture. Culture demands that a man properly trained 
shall have been immersed in a great subject, possessing the qualities of 
greatness and universality — a subject great for all time and all civilized 
peoples. Now it would be idle to deny these qualities to pure mathematics 
and pure science, yet it is incontestable that they lack something. The 
highest type of man exclusively trained in either is undoubtedly a cultured 
man, but he may be essentially a stranger in the human family. It is a 
just instinct, then, which confines liberal culture to the "humanities." We 
cannot make ourselves over again, progress cannot be detached from past 
or present, and progress is ultimately moral in the widest sense of the word. 
The higher life of a people is on the intellectual side anchored in liberal 
culture. 

Here is the greatest problem in the educational world. Yet in America 
it is only now that we are beginning to ask what liberal education really is 
and what it does. Two powerful forces are at work to obscure the question 
of liberal culture, commercial and industrial development and the vast 
growth of scientific activity. They are at bottom alike in that they are both 
material, and certainly much scientific activity aims at immediate ends. 
*A certain inhumanity attaches to scientific study in contrast with even 
pnre mathematics. Liberal education, however, has no immediate end. 
Tis end is social service. These are platitudes but when they are at times 
openly derided in the academic world it is proper to insist upon them. The 
"rifpr wishes to contend that our university system contains within it possi- 
bilities of organization that will make it a great object-lesson. We have 

* It is a subtle instinct that has for centuries included pure mathematics in " arts ". 
This has always been the natural affinity of the mathematician. 



174 ROVAL COMMISSION RE Xo. 42 



almost unconsciously stumbled upon the solution. It lies at our feet in these 
arts colleges grouped about a centre of university instruction. 

The absorption of University College in the University whether partial 
or complete would simply intensify the certain dangers threatening our 
higher life in the vast material development immediately awaiting us. For 
the system of affiliation has predetermined the type to which our University 
must conform. It must be American. We need not regret this. Yet in the 
general activities of these splendid workshops the very conception of liberal 
education tends to be forgotten unless reinforced by tradition. Only recently 
the president of a great American university, in a commencement address, 
congratulated his audience that among the hundreds of "courses" "offered" 
ir. that institution culture had no place. 

But the absorption of the College would do more than obscure the con- 
ception of liberal culture. It would go far toward rendering it impossible. 
We forget that what these young men do for themselves is not less import- 
ant than what we do for them. Their corporate life is an absolutely essen- 
tial element in their training. A limit in numbers is soon reached beyond 
which the corporate life cannot develop. The Greek Letter Societies, the 
class organizations against which the President of Harvard protests, while 
disintegrating forces in our American universities, are yet blind attempts 
to supply a vital need. To foster a common life is a first necessity in any 
plan of university organization. Our system exquisitely tends to avoid as 
well the parish spirit of the isolated college as the cosmopolitanism of the 
vast university. It is open to extension as numbers increase. President 
Harper, shortly before his death, said "What we need to-day is not a smaller 
number of colleges, but a greater number. I predict that in the years to 
come the number of small colleges will be infinitely multiplied. There 
will be a closer association of the colleges of a denomination or a state or a 
district and a closer relationship between such a group and the university." 
It was apparently not hidden from him that a certain vital element in 
culture was inherently lacking to a university of his type. His mind was 
working towards some' loose federation of colleges, but in Toronto we have 
our colleges on the ground. Never surely was a greater tribute paid by a 
man of affairs to the genius of collegiate life than in the remarkable bequest 
of Cecil Rhodes. But no one perhaps has sounded the power of the college 
ideal more deeply than Newman. Let an unfriendly critic speak. "The 
Oxford Colleges," he says to his co-religionists, "have done little more than 
bring youths together in large numbers. These institutions with miserable 
deformities on the side of morals, with a hollow profession of Christianity 
and a heathen code of ethics, — I say at least they can boast of a succession 
of heroes and statesmen,- of literary men and philosophers, of men conspic- 
uous for great national virtues, for habits of business, for knowledge of life, 
for practical judgment, for cultivated tastes, for accomplishments, who have 
made England what it is — able to subdue the earth and to domineer over 
Catholics." It is an easy retort that England made Oxford. But the 
Cardinal's statement is more profoundly true. 

But let us look more closely at the system we already have. It is no 
subject for regret that Trinity and Victoria are "denominational" colleges. 
A purely state institution cannot, as yet, in any country, stand for the whole 
ideal of liberal culture, and much less, it mav be freely conceded, a "denom- 
inational" college. It is not necessary to argue this latter statement. All 
reflecting men understand the issues involved, even if they do not agree upon 
the ideal of culture. Liberal culture is grace and power and outlook and 
tolerance, but it is also much more than these — it is emotion and duty and 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 175 



high purpose. Political and social philosophy, which ought to form the very 
crown of liberal intellectual discipline, will illuminate the past, will explain 
the forces at work in government and society, but will never supply duty 
or transcendental motive. We owe more than can be expressed to the 
idealism which maintains these Colleges — a self-imposed burden. It means 
that in the frankly material West this young country is dimly feeling its 
way back to a survey of life as a whole and to a recognition of iis profoundly 
religious character. The system of our University is as interesting a 
spectacle in its way as the striking movement in Canada towards union of 
the churches. We cannot forecast how this new-world society will define 
religion. We may leave that to the future and congratulate ourselves that 
culture — the higher training of our young men — is safer with these colleges 
than with either church or state. 

But we have not exhausted the possibilities of. our sj'stem. It is highly 
important to remember that our University lacks the great spur of compet- 
ition. It is in the essence of our situation that for long years to come the 
University will suffer from inbreeding and provincialism. Rivalry between 
the arts colleges will in a very great measure provide this vital need of 
competition and keep a soul in the system. After all, the prime concern of 
the University is not money, buildings or organization but appointments 
and men. No personal activity of any University president can ever operate 
so continuously and so powerfully as this principle of competition, if only 
it can be set free. 

Xext to the tutorial work, nothing in the system of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge is more interesting to a Canadian than their open system of lectures. 
The writer is ignorant of the motives which led to it or what defects it niay 
contain in the working. At any rate from having Been partial it has been 
made complete, and it appears to be a fine illustration of the largeness 
typical of the English temper. Some years ago we made what at the time 
appeared to some a beginning. The course, however, upon which we entered 
and to some extent followed up was not freedom but interchange of lectures. 
Much may be said for this. It conserves forces and allows lecturers to 
develop on special lines. But it is the very death of competition, and, con- 
sidering the interests of liberal education as a whole, it is to be feared that 
it tends to over specialization in the lecturers themselves. 

What we seem to need is not merely interchange of lectures, but a 
frankly open system. If it be argued on the one hand that this will allow 
the denominational college to profit by what they do not pay for, or on the 
other hand, that, (considering the prestige of the state college and the danger 
of losing students), the competition is unfair for the denominational colleges, 
it is obvious that these objections are mutually destructive and that they 
leave the principle intact. Let us, however, be fair to the sister colleges. 
Hostility to the suggestion would naturallv be th" first nttitiulp of every 
devoted servant of the«p bodies. But is such a fear well founded? 

We must admit the greater prestige of University Collesre as a force 
tending to draw students from the other colleges. But this is neither in- 
creased nor diminished by competition itself. It is helped or minimized in 
proDortion as the other colleges aim at the same excellence as the state 
college in the staff that they employ ; but the handicap of prestige will 
persist. The idea to be grasped is that quality not quantity in the staff is 
the essence of this competition, and that, after all, is the very thing that 
the members of these colleges in their hearts desire, while at the same time 
they feel it to be an inherent difficulty of a denominational college working 
iij an isolated position. Also it is what University College should, from 



I7ti ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



purely selfish motives, most earnestly desire to see maintained and increased 
in its rivals. Moreover, the question of numbers of students will year by 
year become of less importance. Yictoria is even now in a position of distinct 
advantage as compared with University College, in that she could adopt the 
policy of some Oxford Colleges and begin to pick her students. This oppor- 
tunity will come to Trinity. It can never come to the state college, without 
the co-operation of its rivals. 

If the other colleges only realized it, it is open to them, by limiting their 
activities and concentrating them upon the more incontestable subjects of 
culture, to bring to the actual proof their ability to turn out men of greater 
power than the state college, where "an ideal completeness in the range of 
subject must necessarily obtain, in many ways to its own detriment. These 
colleges might M-eil allow the conflict of studies to be fought out by others 
at their own expense. 

The writer then would earnestly suggest to your Commission that it 
scrutinize this English system and, if it appear sound, incorporate in its 
recommendations to tie Government the principle of an "open door" in leo 
tures, without encumbering it with difficulties in the way of fees. 

But it will be possible to go too far. The principle should not be extend- 
ed to pass lectures. Numbers alone render this impossible without some 
restriction, and the mere whims of inexeperienced students would have too 
much scope. We would suggest that it be applied only to honour students, 
and perhaps as a commencement to lectures of the third and fourth year. 

The results would surely be wholesome. Initial fears would be replaced 
Dy a generous rivalry. There is, moreover, a groAving tendency in the Uni- 
versity to destroy one ot its noblest traditions — an excellence which we share 
in common with the Scotch universities — to attempt at securing a merely 
mechanical control of our students. This is the profound weakness of 
American higher education. At the apex the graduate "seminars" tend, 
(we are merely decribing a tendency), to become workshops for accumulat- 
ing material for the director's personal use as a scientific investigator. Men 
leave them with intense and narrow enthusiasms to engage in collegiate 
work. Here they have an extremely free hand with what they wish to teach. 
The fate of their students is left entirely to their personal discretion. Men 
distinguished in the literary and scientific world will be found painfully 
marking their students' "recitations" day by day. Their position in their 
college depends largely upon their popularity with their students. Nothing 
is more "popular" witli students treated in this fashion than "passing" their 
examinations. It is obvious that, unless the professor is a robust type of 
man, this must react upon his standards. The "open door" in lectures will 
carrj us beyond this danger. 

Happily it is not an alternative between the absolute freedom of the 
Scottish student and the childish supervision to which the American youth 
is subjected. Moral is better than intellectual control. We are awakening 
in America to the value of the tutorial idea, the inspiring force in Oxford. 
It has its weaknesses ; a certain sophistical cleverness attaches to some of 
the work and nuich of it is as undigested as lectures are by the same type of 
student. But on the whole ther*^ is no such discipline. It is the flower of 
centuries of experience. Let us hope that with all our AVestern self-suffi- 
ciency we shall take what is good wherever we find it. This will complete the 
larger features of the college training — the common life of the men, the fine 
intimacies of student and tutor and the culture discipline, based on one of 
the great subjects of human interest which focusses and gives meaning to 
•all other subjects pursued by the student. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 177 



Again, as we have already said, tlie intellectual discipline for liberal 
culture demands that the subjects shall be great and that they shall have 
the character of universality. One thing Oxford knows well, the value of 
great books. If literature, for example, were taught on this continent as 
it is in Oxford, it would not be left to the idiosyncracies of a college lect- 
urer to substitute for Shakespeare or Milton or Plato and Aristole books in 
which he might have a temporary interest. Lecturers will come and go, 
they will be good, bad and mediocre, but they cannot spoil the great books 
or at least prevent them from being read. The same thing applies to history 
and philosophy which are, after all, the very life of liberal training. We 
are very human. This complex of colleges, the wholesome necessity of pro- 
ducing conviction before making change, will keep in sober check the vag- 
aries of pedantry and ill-balanced enthusiasm. 

How far actual conditions in these colleges of ours fall short of this 
conception of intellectual culture no one feels more keenly than the writer. 
It is to be feared that to an intelligent foreigner our colleges would appear, 
at first sight, simply schools of elementary language-training. For this the 
chaotic condition of our secondary system is as responsible as our unseemly 
greed for students. Some fundamental action must soon be taken, but the 
whole question will not be worked out in our time. The greatest hope of 
solution, however, lies with the colleges themselves. They present a constant 
challenge to each other to prove ideals by results. 

We need not be Draconian in our college ideal nor make too much of 
the anomalies in our system. The writer's ideal does not require that Uni- 
versity College should have its own purse and governing board. But it 
should have the same general form as the other colleges, its own President, 
building, internal control and its own residence, if the time is ripe. The 
one great argument for a more complete separation from direct state control 
than the University itself has is that State institutions are inherently weak 
in public spirit and political interest. The American State University will 
hardly develop an Eliot, a Hadley, a Schurman. (In saying this the writer 
fully accepts the principle that the University belongs to our people and must 
be administered for the whole people). Further than this, it is of paramount 
importance that University College have its own tuition in history, philo- 
sophy and, we should say, in elementary economics. As for Spanish and 
Italian, these are small anomalies to which practical considerations will 
make additions as the years go by. 

The corporate idea could be extended in other ways, as for example, 
to the students in pure science some 150 in number, who are actually less 
connected with the colleges than students of "hotisehold science." Could 
not also some sort of collegiate form be given to our women students, now 
that we have begun residences for them? There is no doubt to the mind of 
the writer and of most of his colleagues, he believes, that co-education is 
not the final word in the education of women. 

We have caught the genius of our college system if we realize that its 
possibilities are not lesss than the burden immediately laid upon it, to carry 
our people safely through the vast material prosperity awaiting us, to foster 
our higher life, to furnish wealth with noble interests and ambitions, to 
kindle the spirit of citizenship, to rescue democracy from the spirit of the 
crowd, to check the hypnotic influence of the vagrant ideal, to hold out 
proper aims to government, to give grace to a raw civilization, to plead 
the beauty, the dignity and solemnity of life, in short to create "the soul 
of a people." In an old country, such as our motherland, schools and colleges 
perplexed as they are beginning to be in method, yet agree in some sprt as 



178 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. i'l 



to the kind of boy or man they would produce. It must be said with regret 
that in educational circles, the first note of this function of education has yet 
to be heard in Canada. We have no Canadian ideal. Who can describe 
the Canadian as he is, much less as we would have him be? Countless other 
forces will contribute, but the sober truth is that there is no greater force 
than such a university as ours, if once vitalized. 

But a few moments ago the writer met with the following passage in 
the Chicago University Record of October, 1905, p. 68 : — , 

The Juxior Colleges. — For purposes of administration, instruction, and 
personal association the work of the first two undergraduate years is organized 
in eight Junior Colleges, known specifically as: Arts College (men), Arts 
College (women). Literature College (men). Literature College (women), 
Philosophy College (men)^ Philosophy College (women), Science College 
(men), and Science College (women). 

W. S. MiLNER. 



P05T=GRADUATE WORK. 

Toronto, Feb. 3, 1906. 

Pev. Canox Cody, D.D., 
Toronto. 

My Dear Dr. Cody, — Permit me through you to present the following 
considerations and suggestions to the University Commission. 

1. At the present time we have no University in Ontario or Canada 
which can compare in post-graduate work with such institutions as Harvard, 
Johns Hopkins, Cornell, Clark or Chicago. As things are, almost all Can- 
adian graduates who desire to take Ph.D. courses are compelled to leave 
Canada to get them. The number of such men must be large for though 
McMaster graduated her first Arts class in 1894 already 29 of her graduates 
have gone abroad to pursue post-graduate work. Many of these men never 
return. The lack of a genuine University doing strong post-graduate work 
is surely little to our credit and greatly to our loss. 

It seems to me that this is the most immediate and pressing need of the 
whole University situation to-day. And I suppose we should all agree that 
nc. Universitj^ in Canada should feel under more urgent obligation to meet 
that need than Toronto, as none, I am pursuaded is more easily able to meet 
ir under wise organization. 

2. The expense of thoroughly organized Ph.D. courses is no doubt very 
great. The need is so manifest that in my judgment the Government would 
1(0 warranted in voting whatever may be necessary. But we are all aware 
that there are many in the community who look with disfavor upon anything 
like generosity toward the University and one can understand how the 
Government might shrink from such a large undertaking. Under the cir- 
cumstances the first duty would be to make the wisest possible use of the 
means already at the University's disposal. That, I feel certain, is not 
being done to-day. 

3. For the undergraduate work, under the present curriculum, is enor- 
mously and unnecessarily expensive. It is so highly specialized that we 
have practically half a dozen or more almost distinct colleges — e.g., a 
Classical, Modern Languages, Mathematical, Philisophical, etc. Many of 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 179 



these classes are doubtless small, and tlie smaller the classes the more expen- 
sive the teaching. Reorganization of the undergraduate curriculum in the 
direction of a general course that would at once furnish a broad liberal culture 
for which the B.A. degree really should stand, and provide a proper basis 
for the best specialist work in post-graduate courses, would save much money 
and give better educational results. For early specialism tends to narrow- 
ness. It does not make for the allround culture of the faculties that a gen- 
uine education seeks. It is precisely in this symmetrical development of 
the whole man that University training has been superior to the education 
obtained in business. The ideal education is that which first disciplines all 
the faculties, widens the outlook, gives an introduction to the great depart- 
m.ents of knowledge with some clear view of their inter-relations and of the 
underlying unities, and which then tunes the whole strength of the mind 
thus disciplined and informed to the mastery of some special subject. The 
general training is really necessary for the best specialization. Many an 
early specialist finds himself hampered in his higher work by the lack of the 
broader education in his undergraduate course. 

The specialized undergradiiate course involves narrowing in two other 
phases of undergraduate training. For it practically confines the student 
to a fraction of the whole staff of Professors and to a fraction of the student 
also. The range and variety of the personal influence brought to bear upon 
him is greatly lessened. The probability is that to-day the average student 
of Toronto University does not come into close contact with as many students 
and professors as the average student does in many Universities with not 
more than a fourth of the numbers in attendance, and the personal factor 
in College life is of the first importance. 

Educationally the highly specialized, course does not justify the increas- 
ed expense involved. 

4. rt may be said that in a large institution it would make little differ- 
ence in expenses to organize on the general course basis because classes would 
have to be divided on account of their size. There is something to be said 
along that line, it is true. But probably such duplicated classes would not 
number more than one fourth or one third of the present special classes. But, 
as it happens, so far as the Provincial University is concerned, there is ready 
to hand relief from any such duplication. This would involve a change in 
the present confederation scheme, doubtless, but that change too is one that 
could be defended on its own merits. For if the general course plan were 
adopted, Victoria and Trinity could do the whole of that course with the 
means now at their disposal or very little addition thereto and their con- 
stituencies would probably become more heartily united on such a plan than 
on the present, which leaves each of them but a fragment, not a whole. 
University College would also be a college complete in all its parts and the 
University Faculty proper could give itself imdividedly to the post-graduate 
work. In all these institutions there would be ample accommodation for all 
undergraduate students and there would be no necessity on the part of the 
State College (University College) to duplicate classes and incur the expense 
involved. Each denomination could be trusted to care for its own institu- 
tion which would on this plan be complete in itself and sufficient for the 
whole of the undergraduate courses in Arts. 

The plan has the following additional advantages : 

(1) It guards against the danger of a dead level of unifomity in Uni- 
versity Education. Each college would have its own life, ideals and charac- 
ter. There would be a variety of product that would be to the enrichment 
of the nation. 



180 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. i2 



(2) The graduates of the difierent Colleges would come together for post- 
graduate work in the University proper. The competition in that common 
aiena would be the finest sort of stimulus to the various colleges to do the 
best work in their power. 

(3) Along this line, it would be easy to organize the University in such 
a way that no citizen with strong views on the separation of Church and State 
need hold aloof or withhold his support, for each denomination could do the 
whole undergraduate B.A. course in entire independence; while on the other 
hand the State could retain in its own hands absolutely the government and 
control of University College and the University. In other words there 
would be no necessity for denominational leaders, by virtue of their appoint- 
ment by their own denominations to educational positions, becoming practi- 
cally possessed of the right to sit on the governing bodies of the State 
Institution. I take it that all citizens have equal rights in the State Uni- 
vfrsity, but that no denomination, as such, has any right of control there. 
The present Federation scheme is objectionable to the great majority of 
Baptists on this ground and unless it is modified there is little likelihood 
of their having anything to do with it. 

(4) Thus it would pave the way for a really national University. If the 
Province should put University College on the proposed basis — i.e., of a 
College complete in itself and doing all of the work of a general course 
(with some options) for the B.A. degree — equip the University proper for 
thorough post-graduate work, and keep these entirely under its own control, 
we should have a complete national system. The various denominations in 
their own independent institutions could comfortably parallel the work of 
University College. Each College would make its own character and repu- 
tation and the value of its B.A. degree would be known- — a fact that would 
stimulate to good work much more than the present where the B.A. represents 
so many different courses and in the case of the Federated institutions, a 
combination that weakens the sense of responsibility. 

To such a plan McMaster could give her influence for the enrichment 
and equipment of the University with a heartiness that is scarcely possible 
under present conditions. Other Universities too, outside of Toronto would 
probably rally around the common University, be content themselves with 
doing well the B.A. work, and be happy to advise their graduates to pass 
on to Toronto for their Ph.D. To-day Eastern Ontario looks largely to 
Queen's; Western Ontario will take a growing interest in the Western at 
London. Under the plan I propose the different sections and denominations 
could find in their undergraduate Colleges enough to satisfy local feeling 
or denominational purpose and in the central University an object of 
national pride and concern. This surely would mean much for the support 
which the government from time to time would feel free to grant. 

(b) And lastly; the dernminational and local Colleges could content 
themselves with the general Arts course and save themselves from the 
necessity of ever increasing calls for money such as would be necessary 
under a competition in specialism and postgraduate work. They would put 
more strenerth comparatively on their theological work and their constitu- 
encies could put into missions the monies that otherwise would have to be 
applied to Universities. 

Pardon my intruding on your time at such length. The importance of 
this crisis in our University's history must be my excuse. 

Sincerely yours, 

T. H. Farmer. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 181 

POST=GRADUATE COURSES. 

University College, Toiioxto, February 5, 1906. 
Secretary University Commission : 

My Deak Sir, — In connection with the proposed development of th*^ 
Uriversity in the way of systematized post-graduate courses, I beg leave 
to suggest to the members of the Commission the propriety of the estab- 
lishment of a group of resident fellowships for the encouragement o"*^ ad- 
vanced study and independent research. 

Since it is from the ranks of special students that the great discoverers 
in science and the leading teachers in literature and art are chiefly drawn, 
our University is expected to put forth every possible effort to train men 
who shall be thus qualified to serve the State and the world at large. But 
the expense of pursuing non-professional studies beyond the term of gradua- 
tion in arts acts as a deterrent upon the majority of our students. The 
consequence is that many of our best men are either lost to the cause of 
fruitful scholarship and progressive research, or go to more favored institu- 
tions abroad. Some of the latter class return to Canada, and a few obtain 
temporary or permanent positions in our own University. The many th^t 
remain abroad give their services to the country to which they owe the best 
part of, or the whole of, their training as specialists. 

At our present stage of development and with our present outlook we 
naturally oesire that all our students, whether as graduates or as under- 
graduates, should receive from ourselves the most essential and effective 
elements of their education. Study abroad should, of course, be also en- 
couraged; but University of Toronto men naturally des're that it should be 
sought ehieflj- as a means of stimulating and broadening the ambHiou'a 
student, and not of providing h'm with the training and culture that couiit 
most for him as a scholar and citizen. We do not desire that our men of 
light and leading should either work directly for an outside people or be 
mainly educated by them. But our brightest students who are resolved to 
b'^conie fii^ished scholars and scientists, and find it financially impossible to 
go on vith their advanced studies here, will continue to resort to foreign 
institutions, where it is not only financially possible for them to work as 
they wish, but where inducements to enter upon such work are openly held 
out to them by the offer of lucrative scholarships. 

AVe cannot do better for our practical guidance than study the plans 
and methods of the great universit'es where the training of specialists has 
been pursued upon an extensive scale. Every such university in America 
has had a system of scholarships and fellowships, carefully devised an 1 
administered. The following is a summary statement of what is offered for 
the financial assistance of graduate students in ten of tbe leading Amer can 
UnWersities. The term "fellowship" in th''s table does not designate a 
*'s^-bolarship," unless the latter happens to be of large amount; but in 
official statements the I'ne is not always closely c'.rawn. 

Number of Arfnual 

University. Fellowships. Value. 

Chicago .'. •. TO |120— |520 

Columbia 26 ?400— $1,250 

Cornell 40 |300— SOO'^ 



182 ROV^L COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Xui liber of Avvunl 

Univcrs'ttii. Frl'o"-s-li)p^. Vahic 

Harvard 59 |200— $1,000 

Johns Hopkins 20 |500 

Michigan 8 |300— $500 

Pennsylvania 34 |500— $600 

PrincetoD 8 |400— |600 

Yale 16 $400— |600 

Brj^n Mawr 14 |500— |525 

The total amount expended is not indicated here, but could eas'ly be 
estimated. For example, Chicago spends yearly $20,000, Harvard $31,500 
Cornell .?22,000, and Pennsylvania the income from about $600,000. 

Ad analysis of the regulations governing these fellowships would b-' 
instructive as showing" the care taken to utilize various kinds of talent, and 
to cultivate the most productive fields of research. 

As the needs of our University in this aepartment are always great and 
urgent, and the means and facilities now very scanty, it seems reasonable 
that a working sj'stem should be instituted whereby financial encouragement 
should be extended to our graduate students, when the light man offers him- 
self to do a special work that is worth the do'ng. 

Respectfully, 

J. F. MCCUEDY. 



A STUDENTS' COUNCIL. 

Toe ONTO, January 20th, 1906. 
Secretary University Coinmission'. 

My Dear Sie, — Agreeable to a suggestion which I received from Mr. B. 
E. Walker, I have prepared the following memorandum regarding the forma- 
tion of a representative Students' Council in connection with the government 
of the University. Will you kindly place these views at the service of the 
Commission? 

In all matters in which questions of student discipline are involved one 
of the difficulties which the authorities meet is that there is no representative 
and resjjonsible body of students to whom they can refer either for information 
or purposes of negotiation. That is to say, the authorities must always act in 
their official capacity while the individual students may come to them to 
discuss questions at issue without being able, as a rule, to speak for anyone but 
themselves — that is, they are neither representative of student opinion as a 
whole, nor can they be in any sense responsible for the carrying out of sug- 
gestions they may make and which might be acceptable to the authorities. 

As a result of this, no matter how careful the President or any other 
ofiicial interviewed may be, the most diverse statements are circulated among 
students as to the attitude these gentlemen adopt. An example of this was 
seen in the trouble of '95, when the most contradictory statements were 
attributed to President Loudon, for, as I believe, no other reason than that 
raen of very different shades of opinion had gone to him and reported what 
had been said largely in the light of their prejudices. The same was the case 
to a very much loss extent in the recent disciplinary trouble. Whatever may 
be said of the '95 trouble, the recent trouble could certainly have been settled 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 183 



even more easily than it was had the students had any responsble committee 
to discuss the matter with the Discipline Committee as soon as the difl&culty 

arose. 

Basing my conclusion, then, on these matters of personal experience, I 
have for some time felt that the students should effect some 'organization 
which could be regarded by the authorities as thoroughly representative, and 
further, that the committee appointed to negotiate with the authorities 
should be so selected that the students would feel themselves under obliga- 
tion to carry out the decisions reached by this committee. I know that the 
authorities would have welcomed such a committee and would have felt it a 
real aid to the carrying out of their desires. 

Now, in such a representative council the great difl&culty would lie in 
making it really rejjresentative. The necessities of the case suggest at once 
that such a council must not be elected by the interests of some party gotten 
up for the express purpose. I would, therefore, point out the desirability of 
selecting this committee, at least, for the most part, on the basis of positions 
held in other organizations, that is, it should be made up of ex-opicio mem- 
bers. I should suggest that the Vice-President of the University College 
Literary Society, and similar officers from the Literary Society (or similar 
organization) in V'"ctoria and Trinity Colleges and in the Medical and En- 
gineering Societies. In addition to these, the Athletic Association, the 
Undergraduate Club, possibly the Y.M.C.A. and other University Societies 
might be asked to take some part in the scheme, i.e., the highest student 
officer might act on the Council. 

The students elected to these positions are, as a rule, really first-class 
men, who are in a position to know student opinion as few students know it. 
A committee or council composed of the officers above suggested would prob- 
ably be found as thoroughly re'presentative and influential as any that might 
be selected. It would recognize at once the important University and College 
organizations and would probablv be found — taking the average from year 
to year — to contain a fair representation from the various faculties. 

Such a committee, however, must be elected by the student body as a 
whole and not merely by a comparatively small number of students, hence 
to be really effective it would mean that every student must be a member of 
the University Societies represented, i.e., the Athletic Association and 
iJndergraduate Club (or possibly an option might be made between this club 
and the Young Men's Christian Association) at least, and also that each stu- 
dent must be a member of the College Society represented, i.e., the Literary 
Society or corresponding Society in each College or ^acult5^ 

The only way to effect this, so far as I now see, is to make the fees for 
these organizations obligatory on every student. This would at once permit 
the fee to be lowered very considerably so that it would not be a burden to 
anyone and would also permit of the very considerable extension of the use- 
fulness of these organizations. The Athletic Association could easily con- 
struct a much larger gymnasium, which I believe is even now needed ; the 
Undergraduate Club could purchase or rent a really suitable building, and 
so with the other organizations. This scheme would entail on every student, 
therefore, three fees, and I presume the total amount need not be more than 
five dollars. 

I feel satisfied that such a fee would not be objected to by the medical 
students, who seem to be in favor of the imposition of at least two of these 
fees, the Athletic Association fee and the Medical Society fee (see The 'Yar- 
Kitf/ for January 18th, 1906, p. 213); it would probably be equally well re- 
ceived by the School of Science students ; from what I know of the University 



184- ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



College men it would be generally acceptable to tbem; I should anticipate 
some objection from the Victoria and Trinity College men, but I believe that 
even that difficulty might be overcome if they were properly approached on 
the subject. 

I have taken up a similar scheme at least twice with the students and in 
both cases met with a favorable response up to a certain point, then some 
organization, e.g., the prosperous Athletic Association, didn't see any need 
of such a Council, as they were getting along nicely without it. That is, the 
scheme has been dropped simply because the students have not felt the neces- 
sity of such a representative and responsible committee. Judging from recent 
articles in The 'Varsity, the matter is now seen in a slightly different light 
and it is just this change in student opinion which has suggested to me the 
possibility of the University Commission considering such a proposal. 

I have not considered the relation of such a Council to the women stu- 
dents simply because I have discussed it altogether as a disciplinary organ- 
ization. If it were thought advisable to widen the scope of such a Council, 
the women students could easih' be given proper representation. 

If this matter be deemed of only minor importance in the general prob- 
lem of University government, I can only apologize for troubling vou with it 
at such length. 

Yours faithfully, 

Ai.BKRT H. Abbott. 



TEACHERS AND THE UNIVERSITY. 

Kingston, ONT.,Dec. 20th, 1905. 
To the Univer.dty Covimission : ' 

Gentlemen, — This communication is to ask your consideration of a 
suggestion regarding an extension of the influence and usefulness of the Uni- 
versity in the field of primary and secondary education. 

Briefly, the proposition is this: — The time has fully come^when the 
University should have a Department devoted to the history, principles and 
practices of Education as distinguished from the process of educating which 
has hitherto been the main function of the institution. 

The following outline, while not an exhaustive argument at all, will 
perhaps make clear to the gentlemen already familiar with educational con- 
dition? in Ontario what the proposal includes. 

(1) The Position of the University in the Educational System. 

It was designed, and has! been assumed by all parties at all times, that 
Toronto University is the chief institution of the public educational system 
of the province, the apex toward which all other parts converge. It is 
therefore a matter of very great importance both for the lower schools, and 
in a reflex way for the Universitv itself, what shall be the character and 
what the scope of the influence that emanates from it and that tends to mould 
the ideals and progress of these schools. This same influence will largely 
tend" also to mak? or to mar a proper public opinion regarding the function 
of education rnd the worth of the educated man in the community. 

(2) The University .\nd the Profession of TEAriiiNG. 

Ur» to the present time it has been an unfortunate anomaly that the 
cbiof educational institution of the svstem, the one toward which all should 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 1.S5 



look for inspiration and g'uidance in educational work, has given practically^ 
no attention to making- eitlier prospective teachers or the public familiar with 
the art, the history or the science of education. The aims that underlie the 
work of the schools, the processes by which that work may be most profit- 
ably carried on, and the relation of education to our civilization scarcely 
receive a passing notice in the University, and have never been considered 
worth even a few perfunctory lectures. If one has in mind the importance 
of education because of the rapid development industrially and socially 
within the last few years, it does not require argument to prove that this 
condition within the University is not a happy one either for the institution 
or the public. 

(3) What the University should do to Remedy this Defect. 

At the pre!=ent time the University gives special training to fit men for 
a number of the professions, such as medicine, engineering, mining, &c. 
The request, therefore, does not seem unreasonable that the University 
should establi?h a Department of Education where the problems relating to 
that profession might be worked out, and in which teachers might obtain 
that guidance and inspiration which hitherto has been entirely lacking in 
this province. The great value that attaches to efiicient teaching in the 
schools, the wide constituency that the University would thus serve, and the 
opportunity that would be thus made for forming an aggressive public senti- 
ment in favor of educational progress are some of the matters that should 
count in coming to a decision on this suggestion. 

(4) What should be done. 

A wide acquaintance with the work of preparing teachers has convinced 
me that no mere academic course of lectures and examinations will serve the 
best purpose, or even a good one, in this respect. Just as the medical student 
must have his clinics and demonstrations, just as the engineer must have 
his laboratorjr practice, so the candidate who is to engage in- teaching must 
gain experience, under proper sruidance, with the material upon which he will 
have to work; nothing else will avail. In fact, the laboratory of the class- 
room, supplied with pupils and necessary appliances is as indispensable to the 
student of education as is the corresponding laboratory outfit and practice- 
to the student of electricity. The vital, central element of modern education 
is the individual, not the subject of study; and the problems arising, on the 
one hand out of the fitting of the curriculum to individual needs, and on 
the other, of the adjustment of the individual to the social environment, can 
be worked out only in the practice school, with the pupils as material. 

I submit, then, that if the University is justified in equipping depart- 
ments for making men proficient in healing bodily ills, or for fitting them 
to turn to industrial uses the natural riches of the country, it is doubly justi- 
fied in making adequate provision for developing to the fullest extent that 
human intelligence which is the basis of all progress ; and intelligence is 
what education ends in. To make necessary arrangements, therefore, for 
the study of education, as a factor in our civilization seems to me to be the 
one function of a university that cannot be overlooked without serious detri- 
ment both to the institution and the country. 

To accomplish this, I think it would be necessary to provide not only 
lecturers and instructors, but also a properly fitted school of all grades 
recognized in primary and secondary education. This would serve as a 
dsmonstration school where prospective teachers misrht learn what real 
teaching means ; where problems of education ('which I need not go into in 
detail here) might be worked ot; and where those in the profession who feel 
the need of freshening up might secure the desired help. 



186 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Teachers' College at Columbia, and the School of Education at Chicago 
occur to me as the two models for such a Department in our Provincial 
University. 

(5) Some Eesults. 

Such a Department Mould not be a place for training teachers, in the 
ordinary meaning of that phrase, at all. The training would be incidental 
to the study of educational processes and problems. As a type, the Agri- 
cultural College illustrates the methods and influences that I think might 
be anticipated for an establishment intended to develop the intellectual pro- 
gress of the child, rather than the financial prosperity of the farm. 

The people are now giving large sums of money every year to the Uni- 
versity, and in the future it is likely they will be called on to contribute 
still more liberally. In return they have a right to expect that the Univer- 
sity will render them the greatest service that it is capable of; and there is 
perhaps no other way in which it can do so great a good to so great a number 
as by actively helping to make more efl&cient the primary and secondary 
education of the countrj^; in fact, if it would but settle the one question as 
to what the education of the children of this province should consist of 
during the next quarter of a century it would far more than repay to the 
people the whole cost of equipment, for it would thus save many a year of 
human life. Further, such a Department properly conducted, would be a 
direct benefit to every citizen of the country, not to any particular class, 
because increased efficiency in the lower schools lies at the very foundations 
of all progress. 

I beg, therefore to ask the gentlemen of the Commission to consider the 
advisability of making a recommendation in this matter. 

Respectfully yours, 

W. S. Ellis. 



DIE DEUTSCHEN UNIVER5ITATEN. 

Prepared for the Chicago exhibition of 1893 by W. Lexis. Published 
by A. Asher & Co., Berlin. Extract from the above work giving the "Re- 
lation of the German Universities to the State." Pages 45-49. Volume I. 

The German universities are founded and maintained by the State. 
There no longer exists any outside co-operation such as formerly through 
the Imperial or Papal power. The right also to confer degrees comes from 
the state. 

The state grants to the universities constitution and statutes ; it estab- 
lishes the professorships and educational buildings. The professors are state 
officials. The universities are placed under the control of the minister of 
education. 

In a number of univerities there is a local representative of the min- 
istry, called the curator or sometimes the chancellor. His duties consist in 
exercising a general inspection and care for the maintenance and advance- 
ment of the whole university, especially in the economical respect. All 
intercourse between the university and the ministry passes through him. 

Although the university is lawfully a part of the state educational 
department, it occupies a peculiar and almost exempt position. It enjoys 
a measure of independence and absoluteness such as no other state institution. 



1900 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 187 



The control of the professors by the state is hardly felt. Important parts 
of the old corporative self-government still remain and above all the free 
choice of the academical body. 

The head of the university is the rector, who is chosen yearly by the 
professors, and who represents the university in outside matters. All under 
officials of the university are subject to him. 

The senate is also chosen from the professors by the professors and 
besides the chosen members, it is composed of the rector, — as president or 
chairman,— the proctor, and the deans. The senate forms the committee for 
the general management or administration of the university. 

The faculties also possess considerable self-government. They choose 
annually from their midst a dean, who manages the business of the faculty. 
As a body they have control of the teaching. It is especially their work to 
look after the completeness of the tuition offered during each term. The 
faculties also examine the students and grant the degrees. In case of a 
vacancy they suggest names to the minister for the new appointment. 

In so far as the teaching is concerned, the university posesses practically 
full fredom. The control by the state is confined almost to seeing that the 
necessary lectures are actually held and that every professor lectures. 

There exists no official teaching plan such as schools have where the 
amount and kind is fixed. 

The professors receive a general teaching commission for their special 
department or branch. It remains then with them to carry out their work 
as they wish; the number of lectures they hold, the contents, the methods 
of dealing with subjects, etc. In this respect there is absolutely no control 
or revision. One may say that the university tuition never enjoyed a greater 
measure of freedom than at present. The kind of instruction and how it is 
given is entirely handed over to the university teachers. 

The appointment of the professors is made by the government ; the 
ausser ordentlicher professors (associate professors) by the minister and the 
ordentlicher professors by the sovereign himself. 

When a professor is to be appointed, the government and the faculty 
co-operate in so far that the faculty suggests names and gives a report on 
them. As a rule, three names are sent in. Still the government is not 
bound in any way to follow these proposals. Considerable objection has 
often been made to this arrangement. It is said to give rise to intrigue and 
nepotism, which is indeed sometimes the case, but on the whole the uni- 
versities are satisfied with the present arrangement. It would be hard to 
find another system to serve the purpose better ; namely, to bring the right 
man in the right place. 

The right of the faculty to suggest names for the appointment of a pro- 
fessor, moderates the absolutism of the ministry. The minister cannot be 
expected in all cases to rely on his own judgment. He generally asks, 
privately, the advice of some competent person in that particular subject. 

On the other hand the appointments through the government are very 
necessary. The central department is alone in the position to control and 
weigh the needs of the whole university, and the free appointment by the 
faculty would without doubt lead to intrigue, open the way to personal 
interests, cliques, etc. 

Our experience in Germany teaches us that our present system is the 
surest and least dangerous. We would not change it for that of the Latin 
countries, where applications for positions are accompanied by examples of 
the candidate's efficiency and trial lectures. Such a competition method is 
more calculated to repel the best and ablest men. 

in I.e. 



18S ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Tlie following suggestion, whicli has often been made, is good ; namely, 
to provide every position or chair with a fixed salary, with a gradual in- 
crease as the professor advances in years. 

It does away with bargaining of all kinds, when a new appointment 
is made and also the increase of salary makes the professors less dependent 
on the chance of a new call with larger incomes. 

The present arrangement only promotes the frequent moving about of 
the professors and causes more evil than good. The smaller universities in 
particular suffer thereby. If when a lecturer or professor accepted a posi- 
tion he received a gradual increase of salary — which is already the case in 
Bavaria — that striving to reach a larger university would gradually cease. 



HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH. 

Toronto, January 15th, 1906. 
J'o the Chairman and Mevihers of the University Commission : 

Gentlemen, — Amongst the recommendations which have been presented 
to you, one from the Medical Faculty deals with the Department over which 
I have the honor to preside, that of Hj-giene and Public Health. I wish to 
add a few suggestions in connection with that subject. 

I will approach the matter by pointing out some of the evils amongst 
University students that m,ay he remedied by extending the work in Hygiene : 

Our young people of both sexes come to the University, some of them 
without having received any instruction whatever in the proper means of 
caring for their health, and some of them with very meagre and elementary 
ideas. They are now sent from the oversight of their homes and are sup- 
posed to take care of themselves. Tliev go to boarding and lodging-houses, 
where a very large number may be crowded into a small house, generally 
two or more in each room and all available rooms occupied and space econo- 
mized; and they have no proper knowledge of the means for obtaining and 
properly distributing pure air warmed and moistened, nor of the necessity 
for p^ire air. The result is ill-health and often tuberculosis. It has been 
recently stated that out of a graduating class of fifty-four nine succumbed 
to this disease within a year. 

In the matter of Physical Exercise, many abuses exist which a proper 
knowledge might at least lessen. Amongst these the overstrain of heart and 
lung tissues, the evil results of record breaking, indiscriminate exercises, 
etc. It was long ago recommended by the President and Trustees that there 
should be an examination of all students in the Gymnasium, but this has 
not been carried out, perhaps for want of facilities; this examination would 
fittingly be relegated to the Department of Medicine. 

In the matter of Mental Exercise, many a student makes shipwreck, 
partly from want of a warning voice. Students fritter away time through 
want of system in the early portions of the term, and then at the end sit up 
"cramming" half the night, and if after a period of struggle a period of 
wakeful brightness supervene they hail it with delight and afterwards have 
to regret it. 

It is well known that many now resort to strychnine and other drugs 
during the examination period, and this habit is growing. Not to mention 
the abuses of tobacco, alcohol, the sexual system, there are many matters 

19a u.c 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 189 



connected with foods, digestion, bathing, clothing, jjJiysical exercise, care of 
the eyes, and other subjects on which a few words of instruction would be 
of great benefit. 

In the first year of the various Faculties a course of one lecture per week 
could be given, closing" a short time before the press of examination work 
comes on. It could be made interesting by the use of apparatus, diagrams 
and lantern slides. It should be made compulsory by means of an elementarj' 
examination. 

If the recommendation of the Medical Faculty with regard to endowing 
the Chair of Hygiene be adopted whereby the Professor of Hygiene can de- 
vote his whole time fo the subject, the difficulty of expense will be met in 
legard to this as well as to some of the subsequent suggestions. 

Finding a jilace on the Curriculum and time for this course with the 
already overburdened students, is an objection which may suggest itself to 
you ; but I would ask what answer would be given by an intelligent person 
to the following question, "Will a student's health and well-being be im- 
proved, or will he be the worse off at the end of each week in consequence of 
one hour's talk with him during that week in regard to the care of his 
health .P" 

The reason for placing this elementary general course at the commence- 
ment of the College career rather than at a later period will be self-evident. 

hi Household Science: I would point out examinations are required by 
the Curriculum of the University (see pp. 262-3) as follows, and courses of 
instruction should be provided by the University : 

First Year : "Elements of Personal Hygiene" with "Physical Training." 

Second Year: "Construction and care of the house." Thi-; would ne- 
cessarily include some points of sanitary architecture and oversight, such 
as heating, ventilation and house-drainage. A short course. 

Third Year: "Elements of Hygiene." 

Fourth Year: "Sanitary Science." 

The above courses would have to be more definitely mapped out to pre- 
\ent overlapping, especially as now named in the Second, Third and Fourth 
Years. Th^'s, however, is a matter of detail with which I need not now 
occupy your time. 

If you see fit to recommend that the necessary courses and lectures be 
given by the University, graduated courses can hereafter be submitted to the 
Boards to whom are entrusted the formation of curricula. 

In conclusion I would point out that useful work might be done in a 
practical way by the University in connection with the hvffiene of occupa- 
tions; a matter of sufficient invportance to be made the object of a Congress 
of Sanitarians to be held in Milan during the approaching Spring (at which 
I hope to be able to be present). It is of great and increasing practical im- 
portance in our own country with its rapid strides of development. 

I have the honor to be, yours respectfullv. 

Wm. Oldkight, 
Professor of Hygiene, University of Toronto. 



UNIVERSITY ATHLETIC AND PHYSICAL TRAINING. 

Secretary, ZJniversity Commission : 

Dear Sit?, — The Committee appointed bv the Athletic Directorate of the 
University of Toronto to report unon the condition of Athletics and Physical 
Training in the University, beg leave to present the following recommenda- 



lyO ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



tions. They recognize the progress that has been made in this department 
within the recent past, but are persuaded that enlargements and improve- 
ments in organization and equipment are urgently needed in order to bring 
the system up to date, and to serve the needs of the students, as well as to 
satisfy the reasonable demands of an enlightened public. They have espe- 
cially kept in mind the fact that the University is entrusted with the educa- 
tion of men for the service of the State, and is bound to see that every one of 
its wards shall, if possible, go forth from its guardianship with a sound mind 
in a sound body ; and accordingly that the apparatus and instruction provided 
for physical training should be used not mainly for the vigorous athlete, but 
for the great mass of the students who stand in need of normal phj'sical de- 
velopment. They have also had their attention called to many cases in which 
irreparable harm has been occasioned by ignorance and unconscious defiance 
of physical laws and conditions, and induced by excess or misuse of exercise 
as well as by its neglect. 

I. Physicai. Education. 

1. Provision should be made for the establishment of a Department of 
Physical Education, the head of which should be the Physical Director, with 
academic standing. The Physical Director should be a graduate in Medi- 
cine and a man of adequate athletic training, who would have supervision 
of all gymnastc exercises, and have the physical oversight of those students 
who take part in gymnastic and outdoor sports. 

2. A brief course of lectures on the care of the body should be given to 
ihe students by the Physical Director. 

3. There should be a medical examination of all students entering the 
University, and a special examination of those taking part in athletic con- 
tests or gymnastics. 

II. Equipment. 

The present gymnasium accommodation is entirely inadequate for the 
number of male students attending the University. Besides being much too 
small, the building is badly ventilated, and its general plan is such that no 
amount of money expended upon it would make it an ideal Gymnasium. We 
would, therefore, recommend the immediate erection of a building adapted to 
the needs of our large and growing student body. 

III. Fees. 

There should be a compulsory fee for Athletics, collected from all male 
students by the Bursar; and all male students, in view of this, should be 
entitled to the use of the grounds and the gymnasium, and to the attention of 
the Physical Director. 

IV. Atitletic Directorate. 

1. The functions of the Athletic Directorate should be to control the 
general athletic policy of the Universitv. as well as the physical training and 
athletic exercises of the male students, and all buildings and grounds de- 
voted to that purpose. 

2. The Diro'-torate should cou'jist of ten members, of whom four should 
be members of the Faculty, including the Physical Director, two should be 
graduates, and four should be undergraduates. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 191 



3. The Faculty memTbers should be appointed by the President; the 
graduate members elected by the Advisory Board as at present constituted ; 
and the undergraduate members elected according to the arrangement now 
in force. 

4. The officers of the Directorate should include a Chairman, chosen by 
the members from the Faculty and graduate members, and a Secretary- 
Treasurer, appointed by the Trustees on the recommendation of the Direc- 
torate. 

The jurisdiction of the Athletic Directorate is confined to male students 
of the University, but in view of the urgent necessity for provision being 
made for the physical care of all the students, your Committee beg leave to 
make the following suggestions : — 

1. A female assistant to the Physical Director should be appointed whose 
duty it would be to care for the women students. 

2. A gymnasium should be provided for the women students. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J. F. McCuRDY, 
W. G. Wood, 
Alex. J. Mackenzie, 
Ernest M. Henderson, 
Committee. 



THE COURSE IN ARCHITECTURE. 

ilie University of Toronto Commission: 

Sirs, — When we appeared before you we brought to your attention the 
need, first, of a special course in Architecture, and, secondly, of a compre- 
hensine plan for grouping of the University Buildings. 

Our position rests upon the broad ground that Architecture is one of 
the great educational and refining influences in life ; it is therefore entitled 
to a place in the curriculum of the Univerity and also to consideration when 
the buildings of the University are being designed and given their place in 
the University property. 

First. "A special course in Architecture." This is required, as there 
are now within reach of the University a considerable number of Architec- 
tural students, who having started in offices, are unable to leave them, and 
give four years to University work; indeed for some time to come, students 
iu Architecture will find their way into offices before awakening to the value 
of an academic course of study. 

In Toronto Architecture has not been studied hitherto as an art but 
rather as a science. This is very forcibly illustrated by the University of 
Toronto Calendar for 1905-6 page 239. In contrast we quote the following 
from Columbin Collee-e Calendar : 

''The University thus recognizes that Architecture is primarily a fine 
art although requiring for its practice a considerable amount of scientific 
training." Page 9, Bulletin June 3rd., 1905. 

Columbia, Pennsylvania, Cornell, Harvard, and other Universities have 
special courses in Architecture for students who have spent some time in 
Architects' offices. The University of Toronto might inaugurate such a 
course, so arranged that students could attend lectures early in the morning 
and late in the afternoon as do those now attending Osgoode Hall. 



192 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



recommend the establishment of a studio at the IJniversity of Toronto. The 
studios at the Universities mentioned are in a measure independent of the 
University course in Architecture, they are generally in charge of a prac- 
tising Architect, who sets problems that the students study under his criti- 
cism and guidance. 

In the course proposed here a student should have Junior Matriculation 
in Mathematics, should have spent two years in an Architect's office, and 
should be eighteen years of age. He should attend early morning and late 
afternoon lectures on subjects which are best taught in this way, and in the 
evening he should work in the studio. 

In Toronto to-day there are more than sixty-five students in Architec- 
ture, whose only opportunity for study is the mathematical classes conducted 
by the Joint Committee of the Ontario Association pi Architects and the 
Toronto Architectural Eighteen Club. In the offices they simply do the 
routine work, which might be called the craft of Architecture, while the 
Art of Architecture is left to the mercy of chance. The result of this state 
of affairs is deplorable, and can be rectified by the course we suggest. 

Second. "A comprehensive plan for the grouping of the University 
Buildings." Since Architecture is admittedly an educational and refining 
influence the University is the pla-ce above all jilaces where the greatest 
effort should be made to maintain a high standard of it. 

European Universities have never failed to recognize this truth, and 
Oxford has given the inspiration to the men who have recently erected the 
buildings of high Architectural merit at Pennsylvania and Princeton. 

The University of Toronto is extremely fortunate in having as its orig- 
inal building a recognized achievement in Architecture. Unfortunately this 
model has not been followed. 

The Hon. Mr. Edward Blake, when Chancellor of the University, in 
his address at the opening of the so-called course in Architecture, referred 
to the original building as an inspiring example, and to the School of Science 
building as "An example of what not to do." 

It is not sufficient that each building in connection with the University 
should be in itself a creditable Architectural structure, but that it should 
also harmonize completely with its fellow buildings ; moreover the same 
economy should be shewn in the arrangement of all the buildings on the 
University property as is shewn in the design of each. 

The importance of prompt action in the systematic arrangement of the 
University grounds cannot be too strongly emphasized at the present moment, 
since the proposed residences may be placed so as to cause greater difficulty 
[^ carrying out a comprehensive scheme. 

It is essential to the University in preparing its members for well 
ordered and beautiful lives to show order and beauty in its external 
appearance. 

Respectfully submitted by, 

W. Ford How land, 

A. H. ClT.\PMAN, 

J. P. Hyxes, 

Committee of 
Toronto Architectural Eighteen Club. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 193 



MEMORANDUM ON THE LIBRARY. 

The requiii ineiits of the University Library in the matter of additional 
accommodation may be considered under three heads: — (1) Book-room, (2) 
Reading room, (3) Ofl&ces. 

(1) Booh-room. The existing- stack-room, under the conditions by 
which a growing library in constant use must be governed^ is not capable of 
accommodating more than about 85,000 volumes. The total number of vol- 
umes now belonging to the library is upwards of 84,000, but the pressure 
upon space which these figures would indicate has not yet been actually felt, 
because under a system of departmental branch libraries about 14,000 
volumes are kept in the other University buildings, and in other rooms of 
the Library building. This form of relief to the stack-room cannot be carried 
much further, however, without impairing the usefulness of the main library, 
and even the space for future acquisitions thus provided in the stack-room 
will be quite filled in about three years at the present rate of growth. After 
that time, if an additional stack-room is not ready for occupation, distur- 
bance to the classified arrangement of the books will be inevitable, and this, 
it is needless to say, will result in serious inconvenience to readers. There 
is no provision at all in the present building for the proper accommodation 
of maps and charts, except that a chest for holding maps was made and set 
up in one of the departmental studies, a room which is constantly used for 
other purposes. A separate map-room in which maps could be stored and 
easily consulted is urgently needed. A room is also needed for architectural 
and other large folios of an artistic character. Cupboards have been set up 
in a corner of the stack-room to hold such volumes now, but there is no table 
or space for a table on which they could be laid to be examined. As in the 
case of maps, a separate room is required, furnished with stands and tables 
and all approved devices for facilitating the use of large volumes and port- 
folios of this description. 

(2) Reading roovis. The present reading room for students is occasion- 
ally filled almost to its utmost capacity by students in Arts alone, those in 
the other Faculties having as yet had no share in the benefits of the library. 
But a library fee for undergraduates in medicine has now begun to be im- 
posed and students in that faculty also will be encouraged to make use of 
the library. It is probable, therefore, that from this source alone the 
average attendance in the reading-room will be greatly augmented within 
the next few years. But even if the seating capacity of the present reading- 
room were found to be adequate to any new demands upon it, it is in other 
respects not a suitable room for the purpose. The crowding together of 
many readers in a single large room involves a certain amount of noise, 
which is found to be very disturbing. Complaints have frequently been made 
by students that the reading-room is not a place where they can study to 
much advantage. Moreover, the ventilation is very bad. A preferable 
arrangement, which should be followed whenever it becomes necessary to 
increase the reading-room accommodation, would be a series of smaller rooms 
somewhat like the departmental studies already in partial use as reading 
rooms for honour students. The departmental studies, seven in number, are 
all in the upper storey of the library building, some above the stack-room, 
others above the office-rooms. They were originally intended as ''Seminars" 
Iti which instruction might be given to small classes accompanied by con- 
sultation of authorities and reference books. Instruction of this kind is 
given in them at present, but they have also been turned to account as study- 
rooms for honour students of the upper years. There is one other room which 



194 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



is supposed to do duty as a reading-room. It is the room in whicii the current 
numbers of periodicals are kept, and it was intended to be the reading-room 
for professors and other members of the staff. But through lack of accom- 
modation elsewhere it is permanently occupied by the cataloguer and also 
by the clerk in charge of the binding of periodicals and repair of books, so 
that its use as a reading-room is practically limited to cursory examination 
of the current periodicals. In the proper sense of the word, the members 
of the teaching staff have no reading-room at all. This is one of the chief 
deficiencies of the present building, which must be made good in any plan 
of extension. 

(3) Offices. The present building contains a librarian's room and an 
adjoining room for clerks. These were the only office-rooms contemplated 
when the building was planned. Immediately upon occupation, however, it 
was found necessary to utilize the professors' reading-room for administra- 
tive purposes. It was fitted up for the reception of current periodicals ; one 
clerk was given a table in it for her work of recording the reception of 
periodicals, of preparing them for the binder and checking them off when 
received from the binder. As a result of the expansion of all branches of 
the library service this entire room, with as many tables as can be conven- 
iently put into it, is now hardly large enough for the proper performance 
of this clerk's duties, and yet for the last three years it has been found 
necessary to make a place in it for the cataloguer also, with all her appar- 
atus of reference books. At the same time the room remains, as originally 
designated, the professors' reading-room, the only room in the building the 
professors have in which to sit and work. The room adjoining the librarian's 
room, the original clerks' room, is that in which all books received are 
verified and stamped. This was its original destination. vVhen the estab- 
lishment of University publications permitted the negotiation of an exchange 
of such publications for those of other universities and scientific societies, 
this branch of the service also* had to be carried on in the clerks' room. It 
is now occupied by three clerks. One of them is an assistant cataloguer, and 
ought to be doing her work in association with the cataloguer; but it was 
found impossible to provide space for both of them together, either in this 
room or in the professors' reading-room, and, therefore, they had to be 
separated. At present the librarian's room is occupied by the librarian alone. 
One more deficiency under this head must be noted. When the University 
publication "University of Toronto Studies" was established seven years 
ago it was determined to follow the example of the Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, and make the library the office of publication and the distributing 
centre. The propriety of this arrangement is obvious from the fact that the 
studies are used as a library exchange, and by means of them the library 
has already been able to build up an exchange list of about 275 institutions 
whose publications are regularly received in return for the Studies. The 
stock of Studies in hand is continually increasing and there is no proper 
place for storing Ihem. Some are at present on unoccupied shelves in the 
stack-room, some are in the unpacking room, and lately it has been found 
necessary to store others in the cellar underneath the stack-room, from which 
r)lace they will have to be moved into the furnace room for the Summer 
months to keep them from being damaged by damp. From the foregoing 
outline of the disadvantages under which the administrative work is at 
present carried on, it is clear that the most imperative requirement of the 
library' is for additional office accommodation. 

H. H. Langton. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 195 



RESTORATION OF THE RESIDENCE. 

Toronto, Jan. 19tli, 1906. 

Dear Sir, — 1 was unable to be present witb the rest of the deputation 
from the Toronto Association of Graduates of the University, when they 
were received by the Commission. Had I been present I would have urged 
one point which I take the liberty of calling to your attention. 

Assuming that it is intended to continue the undenominational College 
iij connection with the University of Toronto, I would most strongly urge the 
necessity of supplying that College with a residence. The west wing of the 
University building was for many years a residence to University College. 
Many associations were growing up connected with that building but it was 
not large enough to meet the requirements of the College as the number of 
undergraduates increased. Instead of adding to it, it was allowed to run 
down and finally closed on the alleged ground that it did not pay. The fact 
was that the scientific departments of the University required more rooms 
and they took possession of the wing which had been occupied as a resi- 
dence. Now the scientific departments have ample accommodation provided 
in their new buildings. These rooms are not required for other purposes 
any longer. They should be restored to the purpose for which they were 
oiiginally intended and the traditions and associations of that portion of 
the building should be continued. 

I obtained some years ago an estimate from the University Architect 
of the cost of completing the quadrangle by building a residence wing along 
the north side. Mr. Dick, the Architect in question, could no doubt supply 
the information without difficulty. The Dining Hall accommodation and 
the kitchen part of the building were supplied originally on a scale sufficient 
to serve a residence of double size of the late residence. It was always 
contemplated that the quadrangle should be completed some day. If this 
new wing were built at least two hundred men and probably more would be 
piovided for. 

One strong inducement towards the completion of this quadrangle would 
be that University College would, by having its men quartered in the main 
building, always retain in the public mind the position of being the most 
closely identified of all the Colleges. It is clearly entitled to that position 
as that is the spirit of our whole Ontario system. 

It is a matter for great regret that the associations which had grown 
around the residen.ce should have been so ruthlessly torn up as they were. 
The whole history of the University was centred in that part of the institu- 
tion. As a matter of policy and sentiment combined I would submit to the 
Commission the advisability of considering whether it is not possible to 
restore the residence wing to its original purpose and at the same time to 
complete the original design of the main building by finishing the quad- 
rangle and devoting the north side of it to an extension of the residence. 

I am, Sir, 

Your Obedient Servant, 

R. E. KiNGSFORD. 



196 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



ABSTRACT OF MINUTES. 



October 4tli, 1905. 



The meetinf;^ to organize tlie work of the Commission was held in the 
ofl&ce of the Minister of Education, Horourable Dr. Pyne, there being also 
present the Prime Minister, Honourable J. P. Whitney. 

The following members of the Commission were present : 

Mr. J. W. Flavelle (Chairman). 

Sir William Meredith. 

Mr. Goldwin Smith. 

Mr. Byron E. Walker. 

Rev. Canon Cody. 

Rev. D. Bruce Macdonald. 

Mr. a. H. U. Colquhoun (Secretary). 

The subsequent meetings of the CommissioE< were held at "The Grange," 
the residence of Mr. Goldwin Smith. 

There were, in all, 77 meetings. 

October 11th, 1905. 

The Secretary was instructed to keep a brief minute of the proceedings 
of each meeting. The list of questions to be sent to Universities at home 
and abroad for the purpose of obtaining .special ki'Owledge of their admin- 
istrative systems was considered and adopted. 

The Secretary was instructed to invite certain persons to give evidence 
before the Commission. 



October 14th, 1905. 

The following letter, in reply to an ir»vitation to attend a meeting of the 
■Commission and give evidence, was received from the Honourable G. W. 
Ross, late Minister of Education : 



3 Elmsley Place, Toronto, October 13th, 1905. 

My Dear Sir, — As I am a Member of the Ontario Legislative Assembly, 
for whose benefit the Urd versify 'Commission has been appointed, I see some 
difl&culty in appearing before it to give evidence for the guidance of the 
Assembly. At present it strikes me that I would place myself in an invidious 
position to do so. I nm most anxious to see the views of experts on the 
question of reorganization, and it is possible a;iy preconceived opinion I hold 
may be modified on reading the report of the Commission. When the report 
is before the Assemblv I can then approve of its recommendations, or, if 
this is not possible, I will be perfectly free to express other views. I am 
open to anv rdan that will be of service for perfe(;ting University legislatior. 
.and sini])lifviiig the niiicliiuery by which the University does its work. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 197 



I appreciate tlie honour of being invited to appear before this Com- 
mission, and will be pleased to reElder any assista^nce in my power not 
e:nbarrassing' in my capacity as a member of the Legislature. 

Yours trulv, 
A. H. U. CoLQUnouN, Esq., Geo. W. Ross. 

Education ])epartment, 
Toronto. 

October 2r)th, 1905. 

The Secretary was recjuested io communicate officially with the Senate, 
the Univers'tv Council, the Board of Trustees of the University, and the 
University CoUeo^e Council, respecting the appointment and work of the 
Commission, in case these bodies should des^'re to prepare any statement of 
their views and lay it before the Commission. 

October 28th, 1905. 

On the suggestion of Mr. Goldwin Smith, it was decided that the mem- 
hers of the Board of Trustees for University Residences should be invited to 
meet the CommissioE'. 

October 30th, 1905. 

The Chairman communicated to the Commission a letter written by him- 
self to the Chairman of the Board of Trustees for University Residences, as 
follows : 

Toronto, October 28th, 1905. 
Z. A. Lash, Esq., 
Toronto. 

My Dkar Mu. Lash, — I placed before the University Commission this 
afternoon the views you and Mr. White expressed last ever-ing covering the 
University Residence. They recognize the embarrassment attendant upon 
■delay, and appreciate the disturbance of plans so well advanced. They 
recogE'ize they have no standing in the matter except that accorded them 
through the courtesy of the Board of Trustees of the University and your 
Board, and are, therefore, hesitant in appearing intrusive. 

They hope that perhaps they may be able to work out a plan of Uni- 
versity reorganization and to make sujggestions for the future which will 
result in a spirit of uE-ity and common purpose being developed in Univer- 
sity affairs, the absence of which has perhaps suggested the independent 
trust under which you have organized. 

If, therefore, your friends, after consultation, can, without the surrender 
of the principle of Residence, let the Commissioi' bring in its findings before 
taking definite action, we will appreciate your doing so, as possibly when 
your Board sees our recommendations they will agree with us that Resi- 
dence ought to be under University governance. If you are ur-able to 
accede to our request, we will accept your decision. In any case, the Board 
will appreciate your Board meeting with it for informal conference, in the 
hope that co-operation may follow. Can you suggest a day, other than 
Monday or Tuesday, of next week, convenient for yourself and any other 
members of your Board who may desire to attend? 

I am sending a copy of this letter to Dr. Hoskin. 

Yours truly, 

J. "\V. Flavelle. 



198 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Tile following letter from Honouraible Edward Blake, M.P., formerly 
Chancellor of the University, in reply to an invitation to attend the Com- 
mission, was read : 

467 Jarvis Street, Toronto, October 31st, 1905. 

Sir, — I regret that it was impossible for me to reply earlier to your 
letter of the 12tb inst., but absence from town, illness, and the pressure of 
family concerns must plead my excuse. 

I retain the deepest interest in the welfare of the University of Toronto, 
and it would be to me a very pleasant duty to comply with the request of the 
Commission. But I have, unfortunately, been for so many years dissociated 
from University concerns that in order to fit myself for the expression of an 
opiii'ion I should find it necessary to enter into a study not merely of the 
working of the present very complicated system, but also of the plans which 
have been framed for other modern Universities. My health absolutely 
forbids any such eifort, and, therefore, I regret to say I am incompetent to 
submit any suggestions to the Commission. 

With thanks for the honour proposed to me, 

I am, 

Faithfully yours, 

Edward Blake. 

A.. H. U. COLQUHOUN, Esq., 

Secretary, University of Toronto Commission. 
Education Departmeu^t, Toronto. 

November 16th, 1905. 
The following members of the Board of Trustees for University Resi- 
dences were present by invitation, namely : 

Ho>.'. S. H. Blake, K.C. 
Mr. Edwin C.Whitxey. 
Mr. W. T. White. 
Hon. S. H. Blake, K.C, explained the objects .and purposes of the 
Trustees, and outlined the plaC'S as far as they have been determined upon. 
Mr. Blake stated that the Trustees were of opinion, that, when the buildings 
were completed, it was the desire of the members of the Trustee Board to 
submit matters affecting the discipline and control of the residences to any 
new goverE'ing body of the University that might come into existence. 

November 2Tth, 1905. 
A letter from the Secretary of the Law Society of Upper Canada was 
read, stating that a Committee consisting of the Treasurer, Sir ^Emilius 
Irving, the Attorney-General, Hon. J. J. Foy, and Messrs. Shepley, Lash 
and Barwick, has been appointed to meet the Commission to consider the 
relations of the Law School to the Ltniversity. 

November 30th, 1905. 
By invitation the following members of certain societies, representative 
of under-graduate thought and interest throiighout the University, were 
present and their views heard : 

Mr.G. E. Trueman, Victoria College. 

Mr. M. R. Graham, Faculty of Medicine. 

Mr. a. R. Kelly, Trinity College. 

Mr. T. R. LouDO^-, School of Practical Science. 

Mr. .7. G. Miller, University College. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 199 



December 4th, 1905. 
The Secretary was instructed to write to the Treasurer of the Law Society 
of Upper Canada on the subject of the competency of establishir-g a Faculty 
of Law in the University and requesting- the views of the Society upon the 
memorandum submitted to the Commission respecting Legal Education. 

It was decided that the following members of the Commission should 
visit certain Universities in the United States : 

Sib, William Meredith. 

Mr. J. W. Flavelle. 

Rev. Canon Cody. 

E,Ev. D. Bruce Macdonald. 

A. H. U. CoLQUiiouN, Secretary. 



March 7th, 1906. 

The members of the Commission visited and inspected the buildings 
and grounds of the University. They were accompanied by the Vice-Presi- 
dent of the University, Prof. Pnm'-av Wright. Principal Galbraith of the 
School of Science, and Dr. A. B. Macallum. 

At the meetings held on March 8th, 9th, 12th, 15th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 
23rd, 24th, 27th, 28th, 29th, and 30th, the members of the Commission con- 
sidered the terms of the report to be presented to His Horiour, the Lieuten- 
ant-Governor. 



April 3rd, 1906. 

All the members of the Commission were preser<t and adopted and 
signed the Report to His Honour, the Lieutenant-Governor. 

It was moved by Sir William Meredith, seconded by Mr. Byron E. 
Walker, that the Commissioners, having concluded their labours, desire 
before separating to record an expression of their sense of deep obligation 
to Mr. Gold win Smith, one of their number, for his courtesy and kindness 
in putting "The Grange" at their service as the meeting place of the Com- 
mission. 

It is ici their opinion fitting that this official record should be made, 
because it is not intended merelvasa personal acknowledgment of the hos- 
pitality and courtesy shown to his fellow members by Mr. Smith, but also as 
a recognition of the public service that has been rendered by making it 
possible for the Commission to conduct its inquiry and deliberations with 
the privacy that was essential to the work upon which it was engaged. Car- 
ried. 

From the first meeting of the Commission on October 4th, 1905, to the 
last meeting on April 3rd, 1906, the following persons attended, by invita- 
tion, OE'e or more meetings of the Commission and presented their views on 
the question of the administration of the University : 

President Loudon. Dr. J. A. McLennaE'. 

Rev. Provo'tf Macklem. Mr. J. M. Clark. 

Mr. J. A. Worrell. Mr. Edward Gillies, 

^fr. Ferrars Davidson. Dr. F. C. Smale. 

Rev. Chancellor Burwash. Mr. J. S. Carstairs. 

Principal Huttorj. Mr. James Ross. 



200 



ROYAL COMMISSION RE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. No. 42 



President Schurmau (Cornell 

University). 
Eev. Dr. Teefy. 
Principal Galbraith. 
Prof. Eamsay Wright- 
Dr. R. A. Reeve. 
Dr. John Hoskin. 
Dr. Nevitt. 
Dr. Wishart. 
Dr. Helen MacMurchy. 
Dr. Stowe Gullen. 
Dr. Gray. 
Dr. Greenaway. 
Hon. S. H. Blake. 
Mr. E. C. Whitney. 
Mr. W. T. White. 
Prir-cipal Sheraton. 

President Jas. MacLean (Idaho 

University) . 
Principal Maclaren. 
Prof. Ballantyne. 
Rev. J. A. Macdonald. 
Hon. Nelson Monteith. 
Mr. C. C. James. 
President Creelman. 
Hor-. R. A. Pyne. 
Dr. J. B. Wiliniott. 
Mr. E. J. Kylie. 
Rev. Father Cushing. 
Rev. Father Kelly. 
Sir ^milius Irving. 
Mr. Walter Barwick. 
Mr. George Shepley. 
(Jhief Justice Moss. 
Prof. Sqiiair. 
Mr. L. E. Embree. 
Mr. R. A. Thompson. 
Mr. A. W. Burt. 
Mr. E. W. Hagarty. 
Prof. Alexander. 
Prof. A. B. Macallum. 
Mr. Justice Osier. 
Mr. Judson Clark. 
Mr. William Houston. 
His Honour Judge Hodgins. 
Hon. F. Cochrane. 
Hon. Gifford Pinchot. 



Mr. S. Morley Wickett. 

Mr. J. F. Ellis. 

Mr. W. B. Tindall. 

Mr. J. P. Murray. 

Mr. F. A. Rolph. 

Mr. H. Yan der Linde. 

Mr. Gerhard Heintzman. 

Mr. P. H. Burton. 

Mr. Thomas Findlay. 

Mr. J. F. M. Stewart. 

Dr. John vSea'th. 

Rev. Dr. Potts. 

Air. Justice Maclaren. 

Rev. James Allan. 

Prof. Reyr-ar. 

Prof. A. J. Bell. 

Mr. H. H. Fudger. 

Mr. E. B. Osier. 

Mr. W. R. Brock. 

Mr. James Henderson. 

Rev. Dr. Carman. 

Hon. Senator Cox. 

Dr. A. Primrose. 

Dr. J. A. Temple. 

Dr. Davison. 

Dr. A. McPhedran. 

Dr. Grasett. 

Mr. Irving Cameron. 

Hon. J. P. Whitney. 

Hon. J. J. Foy. 

Hor.. A. J. Matheson. 

Hon. W. J. Hanna. 

Hon. J. 0. Reaume. 

Chief Justice Si^ William 
Mulock. 

Mr. Frederic Nicholls. 

His Worship Mayor Coats- 
worth. 

Mr. Controller Shaw. 
Mr. Controller Hubbard 
Mr. Controller Jones. 
Mr. Controller Ward. 
Mr. G. E. Trueman. 
Mr. M. R. Graham. 
Mr. A. R. Kellv. 
^'r. T. R. Loudon. 
}[r. J. G. Miller. 



HISTORICAL. 



[201] 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 20S 



7TH WILLIAM IV., CHAPTER 16. 

"An Act to Amend the Ciiakter of the University of King's College.'' 

Passed 4th March, 1837. 

Whereas His late Majesty King George the Fourth was graciously- 
pleased to issue his Letters Patent, bearing date at Westminster, the fifteenth 
day of March, in* the eighth year of his reign, in the words following : 
•'George the Pourth, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great 
Britain and Ireland, King, Defender of the Paith, and so forth ^ To all to 
whom these Presents shall come — Greeting : Whereas the establishment of 
a College within our Province of Upper Car-ada, in North America, for the 
education of youth in the principles of Christian religion, and for their 
instruction in the various branches of science and literature which are taught 
in our Universities in this Kingdom, would greatly conduce to the welfare of 
our said Province : And whereas, humble application hath been made to Us 
by many of our loving Subjects in our said Province, that We would be 
pleased to grant our Royal Charter for the more perfect establishment of a 
College therein, and for incorporating the Members thereof, for the purposes 
aforesaid : Xow Krow Ye, that We, having taken the premises into Our 
Royal consideration, and duly weighing the great utility and importance of 
such an Institution, have, of our special grace, certain knowledge, and mere 
motion, ordaiD'cd, and granted, and do by these Presents for Us, our Heirs 
and Successors, ordain and grant, that there shall be established, at or near 
our Town of York, in our said Province of Upper Canada, from this time, 
one College, with the style and privileges of an Undversity, as hereinafter 
directed, for the education and instruction of Youth and Students in Arts 
and Faculties, to continue for ever, to be called 'Kir-g's College : ' And We 
do hereby declare and igrant, that our trusty and well-beloved, the Right 
Reverend Father in God, Charles James, Bishop, of the Diocese of Quebec, 
or the Bishop for the time being of the Diocese in which the said Town of 
York may be situate, oni any future division or alteration of the said present 
Diocese of Quebec, shall, for Us, and on our behalf, be Visitor of the said 
College; and that our trusty and well-beloved Sir Peregrine Maitland, our 
Lieutenant-Governor of our said Province, or the Governor, LieuteE'ant- 
Governor, or Person administering the Government of our said Province, for 
the tinje being, shall be the Chaii'cellor of our said College : And We do 
hereby declare, ordain and grant, that there sliall at all times be one Presi- 
dent of our said College, who shall be a Clergyman, in Holy Orders, of the 
United Church of England and Ireland, aE<d that there shall be such and so 
many Professors in different Arts and Faculties within our said College as 
from time to time shall be deemed necessary or expedient, and as shall be 
appoii'ted by Us or by the Chancellor of our said College, in our })ehalf and 
during our pleasure : And We do hereby grant and ordain, that fhe Rever- 
end John Strachan, Doctor in Divinity, Archdeacon of York, in our said 
Province of Upper Car^ada, shall be the first President of our said College, 
and the Archdeacon of York, in our said Province, for the time being, shall 
by virtue of such his Ofiice, be at all times the President of the said College : 
And We do hereby for Us, our Heirs and Successors, will, ordain and grant, 
that the said Chancellor and President, and the said Professors of our said 
College, and all persons who shall be duly matriculated into and admitted as 
Scholars of our said College, and their Successors, for ever, snail be one 
distinct and separate Body Politic and Corporate, in deed and in n-ame, by 

20 U.C. 



204 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



the name and style of 'Tlie Chancellor, President, and Scholars of King's 
College, at York, in the Province of Upper Canada,' and that by the same 
name they shall have perpetual succession, and a Common Seal, and that 
they and their Successors shall, from time to time, have full power to alter, 
renew or change such Common Seal, at their will and pleasure, and as shall 
h-e found coD-venient; and that by the same name they, the said Chancellor, 
President and Scholars, and their Successors, from time to time, and at all 
times hereafter, shall be able and capable to have, take, receive, purchase, 
acquire, hold, possess, enjoy and maintain, to and for the use of the said 
College, any Messuages, Lands, Tenements and Hereditaments, of what 
kind, nature or quality soever, situate and being within our said Province 
of Upper Canada, so as the same do not exceed in yearly value the sum of 
Fifteen Thousand Pour-ds, Sterling, above all charges, and moreover to take, 
purchase, acquire, have, hold, enjoy, receive, possess, and retain, 'all or arV 
G-oods, Chattels, Charitable or other Contributions, Gifts or Benefactions 
whatsoever : And We do hereby declare and grant that the said Char^cellor, 
Piesident and Scholars, and their Successors, by the same name, shall and 
may be able and capable in Law, to sue . and be sued, implead and be 
impleaded, answer aijd be answered, in all or any Court or Courts of Record 
within our United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and our said 
Province of Upper Canada, and other our Dominions, m all and singular 
actions, causes, pleas, suits, matters and demands whatsoever, of what nature 
or kind soever, in as large, ample and benefic^'al a mariner and form as any 
other Body Politic and Corporate, or any other our liege Subjects, being 
persons able and capable in Law, may or can sue, implead or answer, or be 
sued, impleaded or answered, in any manner whatsoever: And We do hereby 
declare, ordain and grant, that there shall be within our said College or 
Corr'oration a Council, to be called and known by the name of 'The College 
Council,' and We do will and ordain that the said Council shall consist of 
the Chancellor and President, for the time being, and of Seven of the Pro- 
fessors in Arts and Faculties, of our said Colk^ge, and that such seven Pro- 
fessors shall be Members of the Established United Church of Er gland and 
Ireland, and shall previously to their admission into the said College Council, 
severally sign and subscribe the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion, as declared 
and 'set forth in the Book of Common. Prayer; and in case at any time there 
should not be within our said College Seven Professors of Arts and Faculties, 
being Members of the Established Church aforesaid, then our will and 
pleasure is, and We do hereby grant and ordain, that the said College Cour.cil 
shall be filled up to the requisite number of Seven, exclusive of the Chan- 
cellor and President, for the time being, by such persons being Graduates 
of our said 'College, and beii-g Members of the Established Church aforesaid, 
as shall for that purpose be appointed by the Chancellor, for the time being, 
of our said College, and which Members of Council shall in like manner 
subscribe the Thirty-nine Articles aforesaid, previously to their admission 
into the said College CouE-cil. And whereas it is necessary to make provi- 
sion for the completion and fillinu- up of the said Council at the llrst institu- 
tion of our said College, and previously to the appointment of any Professors 
or the conferriE'g of any degrees therein : Now We do fui'ther ordain and 
declare: that the Chancellor of our said College for the time being shall, 
upon or immediately after the first institution thereof, by Warrant under 
his hand, nominate and appoint Seven- discreet and ])io])or i^ersons, resident 
within our said Province of Upper Canada, to constitute jointly with him the 
said 'Chancellor and the Presider^t of our said College, for the time being, 
the first or original Council of our said College, which first or original Mem- 
bers of the said Council shall in like manner respectively subscribe the 
20a u.c. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 205 



Thirty-nine Articles aforesaid, previously to their admission ii'to the said 
Council : And We do further declare and grant, that the Members of the 
said College Council, holding within our said College the Offices of Chan- 
cellor, President, or Professor in any Art or Faculty, shall respectively hold 
their seats in the said Council, so long as they and each of them shall retain 
such their Offices as aforesaid, and no longer, and that the Members of the 
said Council not holdin.g Offices in our said College shall, from time to time 
vacate their seats in the said Council, when ard so soon as there shall be an 
adequate number of Professors in our said College, being Members of the 
Established Church aforesaid, to fill up the said Council to the requisite 
number before mentioned : And We do hereby authorize and empower the 
Chancellor, for the time being, of our said College, to decide in each case 
what particular Member of the said Council not holding any such Office as 
aforesaid, shall vacate his seat in the said Council, upon the admission of 
any new Member of Council holding any such Office : And we do hereby 
declare and grant that the Chancellor, for the time being, of our said Col- 
lege, shall preside at all meetings of the said College Council which he may 
deem it proper and convenient lo attend, and that in his absence the Presi- 
dent of our said College shall preside at all such meetings, and that in the 
absence of the said President, the vSenior Member of the said Council present 
at any such meeting shall preside thereat, and that the seniority of the 
Members of the said Council, other than the Chancellor and President, shall 
be regulated according to the date of their respective appointments : Provided 
always, that the Members of the said Council being Professors in our said 
College, shall in the said Council take precedence over, and be considered as 
Seniors to the Members thereof not being Professors in our said College : 
And We do ordain' and declare, that no meeting of the said Council shall be, 
or be held to be a lawful meeting thereof, unless five Members, at the least, 
be present during the whole of every such meeting; and thiat all questions 
and resolutions proposed for the decision of the said College Council, shall 
be determined by the majority of the votes of the Members of Council pres- 
ent, including the vote of the Presiding Member, and that in the event of an 
equal division of such votes, the Member presiding at any such meeting shall 
give an' additional or casting vote : And We do further declare, that if any 
Member of the said Council shall die, or resign his seat in the said Council, 
or shall be suspended or removed from the same, or shall, by reason of any 
bodily or mental infirmity, or by reason of his absence from the sa;id Pro- 
vince, become incapable, for three calen^dar months, or upwards, of attend- 
ing the meetings of the said Council, then, and in very such case a fit and 
proper person shall be appointed by tJie said Chancellor, to act as, and be a 
Member of the said Coun^cil, in the place and stead of the Member so dying 
or resigning, or so suspended, or removed, or incapacitated, as aforesaid, and 
such new Member succeeding to any Member so suspended or incapacitated, 
shall vacate such, his office, on the removal of any such suspension', or at 
the termination of any such incapacity aforesaid of his immediate predecessor 
in the said Council : And We do further ordain and grant, that it shall an^d 
may be competent to and for the Chancellor for the time being of our said 
College, to suspend from his seat in the said Council, an^y Member thereof, 
for any just and reasonable cause to the said Chancellor appearing : Provided 
that the grounds of every such suspension shall be entered and recorded at 
len'gth, by the said Chancellor, in the Books of the said Council, and signed 
bv him; and every person so suspended, shall, thereupon, cease to be a Mem- 
ber of the said Council, unless, and until he shall be restored to, and re- 
established in such his station therein, by any order to be made in' the 
premises by Us, or by the said Visitor of our said College, acting on our 



206 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



behalf, and in pursuance of any special reference from Us : And We do 
further declare, that any Member of the said CouD-cil who, without sufficient 
cause, to be allowed by the said Chancellor, by an order entered for that 
purpose on the Books of the said Council, shall absent himself from all the 
meetings thereof which may be held within any six successive calendar 
months, shall thereupon vacate such his seat iu' the said Council : And We 
do by these Presents, for Us, our Heirs and Successors, will, ordain and 
grant, that the said Council of our said College shall have power and 
authority to frame and make Statutes, Rules and Ordinances, touchiD'g and 
concerning the good government of the said College, the performance of 
Divine Service therein, the Studies, Lectures, Exercises, Degrees in Arts and 
Faculties, and all matters regarding the same ; the residence and duties of 
the President of our said College; the number, residence and duties of the 
Professors thereof; the management of the Revennes and Property of our 
said College ; the salaries, stipends, provision and emoluments, of and for 
the President, Professors, Scholars, Officers and Servants thereof; the num- 
ber and duties of such Officers and Servan-ts and also touching and concern- 
ing any other matter or thing which to them shall seem good, fit and useful, 
for the well-being and advancement of our said College, and agreeable to 
this our Charter; and also, from time to time, by any r'ew Statutes, Rules or 
Ordinances, to revoke, renew, augment or alter, all, every, or any of the 
said Statutes, Rules and Ordinances, as to them shall seem meet and expedi- 
ent : Provided always, that the said Statutes, Rules and Ordir-ances, or any 
of them, shall not be repugnant to the Laws and Statutes of the United King- 
dom of Great Britain and Ireland, or of our said Province of Upper Canada, 
or to this our Charter : Provided also, that the said Statutes, Rules and 
Ordinances, shall be subject to the approbation of the said Visitor of our 
said College for the time being, and shall be forthwith transmitted to the 
said Visitor for that purpose; and that in case the said Visitor shall, for us 
and on our behalf, in writing, signify his disapprobation' thereof within two 
years of the time of their being so made and framed, the same, or such part 
thereof as shall be so disapproved of by the said Visitor, shall, from the time 
of such disapprobation being made known to the said Chancellor of our said 
College, be utterly void and of eo effect, but otherwise, shall be and remain 
in full force and virtue : Provided, nevertheless, and We do hereby expressly 
save and reserve to Us, our Heirs and Successors, the power of reviewing, 
confirming or reversing, by any order or orders to be by Us or them made, in 
our or their Privy Council, all or any of the decisions, sentences or orders, 
so to be made as aforesaid by the said Visitor, for Us and on our behalf, in 
reference to the said Statutes, Rules and Ordinances, or any of them: Ard 
We do further ordain and declare, that no Statute, Rule or Ordinance shall 
be framed or made by the said College Council, touching the matters afore- 
said, or any of them, excepting only such as shall be proposed for the con- 
sideration of the said Council by the Chancellor for the time being of our 
said College: And we do require and enjoin the said Chancellor thereof, 
to consult with the President of our said College, and the next Senior Mem- 
ber of the said College Council, rospeeting all Statutes, Rules and Ordin- 
ances, to be proposed by him to the said Council, for their consideration : 
And We do hereby, for [Is. our Heirs and Successors, charge and command 
that the Statutes, Rules and Ordinances, aforesaid, subject to the said provi- 
sions, shall be strictly and inviolably observed, kept, and performed, from 
time to time, in full vigor and effect, under the penalties to be thereby or 
therein imposed or contained: And We do further will, ordain and grant, 
that the said College shall be deemed and taken to be an University, and 
shall have and enjoy all such and the like privileges as are enjoyed by our 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 207 



Universities of our United Kinf^dom of (ircat Britain and Ireland, as far as 
the same are capable of lieing had or enioyod, by virtue of these our Letters 
PateE't; and that the Students in the said College shall have liberty and 
faculty of takino- the degrees of Ba-chelor, Master and Doctor, in the several 
Arts and Faculties, at the appointed times, and shall have liberty within 
themselves of periorming all Scholastic Exercises, for the conferring such 
■degrees, iii' such manner as shall be directed by the Statutes, Rules and 
Ordinances of tlie said College : And We do further will, ordain and appoint, 
that no Religious test or qualification shall be required of, or appointed for 
any persons admitted or matriculated as Scholars within our said College, or 
of persons admitted to any degree in any Art or Faculty therein, save only 
that all persons admitted within our said College to any degree in Divinity, 
shall make such and the same declarations and subscriptions, aid take such 
and the same oaths as are required of persons admitted to a^ny degree of 
Divinity in our University of Oxford : And We do further will and direct 
and ordain, that the Chancellor, President and Professors of our said College, 
and all persons admitted therein to; the degree of Master of Arts, or to any 
degree in Divinity, Law or Medicine, and who, from the time of such their 
admission to such degree, shall pay the annual sum of Twenty Shillings, 
Sterling Money, for and towards the support and maintenance of the said 
College, shall be, and be deemed, takerc and reputed, to be Members of the 
Convocation of the said University, and as such Members of the said Convo- 
cation shall have, exercise and enjoy, all such and the like privileges as are 
enjoyed by the Members of the Convocation of our University of Oxford, so 
far as the same are capable of being had and enjoyed, by virtue of these our 
Letters Patent, and consistently with the provisions thereof: And We will, 
and by these Presents for Us, our Heirs an d Successors, do grant and declare, 
that these our Letters Patent, or the enrolment or exemplification thereof, 
shall and may be good, firm, valid, sufl&cient and effectual, in the Law, 
according to the true intent and meaning of the same, and shall be taken, 
construed and adjudged, in the most favourable and beneficial sense, for the 
best advantage of the said Chancellor, President and Scholars of our said 
College, as well in our Courts of Record as elsewhere, and by all and singular 
Judges, Justices, Officers, Ministers ard other Subjects whatsoever, of Us, 
our Heirs and Successors, any mis-recital, non-recital, omission, imperfec- 
tion, defect, matter, cause or thing whatsoever, to the contrary thereof in 
anywise notwithstanding : In Witness whereof We have caused these our 
Letters to be made Patent : Witness Ourself at Westminster, the Fifteenth 
day of March, in the Eighth year of Our Reign. By writ of Privy Seal. 

(Signed) Bathurst." 

A.nd Whereas, certain alterations appear necessarj^ to be made in the 
same, in order to meet the desire and circumstances of the Colony, and 
that the said Charter may produce the benefits intended : Be it therefore 
enacted by the King's Most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and 
consent of the Legislative Council and Assembly of the Province of Upper 
Canada, constituted and established by virtue of and under the authority 
of an Act passed in the^ ParHament of Great Britain, entituled, "An Act 
to repeal certain parts of an Act passed in the fourteenth year of His 
Majesty's Reign, entitled, 'An Act for making more effectual provision for 
the Government of the Province of Quebec, ir« North America, and to make 
further provision for the Government of the said Province,' " and by the 
authority of the same. That for and notwithstanding 'anything in the said 
Charter contained, the Judo-es of His Majesty's Court of King's Bench shall, 
for and on behalf of the King, be Visitors of the said College, in the place 



208 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



aE<d stead of the Lord Bishop of the Diocese of Quebec, for the time being, 
and that the President of the said University, on any future vacancy, shall 
be appointed by His Majesty, his Heirs and Successors, without requiring 
that he should be the Incumbent of any Ecclesiastical Office ; and that the 
Members of the College Council, ic'cluding the Chancellor and President, 
shall be Twelve in number, of whom the Speakers of the two Houses of the 
Legislature of the Province, and His Majesty's Attorney and Solicitor-Gen- 
eral for the time being shall be four, and the remainder shall consist of the 
five Senior Professors of Arts and Faculties of the said College, aid of the 
Principal of the Minor or Upper Canada College; and in case there shall 
not at any time be five Professors as aforesaid in the said College, and until 
Professors shall be* appointed therein, the Courcil shall be filled with Mem- 
bers to be appointed as in the said Charter is provided, except that it shall 
not be necessary that any Member of the College Council, to be so appointed, 
or that any Member of the said College Council, or any Professor, to be at 
any time appointed, shall be a Member of the Church of England, or sub- 
scribe to any Articles of Eeligion other than a declaration that they believe 
in the authenticity and Divine Inspiration of the Old and New Testament, 
aE'd in the doctrine of the Trinity; and further, that no religious test or 
qualification be required or appointed for any person admitted or matricu- 
lated as Scholars within the said College, or of persons admitted to any 
degree or faculty therein. 

II. And whereas, it is expedient that the Minor or Upper Canada Col- 
lege, lately erected in the City of Toronto, should be incorporated with, and 
form an appendage of the University of King's College : Be it therefore en- 
acted by the authority aforesaid, that the said Minor or Upper Canada Col- 
lege shall be incorporated with, and form an appendage of the University of 
King's College, and be subject to its jurisdictioEi and control. 

III.. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That the 
Principal of the said Minor or Upper Canada College, shall be appoiD-ted by 
the King, during His Majesty's pleasure. 

IV. And be it further enacted by the authority aforesaid. That the Yice- 
Principal and Tutors of the said Minor or Upper Canada College, shall be 
nominated by the Chancellor of the Uriversity of King's College, subject 
to the approval or disapproval of the Council thereof. 

V. And be it further ena-cted by the authority aforesaid, That it shall 
and may be lawful for the Chancellor of the said University, for the time 
being, to suspend or remove either the Yice-Principal or Tutors of the said 
Minor or Upper Canada College : Provided that such suspension or removal 
be recommended by the Council of the said University, and the grounds of 
such suspension or removal recorded at length in the Books of the said 
Council. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 209 



12 VICTORIA, CHAPTER 82. 

"An Act to amend the Charter of the University established at 
Toronto by His late Majesty King George the Fourth, to provide 
FOR the more satisfactory government of the said University, and 

FOR OTHER PURPOSES CONNECTED WITH THE SAME, AND WITH THE COLLEGE 

AND EoYAL Grammar School forming an appendage thereof." 

(30th May, 1849.) 

Wliereas a University for the advancement of Learning in that division 
of the Province called Upper Canada-, establisJied upon principles calculated 
to conciliate the confidence and insure the support of all classes and denom- 
inations of Her Majesty's subjects, would, under the blessing- of Divine Provi- 
dence, encourage the pursuit of Literature, Science and Art, and thereby 
greatly tend to promote the best interests, Religious, Moral and Intellectual 
of the people at large : And whereas, with a view to supply the want of 
such an Iri'stitution, His late Majesty King George the Fourth, by Royal 
Charter, bearing date at Westminster, the fifteenth day of March, in the 
eighth year of His Reign, was pleased to establish at Toronto, then called 
York, in that division of the Province, a Collegiate Institution, with the 
style and privileges of a University, and was afterwards pleased to endow 
the said Institution with certain of the Waste Lands of the Crown, in that 
part of the Province : And whereas the people of this Province consist of 
various denominations of Christian's, to the members of each of which 
denominations it is desirable to extend all the benefits of a University Edu- 
cation, and it is therefore necessary that such Institution, to erable it to 
accomplish its high purpose, should be entirely free in its government and 
discipline from all Denominational bias, so that the just rights and privi- 
leges of all may be fully maintained without offence to the religious opinions 
of any; And whereas the Legislature of the late Province of Upper Canada 
having been- invited by His late Majesty King William the Fourth, "to 
consider in what manner the said University could be best constituted for 
the general advantage of the whole Society," as appears by the Despatch of 
His Majesty's Secretary of State for the Colonies, bearing date the eighth day 
of November, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hur-dred and thirty- 
two, the Parliament of that Province, afterwards, by an Act passed in the 
seventh year of the Reign of His said late Majesty King William the 
Fourth, chaptered sixteen, and intituled. An Act to amend the Charter of 
King's College, did alter and amend the said Charter in certain particulars, 
in order, as the Preamble to the said Act recites, "to meet the desire and 
circumstances of the Colony:" And whereas such alteratior' and amend- 
ment have been found insufficient for these purposes, and therefore, as well 
for the more complete accomplishment of this important object, in com- 
pliance with His said late Majesty's Most Gracious Invitation-, as for the 
purpose of preventing the evil consequences to/vvhich frequent appeals to 
Parliament on the subject of the constitution and government of the said 
Uriversity is calculated to produce, it has become expedient and necessary 
to repeal the said Act, and to substitute other Legislative provisions in lieu 
thereof : Be it therefore enacted by the Queen's Most Excellent Majesty, by 
and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council and of the Legis- 
lative Assembly of the Province of Canada, corstituted and a«semblpd by 
virtue of and under the authority of an Act passed in the Parliament of the 
Uriited Kingdom of Great Britain a>nd Ireland, intituled, An Act to 



210 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



re-unite the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, and for the Government 
of Canada, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, that the 
said Act shall be and the same is hereby repealed. 

II. And be it enacted, That so much of the said Charter, so granted by 
His said late Majesty King George the Fourth as aforesaid, as is contradic- 
tory to or inconsistent with this Act or any of the provisions thereof, or as 
makes any provision in ar-y matter provided for by this Act other than such 
as is herebj' made in such matter, shall be, and the same is hereby repealed 
and annulled; anything in the said Charter or the said Act of the Parlia- 
ment of the late Province of Upper Canada to the contrary notwithstanding. 

I!. UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 

III. And be it enacted, That from henceforth the said University so 
established by the said Eoyal Charter of His said late Majesty King George 
the Fourth, bearing date the fifteenth day of March, in the eighth year of 
His Reign as aforesaid, shall be knowD- and designated by the name and 
style of "The Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of the University of To- 
ronto," in the stead and place of the name given thereto in and by said 
Charter, and the same shall contic'ue to be a University for the Education of 
Youth, and the conferring Degrees in Arts and Faculties, as provided by 
the said Charter; and the said University by the said name of "The Chan- 
cellor, Masters and Scholars of the University of Toronto," shall continue to 
be a Body Corporate and Politic, with perpetual succession and a Common 
Seal, and all other corporate and other rights, powers and privileges con- 
ferred by the said Royal Charter, except so far as the same are repealed, 
altered or modified by the provisions of this Act, and all and singular the 
rights, powers and privileges conferred by the said Charter, except as afore- 
said, shall be and the same are hereby confirmed to the said Chancellor, 
Masters and Scholars, and their Successors for ever; And the said Univer- 
sitv, by and under the name aforesaid, shall be able and capable in Law of 
purchasing, acquiring, taking, having, holding and enjoying by 'gift, grant, 
conveyance, device, bequest, or otherwise, to them and their Successors, any 
estate or property, real or personal, to and for the use of the said University, 
or to, for, or in trust for any other use or purpose whatsoever in any way 
connected with the advancement of Education' or the Arts or Sciences, and 
of letting, conveying or otherwise disposing thereof from time to time as 
they may deem necessary or expedient. 

lY. And be it enacted. That the Governor, or person administering the 
Government of this Province for the time being, shall be the Yisitor of the 
said University for and on behalf of Her Majesty, Her Heirs and Successors, 
which A'isitorial power shall and may be exorcised by Commission under the 
Great Seal of this Province, the proceedings whereof having been first con- 
firmed bv the Governor, or person administering the Government of the Pro- 
vince in Council, shall be binding upon the said University and its Members, 
and all others whomsoever. 

V. And be it enacted. That there shall be a Chancellor of, in and for the 
said University, who shall be elected by a majority of voices in open convo- 
cation, and shall hold ofiice for the period of three years; Provided always 
nevertheless, firstly, that the person^ so to be elected Chancellor shall be a 
natural born or naturalized subject of Her Majesty, and shall not be a Min- 
ister, Ecclesiastic or Teacher under or according to any form or profession 
of religious faith or worship whatsoever and provided also, secondly, that 
at the time of his election, or while he shall continue Chancellor, he shall 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 211 



not hold any other office, place or employment, either in the said University 
or in any other University, College, Seminary, School or place of Learning 
or Education in this Provir-ce, or elsewhere. 

YI. And be it enacted. That there shall be a Yice-Chaneellor, of, in 
and for the said University, who shall be or shall have been a Professor of and 
in the same, and shall be elected annually by the Serate of the said Univer- 
sity; Provided always nevertheless, firstly, that the person so to be elected 
Vice-Chancellor shall be a natural born or natura/lized subject of Her' 
Majesty, and shall not, at the time of his election, or while he shall conticue 
Vice-'Chancellor, hold any office, place or appointment in any other Univer- 
sity, Colle'g-e, Seminary, School or place of Learning or EducatioE' in this 
Province, or elsewhere; and, provided also, secondly, that the election of any 
Professor of the said University to be Y ice-Chancellor, as aforesaid, shall 
not in any way affect any Professorship or Professorships that he may then' 
hold, but the same shall continue to be held by him as if he had not been 
elected such Yice-Chancellor ; and provided also, thirdly, that such Yice- 
Chancellor shall, during the time that he shall hold such office, reside within 
the said University, or if permitted so to do by ary Statute of the said Uni- 
versity to be passed for that purpose, then in such place as may be prescribed 
by such University Statute. 

YII. And be it enacted. That there shall be a President of in and for 
the said University, who shall be appointed by the Crown under the Great 
Seal of the Province; Provided always nevertheless, firstly, that the person so 
to be appointed President shall be a natural born or naturalized subject of 
Her Majestj', and shall not at the time of his appointment, or while he shall 
continue President thereof, hold any office, place or appoic'tment in any 
other University, College, Seminary, School, or place of Learning or Educa- 
tion in this Province, or elsewhere; and provided also, secondly, that such 
President shall, during the time that he shall hold such office, reside within 
the said University, or if permitted so to do by any Statute of the said Uni- 
versity, to be passed for that purpose, then in such other place as may be 
prescribed by such University Statute; and provided also, thirdly, and lastly, 
that during the vacancy of the office of President of the said University, 
such temporary provision shall ard may be made by the Caput of the said 
University for the performance in the best manner in their power of the 
duties attached to such office as shall or may be directed or appointed by any 
University Statute to be passed for that purpose. 

VIII. 'And be it enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for the Con- 
vocatior- to appoint annually a Pro- Yice-Chancellor, who shall be authorized 
to perform the duties of the said office of Yice- Chancellor, whenever the said 
A^ice-Chancellor shall from illness or otherwise be unable to perform the 
same himself. 

IX. And be it enacted. That the Yice-Chancellor of the said Lniversity, 
or in. his absence, the Pro-Yice-Chancellor, while actually performijig the 
duties of Yice-Chancellor, shall take precederi-ce next after the Chancellor 
thereof, and the President of the said University next after the Yice-Chan- 
cellor, or Pro-Yice-Chancellor, while so actually performing the duties of 
Yice-Chancellor, and the Pro-Yice-Chancellor, except a-s aforesaid, next 
after the President : And the Professors, Officers, Members ar-d Servants of 
the said University in such order as shall or may from time to time be fixed 
by any Statute of the said University to be passed for that purpose. 

X. And be it enacted, That it shall be the duty of the Yice-Chancellor 
of the said University, in subordination to the Senate thereof, to mair-tain 
and enforce the observance of the Statutes of the said University by the 



212 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. i2 



President and Professors and other Members thereof, and to maintaiD and 
enforce all necessary discipline therein in regard to such President, Pro- 
fessors and Members, by admonitions and otherwise, as shall or may by 
Statute of the said University be provided in that behalf, together with all 
such other duties, consistent with the powers by this Act conferred upon 
other Officers of the said University, as shall or may by any such Statute be 
directed or provided, or to the said office attached : Provided always never- 
theless, that nothing hereir- contained shall be construed to interfere with 
the power over the Students and Members in statu pupillari of the said 
University, hereinafter conferred upon the President thereof. 

XL And be it enacted. That it shall be the duty of the President of the 
said University, Id subordination to the Caput and Senate thereof, to exer- 
cise a general superintendence over air the Students and Members in statu 
pupillari of the said University and over all the officers and servants of the 
same, and over the studies, lectures, examination's, exercises, and literary 
pursuits prescribed to such undergraduates by or under the authority of the 
Statutes of the said University, saving always nevertheless the powers and 
privileges by this Act conferred upon the Deans and Faculties of the said 
University with all such other duties, as consistently with the powers by 
this Act conferred upon other officers of the said University, shall or may by 
any such Statute be directed or provided or to the said office attached. 

XII. And be it enacted, That there shall be no Faculty of Divinity 
in the said University, nor shall there be any Professorship, Lectureship or 
Teaohership of Divinity is. the same, but that the present Faculty of Divinity 
shall have power to confer degrees in Divinity upon such Students and other 
Members of the said University as have hitherto been, or at present are pur- 
suing their studies in that Faculty on- their becoming er-titled to such 
degrees according to the existing Statutes of the said University, as far as 
the requirements of such Statutes shall be capable of being complied with 
after the passing of this Act, which degrees shall be as valid and effectual to 
all intents and purposes whatsoever as if they had been conferred by the said 
University previous to the passing of this Act, except that their date shall 
for all purposes relating to the standing of the parties on whom they shall 
be conferred, be reckoned from the time at which they shall have actually 
been conferred by such Faculty. 

XIII. Anl be it enacted, That there shall b-e in the said University three 
Faculties, to be called the Faculty of Law, Medicine and Arts, respectively, 
each of which Faculties shall be composed of such of the Profess?ors as shall 
be fixed by any University Statute to be passed for that purpose, and shall 
be presided over by a Dean to be elected annually from among the Professors 
composing such Faculty, and each of such Faculties shall and may moreover 
make such By-laws as they may think proper for the governmer't of such 
Faculty, such By-laws not being contrary to this Act, or to the Charter or 
Statutes of the said University; Provided always nevertheless, -that no such 
By-law shall be of any force or effect until approved by the vSenate of the 
said University, at a meeting thereof to be called for the purpose of consider- 
ing the same. Provided always, that if in the election of a Dean the votes 
be equally divided, the senior Professor of such Faculty shall have an addi- 
tional or casting vote in such election. 

XIY. And be it enacted, that there shall be in the vsaid Universitv a 
Council of five members, to be called the Caput of the said University, which 
Caput shall consist of the Prcs'dent of the said University for the time heingr. 
the Deans of the three Faculties of Law, ^[edicine and Arts, and a fiftL 
member to l>e appointed to such Council l-y the convocation of the said Uni- 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 213 



versity annually, of which Caput any four Members shall be a quorum fo: 
the despatch of business, in which said Caput the President of the said Uni- 
versity, or in his absence the Deans of Faculty, in the order above men- 
tioned, shall preside. 

XY. And be it enacted. That the ordinary general discipline, and gov- 
ernment of the said UD'iversity in subordination to the Senate thereof, shall 
be vested in and exercised by the Caput of the said University, and that all 
the acts of the Yice-Chancellor and of the President is, or shall be in- 
trusted with separate, distinct and independent powers, either by this 
Act, the Charter of the said University, or some Statute thereof, shall be 
under the direction and subject to the control of the said Caput, which, except 
as before excepted, shall have full powers to make orders and give directions 
in all such matters, subject nevertheless to an appeal to the Senate of the 
said University in all matters directly affecting ary of the Professors or 
Officers thereof, or involving the expulsion of any Member from the said 
University : Provided always, nevertheless, that the mode and manner of 
exeicisiii'g the powers hereby vested in the said Caput shall and may from 
time to time be regulated and directed by Statutes of the said University to be 
passed for that purpose. 

XYI. And be it enacted, That it shall be the duty of the said Caput to 
make an Annual General Report to the Senate of the said University, on 
the general state, conditioc', progress and prospects of the said University, 
and all things touching the same, and to make such suggestions as they may 
think proper for the improvement of the same, a duplicate of which said 
report such Caput shall transmit to the Governor, or person administering 
the Goverr-ment of the Province for the time being, through the Provincial 
Secretary thereof. 

XYII. And be it enacted. That there shall be in the said University a 
Deliberative Body, to be called the Senate of the said University, which shall 
consist of the Chancellor, Yice-Chancellor, the President, and all the Pro- 
fessors of the said University, and of twelve or more additional Members, 
who shall be appoirted to seats in the same one-half thereof by the Crown 
and the other half thereof by such Colleges in Upper Canada as now are or 
hereaifter shall be incorporated, with the pcjver of corf erring Degrees in 
Divinity, and not in the other Arts or Faculties, each of which additional 
Members, except those who shall be first appointed to such seats urder this 
Act, and those who shall be appointed to fill such seats for the residue of the 
term of office of their immediate predecessors respectively, shall hold his 
seat in the said Senate for a term of three years, and shall be appointed to 
and va-cate the same according to a cycle to be established by a Statute of 
the said University to be passed for that purpose, and which shall make such 
provision for the same as shall insure that, as nearly as may be, one-third 
of the said additional Members so to be appointed by the Crown as afore- 
said, and also one-third of the said additional Members so to be appointed by 
the said Colleges, shall respectively vacate their seats in such Senate every 
year: Provided always nevertheless, firstly, that fifteen Members shall be a 
quorum for the despatch of business, and that the Chancellor, and in his 
absence the Yice-Chancellor, and in the absence of both the Pro-Yice-Chan- 
cellor, and in the absence of all, then the President of the said University 
shall preside at all meetings of the said Senate, and in the absence of all 
such Officers, then such other Member of the said Senate as shall be appointed 
for that purpose for the time; and provided also, secondly, that no person 
shall be qualified to be appointed by the Crown to any such seat in the saM 
Senate who shall be a Minister, Ecclesiastic, or Teacher, under or according 



214 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



to any form or profession of Religious Paith or Worship whatsoever : And 
provided also, thirdly, that no person shall be qualified to be appointed either 
by the Crown or hy any such Incorporated College to a seat, in the said 
Senate, who shall not have taken the Degree of Master of Arts, or ary Degree 
in Law or Medicine in the said University at least five years prior to the 
time of his appointment to such seat : Provided, always, nevertheless, 
fourthly, and lastly, that the restriction contained iji- the said last foregoing 
Proviso to this Section, shall not apply to any appointments to be made to 
such vSenate prior to the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 
sixty. 

XVIII. And be it enacted. That every such Incorporated College in 
Upper Canada, as is described in the next preceding section of this Act, shall 
be entitled to appoint one of such additional Members of such Senate, and 
that the Crown shall in like manri'er be entitled to appoint one other of such 
additional Members for every Member that such Colleges shall be so entitled 
to appoint respectively as aforesaid, so that in all time to come, the number 
of Crown Seats and the. number of the Collegiate Seats in such Senate shall 
be equal : Provided always, nevertheless, firstly, that until there shall be at 
least six such Incorporated Colleges in Upper Canada, entitled to appoint to 
seats in such Senate, according to the provisions of this and the next preced- 
ing section of this Act, it shall and may be lawful for the Crown, besides 
appointing to the corresponding Crown Seats in such Senate, to appoint also 
to the six Collegiate Seats therein, or to so many of them as there shall or 
may from time to time be no such Incorporated College entitled to appoint 
to : And provided also, secondly, that in making such apointments to such 
Collegiate Seats in such vSenate, the Crown shall not be restricted in its choice, 
as by the second proviso to the said next preceding section of this Act is pro- 
vided. 

XIX. A-nd be it enacted, That the Senate of the said University shall 
have full power and authority to frame and make such Statutes, Pules and 
Ordinances as they may think necessarj- or expedient touching or corcerning 
the good government of the said University, or touching or concerning th? 
Professors and all others holding office in the same, the Studies, Lectures, 
Examinations. Exercises, Degrees in Arts and Faculties to be pursued, given, 
had, or held therein, and all matters touching the same ; and for the sum- 
moning and holding regular or Special Meetings of the Caput, and of the 
Senate, and for the times and mode of summoning and holding Convoca- 
tions of the said L'^niversity and ail matters relative to the same; the duti6s 
of the Chancellor, and the residence and duties of the Yice-Chancellor and 
President of the said L^niversity; the number, examination, residence, duties 
and order of precedence and seniority of the Professors of the said University, 
the number of Eellowships, Scholarships, Exhibitions and other 
Prizes of, and in the said I'niversity, ard all matters relative to the 
establishment of such FelloMships, Scholarships, Exhibitions and 
Prizes, and the Examination of Candidates for the same, the number, 
residence, appointment ard duties of all Officers and Servants of 
the said University, the management of ' the property and revenues 
thereof, the salaries, stipends, provision, fees and emoluments of and for 
the Vice-Chancellor, President, Professors, Fellows, Scholars, Officers and 
Servants of the said University, and generally concerning any other matter 
or thing for the well-being and advancement of the said University; and 
also from time to time to revoke, renew, augment or alter all, ev^ry or any 
of the said Statutes, Pules and Ordinances as to them shall seem meet or 
expedient : Provided always nevertheleess, firstly, that such Statutes, 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 215 



Rules and Ordinances, or any of them, shall not be repugnant to the Laws 
or Statutes of this Province : Provided also, secondly, that no such Statute, 
Rule or Ordinance shall be passed and adopted at the same Meeting at which 
it is first introduced and considered, but that a Second Meeting of the said 
Senate shall be specially convened for the passing and adopting any such 
Statute, Rule or Ordinance : And provided also, thirdly, and lastly, that it 
shall and may be lawful for the Crown, at any time within two years from 
the passing of any such Statute, Rule or Ordirance, by Letters Patent under 
the Great Seal of this Province, to disallow such Statute, Rule or Ordinance, 
and thereupon every such Statute, Rule or Ordinance shall from the date of 
euch Letters Patent^ stand repealed and be of no force or effect whatsoever. 

XX. x\nd be it enacted. That the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, Presi- 
dent and Professors of the said University, and all persons admitted in the 
said University to any Degree in Law or Medicine or to that of Master in any 
of the other Aris or Faculties, and who shall have paid from the time of his 
admissioD to such Degree the annual sum of twenty shillings of lawful 
money of Canada, for and towards the support and maintenance of the said 
University, shall be and be deemed, taken and reputed to be Members of the 
Convocation of the said Universitj^ : Provided always, nevertheless, that no 
person, upon whom an Honorary Degree only shall have been conferred by the 
said University, shall have any right by virtue thereof to vote as a member 
of such Convocation. 

XXI. And be it' enacted. That there shall be for the said University, 
and for the College and Royal Grammar School of Upper Canada College, a 
Body to be called "The Endowment Board of the University of Toronto and 
of the College and Royal Grammar School of Upper Canada College," which 
shall consist of five members, who shall hold their places at such Board, 
during the pleasure of the parties in whom their appointmert is hereby 
vested respectively, one of which Members shall be appointed by the Gov- 
ernor, or person administering the Government of this Province for the time 
being, one by the Senate of the said University, one by the Caput thereof, and 
one by the 'College Council of the said College and Royal Grammar School, 
and one by the Masters of the said College arfd Roj^al Grammar School, or 
a majority of them, of which Board any three Members shall form a quorum 
for the despatch of business : Provided always nevertheless, firstlj', that the 
Member of such Board to be so appointed by the Goverror or person adminis- 
tering the Government of the Province, as aforesaid, shall be the Chairman 
of such Board, and shall te so expressly named in the Instrument by which 
he shall be so appointed, which said chairman, of the said Board shall be a 
person holding no Professorship, Office or Employment wha-tsoever in the 
said University, or in the said College or Royal Grammar School, or in any 
other University, College, Collegiate Institution, School, or other place 
of Learning in this Province or elsewhere, and shall not be a member of the 
Senate or Caput of the_said University, or of any other such University, 
College, Collegiate Institution, School, or other place of Learning as afore- 
said, nor shall he, during the time that he shall continue to be Chair- 
man of such Board, be capable of being appointed to any such Professorship, 
Office or other Employment whatsoever, either in. the said University, or in 
the said College and Royal Grammar School, or in any such other Univer- 
sity, College, Collegiate Institution, School, or other place of Learning, as 
aforesaid, or to any seat in the Senate or Caput of the said University, or 
Council of the said College and Royal Grammar School, or in any other 
Council, Board or Body, belonging to, or connected with the same, or in any 
of them: And provFded also, secondly, that each Member of such Board 



216 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



shall give such security for the proper discharge of his duty as shall be set- 
tled by a Statute of the University in that behalf. 

XXII. And be it enacted, That it shall be the duty of the said Endow- 
ment Board to take upon themselves the general charge, superintenderce and 
management of the whole property and effects, real and personal, of the said 
University, under the direction of such University Statutes as shall or may 
be passed for that purpose : Provided always revertheless, firstly, that noth- 
ing herein contained shall be construed to confer upon the said Endowment 
Board a power to alienate any portion of the endowment of the said Urii- 
versity, contrar^' to the provisions of the thirty-seventh Section of this Act : 
And provided also, secondly, that such Endowment Board shall from time 
to time, and at all times, as the same may be required, afford to the Goverc'or, 
or person administering the Government of this Province for the time being, 
and also to the Chancellor, Caput and Senate of the said Universitj^, or to 
such Committee or Committees of such Caput or Senate as thej may respec- 
tively appoir't for that purpose, all such information respecting such property 
and effects, and the whole fiscal or financial affairs of the said University, 
as the said Governor, or persoii administering the Government of the Pro- 
vince, or the said Chancellor, Caput or Senate, or any such Committee or 
Committees of such Caput or Senate shall or may from time to time require : 
And provided also, thirdly, that such Board shall in like manner afford the 
like information to the Auditors to be appointed annually for auditing the 
accouD.ts of the said University : And provided also, fourthly and lastly, 
that it shall moreover be the duty of such Board annually to make a full 
report of the state of the property and effects of the said University under 
their charge, superintendence and management, and generally of the whole 
fiscal or financial aff'airs of the said University, to the Senate of the said 
University, and at the same time to transmit a duplicate of such report to the 
Governor or person administering the Government of this Province, through 
the Provincial Secretary thereof. 

XXIII. And be it enacted, That there shall be two Auditors of Accounts 
of the said University, to be appointed annually, one by the Chancellor, or 
m default of such appointment, by the Yice-Chancellor of the said Univer- 
sitv, and the other by the Serate thereof, whose duty it shall be to examine 
and audit the Accounts of the said Endowment Board, as far as they regard 
the property and effects of the said University, and all other accounts of 
the said University generally, and to make a report upon the same to the 
Senate of the said University, a duplicate of which report such Auditors 
shall transmit to the Governor or person administering the Government of 
the Province for the time being, through the Provincial Secretary thereof. 

XXIY. And be it enacted. That the Professors of the said University 
shall be appointed by the Crown upon the report or resolutions of the Sen'ate 
of the said University in the manner following, tha-t is to say : whenever 
any new Chair shall be established in such University, or whenever any 
Chair theretofore established in the same shall become vacant, by death or 
otherwise, it shall be the duty of the Caput of the said University, under 
and subject to such regulations as may be established by any University 
Statute to be passed for that purpose, to malie known by putslic advertisement 
the fact of such Chair being vacant as aforesaid, the duties imposed by the 
Statutes of the said University upon the incumbent of such 'Chair, together 
with the salary and emoluments belonging to the same, and requiring that 
the names, residence and additions, and also the testimonials of all Candi- 
dates for such Chair, should be transmitted t(? and deposited in the proper 
office of the said University, by a day to be named in such advertisements; 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 217 



and it shaJl be the duty of tlie said Caput, on some day to be specially 
appointed for that purpose, after tlie day so fixed for tlie receipt of sucli appli- 
cations as aforesaid, to proceed to take the said testimonials of the different 
candidates for such Chair icito consideration, and thereupon, on the same, or 
on some subsequent day, and with as much deliberation as may be, to make 
a report addressed to the Senate of the said University upon the same, and 
the said Senate shall be specially called together by a notice addressed to 
each Member thereof, and sent to him through the Post Office ,_to take such 
rcDort into consideration, and it shall be the duty of the sa>id Senate, upon 
full examination of such testimonials, and the report of the Caput upon the 
sa>me, and if in their discretion they shall think fit so to do, or if the same 
shall be required by any Statute of the said University to be passgd for that 
purpose, then by personal, public, oral examination of such candidates, 
and by all such other ways, methods and means as shall or may be directed 
in that behalf by any such University Statute, to select three of the cardi- 
dates for the said Chair, whom in their judgment, the said Senate shall deem 
best qualified to fill the satme, with advantage to the said University, and 
to transmit the names of such three candidates together with their testi- 
monials, the report of the Caput thereon, and their own report or resolu- 
tions, adopting, qualifying or dissenting from such report, or any part there- 
of, with their reasons therefor and for the selection of such three candidates 
to the Governor, or person administering the Government of this Province 
for the time being, through the Provincial Secretary thereof; and it shall 
and may be lawful for the said Governor, or person administering the Gov- 
ernment of this Province for the time being, to appoint some one of the said 
three candidates to fill such vacant Chair in the said Universitv : Provided 
always nevertheless, firstly, that no sitting of the Senate of the said Univer- 
sity shall be held to take such testimonials and the report of the Caput 
thereon into consideration, or for the examination of the candidates for such 
Chair, within a shorter period than one calendar month after such report of 
the said Caput shall have been prepared, and the notice of such sittings 
addressed to the different Members of the said Senate delivered to the Post 
Office as aforesaid : And provided also, secondly, that in case there shall 
not be as many as three, of the said candidates for such vacant Chair, whom 
the said Senate shall in their judgment deem qualified to fulfil the duties 
thereof as aforesaid, they shall nevertheless still transmit the names of 
three of such candidates, if there shall have been so many, and shall, in so 
transmitting the same, state which of such three caiKlidates they do not 
deem sufficiently qualified to be appointed to such vacant Chair, as afore- 
said, and tLe grounds of such opinion: And provided also, thirdly, and 
lastly, that during the vacancy of any such Chair such temporary provi- 
sion shall and may be made by the Caput of the said University for the per- 
formance of the duties attached to the same as shall or may be directed and 
appointed by any University Statute to be passed for that purpose. 

XXV. And be it enacted. That it shall and may be lawful for the 
Senate of the said University, upon the report of th- Vice-Chancellor thereof 
or upon that of a Committee of its own Members, to suspend anv Professor 
of the said University from his office for any just and reasonable cause to 
them appearing : Provided always, nevertheless, firstlv. that the grounds of 
every such suspension shall be entered and recorded at length on the books 
of the said Senate; and every Professor so suspended shall thereupon cease 
from the performance of his duties and from the exercise of his rights, 
functions and privileges until, and unless such suspension shall be removed 
by the Visitor of the said University under his Privy Seal : And provided 



218 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



also, secondly, that a copy duly authenticated of the entry and record of 
such suspension, and the grounds thereof, be forthwith transmitted to the 
said Visitor through the Provincial vSecretary : And provided also, thirdly, 
that the coDitinuance of any such suspension for a period of three calendar 
months continua/lly without any appeal by such Professor to the said Visitor, 
against such decision of the said Senate, shall ipso facto vacate such Pro- 
fessorship, as if the party so suspended were naturally dead : And provided 
also, fourthly, and lastly, that during every such suspension, such temporary 
provision shall and may be made by the Caput of the said University for the 
performance in the best manner within their power of the duties of such 
suspended Professor as is hereinbefore provided with respect to- those of a 
vacant Chair. 

XXVI. And be it enacted. That if upon the report of the Vice-ChaE- 
cellor, or upon that of a Committee of their own Members, the Senate of 
the said University, after affording to the party all reasonable opportunity 
of being heard in his defence, shall report to the Governor, or person, admin- 
istering the Government of this Province for the time being, through the 
Provincial Secretary thereof, their opinion ihait any Professor of the said 
University ought to be removed from his Professorship, ar.d shall in such 
report set forth at length the grounds and reasons for such opinion, it shall 
and may be lawful for the Governor or person administering the Government 
thereof for the time beir.g, if he shall deem it just and proper so to do, by 
an Instrument under his Privy iSeal to remove such Professor from his Pro- 
fessorship, and thereupon such Chair shall be dealt with as if it had become 
vacant by the death of such Professor. 

XXVII. And be it enacted. That the examinations of Candidates for 
Professors, Chairs, and for Degrees in Arts aii-d Faculties in the said Uni- 
versity shall be public, and shaill be conducted by such and so many 
Examiners as shall or may be appointed by the Senate of the said University, 
according to the provisions of any University Statute or Statutes to be 
passed for that purpose. 

XXVIII. Aii-d be it enacted, That the said University shall haive no 
power to confer any Degree in Divinity, but shall have full power and 
authority to confer all other Degrees in all other Arts and Faculties what- 
soever, including Honorary Degrees, and Degrees ad eundem, and all other 
University powers and privileges, as fully and effectually to all intents and 
purposes whatsoever as such power and authority is held, possessed or 
enjoyed by the Universities of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland, or any of them : Provided always, nevertheless, that Degrees ad 
eundem shall by the said University be conferred only upon Graduates of 
Universities within Her Majesty's Dominions, or on the Graduates of such 
Foreign Universities as shall or may from time to time be declared entitled 
to the said privilege by a Statute or Statutes of the said University to be 
passed for that purpose. 

XXIX. And be it enacted. That no religious Test or qualification what- 
soever shall be required of or appointed for any person admitted or matri- 
culated as a Member of such University whether as a Scholar, Student, 
Fellow, or otherwise, or of or for any person admitted to any Degree in any 
Art or Faculty in the said University, or of or for any person, appointed to 
any Office, Professorship, Lectureship, Mastership, Tutorship, or other place 
or employment whatsoever in the same, nor shall religious observances, 
according to the forms of any particular Religious Denomination, be imposed 
upon the Members or Officers of the said Un.iversity, or any of them. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 219 



XXX. And be it enacted, That it shall not be lawful for the 'Chancellor, 
Masters and Scholars of the University of Toronto, or for the said Endow- 
ment Board, on their behalf, to borrow any money on the security of the 
said University, or of the funds or other property thereof, or otherwise how- 
aoever, except under the authority of a Statute of the said University by 
which Statute there shall at the t^'me be appropriated, such an amouDt of the 
annual income of the said University, arising from the interest and divi- 
dends of money actually invested uD.der the authority of the thirty-eighth 
section of this Act, as shall be sufficient to meet the annual interest upon such 
loan, and in addition thereto a sufficient sum per cer.tum per annum upon 
the original principal of such loan, to constitute a Sinking Fund for the 
final redemption, satisfactioE- and discharge of the said original principal of 
such loan within at least twenty years from the time of the contracting of 
the same, and the annual interest of such loan, and the anr.ual appropriation 
for such Sinking Fund for the redeijiption and satisfaction thereof, shall 
constitute ac extra charge upon the Income Fund of the said University as 
hereinafter established, which so long as any part of the said original prin- 
cipal of such loan shall remain unpaid shall take precedence of the fourth, 
fifth and sixth ordinary annual charges upoD. such Income Fund as the same 
are respectively charged and imposed upon the same by the fortieth section 
of this Act : And until such payment and satisfaction of the whole prin- 
cipal and interest of such loan, any University Statute, either Visitatorial or 
Senatorial, whereby such provision shall or may be attempted to be repealed 
or altered, shall be null and void to all intents and purposes whatsoever. 

XXXI. And be it enacted. That a printed copy of the whole of any 
book which shall be published in this Province after the passiu.g of this Act, 
whether consisting of the whole or only a part of a volume, if separately 
oublished, together with all maps, prints, or other engravings belonging 
thereto, and of every pamphlet, sheet of letterpress, sheet of music, map, 
chart or plan separatley published, furnished ari.d coloured in the same 
manner as the best copies of the same shall be published, and also of any 
second or subseqiient edition which shall be so published, with any additions 
or alterations, whether the same shall be in letterpress, or in the maps, 
prints, or other engravings belonging thereto, and whether the first edition 
of such book shall have been published before or aifter the passing of this 
Act, bound, sewed, or stitched together as offered for sale generally by the 
publisher thereof, and upon the best paper upon which the same shall be 
printed, shall, within six calendar months after the same shall first be sold, 
published, or offered for sale, be delivered on the part of the publisher at the 
library of the said University, and a receipt taken, for the same from the 
Librarian, which receipt shall set forth the title and edition of such book at 
length, and upon demard be given by such Librarian to the person depositing 
•such copy at the said library; and or. default of such delivery within the 
time aforesaid, the publisher of every such book, pamphlet, sheet of letter- 
press, sheet of music, map, chart or plan shall forfeit, besides the value of 
such copy which he ought to have delivered, a sum not exceeding five pounds, 
to be recovered by the Librarian , or other Officer or Agent of such Librarian, 
properly authorized for that purpose, for the use of the said University, to 
be applied for the augmentation of the said library, to be recovered in a 
summary way on conviction, before any two Justices of the Peace for the 
District, County, City, or place where the publisher making default shall 
reside or be found, or in the name of the Chancellor, Masters and Scholars 
of the said University, in an action of debt or other proceeding of the like 
nature, in any Court of competent jurisdiction in this Province, in which 

21 u.c 



^,20 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



action tlie said University, if they shall recover, sha-U recover the costs 
reasonably incurred, to be taxed as between Attorney and Client. 

XXXII. And be it enacted, That all the property and effects, real and 
personal, of what nature or kind soever, now belonging to or vested in the 
said University, or in the Chancellor, President and Scholars thereof, or in 
any other person or persons, or Body Corporate or Politic whatsoever, for 
the use or benefit of the said University, shall be and coD.tinue vested in the 
Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of the University of Toronto to hold to 
them and their successors, to the use of them and their successors, for ever, 
anything in the said Charter of His said late Majesty, Id, any Act of the 
Parliament of the late Province of Upper Canada, or of this Province, or in 
any Letters Patent, Royal Charters, Deeds or other Instruments to the con- 
trary thereof in m\y wise notwithstanding. 

XXXIII. And be it enacted. That all debts due to the said University, 
or to the Chancellor, President and Scholars thereof, in their Corporate 
capacity and all judgments, recognizances, bonds, covenants and other in- 
struments or contracts suffered, acknowledged, or given to, or made with 
them as aforesaid, or with the Chancellor, President and Scholars thereof 
in their Corporate capacity, by whatsoever rame the same may have been 
suffered, acknowledged, given, or made, shall be available, stand and con- 
tinue of good purport, and full force and strength to the Chancellor, Masters 
and Scholars of the University of Toronto, as if the said University had 
been therein named by the Corporate name thereby given to the same; and 
it shall and may be lawful for the said University, by the Corporate name 
last aforesaid, to proceed upon the same by execution or otherwise, ar.d 
recover thereon, as if the same had beer suffered, acknowledged, or given to, 
or made with them, by the name last aforesaid. 

XXXIY. And be it enacted, That the Chancellor, Masters and Scholars 
of the University of Toronto, shall, both in law aE.d equity, be liable to all 
the present existing debts, contracts and agreements of the said University, 
and may be sued upon and recovered against for the same, as if the same had 
been contracted or entered into by them by the name aforesaid. 

XXX Y. And be it enacted, That the Fiscal year of the said University 
shall commence on the first day of January, and end on the thirty-first daj' 
of December of each year. 

XXXVI. And be it enacted, That the Salaries of the different Profes- 
sors, Lecturers, Teachers, Officers and Servarts of the said University shall, 
by the Statutes establishing the same, be made payable quarterly, on the 
four quarter days of such Fiscal year, that is to say, the first days of January, 
April, July, and October, in the same. * 

XXXVII. And be it enacted, That none of the real property of the 
sa^'d University, and none of the property thereof ir.vested according to the 
directions of either the thirtv-eighth or forty-second sections of this Act, 
shall be disposed of or applied otherwise than by authority of a Statute of 
the said University. 

XXXVIII. And be it enacted. That the proceeds arising from the sales 
of any of the lands referred to in. the thirty-seventh section of this Act, which 
it shall from time to time be deemed expedient by the said University to 
sell and dispose of, and all moneys received upon investments called in, or 
paid oil', together with any suruhis of the income over the expenditure of the 
said University, as provided by the forty-second section of this Act, shall 
form a fund, to be called in the Books of the said University "The UnH-er- 

21a U.C 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 221 



sity Investment Fund," the moneys at tlie credit of whicli Fund shall, from 
time to time, be invested in such Government or landed securities as shall be 
approved of by the Ser.ate of the said University. 

XXXIX. And be it enacted, That the annual income of the said Uni- 
versity, arising from the fees and dues payaWe to the same for Matriculation, 
Lectures, Tuition, Degrees, or otherwise, or from such portion thereof as by 
any Statute or Statutes of the said University, shall be payable into the 
General Funds of the said University, and not to the Professors or Officers 
thereof, and from the annual or other periodical rents, interests and divi- 
dends arising from the property and effects of the said Uriversity, of what 
nature or kind soever, whether real or personal, together with all such 
annual or other dona4:ions or subscriptions, as may be made to the said Uni- 
versity for the general benefit thereof, without being specifically appointed 
by the Donor to any particular object or purpose, shall form another Fund, 
to be called "The University Income Fund," the moneys at the credit of 
which last mentioned Fund shall be appropriated and applied to make good 
and satisfy the several charges by the next following section of this Act 
charged and imposed upon the said Fund in the order in which such charges 
are there n charged and imposed upon the same. 

XL. And be it exacted, That the first annual charge upon the said Uni- 
versity Income Fund, shall be the necessarj^ expenses incurred in the receipt, 
collection and management of the moneys of the said University, as well as 
those constitutir.g the Investment Fund, as those constituting the said 
Income Fund ; the second charge upon such Income Fund shall be the neces- 
sary outlay for taxes, insurance and repairs of the .buildings and other 
property of the said University; the third charge upon such Income Fund, 
shall be the salaries of the Bursar, Librarian, and other similar Officers, or 
those of the Lecturers and other Teachers, not being Professors, and the 
salaries, wages and allowances of all Subordinate Officers an Servants of 
the said University; the fourth charge upon the said Fund shall be such 
sum of money as by any Statute or Statutes of the said University, to be 
passed for that purpose, shall be annually appropriated for the Incidental 
Expenses of the said University for the fiscal year, or so much of such sum 
as shall be required for such Incidental expenses; the fifth charge upon 
such Fund shall be the salaries of the Yice-Chancellor, President and Pro- 
fessors of the said University, and so much of those of the Members of the 
Endowment Board of the sgid University and College aa shall be payable 
out of the Funds of the said University; and the sixth and last charge, 
such special appropriations out of the said Income Fund for such year, as 
shall have been directed to be made by any Statute of the said University, 
passed for that purpose. 

XLI. And be it enacted. That whenever the Income Fund of the said 
University for any year shall not be sufficient to satisfy and discharge the 
different charges upon the same for such year, as herein provided, the 
amount of the deficiency for such year shall be supplied from the surplus 
Income Fund which has not yet been carried to the Investment Fund, or 
shall be deducted in equal proportions from all the salaries constituting the 
fifth annual charge upon such Fun.d for the following year, by proportionate 
quarterly deductions from such salaries as the same become respectively 
payable at each financial quarter of such following year : Provided always 
nevertheless, firstly, that the parties whose receipts of salary may have been 
diminished by such proportionate deductions, as aforesaid, shall be entitled 
to have such deficiency made good in part or in the whole, as the case may 
be, out of any surplus, or surpluses of income over expenditure, that may 
accrue during the six j-ears next ensuing that in which such proportionate 



222 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



deductions sliall have been so made as aforesaid: Provided also, secondly, 
that for the deficiency thus occasioned in such salaries, and which a-t the end 
of every sixth year, may yet remain unsatisfied as aforesaid, the Incumbents 
to whose Offices or Chairs such salaries shall be attached respectively, shall 
have no claim upon the said University or upon the Funds thereof, but the 
amount of such salaries received by each of such Incumbents accordin.g to 
the provisions of this Act, shall be deemed and taken to have been received 
by him in full satisfaction and discharge of the whole of his salary for such 
six years, for which such proportion of the same shall have been paid to 
him as aforesaid. 

XLII. And be it enacted. That the surplus, if any, of the said University 
Income Fund, after satisfying and discharging the several charges, whether 
ordinary or extra, by this Act charged upon the same, shall be annually 
transferred to the Investment Fund of the said University, and with the 
other moneys belonging to that Fund shall be from time to time invested, as 
in and bv the thirty-eighth section of this Act is declared, so that there shall 
be no balance of the said Income Fund to be carried forward from one fiscal 
year to the next. 

XLIII. And be it enacted, That so soon as any of the Incorporated 
Colleges, Collegiate Institutions or Universities in tipper Canada havirg 
the power of conferring Degrees not only in the Faculty of Divinity, but the 
other Arts and Faculties also, shall have signified to the Governor, or per- 
son administering the Government of this Province for the time being, under 
their Corporate Seal, their desire to become entitled to appoint a Member to 
the Senate of the said University according to the provisions of this Act in 
that behalf, it shall and may be lawful for the Crown, by Letters Patent 
under the Great Seal of the Province, reciting such Instrument, to declare 
so much of the Charter of such College, Collegiate Institution, or University, 
whether the same shall be granted by Parliament or otherwise, as shall have 
been granted to, or vested in such College, Collegiate Institution or Univer- 
sity, the power of conferring such Degrees ('saving always nevertheless to 
such College, Collegiate Institution or University the power of conferring 
Degrees in the Faculty of Divinity), to be from the date of such Letters 
Patent or from such other day as may be named therein for that purpose, 
repealed, abrogated and annulled, aaid thereupon, from such day all such 
powers and privileges, with the saving aforesaid, shall be and the same are 
hereby declared tp be absolutely repealed, abrogated and annulled accord- 
ingly, anything in. the several Charters of such Colleges, Collegiate Insti- 
tutions or Universities, whether granted by the Parliament or otherwise, to 
the contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding. 

XLIV. And be it enacted, That all Statutes, Rules and Ordinances of 
the said first mentioned University in force at the time of the passing of 
this Act, and which are not inconsistent with the provisions thereof, shall 
be and continue in force till repealed, altered or amended by some other 
Statute of the said University, either Visitatorial or Senatorial, to be here- 
after enacted or passed for that purpose. 

XLV. And be it enacted. That nothing herein contained shall be 
deemed in any manner to affect any Degrees conferred or Terms kept, or 
studies or exercises performed in the said University, and the same shall be 
valid and effectual for all purposes whatsoever; and the same shall continue 
to be deemed Degrees conferred and Terms kept and studies and exercises 
performed in the said University as if this Act had not been passed. 

XLYI. And be it enacted. That with the exception of the Professor of 
Divinity, every Professor, Lecturer and Officer of the said University now 
actually holding a chair or Office in the same, shall continue to hold his 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 223 



Chair, Place or Office, under a Dew Warrant to be issued to liim for the 
same, until he shall be removed therefrom in the manner prescribed by this 
Act : Provided always, nevertheless, that nothing herein contained shall 
prevent or be construed to prevent the Commissioc of Visitation to be issued 
as hereinafter directed, or any other such Commission of Visitation, or any 
University Statute to be passed for that purpose from re-arranging suck 
Chairs or the duties attached to the same respectively, or from adding to, 
varying or deducting from the duties of the Chair or Chairs held by any 
such Professor, Lecturer, or Teacher in the said University, or from so 
altering or varying the amount of salary or emolument receivable by any 
such Professor, Lecturer or Teacher, as shall be necessary to give effect to 
the provisions of this Act, for the prevention of the dissipation of the Endow- 
ment or Capital Stock of such University, and restricting its expenses and 
disbursements to the amount of its annual income from the same. 

XLVII. And whereas for the purpose of adapting the Statutes of the 
said University to the alterations hereby made in the Charter thereof, it is 
desirable that a Commission of Visitation should be issued to consider of 
and report upon the same : Be it therefore enacted, That so soon after the 
passing of this Act as \o the Governor, or person administering the Govern- 
ment of the Province for the time being, shall seem expedient, a Commission 
of Visitation under the Great Seal shall be issued directed to not less than 
•five Commissioners who shall be thereby directed to confer with the authori- 
ties of the said University upon the subject of such alterations and amend- 
ments in or to such Statutes, Eules or Ordinrmces as they shall think proper 
to recommend for this purpose, and generally for the well ordering of the 
said University, and thereupon to report a Code of proper Statutes, Rules 
and Ordinances for the government of the said University, which 
Code having been first approved by the Governor, or person administering 
the Government of the Province for the time being, shall be obeyed in future 
in the said University until by lawful authority the same shall or may be 
amended, altered or repealed, 

XLVIII. And whereas certain of the Professors of the said University 
claim to have been induced to give up certain preferments or other pursuitvs 
or employments in which they were at the time engaged, and from which 
they were deriving their support, for the purpose of accepting certain of the 
Chairs in the said University under the expectation of such appointments 
being permanent, and with the assurance that the emoluments thereof would 
at least be equal to certain specified amounts respectively, and it is therefore 
expedient that the cases of such persons and of others who can advance just 
claims to compensation for services performed to the said University, should 
be specially enquired into and reported upon, with a view of ascertaining 
the merits of their respective cases, and how far if their claims be found 
just some reasonable satisfaction may be afforded them for such losses as 
they may have sustained or may sustain from such expectations ard assur- 
ances not halving been realized : Be it therefore enacted. That the said Com- 
missioners shall be directed b^- such Commission nf A^isitation to enquire 
into the case of any such person., upon the same being specially referred to 
them by the Governor, or person administering the Government of the Pro- 
vince for the time being, through the Provincial Secretary thereof, and if 
upon any such reference they shall find any such person reasonably entitled 
to any such satisfaction, they shall report the same, and if they shall deem 
proper shall report one or more Statutes, Rules or Ordinances for nrnviding 
for such satisfacti(m if they shall find the Funds of the said University 
adequate to bear the same. 



224 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



XLIX. And be it enacted, That the said Commissioners shall be further 
directed by the said Commission of Visitation to consider and report upon 
the best means of making the Chair of Agriculture recently established in 
the said University, more efficient and useful; and to consider and report 
generally upon the best means of making the said University, as far as its 
funds will permit, the instrument of drawing forth and stimulating the 
talent of the youth of Upper Canada, by the establishment of Fellowships, 
Scholarships, Exhibitions, Prizes and other Rewards and bv such other 
means as in their judgment may be best adapted to such end. 

L. And whereais it is expedient to stimulate the youth of the Province 
to avail themselves of the benefit of a University Education, by the estab- 
lishment of a certain number of Scholarships in the said University, for 
each County of Upper Canada, for the purpose of assisting (as far as pos- 
sible) with pecuniary aid, those of the deserving Youth of eax;h County, 
whose parents may be unable to meet the expense necessarily attendant upon 
such an education : Be it there en acted. That it shall, be the duty of the said 
Commissioners, in the Code of Statutes so to be reported by them as afore- 
said, to provide for the establishment of four Scholarships for each County 
in Upper Canada, so soon as the funds of the said University shall permit, 
and to regulate everything appertaining to the election, rights, privileges 
and emoluments of such Scholars to be elected to the same : Provided always 
nevertheless, firstly, that the Scholars elected to fill such Scholarships shall 
be entitled to attend all Classes and Lectures in the said University, and 
enjoy all the advantages afforded therein without payment of any fee for 
the same ; And that two of the four Scholarships so to be founded for each 
County, shall be endowed from the University Funds with such an annual 
stipend as in the estimation of the said Commissioners the said funds may 
permit : Provided also, secondly, that no County shall be entitled to claim 
the benefit of the Scholarships to be so founded, or any of them, unless 
the Municipal Council of siich County shall have provided, permacently, 
sufficient funds for the endowment of one or both the Scholarships to be so 
founded, but not endowed from University Funds, according to the rate 
fixed by such Commissiocers : And upon such provision being made by the 
Municipal Council of any County, the Senate of the said University shall 
proceed to fill up either one or both the said Scholarships according to the 
sum provided by the said Municipal Council, and shall, at the same time, 
according to circumstances, fill up either one or both the Scholarships to 
b-e endowed from University Funds; it being the intention of this Act, that 
the Scholarships to be endowed from University Funds shall only be filled 
up so far and so long as the several Counties respectively sha^ll provide Funds 
for the support of those to be endowed from those sources. Provided, also, 
thirdly, that the said Scholarships shall be filled up by the Senate of the 
said University upon public examination to be held before that Body by 
Examicers to be by them appointed, and the selection shall be made out of 
such a number of the youth of each County as shall have been admitted 
to contend for such Scholarships by the Certificate of the Municipal Council 
of such County : Provided also, fourthly, that no person shall be admitted 
as a Candidate for such Scholarships unless he shall have received a Cer- 
tificate of birth or residence from the Municipal Council of the County to 
which such Scholarships shall belong, a/s aforesaid : And provided also, 
fifthly, that no person shall be deemed one of the Youth of any given County 
within the meaning of this section udIcss he shall have been born in such 
County, or unless his parents or surviving parent, or one of them, shall have 
been a stated resident of such County for five years continually prior to the 
granting of such Certificate, and shall, at the time of granting such Certifi- 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 225 



rates, be still stated residents, or a stated resident thereof, or if they be 
both dead, then, unless they or the survivor of them shall have been such 
stated resident for the five years next preceding and at the time of their 
death or the death of the survivor of them : Provided also, sixthly, thai 
every such Certificate shall remain in force for one year from the granting 
thereof, and no longer, lafter which it shall and may be renewed if the 
party remains entitled to it as at the first : And provided also, seventhly 
and lastly, that it shall and may be lawful for such Commissioners, and they 
are herebv required to ma»ke provision for preserving all Scholarships now 
existing in the said University on their present footing for the space of five 
years next after the passing of this Act for the benefit of sxich persons as 
have already commenced, a course of study with a view to compete for the 
same, or have obtained any such Scholarships. 



111. UPPER CANADA COLLEGE AND ROYAL GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

LI. And whereas by the said Act passed in the seventh year of the 
Reign of His late Maiesty King William the Fourth, it was amongst other 
things enacted, That the College then lately erected in the City of Toronto, 
should be incorporated with, and form' an apperdage of the said University; 
And whereas it is expedient, while maintaining the said College as an 
appendage of the said University, to confer iipon it a more independent 
organization for the regulation of its own affairs, than it at present possesses : 
Be it enacted, That the Principal, Masters and Scholars of the said College, 
for the time being, shall henceforth, by and under the name of "The Prin- 
cipal, Masters and Scholars of Upper Canada College, and Royal Grammar 
School," be a Body Corporate and Politic in fact and in name, and shall 
have perpetual succession and a Common Seal, with power to change, alter 
or make anew the same; and shall and may by the name aforesaid, contract 
and be contracted with, sue and be sued, implead and be impleaded, answer 
and be answered unto, in all Courts and places whatsoever; and that they, 
and their Successors, by and urder the name aforesaid, shall be able and 
capable in law of purchasing, acquiring, taking, having, holding and enjoy- 
ing by gift, grant, conveyance, devise, bequest or otherwise, to them and 
their Successors, any estate or property, real or personal, to and for the use 
of the said College and Royal Grammar School, or to, for or in trust for 
any other use or piirpose whatsoever in any way connected with the adva/r ce- 
ment of Education, and of letting, conveying or otherwise disposing thereof, 
from time to time, as they may deem necessary or expedient. 

LII. Ard be it enacted. That the Governor, or person administering 
the Government of this Province for the time being, shall be the Visitor of 
the said College and Royal Grammar School, on behalf of Her Majesty, 
Her Heirs and Successors, which Visitatorial power shall and may be exer- 
cised by Commission under the Great Seal of this Province, the proceedings 
whereof, having been first confirmed by the Governor, or person adminis- 
tering the Government of this Province in 'Council, shall be binding upon 
the said College and Royal Grammar School, and all others whomsoever. 

LIII. And be it enacted. That there shall be in the said College and 
Royal Grammar School a Principal, who shall be appointed by the Crown 
upon the Report or Resolutions of the Senate of the said University, made 
UDon the proceedings and in the manner hereinbefore provided for in respect 
of the appointment to Chairs in the said University : Provided always never- 
theless, firstly, that the person so to be appointed Principal hall be a natural 



226 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



born or naturalized subject of Her Majesty, and sball not at the time of bis 
appointment, or wbile be sball continue Principal tbereof, bold any office, 
place or appointment in any otber University, College, Semina^ry, Scbool 
or place of learning or Education in tbis Provice, or elsewbere : And pro- 
vided also, secondly, tbat sucb Principal sball, during tbe time tbat be sball 
bold sucb office, reside witbin tbe said College and E-oyal Grammar Scbool, 
or if permitted so to do by any Statute of tbe said College and Royal Gram- 
mar Scbool to be passed for tbat purpose, tlien in sucb otber place as may 
be prescribed by sucb Collegiate Statute : And provided also, tbirdly, and 
lastly, tbat during tbe vacancy of tbe office of Principal of tbe said College 
or Royal Grammar Scbool, sucb temporary provision sball and may be made 
by tbe Council of tbe said College and Royal Grammar Scbool for tbe per- 
formance in. tbe best manner in. tbeir power of tbe duties attacbed to sucb 
office, as sball or may be directed or appointed by any College Statute to be 
passed for tbat purpose. 

LIY. And be it enacted, Tbat tbe Ordinary General Discipline and 
Government of tbe said College and Royal Grammar Scbool, in subordination 
to tbe Council tberof,. sball be vested in and exercised by tbe Principal 
tbereof : Provided always nevertbeless, firstly, tbat in all matters directly 
affecting any of tbe Masters of tbe said College and Royal Grammar Scbool, 
or involving tbe expulsion of any Member from tbe same, an appeal sball 
lie from tbe decision of tbe said Principal to tbe Council of tbe said College : 
And provided always also, secondly, tbat tbe mode and manner of exercising 
tbe powers bereby vested in tbe said Principal sball and may, from time to 
time, be regulated and directed by Statutes of tbe said College and Royal 
Grammar Scbool to be passed for tbat purpose. 

LV. And be it enacted, Tbat it sball be tbe duty of tbe Principal of the 
said College and Royal Grammar Scbool to make an Annual General Report 
to tbe Council tbereof on tbe general state, condition, progress and prospects 
of tbe said College, and all tilings toucbing tbe same, and to make such 
suggestions as be may think proper for the improvement of tbe same; a 
duplicate of which said report the sadd Principal shall transmit to the 
Governor, or person administering tbe Government of this Province for tbe 
time being, through the Provincial Secretary thereof. 

LVI. And be it enacted, Tbat there sball be in tbe said College ancf 
Royal Grammar Scbool a Deliberative Body to be called the College Council 
tbereof, which sball consist of the Principal of tbe said College and Royal 
Grammar School for the time being when, such office sball not be vacant, 
and four otber persons to be appointed by the Crown during pleasure, of 
which Council any three Members sball be a Qvorum for the despatch of 
business: Provided always nevertbeless, firstly, tbat no person shall be 
qualified to be appointed by tbe Crown to sucb seat in the said Council who 
sball be a Minister, Ecclesiastic or Teacher under or according to any form 
or profession of religious faith or worship whatsoever : And provided also, 
secondly, tbat no person sball be qualified to be so appointed who sball not 
have taken the Degree of Master of Arts in the said University of Toronto, 
at least five years prior to tbe time of bis appointment to' such seat : And 
provided also, thirdly, and lastly, that tbe restriction contained in the said 
last foregoing Proviso to tbis Section sball not apply to any appointment to 
be made to sucb Council prior to tbe year of Our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and sixty. 

LYII. And be it enacted, Tbat tbe Principal of tbe College shall have 
tbe power of calling special meetings of tbe said Council, and sball preside 
at all meetings of the said Council at which be sball be present, and that ^"n 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 227 



his absence the Senior Member of the said Council present shall preside in 
his place. 

LYIII. And be it enacted, That the Council of the said College and 
Koyal Grammar School shall have full power and authority to frame and 
make such Statutes, Eules and Ordinances as they may think necessary or 
expedient touching or concernirg the good government of the said College 
and Royal Grammar School, or touching or concerning the different Master- 
ships and Teacherships in or belonging to the same ir eluding that of the 
Principal; the studies, examinations and exercises to be pursued, had oi 
held therein, and all matters touching the same; and for summoning ard 
holding regular or special meetings of the said Council and all matters rela- 
tive to the same; the duties of the Principal, and the residence and duties 
of the Prircipal, Masters and Teachers of the said College and Royal Gram- 
mar School; the number of exhibitions and other prizes of and in the said 
College and Royal Grammar School, and all matters relative to the creation 
of, examination for, and conferring of the same; the number, residence, 
appointment and duties of all the Officers and Servants of the said College 
and Royal Grammar School; the management of the property ard revenue 
thereof ;'^ the salaries, stipends, provision, fees and emoluments of and for 
the Principal, Masters, Teachers, Officers and Servants of the said College 
and Royal Grammar School, and generally concerning any other matter or 
thing for the well being and advancement of the said College and Royal 
Grammar School; and also, from time to time, to revoke, renew, augment 
or alter all, every, or any of the said Statutes, Rules and OrdiDances as to 
them shall seem meet or expedient : Provided always nevertheless, firstly, that 
such Statutes, Rules or Ordinances, or any of them, shall not be repug- 
nant to the laws or Statutes of this Province; Provided also secondly, that 
no such Statute, Rule or Ordinance shall be passed and adopted at the same 
meeting at which it is first introduced and considered, but that a second 
meeting of the said Council shall be specially convened for the passing and 
adopting any such Statute, Rule or Ordinance : And provided also, thirdly, 
that no such Statute, Rule or Ordinance shall have any force or effect until 
it shall have been approved by the Caput of the said University : And pro- 
vided always, also, fourthly, and lastly, that it shall and may be lawful for 
the Crown, at any time within two years from the passing of any such Sta- 
tute, Rule or Ordinance, by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of this 
Province, to disallow such Statute, Rule or Ordinance, and thereupon every 
such Statute or Ordinance shall, from the date of such Letters Patent, stand 
repealed, and be of no force or effect whatsoever. 

LIX. And be it enacted, That it shall be the duty of the Endowment 
Board of the said University and College to take upon themselves the general 
charge, superintendence and management of the w^hole property and effects, 
reai and personal, of the said College and Royal Grammar School, under 
the direction of such College Statutes as shall or may be passed for that pur- 
pose : Provided always, nevertheless, firstly, that such Endowment Board 
shall, from time to time, and at all times, as the same may be required, 
afford to the Governor, or person administering the Government of this 
Province for the time being, and also to the Principal and Council of the 
said College or to such Committee or Committees of such Council as they 
may appoint for that purpose, all such information respecting such prop- 
erty and effects, and the whole fiscal or financial affairs of the said College 
and Royal Grammar School, as the said Governor, or person administering 
the Government of the Province, or the said Principal or Council, or any 
such Committee or Committees of such Council shall or may from time to 



2 28 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



time require : Aud provided also, secondly, that tliey sliall in like manner 
afford tlie like information to the Auditors to be appointed annually for 
auditing the Accounts of the said College and Hoyal Grammar School : 
And proAaded also, thirdly, and lastly, that it shall moreover be the duty of 
such Board annually to make a full report of the state of the property and 
effects under their charge, superintendence and managenieat, and of the 
whole fiscal and financial affairs of the said College, to the CoTincil of the 
said College and Eoyal Grammar School, and at the same time to transmit 
a duplicate of such report to the Governor or person administering the gov- 
ernment of this Province, through the Provincial Secretary thereof. 

LX. And be it enacted. That there shall be two Auditors of Accounts 
of the said College and Royal Grammar School, to be appointed annually, one 
by the Principal of the said College, and the other by the College Council 
thereof, whose duty it shall be to examine and audit the Accounts of the 
said Endowment Boaxd, as far as they regard the property and effects of 
the said College and Poyal Grammar School, and all other Accounts of the 
said College and Roj^al Grammar School generally, and to make a Report 
upon the same to the Council of the said College, a duplicate of which 
Report such Auditors shaU transmit to the Governor, or person administering 
the Government of the Province for the time being, through the Provincial 
Secretary thereof. 

LXI. And be it enacted, That the Masters of the said College and 
Royal Grammar School shall be appointed by the Crown. 

LXII. And be it enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for the Senate 
of the said Uriversity of Toronto, upon the report of the Caput thereof, or 
upon that of ti Committee of its own members, to suspend the Principal of 
the said College and Royal Grammar »School, or any of the Masters thereof 
from his office, for any just and reasonable cause to them appearing : Pro- 
vided always nevertheless, firstly, that the grounds of every such suspension 
shall be entered and recorded at length on the Books of the said Senate, and 
such Principal or Master so suspended shall thereupon cease from the per- 
formance of his duties, and from the exercise of his rights, functions and 
privileges, until and unless such suspension shall be removed by the Visitor 
of the "said College and Royal Grammar School under his Privy Seal: And 
provided also, secondly, that a copy duly authenticated, of th'e entry and 
record of such suspension and the grounds thereof, be forthwith transmitted 
to the said Visitor through the Provincial Secretary : And provided also, 
thirdly, that the continuation of any such suspension for a period of three 
calendar months continually, without any appeal by such Principal or 
Master to the said Visitor, against such decision of the said Senate, shall 
ipso facto vacate such Principalship or Mastership as if the party so sus- 
pended were naturally dead : And provided also, fourthly, that during every 
such suspension, such temporary provision shall and may be made by \he 
Council of the said College and Royal Grammar School for the performance, 
in the best manner within their power, of the duties of such Principalship 
or Mastership, as is hereinbefore provided with respect to those of a vacant 
Chair in the said University. 

LXITI. And be it enacted. That if upon the report of the 'Caput, oi 
upon that of a Committee of their own Members, the Senate of the said 
University, after affording the party all reasonable opportunity of being 
hea>rd in his defence, shall report to the Governor or person administering 
the Government of this Province for the time being, through the Provincial 
Secretary thereof, their opinion that the Principal of the said College and 
Royal Grammar 'School, or any of the Masters thereof, ought to be removed 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. « 229 



from his office, and shall in such report set forth at length, the grounds 
and reasons for such opinion, it shall and may he lawful for the Governor, 
or person adminislering the Government for the time being, if he shall deem 
it just and proper so to do, by an Instrument under his Privy Seal, to 
remove such Principal or Master from his said office, and thereafter such 
office shall be dealt with as if it had become vacant by the death of such 
Principal or Master. 

LXIV. And be it enacted, That no religious test or qualification what- 
soever shall be required of or appointed for any person admitted as a Mem- 
ber of such College and Royal Grammar School, whether as a Scholai, 
Student, Fellow^ or otherwise, or of or for any person appointed to any 
office. Mastership, Teachership, or other place or employment whatever in 
the same ; nor shall religions observances, according to the forms of an y 
particular religious denomination, be imposed upon the Members or Officers 
of the said College and Eoyal Grammar School, or any of them. 

LXV. And be it enacted, That it shall not be lawful for the Principal, 
Ma^sters and Scholars of the said College and Royal Grammar School, or for 
the Endowment Board of the said University and College on their behalf, 
to borrow any money on the security of the said College and Royal Grammar 
School, or of the Funds or other property thereof, or otherwise howsoever, 
except under the authority of a Statute of the said College and Royal 
Grammar School, by which Statute there shall a-t the same time be appro- 
priated such an amount of the annual income of the said College and Royal 
Grammar School, arising from the interest and dividends of money actually 
invested under the authority of the seventy-second section of this Act, as 
shall be sufficient to meet the annual interest upon such loan, and in addition 
thereto, a sufficient sum per centum per annum upon the original principal 
of such loan, to constitute a Sinking Fund for the final redemption, satisfac- 
tion and discharge of the said original principal of such loan, within at 
least twenty years from the time of the contracting of the same, and the 
annual interest of such loan; and the annual appropriation for such Sinking 
Fund for the redemotion and satisfaction thereof, shall constitute an extra 
charge upon the Income Fund of the said College and Eoyal Grammar School, 
as hereinafter established, which, so long as any part of the said original 
principal of such loan shall remain unpaid, shall take precedence of the 
fourth, fifth and sixth ordinary annual charges upon such Income Fund as 
the same are respectively charged and imposed upon the same by the seventy- 
fourth section of this Act, and until such payment and satisfaction of th& 
whole principal and interest of such loan, any Collegiate Statute, either 
Visitatorial or Collegiate, whereby such provision shall or may be attempted 
to be repealed or altered, shall be null and void to all intents and purposes 
whatsoever. 

LXVI. And be it enacted. That whatever shall remain of the original 
endowment of the said College and Royal Grammar School, whether the 
legal Titles thereto be now vested in the said College and Royal Grammar 
School or in the Principal, Master and Scholars thereof, or in the 
said College, Collegiate Institution or University and all other the 
property and effects, real and personal, of what nature or kind soever, now 
belonging to or vested in the said College and Royal Grammar School, or 
in the Principal, Masters and Scholars thereof, or in the said College, Col- 
legiate Institution or University, or in any other person or persons, or Body 
Corporate or Politic wha'tsoever, for the use or benefit of the said College 
and Royal Grammar School, shall be, and the same and every part thereof 
are hereby transferred to and vested in the Principal, Masters, and Scholars 
of Upper Canada College aoid Royal Grammar School, to hold to them and 



230 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



tlieir Successors for ever; anything in the said Act of the Parliament of 
the late Province of Upper Canada or of this Province, or in any Letters 
Patent, Eoyal Charters, Deed^, or other Instruments to the contrary thereof 
in any wise notwithstanding. 

LXVII. And be it enacted. That all debts due to the said College and 
Royal Grammar School or to the Principal, Masters and Scholars thereof in 
their Corporate Capacity, and all Judgments, Recognizances, Bonds, Coven- 
ants and other Instruments or Contracts suffered, acknowledged or given to 
or made with them as aforesaid, or with the said Uollege, Collegiate Insti- 
tution or University hereinbefore mentioned on behalf of the said College 
and Eoyal Grammar School or with the Chancellor, President and Scholars 
of the said University on behalf of the said College and Royal Grammar 
School, by whatever name the same may have been suffered, acknowledged, 
given or made, shall be available, stand and continue of good purport and 
full force and strength to the Principal, Masters and Scholars of Upper 
Canada College and Royal Grammar School, as if the said College and 
Royal Grammar School had been therein named by the Corporate name 
hereby given to the same ; and it shall and may be lawful for the said Col- 
lege and Royal Grammar School, by the Corporate Name last aforesaid, to 
proceed upon the same by execution or otherwise, and recover thereon as if 
the same had been suffered, acknowledged, or given to or' made with them 
by the name last aforesaid. 

LXVIII. And be it enacted. That except as hereinafter excepted, the 
Principal, Masters and Scholars of Upper Canada College and Royal Gram- 
mar School shall both in Law and Equity be liable to all the present existing 
debts, contracts and agreements of the said College and Royal Grammar 
School, and may be sued upon and recovered against for the same, as if the 
same had been contracted or entered into by them by the name aforesaid : 
Provided always, nevertheless, that nothing herein contained shall extend 
or be construed to extend to the debt now claimed to be due by the said 
College and Royal Grammar Scnool to the said University, which debt shall 
be and the same is hereby absolutely cancelled and discharged. 

LXIX. And be it enacted, That the fiscal year of the said College and 
Royal Grammar School shall commence on the first da*y of January and end 
on the thirty-first day of December in each year. 

LXX. And be it enacted. That the Salaries of the Principal, Masters, 
Teachers. Officers and Servants of the said College and Royal Grammar 
School shall, by the Statutes establishing the same, be made payable Quar- 
terly on the four Quarter days of each fiscal year, that is to say, the first 
days of January, April, July and October in the same. 

LXXI. And be it enacted. That none of the real property of the said 
College and Royal Grammar School, and none of the property thereof 
invested according to the directions of either the seventy-second or seventy- 
sixth Sections of this Act, shall be disposed of or applied otherwise than by 
authority of a Statute of the said College and Royal Grammar School. 

LXXII. And be it enacted. That the proceeds arising from the sales of 
any of the lands referred to in the seventy-first section of this Act which it 
shall from time to time be deemed expedient by the said College and Royal 
Grammar School to sell and dispose of, and all moneys received upon 
investments called in or paid off, together, with any surplus of the income 
over the expenditure of the said College and Royal Grammar School, as 
provided by the seventy-sixth Section of this Act, shall form a Fund to be 
called in the Books of the s<tid College and Royal Gra^mniar School "The 
College Investment Fund," the moneys at the credit of which Fund shall 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 2M 



from time to time be invested in such Government or Landed Securities as 
shall be approved of bv the Council of the said College and lioyal Grammar 
School. 

LXXIII. And be it enacted, That the annual income of the said Col- 
lege and Royal Grammar School arising from the fees and dues payable to 
the same for entrance, tuition, or otherwise, or from such portion thereof as 
by any Statute or Statutes of the said College and Royal Grammar School 
shall be payable into the General Funds of the said College and Royal 
Grammar School, and not to the Principal, Masters or Officers thereof, and 
from the annual or other periodical rents, interests and dividends arising 
from the property and effects of the said College and Royal Grammar School, 
of what nature or kind soever, whether real or perbona<l, together with all 
such annual or other donations or subscriptions as may be made to the said 
College and Royal Grammar School, for the general benefit thereof without 
being specially appointed by the Donor to any particular object or purpose, 
shall form another Fund to be called "The College Income Fund," the 
moneys at the credit of which last mentioned Fund shall be appropriated 
and applied to make good and satisfy the several charges by the next follow- 
ing Section of this Act charged and imposed upon the said Fund in the order 
in which such charges are therein charged and imposed upon the same. 

LXXIV. And be it enacted. That the first annual charge upon the said 
College Income Fund shall be the necessary expenses incurred in the receipt 
collection and management of the moneys of the said College and Royal 
Grammar School, as well as those constituting the Investment Fund as those 
constituting the said Income Fund. The second charge upon such Income 
Fund shall be the necessary outlay for taxes, insurance and repairs of the 
buildings and other property of the said College and Royal Grammar School. 
The third charge upon such Income Fund shall be the salaries, wages and 
allowances of all Subordinate Officers and Servants of the said College and 
Royal Grammar vSchool. The fourth charge ui)on the said Fund shall be 
such sum of money as by any Statute or Statutes of the said College and 
Royal Grammar School, to be passed for that purpose, shall be annually 
appropriated for the incidental expenses of the said College and Royal Gram- 
mar School for the fiscal year, or so much of such sum as shall be required 
for such incidental expenses. The fifth charge against such Fund shall be 
the salaries of the Principal and Masters of the said College and Royal 
Grammar School, and so much of those of the Members of the Endowment 
Board of the said University and College as shall be payable out of the 
Funds of the said College. And the sixth and last charge, such special 
appropriations out of the said Income Fund for such year as shall have been 
directed to be made by any Statute of the said College and Royal Grammar 
School passed for that purpose. 

LXXV. And be it enacted. That whenever the Income Fund of the 
said College and Royal Grammar School, for any year, shall not be sufficient 
to satisfy and discharge the different charges upon the same for such year 
as herein provided, the amount of the deficiency for such year shall be 
supplied from the surplus Income Fund which has not yet been carried to 
the Investment Fund or shall be deducted in eqiial proportions from all the 
salaries constituting the fifth annual charge upon such fund for the following 
year, by proportionate quarterly deductions from such salaries, as the same 
become respectively payable at each financial quarter of such following year : 
Provided always nevertheless, firstly, that the parties whose receipts of 
salary may have been diminished by such proportionate deductions as afore- 
said, shall be entitled to have such deficiency made good in part, or in the 
whole, as the case may be, out of any surplus, or sarplusses of income over 



232 iOYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



expenditure that may accrue during the six years next ensuing that in 
wljich such Droportionate deductions shall have been so niade as aforesaid : 
Provided also, secondly, that for the deficiency thus occasioned in such 
salaries, and which at the end of every sixth year may yet remain unsatisfied, 
as aforesaid, the incumbents to whose Offices or Masterships such salaries 
shall be attached respectively shall have no claim upon the said College and 
Eoyal Grammar vSchool or upon the Funds thereof, but the amount of such 
salaries received by each of such incumbents, according to the provisions of 
this Act, shall be deemed and taken to have been received by him in full 
satisfaction and discharge of the whole of his salary for such six years for 
which such proportion of the same shall have been paid to him as aforesa'd. 
LXXVI. And be it enacted. That the surplus, if any, of the said College 
Income Fund, after satisfying and discharging the several charges, whethei 
ordinary or extra, by this Act charged upon the same, shall be annually 
transferred to the Investment Fund of the said -College and Royal Grammar 
School, and with the other moneys belonging to that Fund be from time to 
time invested as in and by the seventy-second Section of this Act is declared, 
so that there shall be no balance of the said Income Fund to be carried for- 
ward from one fiscal year to the next. 

LXXVII. And be it enacted. That all Statutes, Rules and Ordinances 
of the said College amd Royal Grammar School in force at the time of the 
passing of this Act, and which are not inconsistent with the provisions 
thereof, shall be and continue in force, until repealed, altered or amended 
b" some other Statute of the said College and Royal Grammar School, either 
Visitatorial or Collegiate, to be hereafter enacted or passed for that purpose. 
LXXVIII. And be it enacted. That the Principal and other Masters 
and Officers of the said College and Royal Grammar School now actually 
holding a Mastership or Office in the same, shall continue to hold such 
Mastership or Office under a new Warrant to be issued to him for the same, 
until he shall be removed therefrom in the manner prescribed hj this Act : 
Provided always nevertheless, that nothing herein contained shall prevent 
or be construed to prevent the Commission of Visitation to be issued as here- 
inafter directed, or any "other such Commission of Visitation, or any 
Collegiate Statute to be passed for that purpose, from re-arranging such 
Masterships or Offices, or the duties attached to the same respectively, or 
from adding to, varying or deducting from the duties of the Mastership, or 
Office held by any such Master or Officer in the said College or Royal Gram- 
mar School, or from so altering or varying the amount of salary or emolument 
receivable by any such Master or Officer as shall be necessary to give effect 
to the provisions of this Act for the prevention of the dissipation of the 
endowment or capital stock of such College and Royal Grammar School, and 
restricting its expenses and disbursements to the amount of its annual income 
from the sa.me. 

LXXIX. And be it enacted, That so soon after the passing of this Act 
as to the Governor, or person administering the Government of the Province 
for the time being, shall seem expedient, a like Commission of Visitation 
shall be issued to and in respect of the said College and Royal Grammar 
School as that hereinbefore directed to be issued io and in respect of the 
said University, with similar powers and directions as far as the Governor 
or person administering the Government of the Province for the time being, 
shall deem the same applicable or expedient to be contained in such Com- 
mission : Provided always nevertheless, that nothing herein contained shall 
prevent or be construed to prevent the issue of one Commission embracing 
both objects, if such shall be the pleasure of the Governor, or person admin- 
istering the Government of the Province for the time being, as aforesaid. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 233 



IV. MISCELLANEOUS AND TEMPORARY PROVISIONS. 

LXXX. And be it enacted, That no aiction at law or suit in equity now 
pending between either the said first mentioned University and any person 
or persons, Bodies Corporate or Politic, or between the said College and 
Royal Grammar School, and any such person or persons, Bodies Corporate 
or Politic, by whatsoever name such University or College may be proceeding, 
or be proceeded against in such action or suit, shall abate, cease or be dis- 
continued by season of anything in this Act contained, but every such 
action or suit shall and may, upon suggestion of the passing hereof, be pro- 
ceeded M'ith for or against such University or College by the Corporate name 
hereby conferred upon the same respectively; anything herein contained to 
the contrary notwithstanding. 

LXXXI. And whereas a gift of Books, principally consisting of Theo- 
logical Works, was some years since made to the said University herein- 
before first mentioned by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 
which in consequence of the abolition of the Chair of Divinity, that Society 
mav desire to have transferred to some other Institution or otherwise dis- 
posed of : Be it therefore enacted. That upon application from the said 
Society by their proper Officer, to be made to the said Chancellor, Ma;sters 
and Scholars of the said University of Toronto, at any time before the year 
of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and fifty-five, requesting that such 
gift may be returned to them or otherwise disposed of as they may appoint, 
it shall and may be lawful for the said Chancellor, Masters and Scholars, 
and they are hereby required to deliver over the same according to sucli 
request, and the same shall thereupon become vested in the said Society, or 
in such other person or persons, Bodies Politic or Corporate as the said 
Society shall or may in and hv such request so to be made as aiforesaid 
nominate and appoint in that behalf; anything herein contained to the con- 
trary notwithstanding. 

LXXXII. And be it enacted. That this Act shall come into operation 
upon, from and after the first day of January next, or such earlier day as 
shall or m.ay be fixed for that purpose by Proclamation under the Great Seal 
of this Province. 

LXXXIII. And be it enacted, That this Act shall be deemed and taken 
to be a Public Act, and shall be judicially taken notice of as such by all 
Judges. Justices and others whomsoever without being specially pleaded. 

LXXXIV. And be it enacted, That this Act may be amended, altered 
or repealed by any Act to be passed in this present Session of Parliament. 



234 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



13 AND 14 VICTORIA, CHAPTER 49. 

"An Act to remove certaix doubts respecting the intention of the 
Act of the last Session of the Parliament of this Province for 
amending the charter of the university of toronto, and to pro- 
vide for the institution and endowments of e-egius and other pro- 
FESSORSHIPS, Lectureships, Fellowships, Scholarships, Exhibit- 
ions, Prizes and other Rewards in the said University, and for 
other purposes connected with the said University, and with the 
College and Eoyal Grammar School of Upper Canada College, 
forming an appendage thereof." 

(10th August, 1850). 

Whereas in the preamble of the Act passed in the last Session of the 
Parliament of this Province, chaptered eio-hty-two, and entituled. An Act 
to amend the Charter of the University established at Toronto by His late 
Majesty, King George the Fourth, to ^rovide for the more satisfactory Gov- 
ernment of the said University, and for other purposes connected with the 
same, and with the College and Eoval Grammar School forming an appen- 
dage thereof, the promotion of the religious and moral improvement, as 
well as the secular education of the people of this Province is expressly set 
forth as the object of its enactment, and as a meians of accomplishing such 
object in a community consisting of various denominations of Christians, 
the necessity is asserted of having the said University entirely free in its 
government and discipline from all denominational bias, so that the just 
rights and privileges of all might be fully maintained without offence to 
the religious opinions of any; and whereas the said enactment originated 
in a sincere desire for the advancement of true religion, and a tender regard 
for the conscientious scruples of all classes of professing Christians, which it 
sought to evince by affording to the different denominations the opportun- 
ity, and thereby pressing upon them the obligation, each in its own way 
and each according to its own discipline and in conformity with its own 
peculiar views of religious truth, of providing for the spiritual welfare and 
advancement in religious knowledge of the vouth belonging to its own com- 
munion^ and not from any indifference to the importance of religious 
duties, or of imparting religious knowledge in the education of youth : 
And whereas, notwithstanding the distinct avowal of the principles on 
which the said Act was based, doubts have been raised as to the Christian 
character of the said Institiltion and of the powers of the University, by 
statute or otherwise, to make the necessary resrulations for insuring to its 
members the opportunities of religious instruction and attendance upon 
public worship by their respective Ministers, and according to their respec- 
tive forms of religious faith : And whereas for the satisfaction of all 
-whose minds may have been disturbed by such doubts, it is desirable to 
declare : Be it therefore accordingly declared and enacted by the Queen's 
Most Excellent Maj?stv, by and with the advice and consent of the Legis- 
lative Council and of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, 
conslituted and assembled by virtue of and under the authority of an Act 
passed in the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland, and inti'uled. An Act to re-unite the Provinces of Tipper and 
Lower Canada, and for the Government of Canada, and it is hereby 
declared and enacted by the authority of the same, That it hath been and 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. -235 



at all limes hereafter shall be fully competent to and for the said Uni- 
versity, by statute either visitatorial or senatorial to be passed for that pur- 
pose, to make any regulations that may be deemed expedient for the under- 
graduates and students attending lectures in the said University, attending 
upon public worship in their respective churches, or other places of religious 
worship, and receiving religious instruction from their respective Minis- 
ters, and according.to their respective forms of religious faith, and that not 
only shall every facility be afforded by the authorities of the said University 
for such attendance on religious worship, and such acquirement of religious 
knowledge, but that no candidate for matriculation or for any degree, who 
shall at the time of his application, be a student in any of the different 
Colleges which shall be so far affiliated to the said University as to be en- 
titled to appoint a member to the Senate thereof, shall be received as a 
student or admitted to a degree in the said University without possessing 
such religious requisites as may be prescribed by the constituted authorities 
of the affiliated CoUege to which he belongs, and which, according to his 
standing in sueh affiliated College, he shall by the rules and statutes there- 
of be required to possess : Provided always nevertheless firstly, that no 
part of the funds of the said University shall be expended for any such 
purpose, but that il. be left to the authorities of each denomination of 
Christians to provide for the religious instruction of its own adherents 
attending the said University or members thereof; and provided also, 
secondly, that nothing herein contained shall extend or be construed to 
extend to empower the said University, by statute or otherwise, to compel 
anv person to become a student or member of such affiliated College as a 
condition precedent to his being matriculated or admitted to any degree in 
the said University, or otherwise howsoever. 

II. And for the like reason, it is hereby further declared and enacted 
by the authority aforesaid. That it hath been, now is, and at all times here- 
after shall continue to be fullv competent to and for the said College and 
Royal Grammar School of Upper Canada Coresre by Statute, either colle- 
giate or visita-orial, to be passed for that purpose, to make any similar 
regulations for the like purposes and subject to the like limitations and 
restrictions. 

III. And be it enacted, That notwithstanding anything in the said 
Act of Parliament contained, nine Members of the Senate of the said Uni- 
versity shall form a quorum thereof for the despatch of business. 

IV. And be it enacted. That it shall at all times be lawful for the Caput 
of the said University, in reporting upon the testimonials of candidates 
for any vacant professorship, as directed by the twenty-fourth section of 
the said Act, to report also the names of any men of distinguished literary 
or scientific repu'ation, whose accession to such chair would in their opinion 
be an acquisition to the public charat^ter of the University as a seat of 
learning, and who they may have ascertained or have reason to believe, 
would accept of siich, if offered to them: and thereupon the Senate of the 
said University, if they shall concur in /that part of the Report of the said 
Canut, shall report the names of such persons, or of those of them with 
respect to whom they shall so concur with the Caput, to the Governor of 
the Province, with those of the three candidates required to be transmitted 
to him by the said twenty-fourth section of the said Act, and in every such 
case it shall and may be lawfiil for the Governor, if he shall deem it expe- 
dient so to do, to appoint any one of those persons to such chair, who mav be 
willins' to accept thereof, instead of apoointing to the same any of the threfe 
candidates whose names shall have been so transmitted to him as afore- 

22 uc. 



236 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



said; anything in the said tewnty-fourtii section of the said Act to rhe con- 
trary notwithstanding. 

V. And be it enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for Her Majesty 
from time to time by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Province, 
to institule, establish and endow such and so many Eegius Professorships 
in any of the Faculties of the said University, as she shall think fit, and 
tfrom time to time, by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Province, 
to appoint some fit and proper person to such Regius Professorship ; and 
to every such Professorship and to the person w^ho shall fill the same shall 
belong all and singular the like rights, powders, and privileges which shall 
be attached to or be vested in the other Professorships, and Professors of 
the said University respectively : Provided always, firstly, that no such 
Regius Professorship shall be so instituted without an endowment, either 
by charge on the public Provincial Revenue, or by invested capital in land 
or other property, not at the time forming any part of the property of the 
said University, but sufficient to secure to the holder thereof an income 
equal at least to that of the smallest salary assigned by Statute of the said 
University to any of the chairs on the foundation thereof in the same 
faculty to which such Regius Professorship may be attached, or unless 
such salary shall have been voted amongst the other annual votes for edu- 
cational purposes upoji the Estimates sent down to Parliament by the 
Crown: and provided also, secondly, that every such Regius Professorship 
and Regius Professor shall be subject to all and singular the Statutes, 
Rules and Oidinances of the said University, and be entitled to all and 
singular the same rights, powers and privileges as any other Professorship 
or ProfpssT in the same: and provided also, thirdly, that the appoint- 
ments to all such chairs shall be made by the Crown of .its mere motion 
and during its pleasure, wi hout the necessity of any Report from the 
Caput or Senntp, as provided with respect to the chairs on the foundation 
of the said University. 

VI. And be it enacted. That it shall and may be lawful for Her 
Majesty from time to time by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the 
Province, 'o found, institute, establish and endow such and so many Lectur- 
ships, Fellowships, Scholarships, Exhibitions. Prizes and other Re^wards 
in the said University as she shall think fit, and to prescribe in such 
Letters Patent, all such Rules and Regulations as she may think proper 
for '.he appointing, to and conferring of such Lectureships, Fellowships, 
Scholarships, Exhibitions, Prizes, and other RcMards, all which Rules and 
Regulations the authorities of the said University are hereby required to 
observe and give effect to as in the said Letters Patent shall be directed. 

VII. And be it enacted. That it shall and may be lawful for any person 
or persons, bodies politic or corporate whomsoever, to found such and so 
many Professorships, Lectureships, Fellowships, Scholarships, Exhibitions, 
Prizes and other Rewards, in the said University, as they may think 
proper, by providing a sufficient endowment in Land or other property, 
and conveying the same to the Chancellor, Master and Scholars of the said 
University in trust for the said purpose, and thereupon suing out Letters 
Patent from thp! Crown, instituting, establishing and endowing the same 
with the property so provided for that purpose as aforesaid, in all which 
Letters Patent shall be set for h such Rules and Regulations for the 
appointing to I'nd conferring of such Professorships, Lectureships, Fellow- 
ships, Scholarships, Prizes or o her Rewards as the re^spective founders 
thereof, with the approbation of the Crown, shall think fit to prescribe for 
that purpose, all which Rules and Regulations the authorities of the said 

22a u.c. 



190G UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 237 



University are hereby required to observe and give effect to, as in the said 
Letters Patent shall be directed : Provided always nevertheless, that none 
of such Professorships upon private foundation, shall entitle the holder of 
the Chair of such Professorship for the time beiner, to any seat in the 
Senate of the said University or other share in the government thereof, 
unless the same shall be especially conferred upon such Chair or Professor 
by a Statute of the said University either visitatorial or senatorial to be 
passed for that purpose. 

YIII. And be it enacted. That nothing in the three next preceding 
sections of this Act contained shall affect or be construed to affect in any 
wav the twelfth section of the said recited Act, but that the provisions of 
the said three sections shall to all intents and purposes whatsoever be sub- 
ject to and limited by the provisions of the said twelfth section as if the 
same had been inserted in this Act. 

IX. And be it enacted, That the third proviso to the fifty-eighth 
section of the said Act shall apply to such Statutes, Rules and Ordinances 
of the College Council of the College and Royal Grammar School of Upper 
Canada College, as have been or shall be passed by that body, for prescrib- 
ing or regulating the general duties of the Princinal or Masters of the said 
ICollege or others employed to teach therein, in their respective Collegiate 
employments, or for prescribing the course of study to be pursued, or the 
discipline to be observed in the said College and Eoyal Grammar School, 
and to none others. 

X. And be it enacted, That all sums of money received by the Bursal 
of the said University for or on account of the said College and Royal 
Grammar School at any time since the Royal Assent was given to the said 
Act of Parliament, and all debts of what nature or kind soever at the time 
when such assent was given to the said Act due to the salH College and 
Royal Grammar School, or in which such College and Royal Grammar 
School was then or at any lime after beneficially interested, shall be deemed 
and taken to be available to, and collectable bv. the Principal, Masters and 
Scholars of Upper Canada College and Royal Grammar School, in the same 
manner as the debts mentioned in the seventy-seventh section of the said 
Act. are thereby declared to be recoverable, subject to the deduction there- 
from of all moneys which since the Royal Assent was so given to the said 
Act. shall or may have been paid bv the said Bursar for, or on account of 
the said College and Roval Grammar School. 



238 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



16 VICTORIA, CHAPTER 89. 

"An Act to amend the Laws relating to the University of Toronto, 
by separating its functions as a university' from those assigned to 
, IT AS A College, and by' making better provision for the manage- 
ment OF THE property THEREOF AND THAT OF UpPER CaNADA CoLLEGE. 

(Assented to 22nd April, 1853). 

Whereas the enactments hereinafter repealed have failed to effect the 
end proposed by the Legislature in passing them, inasmuch as no College 
or Educational Institution hath under them become affiliated to the Uni- 
versity to which they relate, and many parents and others are deterred by 
the expense and other causes, from sending the youth under the^r charge 
to be educated in a large Citv distant, in many cases from their homes : 
And whereas from these and other causes, many do and will prosecute and 
complete their studies in other institutions in various parts of this Province, 
to whom it is just and riarlit to afford facilities for obtaining these scholas- 
tic honours and rewards which their diligence and proficiency may deserve, 
and thereby to encourage them and others to persevere in the pursuit of 
knowledge and sound learning ; And whereas experience hath proved the 
principles embodied in Her Majestv's Royal Charter to the University of 
London in England, to be well adapted for the attainment of the objects 
aforesaid, and for removing the difficulties and objections hereinbefore 
referred to : Be it therefore enacted by the Queen's Most Excellent 
Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Council 
and of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada, constituted and 
assembled by virtue of and under the authoritv of an Act passed in the 
Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and 
intituled. An Act to re-unite the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, 
and for the Government of Canada, and it is hereby enacted bv the author- 
ity of the same. That the Act passed in the twelfth vear of Her Majesty's 
Reign, and intituled. An Act to amend the Charter of the University 
established at Toronto bv His late Majesty King George the Fourth, to 
provide for the more satisfactory government of the said University, and 
for other purposes connected with the same, and with the College and 
Royal Grammar School forming an appendasre thereof, and the Act passed 
in the Session he^d in the thirteenth and fourteenth years of Her Majesty's 
Reign, and intituled, An Act to remove certain doubts respecting the 
intention of the Act of the last Session of the Parliament of this Province, 
for amending the Char+er of the University of Toronto, and to^ provide for 
the institution and endowments of Regius and other Professorships, Lecture- 
ships, Fellowships, Scholarships, Exhibitions, Prizes and other Rewards 
connected with the said University, and with the College and Royal Gram- 
mar School of Upper Canada Colles:e; forming an appendage thereof, are 
hereby repealed, as is also so much of the Charter referred to in the Act 
first mentioned, as may be inconsistent^ with this Act: but so much of the 
said Charter as shaP not be inconsistent with this Act shall remain in 
force. 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 

II. The Univeristy established by the Charter aforesaid and men- 
tioned in the said Acts, shall henceforth be called The University of Tor- 
onto, and shall continue to be a Body Corporate, with iho powers vested in 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 239 



Corporate bodies by the Interpretation Act, and power to bold such real 
property as may be assigned to it under the provisions of this Act, and such 
otheir powers and privileges as are conferred upon it by those portions of 
the said Charter remaining- in force or by this Act, but such powers shall 
be exercised in accordance with the provisions of this Act. 

III. There shall be no Professorship or other Teachership in the said 
University of Toronto, but its functions shall be limited to the examining 
of Candidates for Degrees in the several Faculties, or for Scholarships, 
prizes or Certificates of Honour in diflierent branches of knowledge, and the 
granting of such Degrees, Scholarships, Prizes and Certificates, after 
Examination, in the manner herinafter mentioned. 

IV. The said Corporation of The IJniversiiy of Toronto shall hereafter 
consist of one Chancellor, one Vice-Chancellor, and such ntimber of other 
Members of the Senate as the Governor of this Province shall from time to 
time appoint under His Hand and Seal at Arms, and as shall be appointed 
by the Senate under the power herinafter given. 

V. The Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and other Members of the Senate 
for the time being, shall constitute the Senate of the said Universitv; and 
the first Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor shall be appointed by the Gov- 
ernor in the manner aforesaid. 

VI. "Whenever a vacancy shall occur in the office of Chancellor of the 
said University, either by death resignation, or otherwise, the Governor 
mav, in the manner aforesaid, nominate a fit and proper person to be Chan- 
cellor instead of the Chancellor occasioning such vacancy. 

VII. The office of Vice-Chancellor of the said University shall be a 
biennial one, that is to say, the term of office of each Vice-Chancellor shall 
expire on some day in the calendar year next but one after that in which 
he shaU have been appointed or elected, and the dav on which the term of 
office shall expire shall be appointed bv Statute of the University; and the 
Members of the Senate shall at a meeting to be holden for that purpose on 
some day within a mon h before the expiration of the said term of office, of 
which meeting notice shall be given in such manner as shall be fixed by 
Statute, elect some one of the Members, of the Senate to be Vice-Ohancellor 
when the term of office of the then Vice-Chancellor shall expire, and so 
from time to time biennially; or in case of the death, resignation, or other 
vacancy in the office of any such Vice-Chancellor, before the expiration of 
his term of office they shall, at a meeting to be holden by them for that 
purpose, as soon as conveniently mav be, of which notice shall be given in 
manner aforesaid, elect one other of the said Members of the Senate to be 
Vice-Chancellor for the remainder of the term in which such death, resig- 
nation, or other avoidance shall happen. 

VIII. If at any time, by death or otherwise, the number of th£ said 
Members of the Senate shall be reduced below the number of ten, exclusive 
of the Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor for the time being, then and in 
such case, and as often as the same shall happen, if the Governor do not 
think proper to complete the said number by npnointment, the Members of 
the Senate shall, as soon as conveniently may be, at a meeting to be holden 
for that purpose, of which notice shall be given in such manner as shall 
be provided by Statute, elect one or more fit and proper persons to be 
Members of the Senate in addition to the then remaining Members thereof, 
to the end that by means of such election the number of ten Members of 
the Senate of the said Universitv mav be completed, exclusive of the 
Chancellor and Vice-Chancellor of the said University, but no person shall 
be appointed or elected a Member of the Senate who shall not be a subject 
of Her Majesty. 



240 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



IX. The Governor of this Province shall be (as heretofore) the Visitor 
of the said University on behalf of Her Majesty, and such visitatorial 
powers may be exercised by commission under the Great Seal of this 
Province, the proceedings whereof, having been first confirmed by the 
Governor, shall be binding on the said University and its Members and on 
all others whomsoever. 

X. The Chancellor, yice-Chancellor and Members of the Senate for 
the time being, shall (subject to the provisions of this Act relative to the 
income and property of the said University), have the management of and 
superintendence over the affairs and business thereof; and in all cases 
unprovided for by this Act, it shall be lawful for the Chancellor, Vice- 
Chancellor, and Members of the Senate to make such Statutes and to act 
in such manner as to them shall apoear best calculated to promote the pur- 
poses of the said University : and the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and 
Members of the Senate shall have full power from time to time to make 
and alter any Statutes (so as the same be not repugnant to the laws of 
Upper Canada, or to the general objects and provisions of this Act,) touch- 
ing- the examination for Decrees, or for Scholarships, Prizes or Certificates of 
Honour, and the granting of such Degrees, Scholarships or Certificates, and 
the fees to be paid by Candidates for examination or upon taking any 
Degree, and the application of such fees, and touching the periods of the 
regular meetings of the Senate and the mode of convening special 
meetings thereof, and in general touching all other matters what- 
soever regarding the said University or the business thereof, or for any 
purpose for which provision may be required for carrying out this Act 
according to its intent and spirit in any case unprovided for by this Act; 
and all such Statutes when reduced into writing, and after the Common 
Seal of the said University shall have been affixed thereto, and after they 
shall have been approved by the Visitor, shall be binding upon all persons 
being Members or Officers thereof, and upon all Candidates for Degrees, 
Scholarships, Prizes or Certificates of Honour to be conferred by the said 
University, and all others whom it may concern, a certified copy of such 
Statutes being deposited with the Provincial vSecretary within ten days 
after the passing thereof, to be laid before the Visitor of the said University 
for his approval ; and no such Statute shall have force or effect until it 
shall have been approved by the Visitor, and such approval signified 
through the said Secretary : Provided always that bv any such Statute ap- 
proved as aforesaid power may be given to any Committee. Officers or 
persons to make Regulations for better carrying out the provisions or ob- 
jects of any Statute, in the manner and to the extent therein prescribed. 

XI. In addition to the power of conferring Degrees in Arts and Facul- 
ties, vested in the said Universitv the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and 
Members of the Senate shall have power, after examination, to grant 
Certificates of Honour in such branches of knowledge as they shall from 
time to time, by statutes to be made in that behalf, determine. 

XII. All questions which shall come before the Chancellor, Vice- 
Clianr-ellor and Members of the Senate, shall be derided by the majority of 
the Members present ; but in case of equality of votes, the maximum prae- 
sumitur pro negante shall prevail. 

XIII. No question shall be decided at any meeting unless the Chancel- 
lor or Vice-Chancellor. and four other Members of the Senate, or, in the 
absence of the Chonci^Hor .ind Vice-Chancellor, unless five other Members 
of the vSenate at the least, shall be present at the time of such decision, nor 
shall any Meeting be legally held unless held at the times or convened in 
the planner provided for by Statute as aforesaid. 



19a(> LXI\ERSITV OF TORONTO. 241 



XIY. At every Meetino- of the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Mem- 
bers of the Senate, the Chancellor, or in his absence the Vice-Chancellor, 
shall preside as Chairman, or in the absence of both, a Chairman shall be 
chosen by the Members present or a majority of them. 

XT. The said Chancellor, Yice-Chancellor and Members of the Senate 
for the time being- shall have full power to annoint by Statute from time 
to lime, and as they shall see occasion to remove in like manner, all Exam- 
iners, Officers and Servants of the said University, except the Bursar here- 
inafter mentioned. 

XTI. Once at least in everv vear, at a time or times to be fixed by 
Statute, the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Members of the Senate 
shall cause to be held an Examination of the Candidates for Degrees, 
Scholarships, Prizes or Certificates of Honour as aforesaid; and at every 
such Examination the Candidates shall be examined by Examiners ap- 
pointed for the purpose by the said Chancellor, Yice-Chancellor and Mem- 
bers of the Senate, and at every such Examination the Candidates shall be 
examined orally or in writing- or otherwise, in as many branches of general 
knowledge as the Chancellor, Yice-Chancellor and Members of the Senate 
shall consider the most fitting subjects for such examinations ; and special 
Examinations may be held for Honours ; and all such Examinations shall 
be open and public. 

XYII. And in order to extend the benefits of Colleges and establish- 
ments already instituted in this Province for the promotion of Literature, 
Science and Art, whether incorporated or not incorporated, by connecting 
them for such purpose with the said University, all persons shall be admit- 
ted as Candidates for the respective Degrees of Bachelor of Arts and 
Master of Arts, to be conferred by the said University of Toronto, on satis- 
fying the Chancellor, Yice-Chancellor and Members of the Senate, by 
proper Certificales that such persons have in any of the Institutions herein- 
after mentioned, gone hrough aud completed such course of instruction as 
the said Chancellor, Yice-Chaucellor and Members of the Senate shall, by 
Statutes to be made as aforesa-id from time to time, determine; and the Insti- 
tutions in which such course of instruction mar be completed shall be those 
hereinafter mentioned, that is to say: All Colleges in Upper or Lower 
Canada incorporated by Royal Charter or by Act of the Parliament of this 
Province, or of either of the late Provinces of Upper or Lower Canada, and 
also such o her institutions, corporate or unincorporated, as now are or shall 
hereafter be established for the purposes of education within this Province, 
which the Governor of this Province shall from time to time prescribe to 
the said ChanceUor, Vice-Chancellor and Members of the Senate, under 
His Hand and Seal at Arms. 

XYIII. And for the purpose of grantinsr the Degrees of Bachelor of 
Medicine and Doctor of Medicine, and the improvement of Medical Edu- 
cation in all its branches, as well in Medicine as in Surgery, Midwiferv 
and Pharmacy, and for the purpose of granting the Degrees of Bachelor of 
Laws and Doc' or of Laws, respectively, the said Chancellor, Yice-Chancel- 
lor and Members of the Senate shall, from time to time, report to the 
Governor of this Province, through the Provincial Secretary, what appear 
to them to be the Medical Schools and Institutions, or the Law Schools and 
Institutions, whether corporate or unincorporated, in this Province, from 
which, either singly or jointlv with other Medical or Law vSchools or Insti- 
tutions in this Province, or in other par's of Her Majesty's Dominions, or 
in Eoreiorn part'^, it may be fit and expedient, in the judgment of the said 
Chancellor. Yice-Chancellor and Members of the Senate, to admit Candi- 



242 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Mates for Degrees in Medicine or in Law, and on approval of such report 
by tlie Governor, shall admit any person to examination as a Candidate 
f ( r the respective Degrees of Bachelor of Medicine or Doctor of Medicine, 
Bachelor of Laws or Doctor of Laws, to be conferred by the said Uni- 
versity, on his satisfying the said Chancellor, Yice-Chancellor and Mem- 
bers of the Senate, that such Candidate has herein gone through and com- 
pleted a course of ins i ruction during such period as they shall, by regu- 
lations in that behalf, determine : and it shall be lawful for the said 
Chancellor, Vice-Chan cellor, and Members of the Senate, from time to 
time, wi h the approval of the Governor, to vary, alter and amend any such 
reports, bv striking out any of the said Institutions or Schools included 
therein, or by adding others thereto; and all Institutions from which, 
under this or the next preceding section Students may be examined for 
Degrees, shall be said to be affiliated for that purpose to the said Uni- 
versitv. 

XIX. The said Chancellor, Yice-Chaucellor and Members of the 
Senate shall have power, after examination, to confer the several Degrees of 
Bachelor of Arts, Mas'.er of Arts, Bachelor of Laws, Doctor of Laws, 
Bachelor of Medicine, and Doctor of Medicine, ^and to examine for Medical 
Degrees in the four branches of Medicine, Surgery. Midwifery and Phar- 
macy ; and such reasonable fees shall be charged to the Candidates for 
Examination, for Degrees or for Certificates of Honour as aforesaid, as the 
Chancellor. Vice-Chancellor and Members of the Senate shall, by Statute 
in that behalf, from time to time determine, and such fees shall be paid 
and applied as shall be determined by Statute. 

XX. The regulations to be made with respect to the literary and 
scientific attainments of persons obtaining Degrees or Certificates of Honour, 
and their examination, shall, in so far as circumstances will, in the opinion 
of the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Members of the Senate permit, 
be similar to those in force for like purposes in the University of London, 
to the end that the standard of qualification in the University of Toronto 
may not be inferior to that adopted for a like Degree, Certificate or Honour 
in the University of London. 

XXI. The Examiners may be required to make the following declar- 
ation before the Chancellor or Vice-Chancellor : 

"I solemly declare that I will perform my duty of Examiner, without 
fear, favor, affection or partiality towards any Candidate, and that I will 
not knowingly allow to any Candidate any advantage which is not equally 
allowed to all." 

XXII. The said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Members of the 
Senate, may make such special Regulations as to them shall seem just, with 
regard to the examination of Students who have matriculated in the said 
University before the passing of this Act, and with regard to the com- 
pletion by them of the proscribed course of instruction, but in so far only 
as relates to the first Deg^ree to be taken by any such Student after the pas- 
sing of this Act, afier which thev shall be subject to the same regulations 
as other Candidates. 

XXIII. The said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Members of the 
Senate, may grant Scholarships, Prizes and Rewards to persons who shall 
distinguish themselves at their examination, but the sum to be expended 
for such purposes in any one year shall not exceed such sum as shall be 
appropriated for that purpose under the provisions hereinafter made, and 
such Scho^arshin shall be of the nature and extent of those next mentioned : 
and all such Scholarships, Prizes, and Rewards shall be granted according 
to Regulations previously made and published. 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 243 



XXIV. The said Scholarships shall hereafter be held to be University 
Scholarships in any of the affiliated Institutions in Upper Canada, and shall 
be held by the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Members of the Senate, for 
the purpose of being awarded according to the proficiency manifested on 
examination in prescribed subjects, and to each of such Scholarships an 
annual stipend shall be attached payable out of the University Income Fund, 
for such periods and on such conditions as shall be fixed by the regulations 
to be made by Statute in that behalf; and the holder of any Scholarship 
granted under this and the next preceding section shall have the title of 
"University Scholar:" Provided always, that every Scholarship in the 
University of Toronto granted before this Act shall be in force, shall there- 
after be a University Scholarship in University College hereinafter men- 
tioned, and the holder thereof shall have the said title of "University 
Scholar." 

XXV. Any Statutes made under the fiftieth section of the Act herein 
first cited and repealed, by the Commissioners therein referred to, and in 
force when this Act shall come into effect, shall remain in force, in so far 
as they may not be inconsistent with this Act, until repealed or altered by 
the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Members of the Senate of the said 
University, who shall have full power to amend or repeal the same and make 
others in their stead. 

XXVI. It shall be the duty of the Senate of the said University, annu- 
allv to report to the Governor, at such time as he shall appoint, on the 
general state, progress and prospect of the University, and upon all matters 
touching tlie same, with such suggestions as they may think proper to make; 
and the said Senate shall also at all times when thereunto required by the 
Governor, inquire "'nto, examine and report upon any subject or matter 
connected with the said University; and copies of such annual or other 
reports shall be laid before both Houses of the Provincial Parliament at the 
then next Session thereof. 

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE. 

XXVII. There shall be and there is hereby constituted at the City of 
Toronto, a Collegiate Institution by the name of University College, and the 
said College shall be under the direction, management and administration 
of a Body Corporate to be called The Council of University College, which 
shall have perpetual succession and a Common Seal, with powgr to hold real 
and personal property, subject to the provisions hereinafter made, and shall 
be capable of suing and being sued, pleading and being impleaded by the 
name aforesaid, and shall have other the usual powers of Corporate Bodies, 
according to the Interpretation Act, subject to the said provisions. 

XXVIII. The said Corporation shall consist of a President, Vice-Presi- 
dent, and such Professors as may from time to time be appointed to Chairs 
in the said University College. 

XXIX. The President, or in his absence the Vice-President, or if both 
be absent, then the Senior Member of the Council present, shall preside at 
all Meetings of the Corporation, and in case of an equal division of votes 
among the Members present, the rule praesumitur pro negante shall pre- 
vail ; and among Members appointed at the same time, the order in which 
their appointments shall have been made shall be the order of Seniority; 
and all sxich. Meetings shall be held at the times to be prescribed by the 
Statutes of the said College. 

XXX. Any five Members of the said Council shall be a quorum for 
transacting all business of the Council and doing all things which the said 



2U ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 

Council may lawfully do ; and all things done at any Meeting of the Council 
shall be ordered by the majority of .the votes of the Members present thereat, 
subject to the provision hereinbefore made for the case of an equal division 
of votes. 

XXXI. The said Council shall have full power and authority to make 
Statutes for the good government, discipline, conduct and regulation of the 
said College, and of the Professors, Teachers, Students, Officers and Ser- 
vants thereof, for regulating the Fees to be paiid by Students or persons 
attending lectures or receiving instruction in the said College, and the times 
of regular Meetings of the Council, and generally for the management of 
the property and business thereof, and for any purpose necessary for carry- 
in^ this Act into effect according to its intent and spirit in cases for which 
no provision is made by this Act, so that such Statutes be not inconsistent 
with the provisions of this Act or the laws of this Province, and from time 
to time to amend or repeal the same : Provided always, that no Statute made 
by the said Council shall have force and effect until it shall have been sub- 
mitted to the Visitor of the said College, and by him approved; and a 
certified copy of all such Statutes shall be transmitted to the Provincial 
Secretary, within ten days from the passing thereof, to be submitted to the 
said Visitor for his approval. 

■ XXXII. There shall be in the said College such Professors, Lecturers 
and Teachers, and there shall be taught in the said College such Sciences, 
Arts and Branches of Knowledge as the Council shall, by their Statutes in 
that behalf, from time to time determine, such Statutes being consistent 
with Statutes of The University of Toronto, as regards the prescribed sub- 
jects of Examination : Provided always, that there shall be no Professor 
or Teacher of Divinity in the said College ; and that after the first day of 
January one thousand eight hundred and fifty-four, there shall be no Pro- 
fessorship or Teachership of Law, or of any of the branches of Medicine or 
Surgery, except in so far as the same may form part of a general system of 
liberal Education. 

XXXIII. The President and Vice-President, Professors, Lecturers, 
Teachers, Officers and Servants of the said College shall be appointed by the 
Governor of this Province, after such examination, inquiry and report as he 
shall consider necessary, and shall hold office during his pleasure : Provided 
always, that the President, Professors, Lecturers and Teachers of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto as now constituted, shall, until it be otherwise ordered 
by the Governor, be the President, Professors, Lecturers and Teachers of 
University College, excepting after the said first day of January one thou- 
sand eight hundred and fifty-four, those M'ho may be Professors or Teachers 
of those subjects which are not under this Act to be taught in the said 
College. 

XXXIV. No religious test or profession of religious faith shall be 
required of any Professor, Lecturer, Teacher, Student, Officer or Servant of 
the said College, nor shall religious observances, according to the forms of 
any particular religious denomination be imposed on them or any of them; 
but it shall be lawful for the Council to make such Regulations as they may 
think expedient touching the moral conduct of the Students and their attend- 
ance on public worship in their respective Churches or other places of relig- 
ious worship, and their receiving religious instruction from their respective 
Ministers, and according to their respective forms of religious faith, and 
every facility shall be afforded for their so doing. 

XXXV. It shall and may be lawful for any person or persons, body or 
bodies, politic or corporate whomsoever, 1o found such and so many 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 2ic 



Professorships, Fellowships, Lectureships, Scholarships, Exhibitions, Prizes 
and other Rewards, in the said College, as thej^ niay think proper, by pro- 
viding a sufficient endowment in land or other property, and surrendering 
or conveying the same to the Crown for the purposes of the said College, and 
thereupon suing out Letters Patent from the Crown, instituting, establishing 
and endowing the same with the property so provided for that purpose as 
aforesaid : in all which Letters Patent shall be set forth such Rules and 
Regulations for the appointing to and conferring of such Professorships, 
Fellowships, Lectureships, Scholarships, Prizes or other Rewards, as the 
respective Founders thereof, with the approbation of the Crown, shall think 
fit to prescribe for that purpose, all which Rules and Regulations the 
authorities of the said College are hereby required to observe and give effect 
to, as in the said Letters Patent shall be directed : Provided always, that 
such endowment as aforesaid shall be vested in the Crown for the purposes 
for which it shall be given as shall also any property, real or personal, given, 
devised or bequeathed to the said College or for the use thereof : And pro- 
vided also, that no Professorship or Lectureship shall be so founded for the 
teaching of any subject which under this Act is not to be taught in the said 
College. 

XXXYI. The Governor of this Province shall be the Visitor of the said 
College on behalf of the Crown, and his visitatorial powers may be exercised 
}iv Commission under the Great Seal of this Province, and the proceedings 
of any Commission so appointed being confirmed by the Governor, shall be 
binding on the said College and the Council thereof, and on all persons 
whomsoever. 

XXXVII. It shall be the duty of the Council of the said College, 
annually to report to the Governor, at such time as he shall appoint, on the 
general state, progress and prospects of the College, and upon all matters 
touching the same, with such suggestions as they may think proper to make; 
and the said Council shall also, at all times when thereunto required by the 
Governor, inquire into, examine and report upon any subject or matter 
connected with the said College; and copies of such annual or other reports 
shall be laid before both Houses of the Provincial Parliament at the then 
next Session thereof. 

XXXVIII. All terms kept or studies or exercises performed in the 
University of Toronto as now constituted, shall be valid and effectual, and 
shall be deemed to be terms kept, or studies or exercises performed in Uni- 
versity College ; and the vStatutes and Regulations of the said University in 
force when this Act shall come into effect, shall remain in force and apply 
to Universit"" College, so far as they may be consistent with this Act, until 
repealed or altered by Statutes to be made under this Act. 



UPPER CANADA COLLEGE AND ROYAL GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 

XXXIX. The Corporation of "The Principal, Masters, and Scholars of 
Upper Canada College and Royal Grammar School," shall be dissolved and 
determined from the time this Act comes into force : and the said Institution 
and all the affairs and business thereof, shall be under the control, manage- 
ment and direction of the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Members of the 
Senate of the University of Toronto, subject to the provisions of this Act. 

XL. The Governor of this Province shall be the Visitor of the said 
College and Royal Grammar School, on behalf of Her Majesty, and his visi- 
tatorial powers may be exercised by Commission under the Great Seal of this 
Province, the proceedings whereof, having been first confirmed by the 



246 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



Governor-in-Council, shall be binding upon the said College and Royal 
Grammar School, and upon the said Senate and all others whomsoever. 

XLI. The said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, and Members of the Senate 
of the University of Toronto, shall have full power and authority to make 
Statutes for the good government, conduct and regulation of the said College 
and Royal Grammar School and of the Principal, Masters, Pupils, Officers 
and Servants thereof, for regulating the fees to be paid by Pupils receiving 
instruction in the said College, and generally for the management of the 
business and affairs thereof and for any purpose necessary for carrying this 
Act into effect according to its intent and spirit in cases in which no provision 
is made by this Act, so that such Statutes be not inconsistent with the pro- 
visions of this Act "or the laws of this Province, and from time to time to 
amend or repeal the same; and the said Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and 
Senate, may by any such Statutes empower the Principal to make Regulations 
for the government of the Maslers and Pupils, Officers and Servants, and 
for the conduct and discipline of the said Collgee and Royal Grammar 
School, in such matters and to such extent as may be limited in such Statutes, 
and subject to such control or approval as may be therein mentioned: Pro- 
vided always, that no Statute shall have force and effect until it shall have 
been submitted to the Visitor of the said College and Royal Grammar School, 
and by him approved ; and a certified copy of all such Statutes shall be trans- 
mitted to the Provincial Secretary, within ten days from the passing thereof, 
to be submitted to the said Visitor for his approval. 

XLII. There shall be in the College and Royal Grammar School, a Prin- 
cipal, and such Masters, Officers and Servants, as shall from time to time be 
directed by any Statute relating to the said Institution, approved as afore- 
said, and the salary and emoluments attached to such office, shall be from 
time to time fixed by Statute; and the said Principal, Masters, Officers and 
Servants shall be appointed bv the Governor of this Province, and shall hold 
Office during his pleasure : Provided always, that until it shall be otherwise 
ordered by the Governor, the present Principal, Masters, Officers and Ser- 
vants of the said Institution shall remain in Office, and until it be otherwise 
ordered by Statute, the Salaries and Emoluments attached to each office shall 
be those now attached to the same respectively. 

XLIII. All Statutes, Rules and Ordinances of the said College and 
Royal Grammar School in force at the time of the passing of this Act, and 
which are not inconsistent with the provisons thereof, shall be and continue 
in force, until repealed, altered or amended by some Statute to be hereafter 
enacted or made for that purpose. 

XLIV. No religious test or profession of religious faith shall be required 
of any Principal, Master, Pupil, Officer or Servant of the said College, nor 
shall religious observances according to the forms of any particular religious 
denomination, be imposed on them or any of them; but it shall be lawful 
for the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Members of the Senate of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto by Statute to make such Regulations as they may think 
expedient touching the moral conduct of the Pupils and their attendance on 
public worship in their respective Churches or other places of religious wor- 
ship, and their receiving religious instruction from their respective Ministers, 
and according to their respective forms of religious faith, and every facility 
shall be afforded for their so doing. 

XLV. It shall be the duty of the 'Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor and Mem- 
bers of the Senate of the University of Toronto, annually to report to the 
Governor, at such time as he shall appoint, on the general state, progress and 
prospects of the College and Royal Grammar School and upon all matters 



1906 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 2i7 



toucliing- the same, with such siif^-f?estions as they may think proper to make; 
and also, at all times when thereunto required hy the Governor to inquire 
into, examine and report upon any subject or matter connected with the 
said College and Royal Grammar School ; and copies of such annual or other 
reports shall be laid before both Houses of the Provincial Parliament at the 
then next Session thereof. 

ENDOWMENT AND PROPERTY. 

XLVI. All the property and effects, real or personal, of what nature or 
kind soever, now belonging to or vested in the Corporation of the Chancellor, 
Masters and Scholars of the Uuiversitv of Toronto, or in the Corporation of 
the Principal, Masters and Scholars of Upper Canada College and Royal 
Grammar School, or in any person or persons, body or bodies politic or cor- 
porate in trust for the said Corporations or either of them, shall, from and 
after the coming into force of this Act, be and the same and every part thereof 
are hereby transferred to and vested in Her Majesty, Her Heirs and Suc- 
cessors, for the purposes of this Act, and shall, as shall also all Deeds, Titles, 
Accounts, Books, Maps, Plans, Documents and Writings belonging to or 
relating to the same, be forthwith delivered up by any person or persons, 
body or bodies politic or corporate having custody or possession thereof, to 
such person or persons, officer or officers, as the Governor of this Province 
shall appoint or authorize to receive the same; and every right, title, claim 
or demand of either of the said Corporations to any real or personal property, 
debt or sum of money, shall be and is hereby vested in the Crown, and any 
suit or proceeding_ for the recovery thereof may be brought or continued by 
and in the name of the Crown upon suggestion of the passing of this Act; 
and every debt due by or claim upon either of the said Corporations may be 
paid or satisfied by the Crown out of the property transferred as aforesaid; 
and all property, real or personal, which shall be hereafter given, devised or 
bequeathed to or for the use of either of the said Institutions, or to or for 
the use of any of the Institutions herein named and provided for, shall be 
vested in the Crown for the purposes of this Act. 

XLVII. The said property, real or personal, shall be managed and 
administered, under the orders of the Governor-in-Council, by an Officer to 
be appointed by Commission under the Great Seal of this Province, to hold 
his office during pleasure, and to be called the Bursar of the University and 
Colleges at Toronto ; and the salary of the said Bursar shall be fixed by the 
Governor-in-Council at such amount not exceeding Four Hundred Pounds 
currencv per annum, as to him shall seem meet, and the said Bursar shall 
be allowed by the Governor-in-Council such assistance in his office as may 
be found necessary; and the said Bursar shall have a seal of office, and shall 
have such powers as shall from time to time be assigned to him by the 
Governor-in-Council, for the management and administration of the said 
property, the leasing of the same, or making agreements for the sale thereof, 
and the receiving of the rents, issues and profits thereof or the proceeds of 
the sale of any part thereof, or any moneys in any way arising therefrom, 
and shall account for and pay over the same in such manner as the Governor 
shall from time to time direct, and shall give security to the Crown for the 
due performance of his duties and the faithful accounting for and paying 
over all moneys which shall come into his hands as such Bursar, in such 
amount, with such securities, and in such manner and form as the Governor- 
in-Council shall direct; and the said Bursar shall, as regards his obligation 
to account for and pay over all moneys coming into his hands as such, be 
deemed to be an Officer employed in the collection of the Provincial Revenue, 



248 ROYAL COMMISSION RE No. 42 



and skall, in case of his default, be liable to be dealt with accordingly; and 
the said Bursar shall make and transmit to the Governor, and at such time 
in each year as he shall appoint, an annual account of the property under 
his management and of his official receipts and expenditure; and a copy of 
each account shall be laid before each House of the Provincial Parliament 
at the then next Session thereof : 

And each such Annual Account shall shew, among other things : 

The number of acres of land originally granted for the endowment of 
the said University, or the said Upper Canada College and Itoyal Grammar 
School ; 

The number of acres sold, and at what rate : The total amount of sales, 
the amount received on account thereof, and the amount due; 

The amount of Capital invested, and the amount expended to the end of 
the preceding year; 

The amount received, and a detailed account of the amount expended 
for the preceding year, in salaries, contingent expenses and buildings, speci- 
fying the duties of the persons receiving such salaries, and the purposes of 
such buildings. 

XLYIII. And in order to facilitate the transfer and conveyance of the 
property by this Act transferred to and vested in Her Majesty, it shall be 
lawful for the Governor from time to time to issue a Commission under the 
Great Seal of the Province to the Bursar of the University and Colleges at 
Toronto aforesaid, authorizing the said Bursar under his hand and seal of 
office, to transfer and convey any of such property to purchasers and others 
entitled to receive conveyances thereof; and that all such transfers and con- 
veyances may be made according to the form in the Schedule to this Act, or 
in words to the like effect ; and the same shall to all intents and purposes as 
effectually grant, transfer and convey the lands therein set forth, to the 
parties therein specified, according to the quality of the estate and the con- 
ditions and provisions therein mentioned, in the same manner and with the 
like effect, as if the same had been directly granted by the Crown under the 
provisions of this Act : Provided that nothing herein contained shall be 
held to prevent the Crown from granting such lands directly : And provided 
further, that all such transfers and conveyances shall be registered in the 
Eegistry Office of the County in which the lands shall be situate, in like 
manner and subject to the same provisions of law as conveyances from and 
to private parties. 

XLIX. The fees received for tuition, examination, degrees, certificates 
of honour or otherwise, in the said University, in University College, and in 
Upper Canada College and Eoyal Grammar School, or such part thereof as 
shall be payable into the general funds thereof, the rents, issues and profits 
of all such property as aforesaid, and all the interest on the purchase money 
of any part of such property sold and not wholly paid for, or on moneys 
arising from the sale of any such property and invested at interest, and all 
other casual and periodical incomings, including any donations or subscrip- 
tions touching which it shall not be otherwise ordered by the Donors, shall be 
deemed Income for the purposes of this Act, and shall form the General 
Income Fund, and may be expended for the purposes and under the authority 
of this Act ; but the purchase money of any such property sold and the 
principal of any money invested shall be deemed permanent property, and 
shall not (except only in the case hereinafter provided for) be expended or 
diminished in any way, but shall remain as a Permanent Fund for the sup- 
port of the said Institutions and the purposes of this Act. 

L. That part of the said General Income fund which shall be derived 
from property heretofore vested in the Corporation of Upper Canada College 



IDUB LN1\ ERSITY UF TURUMU. 24y 



and Koyal Grammar School, or from other property held for the use of, or 
from fees received in the said College and Grammar School and payg^ble into 
the general funds thereof, shall be applied to defray the current expenses of 
the said Institution only and shall form the special Income Fund thereof, 
and shall be applied under the direction of the Governor-in-Council, to 
defray the current expenses of the said College and Grammar School and those 
to be incurred in the management of the endowment and funds thereof and 
the maintenance and repairs of property assigned for its use, and the surplus, 
if any, after defraying all charges thereon, shall form part of the Permanent 
Fund aforesaid and shall be invested in such manner as the Governor-in- 
Council shall direct; and all moneys forming part of the said Permanent 
Fund and arising from such surplus as aforesaid or from property heretofore 
vested in the said Corporation, shall be permanently appropriated to the 
support of the said Upper Canada College and Royal Grammar School. 

LI. Out of the remainder of the General Income Fund (which remain- 
der shall be called the University Income Fund), after paying the charges 
of management as hereinafter mentioned, it shall be lawful for the Governor- 
in-Council to appropriate yearlj-, such sum as shall be required to defray the 
current expenses of the said University of Toronto, including Scholarships, 
Rewards and Prizes authorized by the twenty-third and twenty-fourth Sec- 
tions of this Act, and to defray the current expenses of University College; 
including in both casesi the care, maintenance and ordinary repairs of the 
property assigned for the use of the said University or College, and with 
power to the Governor-in-Council to decide what shall be deemed ordinary 
repairs as distinguishable from permanent improvements. 

LII. In malving such appropriations for the current expenses of the said 
University, or of University College, or of Upper Canada Royal 'College and 
Grammar School, it shall be lawful for the Governor-in-Council either to 
direct the particular purposes to which the whole or any part of the sum 
appropriated shall be applied, or to place the whole or any part of such sum 
at the disposal of the Senate of the said University or of the Council of the 
said College, to be aplied under the provisions of Statutes in that behalf, 
approved as aforesaid, and by which Statutes the said Senate or Council may 
place any sum or sums at the disposal of anv Committee, or person or persons, 
to be applied by them or him according to the directions of such Statutes or 
in their discretion, to purposes to be therein named. 

LIII. It shall be lawful for the Governor-in-Council to cause to be paid 
out of the said University Income Fund, a sum not exceeding one year's 
Salary at the present rate, to each of those Professors in the now University 
of Toronto, who will not under the Thirty-third Section of this Act, be Pro- 
fessors in University College, and who shall resign their chairs i)s such 
Professors in the University of Toronto on or Tjefore the first dav of July, 
one thousand eight hundred and fifty-three : such allowance to be payable at 
such time after the said first day of -July as the Governor-in-Council shall 
appoint. 

LIY. Any surplus of the said University Income Fund remaining at 
the end of any year after defraying the expenses payable out of the same, 
shall constitute a Fund to be from time to time appropriated by Parliament 
for Academical Education in Upper Canada. 

LY. The expenses of the Bursar's office and the management of the 
property aforesaid, shall be paid out of the said General Income Fund here- 
inbefore mentioned, and shall be the first charge thereon, and the Governor- 
in-Council shall from time to time determine what share thereof shall be 



250 ROVAL COMMISSION RE No. ^'2. 



paid out of that portion of the said Fund belonging to Upper Canada College 
and Royal Grammar School. 

LYI. The Governor-in-Council shall from time to time assign for the 
use and purposes of the said University, of the said University College and 
of Upper Canada College and Royal Grammar School, respectively, such 
portions of the property hereby vested in the Crown, as may be necessary 
for the convenient accommodation and business of the said Institutions 
respectively ; and the property so assigned for the use of each shall be